Relativistic electron in curved magnetic fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
An, S.
1985-01-01
Making use of the perturbation method based on the nonlinear differential equation theory, the author investigates the classical motion of a relativistic electron in a class of curved magnetic fields which may be written as B=B(O,B sub phi, O) in cylindrical coordinates (R. phi, Z). Under general astrophysical conditions the author derives the analytical expressions of the motion orbit, pitch angle, etc., of the electron in their dependence upon parameters characterizing the magnetic field and electron. The effects of non-zero curvature of magnetic field lines on the motion of electrons and applicabilities of these results to astrophysics are also discussed.
Magnetic Field Structure in Relativistic Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jermak, Helen; Mundell, Carole; Steele, Iain; Harrison, Richard; Kobayashi, Shiho; Lindfors, Elina; Nilsson, Kari; Barres de Almeida, Ulisses
2013-12-01
Relativistic jets are ubiquitous when considering an accreting black hole. Two of the most extreme examples of these systems are blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the jets of which are thought to be threaded with a magnetic field of unknown structure. The systems are made up of a black hole accreting matter and producing, as a result, relativistic jets of plasma from the poles of the black hole. Both systems are viewed as point sources from Earth, making it impossible to spatially resolve the jet. In order to explore the structure of the magnetic field within the jet we take polarisation measurements with the RINGO polarimeters on the world's largest fully autonomous, robotic optical telescope: The Liverpool Telescope. Using the polarisation degree and angle measured by the RINGO polarimeters it is possible to distinguish between global magnetic fields created in the central engine and random tangled magnetic fields produced locally in shocks. We also monitor blazar sources regularly during quiescence with periods of flaring monitored more intensively. Reported here are the early polarisation results for GRBs 060418 and 090102, along with future prospects for the Liverpool Telescope and the RINGO polarimeters.
Interplanetary Magnetic Field Guiding Relativistic Particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Masson, S.; Demoulin, P.; Dasso, S.; Klein, K. L.
2011-01-01
The origin and the propagation of relativistic solar particles (0.5 to few Ge V) in the interplanetary medium remains a debated topic. These relativistic particles, detected at the Earth by neutron monitors have been previously accelerated close to the Sun and are guided by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) lines, connecting the acceleration site and the Earth. Usually, the nominal Parker spiral is considered for ensuring the magnetic connection to the Earth. However, in most GLEs the IMF is highly disturbed, and the active regions associated to the GLEs are not always located close to the solar footprint of the nominal Parker spiral. A possible explanation is that relativistic particles are propagating in transient magnetic structures, such as Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). In order to check this interpretation, we studied in detail the interplanetary medium where the particles propagate for 10 GLEs of the last solar cycle. Using the magnetic field and the plasma parameter measurements (ACE/MAG and ACE/SWEPAM), we found widely different IMF configurations. In an independent approach we develop and apply an improved method of the velocity dispersion analysis to energetic protons measured by SoHO/ERNE. We determined the effective path length and the solar release time of protons from these data and also combined them with the neutron monitor data. We found that in most of the GLEs, protons propagate in transient magnetic structures. Moreover, the comparison between the interplanetary magnetic structure and the interplanetary length suggest that the timing of particle arrival at Earth is dominantly determined by the type of IMF in which high energetic particles are propagating. Finally we find that these energetic protons are not significantly scattered during their transport to Earth.
Relativistic thermal plasmas - Effects of magnetic fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Araki, S.; Lightman, A. P.
1983-01-01
Processes and equilibria in finite, relativistic, thermal plasmas are investigated, taking into account electron-positron creation and annihilation, photon production by internal processes, and photon production by a magnetic field. Inclusion of the latter extends previous work on such plasmas. The basic relations for thermal, Comptonized synchrotron emission are analyzed, including emission and absorption without Comptonization, Comptonized thermal synchrotron emission, and the Comptonized synchrotron and bremsstrahlung luminosities. Pair equilibria are calculated, including approximations and dimensionless parameters, the pair balance equation, maximum temperatures and field strengths, and individual models and cooling curves.
Magnetic Fields In Relativistic Collisionless Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santana, Rodolfo; Barniol Duran, R.; Kumar, P.
2013-01-01
We present a systematic study on magnetic fields in Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) relativistic shocks by making use of X-ray and optical afterglow observations, mostly coming from the Swift satellite. We use two methods to constrain the afterglow parameter epsilon_B (the fraction of energy in the magnetic field in the shocked plasma): 1. For the X-ray sample, the observed flux at the end of the X-ray steep decline is larger than or equal to the flux from the external-forward shock. 2. The observed optical afterglow flux arises from the external-forward shock emission. From the method for our X-ray sample (60 GRBs), we determine an upper limit on epsilon_B and from the method for our optical sample (35 GRBs), we determine a measurement for epsilon_B. Combining our X-ray and optical results, the median value we found for epsilon_B is ~ 10^-5. The distributions of epsilon_B from our X-ray and optical samples showed a wide distribution, with epsilon_B ranging from ~ 10^-7 - 10^-3. To characterize how much magnetic field amplification is needed, beyond shock compression of the seed magnetic field, we expressed our results for epsilon_B in terms of an amplification factor, AF. For both our X-ray and optical samples, the median value we found is AF ˜ 50-70. The distributions of AF from our X-ray and optical samples also showed a wide distribution, with AF ranging from ~ 1-1000. These results for epsilon_B and AF suggest that a weak amplification, in addition to shock compression, is needed to explain the afterglow observations. Our main conclusion is that shock compression and weak amplification of the magnetic field in GRB relativistic external shocks is sufficient to explain the afterglow data.
RELATIVISTIC TWO-FLUID SIMULATIONS OF GUIDE FIELD MAGNETIC RECONNECTION
Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex
2009-11-01
The nonlinear evolution of relativistic magnetic reconnection in sheared magnetic configuration (with a guide field) is investigated by using two-dimensional relativistic two-fluid simulations. Relativistic guide field reconnection features the charge separation and the guide field compression in and around the outflow channel. As the guide field increases, the composition of the outgoing energy changes from enthalpy-dominated to Poynting-dominated. The inertial effects of the two-fluid model play an important role to sustain magnetic reconnection. Implications for the single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic approach and the physics models of relativistic reconnection are briefly addressed.
Relativistic nonlinear plasma waves in a magnetic field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennel, C. F.; Pellat, R.
1975-01-01
Five relativistic plane nonlinear waves were investigated: circularly polarized waves and electrostatic plasma oscillations propagating parallel to the magnetic field, relativistic Alfven waves, linearly polarized transverse waves propagating in zero magnetic field, and the relativistic analog of the extraordinary mode propagating at an arbitrary angle to the magnetic field. When the ions are driven relativistic, they behave like electrons, and the assumption of an 'electron-positron' plasma leads to equations which have the form of a one-dimensional potential well. The solutions indicate that a large-amplitude superluminous wave determines the average plasma properties.
Exact general relativistic disks with magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Letelier, Patricio S.
1999-11-01
The well-known ``displace, cut, and reflect'' method used to generate cold disks from given solutions of Einstein equations is extended to solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations. Four exact solutions of the these last equations are used to construct models of hot disks with surface density, azimuthal pressure, and azimuthal current. The solutions are closely related to Kerr, Taub-NUT, Lynden-Bell-Pinault, and to a one-soliton solution. We find that the presence of the magnetic field can change in a nontrivial way the different properties of the disks. In particular, the pure general relativistic instability studied by Bic̆ák, Lynden-Bell, and Katz [Phys. Rev. D 47, 4334 (1993)] can be enhanced or cured by different distributions of currents inside the disk. These currents, outside the disk, generate a variety of axial symmetric magnetic fields. As far as we know these are the first models of hot disks studied in the context of general relativity.
Radiation from Relativistic Shocks with Turbulent Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishkawa, K.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Niemiec, J.; Mizuno, A.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Oka, M.; Fishman, J.
2009-01-01
Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-positron (electron-ion) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs at shocked region. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the shock. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons in turbulent magnetic fields has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. New recent calculation of spectra with various different Lorentz factors of jets (two electrons) and initial magnetic fields. New spectra based on small simulations will be presented.
Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation, and Emission in Relativistic Shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, Ken-IchiI.; Hededal, C.; Hardee, P.; Richardson, G.; Preece, R.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G.
2004-01-01
Shock acceleration is an ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (m) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet front propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find only small differences in the results between no ambient and weak ambient parallel magnetic fields. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. New simulations with an ambient perpendicular magnetic field show the strong interaction between the relativistic jet and the magnetic fields. The magnetic fields are piled up by the jet and the jet electrons are bent, which creates currents and displacement currents. At the nonlinear stage, the magnetic fields are reversed by the current and the reconnection may take place. Due to these dynamics the jet and ambient electron are strongly accelerated in both parallel and perpendicular directions.
Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation in Relativistic Shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C. B.; Richardson, G.; Sol, H.; Preece, R.; Fishman, G. J.
2005-01-01
Shock acceleration is an ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet front propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find only small differences in the results between no ambient and weak ambient parallel magnetic fields. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. New simulations with an ambient perpendicular magnetic field show the strong interaction between the relativistic jet and the magnetic fields. The magnetic fields are piled up by the jet and the jet electrons are bent, which creates currents and displacement currents. At the nonlinear stage, the magnetic fields are reversed by the current and the reconnection may take place. Due to these dynamics the jet and ambient electron are strongly accelerated in both parallel and perpendicular directions.
Magnetic Fields in Relativistic Collisionless Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santana, Rodolfo; Barniol Duran, Rodolfo; Kumar, Pawan
2014-04-01
We present a systematic study on magnetic fields in gamma-ray burst (GRB) external forward shocks (FSs). There are 60 (35) GRBs in our X-ray (optical) sample, mostly from Swift. We use two methods to study epsilon B (fraction of energy in magnetic field in the FS): (1) for the X-ray sample, we use the constraint that the observed flux at the end of the steep decline is >= X-ray FS flux; (2) for the optical sample, we use the condition that the observed flux arises from the FS (optical sample light curves decline as ~t -1, as expected for the FS). Making a reasonable assumption on E (jet isotropic equivalent kinetic energy), we converted these conditions into an upper limit (measurement) on epsilon B n 2/(p + 1) for our X-ray (optical) sample, where n is the circumburst density and p is the electron index. Taking n = 1 cm-3, the distribution of epsilon B measurements (upper limits) for our optical (X-ray) sample has a range of ~10-8-10-3 (~10-6-10-3) and median of ~few × 10-5 (~few × 10-5). To characterize how much amplification is needed, beyond shock compression of a seed magnetic field ~10 μG, we expressed our results in terms of an amplification factor, AF, which is very weakly dependent on n (AFvpropn 0.21). The range of AF measurements (upper limits) for our optical (X-ray) sample is ~1-1000 (~10-300) with a median of ~50 (~50). These results suggest that some amplification, in addition to shock compression, is needed to explain the afterglow observations.
Magnetic fields in relativistic collisionless shocks
Santana, Rodolfo; Kumar, Pawan; Barniol Duran, Rodolfo E-mail: pk@astro.as.utexas.edu
2014-04-10
We present a systematic study on magnetic fields in gamma-ray burst (GRB) external forward shocks (FSs). There are 60 (35) GRBs in our X-ray (optical) sample, mostly from Swift. We use two methods to study ε {sub B} (fraction of energy in magnetic field in the FS): (1) for the X-ray sample, we use the constraint that the observed flux at the end of the steep decline is ≥ X-ray FS flux; (2) for the optical sample, we use the condition that the observed flux arises from the FS (optical sample light curves decline as ∼t {sup –1}, as expected for the FS). Making a reasonable assumption on E (jet isotropic equivalent kinetic energy), we converted these conditions into an upper limit (measurement) on ε {sub B} n {sup 2/(p+1)} for our X-ray (optical) sample, where n is the circumburst density and p is the electron index. Taking n = 1 cm{sup –3}, the distribution of ε {sub B} measurements (upper limits) for our optical (X-ray) sample has a range of ∼10{sup –8}-10{sup –3} (∼10{sup –6}-10{sup –3}) and median of ∼few × 10{sup –5} (∼few × 10{sup –5}). To characterize how much amplification is needed, beyond shock compression of a seed magnetic field ∼10 μG, we expressed our results in terms of an amplification factor, AF, which is very weakly dependent on n (AF∝n {sup 0.21}). The range of AF measurements (upper limits) for our optical (X-ray) sample is ∼1-1000 (∼10-300) with a median of ∼50 (∼50). These results suggest that some amplification, in addition to shock compression, is needed to explain the afterglow observations.
Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation and Emission from Relativistic Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Fishman, G. Jerry; Hartmann, D. H.
2006-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), supernova remnants, and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet, rather than by the scattering of particles back and forth across the shock as in Fermi acceleration. Shock acceleration' is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different spectral properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. We will review recent PIC simulations of relativistic jets and try to make a connection with observations.
Relativistic electron vortex beams in a constant magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajabi, Ahmad; Berakdar, Jamal
2017-06-01
We present solutions for the Dirac equation in the form of Bessel or Laguerre-Gaussian beams for, respectively, a free electron or an electron subject to a longitudinal constant magnetic field. We calculate the probability and the current distributions and find a strong dependence on the spin angular momentum and the orbital angular momentum of the relativistic electron beam. The role of the intrinsic spin-orbital coupling is investigated.
Radiation from Relativistic Jets in Turbulent Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Niemiec, J.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Mizuno, Y.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.
2008-01-01
Using our new 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code parallelized with MPI, we have investigated long-term particle acceleration associated with an relativistic electron-positron jet propagating in an unmagnetized ambient electron-positron plasma. The simulations have been performed using a much longer simulation system than our previous simulations in order to investigate the full nonlinear stage of the Weibel instability and its particle acceleration mechanism. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and ambient electrons are accelerated in the resulting shocks. The acceleration of ambient electrons leads to a maximum ambient electron density three times larger than the original value. Behind the bow shock in the jet shock strong electromagnetic fields are generated. These fields may lead to the afterglow emission. We have calculated the time evolution of the spectrum from two electrons propagating in a uniform parallel magnetic field to verify the technique.
Estimate of the maximum induced magnetic field in relativistic shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghorbanalilu, M.; Sadegzadeh, S.
2017-01-01
The proton-driven Weibel instability is a crucial process for amplifying the generated magnetic fields in gamma-ray bursts. An expression for the saturation level of magnetic fields is estimated in a relativistic shock consisting of electron-proton plasmas. Within the shock transition layer, the plasma is modelled with the waterbag and Maxwell-Jüttner distribution functions for asymmetric counter-propagating proton beams and isotropic background electrons, respectively. The proton-driven Weibel-type instability in the linear phase is investigated thoroughly and then the instability conditions and the stabilization mechanisms are considered in details just after the shutdown of the electron Weibel instability. The growth rate of the instability and the saturated magnetic field strength are obtained in terms of the effective proton beam Mach number, asymmetry parameter, and the background electron temperature. In this paper, fully relativistic kinetic treatment is used to formulate the dispersion relation for the proton Weibel-type instability. Then, by using the magnetic trapping criteria, the saturated magnetic field strength is computed. In the present scenario, the instability includes two stages: in the first stage the electron Weibel instability evolves very rapidly, but in the second one because of the free energy stored in the slow counter-propagating proton beams, the instability is further amplified in the context of electrons with an isotropic distribution function. Increment of the growth rate and saturated magnetic field by increasing (decreasing) the effective proton beam Mach number (the asymmetry parameter) is deduced from the results. It is shown that at the temperatures around 108 K a maximum magnetic field up to around 56 G can be detected by this mechanism after the saturation time.
Relativistic Killingbeck energy states under external magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eshghi, M.; Mehraban, H.; Ikhdair, S. M.
2016-07-01
We address the behavior of the Dirac equation with the Killingbeck radial potential including the external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields. The spin and pseudo-spin symmetries are considered. The correct bound state spectra and their corresponding wave functions are obtained. We seek such a solution using the biconfluent Heun's differential equation method. Further, we give some of our results at the end of this study. Our final results can be reduced to their non-relativistic forms by simply using some appropriate transformations. The spectra, in the spin and pseudo-spin symmetries, are very similar with a slight difference in energy spacing between different states.
Magnetic Field Generation and Particle Energization in Relativistic Shear Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Edison; Boettcher, Markus; Smith, Ian
2012-10-01
We present Particle-in-Cell simulation results of magnetic field generation by relativistic shear flows in collisionless electron-ion (e-ion) and electron-positron (e+e-) plasmas. In the e+e- case, small current filaments are first generated at the shear interface due to streaming instabilities of the interpenetrating particles from boundary perturbations. Such current filaments create transverse magnetic fields which coalesce into larger and larger flux tubes with alternating polarity, eventually forming ordered flux ropes across the entire shear boundary layer. Particles are accelerated across field lines to form power-law tails by semi-coherent electric fields sustained by oblique Langmuir waves. In the e-ion case, a single laminar slab of transverse flux rope is formed at the shear boundary, sustained by thin current sheets on both sides due to different drift velocities of electrons and ions. The magnetic field has a single polarity for the entire boundary layer. Electrons are heated to a fraction of the ion energy, but there is no evidence of power-law tail forming in this case.
Rotating and binary relativistic stars with magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markakis, Charalampos
We develop a geometrical treatment of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics for perfectly conducting fluids in Einstein--Maxwell--Euler spacetimes. The theory is applied to describe a neutron star that is rotating or is orbiting a black hole or another neutron star. Under the hypotheses of stationarity and axisymmetry, we obtain the equations governing magnetohydrodynamic equilibria of rotating neutron stars with poloidal, toroidal or mixed magnetic fields. Under the hypothesis of an approximate helical symmetry, we obtain the first law of thermodynamics governing magnetized equilibria of double neutron star or black hole - neutron star systems in close circular orbits. The first law is written as a relation between the change in the asymptotic Noether charge deltaQ and the changes in the area and electric charge of black holes, and in the vorticity, baryon rest mass, entropy, charge and magnetic flux of the magnetofluid. In an attempt to provide a better theoretical understanding of the methods used to construct models of isolated rotating stars and corotating or irrotational binaries and their unexplained convergence properties, we analytically examine the behavior of different iterative schemes near a static solution. We find the spectrum of the linearized iteration operator and show for self-consistent field methods that iterative instability corresponds to unstable modes of this operator. On the other hand, we show that the success of iteratively stable methods is due to (quasi-)nilpotency of this operator. Finally, we examine the integrability of motion of test particles in a stationary axisymmetric gravitational field. We use a direct approach to seek nontrivial constants of motion polynomial in the momenta---in addition to energy and angular momentum about the symmetry axis. We establish the existence and uniqueness of quadratic constants and the nonexistence of quartic constants for stationary axisymmetric Newtonian potentials with equatorial symmetry
Relativistic charge currents in oblique electric and magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melia, Fulvio; Fatuzzo, Marco
1991-06-01
Runaway processes on neutron stars leading to the sudden release of large quantities of energy (up to of order 1040 erg) on time scales as short as a fraction of a second involve plasma heating and particle acceleration in superstrong magnetic fields H (of order 1012 G). These transient events are interesting from a theoretical standpoint because they require knowledge of particle transport properties in low-density plasmas (ɛe 1025 cm-3) threaded by both electric (E) and magnetic fields. The evaluation of matrix elements involving solutions to the Dirac equation for such a field configuration is often difficult and sometimes impossible, since no completely normalized wave function has yet been found. Here it is shown that, in the special case of E/H 10-4, a simplification of the overlap integrals permits an analytical integration that yields explicit expressions for the relativistic charge currents needed in the computation of the anisotropic conductivity tensor when E.H ≠ 0. The application of these results to the evaluation of the conductivity is briefly discussed. Among other things, this work is relevant to a theory of resistive magnetic tearing instabilities in a quantizing field.
Magnetic field modification to the relativistic runaway electron avalanche length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cramer, E. S.; Dwyer, J. R.; Rassoul, H. K.
2016-11-01
This paper explores the impact of the geomagnetic field on the relativistic runaway electron avalanche length, λe-. Coleman and Dwyer (2006) developed an analytical fit to Monte Carlo simulations using the Runaway Electron Avalanche Model. In this work, we repeat this process but with the addition of the geomagnetic field in the range of [100,900]/n μT, where n is the ratio of the density of air at altitude to the sea level density. As the ambient electric field approaches the runaway threshold field (Eth≈284 kV/m sea level equivalent), it is shown that the magnetic field has an impact on the orientation of the resulting electron beam. The runaway electrons initially follow the vertically oriented electric field but then are deflected in the v × B direction, and as such, the electrons experience more dynamic friction due to the increase in path length. This will be shown to result in a difference in the avalanche length from the case where B = 0. It will also be shown that the average energy of the runaway electrons will decrease while the required electric field to produce runaway electrons increases. This study is also important in understanding the physics of terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs). Not only will this work impact relativistic feedback rates determined from simulations, it may also be useful in studying spectroscopy of TGFs observed from balloon and aircraft measurements. These models may also be used in determining beaming properties of TGFs originating in the tropical regions seen from orbiting spacecraft.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Mizuno, Y.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C. B.; Fishman, G. J.
2006-01-01
Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets into ambient plasmas show that acceleration occurs in relativistic shocks. The Weibel instability created in shocks is responsible for particle acceleration, and generation and amplification of highly inhomogeneous, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection in relativistic jets. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than the synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understand the complex time evolution and spectral structure in relativistic jets and gamma-ray bursts. We will present recent PIC simulations which show particle acceleration and magnetic field generation. We will also calculate associated self-consistent emission from relativistic shocks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Mizuno, Y.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C. B.; Fishman, G. J.
2006-01-01
Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets into ambient plasmas show that acceleration occurs in relativistic shocks. The Weibel instability created in shocks is responsible for particle acceleration, and generation and amplification of highly inhomogeneous, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection in relativistic jets. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than the synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understand the complex time evolution and spectral structure in relativistic jets and gamma-ray bursts. We will present recent PIC simulations which show particle acceleration and magnetic field generation. We will also calculate associated self-consistent emission from relativistic shocks.
Magnetic field induced by strong transverse plasmons in ultra-relativistic electron-positron plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Y.; Li, X. Q.; Liu, S. Q.
2012-08-01
Context. We investigated the generation of localized magnetic fields in an ultra-relativistic non-isothermal electron-positron plasma by strong electromagnetic plasmons. Aims: The results obtained can be used to explain the origin of small-scale magnetic fields in the internal shock region of gamma-ray bursts with ultra-relativistic electron positron plasmas. Methods: The generation of magnetic fields was investigated with kinetic Vlasov Maxwell equations. Results: The self-generated magnetic field will collapse for modulation instability, leading to spatially highly intermittent magnetic fluxes, whose characteristic scale is much larger than relativistic plasma skin depth, which in turn is conducive to the generation of the long-life small-scale magnetic fields in the internal shock region of gamma-ray bursts.
Mizuno, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Pohl, Martin; Niemiec, Jacek; Zhang, Bing; Hardee, Philip E.
2011-01-10
We perform two-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a mildly relativistic shock propagating through an inhomogeneous medium. We show that the postshock region becomes turbulent owing to preshock density inhomogeneity, and the magnetic field is strongly amplified due to the stretching and folding of field lines in the turbulent velocity field. The amplified magnetic field evolves into a filamentary structure in two-dimensional simulations. The magnetic energy spectrum is flatter than the Kolmogorov spectrum and indicates that a so-called small-scale dynamo is occurring in the postshock region. We also find that the amount of magnetic-field amplification depends on the direction of the mean preshock magnetic field, and the timescale of magnetic-field growth depends on the shock strength.
Magnetic Field Generation and Electron Acceleration in Relativistic Laser Channel
I.Yu. Kostyukov; G. Shvets; N.J. Fisch; J.M. Rax
2001-12-12
The interaction between energetic electrons and a circularly polarized laser pulse inside an ion channel is studied. Laser radiation can be resonantly absorbed by electrons executing betatron oscillations in the ion channel and absorbing angular momentum from the laser. The absorbed angular momentum manifests itself as a strong axial magnetic field (inverse Faraday effect). The magnitude of this magnetic field is calculated and related to the amount of the absorbed energy. Absorbed energy and generated magnetic field are estimated for the small and large energy gain regimes. Qualitative comparisons with recent experiments are also made.
Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanches in the Presence of an External Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cramer, E. S.; Dwyer, J. R.; Liu, N.; Rassoul, H.; Briggs, M. S.
2015-12-01
Relativistic runaway electron avalanches are known to be produced inside the high electric field regions of thunderstorms. In this work, we include the effects of an external static magnetic field. Previous studies have shown that the magnetic field has a great influence on the electron motion at higher altitudes, e.g. Lehtinen et al., 1997, and Gurevich et al., 1996. This result proves important when studying phenomena such as Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes, and their effects on the upper atmosphere. Therefore, electron avalanche rates, feedback rates, and electron energy distribution functions will be analyzed and compared to the results of previous studies that did not include a magnetic field. The runaway electron avalanche model (REAM) is a Monte Carlo code that simulates the generation, interactions, and propagation of relativistic runaway electrons in air [Dwyer, 2003, 2004, 2007]. We use this simulation for varying strengths and angles between the electric and magnetic fields to calculate avalanche lengths and angular distribution functions of the relativistic runaway electrons. We will also show electron distribution functions in momentum space. Finally, we will discuss the important regimes for which the magnetic field becomes significant in studying the properties of runaway electron avalanches and relativistic feedback.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Fu-Jun; Chen, Zong-Hua; Li, Xiao-Qing; Liao, Jing-Jing; Zhu, Yun
2017-02-01
A GigaGauss quasi-steady magnetic field can be generated in astrophysical plasmas and laser-produced plasmas with high-frequency electromagnetic radiation through wave-wave and wave-particle interactions. A set of governing equations for this field are obtained in the plasma consisting of ultra-relativistic electrons following q-nonextensive distribution. The numerical results show that the initial field is unstable and can collapse to generate various spatially intermittent magnetic flux tubes. It can also be found that the behavior of the magnetic field is greatly dependent on the nonextensive index q, which may be helpful in understanding the magnetic turbulence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hartmann, D. H.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizunno, Y.; Fishman, G. J.
2006-01-01
We performed numerical simulations of particle acceleration, magnetic field generation, and emission from shocks in order to understand the observed emission from relativistic jets and supernova remnants. The investigation involves the study of collisionless shocks, where the Weibel instability is responsible for particle acceleration as well as magnetic field generation. A 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell (RPIC) code has been used to investigate the shock processes in electron-positron plasmas. The evolution of theWeibe1 instability and its associated magnetic field generation and particle acceleration are studied with two different jet velocities (0 = 2,5 - slow, fast) corresponding to either outflows in supernova remnants or relativistic jets, such as those found in AGNs and microquasars. Slow jets have intrinsically different structures in both the generated magnetic fields and the accelerated particle spectrum. In particular, the jet head has a very weak magnetic field and the ambient electrons are strongly accelerated and dragged by the jet particles. The simulation results exhibit jitter radiation from inhomogeneous magnetic fields, generated by the Weibel instability, which has different spectral properties than standard synchrotron emission in a homogeneous magnetic field.
Effects of the imposed magnetic field on the production and transport of relativistic electron beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Hong-bo; Zhu, Shao-ping; He, X. T.
2013-07-01
The effects of the imposed uniform magnetic field, ranging from 1 MG up to 50 MG, on the production and transport of relativistic electron beams (REBs) in overdense plasmas irradiated by ultraintense laser pulse are investigated with two-dimensional particle-in-cell numerical simulations. This study gives clear evidence that the imposed magnetic field is capable of effectively confining the relativistic electrons in space even when the source is highly divergent since it forces the electrons moving helically. In comparison, the spontaneous magnetic fields, generated by the helically moving electrons interplaying with the current filamentation instability, are dominant in scattering the relativistic electrons. As the imposed magnetic field was increased from 1 MG to 50 MG, overall coupling from laser to the relativistic electrons which have the potential to heat the compressed core in fast ignition was found to increase from 6.9% to 21.3% while the divergence of the REB increases significantly from 64° to 90°. The simulations show that imposed magnetic field of the value of 3-30 MG could be more suitable to fast-ignition inertial fusion.
Simulation of Relativistic Shocks and Associated Radiation from Turbulent Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Mizuno, Y.; Niemiec, J.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Frederiksen, J.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, G. J.
2010-01-01
Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-positron (electron-ion) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs at shocked regions. Simulations show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields and particle acceleration. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the shock. The jitter'' radiation from deflected electrons in turbulent magnetic fields has different properties than synchrotron radiation, which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important for understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets in general, and supernova remnants. We will present detailed spectra for conditions relevant of various astrophysical sites of shock formation via the Weibel instability. In particular we will discuss the application to GRBs and SNRs
Particle-in-cell Simulations of Global Relativistic Jets with Helical Magnetic Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duţan, Ioana; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Mizuno, Yosuke; Niemiec, Jacek; Kobzar, Oleh; Pohl, Martin; Gómez, Jose L.; Pe'er, Asaf; Frederiksen, Jacob T.; Nordlund, Åke; Meli, Athina; Sol, Helene; Hardee, Philip E.; Hartmann, Dieter H.
We study the interaction of relativistic jets with their environment, using 3-dimen- sional relativistic particle-in-cell simulations for two cases of jet composition: (i) electron-proton (e - - p +) and (ii) electron-positron (e +/-) plasmas containing helical magnetic fields. We have performed simulations of ``global'' jets containing helical magnetic fields in order to examine how helical magnetic fields affect kinetic instabilities such as the Weibel instability, the kinetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the Mushroom instability. We have found that these kinetic instabilities are suppressed and new types of instabilities can grow. For the e - - p + jet, a recollimation-like instability occurs and jet electrons are strongly perturbed, whereas for the e +/- jet, a recollimation-like instability occurs at early times followed by kinetic instability and the general structure is similar to a simulation without a helical magnetic field. We plan to perform further simulations using much larger systems to confirm these new findings.
Particle acceleration magnetic field generation, and emission in Relativistic pair jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G. J.
2005-01-01
Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) are responsible for particle acceleration in relativistic pair jets. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic pair jet propagating through a pair plasma. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. Simulation results show that this instability generates and amplifies highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter' I radiation from deflected electrons can have different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. The growth rate of the Weibel instability and the resulting particle acceleration depend on the magnetic field strength and orientation, and on the initial particle distribution function. In this presentation we explore some of the dependencies of the Weibel instability and resulting particle acceleration on the magnetic field strength and orientation, and the particle distribution function.
Zenitani, S; Hoshino, M
2005-08-26
The linear and nonlinear evolution of a relativistic current sheet of pair (e(+/-)) plasmas is investigated by three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. In a Harris configuration, it is obtained that the magnetic energy is fast dissipated by the relativistic drift kink instability (RDKI). However, when a current-aligned magnetic field (the so-called "guide field") is introduced, the RDKI is stabilized by the magnetic tension force and it separates into two obliquely propagating modes, which we call the relativistic drift-kink-tearing instability. These two waves deform the current sheet so that they trigger relativistic magnetic reconnection at a crossover thinning point. Since relativistic reconnection produces a lot of nonthermal particles, the guide field is of critical importance to study the energetics of a relativistic current sheet.
General relativistic simulations of black-hole-neutron-star mergers: Effects of magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Etienne, Zachariah B.; Liu, Yuk Tung; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Shapiro, Stuart L.
2012-03-01
As a neutron star (NS) is tidally disrupted by a black hole (BH) companion at the end of a black-hole-neutron-star (BHNS) binary inspiral, its magnetic fields will be stretched and amplified. If sufficiently strong, these magnetic fields may impact the gravitational waveforms, merger evolution and mass of the remnant disk. Formation of highly-collimated magnetic field lines in the disk+spinning BH remnant may launch relativistic jets, providing the engine for a short-hard GRB. We analyze this scenario through fully general relativistic, magnetohydrodynamic BHNS simulations from inspiral through merger and disk formation. Different initial magnetic field configurations and strengths are chosen for the NS interior for both nonspinning and moderately spinning (aBH/MBH=0.75) BHs aligned with the orbital angular momentum. Only strong interior (Bmax˜1017G) initial magnetic fields in the NS significantly influence merger dynamics, enhancing the remnant disk mass by 100% and 40% in the nonspinning and spinning BH cases, respectively. However, detecting the imprint of even a strong magnetic field may be challenging for Advanced LIGO. Though there is no evidence of mass outflows or magnetic field collimation during the preliminary simulations we have performed, higher resolution, coupled with longer disk evolutions and different initial magnetic field configurations, may be required to definitively assess the possibility of BHNS binaries as short-hard gamma-ray burst progenitors.
Effects of magnetic field on plasma evolution in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Arpan; Dave, Shreyansh S.; Saumia, P. S.; Srivastava, Ajit M.
2017-09-01
Very strong magnetic fields can arise in noncentral heavy-ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies, and may not decay quickly in a conducting plasma. We carry out relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) simulations to study the effects of this magnetic field on the evolution of the plasma and on resulting flow fluctuations in the ideal RMHD limit. Our results show that the magnetic field leads to enhancement in elliptic flow for small impact parameters while it suppresses it for large impact parameters (which may provide a signal for the initial stage magnetic field). Interestingly, we find that magnetic field in localized regions can temporarily increase in time as evolving plasma energy density fluctuations lead to reorganization of magnetic flux. This can have important effects on the chiral magnetic effect. The magnetic field has nontrivial effects on the power spectrum of flow fluctuations. For the very strong magnetic field case, one sees a pattern of even-odd difference in the power spectrum of flow coefficients arising from reflection symmetry about the magnetic field direction if initial state fluctuations are not dominant. We discuss the situation of nontrivial magnetic field configurations arising from collision of deformed nuclei and show that it can lead to anomalous elliptic flow. Special (crossed body-body) configurations of deformed nuclei collisions can lead to the presence of a quadrupolar magnetic field, which can have very important effects on the rapidity dependence of transverse expansion (similar to beam focusing from quadrupole fields in accelerators).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gattamraju, Ravindra Kumar; Shaikh, Moniruzzaman; Lad, Amit; Sarkar, Deep; Jana, Kamalesh; Dey, Indranuj
2016-10-01
Intense,femtosecond laser pulses generate relativistic electron pulses,important for many applications. In this paper, we present a femtosecond time-resolved and micrometer space resolved giant magnetic fields generated by 1019 W cm-2, 800 nm, 30 fs, high intensity contrast laser pulses in using pump-probe Cotton Mouton polarimetry. The space and time resolved maps of the magnetic fields at the front and rear of targets reveal turbulence in the magnetic fields. We also present data from shadowgraphy and Cherenkov emission along with model calculations to build up a picture of the transport process. GRK thanks J C Bose Fellowship Grant JCB-37/2010 for partial support.
Hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field. II. Relativistic corrections for low-lying excited states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poszwa, A.; Rutkowski, A.
2004-02-01
The highly accurate solution of the Schrödinger equation in the form of common Landau exponential factor multiplied by a power series in two variables, the sine of the cone angle and radial variable is completed by the first-order relativistic correction calculated within the framework of the relativistic direct perturbation theory (DPT). It is found that in contrast to behavior of relativistic corrections for the ground state and 2p-1(ms=-1/2) excited state, which change sign from negative to positive near B≈1011 G and B≈1010 G, respectively [Z. Chen and S. P. Goldman, Phys. Rev A 45, 1722 (1992)], the relativistic corrections for 2s0(ms=-1/2) and 2p0(ms=-1/2) excited states are negative for the magnetic field varying in range 0relativistic correction significantly mix nonrelativistic states the near-degenerate version of DPT is used. The avoided crossings of relativistic levels with μ=-1/2 and π=-1, evolving from field-free states with principal quantum numbers n=2,3,4 are presented.
Relativistic Particle Population and Magnetic Fields in Clusters of Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kushnir, Doron
2011-08-01
We derive constrains on the cosmic ray (CR) population and magnetic fields (MF) in clusters of galaxies, based on: 1. The correlation between the radio and the X-ray luminosities: the former emitted by synchrotron of secondary electrons in a strong MF, >˜3 muG; In the core, the CR energy is ˜10^{-3} of the thermal energy; The source of CR is the accretion shock (AS), which accelerate CR with efficiency >˜1%. 2. The HXR luminosity: emitted by IC of CMB photons by electrons accelerated in AS with efficiency >˜1%. The constrains imply that gamma-ray emission from secondaries will be difficult to detect with existing/planned instruments. However, the extended emission from primary electrons might be detected by future HXR (NuStar, Simbol-X) and gamma-ray observations (Fermi, HESS, VERITAS).
Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation, and Emission in Relativistic Pair Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizuno, Y.
2005-01-01
Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created by relativistic pair jets are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. The growth rates of the Weibel instability depends on the distribution of pair jets. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. The simulation results show that this instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation, and Emission in Relativistic Pair Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizuno, Y.
2005-01-01
Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created by relativistic pair jets are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. The growth rates of the Weibel instability depends on the distribution of pair jets. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. The simulation results show that this instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
Particle acceleration, magnetic field generation, and emission in relativistic pair jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G. J.; Mizuno, Y.
2005-01-01
Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Recent simulations show that the Weibel instability created by relativistic pair jets is responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. The growth rates of the Weibel instability depends on the distribution of pair jets. The Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. This instability is also responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron s transverse deflection behind the jet head. The jitter radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
Pressure of Degenerate and Relativistic Electrons in a Superhigh Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Zhi Fu; Wang, Na; Peng, Qiu He; Li, Xiang Dong; Du, Yuan Jie
2013-11-01
Based on our previous work, we deduce a general formula for pressure of degenerate and relativistic electrons, Pe, which is suitable for superhigh magnetic fields, discuss the quantization of Landau levels of electrons, and consider the quantum electrodynamic (QED) effects on the equations of states (EOSs) for different matter systems. The main conclusions are as follows: Pe is related to the magnetic field B, matter density ρ, and electron fraction Ye; the stronger the magnetic field, the higher the electron pressure becomes; the high electron pressure could be caused by high Fermi energy of electrons in a superhigh magnetic field; compared with a common radio pulsar, a magnetar could be a more compact oblate spheroid-like deformed neutron star (NS) due to the anisotropic total pressure; and an increase in the maximum mass of a magnetar is expected because of the positive contribution of the magnetic field energy to the EOS of the star.
Plasma waves in a relativistic, strongly anisotropic plasma propagated along a strong magnetic field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Onishchenko, O. G.
1980-01-01
The dispersion properties of plasma waves in a relativistic homogeneous plasma propagated along a strong magnetic field are studied. It is shown that the non-damping plasma waves exist in the frequency range omega sub p or = omega or = omega sub L. The values of omega sub p and omega sub L are calculated for an arbitrary homogeneous relativistic function of the particle distribution. In the case of a power ultrarelativistic distribution, it is shown that, if the ultrarelativistic tail of the distribution drops very rapidly, slightly damping plasma waves are possible with the phase velocity (omega/K)c.
Twisting space-time: relativistic origin of seed magnetic field and vorticity.
Mahajan, S M; Yoshida, Z
2010-08-27
We demonstrate that a purely ideal mechanism, originating in the space-time distortion caused by the demands of special relativity, can break the topological constraint (leading to helicity conservation) that would forbid the emergence of a magnetic field (a generalized vorticity) in an ideal nonrelativistic dynamics. The new mechanism, arising from the interaction between the inhomogeneous flow fields and inhomogeneous entropy, is universal and can provide a finite seed even for mildly relativistic flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.; Hardee, P. E.; Richardson, G. A.; Preece, R. D.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.
2003-01-01
Shock acceleration is an ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet front propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find only small differences in the results between no ambient and weak ambient magnetic fields. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. While some Fermi acceleration may occur at the jet front, the majority of electron acceleration takes place behind the jet front and cannot be characterized as Fermi acceleration. The simulation results show that this instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron s transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rocha da Silva, G.; Falceta-Gonçalves, D.; Kowal, G.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.
2015-01-01
Strong downstream magnetic fields of the order of ˜1 G, with large correlation lengths, are believed to cause the large synchrotron emission at the afterglow phase of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Despite the recent theoretical efforts, models have failed to fully explain the amplification of the magnetic field, particularly in a matter-dominated scenario. We revisit the problem by considering the synchrotron emission to occur at the expanding shock front of a weakly magnetized relativistic jet over a magnetized surrounding medium. Analytical estimates and a number of high-resolution 2D relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (RMHD) simulations are provided. Jet opening angles of θ = 0°-20°, and ambient to jet density ratios of 10-4-102 were considered. We found that most of the amplification is due to compression of the ambient magnetic field at the contact discontinuity between the reverse and forward shocks at the jet head, with substantial pile-up of the magnetic field lines as the jet propagates sweeping the ambient field lines. The pile-up is maximum for θ → 0, decreasing with θ, but larger than in the spherical blast problem. Values obtained for certain models are able to explain the observed intensities. The maximum correlation lengths found for such strong fields is of lcorr ≤ 1014 cm, 2-6 orders of magnitude larger than the found in previous works.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wei; Liu, Yong-gui
2011-02-01
A modified magnetic field distribution in relativistic magnetron with diffraction output (MDO) for compact operation is proposed in this paper. The principle of how the modified magnetic field confines electrons drifting out of the interaction space is analyzed. The results of the particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of the MDO with the modified magnetic field distribution show that the output power of the MDO is improved, and the long cylindrical waveguide used for collecting the drifting electrons can be omitted. The latter measure allows the horn antenna of the MDO to produce more focused energy with better directivity in the far field than it does with the long cylindrical waveguide. The MDO with the modified magnetic field distribution promises to be the real most compact narrow band high power microwave source.
Nonuniform Currents and Spins of Relativistic Electron Vortices in a Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Kruining, Koen; Hayrapetyan, Armen G.; Götte, Jörg B.
2017-07-01
We present a relativistic description of electron vortex beams in a homogeneous magnetic field. Including spin from the beginning reveals that spin-polarized electron vortex beams have a complicated azimuthal current structure, containing small rings of counterrotating current between rings of stronger corotating current. Contrary to many other problems in relativistic quantum mechanics, there exists a set of vortex beams with exactly zero spin-orbit mixing in the highly relativistic and nonparaxial regime. The well-defined phase structure of these beams is analogous to simpler scalar vortex beams, owing to the protection by the Zeeman effect. For states that do show spin-orbit mixing, the spin polarization across the beam is nonuniform rendering the spin and orbital degrees of freedom inherently inseparable.
Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation, and Emission in Relativistic Pair Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K. I.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C. B.; Richardson, G.; Sol, H.; Preece, R.; Fishman, G. J.
2004-01-01
Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., Buneman, Weibel and other two-stream instabilities) created in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet front propagating into an ambient plasma. We find that the growth times depend on the Lorenz factors of jets. The jets with larger Lorenz factors grow slower. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates jet and ambient particles both perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. The small scale magnetic field structure generated by the Weibel instability is appropriate to the generation of "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons (positrons) as opposed to synchrotron radiation. The jitter radiation resulting from small scale magnetic field structures may be important for understanding the complex time structure and spectral evolution observed in gamma-ray bursts or other astrophysical sources containing relativistic jets and relativistic collisionless shocks.
Magnetic-Field-Induced Relativistic Properties in Type-I and Type-II Weyl Semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tchoumakov, Serguei; Civelli, Marcello; Goerbig, Mark O.
2016-08-01
We investigate Weyl semimetals with tilted conical bands in a magnetic field. Even when the cones are overtilted (type-II Weyl semimetal), Landau-level quantization can be possible as long as the magnetic field is oriented close to the tilt direction. Most saliently, the tilt can be described within the relativistic framework of Lorentz transformations that give rise to a rich spectrum, displaying new transitions beyond the usual dipolar ones in the optical conductivity. We identify particular features in the latter that allow one to distinguish between semimetals of different types.
On parasupersymmetric oscillators and relativistic vector mesons in constant magnetic fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Debergh, Nathalie; Beckers, Jules
1995-01-01
Johnson-Lippmann considerations on oscillators and their connection with the minimal coupling schemes are visited in order to introduce a new Sakata-Taketani equation describing vector mesons in interaction with a constant magnetic field. This new proposal, based on a specific parasupersymmetric oscillator-like system, is characterized by real energies as opposed to previously pointed out relativistic equations corresponding to this interacting context.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Niemiec, J.; Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Pohl, M.; Medvedev, M.; Mizuno, Y.; Zhang, B.; Oka, M.; Sol, H.; Hartmann, D.
2009-01-01
Using 3D and 2D particle-in-cell simulations we investigate a shock structure, magnetic field generation, and particle acceleration associated with an unmagnetized relativistic electron-positron jet propagating into an unmagnetized pair plasma. The simulations use long computational grids which allow to study the formation and dynamics of the system in a spatial and temporal way. We find for the first time a relativistic shock system comparable to a predicted magnetohydrodynamic shock structure consisting of leading and trailing shocks separated by a contact discontinuity. Strong electromagnetic fields resulting from the Weibel two-stream instability are generated in the trailing shock where jet matter is thermalized and decelerated. We analyze the formation and nonlinear development through saturation and dissipation of those fields and associated particle acceleration. In the AGN context the trailing shock corresponds to the jet shock at the head of a relativistic astrophysical jet. In the GRB context this trailing shock can be identified with the bow shock driven by relativistic ejecta. The strong electromagnetic field region in the trailing shock provides the emission site for the hot spot at the leading edge of AGN jets and for afterglow emission from GRBs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.
2007-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron)jets show that acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.
2006-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing (relativistic) jets and shocks, e.g., supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that acceleration occurs within the downstream jet, rather than by the scattering of particles back and forth across the shock as in Fermi acceleration. Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the .shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. We will review recent PIC simulations which show particle acceleration in jets.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K. I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Fishman. G. J.
2007-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.
2006-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing (relativistic) jets and shocks, e.g., supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that acceleration occurs within the downstream jet, rather than by the scattering of particles back and forth across the shock as in Fermi acceleration. Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the .shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. We will review recent PIC simulations which show particle acceleration in jets.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.
2007-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron)jets show that acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K. I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Fishman. G. J.
2007-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
Lee, H. C.; Jiang, T. F.
2010-11-15
We analytically solve the relativistic equation of motion for an electron in ion plasma channels and calculate the corresponding trajectory as well as the synchrotron radiation. The relativistic effect on a trajectory is strong, i.e., many high-order harmonic terms in the trajectory, when the ratio of the initial transverse velocity (v{sub x0}) to the longitudinal velocity (v{sub z0}) of the electron injected to ion plasma channels is high. Interestingly, these high-order harmonic terms result in a quite broad and intense radiation spectrum, especially at an oblique angle, in contrast to an earlier understanding. As the initial velocity ratio (v{sub x0}:v{sub z0}) decreases, the relativistic effect becomes weak; only the first and second harmonic terms remain in the transverse and longitudinal trajectories, respectively, which coincides with the result of Esarey et al. [Phys. Rev. E 65, 056505 (2002)]. Our formalism also allows the description of electron's trajectory in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Critical magnetic fields for cyclotron motions are figured out and compared with semiclassical results. The cyclotron motion leads to more high-order harmonic terms than the trajectory without magnetic fields and causes an immensely broad spectrum with vastly large radiation amplitude for high initial velocity ratios (v{sub x0}:v{sub z0}). The radiation from hard x-ray to gamma-ray regions can be generated with a broad radiation angle, thus available for applications.
Simulation of Relativistic Shocks and Associated Radiation from Turbulent Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Niemiec, J.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Mizuno, Y.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, G. J.
2011-01-01
Using our new 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell (PIC) code, we investigated long-term particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron jet propagating in an unmagnetized ambient electron-positron plasma. The simulations were performed using a much longer simulation system than our previous simulations in order to investigate the full nonlinear stage of the Weibel instability and its particle acceleration mechanism. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and ambient electrons are accelerated in the resulting shocks. Acceleration of ambient electrons leads to a maximum ambient electron density three times larger than the original value as predicted by hydrodynamic compression. Behind the bow shock, in the jet shock, strong electromagnetic fields are generated. These fields may lead to time dependent afterglow emission. In order to go beyond the standard synchrotron model used in astrophysical objects we have used PIC simulations and calculated radiation based on first principles. We calculated radiation from electrons propagating in a uniform parallel magnetic field to verify the technique. We also used the technique to calculate emission from electrons based on simulations with a small system. We obtain spectra which are consistent with those generated from electrons propagating in turbulent magnetic fields. This turbulent magnetic field is similar to the magnetic field generated at an early nonlinear stage of the Weibel instability. A fully developed shock within a larger system may generate a jitter/synchrotron spectrum.
The inteplanetary magnetic field associated to the propagation of solar relativistic particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masson, Sophie; Dasso, Sergio; Démoulin, Pasal; Klein, Karl-Ludwig
2010-05-01
The origin and the propagation of high energetic solar particles (450 MeV- few GeV) in the interplanetary medium remains a complex topic. These relativistic solar particles, detected at the Earth by neutron monitors (called Ground level enhancement, GLE), have been previously accelerated close to the Sun. In order to be detected at the Earth, these relativistic particles have to travel along an interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) connecting the acceleration site and the Earth. Generally, the nominal Parker spiral (SP), is considered for ensuring the magnetic connection to the Earth. However, in most of GLEs the IMF is highly disturbed, and the active regions (ARs) associated to the GLEs are not always located close to the footprint of the nominal Parker spiral. If the AR is not connected to the Earth by the nominal Parker spiral, which is the IMF connecting the acceleration site and the Earth during the GLEs? A possible explanation of relativistic particles propagation under these circumstances are transient magnetic structures, travelling in the IMF as Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). In order to check this interpretation, we studied in detail the magnetic connection for 10 GLEs of the last solar cycle. Using the magnetic field and the plasma parameter measurements (ACE/MAG and ACE/SWEPAM), we find that relativistic particles associated to ARs located close to the footprint of the nominal Parker spiral tend to propagate along this nominal Parker spiral (2 clear cases) or in a solar wind disturbed by a previous magnetic perturbation (3 cases). Instead, the GLEs associated to ARs which is clearly not-well connected tend to propagate in an interplanetary coronal mass ejection or in the back of a previous ICME. More specifically on the 3 not-well connected cases, two propagate in the back of an ICME and one of them propagates in the ICME. Depending in which IMF particles propagate, the path length can display significant differences. Using the velocity
Particle Acceleration and Magnetic Field Generation in Electron-Positron Relativistic Shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-L.; Hardee, P.; Richardson, G.; Preece, R.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.
2004-01-01
Shock acceleration is an ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., Buneman, Weibel and other two-stream instabilities) created in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron jet front propagating into an ambient electron-positron plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find small differences in the results for no ambient and modest ambient magnetic fields. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates jet and ambient particles both perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. The non-linear fluctuation amplitudes of densities, currents, electric, and magnetic fields in the electron-positron shock are larger than those found in the electron-ion shock studied in a previous paper at the comparable simulation time. This comes from the fact that both electrons and positrons contribute to generation of the Weibel instability. Additionally, we have performed simulations with different electron skin depths. We find that growth times scale inversely with the plasma frequency, and the sizes of structures created by the Weibel instability scale proportional to the electron skin depth. This is the expected result and indicates that the simulations have sufficient grid resolution. While some Fermi acceleration may occur at the jet front, the majority of electron and positron acceleration takes place behind the jet front and cannot be characterized as Fermi acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying nonuniform: small-scale magnetic fields which contribute to the electron's (positron's) transverse deflection behind the jet head. This small scale magnetic field structure
Particle Acceleration and Magnetic Field Generation in Electron-Positron Relativistic Shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Richardson, G.; Preece, R.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.
2004-01-01
Shock acceleration is an ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., Buneman, Weibel and other two-stream instabilities) created in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron jet front propagating into an ambient electron-positron plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find small differences in the results for no ambient and modest ambient magnetic fields. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates jet and ambient particles both perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. The non-linear fluctuation amplitudes of densities, currents, electric, and magnetic fields in the electron-positron shock are larger than those found in the electron-ion shock studied in a previous paper. This comes from the fact that both electrons and positrons contribute to generation of the Weibel instability. Additionally, we have performed simulations with different electron skin depths. We find that growth times scale inversely with the plasma frequency, and the sizes of structures created by the Weibel instability scale proportional to the electron skin depth. This is the expected result and indicates that the simulations have sufficient grid resolution. While some Fermi acceleration may occur at the jet front, the majority of electron and positron acceleration takes place behind the jet front and cannot be characterized as Fermi acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields which contribute to the electron's (positron's) transverse deflection behind the jet head. This small scale magnetic field structure is appropriate to the generation
Particle Acceleration and Magnetic Field Generation in Electron-Positron Relativistic Shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Richardson, G.; Preece, R.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.
2005-01-01
Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., Buneman, Weibel, and other two-stream instabilities) created in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a three-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron jet front propagating into an ambient electron-positron plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find small differences in the results for no ambient and modest ambient magnetic fields. New simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates jet and ambient particles both perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. Furthermore, the nonlinear fluctuation amplitudes of densities, currents, and electric and magnetic fields in the electron-positron shock are larger than those found in the electron-ion shock studied in a previous paper at a comparable simulation time. This comes from the fact that both electrons and positrons contribute to generation of the Weibel instability. In addition, we have performed simulations with different electron skin depths. We find that growth times scale inversely with the plasma frequency, and the sizes of structures created by tine Weibel instability scale proportionally to the electron skin depth. This is the expected result and indicates that the simulations have sufficient grid resolution. While some Fermi acceleration may occur at the jet front, the majority of electron and positron acceleration takes place behind the jet front and cannot be characterized as Fermi acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron s (positron s) transverse deflection behind the jet head. This
Grassi, A; Grech, M; Amiranoff, F; Pegoraro, F; Macchi, A; Riconda, C
2017-02-01
The Weibel instability driven by two symmetric counterstreaming relativistic electron plasmas, also referred to as current-filamentation instability, is studied in a constant and uniform external magnetic field aligned with the plasma flows. Both the linear and nonlinear stages of the instability are investigated using analytical modeling and particle-in-cell simulations. While previous studies have already described the stabilizing effect of the magnetic field, we show here that the saturation stage is only weakly affected. The different mechanisms responsible for the saturation are discussed in detail in the relativistic cold fluid framework considering a single unstable mode. The application of an external field leads to a slight increase of the saturation level for large wavelengths, while it does not affect the small wavelengths. Multimode and temperature effects are then investigated. While at high temperature the saturation level is independent of the external magnetic field, at low but finite temperature the competition between different modes in the presence of an external magnetic field leads to a saturation level lower with respect to the unmagnetized case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grassi, A.; Grech, M.; Amiranoff, F.; Pegoraro, F.; Macchi, A.; Riconda, C.
2017-02-01
The Weibel instability driven by two symmetric counterstreaming relativistic electron plasmas, also referred to as current-filamentation instability, is studied in a constant and uniform external magnetic field aligned with the plasma flows. Both the linear and nonlinear stages of the instability are investigated using analytical modeling and particle-in-cell simulations. While previous studies have already described the stabilizing effect of the magnetic field, we show here that the saturation stage is only weakly affected. The different mechanisms responsible for the saturation are discussed in detail in the relativistic cold fluid framework considering a single unstable mode. The application of an external field leads to a slight increase of the saturation level for large wavelengths, while it does not affect the small wavelengths. Multimode and temperature effects are then investigated. While at high temperature the saturation level is independent of the external magnetic field, at low but finite temperature the competition between different modes in the presence of an external magnetic field leads to a saturation level lower with respect to the unmagnetized case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shucai; Wang, Lu; Chen, Zhongyong; Huang, Duwei; Tong, Ruihai
2016-10-01
The dynamics of relativistic electrons are analyzed using the relativistic Fokker-Planck equation including deceleration due to synchrotron radiation (SR) and radial diffusion loss caused by magnetic fluctuation (MF). Threshold electric field for avalanche growth is enhanced, and the growth rate is reduced by the combined effect of MF and SR as compared to the case with only SR. The threshold electric field is determined by the time scales balance between momentum evolution and radial diffusion loss induced by MF, and increased with level of MF. More importantly, the hysteresis behavior of runaway pointed out by does not exist anymore. This is because the ``seed electrons'' cannot be sustained as a result of diffusion loss. This work was supported by NSFC Grant No. 11305071, and the Ministry of Science and technology of China, under Contract Nos. 2013GB112002, 2015GB111002 and 2015GB111001.
Liang, Edison; Smith, Ian; Boettcher, Markus E-mail: iansmith@rice.edu
2013-04-01
Using particle-in-cell simulations, we study the kinetic physics of relativistic shear flow in collisionless electron-positron (e+e-) plasmas. We find efficient magnetic field generation and particle energization at the shear boundary, driven by streaming instabilities across the shear interface and sustained by the shear flow. Nonthermal, anisotropic high-energy particles are accelerated across field lines to produce a power-law tail turning over just below the shear Lorentz factor. These results have important implications for the dissipation and radiation of jets in blazars and gamma-ray bursts.
Simulation of Relativistic Shocks and Associated Radiation from Turbulent Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Niemiec, J.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, J. F.
2009-01-01
Plasma instabilities excited in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle acceleration. We have investigated the particle acceleration and shock structure associated with an unmagnetized relativistic electron-positron jet propagating into an unmagnetized electron-positron plasma. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and slowed while the ambient electrons are swept up to create a partially developed hydrodynamic-like shock structure. In the leading shock, electron density increases by a factor of about 3.5 in the simulation frame. Strong electromagnetic fields are generated in the trailing shock and provide an emission site. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the shock. The jitter'' radiation from deflected electrons in turbulent magnetic fields has different properties than synchrotron radiation, which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important for understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets in general, and supernova remnants. New spectra based on simulations will be presented.
The interplanetary magnetic field associated with the propagation of solar relativistic particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masson, Sophie; Dasso, Sergio; Demoulin, Pascal
The origin and the propagation of relativistic solar particles (450 MeV-few GeV) in the inter-planetary medium remains a complex topic. These particles, detected at the Earth by neutron monitors (called Ground level enhancement, GLE), have been previously accelerated close to the Sun. Before being detected at the Earth, these relativistic particles have to travel along an interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) connecting the acceleration site and the Earth. Generally, the nominal Parker spiral (SP), is considered for ensuring the magnetic connection to the Earth. However, in most GLEs the IMF is highly disturbed, and the active regions (ARs) associated to the GLEs are not always located close to the footprint of the nominal Parker spiral. If it is not the nominal Parker spiral, which IMF connects the acceleration site and the Earth during the GLEs? A possible explanation of relativistic particles propagation under these circumstances are transient magnetic structures, travelling in the IMF as Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). In order to check this interpretation, we studied in detail the interplanetary medium in which 10 GLEs of the last solar cycle propagate. Using the magnetic field and the plasma parameter measurements (ACE/MAG and ACE/SWEPAM), we found widely different IMF configurations. Those included obvious cases of propagation in an ICME, as well as some cases consistent with a Parker Spiral. But, we also found cases correponding to the propagation of relativistic particles in a highly disturbed Parker like IMF. In an independant approach we applied the velocity dispersion method (VDA) to energetic protons measured by SoHO/ERNE and relativistic particles measured by the neutron monitor network. We determined the path length travelled by energetic particles. These lengths are fully consistent with the IMF shape determined previously. Thus, the length associated to particles propagating along the nominal Parker spiral is of the order of 1-1.2 AU
On the theory of magnetic field generation by relativistically strong laser radiation
Berezhiani, V.I.; Shatashvili, N.L.; Mahajan, S.M. |
1996-07-01
The authors consider the interaction of subpicosecond relativistically strong short laser pulses with an underdense cold unmagnetized electron plasma. It is shown that the strong plasma inhomogeneity caused by laser pulses results in the generation of a low frequency (quasistatic) magnetic field. Since the electron density distribution is determined completely by the pump wave intensity, the generated magnetic field is negligibly small for nonrelativistic laser pulses but increases rapidly in the ultrarelativistic case. Due to the possibility of electron cavitation (complete expulsion of electrons from the central region) for narrow and intense beams, the increase in the generated magnetic field slows down as the beam intensity is increased. The structure of the magnetic field closely resembles that of the field produced by a solenoid; the field is maximum and uniform in the cavitation region, then it falls, changes polarity and vanishes. In extremely dense plasmas, highly intense laser pulses in the self-channeling regime can generate magnetic fields {approximately} 100 Mg and greater.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliasson, B.; Papadopoulos, K.
2017-10-01
A theoretical study of the propagation of left-hand polarized shear Alfvén waves in spatially decreasing magnetic field geometries near the EMIC resonance, including the spectrum and amplitude of the mode converted EMIC waves and the pitch angle scattering of relativistic electrons transiting the resonant region, is presented. The objective of the paper is to motivate an experimental study of the subject using the UCLA LAPD chamber. The results are relevant in exploring the possibility that shear Alfvén waves strategically injected into the radiation belts using either ionospheric heating from ground based RF transmitters or injected by transmitters based on space platforms can enhance the precipitation rate of trapped relativistic electrons. Effects of multi-ionic composition are also investigated.
Quantum speed limit for a relativistic electron in a uniform magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villamizar, D. V.; Duzzioni, E. I.
2015-10-01
We analyze the influence of relativistic effects on the minimum evolution time between two orthogonal states of a quantum system. Defining the initial state as a homogeneous superposition between two Hamiltonian eigenstates of an electron in a uniform magnetic field, we obtain a relation between the minimum evolution time and the displacement of the mean radial position of the electron wave packet. The quantum speed limit time is calculated for an electron dynamics described by Dirac and Schrödinger-Pauli equations considering different parameters, such as the strength of magnetic field and the linear momentum of the electron in the axial direction. We highlight that when the electron undergoes a region with extremely strong magnetic field the relativistic and nonrelativistic dynamics differ substantially, so that the description given by the Schrödinger-Pauli equation enables the electron to travel faster than c , which is prohibited by Einstein's theory of relativity. This approach allows a connection between the abstract Hilbert space and the space-time coordinates, besides the identification of the most appropriate quantum dynamics used to describe the electron motion.
Simulations of ion acceleration at non-relativistic shocks. II. Magnetic field amplification
Caprioli, D.; Spitkovsky, A.
2014-10-10
We use large hybrid simulations to study ion acceleration and generation of magnetic turbulence due to the streaming of particles that are self-consistently accelerated at non-relativistic shocks. When acceleration is efficient, we find that the upstream magnetic field is significantly amplified. The total amplification factor is larger than 10 for shocks with Alfvénic Mach number M = 100, and scales with the square root of M. The spectral energy density of excited magnetic turbulence is determined by the energy distribution of accelerated particles, and for moderately strong shocks (M ≲ 30) agrees well with the prediction of resonant streaming instability, in the framework of quasilinear theory of diffusive shock acceleration. For M ≳ 30, instead, Bell's non-resonant hybrid (NRH) instability is predicted and found to grow faster than resonant instability. NRH modes are excited far upstream by escaping particles, and initially grow without disrupting the current, their typical wavelengths being much shorter than the current ions' gyroradii. Then, in the nonlinear stage, most unstable modes migrate to larger and larger wavelengths, eventually becoming resonant in wavelength with the driving ions, which start diffuse. Ahead of strong shocks we distinguish two regions, separated by the free-escape boundary: the far upstream, where field amplification is provided by the current of escaping ions via NRH instability, and the shock precursor, where energetic particles are effectively magnetized, and field amplification is provided by the current in diffusing ions. The presented scalings of magnetic field amplification enable the inclusion of self-consistent microphysics into phenomenological models of ion acceleration at non-relativistic shocks.
Motion of relativistic particles in axially symmetric and perturbed magnetic fields in a tokamak
de Rover, M.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Montvai, A.
1996-12-01
An extensive comparison is given between an analytical theory for the computations of particle orbits of relativistic runaway electrons [M. de Rover {ital et} {ital al}., Phys. Plasmas {bold 3}, 4468 (1996)], and numerical simulations. A new numerical scheme is used for the computer simulations of guiding center orbits. Furthermore, simulations of the full particle motion, including the gyration are performed to check the guiding center approximation. The behavior of drift surfaces and particle orbits in axially symmetric magnetic fields, as predicted in the companion paper are confirmed. This includes the smaller minor radius of a drift surface compared to a magnetic flux surface with identical rotational transform, and the decrease of the minor radius of a drift surface with increasing particle energy. Magnetic islands and drift islands appear when the axial symmetry of the magnetic field is broken by harmonic perturbations. In the numerical simulations the amplitudes of the perturbations have been chosen to increase towards the plasma edge. The analytic theory gave predictions of the width of the drift islands that are in good agreement with the numerical simulations. When overlap of the magnetic perturbations introduces stochasticity, the Hamiltonian theory shows that drift islands can exist in the region of stochastic magnetic field lines, which is also confirmed by the numerical simulations. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Experimental study of transport of relativistic electron beams in strong magnetic mirror field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakata, Shohei; Kondo, Kotaro; Bailly-Grandvaux, Mathiu; Bellei, Claudio; Santos, Joao; Firex Project Team
2015-11-01
Relativistic electron beams REB produced by ultra high intense laser pulses have generally a large divergence angle that results in degradation of energy coupling between the REB and a fuel core in the fast ignition scheme. Guiding and focusing of the REB by a strong external magnetic field was proposed to achieve high efficiency. We investigated REB transport through 50 μm or 250 μm thick plastic foils CuI doped under external magnetic fields, in magnetic mirror configurations of 1.2 or 4 mirror ratio. The experiment was carried out at the GEKKO XII and LFEX laser facility. Spatial pattern of the REB was measured by coherent transition radiation and/or Cu Ka x ray emission from the rear surface of the foil targets. Strong collimation of the REB by the external magnetic field was observed with 50 μm thick plastic targets, while the REB scattered in 250 μm thick targets. The experimental results are compared with computer simulations to understand the physical mechanisms of the REB transport in the external magnetic field. This work is supported by NIFS (Japan), MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI (Japan), JSPS Fellowship (Japan), ANR (France) and COST (Europe).
Simulation of Relativistic Shocks and Associated Radiation from Turbulent Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.; Niemiec, J.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J.; Sol, H.; Pohl, M.; Oka, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, J. F.
2009-01-01
Plasma instabilities (e.g., Buneman, Weibel and other two-stream instabilities) excited in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a new 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell code, we have investigated the particle acceleration and shock structure associated with an unmagnetized relativistic electron-positron jet propagating into an unmagnetized electron-positron plasma. The simulation has been performed using a long simulation system in order to study the nonlinear stages of the Weibel instability, the particle acceleration mechanism, and the shock structure. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and slowed while the ambient electrons are swept up to create a partially developed hydrodynamic (HD) like shock structure. In the leading shock, electron density increases by a factor of <_ 3.5 in the simulation frame. Strong electromagnetic fields are generated in the trailing shock and provide an emission site. We discuss the possible implication of our simulation results within the AGN and GRB context. We have calculated the time evolution of the spectrum from two electrons propagating in a uniform parallel magnetic field to verify the technique. The same technique will be used to calculate radiation from accelerated electrons (positrons) in turbulent magnetic fields generated by Weibel instability.
Deformed neutron stars due to strong magnetic field in terms of relativistic mean field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yanase, Kota; Yoshinaga, Naotaka
2014-09-01
Some observations suggest that magnetic field intensity of neutron stars that have particularly strong magnetic field, magnetars, reaches values up to 1014-15G. It is expected that there exists more strong magnetic field of several orders of magnitude in the interior of such stars. Neutron star matter is so affected by magnetic fields caused by intrinsic magnetic moments and electric charges of baryons that masses of neutron stars calculated by using Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation is therefore modified. We calculate equation of state (EOS) in density-dependent magnetic field by using sigma-omega-rho model that can reproduce properties of stable nuclear matter in laboratory Furthermore we calculate modified masses of deformed neutron stars.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fendt, C.
1997-07-01
Highly collimated jets are observed in various astronomical objects, as active galactic nuclei, galactic high energy sources, and also young stellar objects. There is observational indication that these jets originate in accretion disks, and that magnetic fields play an important role for the jet collimation and plasma acceleration. The rapid disk rotation close to the central object leads to relativistic rotational velocities of the magnetic field lines. The structure of these axisymmetric magnetic flux surfaces follows from the trans-field force-balance described by the Grad-Schlueter-Shafranov equation. In this paper, we investigate the asymptotic field structure of differentially rotating magnetic jets, widening the study by Appl & Camenzind (1993A&A...270...71A, 1993A&A...274..699A). In general, our results show that, with the same current distribution, differentially rotating jets are collimated to smaller jet radii as compared with jets with rigidly rotating field. Differentially rotating jets need a stronger net poloidal current in order to collimate to the same asymptotic radius. Current-free solutions are not possible for differentially rotating disk-jet magnetospheres with cylindrical asymptotics. We present a simple analytical relation between the poloidal current distribution and magnetic field rotation law. A general relation is derived for the current strength for jets with maximum differential rotation and minimum differential rotation. Analytical solutions are also given in the case of a field rotation leading to a degeneration of the light cylinder. By linking the asymptotic solution to a Keplerian accretion disk, 'total expansion rates' for the jets, and also the flux distribution at the foot points of the flux surfaces are derived. Large poloidal currents imply a strong opening of flux surfaces, a stronger gradient of field rotation leads to smaller expansion rates. There is indication that AGN jet expansion rates are less than in the case of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelson, Robert W.; Wasserman, Ira
1991-01-01
A rigorous discussion is presented of the classical motion of a relativistic electron in a magnetic field and the resulting electromagnetic radiation when radiation reaction is important. In particular, for an electron injected with initial energy gamma(0), a systematic perturbative solution to the Lorentz-Dirac equation of motion is developed for field strengths satisfying gamma(0) B much less than 6 x 10 to the 15th G. A particularly accurate solution to the electron orbital motion in this regime is found and it is demonstrated how lowest-order corrections can be calculated. It is shown that the total energy-loss rate corresponds to what would be found using the exact Larmor power formula without including radiation reaction. Provided that the particle energy and field strength satisfy the same contraint, it is explicitly demonstrated that the intuitive prescription for calculating the time-integrated radiation spectrum described above is correct.
Relay transport of relativistic flows in extreme magnetic fields of stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, W. P.; Qiao, B.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, H.; Chang, H. X.; Zhou, C. T.; Zhu, S. P.; Wang, X. G.; He, X. T.
2017-08-01
We find that the transport of relativistic flows in extreme magnetic fields can be achieved in a relay manner by considering the quantum electromagnetic cascade process, where photons play a key role as a medium. During the transport, the flow emits particle energy into photons via quantum synchrotron radiation, and then gains particles back by magnetic pair creation, forming a "particle-photon-particle" relay. Particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate that forward transport of the flow density is realized by a self-replenishment process with photon-pair cascades, while that of the flow energy is accomplished due to a new coupling path through radiation of photons. This novel transport mechanism is closely associated with jet generation and disk accretion around the neutron star of X-Ray Binaries, offering a potential explanation for the powerful jets observed there.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skobelev, V. V.
2017-06-01
Following our previous work, additional arguments are presented that in superstrong magnetic fields B ≫ (Zα)2 B 0, B 0 = m 2 c 3/ eħ ≈ 4.41 × 1013 G, the Dirac equation and the Schrödinger equation for an electron in the nucleus field following from it become spatially one-dimensional with the only z coordinate along the magnetic field, "Dirac" spinors become two-component, while the 2 × 2 matrices operate in the {0; 3} subspace. Based on the obtained solution of the Dirac equation and the known solution of the "onedimensional" Schrödinger equation by ordinary QED methods extrapolated to the {0; 3} subspace, the probability of photon emission by a "one-dimensional" hydrogen-like atom is calculated, which, for example, for the Lyman-alpha line differs almost twice from the probability in the "three-dimensional" case. Similarly, despite the coincidence of nonrelativistic energy levels, the calculated relativistic corrections of the order of (Zα)4 substantially differ from corrections in the absence of a magnetic field. A conclusion is made that, by analyzing the hydrogen emission spectrum and emission spectra at all, we can judge in principle about the presence or absence of superstrong magnetic fields in the vicinity of magnetars (neutron stars and probably brown dwarfs). Possible prospects of applying the proposed method for calculations of multielectron atoms are pointed out and the possibility of a more reliable determination of the presence of superstrong magnetic fields in magnetars by this method is considered.
Wu, Ping; Sun, Jun; Cao, Yibing
2015-06-15
In O-type high power microwave (HPM) devices, the annular relativistic electron beam is constrained by a strong guiding magnetic field and propagates through an interaction region to generate HPM. Some papers believe that the E × B drift of electrons may lead to beam breakup. This paper simplifies the interaction region with a smooth cylindrical waveguide to research the radial motion of electrons under conditions of strong guiding magnetic field and TM{sub 01} mode HPM. The single-particle trajectory shows that the radial electron motion presents the characteristic of radial guiding-center drift carrying cyclotron motion. The radial guiding-center drift is spatially periodic and is dominated by the polarization drift, not the E × B drift. Furthermore, the self fields of the beam space charge can provide a radial force which may pull electrons outward to some extent but will not affect the radial polarization drift. Despite the radial drift, the strong guiding magnetic field limits the drift amplitude to a small value and prevents beam breakup from happening due to this cause.
Design of a high efficiency relativistic backward wave oscillator with low guiding magnetic field
Li, Xiaoze; Song, Wei; Tan, Weibing; Zhang, Ligang; Su, Jiancang; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Hu, Xianggang; Shen, Zhiyuan; Liang, Xu; Ning, Qi
2016-07-15
A high efficiency relativistic backward wave oscillator working at a low guiding magnetic field is designed and simulated. A trapezoidal resonant reflector is used to reduce the modulation field in the resonant reflector to avoid overmodulation of the electron beam which will lead to a large momentum spread and then low conversion efficiency. The envelope of the inner radius of the slow wave structure (SWS) increases stepwise to keep conformal to the trajectory of the electron beam which will alleviate the bombardment of the electron on the surface of the SWS. The length of period of the SWS is reduced gradually to make a better match between phase velocity and electron beam, which decelerates continually and improves the RF current distribution. Meanwhile the modulation field is reduced by the introduction of nonuniform SWS also. The particle in cell simulation results reveal that a microwave with a power of 1.8 GW and a frequency of 14.7 GHz is generated with an efficiency of 47% when the diode voltage is 620 kV, the beam current 6.1 kA, and the guiding magnetic field 0.95 T.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, J.; Zhao, P. W.
2015-04-01
The self-consistent tilted axis cranking relativistic mean-field (TAC-RMF) theory based on a point-coupling interaction is applied to investigate the observed magnetic and antimagnetic rotations in the nucleus 110Cd . The energy spectra, the relation between the spin and the rotational frequency, the deformation parameters, and the reduced M 1 and E 2 transition probabilities are studied with the various configurations. It is found that the configuration has to be changed to reproduce the energy spectra and the relations between the spin and the rotational frequency for both the magnetic and antimagnetic rotational bands. The shears mechanism for the magnetic rotation and the two-shears-like mechanism for the antimagnetic rotation are examined by investigating the orientation of the neutron and proton angular momenta. The calculated electromagnetic transitions B (M 1 ) and B (E 2 ) are in reasonable agreement with the data, and their tendencies are coincident with the typical characteristics of the magnetic and antimagnetic rotations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Rohini; Ruyer, Charles; Goede, Sebastian; Roedel, Christian; Gauthier, Maxence; Zeil, Karl; Schramm, Ulrich; Glenzer, Siegfried; Fiuza, Frederico
2016-10-01
Weibel-type instabilities can occur in weakly magnetized and anisotropic plasmas of relevance to a wide range of astrophysical and laboratory scenarios. It leads to the conversion of a significant fraction of the kinetic energy of the plasma into magnetic energy. We will present a detailed numerical study, using 2D and 3D PIC simulations of the Weibel instability in relativistic laser-solid interactions. In this case, the instability develops due to the counter-streaming of laser-heated electrons and the background return current. We show that the growth rate of the instability is maximized near the critical density region on the rear side of the expanded plasma, producing up to 400 MG magnetic fields for Hydrogen plasmas. We have found that this strong field can be directly probed by energetic protons accelerated in rear side of the plasma by Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA). This allows the experimental characterization of the instability from the analysis of the spatial modulation of the detected protons. Our numerical results are compared with recent laser experiments with Hydrogen jets and show good agreement with the proton modulations observed experimentally. This work was supported by the DOE Office of Science, Fusion Energy Science (FWP 100182).
Effect of the plasma-generated magnetic field on relativistic electron transport.
Nicolaï, Ph; Feugeas, J-L; Regan, C; Olazabal-Loumé, M; Breil, J; Dubroca, B; Morreeuw, J-P; Tikhonchuk, V
2011-07-01
In the fast-ignition scheme, relativistic electrons transport energy from the laser deposition zone to the dense part of the target where the fusion reactions can be ignited. The magnetic fields and electron collisions play an important role in the collimation or defocusing of this electron beam. Detailed description of these effects requires large-scale kinetic calculations and is limited to short time intervals. In this paper, a reduced kinetic model of fast electron transport coupled to the radiation hydrodynamic code is presented. It opens the possibility to carry on hybrid simulations in a time scale of tens of picoseconds or more. It is shown with this code that plasma-generated magnetic fields induced by noncollinear temperature and density gradients may strongly modify electron transport in a time scale of a few picoseconds. These fields tend to defocus the electron beam, reducing the coupling efficiency to the target. This effect, that was not seen before in shorter time simulations, has to be accounted for in any ignition design using electrons as a driver.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meszaros, P.; Laguna, P.; Rees, M. J.
1993-01-01
We calculate both analytically and numerically the evolution of highly relativistic fireballs through the stages of free expansion and coasting, and determine the dependence of the thermodynamic and radiation variables in the comoving and laboratory flames. The dynamics and the comoving geometry change at the (lab) expansion factors r/r(0) greater than eta and r/r(0) greater than eta-squared, respectively, where eta = E(0)/M(0)c-squared is the initial Lorentz factor. In the lab, the gas appears concentrated in a thin shell of width r(0) until r/r(0) of less than about eta-squared, and increases linearly after that. Magnetic fields may have been important in the original impulsive event. We discuss their effect on the fireball dynamics and also consider their effects on the radiation emitted when the fireball runs into an external medium and is decelerated. The inverse synchro-Compton mechanism can then yield high radiative efficiency in the reverse shock (and through turbulent instabilities and mixing also in the forward blast wave), producing a burst of nonthermal radiation mainly in the MeV to GeV range. The energy and duration depend on eta, the magnetic field strength, and the external density, and can match the range of properties observed in cosmic gamma-ray bursts.
Notes on the relativistic movement of runaway electrons in parallel electric and magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delong, Vojtěch Adalbert; BeÅo, Radek; BřeÅ, David; Kulhánek, Petr
2016-09-01
Runaway electrons are a potential threat in many plasma devices. At high velocities, the plasma acceleration is not further offset by collisions in the plasma, as in the ohmic regime. The particles obtain relativistic velocity and considerable energy. A typical configuration includes parallel electric and magnetic fields, in which there are no drifts, and the movement of the charged particles is a combination of gyration motion with the acceleration in an electric field. It follows from the Lorentz equation of motion that the transverse velocity component (perpendicular to the fields) will be interconnected with the longitudinal component via the Lorentz factor. The increasing longitudinal velocity will therefore ultimately reduce the magnitude of the transverse velocity component, thereby decreasing the gyrofrequency. The corresponding change in Larmor radius will be offset by the increase in the particle mass and the Larmor radius of gyration therefore remains unchanged. We derive analytical relations for the temporal and spatial dependences of frequency, and longitudinal and transverse components of the velocity.
Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; ...
2016-03-26
We study pion production by proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of a strong magnetic field when the Landau numbers of the initial and final protons are n(i, f) similar to 10(4)-10(5). We find in our relativistic field theory calculations that the pion decay width depends only on the field strength parameter which previously was only conjectured based upon semi-classical arguments. Moreover, we also find new results that the decay width satisfies a robust scaling relation, and that the polar angular distribution of emitted pion momenta is very narrow and can be easily obtained. This scaling implies that one canmore » infer the decay width in more realistic magnetic fields of 10(15) G, where n(i, f) similar to 10(12)-10(13), from the results for n(i, f) similar to 10(4)-10(5). The resultant pion intensity and angular distributions for realistic magnetic field strengths are presented and their physical implications discussed. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Funded by SCOAP(3).« less
Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.
2016-03-26
We study pion production by proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of a strong magnetic field when the Landau numbers of the initial and final protons are n(i, f) similar to 10(4)-10(5). We find in our relativistic field theory calculations that the pion decay width depends only on the field strength parameter which previously was only conjectured based upon semi-classical arguments. Moreover, we also find new results that the decay width satisfies a robust scaling relation, and that the polar angular distribution of emitted pion momenta is very narrow and can be easily obtained. This scaling implies that one can infer the decay width in more realistic magnetic fields of 10(15) G, where n(i, f) similar to 10(12)-10(13), from the results for n(i, f) similar to 10(4)-10(5). The resultant pion intensity and angular distributions for realistic magnetic field strengths are presented and their physical implications discussed. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Funded by SCOAP(3).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayala, Alejandro; Castaño-Yepes, Jorge David; Dominguez, C. A.; Hernández, L. A.; Hernández-Ortiz, Saúl; Tejeda-Yeomans, María Elena
2017-07-01
We compute photon production at early times in semicentral relativistic heavy-ion collisions from nonequilibrium gluon fusion induced by a magnetic field. The calculation accounts for the main features of the collision at these early times, namely, the intense magnetic field and the high gluon occupation number. The gluon fusion channel is made possible by the magnetic field and would otherwise be forbidden due to charge conjugation invariance. Thus, the photon yield from this process is an excess over calculations without magnetic field effects. We compare this excess to the difference between PHENIX data and recent hydrodynamic calculations for the photon transverse momentum distribution and elliptic flow coefficient v2 . We show that with reasonable values for the saturation scale and magnetic field strength, the calculation helps us better describe the experimental results obtained at RHIC energies for the lowest part of the transverse photon momentum.
Relativistic electrons and magnetic fields of the M87 jet on the ∼10 Schwarzschild radii scale
Kino, M.; Takahara, F.; Hada, K.; Doi, A.
2014-05-01
We explore energy densities of the magnetic fields and relativistic electrons in the M87 jet. Since the radio core at the jet base is identical to the optically thick surface against synchrotron self-absorption (SSA), the observing frequency is identical to the SSA turnover frequency. As a first step, we assume the radio core has a simple uniform sphere geometry. Using the observed angular size of the radio core measured by the Very Long Baseline Array at 43 GHz, we estimate the energy densities of magnetic fields (U{sub B} ) and relativistic electrons (U{sub e} ) on the basis of the standard SSA formula. Imposing the condition that the Poynting power and kinetic power of relativistic electrons should be smaller than the total power of the jet, we find that (1) the allowed range of the magnetic field strength (B {sub tot}) is 1 G ≤ B {sub tot} ≤ 15 G and that (2) 1 × 10{sup –5} ≤ U{sub e} /U{sub B} ≤ 6 × 10{sup 2} holds. The uncertainty of U{sub e} /U{sub B} comes from the strong dependence on the angular size of the radio core and the minimum Lorentz factor of non-thermal electrons (γ {sub e,min}) in the core. It is still unsettled whether resultant energetics are consistent with either the magnetohydrodynamic jet or the kinetic power dominated jet even on the ∼10 Schwarzschild radii scale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bessho, Naoki; Bhattacharjee, A.
2012-05-01
Magnetic reconnection and particle acceleration in relativistic Harris sheets in low-density electron-positron plasmas with no guide field have been studied by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Reconnection rates are of the order of one when the background density in a Harris sheet is of the order of 1% of the density in the current sheet, which is consistent with previous results in the non-relativistic regime. It has been demonstrated that the increase of the Lorentz factors of accelerated particles significantly enhances the collisionless resistivity needed to sustain a large reconnection electric field. It is shown analytically and numerically that the energy spectrum of accelerated particles near the X-line is the product of a power law and an exponential function of energy, γ-1/4exp (- aγ1/2), where γ is the Lorentz factor and a is a constant. However, in the low-density regime, while the most energetic particles are produced near X-lines, many more particles are energized within magnetic islands. Particles are energized in contracting islands by multiple reflection, but the mechanism is different from Fermi acceleration in magnetic islands for magnetized particles in the presence of a guide field. In magnetic islands, strong core fields are generated and plasma beta values are reduced. As a consequence, the fire-hose instability condition is not satisfied in most of the island region, and island contraction and particle acceleration can continue. In island coalescence, reconnection between two islands can accelerate some particles, however, many particles are decelerated and cooled, which is contrary to what has been discussed in the literature on particle acceleration due to reconnection in non-relativistic hydrogen plasmas.
Colavita, E.; Hacyan, S.
2014-03-15
We analyze the solutions of the Klein–Gordon and Dirac equations describing a charged particle in an electromagnetic plane wave combined with a magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave. It is shown that the Klein–Gordon equation admits coherent states as solutions, while the corresponding solutions of the Dirac equation are superpositions of coherent and displaced-number states. Particular attention is paid to the resonant case in which the motion of the particle is unbounded. -- Highlights: •We study a relativistic electron in a particular electromagnetic field configuration. •New exact solutions of the Klein–Gordon and Dirac equations are obtained. •Coherent and displaced number states can describe a relativistic particle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Ying; Chen, Lunjin; Xie, Lun; Fu, Suiyan; Xia, Zhiyang; Pu, Zuyin
2017-05-01
Dayside modulated relativistic electron's butterfly pitch angle distributions (PADs) from ˜200 keV to 2.6 MeV were observed by Van Allen Probe B at L = 5.3 on 15 November 2013. They were associated with localized magnetic dip driven by hot ring current ion (60-100 keV proton and 60-200 keV helium and oxygen) injections. We reproduce the electron's butterfly PADs at satellite's location using test particle simulation. The simulation results illustrate that a negative radial flux gradient contributes primarily to the formation of the modulated electron's butterfly PADs through inward transport due to the inductive electric field, while deceleration due to the inductive electric field and pitch angle change also makes in part contribution. We suggest that localized magnetic field perturbation, which is a frequent phenomenon in the magnetosphere during magnetic disturbances, is of great importance for creating electron's butterfly PADs in the Earth's radiation belts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Ying; Chen, Lunjin; Xie, Lun; Fu, Suiyan; Pu, Zuyin
2017-04-01
Dayside modulated relativistic electron's butterfly pitch angle distributions (PADs) from 200 keV to 2.6 MeV was observed by Van Allen Probe-B at L = 5.3 on November 15, 2013. They were associated with localized magnetic dip driven by hot ring current ion (60-100 keV protons and 60-200 keV oxygen) injections. We reproduce the electron's butterfly PADs at satellite's location using test particle simulation. The simulation results illustrate that negative radial flux gradient contributes primarily to the formation of the modulated electron's butterfly PADs through inward transport due to the inductive electric field, while deceleration due to the inductive electric field and pitch angle change make in part contribution. We suggest that localized magnetic field perturbation, which is a frequent phenomenon in the magnetosphere during magnetic disturbances, is of great importance for creating electron's butterfly PADs in the Earth's radiation belts.
Anomalous magnetic viscosity in relativistic accretion disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Fujun; Liu, Sanqiu; Li, Xiaoqing
2013-07-01
It has been proved that the self-generated magnetic fields by transverse plasmons in the relativistic regime are modulationally unstable, leading to a self-similar collapse of the magnetic flux tubes and resulting in local magnetic structures; highly spatially intermittent flux is responsible for generating the anomalous viscosity. We derive the anomalous magnetic viscosity coefficient, in accretion disks around compact objects, such as black holes, pulsars and quasars, where the plasmas are relativistic, in order to help clarify the nature of viscosity in the theory of accretion disks. The results indicate that, the magnetic viscosity is modified by the relativistic effects of plasmas, and its' strength would be 1015 stronger than the molecular viscosity, which may be helpful in explaining the observations.
Misra, Anirban; Datta, Sambhu N
2005-08-08
An investigation of the relativistic dynamics of N+1 spin-12 particles placed in an external, homogeneous magnetic field is carried out. The system can represent an atom with a fermion nucleus and N electrons. Quantum electrodynamical interactions, namely, projected Briet and magnetic interactions, are chosen to formulate the relativistic Hamiltonian. The quasi-free-particle picture is retained here. The total pseudomomentum is conserved, and its components are distinct when the total charge is zero. Therefore, the center-of-mass motion can be separated from the Hamiltonian for a neutral (N+1)-fermion system, leaving behind a unitarily transformed, effective Hamiltonian H(0) at zero total pseudomomentum. The latter operator represents the complete relativistic dynamics in relative coordinates while interaction is chosen through order alpha4mc2. Each one-particle part in the effective Hamiltonian can be brought to a separable form for positive- and negative-energy states by replacing the odd operator in it through two successive unitary transformations, one due to Tsai [Phys. Rev. D 7, 1945 (1973)] and the other due to Weaver [J. Math. Phys. 18, 306 (1977)]. Consequently, the projector changes and the interaction that involves the concerned particle also becomes free from the corresponding odd operators. When this maneuver is applied only to the nucleus, and the non-Hermitian part of the transformed interaction is removed by another unitary transformation, a familiar form of the atomic relativistic Hamiltonian H(atom) emerges. This operator is equivalent to H(0). A good Hamiltonian for relativistic quantum chemical calculations, H(Qchem), is obtained by expanding the nuclear part of the atomic Hamiltonian through order alpha4mc2 for positive-energy states. The operator H(Qchem) is obviously an approximation to H(atom). When the same technique is used for all particles, and subsequently the non-Hermitian terms are removed by suitable unitary transformations, one
Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection in the Laboratory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krushelnick, Karl; Raymond, Anthony; Dong, Cf; McKelvey, A.; Zulick, C.; Alexander, N.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Campbell, Pt; Chen, H.; Chvykov, V.; Del Rio, E.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Fox, W.; Hou, Bx; Maksimchuk, A.; Mileham, C.; Nees, J.; Nilson, Pm; Stoekl, C.; Thomas, Agr; Wei, Ms; Yanovsky, V.; Willingale, L.
2016-10-01
Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental plasma process involving an exchange of magnetic energy to plasma kinetic energy through changes in the magnetic field topology. Here we present experimental measurements using the OMEGA EP laser at LLE and the HERCULES laser at the University of Michigan as well as numerical modeling which indicate that relativistic magnetic reconnection can be driven by short-pulse, high-intensity lasers that produce a relativistic plasma along with very strong magnetic fields. Evidence of magnetic reconnection was identified by the plasma's X-ray emission patterns, changes to the electron energy spectrum, and by measuring the time over which reconnection occurs. Funded by DOE Award No. DE-NA0002727.
Mehdian, H.; Hajisharifi, K.; Hasanbeigi, A.
2015-03-10
We present an analytical study of current filamentation instability (CFI) in a fully relativistic cold plasma system, including arbitrary currents. For our purposes, we employ the cold fluid equations, together with Maxwell's equations as well as the plasma shell concept and boost frame method, to obtain an exact solution of the instability growth rate. A simple relation is found for the maximum growth rate of the CFI (for any arbitrary current system), which remarkably is used to calculate the large magnitude of an induced magnetic field in astrophysical environments such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs), microquasars, supernova remnants (SNRs), and stellar winds. We find that the magnetic field is amplified in the SNR up to the level required to justify the recent discovery of the year-scale variability in the X-ray emission of SNRs. Also, the maximum magnetic field of two and three orders higher (or two orders lower) than that of the SNR has been derived for microquasars and AGNs (or stellar winds), respectively. Moreover, making use of the exact analytical solution of the CFI, it is shown that the maximum magnetic field up to around 10{sup 8} G can be detected from a classical cold counterstreaming system after a saturation time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pramanik, Sourav; Kuznetsov, V. I.; Bakaleinikov, L. A.; Chakrabarti, Nikhil
2016-08-01
A comprehensive study on the steady states of a planar vacuum diode driven by a cold relativistic electron beam in the presence of an external transverse magnetic field is presented. The regimes, where no electrons are turned around by the external magnetic field and where they are reflected back to the emitter by the magnetic field, are both considered in a generalized way. The problem is solved by two methods: with the Euler and the Lagrange formulation. Taking non-relativistic limit, the solutions are compared with the similar ones which were obtained for the Bursian diode with a non-relativistic electron beam in previous work [Pramanik et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 112108 (2015)]. It is shown that, at a moderate value of the relativistic factor of the injected beam, the region of the ambiguous solutions located to the right of the SCL bifurcation point (space charge limit) in the non-relativistic regime disappears. In addition, the dependencies of the characteristic bifurcation points and the transmitted current on the Larmor frequency as well as on the relativistic factor are explored.
Pramanik, Sourav; Chakrabarti, Nikhil
2016-08-15
A comprehensive study on the steady states of a planar vacuum diode driven by a cold relativistic electron beam in the presence of an external transverse magnetic field is presented. The regimes, where no electrons are turned around by the external magnetic field and where they are reflected back to the emitter by the magnetic field, are both considered in a generalized way. The problem is solved by two methods: with the Euler and the Lagrange formulation. Taking non-relativistic limit, the solutions are compared with the similar ones which were obtained for the Bursian diode with a non-relativistic electron beam in previous work [Pramanik et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 112108 (2015)]. It is shown that, at a moderate value of the relativistic factor of the injected beam, the region of the ambiguous solutions located to the right of the SCL bifurcation point (space charge limit) in the non-relativistic regime disappears. In addition, the dependencies of the characteristic bifurcation points and the transmitted current on the Larmor frequency as well as on the relativistic factor are explored.
Effect of magnetic field on beta processes in a relativistic moderately degenerate plasma
Ognev, I. S.
2016-10-15
The effect of a magnetic field of arbitrary strength on the beta decay and crossing symmetric processes is analyzed. A covariant calculation technique is used to derive the expression for the squares of S-matrix elements of these reactions, which is also valid in reference frames in which the medium moves as a single whole along magnetic field lines. Simple analytic expressions obtained for the neutrino and antineutrino emissivities for a moderately degenerate plasma fully characterize the emissivity and absorbability of the studied medium. It is shown that the approximation used here is valid for core collapse supernovae and accretion disks around black holes; beta processes in these objects are predominantly neutrino reactions. The analytic expressions obtained for the emissivities can serve as a good approximation for describing the interaction of electron neutrinos and antineutrinos with the medium of the objects in question and hold for an arbitrary magnetic field strength. Due to their simplicity, these expressions can be included in the magnetohydrodynamic simulation of supernovae and accretion disks to calculate neutrino and antineutrino transport in them. The rates of beta processes and the energy and momentum emitted in them are calculated for an optically transparent matter. It is shown that the macroscopic momentum transferred in the medium increases linearly with the magnetic field strength and can substantially affect the dynamics of supernovae and accretion disks in the regions of a degenerate matter. It is also shown that the rates of beta processes and the energy emission for a magnetic field strength of B ≲ 10{sup 15} G typical of supernovae and accretion disks are lower than in the absence of field. This suppression is stronger for reactions with neutrinos.
Zhang, Haocheng; Deng, Wei; Li, Hui; ...
2016-01-20
The optical radiation and polarization signatures in blazars are known to be highly variable during flaring activities. It is frequently argued that shocks are the main driver of the flaring events. However, the spectral variability modelings generally lack detailed considerations of the self-consistent magnetic field evolution modeling; thus, so far the associated optical polarization signatures are poorly understood. We present the first simultaneous modeling of the optical radiation and polarization signatures based on 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of relativistic shocks in the blazar emission environment, with the simplest physical assumptions. By comparing the results with observations, we find that shocks inmore » a weakly magnetized environment will largely lead to significant changes in the optical polarization signatures, which are seldom seen in observations. Hence an emission region with relatively strong magnetization is preferred. In such an environment, slow shocks may produce minor flares with either erratic polarization fluctuations or considerable polarization variations, depending on the parameters; fast shocks can produce major flares with smooth polarization angle rotations. In addition, the magnetic fields in both cases are observed to actively revert to the original topology after the shocks. In addition, all these features are consistent with observations. Future observations of the radiation and polarization signatures will further constrain the flaring mechanism and the blazar emission environment.« less
Zhang, Haocheng; Deng, Wei; Li, Hui; Bottcher, Markus
2016-01-20
The optical radiation and polarization signatures in blazars are known to be highly variable during flaring activities. It is frequently argued that shocks are the main driver of the flaring events. However, the spectral variability modelings generally lack detailed considerations of the self-consistent magnetic field evolution modeling; thus, so far the associated optical polarization signatures are poorly understood. We present the first simultaneous modeling of the optical radiation and polarization signatures based on 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of relativistic shocks in the blazar emission environment, with the simplest physical assumptions. By comparing the results with observations, we find that shocks in a weakly magnetized environment will largely lead to significant changes in the optical polarization signatures, which are seldom seen in observations. Hence an emission region with relatively strong magnetization is preferred. In such an environment, slow shocks may produce minor flares with either erratic polarization fluctuations or considerable polarization variations, depending on the parameters; fast shocks can produce major flares with smooth polarization angle rotations. In addition, the magnetic fields in both cases are observed to actively revert to the original topology after the shocks. In addition, all these features are consistent with observations. Future observations of the radiation and polarization signatures will further constrain the flaring mechanism and the blazar emission environment.
Zhang, Haocheng; Deng, Wei; Li, Hui; Böttcher, Markus
2016-01-20
The optical radiation and polarization signatures in blazars are known to be highly variable during flaring activities. It is frequently argued that shocks are the main driver of the flaring events. However, the spectral variability modelings generally lack detailed considerations of the self-consistent magnetic field evolution modeling; thus, so far the associated optical polarization signatures are poorly understood. We present the first simultaneous modeling of the optical radiation and polarization signatures based on 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of relativistic shocks in the blazar emission environment, with the simplest physical assumptions. By comparing the results with observations, we find that shocks in a weakly magnetized environment will largely lead to significant changes in the optical polarization signatures, which are seldom seen in observations. Hence an emission region with relatively strong magnetization is preferred. In such an environment, slow shocks may produce minor flares with either erratic polarization fluctuations or considerable polarization variations, depending on the parameters; fast shocks can produce major flares with smooth polarization angle rotations. In addition, the magnetic fields in both cases are observed to actively revert to the original topology after the shocks. All these features are consistent with observations. Future observations of the radiation and polarization signatures will further constrain the flaring mechanism and the blazar emission environment.
RECOLLIMATION SHOCKS IN MAGNETIZED RELATIVISTIC JETS
Mizuno, Yosuke; Rezzolla, Luciano; Gómez, Jose L.; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Meli, Athina; Hardee, Philip E.
2015-08-10
We have performed two-dimensional special-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of non-equilibrium over-pressured relativistic jets in cylindrical geometry. Multiple stationary recollimation shock and rarefaction structures are produced along the jet by the nonlinear interaction of shocks and rarefaction waves excited at the interface between the jet and the surrounding ambient medium. Although initially the jet is kinematically dominated, we have considered axial, toroidal, and helical magnetic fields to investigate the effects of different magnetic-field topologies and strengths on the recollimation structures. We find that an axial field introduces a larger effective gas pressure and leads to stronger recollimation shocks and rarefactions, resulting in larger flow variations. The jet boost grows quadratically with the initial magnetic field. On the other hand, a toroidal field leads to weaker recollimation shocks and rarefactions, significantly modifying the jet structure after the first recollimation rarefaction and shock. The jet boost decreases systematically. For a helical field, instead, the behavior depends on the magnetic pitch, with a phenomenology that ranges between the one seen for axial and toroidal magnetic fields, respectively. In general, however, a helical magnetic field yields a more complex shock and rarefaction substructure close to the inlet that significantly modifies the jet structure. The differences in shock structure resulting from different field configurations and strengths may have observable consequences for disturbances propagating through a stationary recollimation shock.
The Invariant Twist of Magnetic Fields in the Relativistic Jets of Active Galactic Nuclei
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Contopoulos, Ioannis; Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Gabuzda, Denise C.
2009-01-01
The origin of cosmic magnetic (B) fields remains an open question. It is generally believed that very weak primordial B fields are amplified by dynamo processes, but it appears unlikely that the amplification proceeds fast enough to account for the fields presently observed in galaxies and galaxy clusters. In an alternative scenario, cosmic B fields are generated near the inner edges of accretion disks in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) by azimuthal electric currents due to the difference between the plasma electron and ion velocities that arises when the electrons are retarded by interactions with photons. While dynamo processes show no preference for the polarity of the (presumably random) seed field that they amplify, this alternative mechanism uniquely relates the polarity of the poloidal B field to the angular velocity of the accretion disk, resulting in a unique direction for the toroidal B field induced by disk rotation. Observations of the toroidal fields of 29 AGN jets revealed by parsec-scale Faraday rotation measurements show a clear asymmetry that is consistent with this model, with the probability that this asymmetry came about by chance being less than 1 %. This lends support to the hypothesis that the Universe is seeded by B fields that are generated in AGN via this mechanism
The Invariant Twist of Magnetic Fields in the Relativistic Jets of Active Galactic Nuclei
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Contopoulos, Ioannis; Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Gabuzda, Denise C.
2009-01-01
The origin of cosmic magnetic (B) fields remains an open question. It is generally believed that very weak primordial B fields are amplified by dynamo processes, but it appears unlikely that the amplification proceeds fast enough to account for the fields presently observed in galaxies and galaxy clusters. In an alternative scenario, cosmic B fields are generated near the inner edges of accretion disks in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) by azimuthal electric currents due to the difference between the plasma electron and ion velocities that arises when the electrons are retarded by interactions with photons. While dynamo processes show no preference for the polarity of the (presumably random) seed field that they amplify, this alternative mechanism uniquely relates the polarity of the poloidal B field to the angular velocity of the accretion disk, resulting in a unique direction for the toroidal B field induced by disk rotation. Observations of the toroidal fields of 29 AGN jets revealed by parsec-scale Faraday rotation measurements show a clear asymmetry that is consistent with this model, with the probability that this asymmetry came about by chance being less than 1 %. This lends support to the hypothesis that the Universe is seeded by B fields that are generated in AGN via this mechanism
Statistical mechanics of relativistic spin-1 bosons in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daicic, J.; Frankel, N. E.
This paper investigates the statistical mechanics of a gas of spin-1 particles with pair creation in a homogeneous magnetic field. It is shown that expansions for the thermodynamic potential and magnetization in fields below the mass scale of the constituent particles are well behaved. However, when the field is at or above the mass scale, an intrinsic pathology of the single-particle energy spectrum manifests itself in the statistical mechanics of the system. Whilst for the spin-0 and spin-1/2 analog of this system there seemed to be no barrier ab initio to the field strength. The nature of the vacuum and the role of interactions were always borne in mind as matters to be considered in a high-order treatment, particularly when the field was at or above the mass scale. In the spin-1 case, the pathology in the single-particle energy spectrum heralds this from the beginning, and seems to be a warning that a single particle non-interacting picture of physics at high energies needs some reconsideration.
Gillani, S. S. A.; Shah, H. A.; Tsintsadze, N. L.; Razzaq, M.
2010-08-15
It is shown that the interaction of the superstrong laser radiation with an isotropic plasma leads to the generation of low frequency electromagnetic (EM) waves and in particular a quasistationary magnetic field. When the relativistic circularly polarized transverse EM wave propagates along z-axis, it creates a ponderomotive force, which affects the motion of particles along the direction of its propagation. On the other hand, motion of the particles across the direction of propagation is defined by the ponderomotive potential. The dispersion relation for the transverse EM wave using a special distribution function, which has an anisotropic form, is derived. The dispersion relation is subsequently investigated for a number of special cases. In general, it is shown that the growth rate of the EM wave strongly depends upon its intensity.
Evolution of magnetization in relativistic collisionless shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keshet, Uri; Katz, Boaz; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Waxman, Eli
Magnetic field generation and particle acceleration in relativistic collisionless shocks are believed to be essential to the emission of radiation in various astronomical sources. These processes are tightly connected but no self-consistent model simultaneously accounts for both. We have used unprecedentedly large ab-initio particle-in-cell simulations to evolve shocks to late times where particle acceleration has a strong effect on the shock structure. The energetic particles accelerated by the shock are found to drive magnetic field evolution on a time scale 104 plasma times. Progressively stronger magnetic fields are generated on larger scales in a growing region around the shock, in which magnetic fields and accelerated particles carry 1% and 10% of the downstream energy flux, respectively. These results suggest limits on acceleration and magnetization in astronomical flows. A possible self-similar steady-state configuration which naturally reproduces the flat particle spectra observed will be discussed.
Ye, Hu; Wu, Ping; Teng, Yan; Chen, Changhua; Ning, Hui; Song, Zhimin; Cao, Yibing
2015-06-15
A V-band overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) guided by low magnetic field and operating on a TM{sub 03} mode is presented to increase both the power handling capacity and the wave-beam interaction conversion efficiency. Trapezoidal slow wave structures (SWSs) with shallow corrugations and long periods are adopted to make the group velocity of TM{sub 03} mode at the intersection point close to zero. The coupling impedance and diffraction Q-factor of the RBWO increase, while the starting current decreases owing to the reduction of the group velocity of TM{sub 03} mode. In addition, the TM{sub 03} mode dominates over the other modes in the startup of the oscillation. Via numerical simulation, the generation of the microwave pulse with an output power of 425 MW and a conversion efficiency of 32% are achieved at 60.5 GHz with an external magnetic field of 1.25 T. This RBWO can provide greater power handling capacity when operating on the TM{sub 03} mode than on the TM{sub 01} mode.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, D.; Luan, S. X.; Wang, J. W.; Yu, W.; Gong, J. X.; Cao, L. H.; Zheng, C. Y.; He, X. T.
2017-06-01
The two-stage electron acceleration/heating model (Wu et al 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 016007 and Wu et al 2016 Phys. Plasmas 23 123116) is extended to the study of laser magnetized-plasmas interactions at relativistic intensities and in the presence of large-scale preformed plasmas. It is shown that the electron-heating efficiency is a controllable value by the external magnetic fields. Detailed studies indicate that for a right-hand circularly polarized laser, the electron heating efficiency depends on both strength and directions of external magnetic fields. The electron-heating is dramatically enhanced when the external magnetic field is of B\\equiv {ω }c/{ω }0> 1. When magnetic field is of negative direction, i.e. B< 0, it trends to suppress the electron heating. The underlining physics—the dependences of electron-heating on both the strength and directions of the external magnetic fields—is uncovered. With -∞ < B< 1, the electron-heating is explained by the synergetic effects by longitudinal charge separation electric field and the reflected ‘envelop-modulated’ CP laser. It is indicated that the ‘modulation depth’ of reflected CP laser is significantly determined by the external magnetic fields, which will in turn influence the efficiency of the electron-heating. While with B> 1, a laser front sharpening mechanism is identified at relativistic laser magnetized-plasmas interactions, which is responsible for the dramatical enhancement of electron-heating.
Kurkin, S. A. Koronovskii, A. A.; Frolov, N. S.; Hramov, A. E.; Rak, A. O.; Kuraev, A. A.
2015-04-13
The high-power scheme for the amplification of powerful microwave signals based on the overcritical electron beam with a virtual cathode (virtual cathode amplifier) has been proposed and investigated numerically. General output characteristics of the virtual cathode amplifier including the dependencies of the power gain on the input signal frequency and amplitude have been obtained and analyzed. The possibility of the geometrical working frequency tuning over the range about 8%–10% has been shown. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed virtual cathode amplifier scheme may be considered as the perspective high-power microwave amplifier with gain up to 18 dB, and with the following important advantages: the absence of external magnetic field, the simplicity of construction, the possibility of geometrical frequency tuning, and the amplification of relatively powerful microwave signals.
Electromagnetic wave in a relativistic magnetized plasma
Krasovitskiy, V. B.
2009-12-15
Results are presented from a theoretical investigation of the dispersion properties of a relativistic plasma in which an electromagnetic wave propagates along an external magnetic field. The dielectric tensor in integral form is simplified by separating its imaginary and real parts. A dispersion relation for an electromagnetic wave is obtained that makes it possible to analyze the dispersion and collisionless damping of electromagnetic perturbations over a broad parameter range for both nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic plasmas.
Pu, Hung-Yi; Nakamura, Masanori; Hirotani, Kouichi; Asada, Keiichi; Wu, Kinwah
2015-03-01
General relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) flows along magnetic fields threading a black hole can be divided into inflow and outflow parts, according to the result of the competition between the black hole gravity and magneto-centrifugal forces along the field line. Here we present the first self-consistent, semi-analytical solution for a cold, Poynting flux–dominated (PFD) GRMHD flow, which passes all four critical (inner and outer, Alfvén, and fast magnetosonic) points along a parabolic streamline. By assuming that the dominating (electromagnetic) component of the energy flux per flux tube is conserved at the surface where the inflow and outflow are separated, the outflow part of the solution can be constrained by the inflow part. The semi-analytical method can provide fiducial and complementary solutions for GRMHD simulations around the rotating black hole, given that the black hole spin, global streamline, and magnetizaion (i.e., a mass loading at the inflow/outflow separation) are prescribed. For reference, we demonstrate a self-consistent result with the work by McKinney in a quantitative level.
Magnetic tuning of the relativistic BCS-BEC crossover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jin-Cheng; de La Incera, Vivian; Ferrer, Efrain J.; Wang, Qun
2011-09-01
The effect of an applied magnetic field in the crossover from Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) to Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) pairing regimes is investigated. We use a model of relativistic fermions and bosons inspired by those previously used in the context of cold fermionic atoms and in the magnetic-color-flavor-locking phase of color superconductivity. It turns out that, as with cold atom systems, an applied magnetic field can also tune the BCS-BEC crossover in the relativistic case. We find that no matter what the initial state is at B=0, for large enough magnetic fields the system always settles into a pure BCS regime. In contrast to the atomic case, the magnetic field tuning of the crossover in the relativistic system is not connected to a Feshbach resonance, but to the relative numbers of Landau levels with either BEC or BCS type of dispersion relations that are occupied at each magnetic field strength.
Chiral magnetic plasmons in anomalous relativistic matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.; Sukhachov, P. O.
2017-03-01
The chiral plasmon modes of relativistic matter in background magnetic and strain-induced pseudomagnetic fields are studied in detail using the consistent chiral kinetic theory. The results reveal a number of anomalous features of these chiral magnetic and pseudomagnetic plasmons that could be used to identify them in experiment. In a system with nonzero electric (chiral) chemical potential, the background magnetic (pseudomagnetic) fields not only modify the values of the plasmon frequencies in the long-wavelength limit, but also affect the qualitative dependence on the wave vector. Similar modifications can be also induced by the chiral shift parameter in Weyl materials. Interestingly, even in the absence of the chiral shift and external fields, the chiral chemical potential alone leads to a splitting of plasmon energies at linear order in the wave vector.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khazaradze, Nodar; Vanishvili, George; Bakradze, Themur; Kordzadze, Lia; Elizbarashvili, Misha; Bazerashvili, Eka
2013-02-01
Theoretical considerations concerning of the charged particles acceleration in general, and in particular, the peculiarities of protons acceleration in the Neutral Layer of Cosmic Space, in the frame of Maxwell Electro-Magnetic Field Theory have been reviewed on the article. A brief historical review of events is given, indicating that protons can be speeding up to ultra-relativistic energies in the Neutral Layer of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field, which is affirmed by anomalously high number of cosmic μ-mesons, generated by protons, through the decay of π- and -mesons, have been discovered in lower layers of the Earth's Atmosphere, as well as in a great depths of underground
On Lorentz invariants in relativistic magnetic reconnection
Yang, Shu-Di; Wang, Xiao-Gang
2016-08-15
Lorentz invariants whose nonrelativistic correspondences play important roles in magnetic reconnection are discussed in this paper. Particularly, the relativistic invariant of the magnetic reconnection rate is defined and investigated in a covariant two-fluid model. Certain Lorentz covariant representations for energy conversion and magnetic structures in reconnection processes are also investigated. Furthermore, relativistic measures for topological features of reconnection sites, particularly magnetic nulls and separatrices, are analyzed.
Relativistic laser pulse compression in magnetized plasmas
Liang, Yun; Sang, Hai-Bo Wan, Feng; Lv, Chong; Xie, Bai-Song
2015-07-15
The self-compression of a weak relativistic Gaussian laser pulse propagating in a magnetized plasma is investigated. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which describes the laser pulse amplitude evolution, is deduced and solved numerically. The pulse compression is observed in the cases of both left- and right-hand circular polarized lasers. It is found that the compressed velocity is increased for the left-hand circular polarized laser fields, while decreased for the right-hand ones, which is reinforced as the enhancement of the external magnetic field. We find a 100 fs left-hand circular polarized laser pulse is compressed in a magnetized (1757 T) plasma medium by more than ten times. The results in this paper indicate the possibility of generating particularly intense and short pulses.
Lehner, T; di Menza, L
2002-01-01
Nonlinear equations are derived relevant to describe the propagation of powerful electromagnetic fields launched within a plasma. The nonlinear generation of self-induced collective electromagnetic perturbations are obtained with matter lying in the relativistic regime. Our main result is the self-consistent treatment of the coupled equations between the pump and its self-induced fields. In particular, a mechanism is pointed out for self-generation of quasistatic magnetic field that is due to the relativistic ponderomotive force. This process is found to be more efficient to produce quasistatic magnetic fields, as confirmed by recent experiments, as compared to known effects such as the inverse Faraday effect. As an application, we investigate conditions for relativistic magnetic guiding of light to occur under the combined action of the self-induced density and magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, G. C.; Dieckmann, M. E.; Bret, A.; Drury, L. O'c.
2010-12-01
Context. The prompt emissions of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are seeded by radiating ultrarelativistic electrons. Kinetic energy dominated internal shocks propagating through a jet launched by a stellar implosion, are expected to dually amplify the magnetic field and accelerate electrons. Aims: We explore the effects of density asymmetry and of a quasi-parallel magnetic field on the collision of two plasma clouds. Methods: A two-dimensional relativistic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation models the collision with 0.9c of two plasma clouds, in the presence of a quasi-parallel magnetic field. The cloud density ratio is 10. The densities of ions and electrons and the temperature of 131 keV are equal in each cloud, and the mass ratio is 250. The peak Lorentz factor of the electrons is determined, along with the orientation and the strength of the magnetic field at the cloud collision boundary. Results: The magnetic field component orthogonal to the initial plasma flow direction is amplified to values that exceed those expected from the shock compression by over an order of magnitude. The forming shock is quasi-perpendicular due to this amplification, caused by a current sheet which develops in response to the differing deflection of the upstream electrons and ions incident on the magnetised shock transition layer. The electron deflection implies a charge separation of the upstream electrons and ions; the resulting electric field drags the electrons through the magnetic field, whereupon they acquire a relativistic mass comparable to that of the ions. We demonstrate how a magnetic field structure resembling the cross section of a flux tube grows self-consistently in the current sheet of the shock transition layer. Plasma filamentation develops behind the shock front, as well as signatures of orthogonal magnetic field striping, indicative of the filamentation instability. These magnetic fields convect away from the shock boundary and their energy density exceeds by far the
Relativistic Feedback Rates in the Presence of the Geomagnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucia, R. J.; Dwyer, J. R.; Liu, N.; Rassoul, H.
2013-12-01
It has been shown that relativistic feedback allows runaway electron avalanche discharges in the atmosphere to become self-sustaining. Since relativistic feedback is also capable of increasing the flux of runaway electrons and x-rays by a factor of 10^13 under certain thunderstorm conditions, it provides a plausible mechanism for the generation of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs). Relativistic feedback has been previously investigated without the presence of a geomagnetic field. However, for altitudes near the tops of thunderclouds and above, the effects of the magnetic field on the feedback rates can be important in some cases. We use detailed three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of runaway electron avalanches in the presence of the earth's magnetic field to investigate the field's impact on relativistic feedback. In particular, we shall present results for fundamental parameters such as avalanche lengths, feedback factors, and the feedback threshold, above which an electric field is unstable.
Low-field permanent magnet quadrupoles in a new relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator design
Yu, S.; Sessler, A.
1995-02-01
Permanent magnets play a central role in the new relativistic klystron two-beam-accelerator design. The two key goals of this new design, low cost and the suppression of beam break-up instability are both intimately tied to the permanent magnet quadrupole focusing system. A recently completed systems study by a joint LBL-LLNL team concludes that a power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass Next Linear Collider based on the new TBA design can be as low as $1 billion, and the efficiency (wall plug to rf) is estimated to be 36%. End-to-end simulations of longitudinal and transverse beam dynamics show that the drive beam is stable over the entire TBA unit.
Terahertz radiation generation in magnetized plasma under relativistic effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malik, Hitendra K.; Gill, Reenu
2017-08-01
We have carried out analytical calculations for the emission of Terahertz (THz) radiation in the magnetized and rippled density plasma by beating of two high intensity cosh-Gaussian laser beams, which are capable of creating a relativistic effect in electrons' motion. We find the expression for the THz field achieved during the relativistic laser plasma interaction and study the effect of density of ripples, laser beam width, and magnetic field on the THz field. The role of skewness parameters of the lasers is also discussed in detail for efficient THz radiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vij, Shivani; Gill, Tarsem Singh; Aggarwal, Munish
2016-12-01
The spatiotemporal dynamics of a quadruple Gaussian laser beam in plasma is studied in the presence of an external magnetic field by taking into account the relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities. Using the paraxial approximation approach, two coupled equations for longitudinal (in time) and transverse (in space) beam width parameters are derived. Their evolution determines the pulse dynamics in time and space. The effects of the initial laser parameters, such as the lateral separation and laser intensity on self-focusing and self-compression mechanisms, are discussed. The results illustrate that the laser beam is focussed and compressed in an enhanced manner in the presence of an external magnetic field. The three dimensional spatiotemporal profile of the normalized intensity of the pulse is studied at different positions where the beam is either focussed or compressed. A three dimensional portrait of the normalized intensity as a function of distance and time is also shown.
SCALING LAW OF RELATIVISTIC SWEET-PARKER-TYPE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION
Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Kudoh, Takahiro; Masada, Youhei; Matsumoto, Jin
2011-10-01
Relativistic Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection is investigated by relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamic (RRMHD) simulations. As an initial setting, we assume anti-parallel magnetic fields and a spatially uniform resistivity. A perturbation imposed on the magnetic fields triggers magnetic reconnection around a current sheet, and the plasma inflows into the reconnection region. The inflows are then heated due to ohmic dissipation in the diffusion region and finally become relativistically hot outflows. The outflows are not accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds (i.e., Lorentz factor {approx_equal} 1), even when the magnetic energy dominates the thermal and rest mass energies in the inflow region. Most of the magnetic energy in the inflow region is converted into the thermal energy of the outflow during the reconnection process. The energy conversion from magnetic to thermal energy in the diffusion region results in an increase in the plasma inertia. This prevents the outflows from being accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds. We find that the reconnection rate R obeys the scaling relation R{approx_equal}S{sup -0.5}, where S is the Lundquist number. This feature is the same as that of non-relativistic reconnection. Our results are consistent with the theoretical predictions of Lyubarsky for Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection.
Searches for relativistic magnetic monopoles in IceCube
Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; ...
2016-03-10
Various extensions of the Standard Model motivate the existence of stable magnetic monopoles that could have been created during an early high-energy epoch of the Universe. These primordial magnetic monopoles would be gradually accelerated by cosmic magnetic fields and could reach high velocities that make them visible in Cherenkov detectors such as IceCube. Equivalently to electrically charged particles, magnetic monopoles produce direct and indirect Cherenkov light while traversing through matter at relativistic velocities. This paper describes searches for relativistic ((Formula presented.)) and mildly relativistic ((Formula presented.)) monopoles, each using one year of data taken in 2008/2009 and 2011/2012, respectively. Nomore » monopole candidate was detected. For a velocity above (Formula presented.) the monopole flux is constrained down to a level of (Formula presented.). This is an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude over previous limits.« less
Searches for relativistic magnetic monopoles in IceCube
Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K. -H.; Beiser, E.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H. -P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C. -C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O’Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H. -G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.
2016-03-10
Various extensions of the Standard Model motivate the existence of stable magnetic monopoles that could have been created during an early high-energy epoch of the Universe. These primordial magnetic monopoles would be gradually accelerated by cosmic magnetic fields and could reach high velocities that make them visible in Cherenkov detectors such as IceCube. Equivalently to electrically charged particles, magnetic monopoles produce direct and indirect Cherenkov light while traversing through matter at relativistic velocities. This paper describes searches for relativistic ((Formula presented.)) and mildly relativistic ((Formula presented.)) monopoles, each using one year of data taken in 2008/2009 and 2011/2012, respectively. No monopole candidate was detected. For a velocity above (Formula presented.) the monopole flux is constrained down to a level of (Formula presented.). This is an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude over previous limits.
Ayala, Alejandro; Bashir, Adnan; Raya, Alfredo; Sanchez, Angel
2009-08-01
Working in the linear sigma model with quarks, we compute the finite-temperature effective potential in the presence of a weak magnetic field, including the contribution of the pion ring diagrams and considering the sigma as a classical field. In the approximation where the pion self-energy is computed perturbatively, we show that there is a region of the parameter space where the effect of the ring diagrams is to preclude the phase transition from happening. Inclusion of the magnetic field has small effects that however become more important as the system evolves to the lowest temperatures allowed in the analysis.
Magnetar giant flares and afterglows as relativistic magnetized explosions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyutikov, Maxim
2006-04-01
We propose that giant flares on soft γ-ray repeaters produce relativistic, strongly magnetized, weakly baryon-loaded magnetic clouds, somewhat analogous to solar coronal mass ejection (CME) events. The flares are driven by unwinding of the internal non-potential magnetic field which leads to a slow build-up of magnetic energy outside of the neutron star. For large magnetospheric currents, corresponding to a large twist of the external magnetic field, the magnetosphere becomes dynamically unstable on the Alfvén crossing time-scale of the inner magnetosphere, tA~RNS/c~ 30μs. The dynamic instability leads to the formation of dissipative current sheets through the development of a tearing mode. The released magnetic energy results in the formation of a strongly magnetized, pair-loaded, quasi-spherically expanding flux rope, topologically connected by the magnetic field to the neutron star during the prompt flare emission. The expansion reaches large Lorentz factors, Γ~ 10-20, at distances r~ 1-2 × 107cm, where a leptophotonic load is lost. Beyond this radius plasma is strongly dominated by the magnetic field, though some baryon loading, with M<
Short and long term simulations of relativistic, magnetized jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aloy, M. A.
2004-12-01
We will present a series of numerical simulations addressed to understand the morphology and dynamics of relativistic, magnetized, axisymmetric jets. Some of the simulations have been specifically set up to follow the long term evolution of extragalactic jets under idealized conditions. The simulations have been done with an extension of the GENESIS code (Aloy et al 1999a} suitable for relativistic magnetohydrodynamcs applications. The code is based on a Godunov-type scheme whose building block is a method of lines. The numerical algorithm can provide up to third order of accuracy and makes use of a constrained transport method in order to keep the divergence--free condition of the magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Santosh K.; Plumari, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Alam, J.; Scardina, F.; Greco, V.
2017-05-01
Ultra-relativistic Heavy-Ion Collision (HIC) generates very strong initial magnetic field (B →) inducing a vorticity in the reaction plane. The high B → influences the evolution dynamics that is opposed by the large Faraday current due to electric field generated by the time varying B → . We show that the resultant effects entail a significantly large directed flow (v1) of charm quarks (CQs) compared to light quarks due to a combination of several favorable conditions for CQs, mainly: (i) unlike light quarks formation time scale of CQs, τf ≃ 0.1 fm /c is comparable to the time scale when B → attains its maximum value and (ii) the kinetic relaxation time of CQs is similar to the QGP lifetime, this helps the CQ to retain the initial kick picked up from the electromagnetic field in the transverse direction. The effect is also odd under charge exchange allowing to distinguish it from the vorticity of the bulk matter due to the initial angular momentum conservation; conjointly thanks to its mass, Mc > >ΛQCD, there should be no mixing with the chiral magnetic dynamics. Hence CQs provide very crucial and independent information on the strength of the magnetic field produced in HIC.
Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection around rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asenjo, Felipe; Comisso, Luca
2016-10-01
In recent years, the classical Sweet-Parker and Petschek models have been extended in the special relativistic regime, both for MHD plasmas and two-fluid electron-positron plasmas. Nevertheless, there could be situations, like in the vicinity of black holes, where also general relativistic effects can become important. Here, we calculate analytically the reconnection rate and other relevant quantities in a magnetic reconnection process around a rotating black hole. A striking result is that the black hole rotation is capable to produce an enhancement of the rate at which magnetic reconnection proceeds. This work is supported by Fondecyt-Chile, Grant No. 11140025.
Relativistic Lagrangian displacement field and tensor perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rampf, Cornelius; Wiegand, Alexander
2014-12-01
We investigate the purely spatial Lagrangian coordinate transformation from the Lagrangian to the basic Eulerian frame. We demonstrate three techniques for extracting the relativistic displacement field from a given solution in the Lagrangian frame. These techniques are (a) from defining a local set of Eulerian coordinates embedded into the Lagrangian frame; (b) from performing a specific gauge transformation; and (c) from a fully nonperturbative approach based on the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) split. The latter approach shows that this decomposition is not tied to a specific perturbative formulation for the solution of the Einstein equations. Rather, it can be defined at the level of the nonperturbative coordinate change from the Lagrangian to the Eulerian description. Studying such different techniques is useful because it allows us to compare and develop further the various approximation techniques available in the Lagrangian formulation. We find that one has to solve the gravitational wave equation in the relativistic analysis, otherwise the corresponding Newtonian limit will necessarily contain spurious nonpropagating tensor artifacts at second order in the Eulerian frame. We also derive the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor in the Lagrangian frame, and find that it is not only excited by gravitational waves but also by tensor perturbations which are induced through the nonlinear frame dragging. We apply our findings to calculate for the first time the relativistic displacement field, up to second order, for a Λ CDM Universe in the presence of a local primordial non-Gaussian component. Finally, we also comment on recent claims about whether mass conservation in the Lagrangian frame is violated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zaijun; Ren, Zhongzhou; Dong, Tiekuang; Xu, Chang
2014-08-01
The ground-state spins and parities of the odd-A phosphorus isotopes 25-47P are studied with the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model and relativistic elastic magnetic electron-scattering theory (REMES). Results of the RMF model with the NL-SH, TM2, and NL3 parameters show that the 2s1/2 and 1d3/2 proton level inversion may occur for the neutron-rich isotopes 37-47P, and, consequently, the possible spin-parity values of 37-47P may be 3/2+, which, except for P47, differs from those given by the NUBASE2012 nuclear data table by Audi et al. Calculations of the elastic magnetic electron scattering of 37-47P with the single valence proton in the 2s1/2 and 1d3/2 state show that the form factors have significant differences. The results imply that elastic magnetic electron scattering can be a possible way to study the 2s1/2 and 1d3/2 level inversion and the spin-parity values of 37-47P. The results can also provide new tests as to what extent the RMF model, along with its various parameter sets, is valid for describing the nuclear structures. In addition, the contributions of the upper and lower components of the Dirac four-spinors to the form factors and the isotopic shifts of the magnetic form factors are discussed.
Perpendicular propagating modes for weakly magnetized relativistic degenerate plasma
Abbas, Gohar; Bashir, M. F.; Murtaza, G.
2012-07-15
Using the Vlasov-Maxwell system of equations, the dispersion relations for the perpendicular propagating modes (i.e., X-mode, O-mode, and upper hybrid mode) are derived for a weakly magnetized relativistic degenerate electron plasma. By using the density (n{sub 0}=p{sub F}{sup 3}/3{pi}{sup 2} Planck-Constant-Over-Two-Pi {sup 3}) and the magnetic field values for different relativistic degenerate environments, the propagation characteristics (i.e., cutoff points, resonances, dispersions, and band widths in k-space) of these modes are examined. It is observed that the relativistic effects suppress the effect of ambient magnetic field and therefore the cutoff and resonance points shift towards the lower frequency regime resulting in enhancement of the propagation domain. The dispersion relations of these modes for the non-relativistic limit (p{sub F}{sup 2} Much-Less-Than m{sub 0}{sup 2}c{sup 2}) and the ultra-relativistic limit (p{sub F}{sup 2} Much-Greater-Than m{sub 0}{sup 2}c{sup 2}) are also presented.
RESISTIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF RELATIVISTIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION
Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex
2010-06-20
Resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RRMHD) simulations are applied to investigate the system evolution of relativistic magnetic reconnection. A time-split Harten-Lan-van Leer method is employed. Under a localized resistivity, the system exhibits a fast reconnection jet with an Alfvenic Lorentz factor inside a narrow Petschek-type exhaust. Various shock structures are resolved in and around the plasmoid such as the post-plasmoid vertical shocks and the 'diamond-chain' structure due to multiple shock reflections. Under a uniform resistivity, Sweet-Parker-type reconnection slowly evolves. Under a current-dependent resistivity, plasmoids are repeatedly formed in an elongated current sheet. It is concluded that the resistivity model is of critical importance for RRMHD modeling of relativistic magnetic reconnection.
Resistive Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex
2010-01-01
Resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RRMHD) simulations are applied to investigate the system evolution of relativistic magnetic reconnection. A time-split Harten-Lan-van Leer method is employed. Under a localized resistivity, the system exhibits a fast reconnection jet with an Alfv enic Lorentz factor inside a narrow Petschek-type exhaust. Various shock structures are resolved in and around the plasmoid such as the post-plasmoid vertical shocks and the "diamond-chain" structure due to multiple shock reflections. Under a uniform resistivity, Sweet-Parker-type reconnection slowly evolves. Under a current-dependent resistivity, plasmoids are repeatedly formed in an elongated current sheet. It is concluded that the resistivity model is of critical importance for RRMHD modeling of relativistic magnetic reconnection.
Asymptotic theory of relativistic, magnetized jets
Lyubarsky, Yuri
2011-01-15
The structure of a relativistically hot, strongly magnetized jet is investigated at large distances from the source. Asymptotic equations are derived describing collimation and acceleration of the externally confined jet. Conditions are found for the transformation of the thermal energy into the fluid kinetic energy or into the Poynting flux. Simple scalings are presented for the jet collimation angle and Lorentz factors.
Asymptotic theory of relativistic, magnetized jets.
Lyubarsky, Yuri
2011-01-01
The structure of a relativistically hot, strongly magnetized jet is investigated at large distances from the source. Asymptotic equations are derived describing collimation and acceleration of the externally confined jet. Conditions are found for the transformation of the thermal energy into the fluid kinetic energy or into the Poynting flux. Simple scalings are presented for the jet collimation angle and Lorentz factors.
Anomalous skin effects in relativistic parallel propagating weakly magnetized electron plasma waves
Abbas, Gohar; Bashir, M. F.; Murtaza, G.
2011-10-15
Fully relativistic analysis of anomalous skin effects for parallel propagating waves in a weakly magnetized electron plasma is presented and general expressions for longitudinal and transverse permittivites are derived. It is found that the penetration depth for R- and L-waves increases as we move from non-relativistic to highly relativistic regime. The ambient magnetic field reduces/enhances the skin effects for R-wave/L-wave as the strength of the field is increased. In general, the weak magnetic field effects are pronounced for the weakly relativistic regime as compared with other relativistic cases. The results are also graphically illustrated. On switching off the magnetic field, previous results for field free case are retrieved [A. F. Alexandrov, A. S. Bogdankevich, and A. A. Rukhadze, Priniples of Plasma Electrodynamics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1984), Vol. 9, p. 106].
Dudley's dilemma: Magnetic moments in relativistic theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McNeil, J. A.
1986-10-01
In 1975 L. Dudley Miller showed how the basic phenomenology of the major shell and spin-orbit splittings constrained the relativistic scalar/vector structure model to values of the potentials incompatible with the observed magnetic moments of nuclei one nucleon away from closed shell [1]. In this talk the resolution of this problem is presented from three different perspectives. First a self-consistent Landau-Migdal approach is used to define the single particle isoscalar current in infinite nuclear matter. The constraint of self-consistency provides a vector suppression factor to the single particle current which returns the current to its nonrelativistic form and resolves the problem. The same suppression factor is shown to follow as well from either a consideration of gauge invariance or (equivalently) the relativistic random phase approximation. Local density approximation calculations of isoscalar magnetic moments of nuclei one nucleon away from closed shell recover the Schmidt values, thus resolving this longstanding problem.
Particle acceleration, magnetization and radiation in relativistic shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derishev, Evgeny V.; Piran, Tsvi
2016-08-01
The mechanisms of particle acceleration and radiation, as well as magnetic field build-up and decay in relativistic collisionless shocks, are open questions with important implications to various phenomena in high-energy astrophysics. While the Weibel instability is possibly responsible for magnetic field build-up and diffusive shock acceleration is a model for acceleration, both have problems and current particle-in-cell simulations show that particles are accelerated only under special conditions and the magnetic field decays on a very short length-scale. We present here a novel model for the structure and the emission of highly relativistic collisionless shocks. The model takes into account (and is based on) non-local energy and momentum transport across the shock front via emission and absorption of high-energy photons. This leads to a pre-acceleration of the fluid and pre-amplification of the magnetic fields in the upstream region. Both have drastic implications on the shock structure. The model explains the persistence of the shock-generated magnetic field at large distances from the shock front. The dissipation of this magnetic field results in a continuous particle acceleration within the downstream region. A unique feature of the model is the existence of an `attractor', towards which any shock will evolve. The model is applicable to any relativistic shock, but its distinctive features show up only for sufficiently large compactness. We demonstrate that prompt and afterglow gamma-ray bursts' shocks satisfy the relevant conditions, and we compare their observations with the predictions of the model.
Relativistic magnetic reconnection driven by intense lasers in preformed plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Paul; Raymond, A.; McKelvey, A.; Maksimchuk, A.; Nees, J.; Yanovsky, V.; Krushelnick, K.; Dong, C. F.; Fox, W.; Zulick, C.; Wei, M. S.; Chen, H.; Chvykov, V.; Mileham, C.; Nilson, P. M.; Stoeckl, C.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Willingale, L.
2016-10-01
Experiments were performed with the OMEGA EP laser system focusing the two short pulse beams to high intensities on foil targets. Relativistic electrons drive fast reconnection self-generated magnetic fields. To investigate the effects of a preformed plasma on this relativistic magnetic reconnection, a long pulse UV beam was used to ablate the front surface of layered targets. The density and reconnection dynamics in the preformed copper or CH plasma were diagnosed with a 4 ω optical probe. A spherically bent crystal imaged characteristic copper Kα emission induced by fast electrons accelerated into the target in the reconnection diffusion region. This work was supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0002727.
Searches for relativistic magnetic monopoles in IceCube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.
2016-03-01
Various extensions of the Standard Model motivate the existence of stable magnetic monopoles that could have been created during an early high-energy epoch of the Universe. These primordial magnetic monopoles would be gradually accelerated by cosmic magnetic fields and could reach high velocities that make them visible in Cherenkov detectors such as IceCube. Equivalently to electrically charged particles, magnetic monopoles produce direct and indirect Cherenkov light while traversing through matter at relativistic velocities. This paper describes searches for relativistic (vge 0.76c) and mildly relativistic (vge 0.51c) monopoles, each using one year of data taken in 2008/2009 and 2011/2012, respectively. No monopole candidate was detected. For a velocity above 0.51 c the monopole flux is constrained down to a level of 1.55 × 10^{-18} text {cm}^{-2} text {s}^{-1} text {sr}^{-1}. This is an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude over previous limits.
Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection in Kerr Spacetime.
Asenjo, Felipe A; Comisso, Luca
2017-02-03
The magnetic reconnection process is analyzed for relativistic magnetohydrodynamical plasmas around rotating black holes. A simple generalization of the Sweet-Parker model is used as a first approximation to the problem. The reconnection rate, as well as other important properties of the reconnection layer, has been calculated taking into account the effect of spacetime curvature. Azimuthal and radial current sheet configurations in the equatorial plane of the black hole have been studied, and the case of small black hole rotation rate has been analyzed. For the azimuthal configuration, it is found that the black hole rotation decreases the reconnection rate. On the other hand, in the radial configuration, it is the gravitational force created by the black hole mass that decreases the reconnection rate. These results establish a fundamental interaction between gravity and magnetic reconnection in astrophysical contexts.
Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection in Kerr Spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asenjo, Felipe A.; Comisso, Luca
2017-02-01
The magnetic reconnection process is analyzed for relativistic magnetohydrodynamical plasmas around rotating black holes. A simple generalization of the Sweet-Parker model is used as a first approximation to the problem. The reconnection rate, as well as other important properties of the reconnection layer, has been calculated taking into account the effect of spacetime curvature. Azimuthal and radial current sheet configurations in the equatorial plane of the black hole have been studied, and the case of small black hole rotation rate has been analyzed. For the azimuthal configuration, it is found that the black hole rotation decreases the reconnection rate. On the other hand, in the radial configuration, it is the gravitational force created by the black hole mass that decreases the reconnection rate. These results establish a fundamental interaction between gravity and magnetic reconnection in astrophysical contexts.
TWO-FLUID MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF RELATIVISTIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION
Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex
2009-05-10
We investigate the large-scale evolution of a relativistic magnetic reconnection in an electron-positron pair plasma by a relativistic two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code. We introduce an interspecies friction force as an effective resistivity to dissipate magnetic fields. We demonstrate that magnetic reconnection successfully occurs in our two-fluid system, and that it involves Petschek-type bifurcated current layers in a later stage. We further observe a quasi-steady evolution thanks to an open boundary condition, and find that the Petschek-type structure is stable over the long time period. Simulation results and theoretical analyses exhibit that the Petschek outflow channel becomes narrower when the reconnection inflow contains more magnetic energy, as previously claimed. Meanwhile, we find that the reconnection rate goes up to {approx}1 in extreme cases, which is faster than previously thought. The role of the resistivity, implications for reconnection models in the magnetically dominated limit, and relevance to kinetic reconnection works are discussed.
Self-compression of intense short laser pulses in relativistic magnetized plasma
Olumi, M.; Maraghechi, B.
2014-11-15
The compression of a relativistic Gaussian laser pulse in a magnetized plasma is investigated. By considering relativistic nonlinearity and using non-linear Schrödinger equation with paraxial approximation, a second-order differential equation is obtained for the pulse width parameter (in time) to demonstrate the longitudinal pulse compression. The compression of laser pulse in a magnetized plasma can be observed by the numerical solution of the equation for the pulse width parameter. The effects of magnetic field and chirping are investigated. It is shown that in the presence of magnetic field and negative initial chirp, compression of pulse is significantly enhanced.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Lifang
In the first part of this thesis, we use the generalized Landau-level represen- tation to study the effect of screening on the properties of the graphene quantum Hall states with integer filling factors. The analysis is performed in the low-energy Dirac model in the mean-field approximation, in which the long-range Coulomb in- teraction is modified by the one-loop static screening effects. The solutions demon- strate that static screening leads to a substantial suppression of the gap parameters in the quantum Hall states with a broken U (4) flavor symmetry. The results of the temperature dependence of the energy gaps mimic well the temperature dependence of the activation energies measured in experiment. The Landau-level running of the quasiparticle dynamical parameters could be tested via optical studies of the integer quantum Hall states. In the second part, by using the generalized Landau-level representation, we study the interaction induced chiral asymmetry in cold QED plasma beyond the weak-field approximation. The chiral shift and the parity-even chiral chemical potential function are obtained numerically and are found peaking near the Fermi surface and increases and decreases with the Landau level index, respectively. The results are used to quantify the chiral asymmetry of the Fermi surface in dense QED matter. The chiral asymmetry appears to be rather small even in the strongest mag- netic fields and at the highest stellar densities. However, the analogous asymmetry can be substantial in the case of dense quark matter.
Spatiotemporal evolution of high power laser pulses in relativistic magnetized inhomogeneous plasmas
Bokaei, B.; Niknam, A. R. Imani, E.
2015-09-15
In this work, the spatiotemporal evolution of Gaussian laser pulse propagated through a plasma is investigated in the presence of an external axial magnetic field. The coupled equations of self-focusing and self-compression are obtained via paraxial approximation by taking into account the relativistic nonlinearity. The effect of axial magnetic field on simultaneously relativistic self-focusing and self-compression of the laser pulse is studied for homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas. The results show that the simultaneous use of both axial magnetic field and density ramp-up leads to generate pulses with the smallest spot size and shortest compression length.
Relativistic transport theory for a two-temperature magnetized plasma
Metens, T.; Balescu, R. )
1990-09-01
The relativistic kinetic theory of linear transport is worked out within the framework of a new moment method. A complete analytical study of the transport in a two-temperature inhomogeneous magnetized fusion plasma is given. The transport relations and coefficients are derived from the kinetic equation with the full relativistic Beliaev--Budker collision operator and the impact of relativistic effects on the confinement are investigated.
Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds
Tsujikawa, Shinji; Tamaki, Takashi; Tavakol, Reza E-mail: tamaki@gravity.phys.waseda.ac.jp
2009-05-15
We study the field profile of a scalar field {phi} that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V({phi}) = M{sup 4+n}{phi}{sup -n} by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for {Phi}{sub c}{approx}
Wave-breaking amplitudes of relativistic upper-hybrid oscillations in a cold magnetized plasma
Karmakar, Mithun; Chakrabarti, Nikhil
2016-06-15
A travelling wave solution is presented for relativistic upper-hybrid oscillations (RUHOs) in a cold magnetized plasma. An expression for the wave-breaking amplitudes of RUHOs is derived. The wave-breaking amplitudes of RUHOs are found to decrease with the increase of the strength of an ambient magnetic field. These results will be of relevance to the laboratory context of particle acceleration by wake-fields in which magnetic field plays a central role.
General Relativistic Simulations of Magnetized Plasmas around Merging Supermassive Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giacomazzo, Bruno; Baker, John G.; Miller, M. Coleman; Reynolds, Christopher S.; van Meter, James R.
2012-06-01
Coalescing supermassive black hole binaries are produced by the mergers of galaxies and are the most powerful sources of gravitational waves accessible to space-based gravitational observatories. Some such mergers may occur in the presence of matter and magnetic fields and hence generate an electromagnetic counterpart. In this Letter, we present the first general relativistic simulations of magnetized plasma around merging supermassive black holes using the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code Whisky. By considering different magnetic field strengths, going from non-magnetically dominated to magnetically dominated regimes, we explore how magnetic fields affect the dynamics of the plasma and the possible emission of electromagnetic signals. In particular, we observe a total amplification of the magnetic field of ~2 orders of magnitude, which is driven by the accretion onto the binary and that leads to much stronger electromagnetic signals, more than a factor of 104 larger than comparable calculations done in the force-free regime where such amplifications are not possible.
The facets of relativistic quantum field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dosch, H. G.; Müller, V. F.
2011-04-01
Relativistic quantum field theory is generally recognized to form the adequate theoretical frame for subatomic physics, with the Standard Model of Particle Physics as a major achievement. We point out that quantum field theory in its present form is not a monolithic theory, but rather consists of distinct facets, which aim at a common ideal goal. We give a short overview of the strengths and limitations of these facets. We emphasize the theory-dependent relation between the quantum fields, and the basic objects in the empirical domain, the particles. Given the marked conceptual differences between the facets, we argue to view these, and therefore also the Standard Model, as symbolic constructions. We finally note that this view of physical theories originated in the 19th century and is related to the emergence of the classical field as an autonomous concept.
Relativistic mean field description of cluster radioactivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhagwat, A.; Gambhir, Y. K.
2005-01-01
Comprehensive investigations of the observed cluster radioactivity are carried out. First, the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory is employed for the calculations of the ground-state properties of relevant nuclei. The calculations reproduce the experiment well. The calculated RMF point densities are folded with the density-dependent M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction to obtain the cluster-daughter interaction potential. This, along with the calculated and experimental Q values, is used in the WKB approximation for estimating the half-lives of the parent nuclei against cluster decay. The calculations qualitatively agree with the experiment. Sensitive dependence of the half-lives on Q values is explicitly demonstrated.
Lopez, Rodrigo A.; Munoz, Victor; Asenjo, Felipe A.; Alejandro Valdivia, J.
2012-08-15
The nonlinear evolution of a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave in an electron-positron plasma propagating along a constant background magnetic field is considered, by studying its parametric decays. Relativistic effects, of the particle motion in the wave field and of the plasma temperature, are included to obtain the dispersion relation of the decays. The exact dispersion relation of the pump wave has been previously calculated within the context of a relativistic fluid theory and presents two branches: an electromagnetic and an Alfven one. We investigate the parametric decays for the pump wave in these two branches, including the anomalous dispersion zone of the Alfven branch where the group velocity is negative. We solve the nonlinear dispersion relation for different pump wave amplitudes and plasma temperatures, finding various resonant and nonresonant wave couplings. We are able to identify these couplings and study their behavior as we modify the plasma parameters. Some of these couplings are suppressed for larger amplitudes or temperatures. We also find two kinds of modulational instabilities, one involving two sideband daughter waves and another involving a forward-propagating electroacoustic mode and a sideband daughter wave.
Computational Relativistic Astrophysics Using the Flow Field-Dependent Variation Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richardson, G. A.; Chung, T. J.
2002-01-01
We present our method for solving general relativistic nonideal hydrodynamics. Relativistic effects become pronounced in such cases as jet formation from black hole magnetized accretion disks which may lead to the study of gamma-ray bursts. Nonideal flows are present where radiation, magnetic forces, viscosities, and turbulence play an important role. Our concern in this paper is to reexamine existing numerical simulation tools as to the accuracy and efficiency of computations and introduce a new approach known as the flow field-dependent variation (FDV) method. The main feature of the FDV method consists of accommodating discontinuities of shock waves and high gradients of flow variables such as occur in turbulence and unstable motions. In this paper, the physics involved in the solution of relativistic hydrodynamics and solution strategies of the FDV theory are elaborated. The general relativistic astrophysical flow and shock solver (GRAFSS) is introduced, and some simple example problems for computational relativistic astrophysics (CRA) are demonstrated.
Relativistic particle acceleration by obliquely propagating electromagnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Villalón, Elena; Burke, William J.
1987-12-01
The relativistic equations of motion are analyzed for charged particles in a magnetized plasma and externally imposed electromagnetic fields (ω, k), which have wave vectors k that are at arbitrary angles. The particle energy is obtained from a set of nonlinear differential equations, as a function of time, initial conditions, and cyclotron harmonic numbers. For a given cyclotron resonance, the energy oscillates in time within the limits of a potential well; stochastic acceleration occurs if the widths of different Hamiltonian potentials overlap. The net energy gain for a given harmonic increase with the angle of propagation, and decreases as the magnitude of the wave magnetic field increases. Potential applications of these results to the acceleration of ionsopheric electrons are presented.
Beaming of Particles and Synchrotron Radiation in Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kagan, Daniel; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi
2016-08-01
Relativistic reconnection has been invoked as a mechanism for particle acceleration in numerous astrophysical systems. According to idealized analytical models, reconnection produces a bulk relativistic outflow emerging from the reconnection sites (X-points). The resulting radiation is therefore highly beamed. Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate particle and radiation beaming, finding a very different picture. Instead of having a relativistic average bulk motion with an isotropic electron velocity distribution in its rest frame, we find that the bulk motion of the particles in X-points is similar to their Lorentz factor γ, and the particles are beamed within ˜ 5/γ . On the way from the X-point to the magnetic islands, particles turn in the magnetic field, forming a fan confined to the current sheet. Once they reach the islands they isotropize after completing a full Larmor gyration and their radiation is no longer strongly beamed. The radiation pattern at a given frequency depends on where the corresponding emitting electrons radiate their energy. Lower-energy particles that cool slowly spend most of their time in the islands and their radiation is not highly beamed. Only particles that quickly cool at the edge of the X-points generate a highly beamed fan-like radiation pattern. The radiation emerging from these fast cooling particles is above the burn-off limit (˜100 MeV in the overall rest frame of the reconnecting plasma). This has significant implications for models of gamma-ray bursts and active galactic nuclei that invoke beaming in that frame at much lower energies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakai, Jun-Ichi; Matsuo, Akira
2004-06-01
Dynamics of the relativistic flow in pair plasmas with force-free magnetic configuration is investigated by using a three-dimensional fully relativistic electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. This study is an extension of the work by Haruki and Sakai [Phys. Plasmas 8, 1538 (2001)] that was done in a two-dimensional force-free magnetic configuration. They found that during the early stage of the interaction there occurs the streaming instability, which induces the electromagnetic perturbations associated with generation of quasi-static magnetic field. In the nonlinear stage the force-free magnetic field becomes unstable against the firehose instability and then magnetic islands are formed through magnetic reconnection. The dissipated magnetic field energy is converted to the plasma heating as well as the high-energy particle production. It is found that the three-dimensional configuration could result in completely different dynamics, except for the initial phase where the streaming instability develops. It is also found that the dynamical interaction between the force-free magnetic configuration and the relativistic plasma flows develops sequentially through four different physical processes: (I) The phase of streaming instability, (II) the phase of magnetic reconnection triggered by the first streaming instability, (III) the phase of Alfvén wave excitation through the magnetic reconnection process, and (IV) the phase of dissipation of the Alfvén waves through the magnetic reconnection. It is shown that three-dimensional Alfvén waves with helical magnetic structures can be excited through complicated three-dimensional tearing instability triggered from the streaming instability. During these dynamical processes the pair plasma can be heated through the magnetic reconnection and also the high-energy particles are generated. The interaction process between the force-free collisionless plasmas and the relativistic plasma flows may play an important role for the
Axisymmetric toroidal modes of general relativistic magnetized neutron star models
Asai, Hidetaka; Lee, Umin E-mail: lee@astr.tohoku.ac.jp
2014-07-20
We calculate axisymmetric toroidal modes of magnetized neutron stars with a solid crust in the general relativistic Cowling approximation. We assume that the interior of the star is threaded by a poloidal magnetic field, which is continuous at the surface with an outside dipole field. We examine the cases of the field strength B{sub S} ∼ 10{sup 16} G at the surface. Since separation of variables is not possible for the oscillations of magnetized stars, we employ finite series expansions for the perturbations using spherical harmonic functions. We find discrete normal toroidal modes of odd parity, but no toroidal modes of even parity are found. The frequencies of the toroidal modes form distinct mode sequences and the frequency in a given mode sequence gradually decreases as the number of radial nodes of the eigenfunction increases. From the frequency spectra computed for neutron stars of different masses, we find that the frequency is almost exactly proportional to B{sub S} and is well represented by a linear function of R/M for a given B{sub S}, where M and R are the mass and radius of the star. The toroidal mode frequencies for B{sub S} ∼ 10{sup 15} G are in the frequency range of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) detected in the soft-gamma-ray repeaters, but we find that the toroidal normal modes cannot explain all the detected QPO frequencies.
Adiabatic compression and radiative compression of magnetic fields
Woods, C.H.
1980-02-12
Flux is conserved during mechanical compression of magnetic fields for both nonrelativistic and relativistic compressors. However, the relativistic compressor generates radiation, which can carry up to twice the energy content of the magnetic field compressed adiabatically. The radiation may be either confined or allowed to escape.
Scaling of Magnetic Reconnection in Relativistic Collisionless Pair Plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yi-Hsin; Guo, Fan; Daughton, William; Li, Hui; Hesse, Michael
2015-01-01
Using fully kinetic simulations, we study the scaling of the inflow speed of collisionless magnetic reconnection in electron-positron plasmas from the non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic limit. In the anti-parallel configuration, the inflow speed increases with the upstream magnetization parameter sigma and approaches the speed of light when sigma is greater than O(100), leading to an enhanced reconnection rate. In all regimes, the divergence of the pressure tensor is the dominant term responsible for breaking the frozen-in condition at the x-line. The observed scaling agrees well with a simple model that accounts for the Lorentz contraction of the plasma passing through the diffusion region. The results demonstrate that the aspect ratio of the diffusion region, modified by the compression factor of proper density, remains approximately 0.1 in both the non-relativistic and relativistic limits.
Magnetically driven relativistic jets and winds: Exact solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Contopoulos, J.
1994-01-01
We present self-consistent solutions of the full set of ideal MHD equations which describe steady-state relativistic cold outflows from thin accretion disks. The magnetic field forms a spiral which is anchored in the disk, rotates with it, and accelerates the flow out of the disk plane. The collimation at large distances depends on the total amount of electric current that flows along the jet. We considered various distributions of electric current and derived the result that in straight jets which extend to infinite distances, a strong electric current flows along their axis of symmetry. The asymptotic flow velocities are of the order of the initial rotational velocity at the base of the flow (a few tenths of the speed of light). The solutions are applied to both galactic (small-scale) and extragalactic (large-scale) jets.
Measurements of Fast Magnetic Reconnection Driven by Relativistic Electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raymond, Anthony; McKelvey, Andrew; Zulick, Calvin; Chuanfei, Dong; Maksimchuk, Anatoly; Thomas, Alexander; Yanovsky, Victor; Krushelnick, Karl; Willingale, Louise; Chykov, Vladimir; Nilson, Phil; Chen, Hui; Williams, Gerald; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Fox, Will
2015-11-01
Magnetic reconnection is a process whereby opposing magnetic field lines are forced together and topologically rearrange, resulting in lower magnetic potential energy and in corresponding plasma heating. Such occurrences are ubiquitous in astrophysics as well as appearing in laboratory plasmas such as in ICF in the form of instabilities. We report measurements in the domain of ultra-fast, ultra-intense lasers, in which the mechanism responsible follows from radially expanding surface electrons with v ~ c . Results are compared from two laser facilities (HERCULES and Omega EP), both of which produced two relativistic intensity pulses focused within close proximity onto copper foils. A spherical X-ray crystal was used to image the Kα radiation induced by electron currents, revealing the midplane diffusion region wherein electrons are accelerated into the target by the electric field generated during reconnection. The characteristics of this signal are studied as a function of the focal spot separation, laser energy, and pulse duration. The results are then compared to 3D PIC simulations.
Electron-Ion collisions in relativistically strong laser fields
Balakin, A. A.
2008-04-15
Electron-ion collisions in relativistically strong electromagnetic fields are considered. Analytical and numerical analyses both show that all qualitative effects characteristic of collisions in nonrelativistic strong fields [1-3] occur at relativistic intensities of an electromagnetic wave as well. Expressions for Joule plasma heating and for the energy distributions of fast particles are derived from simple analytic considerations and are confirmed by numerical simulations. It is found, in particular, that, due to the relativistic increase in the mass of a scattered electron, Joule heating in ultrarelativistic fields becomes more intense as the field amplitude grows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamlin, Nathaniel D.; Newman, William I.
2013-04-01
We explore, via analytical and numerical methods, the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability in relativistic magnetized plasmas, with applications to astrophysical jets. We solve the single-fluid relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations in conservative form using a scheme which is fourth order in space and time. To recover the primitive RMHD variables, we use a highly accurate, rapidly convergent algorithm which improves upon such schemes as the Newton-Raphson method. Although the exact RMHD equations are marginally stable, numerical discretization renders them unstable. We include numerical viscosity to restore numerical stability. In relativistic flows, diffusion can lead to a mathematical anomaly associated with frame transformations. However, in our KH studies, we remain in the rest frame of the system, and therefore do not encounter this anomaly. We use a two-dimensional slab geometry with periodic boundary conditions in both directions. The initial unperturbed velocity peaks along the central axis and vanishes asymptotically at the transverse boundaries. Remaining unperturbed quantities are uniform, with a flow-aligned unperturbed magnetic field. The early evolution in the nonlinear regime corresponds to the formation of counter-rotating vortices, connected by filaments, which persist in the absence of a magnetic field. A magnetic field inhibits the vortices through a series of stages, namely, field amplification, vortex disruption, turbulent breakdown, and an approach to a flow-aligned equilibrium configuration. Similar stages have been discussed in MHD literature. We examine how and to what extent these stages manifest in RMHD for a set of representative field strengths. To characterize field strength, we define a relativistic extension of the Alfvénic Mach number MA. We observe close complementarity between flow and magnetic field behavior. Weaker fields exhibit more vortex rotation, magnetic reconnection, jet broadening, and intermediate turbulence
INVERSE CASCADE OF NONHELICAL MAGNETIC TURBULENCE IN A RELATIVISTIC FLUID
Zrake, Jonathan
2014-10-20
The free decay of nonhelical relativistic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is studied numerically, and found to exhibit cascading of magnetic energy toward large scales. Evolution of the magnetic energy spectrum P{sub M} (k, t) is self-similar in time and well modeled by a broken power law with subinertial and inertial range indices very close to 7/2 and –2, respectively. The magnetic coherence scale is found to grow in time as t {sup 2/5}, much too slow to account for optical polarization of gamma-ray burst afterglow emission if magnetic energy is to be supplied only at microphysical length scales. No bursty or explosive energy loss is observed in relativistic MHD turbulence having modest magnetization, which constrains magnetic reconnection models for rapid time variability of GRB prompt emission, blazars, and the Crab nebula.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sironi, Lorenzo
We investigate particle acceleration in relativistic magnetized collisionless pair shocks with two-dimensional particle-in-cell numerical simulations. For fixed upstream bulk Lorentz factor γ0 = 15 and magnetic to kinetic energy fraction σ = 0.1, we explore a range of inclination angles θ between the magnetic field and the shock normal. The inclination is measured in the downstream rest frame and the magnetic field lies in a plane perpendicular to the simulation plane. The downstream energy spectrum for subluminal shocks consists of a relativistic Maxwellian and a high-energy power-law tail modified by an exponential cutoff. For parallel shocks (θ = 0° ), the tail accounts for ˜ 1% of the downstream particle number and ˜ 5% of the energy, and its energy spectral index is -2.7 ± 0.1. Accelerated particles bounce between the upstream and the downstream, and the upstream scattering is provided by oblique filaments, which have both an electromagnetic and an electrostatic component. Such filaments propagate towards the shock and are generated by the accelerated particles that escape upstream. For larger inclination angles the acceleration efficiency increases, and particles are efficiently boosted by the motional upstream electric field when gyrating across the shock. Close to the superluminality threshold θ ≈ 30° , the number and energy fractions of downstream accelerated particles are ˜ 3% and ˜ 12% respectively; the spectral index of the corresponding power-law tail is -2.4 ± 0.1. When the shock becomes superluminal (θ 30° ), the acceleration efficiency abruptly drops. Our results show that the range of upstream-frame inclination angles suitable for efficient acceleration in relativistic magnetized pair shocks is indeed very small 30° /γ0 , as suggested by previous Monte-Carlo simulations. Self-generated shock turbulence is shown to be not large enough to overcome the kinematic constraints for superluminal shocks. These findings place constraints
Baryon onset in a magnetic field
Haber, Alexander; Preis, Florian; Schmitt, Andreas
2016-01-22
The critical baryon chemical potential for the onset of nuclear matter is a function of the vacuum mass and the binding energy. Both quantities are affected by an external magnetic field. We show within two relativistic mean-field models – including magnetic catalysis, but omitting the anomalous magnetic moment – that a magnetic field increases both the vacuum mass and the binding energy. For sufficiently large magnetic fields, the effect on the vacuum mass dominates and as a result the critical baryon chemical potential is increased.
Simulations and analytic models of relativistic magnetized jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tchekhovskoi, Alexandre Dmitrievich
Astrophysical jets are tightly collimated streams that are often observed to move at velocities close to the speed of light. While many such systems are known, understanding and explaining how jets collimate and accelerate has been a long-standing challenge and is currently an area of active research. Finding analytic solutions for jets is extremely hard because the equations that describe the jets are highly nonlinear and difficult to solve analytically. Only in the last few years has it become possible to simulate ultrarelativistic jets computationally, which has led to unprecedented insights into their structure. We now think that many relativistic jets are produced by magnetic fields twisted by the rotation of a central compact object, which can be a black hole or a neutron star. In this thesis I present numerical and analytical studies of relativistic jets. In Chapter 2, I start with a discussion of a simple, idealized model that has the bare minimum of ingredients needed for the production of jets: regular magnetic field, spinning central compact object, and externally imposed collimation. The model assumes that magnetic field in the jet is so strong that plasma inertia is negligible and can be ignored. The simplicity of this model allows for a fully analytic description and an intuitive understanding of the results. Despite being simple, this model possesses non-trivial properties and has important applications to various astrophysical systems --- compact object binaries, gamma-ray bursts, and active galactic nuclei. Chapters 3 -- 7 add an extra level of realism (and sophistication) into jet models: they account for mass inertia of the jet fluid and study its effects on the jet structure. Chapter 4 discusses the effect of jet confinement on the acceleration of the jet. Chapter 5 shows that deconfinement can also have a dramatic effect on the jet. Chapter 6 studies how the structure of the jet changes if the central object driving the jet is a black hole
Sahu, Biswajit; Sinha, Anjana; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar
2015-09-15
A numerical study is presented of the nonlinear dynamics of a magnetized, cold, non-relativistic plasma, in the presence of electron-ion collisions. The ions are considered to be immobile while the electrons move with non-relativistic velocities. The primary interest is to study the effects of the collision parameter, external magnetic field strength, and the initial electromagnetic polarization on the evolution of the plasma system.
Relativistic mean-field mass models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peña-Arteaga, D.; Goriely, S.; Chamel, N.
2016-10-01
We present a new effort to develop viable mass models within the relativistic mean-field approach with density-dependent meson couplings, separable pairing and microscopic estimations for the translational and rotational correction energies. Two interactions, DD-MEB1 and DD-MEB2, are fitted to essentially all experimental masses, and also to charge radii and infinite nuclear matter properties as determined by microscopic models using realistic interactions. While DD-MEB1 includes the σ, ω and ρ meson fields, DD-MEB2 also considers the δ meson. Both mass models describe the 2353 experimental masses with a root mean square deviation of about 1.1 MeV and the 882 measured charge radii with a root mean square deviation of 0.029 fm. In addition, we show that the Pb isotopic shifts and moments of inertia are rather well reproduced, and the equation of state in pure neutron matter as well as symmetric nuclear matter are in relatively good agreement with existing realistic calculations. Both models predict a maximum neutron-star mass of more than 2.6 solar masses, and thus are able to accommodate the heaviest neutron stars observed so far. However, the new Lagrangians, like all previously determined RMF models, present the drawback of being characterized by a low effective mass, which leads to strong shell effects due to the strong coupling between the spin-orbit splitting and the effective mass. Complete mass tables have been generated and a comparison with other mass models is presented.
Wave dispersion in a counterstreaming, relativistic thermal, magnetized, electron-positron plasma.
Verdon, M W; Melrose, D B
2011-05-01
The dispersion equation is analyzed for waves in a strongly magnetized, electron-positron plasma in which counterstreaming electrons and positrons have a relativistic thermal distribution in their respective rest frames, for propagation parallel to the magnetic field. We derive the response tensor for the medium, demonstrate the dispersion curves for different temperatures, and discuss the differences from the cold-plasma case. Application to the case of pulsar magnetospheres is discussed. © 2011 American Physical Society
GRMHD/RMHD Simulations and Stability of Magnetized Spine-Sheath Relativistic Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hardee, Philip; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi
2007-01-01
A new general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD ) code "RAISHIN" used to simulate jet generation by rotating and non-rotating black holes with a geometrically thin Keplarian accretion disk finds that the jet develops a spine-sheath structure in the rotating black hole case. Spine-sheath structure and strong magnetic fields significantly modify the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) velocity shear driven instability. The RAISHIN code has been used in its relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) configuration to study the effects of strong magnetic fields and weakly relativistic sheath motion, cl2, on the KH instability associated with a relativistic, Y = 2.5, jet spine-sheath interaction. In the simulations sound speeds up to ? c/3 and Alfven wave speeds up to ? 0.56 c are considered. Numerical simulation results are compared to theoretical predictions from a new normal mode analysis of the RMHD equations. Increased stability of a weakly magnetized system resulting from c/2 sheath speeds and stabilization of a strongly magnetized system resulting from d 2 sheath speeds is found.
Galactic and Intergalactic Magnetic Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, U.; Fletcher, A.
This course-tested textbook conveys the fundamentals of magnetic fields and relativistic plasma in diffuse cosmic media, with a primary focus on phenomena that have been observed at different wavelengths. Theoretical concepts are addressed wherever necessary, with derivations presented in sufficient detail to be generally accessible. In the first few chapters the authors present an introduction to various astrophysical phenomena related to cosmic magnetism, with scales ranging from molecular clouds in star-forming regions and supernova remnants in the Milky Way, to clusters of galaxies. Later chapters address the role of magnetic fields in the evolution of the interstellar medium, galaxies and galaxy clusters. The book is intended for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students in astronomy and physics and will serve as an entry point for those starting their first research projects in the field.
Limits of Strong Field Rescattering in the Relativistic Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klaiber, M.; Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.; Wu, J.; Luo, S. S.; Grugan, P.; Walker, B. C.
2017-03-01
Recollision for a laser driven atomic system is investigated in the relativistic regime via a strong field quantum description and Monte Carlo semiclassical approach. We find the relativistic recollision energy cutoff is independent of the ponderomotive potential Up , in contrast to the well-known 3.2 Up scaling. The relativistic recollision energy cutoff is determined by the ionization potential of the atomic system and achievable with non-negligible recollision flux before entering a "rescattering free" interaction. The ultimate energy cutoff is limited by the available intensities of short wavelength lasers and cannot exceed a few thousand Hartree, setting a boundary for recollision based attosecond physics.
Thermodynamical instabilities under strong magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y. J.
2017-03-01
The thermodynamical instabilities of low densities in the n p matter and n p e matter are studied within several relativistic nuclear models under some values of magnetic fields. The results are compared between each other and the effects of the symmetry energy slope at saturation density on the instability are investigated. The instability regions can exhibit bands due to the presence of Landau levels for very strong magnetic fields of the order of 1017 G, while for weaker magnetic fields, the bands are replaced by many diffused or scattered pieces. It also shows that the proton fraction in the inner crust of neutron stars may be complex under strong magnetic fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Nicolas
2012-09-01
Earlier papers1-3 in this journal have described experiments on measuring the magnetic fields of current-carrying wires and permanent magnets using magnetic field probes of various kinds. This paper explains how to use an iPad and the free app MagnetMeter-3D Vector Magnetometer and Accelerometer4 (compass HD) to measure the magnetic fields.
Exact two-component relativistic theory for nuclear magnetic resonance parameters.
Sun, Qiming; Liu, Wenjian; Xiao, Yunlong; Cheng, Lan
2009-08-28
An exact two-component (X2C) relativistic theory for nuclear magnetic resonance parameters is obtained by first a single block-diagonalization of the matrix representation of the Dirac operator in a magnetic-field-dependent basis and then a magnetic perturbation expansion of the resultant two-component Hamiltonian and transformation matrices. Such a matrix formulation is not only simple but also general in the sense that the various ways of incorporating the field dependence can be treated in a unified manner. The X2C dia- and paramagnetic terms agree individually with the corresponding four-component ones up to machine accuracy for any basis.
Li Jianqing; Mo Yuanlong
2006-12-15
The intense relativistic beam propagation through the drift tube filled with background plasma is investigated. The self-consistent differential equations, which describe the laminar-flow equilibria state in magnetically focused relativistic beams with an ion channel, are presented. By solving these equations using the Runge-Kutta method, the azimuthal velocity, the axial velocity, and the electron beam density, which are functions of radial position, can be calculated. Then the space-charge limiting current and the externally applied magnetic field can be obtained for solid beams and hollow beams. In the case of plasma fill, the axial velocity of the laminar flow is a nonuniform radial profile. The simulated results show that the background plasma can increase the space-charge limiting current, reduce the externally applied magnetic field, and improve the electron beam propagation through the drift tube.
DiPerna-Lions Flow for Relativistic Particles in an Electromagnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jabin, P.-E.; Masmoudi, N.
2015-09-01
We show the existence and uniqueness of a DiPerna-Lions flow for relativistic particles subject to a Lorentz force in an electromagnetic field. The electric and magnetic fields solve the linear Maxwell system in the vacuum but for singular initial conditions which are only in the physical energy space. As the corresponding force field is only in L 2, we have to perform a careful analysis of the cancellations over a trajectory.
Nonthermal Particle Acceleration in 3D Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection in Pair Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uzdensky, Dmitri; Werner, Gregory; Zhdankin, Vladimir
2016-10-01
Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental plasma process that converts magnetic energy into particle kinetic energy. ``Relativistic'' reconnection is of interest in astrophysical contexts because it can accelerate particles to relativistic energies high enough for synchrotron (or inverse Compton) emission to explain observed high-energy radiation. After several 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of reconnection in pair plasmas demonstrated power-law electron-energy spectra extending to high energies, a few 3D simulations surprisingly confirmed the robustness of nonthermal particle acceleration, despite fundamental differences, such as the development of the relativistic drift-kink instability (RDKI) in 3D. We present a comprehensive PIC study of 3D relativistic pair-plasma reconnection characterizing the effect of the third dimension. We investigate how reconnection dynamics and particle acceleration depend on guide magnetic field Bz and on the simulation box length Lz in the third dimension. We find that, while the RDKI does indeed grow in 3D reconnection, it does not inhibit particle acceleration, even in the absence of guide field. This work was funded by NSF, DOE, and NASA.
Núñez, Manuel
2013-06-15
In the equations of classical magnetohydrodynamics, the displacement current is considered vanishingly small due to low plasma velocities. For velocities comparable to the speed of light, the full relativistic electromagnetic equations must be used. In the absence of gravitational forcings and with an isotropic Ohm's law, it is proved that for poloidal magnetic field and velocity and toroidal electric field, the electric and magnetic energies tend to be equivalent in average for large times. This represents a partial extension of Cowling's theorem for axisymmetric fields.
GENERAL RELATIVISTIC SIMULATIONS OF MAGNETIZED PLASMAS AROUND MERGING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES
Giacomazzo, Bruno; Baker, John G.; Van Meter, James R.; Coleman Miller, M.; Reynolds, Christopher S.
2012-06-10
Coalescing supermassive black hole binaries are produced by the mergers of galaxies and are the most powerful sources of gravitational waves accessible to space-based gravitational observatories. Some such mergers may occur in the presence of matter and magnetic fields and hence generate an electromagnetic counterpart. In this Letter, we present the first general relativistic simulations of magnetized plasma around merging supermassive black holes using the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code Whisky. By considering different magnetic field strengths, going from non-magnetically dominated to magnetically dominated regimes, we explore how magnetic fields affect the dynamics of the plasma and the possible emission of electromagnetic signals. In particular, we observe a total amplification of the magnetic field of {approx}2 orders of magnitude, which is driven by the accretion onto the binary and that leads to much stronger electromagnetic signals, more than a factor of 10{sup 4} larger than comparable calculations done in the force-free regime where such amplifications are not possible.
Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and Introduction to Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yndurain, Francisco J.
This is an advanced textbook meant as a primer in quantum theory for graduate students. A full relativistic treatment of particle dynamics needs to be based on quantum field theory. However, there exists a variety of processes that can be discussed with concepts like potentials, classical current distributions, prescribed external fields dealt with in the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics. Then, in an introduction to field theory the author emphasizes the deduction of the said potentials or currents. The unique feature of this book is the modern presentation of the subject together with many exercises and furthermore the underlying concept to combine a reference book on relativistic quantum mechanics with an introduction into quantum field theory.
Search for relativistic magnetic monopoles with IceCube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Bell, M.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Brown, A. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Heereman, D.; Heimann, P.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jlelati, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krasberg, M.; Kroll, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pirk, N.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rädel, L.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Salameh, T.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheel, M.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönherr, L.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soiron, M.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Usner, M.; van der Drift, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wasserman, R.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zilles, A.; Zoll, M.
2013-01-01
We present the first results in the search for relativistic magnetic monopoles with the IceCube detector, a subsurface neutrino telescope located in the South Polar ice cap containing a volume of 1km3. This analysis searches data taken on the partially completed detector during 2007 when roughly 0.2km3 of ice was instrumented. The lack of candidate events leads to an upper limit on the flux of relativistic magnetic monopoles of Φ90%C.L.˜3×10-18cm-2sr-1s-1 for β≥0.8. This is a factor of 4 improvement over the previous best experimental flux limits up to a Lorentz boost γ below 107. This result is then interpreted for a wide range of mass and kinetic energy values.
Particle energization in 3D magnetic reconnection of relativistic pair plasmas
Liu Wei; Yin Lin; Albright, B. J.; Bowers, K. J.; Liang, Edison P.; Li Hui
2011-05-15
We present large scale 3D particle-in-cell simulations to examine particle energization in magnetic reconnection of relativistic electron-positron (pair) plasmas. The initial configuration is set up as a relativistic Harris equilibrium without a guide field. These simulations are large enough to accommodate a sufficient number of tearing and kink modes. Contrary to the non-relativistic limit, the linear tearing instability is faster than the linear kink instability, at least in our specific parameters. We find that the magnetic energy dissipation is first facilitated by the tearing instability and followed by the secondary kink instability. Particles are mostly energized inside the magnetic islands during the tearing stage due to the spatially varying electric fields produced by the outflows from reconnection. Secondary kink instability leads to additional particle acceleration. Accelerated particles are, however, observed to be thermalized quickly. The large amplitude of the vertical magnetic field resulting from the tearing modes by the secondary kink modes further help thermalizing the non-thermal particles generated from the secondary kink instability. Implications of these results for astrophysics are briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santana, Rodolfo
2015-12-01
In this thesis, we present three projects on open questions in the Gammaray Burst (GRB) field. In the first project, we used X-ray and optical observations to determine the amount of amplification of the ISM magnetic field needed to explain the GRB afterglow observations. We determined that mild amplification is required, at a level stronger than shock-compression but weaker than predicted by the Weibel mechanism. In the second project, we present a Monte Carlo code we wrote from scratch to perform realistic simulations of the photospheric process, one of the mechanisms considered to explain the GRB gamma-ray emission. We determined that photospheric emission can explain the GRB gamma-ray spectrum above the peak-energy if the photons are taken to have a temperature much smaller than the electron temperature and if the interactions between photons and electrons take place at a large optical depth. In the third project, we used multi-wavelength observations to constrain the X-ray flare radiation mechanism. We determined that synchrotron from a Poynting jet and the Photospheric process are the best candidates to explain the X-ray flare observations.
Three-dimensional fast magnetic reconnection driven by relativistic ultraintense femtosecond lasers.
Ping, Y L; Zhong, J Y; Sheng, Z M; Wang, X G; Liu, B; Li, Y T; Yan, X Q; He, X T; Zhang, J; Zhao, G
2014-03-01
Three-dimensional fast magnetic reconnection driven by two ultraintense femtosecond laser pulses is investigated by relativistic particle-in-cell simulation, where the two paralleled incident laser beams are shot into a near-critical plasma layer to form a magnetic reconnection configuration in self-generated magnetic fields. A reconnection X point and out-of-plane quadrupole field structures associated with magnetic reconnection are formed. The reconnection rate is found to be faster than that found in previous two-dimensional Hall magnetohydrodynamic simulations and electrostatic turbulence contribution to the reconnection electric field plays an essential role. Both in-plane and out-of-plane electron and ion accelerations up to a few MeV due to the magnetic reconnection process are also obtained.
Leading-order relativistic effects on nuclear magnetic resonance shielding tensors.
Manninen, Pekka; Ruud, Kenneth; Lantto, Perttu; Vaara, Juha
2005-03-15
We present perturbational ab initio calculations of the nuclear-spin-dependent relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic resonance shielding tensors that constitute, together with the other relativistic terms reported by us earlier, the full leading-order perturbational set of results for the one-electron relativistic contributions to this observable, based on the (Breit-)Pauli Hamiltonian. These contributions are considered for the H(2)X (X = O,S,Se,Te,Po) and HX (X = F,Cl,Br,I,At) molecules, as well as the noble gas (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) atoms. The corrections are evaluated using the relativistic and magnetic operators as perturbations on an equal footing, calculated using analytical linear and quadratic response theory applied on top of a nonrelativistic reference state provided by self-consistent field calculations. The (1)H and heavy-atom nuclear magnetic shielding tensors are compared with four component, nearly basis-set-limit Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations that include positronic excitations, as well as available literature data. Besides the easy interpretability of the different contributions in terms of familiar nonrelativistic concepts, the accuracy of the present perturbational scheme is striking for the isotropic part of the shielding tensor, for systems including elements up to Xe.
Guo, Fan; Li, Hui; Daughton, William; Liu, Yi-Hsin
2014-10-10
Using fully kinetic simulations, we demonstrate that magnetic reconnection in relativistic plasmas is highly efficient at accelerating particles through a first-order Fermi process resulting from the curvature drift of particles in the direction of the electric field induced by the relativistic flows. This mechanism gives rise to the formation of hard power-law spectra in parameter regimes where the energy density in the reconnecting field exceeds the rest mass energy density σ ≡ B(2)/(4πnm(e)c(2))>1 and when the system size is sufficiently large. In the limit σ ≫ 1, the spectral index approaches p = 1 and most of the available energy is converted into nonthermal particles. A simple analytic model is proposed which explains these key features and predicts a general condition under which hard power-law spectra will be generated from magnetic reconnection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunze, Kerstin E.
2013-12-01
Magnetic fields are observed on nearly all scales in the Universe, from stars and galaxies up to galaxy clusters and even beyond. The origin of cosmic magnetic fields is still an open question, however a large class of models puts its origin in the very early Universe. A magnetic dynamo amplifying an initial seed magnetic field could explain the present day strength of the galactic magnetic field. However, it is still an open problem how and when this initial magnetic field was created. Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide a window to the early Universe and might therefore be able to tell us whether cosmic magnetic fields are of a primordial cosmological origin and at the same time constrain its parameters. We will give an overview of the observational evidence of large-scale magnetic fields, describe generation mechanisms of primordial magnetic fields and possible imprints in the CMB.
Relativistic wave-induced splitting of the Langmuir mode in a magnetized plasma.
Robiche, J; Rax, J M
2008-01-01
A relativistic effect that occurs in a magnetized plasma irradiated by a circularly polarized wave is identified and analyzed: the usual plasma frequency associated with longitudinal oscillations splits into two new frequencies. We set up a Hamiltonian description of the plasma dynamic in order to identify this effect that results from the coupling between the plasma oscillation and the transverse circular motion driven by both the magnetic and wave fields. Within the small oscillations approximation, we compute for right- and left-handed polarization the two characteristics frequencies of the electron oscillations as functions of the field and wave parameters. We also describe the electron trajectories in the wave, magnetic, and restoring plasma fields. This new class of oscillations is rotational and therefore radiate suggesting a method for the diagnostics of strong static magnetic field in laser-plasma experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Higuera, A. V.; Cary, J. R.
2017-05-01
Time-centered, hence second-order, methods for integrating the relativistic momentum of charged particles in an electromagnetic field are derived. A new method is found by averaging the momentum before use in the magnetic rotation term, and an implementation is presented that differs from the relativistic Boris Push only in the method for calculating the Lorentz factor. This is shown to have the same second-order accuracy in time as that found by splitting the electric acceleration and magnetic rotation (Boris Push) and that found by averaging the velocity in the magnetic rotation term (Vay's method) [J.-L. Vay, Phys. Plasmas 15, 056701 (2008)]. All three methods are shown to conserve energy when there is no electric field. The Boris Push and the current method are shown to be volume-preserving, while Vay's method and the current method preserve the E →×B → velocity. Thus, of these second-order relativistic momentum integrations, only the integrator introduced here both preserves volume and gives the correct E →×B → velocity. While all methods have error that is second-order in time, they deviate from each other by terms that increase as the motion becomes relativistic. Numerical results show that Vay's method develops energy errors near resonant orbits of a test problem that neither volume-preserving integrator does.
Solutions of relativistic Newton's equations for nonconstant fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wooten, R. E.; Macek, J. H.
2004-08-01
Newton's second law can be readily solved for many forces, but few situations can be solved for the relativistic form of Newton's second law. The only problems directly solvable are those involving charged particles in constant electromagnetic fields. If the external field represents a light pulse, Dirac's relativistic equation can be solved, as done by Volkov in 1935. Classical solutions based on Volkov's work employ the Hamilton-Jacobi equations. We discuss the solution of this problem using Newton's equations, thereby making the solution more accessible.
Generalised relativistic Ohm's laws, extended gauge transformations, and magnetic linking
Pegoraro, F.
2015-11-15
Generalisations of the relativistic ideal Ohm's law are presented that include specific dynamical features of the current carrying particles in a plasma. Cases of interest for space and laboratory plasmas are identified where these generalisations allow for the definition of generalised electromagnetic fields that transform under a Lorentz boost in the same way as the real electromagnetic fields and that obey the same set of homogeneous Maxwell's equations.
Generalised relativistic Ohm's laws, extended gauge transformations, and magnetic linking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pegoraro, F.
2015-11-01
Generalisations of the relativistic ideal Ohm's law are presented that include specific dynamical features of the current carrying particles in a plasma. Cases of interest for space and laboratory plasmas are identified where these generalisations allow for the definition of generalised electromagnetic fields that transform under a Lorentz boost in the same way as the real electromagnetic fields and that obey the same set of homogeneous Maxwell's equations.
Facility Measures Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Honess, Shawn B.; Narvaez, Pablo; Mcauley, James M.
1991-01-01
Partly automated facility measures and computes steady near magnetic field produced by object. Designed to determine magnetic fields of equipment to be installed on spacecraft including sensitive magnetometers, with view toward application of compensating fields to reduce interfernece with spacecraft-magnetometer readings. Because of its convenient operating features and sensitivity of its measurements, facility serves as prototype for similar facilities devoted to magnetic characterization of medical equipment, magnets for high-energy particle accelerators, and magnetic materials.
Relativistic Particle and Relativistic Fluids: Magnetic Moment and Spin-Orbit Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karabali, Dimitra; Nair, V. P.
2014-11-01
We consider relativistic charged-particle dynamics and relativistic magnetohydrodynamics using symplectic structures and actions given in terms of coadjoint orbits of the Poincaré group. The particle case is meant to clarify some points such as how minimal coupling (as defined in the text) leads to a gyromagnetic ratio g =2 and to set the stage for fluid dynamics. The general group-theoretic framework is further explained and is then used to set up Abelian magnetohydrodynamics including spin effects. An interesting new physical effect is precession of spin density induced by gradients in pressure and energy density. The Euler equation (the dynamics of the velocity field) is also modified by gradients of the spin density.
Relativistic effects in photon-induced near field electron microscopy.
Park, Sang Tae; Zewail, Ahmed H
2012-11-26
Electrons and photons, when interacting via a nanostructure, produce a new way of imaging in space and time, termed photon-induced near field electron microscopy or PINEM [Barwick et al. Nature 2009, 462, 902]. The phenomenon was described by considering the evanescent field produced by the nanostructure, but quantification of the experimental results was achieved by solving the Schrödinger equation for the interaction of the three bodies. The question remained, is the nonrelativistic formulation sufficient for this description? Here, relativistic and nonrelativistic quantum mechanical formulations are compared for electron-photon interaction mediated by nanostructures, and it is shown that there is an exact equivalence for the two formulations. The nonrelativistic formulation was found to be valid in the relativistic regime when using in the former formulation the relativistically corrected velocity (and the corresponding values of momentum and energy). In the PINEM experiment, 200 keV electrons were utilized, giving the experimental (relativistically corrected) velocity to be 0.7c(v without relativistic correction is 0.885c). When this value (0.7c), together with those of the corresponding momentum (p(c) = mv) and energy (E(c) = (1/2)mv(2)), is used in the first order solution of the Schrödinger formulation, an exact equivalence is obtained.
Danov, Tatiana; Melamed, Timor
2012-03-01
The current contribution is concerned with obtaining the relativistic two-dimensional (three-dimensional in relativity jargon) Green's function of a time-harmonic line current that is embedded in a moving dielectric-magnetic medium with a planar discontinuity. By applying a plane-wave (PW) spectral representation for the relativistic electromagnetic Green's function of a dielectric-magnetic medium that is moving in a uniform velocity, the exact reflected and transmitted (refracted) fields are obtained in the form of a spectral integral over PWs in the so-called laboratory and comoving frames. We investigate these spectral representations, as well as their asymptotic evaluations, and discuss the associated relativistic wave phenomena of direct reflected/transmitted rays and relativistic head waves (lateral waves).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kholmetskii, Alexander L.; Yarman, T.
2010-01-01
In this paper we consider the relativistic polarization of a moving magnetic dipole and show that this effect can be understood via the relativistic generalization of Kirchhoff's first law to a moving closed circuit with a steady current. This approach allows us to better understand the law of relativistic transformation of four-current density…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kholmetskii, Alexander L.; Yarman, T.
2010-01-01
In this paper we consider the relativistic polarization of a moving magnetic dipole and show that this effect can be understood via the relativistic generalization of Kirchhoff's first law to a moving closed circuit with a steady current. This approach allows us to better understand the law of relativistic transformation of four-current density…
Relativistic Electron Enhancements at GEO: Magnetic Storms vs. Substorms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyons, L. R.; Kim, H. J.; Pinto, V. A.; Wang, C. P.; Kim, K. C.
2015-12-01
We find evidence that magnetic storms are not only unnecessary for relativistic electron enhancements at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) but also not directly relevant to the electron enhancements at GEO even if the enhancements are accompanied by magnetic storms. What is crucial for electron enhancements at GEO are sustained south-oriented or north-south fluctuating IMF Bz that drives sufficiently large substorm activity and small solar wind density Nsw that likely leads to low loss rate of relativistic electrons to the ionosphere and/or to the magnetopause for an extended time period. Specifically, almost all the abrupt, large electron increases in our data set took place under the condition of average AE > 235 nT and average Nsw ≤ 5 cm-3. Examination of detailed time profiles clearly shows that electron flux at GEO starts to increase quite immediately with arrival of the right IMF and solar wind conditions, regardless of a magnetic storm, leaving the accompanied magnetic storms merely co-incident, while the prolonged, intense substorms are critical.
Relativistic Particle in Electromagnetic Fields with a Generalized Uncertainty Principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merad, M.; Zeroual, F.; Falek, M.
2012-05-01
In this paper, we propose to solve the relativistic Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations subjected to the action of a uniform electromagnetic field with a generalized uncertainty principle in the momentum space. In both cases, the energy eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenfunctions are obtained. The limit case is then deduced for a small parameter of deformation.
Relativistic mean field calculations in neutron-rich nuclei
Gangopadhyay, G.; Bhattacharya, Madhubrata; Roy, Subinit
2014-08-14
Relativistic mean field calculations have been employed to study neutron rich nuclei. The Lagrange's equations have been solved in the co-ordinate space. The effect of the continuum has been effectively taken into account through the method of resonant continuum. It is found that BCS approximation performs as well as a more involved Relativistic Continuum Hartree Bogoliubov approach. Calculations reveal the possibility of modification of magic numbers in neutron rich nuclei. Calculation for low energy proton scattering cross sections shows that the present approach reproduces the density in very light neutron rich nuclei.
Weibel Instability Growth Rate in Magnetized Plasmas with Quasi-Relativistic Distribution Function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosseini, Sayed Ahmad; Mahdavi, Mohammad
2016-12-01
The mechanism of the Weibel instability is investigated for dense magnetized plasmas. As we know, due to the electron velocity distribution, the Coulomb collision effect of electron-ion and the relativistic properties play an important role in such study. In this study an analytical expression for the growth rate and the condition of restricting the Weibel instability are derived for low-frequency limit. These calculations are done for the oscillation frequency dependence on the electron cyclotron frequency. It is shown that, the relativistic properties of the particle lead to increasing the growth rate of the instability. On the other hand the collision effects and background magnetic field try to decrease the growth rate by decreasing the temperature anisotropy and restricting the particles movement.
Hamlin, Nathaniel D; Newman, William I
2013-04-01
We explore, via analytical and numerical methods, the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability in relativistic magnetized plasmas, with applications to astrophysical jets. We solve the single-fluid relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations in conservative form using a scheme which is fourth order in space and time. To recover the primitive RMHD variables, we use a highly accurate, rapidly convergent algorithm which improves upon such schemes as the Newton-Raphson method. Although the exact RMHD equations are marginally stable, numerical discretization renders them unstable. We include numerical viscosity to restore numerical stability. In relativistic flows, diffusion can lead to a mathematical anomaly associated with frame transformations. However, in our KH studies, we remain in the rest frame of the system, and therefore do not encounter this anomaly. We use a two-dimensional slab geometry with periodic boundary conditions in both directions. The initial unperturbed velocity peaks along the central axis and vanishes asymptotically at the transverse boundaries. Remaining unperturbed quantities are uniform, with a flow-aligned unperturbed magnetic field. The early evolution in the nonlinear regime corresponds to the formation of counter-rotating vortices, connected by filaments, which persist in the absence of a magnetic field. A magnetic field inhibits the vortices through a series of stages, namely, field amplification, vortex disruption, turbulent breakdown, and an approach to a flow-aligned equilibrium configuration. Similar stages have been discussed in MHD literature. We examine how and to what extent these stages manifest in RMHD for a set of representative field strengths. To characterize field strength, we define a relativistic extension of the Alfvénic Mach number M(A). We observe close complementarity between flow and magnetic field behavior. Weaker fields exhibit more vortex rotation, magnetic reconnection, jet broadening, and intermediate turbulence
The magnet system of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)
Greene, A.; Anerella, M.; Cozzolino, J.
1995-07-01
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a colliding ring accelerator to be completed in 1999. Through collisions of heavy ions it is hoped to observe the creation of matter at extremely high temperatures and densities, similar to what may have occurred in the original ``Big Bang.`` The collider rings will consist of 1740 superconducting magnet elements. Some of elements are being manufactured by industrial partners (Northrop Grumman and Everson Electric). Others are being constructed or assembled at BNL. A description is given of the magnet designs, the plan for manufacturing and test results. In the manufacturing of the magnets, emphasis has been placed on uniformity of their performance and on quality. Results so far indicate that this emphasis has been very successful.
Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Cerutti, B.; ...
2015-12-30
Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we characterize the energy spectra of particles accelerated by relativistic magnetic reconnection (without guide field) in collisionless electron–positron plasmas, for a wide range of upstream magnetizations σ and system sizes L. The particle spectra are well-represented by a power lawmore » $${\\gamma }^{-\\alpha }$$, with a combination of exponential and super-exponential high-energy cutoffs, proportional to σ and L, respectively. As a result, for large L and σ, the power-law index α approaches about 1.2.« less
Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Cerutti, B.; Nalewajko, K.; Begelman, M. C.
2015-12-30
Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we characterize the energy spectra of particles accelerated by relativistic magnetic reconnection (without guide field) in collisionless electron–positron plasmas, for a wide range of upstream magnetizations σ and system sizes L. The particle spectra are well-represented by a power law ${\\gamma }^{-\\alpha }$, with a combination of exponential and super-exponential high-energy cutoffs, proportional to σ and L, respectively. As a result, for large L and σ, the power-law index α approaches about 1.2.
Relativistic electron precipitation during magnetic storm main phase
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorne, R. M.; Kennel, C. F.
1970-01-01
Relativistic electrons can have cyclotron resonances with electromagnetic cyclotron waves. The resonant energy is generally well above 1 MeV throughout the magnetosphere, but it can fall to 1 MeV just within the plasmapause. This also corresponds to the region where ring current (10 to 50 keV) protons are expected to be strongly unstable. The resulting ion cyclotron wave amplitudes necessary to precipitate ring current protons leads to electron lifetimes near the strong diffusion limit ( 100 sec). Thus, 1 MeV electrons whose drift orbits intersect the stormtime plasmapause should rapidly be precipitated in the region 3 L 5 during the initial phase of a magnetic storm.
Non-perturbative methods in relativistic field theory
Franz Gross
2013-03-01
This talk reviews relativistic methods used to compute bound and low energy scattering states in field theory, with emphasis on approaches that John Tjon and I discussed (and argued about) together. I compare the Bethe–Salpeter and Covariant Spectator equations, show some applications, and then report on some of the things we have learned from the beautiful Feynman–Schwinger technique for calculating the exact sum of all ladder and crossed ladder diagrams in field theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, R.
1972-01-01
Knowledge on the nature of magnetic fields on the solar surface is reviewed. At least a large part of the magnetic flux in the solar surface is confined to small bundles of lines of force within which the field strength is of the order of 500 gauss. Magnetic fields are closely associated with all types of solar activity. Magnetic flux appears at the surface at the clearly defined birth or regeneration of activity of an active region. As the region ages, the magnetic flux migrates to form large-scale patterns and the polar fields. Some manifestations of the large-scale distribution are discussed.
3D RMHD Simulations of Magnetized Spine-Sheath Relativistic Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mizuno, Yosuke; Hardee, Philip; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi
2008-01-01
We have performed numerical simulations of weakly and strongly magnetized relativistic jets embedded in a weakly and strongly magnetized stationary or mildly relativistic (0.5c) sheath flow using the RAISHIN code. In the numerical simulations a jet with Lorentz factor gamma=2.5 is processed to break the initial equilibrium configuration. Results of the numerical simulations are compared to theoretical predictions from a normal mode analysis of the linearized RMHD equations describing a uniform axially magnetized cylindrical relativistic jet embedded in a uniform axially magnetized sheath flow. The prediction of increased stability of a weakly-magnetized system with mildly relativistic sheath flow to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and the stabilization of a strongly magnetized system with mildly relativistic sheath flow is confirmed by the numerical simulations.
3D RMHD Simulations of Magnetized Spine-sheath Relativistic Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mizuno, Yosuke; Hardee, Phillip; Ken-Ichi, Nishikawa
2008-01-01
We have performed numerical simulations of weakly and strongly magnetized relativistic jets embedded in a weakly and strongly magnetized stationary or mildly relativistic'(0.5c) sheath flow using the RAISHIN code. In the numerical simulations a jet with Lorentz factor gamma=2.5 is processed to break the initial equilibrium configuration. Results of the numerical simulations are compared to theoretical predictions from a normal mode analysis of the linearized RMHD equations describing a uniform axially magnetized cylindrical relativistic jet embedded in a uniform axially magnetized sheath flow. The prediction of increased stability of a weakly-magnetized system with mildly relativistic sheath flow to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and the stabilization of a strongly-magnetized system with mildly relativistic sheath flow is confirmed by the numerical simulations.
Mahmood, S.; Sadiq, Safeer; Haque, Q.
2013-12-15
Linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves in magnetized dense electron-ion plasmas are studied with nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate and singly, doubly charged helium (He{sup +}, He{sup ++}) and hydrogen (H{sup +}) ions, respectively. The dispersion relation of electrostatic waves in magnetized dense plasmas is obtained under both the energy limits of degenerate electrons. Using reductive perturbation method, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation for nonlinear propagation of electrostatic solitons in magnetized dense plasmas is derived for both nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons. It is found that variations in plasma density, magnetic field intensity, different mass, and charge number of ions play significant role in the formation of electrostatic solitons in magnetized dense plasmas. The numerical plots are also presented for illustration using the parameters of dense astrophysical plasma situations such as white dwarfs and neutron stars exist in the literature. The present investigation is important for understanding the electrostatic waves propagation in the outer periphery of compact stars which mostly consists of hydrogen and helium ions with degenerate electrons in dense magnetized plasmas.
Slow decay of magnetic fields in open Friedmann universes
Barrow, John D.; Tsagas, Christos G.
2008-05-15
Magnetic fields in Friedmann universes can experience superadiabatic growth without departing from conventional electromagnetism. The reason is the relativistic coupling between vector fields and spacetime geometry, which slows down the decay of large-scale magnetic fields in open universes, compared to that seen in perfectly flat models. The result is a large relative gain in magnetic strength that can lead to astrophysically interesting B fields, even if our Universe is only marginally open today.
Search for relativistic magnetic monopoles with the ANTARES neutrino telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adrián-Martínez, S.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.
2012-05-01
Magnetic monopoles are predicted in various unified gauge models and could be produced at intermediate mass scales. Their detection in a neutrino telescope is facilitated by the large amount of light emitted compared to that from muons. This paper reports on a search for upgoing relativistic magnetic monopoles with the ANTARES neutrino telescope using a data set of 116 days of live time taken from December 2007 to December 2008. The one observed event is consistent with the expected atmospheric neutrino and muon background, leading to a 90% C.L. upper limit on the monopole flux between 1.3 × 10-17 and 8.9 × 10-17 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 for monopoles with velocity β ⩾ 0.625.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezzolla, Luciano; Ahmedov, Bobomurat J.
2016-07-01
An important issue in the asteroseismology of compact and magnetized stars is the determination of the dissipation mechanism which is most efficient in damping the oscillations when these are produced. In a linear regime and for low-multipolarity modes, these mechanisms are confined to either gravitational-wave or electromagnetic losses. We here consider the latter and compute the energy losses in the form of Poynting fluxes, Joule heating and Ohmic dissipation in a relativistic oscillating spherical star with a dipolar magnetic field in vacuum. While this approach is not particularly realistic for rapidly rotating stars, it has the advantage that it is fully analytic and that it provides expressions for the electric and magnetic fields produced by the most common modes of oscillation both in the vicinity of the star and far away from it. In this way, we revisit and extend to a relativistic context the classical estimates of McDermott et al. Overall, we find that general-relativistic corrections lead to electromagnetic damping time-scales that are at least one order of magnitude smaller than in Newtonian gravity. Furthermore, with the only exception of g (gravity) modes, we find that f (fundamental), p (pressure), i (interface) and s (shear) modes are suppressed more efficiently by gravitational losses than by electromagnetic ones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landstreet, J.; Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
Magnetism—the force that deflects the needle of a compass—and magnetic fields have been found in some hundreds of stars during the past 50 yr. Magnetic fields have been detected in T Tauri stars and other pre-main-sequence stars, several types of main sequence stars, white dwarfs and neutron stars. We now know a number of methods by which such magnetic fields may be detected, we are in the proces...
McCamey, Dane; Boehme, Christoph
2017-01-24
An organic, spin-dependent magnetic field sensor (10) includes an active stack (12) having an organic material with a spin-dependence. The sensor (10) also includes a back electrical contact (14) electrically coupled to a back of the active stack (12) and a front electrical contact (16) electrically coupled to a front of the active stack (12). A magnetic field generator (18) is oriented so as to provide an oscillating magnetic field which penetrates the active stack (12).
Self-focusing of a high-intensity laser pulse by a magnetized plasma lens in sub-relativistic regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abari, Mehdi Etehadi; Sedaghat, Mahsa; Hosseinnejad, Mohammad Taghi
2017-06-01
Interaction of high power circularly polarized short laser pulses with a cold underdense magnetized thin plasma lens is analyzed in the sub-relativistic regime. The magnetic field is applied along the direction of the laser field propagation. The evolution equation of the beam spot size is derived and solved by making use of the variational principle approach method. The theoretical investigations reveal that not only the magnetized plasma lens more sufficiently decreases the laser spot size, but also the left-handed circularly polarized beam is more effectively focused by a magnetized plasma lens compared to the right-handed circularly polarized beam.
Self-focusing of a high-intensity laser pulse by a magnetized plasma lens in sub-relativistic regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abari, Mehdi Etehadi; Sedaghat, Mahsa; Hosseinnejad, Mohammad Taghi
2017-01-01
Interaction of high power circularly polarized short laser pulses with a cold underdense magnetized thin plasma lens is analyzed in the sub-relativistic regime. The magnetic field is applied along the direction of the laser field propagation. The evolution equation of the beam spot size is derived and solved by making use of the variational principle approach method. The theoretical investigations reveal that not only the magnetized plasma lens more sufficiently decreases the laser spot size, but also the left-handed circularly polarized beam is more effectively focused by a magnetized plasma lens compared to the right-handed circularly polarized beam.
The relativistic Boltzmann equation on a spherically symmetric gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takou, Etienne; Ciake Ciake, Fidèle L.
2017-10-01
In this paper, we consider the Cauchy problem for the relativistic Boltzmann equation with near vacuum initial data where the distribution function depends on the time, the position and the impulsion. We consider this equation on a spherically symmetric gravitational field spacetime. The collision kernel considered here is for the hard potentials case. We prove the existence of a unique global (in time) mild solution in a suitable weighted space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Jin; Masada, Youhei; Asano, Eiji; Shibata, Kazunari
2011-06-01
The nonlinear dynamics of the outflow driven by magnetic explosion on the surface of compact object is investigated through special relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We adopt, as an initial equilibrium state, a spherical stellar object embedded in the hydrostatic plasma which has a density ρ(r) ~ r-α and is threaded by a dipole magnetic field. The injection of magnetic energy at the surface of compact star breaks the dynamical equilibrium and triggers two-component outflow. At the early evolutionary stage, the magnetic pressure increases rapidly in time around the stellar surface, initiating a magnetically driven outflow. Then it excites a strong forward shock, shock driven outflow. The expansion velocity of the magnetically driven outflow is characterized by the Alfvén velocity on the stellar surface, and follows a simple scaling relation υmag ~ υA1/2. When the initial density profile declines steeply with radius, the strong shock is accelerated self-similarly to relativistic velocity ahead of the magnetically driven component. We find that the evolution of the strong forward shock can be described by a self-similar relation Γsh ~ rsh, where Γsh is the Lorentz factor of the plasma measured at the shock surface rsh. It should be stressed that the pure hydrodynamic process is responsible for the acceleration of the shock driven outflow. Our two-component outflow model, which is the natural outcome of the magnetic explosion, would deepen the understanding of the magnetic active phenomena on various magnetized stellar objects.
McKinney, Jonathan C.; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Blandford, Roger D.
2012-04-26
Black hole (BH) accretion flows and jets are qualitatively affected by the presence of ordered magnetic fields. We study fully three-dimensional global general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of radially extended and thick (height H to cylindrical radius R ratio of |H/R| {approx} 0.2-1) accretion flows around BHs with various dimensionless spins (a/M, with BH mass M) and with initially toroidally-dominated ({phi}-directed) and poloidally-dominated (R-z directed) magnetic fields. Firstly, for toroidal field models and BHs with high enough |a/M|, coherent large-scale (i.e. >> H) dipolar poloidal magnetic flux patches emerge, thread the BH, and generate transient relativistic jets. Secondly, for poloidal field models, poloidal magnetic flux readily accretes through the disk from large radii and builds-up to a natural saturation point near the BH. While models with |H/R| {approx} 1 and |a/M| {le} 0.5 do not launch jets due to quenching by mass infall, for sufficiently high |a/M| or low |H/R| the polar magnetic field compresses the inflow into a geometrically thin highly non-axisymmetric 'magnetically choked accretion flow' (MCAF) within which the standard linear magneto-rotational instability is suppressed. The condition of a highly-magnetized state over most of the horizon is optimal for the Blandford-Znajek mechanism that generates persistent relativistic jets with and 100% efficiency for |a/M| {approx}> 0.9. A magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetospheric interface forms between the compressed inflow and bulging jet magnetosphere, which drives a new jet-disk oscillation (JDO) type of quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) mechanism. The high-frequency QPO has spherical harmonic |m| = 1 mode period of {tau} {approx} 70GM/c{sup 3} for a/M {approx} 0.9 with coherence quality factors Q {approx}> 10. Overall, our models are qualitatively distinct from most prior MHD simulations (typically, |H/R| << 1 and poloidal flux is limited by
Relativistic mean field approximation to baryons
Dmitri Diakonov
2005-02-01
We stress the importance of the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking for understanding the low-energy structure of baryons. The Mean Field Approximation to baryons is formulated, which solves several outstanding paradoxes of the naive quark models, and which allows to compute parton distributions at low virtuality in a consistent way. We explain why this approach to baryons leads to the prediction of relatively light exotic pentaquark baryons, in contrast to the constituent models which do not take seriously the importance of chiral symmetry breaking. We briefly discuss why, to our mind, it is easier to produce exotic pentaquarks at low than at high energies.
Field Theories from the Relativistic Law of Motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Parampreet; Dadhich, Naresh
From the relativistic law of motion we attempt to deduce the field theories corresponding to the force law being linear and quadratic in four-velocity of the particle. The linear law leads to the vector gauge theory which could be the Abelian Maxwell electrodynamics or the non-Abelian Yang-Mills theory. On the other hand, the quadratic law demands space-time metric as its potential which is equivalent to demanding the principle of equivalence. It leads to the tensor theory of gravitational field - general relativity. It is remarkable that a purely dynamical property of the force law leads uniquely to the corresponding field theories.
Classical gluon fields of relativistic color charges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zadora, A. S.
2016-09-01
The objective of the present study is to consider in more detail the exotic color-charge-glow effect discovered recently and to analyze its possible physical manifestations associated with the treatment of ensembles of color-charged particles at a classical level. The ways in which this effect may appear in arbitrary systems consisting of pointlike massive particles and admitting the partition into elementary configurations like color charges and color dipoles are studied. The possible influence of this effect on particle dynamics (in particular, on gluon distributions) is also examined. Particle collisions at a given impact parameters are considered for a natural regularization of emerging expressions. It is shown that, in the case of reasonable impact-parameter values, collisions may proceed in the electrodynamic mode, in which case the charge-glow contribution to field strengths is suppressed in relation to what we have in the electrodynamic picture. From an analysis of the color-echo situation, it follows that the above conclusion remains valid for more complicated particle configurations as well, since hard gluon fields may arise only owing to a direct collision rather than owing to any echo-like effects.
Classical gluon fields of relativistic color charges
Zadora, A. S.
2016-09-15
The objective of the present study is to consider in more detail the exotic color-charge-glow effect discovered recently and to analyze its possible physical manifestations associated with the treatment of ensembles of color-charged particles at a classical level. The ways in which this effect may appear in arbitrary systems consisting of pointlike massive particles and admitting the partition into elementary configurations like color charges and color dipoles are studied. The possible influence of this effect on particle dynamics (in particular, on gluon distributions) is also examined. Particle collisions at a given impact parameters are considered for a natural regularization of emerging expressions. It is shown that, in the case of reasonable impact-parameter values, collisions may proceed in the electrodynamic mode, in which case the charge-glow contribution to field strengths is suppressed in relation to what we have in the electrodynamic picture. From an analysis of the color-echo situation, it follows that the above conclusion remains valid for more complicated particle configurations as well, since hard gluon fields may arise only owing to a direct collision rather than owing to any echo-like effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdikian, A.; Mahmood, S.
2016-12-01
The obliquely nonlinear acoustic solitary propagation in a relativistically quantum magnetized electron-positron (e-p) plasma in the presence of the external magnetic field as well as the stationary ions for neutralizing the plasma background was studied. By considering the dynamic of the fluid e-p quantum and by using the quantum hydrodynamics model and the standard reductive perturbation technique, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation is derived for small but finite amplitude waves and the solitary wave solution for the parameters relevant to dense astrophysical objects such as white dwarf stars is obtained. The numerical results show that the relativistic effects lead to propagate the electrostatic bell shape structures in quantum e-p plasmas like those in classical pair-ion or pair species for relativistic plasmas. It is also observed that by increasing the relativistic effects, the amplitude and width of the e-p acoustic solitary wave will decrease. In addition, the wave amplitude increases as positron density decreases in magnetized e-p plasmas. It is indicated that by increasing the strength of the magnetic field, the width of the soliton reduces and it becomes sharper. At the end, we have analytically and numerically shown that the pulse soliton solution of the ZK equation is unstable and have traced the dependence of the instability growth rate on electron density. It is found that by considering the relativistic pressure, the instability of the soliton pulse can be reduced. The results can be useful to study the obliquely nonlinear propagation of small amplitude localized structures in magnetized quantum e-p plasmas and be applicable to understand the particle and energy transport mechanism in compact stars such as white dwarfs, where the effects of relativistic electron degeneracy become important.
Krienin, Frank
1990-01-01
A magnetic field generating device provides a useful magnetic field within a specific retgion, while keeping nearby surrounding regions virtually field free. By placing an appropriate current density along a flux line of the source, the stray field effects of the generator may be contained. One current carrying structure may support a truncated cosine distribution, and it may be surrounded by a current structure which follows a flux line that would occur in a full coaxial double cosine distribution. Strong magnetic fields may be generated and contained using superconducting cables to approximate required current surfaces.
Magnetic fields around black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garofalo, David A. G.
Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our
Finite- to zero-range relativistic mean-field interactions
Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P.
2008-03-15
We study the relation between the finite-range (meson-exchange) and zero-range (point-coupling) representations of effective nuclear interactions in the relativistic mean-field framework. Starting from the phenomenological interaction DD-ME2 with density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings, we construct a family of point-coupling effective interactions for different values of the strength parameter of the isoscalar-scalar derivative term. In the meson-exchange picture this corresponds to different values of the {sigma}-meson mass. The parameters of the isoscalar-scalar and isovector-vector channels of the point-coupling interactions are adjusted to nuclear matter and ground-state properties of finite nuclei. By comparing results for infinite and semi-infinite nuclear matter, ground-state masses, charge radii, and collective excitations, we discuss constraints on the parameters of phenomenological point-coupling relativistic effective interaction.
Nonthermal Particle Acceleration in 3D Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection in Pair Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Werner, Gregory R.; Uzdensky, Dmitri A.
2017-07-01
As a fundamental process converting magnetic to plasma energy in high-energy astrophysical plasmas, relativistic magnetic reconnection is a leading explanation for the acceleration of particles to the ultrarelativistic energies that are necessary to power nonthermal emission (especially X-rays and gamma-rays) in pulsar magnetospheres and pulsar wind nebulae, coronae and jets of accreting black holes, and gamma-ray bursts. An important objective of plasma astrophysics is therefore the characterization of nonthermal particle acceleration (NTPA) effected by reconnection. Reconnection-powered NTPA has been demonstrated over a wide range of physical conditions using large 2D kinetic simulations. However, its robustness in realistic 3D reconnection—in particular, whether the 3D relativistic drift-kink instability (RDKI) disrupts NTPA—has not been systematically investigated, although pioneering 3D simulations have observed NTPA in isolated cases. Here, we present the first comprehensive study of NTPA in 3D relativistic reconnection in collisionless electron-positron plasmas, characterizing NTPA as the strength of 3D effects is varied systematically via the length in the third dimension and the strength of the guide magnetic field. We find that, while the RDKI prominently perturbs 3D reconnecting current sheets, it does not suppress particle acceleration, even for zero guide field; fully 3D reconnection robustly and efficiently produces nonthermal power-law particle spectra closely resembling those obtained in 2D. This finding provides strong support for reconnection as the key mechanism powering high-energy flares in various astrophysical systems. We also show that strong guide fields significantly inhibit NTPA, slowing reconnection and limiting the energy available for plasma energization, yielding steeper and shorter power-law spectra.
Magnetic field evolution in tidal disruption events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonnerot, Clément; Price, Daniel J.; Lodato, Giuseppe; Rossi, Elena M.
2017-08-01
When a star gets tidally disrupted by a supermassive black hole, its magnetic field is expected to pervade its debris. In this paper, we study this process via smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the disruption and early debris evolution including the stellar magnetic field. As the gas stretches into a stream, we show that the magnetic field evolution is strongly dependent on its orientation with respect to the stretching direction. In particular, an alignment of the field lines with the direction of stretching induces an increase of the magnetic energy. For disruptions happening well within the tidal radius, the star compression causes the magnetic field strength to sharply increase by an order of magnitude at the time of pericentre passage. If the disruption is partial, we find evidence for a dynamo process occurring inside the surviving core due to the formation of vortices. This causes an amplification of the magnetic field strength by a factor of ˜10. However, this value represents a lower limit since it increases with numerical resolution. For an initial field strength of 1 G, the magnetic field never becomes dynamically important. Instead, the disruption of a star with a strong 1 MG magnetic field produces a debris stream within which magnetic pressure becomes similar to gas pressure a few tens of hours after disruption. If the remnant of one or multiple partial disruptions is eventually fully disrupted, its magnetic field could be large enough to magnetically power the relativistic jet detected from Swift J1644+57. Magnetized streams could also be significantly thickened by magnetic pressure when it overcomes the confining effect of self-gravity.
Standard map in magnetized relativistic systems: Fixed points and regular acceleration
Sousa, M. C. de; Steffens, F. M.; Pakter, R.; Rizzato, F. B.
2010-08-15
We investigate the concept of a standard map for the interaction of relativistic particles and electrostatic waves of arbitrary amplitudes, under the action of external magnetic fields. The map is adequate for physical settings where waves and particles interact impulsively, and allows for a series of analytical result to be exactly obtained. Unlike the traditional form of the standard map, the present map is nonlinear in the wave amplitude and displays a series of peculiar properties. Among these properties we discuss the relation involving fixed points of the maps and accelerator regimes.
Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krause, Marita
2015-03-01
The magnetic field structure in edge-on galaxies observed so far shows a plane-parallel magnetic field component in the disk of the galaxy and an X-shaped field in its halo. The plane-parallel field is thought to be the projected axisymmetric (ASS) disk field as observed in face-on galaxies. Some galaxies addionionally exhibit strong vertical magnetic fields in the halo right above and below the central region of the disk. The mean-field dynamo theory in the disk cannot explain these observed fields without the action of a wind, which also probably plays an important role to keep the vertical scale heights constant in galaxies of different Hubble types and star formation activities, as has been observed in the radio continuum: At λ6 cm the vertical scale heights of the thin disk and the thick disk/halo in a sample of five edge-on galaxies are similar with a mean value of 300 +/- 50 pc for the thin disk and 1.8 +/- 0.2 kpc for the thick disk (a table and references are given in Krause 2011) with our sample including the brightest halo observed so far, NGC 253, with strong star formation, as well as one of the weakest halos, NGC 4565, with weak star formation. If synchrotron emission is the dominant loss process of the relativistic electrons the outer shape of the radio emission should be dumbbell-like as has been observed in several edge-on galaxies like e.g. NGC 253 (Heesen et al. 2009) and NGC 4565. As the synchrotron lifetime t syn at a single frequency is proportional to the total magnetic field strength B t -1.5, a cosmic ray bulk speed (velocity of a galactic wind) can be defined as v CR = h CR /t syn = 2 h z /t syn , where h CR and h z are the scale heights of the cosmic rays and the observed radio emission at this freqnency. Similar observed radio scale heights imply a self regulation mechanism between the galactic wind velocity, the total magnetic field strength and the star formation rate SFR in the disk: v CR ~ B t 1.5 ~ SFR ~ 0.5 (Niklas & Beck 1997).
Bjorken flow in one-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics with magnetization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pu, Shi; Roy, Victor; Rezzolla, Luciano; Rischke, Dirk H.
2016-04-01
We study the one-dimensional, longitudinally boost-invariant motion of an ideal fluid with infinite conductivity in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, i.e., in the ideal transverse magnetohydrodynamical limit. In an extension of our previous work Roy et al., [Phys. Lett. B 750, 45 (2015)], we consider the fluid to have a nonzero magnetization. First, we assume a constant magnetic susceptibility χm and consider an ultrarelativistic ideal gas equation of state. For a paramagnetic fluid (i.e., with χm>0 ), the decay of the energy density slows down since the fluid gains energy from the magnetic field. For a diamagnetic fluid (i.e., with χm<0 ), the energy density decays faster because it feeds energy into the magnetic field. Furthermore, when the magnetic field is taken to be external and to decay in proper time τ with a power law ˜τ-a, two distinct solutions can be found depending on the values of a and χm. Finally, we also solve the ideal magnetohydrodynamical equations for one-dimensional Bjorken flow with a temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility and a realistic equation of state given by lattice-QCD data. We find that the temperature and energy density decay more slowly because of the nonvanishing magnetization. For values of the magnetic field typical for heavy-ion collisions, this effect is, however, rather small. It is only for magnetic fields about an order of magnitude larger than expected for heavy-ion collisions that the system is substantially reheated and the lifetime of the quark phase might be extended.
Coronal mass ejections, magnetic clouds, and relativistic magnetospheric electron events: ISTP
Baker, D.N.; Pulkkinen, T.I.; Li, X.; Kanekal, S.G.; Blake, J.B.; Selesnick, R.S.; Henderson, M.G.; Reeves, G.D.; Spence, H.E.
1998-08-01
The role of high-speed solar wind streams in driving relativistic electron acceleration within the Earth{close_quote}s magnetosphere during solar activity minimum conditions has been well documented. The rising phase of the new solar activity cycle (cycle 23) commenced in 1996, and there have recently been a number of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and related {open_quotes}magnetic clouds{close_quotes} at 1 AU. As these CME/cloud systems interact with the Earth{close_quote}s magnetosphere, some events produce substantial enhancements in the magnetospheric energetic particle population while others do not. This paper compares and contrasts relativistic electron signatures observed by the POLAR, SAMPEX, Highly Elliptical Orbit, and geostationary orbit spacecraft during two magnetic cloud events: May 27{endash}29, 1996, and January 10{endash}11, 1997. Sequences were observed in each case in which the interplanetary magnetic field was first strongly southward and then rotated northward. In both cases, there were large solar wind density enhancements toward the end of the cloud passage at 1 AU. Strong energetic electron acceleration was observed in the January event, but not in the May event. The relative geoeffectiveness for these two cases is assessed, and it is concluded that large induced electric fields ({partial_derivative}B/{partial_derivative}t) caused in situ acceleration of electrons throughout the outer radiation zone during the January 1997 event. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union
Relativistic electron loss process by pitch angle scattering due to field curvature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, J. J.; Parks, G. K.; Lee, E.; McCarthy, M. P.; Min, K.; Kim, H.; Park, J.; Hwang, J.
2006-12-01
Relativistic electron dropout (RED) events are characterized by fast electron flux decrease at the geostationary orbit. It is known that the main loss process is non adiabatic and more effective for the high energy particles. RED events generally start to occur at midnight sector and propagate to noon sector and are correlated with magnetic field stretching. We discuss this kind of event can be caused from pitch angle diffusion induced when the gyro radius of the electrons is comparable to the radius of curvature of the magnetic field and the magnetic moment is not conserved any more. While this process has been studied theoretically, the question is whether electron precipitation could be explained with this process for the real field configuration. This paper will show that this process can successfully explain the precipitation that occurred on June 14, 2004 observed by the low-altitude (680 km) polar orbiting Korean satellite, STSAT-1. In this precipitation event, the energy dispersion showed higher energy electron precipitation occurred at lower L values. This feature is a good indicator that precipitation was caused by the magnetic moment scattering in the geomagnetic tail. This interpretation is supported by the geosynchronous satellite GOES observations that showed significant magnetic field distortion occurred on the night side accompanying the electron flux depletion. Tsyganenko-01 model also shows the magnetic moment scattering could occur under the geomagnetic conditions existing at that time. We suggest the pitch angle scattering by field curvature violating the first adiabatic invariant as a possible candidate for loss mechanism of relativistic electrons in radiation belt.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kates, Ronald E.; Kaup, D. J.
1992-08-01
This paper studies modulational instabilities of intensely propagating, circularly polarized, plane electromagnetic plasma waves in the presence of an external magnetic field pointing exactly in the direction of propagation. By ‘intense propagation’, we mean that eEo/mw (where Eo is the amplitude of the wave's transverse electric field) is comparable to unity, so that the problem is fully nonlinear and cannot be solved by regular perturbation methods. The positive component may consists of either positrons or singly charged ions. The plasma is assumed to be fully ionized and cold. Modulated intensely propagating electromagnetic waves couple (in general) to longitudinal motions via the ponderomotive force. For given wavenumber, the frequency of the wave depends on the amplitude not only via the obvious mechanism of relativistic mass increase but also via the density inhomogeneities induced by the ponderomotive force. This coupling effectively involves derivatives of the envelope, and the effect of longitudinal motions is comparable to that of relativistic nonlinearities. For this reason, a proper expansion procedure requires verification that one has obtained a self-consistent solution of all the field equations up to the appropriate order, including the longitudinal equations. This is best accomplished using the well-known two-timing approach. Modulational instability arises in the case of an ion-electron plasma with relativistic electrons but non-relativistic ions. However, for parameter values appropriate to pulsar magnetospheres, where the electron-cyclotron frequency is much larger than the frequency of the wave, there is no instability on the time scale of a micropulse.
RICHTMYER-MESHKOV-TYPE INSTABILITY OF A CURRENT SHEET IN A RELATIVISTICALLY MAGNETIZED PLASMA
Inoue, Tsuyoshi
2012-11-20
The linear stability of a current sheet that is subject to an impulsive acceleration due to shock passage with the effect of a guide magnetic field is studied. We find that a current sheet embedded in relativistically magnetized plasma always shows a Richtmyer-Meshkov-type instability, while the stability depends on the density structure in the Newtonian limit. The growth of the instability is expected to generate turbulence around the current sheet, which can induce the so-called turbulent reconnection, the rate of which is essentially free from plasma resistivity. Thus, the instability can be applied as a triggering mechanism for rapid magnetic energy release in a variety of high-energy astrophysical phenomena such as pulsar wind nebulae, gamma-ray bursts, and active galactic nuclei, where the shock wave is thought to play a crucial role.
Nonlinear Amplification of the Whistler Wave in a Magnetized Relativistic Beam-Plasma Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taguchi, Toshihiro; Antonsen, Thomas; Mima, Kunioki
2015-11-01
We have been investigating a relativistic electron beam-plasma interaction under a strong magnetic field using a hybrid simulation code. In an initial stage, the electron beam drives a return current in a background plasma and such a two beam state causes a longitudinal two stream instability and a transverse Weibel instability. The application of a strong magnetic field is proposed for the suppression of the beam instabilities. When a sufficiently strong magnetic field is applied along the beam propagation, the Weibel instability is well suppressed and electrons flow laminarly. When the magnetic field strength is not large enough, however, electrons stagnate and the total number of beam electrons is largely reduced. Our detailed analyses show that a strong whistler wave is excited during the interaction and the wave stops the beam electrons. Since the whistler wave is composed of transverse electromagnetic fields, there should be a mechanism to convert the transverse field to a longitudinal one. In order to investigate this problem, we have performed a lot of simulation runs for a simple geometry. Then we found the amplified transverse modulation of the background plasma due to the Weibel instability plays an important role for the amplification of the whistler wave. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), 15H03758.
Relativistic MHD simulations of core-collapse GRB jets: 3D instabilities and magnetic dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bromberg, Omer; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander
2016-02-01
Relativistic jets are associated with extreme astrophysical phenomena, like the core collapse of massive stars in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and the accretion on to supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei. It is generally accepted that these jets are powered electromagnetically, by the magnetized rotation of a central compact object (black hole or neutron star). However, how the jets produce the observed emission and survive the propagation for many orders of magnitude in distance without being disrupted by current-driven instabilities is the subject of active debate. We carry out time-dependent 3D relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of relativistic, Poynting-flux-dominated jets. The jets are launched self-consistently by the rotation of a strongly magnetized central object. This determines the natural degree of azimuthal magnetic field winding, a crucial factor that controls jet stability. We find that the jets are susceptible to two types of instability: (i) a global, external kink mode that grows on long time-scales. It bodily twists the jet, reducing its propagation velocity. We show analytically that in flat density profiles, like the ones associated with galactic cores, the external mode grows and may stall the jet. In the steep profiles of stellar envelopes the external kink weakens as the jet propagates outward. (ii) a local, internal kink mode that grows over short time-scales and causes small-angle magnetic reconnection and conversion of about half of the jet electromagnetic energy flux into heat. We suggest that internal kink instability is the main dissipation mechanism responsible for powering GRB prompt emission.
Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in one dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyutikov, Maxim; Hadden, Samuel
2012-02-01
We derive a number of solutions for one-dimensional dynamics of relativistic magnetized plasma that can be used as benchmark estimates in relativistic hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic numerical codes. First, we analyze the properties of simple waves of fast modes propagating orthogonally to the magnetic field in relativistically hot plasma. The magnetic and kinetic pressures obey different equations of state, so that the system behaves as a mixture of gases with different polytropic indices. We find the self-similar solutions for the expansion of hot strongly magnetized plasma into vacuum. Second, we derive linear hodograph and Darboux equations for the relativistic Khalatnikov potential, which describe arbitrary one-dimensional isentropic relativistic motion of cold magnetized plasma and find their general and particular solutions. The obtained hodograph and Darboux equations are very powerful: A system of highly nonlinear, relativistic, time-dependent equations describing arbitrary (not necessarily self-similar) dynamics of highly magnetized plasma reduces to a single linear differential equation.
Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in one dimension.
Lyutikov, Maxim; Hadden, Samuel
2012-02-01
We derive a number of solutions for one-dimensional dynamics of relativistic magnetized plasma that can be used as benchmark estimates in relativistic hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic numerical codes. First, we analyze the properties of simple waves of fast modes propagating orthogonally to the magnetic field in relativistically hot plasma. The magnetic and kinetic pressures obey different equations of state, so that the system behaves as a mixture of gases with different polytropic indices. We find the self-similar solutions for the expansion of hot strongly magnetized plasma into vacuum. Second, we derive linear hodograph and Darboux equations for the relativistic Khalatnikov potential, which describe arbitrary one-dimensional isentropic relativistic motion of cold magnetized plasma and find their general and particular solutions. The obtained hodograph and Darboux equations are very powerful: A system of highly nonlinear, relativistic, time-dependent equations describing arbitrary (not necessarily self-similar) dynamics of highly magnetized plasma reduces to a single linear differential equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Uzdensky, Dmitri A.; Cerutti, Benoît; Werner, Gregory R.; Begelman, Mitchell C.
2015-12-01
We investigate the distribution of particle acceleration sites, independently of the actual acceleration mechanism, during plasmoid-dominated, relativistic collisionless magnetic reconnection by analyzing the results of a particle-in-cell numerical simulation. The simulation is initiated with Harris-type current layers in pair plasma with no guide magnetic field, negligible radiative losses, no initial perturbation, and using periodic boundary conditions. We find that the plasmoids develop a robust internal structure, with colder dense cores and hotter outer shells, that is recovered after each plasmoid merger on a dynamical timescale. We use spacetime diagrams of the reconnection layers to probe the evolution of plasmoids, and in this context we investigate the individual particle histories for a representative sample of energetic electrons. We distinguish three classes of particle acceleration sites associated with (1) magnetic X-points, (2) regions between merging plasmoids, and (3) the trailing edges of accelerating plasmoids. We evaluate the contribution of each class of acceleration sites to the final energy distribution of energetic electrons: magnetic X-points dominate at moderate energies, and the regions between merging plasmoids dominate at higher energies. We also identify the dominant acceleration scenarios, in order of decreasing importance: (1) single acceleration between merging plasmoids, (2) single acceleration at a magnetic X-point, and (3) acceleration at a magnetic X-point followed by acceleration in a plasmoid. Particle acceleration is absent only in the vicinity of stationary plasmoids. The effect of magnetic mirrors due to plasmoid contraction does not appear to be significant in relativistic reconnection.
Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Cerutti, Benoit; Begelman, Mitchell C.
2015-12-20
We investigate the distribution of particle acceleration sites, independently of the actual acceleration mechanism, during plasmoid-dominated, relativistic collisionless magnetic reconnection by analyzing the results of a particle-in-cell numerical simulation. The simulation is initiated with Harris-type current layers in pair plasma with no guide magnetic field, negligible radiative losses, no initial perturbation, and using periodic boundary conditions. We find that the plasmoids develop a robust internal structure, with colder dense cores and hotter outer shells, that is recovered after each plasmoid merger on a dynamical timescale. We use spacetime diagrams of the reconnection layers to probe the evolution of plasmoids, and in this context we investigate the individual particle histories for a representative sample of energetic electrons. We distinguish three classes of particle acceleration sites associated with (1) magnetic X-points, (2) regions between merging plasmoids, and (3) the trailing edges of accelerating plasmoids. We evaluate the contribution of each class of acceleration sites to the final energy distribution of energetic electrons: magnetic X-points dominate at moderate energies, and the regions between merging plasmoids dominate at higher energies. We also identify the dominant acceleration scenarios, in order of decreasing importance: (1) single acceleration between merging plasmoids, (2) single acceleration at a magnetic X-point, and (3) acceleration at a magnetic X-point followed by acceleration in a plasmoid. Particle acceleration is absent only in the vicinity of stationary plasmoids. The effect of magnetic mirrors due to plasmoid contraction does not appear to be significant in relativistic reconnection.
Fluid-magnetic helicity in axisymmetric stationary relativistic magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, G.
2017-10-01
The present work is intended to gain a fruitful insight into the understanding of the formations of magneto-vortex configurations and their role in the physical processes of mutual exchange of energies associated with fluid's motion and the magnetic fields in an axisymmetric stationary hydromagnetic system subject to strong gravitational field (e.g., neutron star/magnetar). It is found that the vorticity flux vector field associated with vorticity 2-form is a linear combination of fluid's vorticity vector and of magnetic vorticity vector. The vorticity flux vector obeys Helmholtz's flux conservation. The energy equation associated with the vorticity flux vector field is deduced. It is shown that the mechanical rotation of vorticity flux surfaces contributes to the formation of vorticity flux vector field. The dynamo action for the generation of toroidal components of vorticity flux vector field is described in the presence of meridional circulations. It is shown that the stretching of twisting magnetic lines due to differential rotation leads to the breakdown of gravitational isorotation in the absence of meridional circulations. An explicit expression consists of rotation of vorticity flux surface, energy and angular momentum per baryon for the fluid-magnetic helicity current vector is obtained. The conservation of fluid-magnetic helicity is demonstrated. It is found that the fluid-magnetic helicity displays the energy spectrum arising due to the interaction between the mechanical rotation of vorticity flux surfaces and the fluid's motion obeying Euler's equations. The dissipation of a linear combination of modified fluid helicity and magnetic twist is shown to occur due to coupled effect of frame dragging and meridional circulation. It is found that the growing twist of magnetic lines causes the dissipation of modified fluid helicity in the absence of meridional circulations.
An approach to adjustment of relativistic mean field model parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayram, Tuncay; Akkoyun, Serkan
2017-09-01
The Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) model with a small number of adjusted parameters is powerful tool for correct predictions of various ground-state nuclear properties of nuclei. Its success for describing nuclear properties of nuclei is directly related with adjustment of its parameters by using experimental data. In the present study, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method which mimics brain functionality has been employed for improvement of the RMF model parameters. In particular, the understanding capability of the ANN method for relations between the RMF model parameters and their predictions for binding energies (BEs) of 58Ni and 208Pb have been found in agreement with the literature values.
Systematic study of bubble nuclei in relativistic mean field model
Shukla, A.; Åberg, S.; Bajpeyi, A.
2016-01-15
We have theoretically studied potential bubble nuclei ({sup 20,22}O, {sup 34,36}Si, and {sup 46}Ar), which are experimentally accessible and have attracted several studies in the recent past. Relativistic mean field is employed in conjunction with the NL–SH parameter set. Our results show that among the possible candidates, {sup 22}Oand {sup 34}Si may be the most prominent candidates, showing significant depletion of density at the center, which could be verified experimentally in the near future with some of the experiments underway.
Bose-Einstein condensation of relativistic Scalar Field Dark Matter
Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo
2009-01-15
Standard thermodynamical results of ideal Bose gases are used to study the possible formation of a cosmological Bose-Einstein condensate in Scalar Field Dark Matter models; the main hypothesis is that the boson particles were in thermal equilibrium in the early Universe. It is then shown that the only relevant case needs the presence of both particles and anti-particles, and that it corresponds to models in which the bosonic particle is very light. Contrary to common wisdom, the condensate should be a relativistic phenomenon. Some cosmological implications are discussed in turn.
Critical parameters of consistent relativistic mean-field models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lourenço, O.; Dutra, M.; Menezes, D. P.
2017-06-01
In the present work, the critical temperature, critical pressure, and critical density, known as the critical parameters related to the liquid-gas phase transition are calculated for 34 relativistic mean-field models, which were shown to satisfy nuclear matter constraints in a comprehensive study involving 263 models. The compressibility factor was calculated and all 34 models present values lower than the one obtained with the van der Waals equation of state. The critical temperatures were compared with experimental data and just two classes of models can reach values close to them. A correlation between the critical parameters and the incompressibility was obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMullin, W. A.; Davidson, R. C.; Johnston, G. L.
1983-08-01
The single-particle equations of motion are used to study the stimulated emission from a tenuous relativistic electron beam propagating in the combined solenoidal and variable-parameter longitudinal wiggler magnetic fields produced near the axis of a multiple-mirror (undulator) field configuration. The specific case of constant field amplitude and variable wiggler periodicity is studied. It is found that the efficiency of radiation generation can be increased by orders of magnitude relative to the case where the wiggler periodicity is constant. This is due to the fact that the phase velocity of the ponderomotive potential in which the electrons are trapped is decreasing, allowing the electrons to exchange energy with the radiation field.
Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiba, Masashi
The magnetic-field characteristics in spiral galaxies are investigated, with emphasis on the Milky Way. The dynamo theory is considered, and axisymmetric spiral (ASS) and bisymmetric spiral (BSS) magnetic fields are analyzed. Toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields are discussed.
Magnetic field dosimeter development
Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.
1980-09-01
In recent years there has been increased concern over potential health hazards related to exposure of personnel to magnetic fields. If exposure standards are to be established, then a means for measuring magnetic field dose must be available. To meet this need, the Department of Energy has funded development of prototype dosimeters at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This manual reviews the principle of operation of the dosimeter and also contains step-by-step instructions for its operation.
Magnetosheath magnetic field variability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sibeck, D. G.
1994-01-01
A case study using simulations IRM and CCE observations demonstrates that transient magnetospheric events correspond to pressure pulses in the magnetosheath, inward bow shock motion, and magnetopause compression. Statistical surveys indicate that the magnetosheath magnetic field orientation rarely remains constant during periods of magnetopause and bow shock motion (both characterized by periods of 1 to 10 min). There is no tendency for bow shock motion to occur for southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations.
Xiao, Yunlong; Liu, Wenjian; Cheng, Lan; Peng, Daoling
2007-06-07
Both formal and numerical analyses have been carried out on various exact and approximate variants of the four-component relativistic theory for nuclear magnetic shielding constants. These include the standard linear response theory (LRT), the full or external field-dependent unitary transformations of the Dirac operator, as well as the orbital decomposition approach. In contrast with LRT, the latter schemes take explicitly into account both the kinetic and magnetic balances between the large and small components of the Dirac spinors, and are therefore much less demanding on the basis sets. In addition, the diamagnetic contributions, which are otherwise "missing" in LRT, appear naturally in the latter schemes. Nevertheless, the definitions of paramagnetic and diamagnetic terms are not the same in the different schemes, but the difference is only of O(c(-2)) and thus vanishes in the nonrelativistic limit. It is shown that, as an operator theory, the full field-dependent unitary transformation approach cannot be applied to singular magnetic fields such as that due to the magnetic point dipole moment of a nucleus. However, the inherent singularities can be avoided by the corresponding matrix formulation (with a partial closed summation). All the schemes are combined with the Dirac-Kohn-Sham ansatz for ground state calculations, and by using virtually complete basis sets a new and more accurate set of absolute nuclear magnetic resonance shielding scales for the rare gases He-Rn have been established.
Effects of magnetic fields in white dwarfs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franzon, Bruno; Schramm, Stefan
2017-06-01
We perform calculations of white dwarfs endowed with strong magnetic fields. White dwarfs are the progenitors of supernova Type Ia explosions and they are widely used as candles to show that the Universe is expanding and accelerating. However, observations of ultraluminous supernovae have suggested that the progenitor of such an explosion should be a white dwarf with mass above the well-known Chandrasekhar limit ~ 1.4 M⊙. In corroboration with other works, but by using a fully general relativistic framework, we obtained also strongly magnetized white dwarfs with masses M ~ 2.0 M⊙.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, E. J.
1995-01-01
The magnetic fields originate as coronal fields that are converted into space by the supersonic, infinitely conducting, solar wind. On average, the sun's rotation causes the field to wind up and form an Archimedes Spiral. However, the field direction changes almost continuously on a variety of scales and the irregular nature of these changes is often interpreted as evidence that the solar wind flow is turbulent.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, E. J.
1995-01-01
The magnetic fields originate as coronal fields that are converted into space by the supersonic, infinitely conducting, solar wind. On average, the sun's rotation causes the field to wind up and form an Archimedes Spiral. However, the field direction changes almost continuously on a variety of scales and the irregular nature of these changes is often interpreted as evidence that the solar wind flow is turbulent.
2016-06-16
Each day NASA solar scientists produce overlays (in white lines) that show their estimation of how the magnetic field lines above the sun are configured (June16, 2016). In the video clip we show the sun in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light, then reveal the magnetic field line configuration in the same wavelength. Notice how the lines are tightly bundled near the lighter-toned active regions, which are magnetically intense regions. The magnetic lines from the darker areas, called coronal holes, open out into space and the extended lines show that. Our magnetically active sun is a dynamic body that changes all the time. Movie are also available at the Photojournal. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20881
Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Ohsuga, Ken
2013-08-01
We develop a numerical scheme for solving fully special relativistic, resistive radiation magnetohydrodynamics. Our code guarantees conservation of total mass, momentum, and energy. The radiation energy density and the radiation flux are consistently updated using the M-1 closure method, which can resolve an anisotropic radiation field, in contrast to the Eddington approximation, as well as the flux-limited diffusion approximation. For the resistive part, we adopt a simple form of Ohm's law. The advection terms are explicitly solved with an approximate Riemann solver, mainly the Harten-Lax-van Leer scheme; the HLLC and HLLD schemes are also solved for some tests. The source terms, which describe the gas-radiation interaction and the magnetic energy dissipation, are implicitly integrated, relaxing the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition even in an optically thick regime or a large magnetic Reynolds number regime. Although we need to invert 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 matrices (for the gas-radiation interaction) and 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 matrices (for the magnetic energy dissipation) at each grid point for implicit integration, they are obtained analytically without preventing massive parallel computing. We show that our code gives reasonable outcomes in numerical tests for ideal magnetohydrodynamics, propagating radiation, and radiation hydrodynamics. We also applied our resistive code to the relativistic Petschek-type magnetic reconnection, revealing the reduction of the reconnection rate via radiation drag.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berdyugina, Svetlana
2015-08-01
Molecules probe cool matter in the Universe and various astrophysical objects. Their ability to sense magnetic fields provides new insights into magnetic properties of these objects. During the past fifteen years we have carried out a theoretical study of molecular magnetic effects such as the Zeeman, Paschen-Back and Hanle effects and their applications for inferring magnetic structures and spatial inhomogeneities on the Sun, cool stars, brown dwarfs, and exoplanets from molecular spectro-polarimetry (e.g., Berdyugina 2011). Here, we present an overview of this study and compare our theoretical predictions with recent laboratory measurements of magnetic properties of some molecules. We present also a new web-based tool to compute molecular magnetic effects and polarized spectra which is supported by the ERC Advanced Grant HotMol.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kholmetskii, A. L.; Missevitch, O. V.; Yarman, T.
2016-09-01
We consider the relativistic transformation of the magnetic dipole moment and disclose its physical meaning, shedding light on the related difficulties in the physical interpretation of classical electrodynamics in material media.
Beyond the relativistic mean-field approximation -- collective correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhipan; Nikšić, Tamara; Vretenar, Dario; Yao, Jiangming
Semi-empirical relativistic energy density functionals (EDFs) or effective interactions implicitly comprise short-range correlations related to the repulsive core of the inter-nucleon interaction, and long-range correlations mediated by nuclear resonance modes. To model spectroscopic properties of finite nuclei, the self-consistent mean-field method must be extended to include collective correlations that arise from restoration of broken symmetries and fluctuations in collective coordinates. These correlations are sensitive to shell effects, vary with particle number, and cannot be included in a universal EDF. We review and compare recent advances in "beyond mean-field" methods based on relativistic EDFs: the angular-momentum and particle-number projected triaxial generator coordinate method, the five-dimensional quadrupole collective Hamiltonian and the axial quadrupole-octupole collective Hamiltonian models. Illustrative applications include low-energy collective excitation spectra and electromagnetic transition rates of nuclei characterised by quadrupole and/or octupole deformations: 24Mg, 76Kr, 240Pu and 224Ra, in comparison with available data.
Weak-field general relativistic dynamics and the Newtonian limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooperstock, F. I.
2016-01-01
We show that the generally held view that the gravity of weak-field nonrelativistic-velocity sources being invariably almost equivalent to Newtonian gravity (NG) (the “Newtonian limit” approach) is in some instances misleading and in other cases incorrect. A particularly transparent example is provided by comparing the Newtonian and general relativistic analyses of a simple variant of van Stockum’s infinite rotating dust cylinder. We show that some very recent criticisms of our work that had been motivated by the Newtonian limit approach were incorrect and note that no specific errors in our work were found in the critique. In the process, we underline some problems that arise from inappropriate coordinate transformations. As further support for our methodology, we note that our weak-field general relativistic treatment of a model galaxy was vindicated recently by the observations of Xu et al. regarding our prediction that the Milky Way was 19-21 kpc in radius as opposed to the commonly held view that the radius was 15 kpc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carilli, C. L.; Taylor, G. B.
Magnetic fields in the intercluster medium have been measured using a variety of techniques, including studies of synchrotron relic and halo radio sources within clusters, studies of inverse Compton X-ray emission from clusters, surveys of Faraday rotation measures of polarized radio sources both within and behind clusters, and studies of cluster cold fronts in X-ray images. These measurements imply that most cluster atmospheres are substantially magnetized, with typical field strengths of order 1 μGauss with high areal filling factors out to Mpc radii. There is likely to be considerable variation in field strengths and topologies both within and between clusters, especially when comparing dynamically relaxed clusters to those that have recently undergone a merger. In some locations, such as the cores of cooling flow clusters, the magnetic fields reach levels of 10-40 μG and may be dynamically important. In all clusters the magnetic fields have a significant effect on energy transport in the intracluster medium. We also review current theories on the origin of cluster magnetic fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Jin; Masada, Youhei; Asano, Eiji; Shibata, Kazunari
2011-05-01
The nonlinear dynamics of outflows driven by magnetic explosion on the surface of a compact star is investigated through special relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We adopt, as the initial equilibrium state, a spherical stellar object embedded in hydrostatic plasma which has a density ρ(r) vprop r -α and is threaded by a dipole magnetic field. The injection of magnetic energy at the surface of a compact star breaks the equilibrium and triggers a two-component outflow. At the early evolutionary stage, the magnetic pressure increases rapidly around the stellar surface, initiating a magnetically driven outflow. A strong forward shock driven outflow is then excited. The expansion velocity of the magnetically driven outflow is characterized by the Alfvén velocity on the stellar surface and follows a simple scaling relation v mag vprop v A 1/2. When the initial density profile declines steeply with radius, the strong shock is accelerated self-similarly to relativistic velocity ahead of the magnetically driven component. We find that it evolves according to a self-similar relation Γsh vprop r sh, where Γsh is the Lorentz factor of the plasma measured at the shock surface r sh. A purely hydrodynamic process would be responsible for the acceleration mechanism of the shock driven outflow. Our two-component outflow model, which is the natural outcome of the magnetic explosion, can provide a better understanding of the magnetic active phenomena on various magnetized compact stars.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ilin, Andrew V.
2006-01-01
The Magnetic Field Solver computer program calculates the magnetic field generated by a group of collinear, cylindrical axisymmetric electromagnet coils. Given the current flowing in, and the number of turns, axial position, and axial and radial dimensions of each coil, the program calculates matrix coefficients for a finite-difference system of equations that approximates a two-dimensional partial differential equation for the magnetic potential contributed by the coil. The program iteratively solves these finite-difference equations by use of the modified incomplete Cholesky preconditioned-conjugate-gradient method. The total magnetic potential as a function of axial (z) and radial (r) position is then calculated as a sum of the magnetic potentials of the individual coils, using a high-accuracy interpolation scheme. Then the r and z components of the magnetic field as functions of r and z are calculated from the total magnetic potential by use of a high-accuracy finite-difference scheme. Notably, for the finite-difference calculations, the program generates nonuniform two-dimensional computational meshes from nonuniform one-dimensional meshes. Each mesh is generated in such a way as to minimize the numerical error for a benchmark one-dimensional magnetostatic problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, J.; Li, L. Y.; Cao, J. B.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H.
2016-07-01
Using the Van Allen Probe in situ measured magnetic field and electron data, we examine the solar wind dynamic pressure and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) effects on global magnetic field and outer radiation belt relativistic electrons (≥1.8 MeV). The dynamic pressure enhancements (>2 nPa) cause the dayside magnetic field increase and the nightside magnetic field reduction, whereas the large southward IMFs (Bz-IMF < -2nT) mainly lead to the decrease of the nightside magnetic field. In the dayside increased magnetic field region (magnetic local time (MLT) ~ 06:00-18:00, and L > 4), the pitch angles of relativistic electrons are mainly pancake distributions with a flux peak around 90° (corresponding anisotropic index A > 0.1), and the higher-energy electrons have stronger pancake distributions (the larger A), suggesting that the compression-induced betatron accelerations enhance the dayside pancake distributions. However, in the nighttime decreased magnetic field region (MLT ~ 18:00-06:00, and L ≥ 5), the pitch angles of relativistic electrons become butterfly distributions with two flux peaks around 45° and 135° (A < 0). The spatial range of the nighttime butterfly distributions is almost independent of the relativistic electron energy, but it depends on the magnetic field day-night asymmetry and the interplanetary conditions. The dynamic pressure enhancements can make the nighttime butterfly distribution extend inward. The large southward IMFs can also lead to the azimuthal expansion of the nighttime butterfly distributions. These variations are consistent with the drift shell splitting and/or magnetopause shadowing effect.
Yu, J.; Li, L. Y.; Cao, J. B.; ...
2016-07-28
Using the Van Allen Probe in situ measured magnetic field and electron data, we examine the solar wind dynamic pressure and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) effects on global magnetic field and outer radiation belt relativistic electrons (≥1.8 MeV). The dynamic pressure enhancements (>2 nPa) cause the dayside magnetic field increase and the nightside magnetic field reduction, whereas the large southward IMFs (Bz-IMF < –2nT) mainly lead to the decrease of the nightside magnetic field. In the dayside increased magnetic field region (magnetic local time (MLT) ~ 06:00–18:00, and L > 4), the pitch angles of relativistic electrons are mainly pancakemore » distributions with a flux peak around 90° (corresponding anisotropic index A > 0.1), and the higher-energy electrons have stronger pancake distributions (the larger A), suggesting that the compression-induced betatron accelerations enhance the dayside pancake distributions. However, in the nighttime decreased magnetic field region (MLT ~ 18:00–06:00, and L ≥ 5), the pitch angles of relativistic electrons become butterfly distributions with two flux peaks around 45° and 135° (A < 0). The spatial range of the nighttime butterfly distributions is almost independent of the relativistic electron energy, but it depends on the magnetic field day-night asymmetry and the interplanetary conditions. The dynamic pressure enhancements can make the nighttime butterfly distribution extend inward. The large southward IMFs can also lead to the azimuthal expansion of the nighttime butterfly distributions. As a result, these variations are consistent with the drift shell splitting and/or magnetopause shadowing effect.« less
Yu, J.; Li, L. Y.; Cao, J. B.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H.
2016-07-28
Using the Van Allen Probe in situ measured magnetic field and electron data, we examine the solar wind dynamic pressure and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) effects on global magnetic field and outer radiation belt relativistic electrons (≥1.8 MeV). The dynamic pressure enhancements (>2 nPa) cause the dayside magnetic field increase and the nightside magnetic field reduction, whereas the large southward IMFs (B_{z-IMF} < –2nT) mainly lead to the decrease of the nightside magnetic field. In the dayside increased magnetic field region (magnetic local time (MLT) ~ 06:00–18:00, and L > 4), the pitch angles of relativistic electrons are mainly pancake distributions with a flux peak around 90° (corresponding anisotropic index A > 0.1), and the higher-energy electrons have stronger pancake distributions (the larger A), suggesting that the compression-induced betatron accelerations enhance the dayside pancake distributions. However, in the nighttime decreased magnetic field region (MLT ~ 18:00–06:00, and L ≥ 5), the pitch angles of relativistic electrons become butterfly distributions with two flux peaks around 45° and 135° (A < 0). The spatial range of the nighttime butterfly distributions is almost independent of the relativistic electron energy, but it depends on the magnetic field day-night asymmetry and the interplanetary conditions. The dynamic pressure enhancements can make the nighttime butterfly distribution extend inward. The large southward IMFs can also lead to the azimuthal expansion of the nighttime butterfly distributions. As a result, these variations are consistent with the drift shell splitting and/or magnetopause shadowing effect.
Yu, J.; Li, L. Y.; Cao, J. B.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H.
2016-07-28
Using the Van Allen Probe in situ measured magnetic field and electron data, we examine the solar wind dynamic pressure and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) effects on global magnetic field and outer radiation belt relativistic electrons (≥1.8 MeV). The dynamic pressure enhancements (>2 nPa) cause the dayside magnetic field increase and the nightside magnetic field reduction, whereas the large southward IMFs (B_{z-IMF} < –2nT) mainly lead to the decrease of the nightside magnetic field. In the dayside increased magnetic field region (magnetic local time (MLT) ~ 06:00–18:00, and L > 4), the pitch angles of relativistic electrons are mainly pancake distributions with a flux peak around 90° (corresponding anisotropic index A > 0.1), and the higher-energy electrons have stronger pancake distributions (the larger A), suggesting that the compression-induced betatron accelerations enhance the dayside pancake distributions. However, in the nighttime decreased magnetic field region (MLT ~ 18:00–06:00, and L ≥ 5), the pitch angles of relativistic electrons become butterfly distributions with two flux peaks around 45° and 135° (A < 0). The spatial range of the nighttime butterfly distributions is almost independent of the relativistic electron energy, but it depends on the magnetic field day-night asymmetry and the interplanetary conditions. The dynamic pressure enhancements can make the nighttime butterfly distribution extend inward. The large southward IMFs can also lead to the azimuthal expansion of the nighttime butterfly distributions. As a result, these variations are consistent with the drift shell splitting and/or magnetopause shadowing effect.
MM-wave emission by magnetized plasma during sub-relativistic electron beam relaxation
Ivanov, I. A. Arzhannikov, A. V.; Burmasov, V. S.; Popov, S. S.; Postupaev, V. V.; Sklyarov, V. F.; Vyacheslavov, L. N.; Burdakov, A. V.; Sorokina, N. V.; Gavrilenko, D. E.; Kasatov, A. A.; Kandaurov, I. V.; Mekler, K. I.; Rovenskikh, A. F.; Trunev, Yu. A.; Kurkuchekov, V. V.; Kuznetsov, S. A.; Polosatkin, S. V.
2015-12-15
There are described electromagnetic spectra of radiation emitted by magnetized plasma during sub-relativistic electron beam in a double plasma frequency band. Experimental studies were performed at the multiple-mirror trap GOL-3. The electron beam had the following parameters: 70–110 keV for the electron energy, 1–10 MW for the beam power and 30–300 μs for its duration. The spectrum was measured in 75–230 GHz frequency band. The frequency of the emission follows variations in electron plasma density and magnetic field strength. The specific emission power on the length of the plasma column is estimated on the level 0.75 kW/cm.
MM-wave emission by magnetized plasma during sub-relativistic electron beam relaxation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, I. A.; Arzhannikov, A. V.; Burdakov, A. V.; Burmasov, V. S.; Gavrilenko, D. E.; Kasatov, A. A.; Kandaurov, I. V.; Kurkuchekov, V. V.; Kuznetsov, S. A.; Mekler, K. I.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Popov, S. S.; Postupaev, V. V.; Rovenskikh, A. F.; Sklyarov, V. F.; Sorokina, N. V.; Trunev, Yu. A.; Vyacheslavov, L. N.
2015-12-01
There are described electromagnetic spectra of radiation emitted by magnetized plasma during sub-relativistic electron beam in a double plasma frequency band. Experimental studies were performed at the multiple-mirror trap GOL-3. The electron beam had the following parameters: 70-110 keV for the electron energy, 1-10 MW for the beam power and 30-300 μs for its duration. The spectrum was measured in 75-230 GHz frequency band. The frequency of the emission follows variations in electron plasma density and magnetic field strength. The specific emission power on the length of the plasma column is estimated on the level 0.75 kW/cm.
Ness, N F; Acuña, M H; Behannon, K W; Burlaga, L F; Connerney, J E; Lepping, R P; Neubauer, F M
1986-07-04
The magnetic field experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft revealed a strong planetary magnetic field of Uranus and an associated magnetosphere and fully developed bipolar masnetic tail. The detached bow shock wave in the solar wind supersonic flow was observed upstream at 23.7 Uranus radii (1 R(U) = 25,600 km) and the magnetopause boundary at 18.0 R(U), near the planet-sun line. A miaximum magnetic field of 413 nanotesla was observed at 4.19 R(U ), just before closest approach. Initial analyses reveal that the planetary magnetic field is well represented by that of a dipole offset from the center of the planet by 0.3 R(U). The angle between Uranus' angular momentum vector and the dipole moment vector has the surprisingly large value of 60 degrees. Thus, in an astrophysical context, the field of Uranus may be described as that of an oblique rotator. The dipole moment of 0.23 gauss R(3)(U), combined with the large spatial offset, leads to minimum and maximum magnetic fields on the surface of the planet of approximately 0.1 and 1.1 gauss, respectively. The rotation period of the magnetic field and hence that of the interior of the planet is estimated to be 17.29+/- 0.10 hours; the magnetotail rotates about the planet-sun line with the same period. Thelarge offset and tilt lead to auroral zones far from the planetary rotation axis poles. The rings and the moons are embedded deep within the magnetosphere, and, because of the large dipole tilt, they will have a profound and diurnally varying influence as absorbers of the trapped radiation belt particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, C. L.
2014-12-01
Mercury is the only inner solar system body other than Earth to possess an active core dynamo-driven magnetic field and the only planet with a small, highly dynamic magnetosphere. Measurements made by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft have provided a wealth of data on Mercury's magnetic field environment. Mercury's weak magnetic field was discovered 40 years ago by the Mariner 10 spacecraft, but its large-scale geometry, strength and origin could not be definitively established. MESSENGER data have shown that the field is dynamo-generated and can be described as an offset axisymmetric dipole field (hereafter OAD): the magnetic equator lies ~0.2 RM (RM = 2440 km) north of the geographic equator and the dipole moment is 2.8 x1019 Am2 (~0.03% that of Earth's). The weak internal field and the high, but variable, solar wind ram pressure drive vigorous magnetospheric dynamics and result in an average distance from the planet center to the sub-solar magnetopause of only 1.42 RM. Magnetospheric models developed with MESSENGER data have allowed re-analysis of the Mariner 10 observations, establishing that there has been no measureable secular variation in the internal field over 40 years. Together with spatial power spectra for the OAD, this provides critical constraints for viable dynamo models. Time-varying magnetopause fields induce secondary core fields, the magnitudes of which confirm the core radius estimated from MESSENGER gravity and Earth-based radar data. After accounting for large-scale magnetospheric fields, residual signatures are dominated by additional external fields that are organized in the local time frame and that vary with magnetospheric activity. Birkeland currents have been identified, which likely close in the planetary interior at depths below the base of the crust. Near-periapsis magnetic field measurements at altitudes greater than 200 km have tantalizing hints of crustal fields, but crustal
Kagan, Daniel; Milosavljevic, Milos; Spitkovsky, Anatoly
2013-09-01
We investigate magnetic reconnection and particle acceleration in relativistic pair plasmas with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of a kinetic-scale current sheet in a periodic geometry. We include a guide field that introduces an inclination between the reconnecting field lines and explore outside-of-the-current sheet magnetizations that are significantly below those considered by other authors carrying out similar calculations. Thus, our simulations probe the transitional regime in which the magnetic and plasma pressures are of the same order of magnitude. The tearing instability is the dominant mode in the current sheet for all guide field strengths, while the linear kink mode is less important even without the guide field, except in the lower magnetization case. Oblique modes seem to be suppressed entirely. In its nonlinear evolution, the reconnection layer develops a network of interconnected and interacting magnetic flux ropes. As smaller flux ropes merge into larger ones, the reconnection layer evolves toward a three-dimensional, disordered state in which the resulting flux rope segments contain magnetic substructure on plasma skin depth scales. Embedded in the flux ropes, we detect spatially and temporally intermittent sites of dissipation reflected in peaks in the parallel electric field. Magnetic dissipation and particle acceleration persist until the end of the simulations, with simulations with higher magnetization and lower guide field strength exhibiting greater and faster energy conversion and particle energization. At the end of our largest simulation, the particle energy spectrum attains a tail extending to high Lorentz factors that is best modeled with a combination of two additional thermal components. We confirm that the primary energization mechanism is acceleration by the electric field in the X-line region. The highest-energy positrons (electrons) are moderately beamed with median angles {approx}30 Degree-Sign -40 Degree
2016-09-28
When an active region rotated into a profile view, SDO was able to capture the magnificent loops arching above an active region (Sept. 28-29, 2016). Active region are areas of strong magnetic fields. The magnetic field lines above these regions are illuminated by charged particles spiraling along them. The images were taken in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. The video covers 12 hours of activity. The Earth was inset to give a sense of the scale of these towering arches. Movies are available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21101
Exploring dense and cold QCD in magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrer, E. J.; de la Incera, V.
2016-08-01
Strong magnetic fields are commonly generated in off-central relativistic heavy-ion collisions in the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab and in the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and have been used to probe the topological configurations of the QCD vacua. A strong magnetic field can affect the character and location of the QCD critical point, influence the QCD phases, and lead to anomalous transport of charge. To take advantage of the magnetic field as a probe of QCD at higher baryon densities, we are going to need experiments capable to scan the lower energy region. In this context, the nuclotron-based ion collider facility (NICA) at JINR offers a unique opportunity to explore such a region and complement alternative programs at RHIC and other facilities. In this paper we discuss some relevant problems of the interplay between QCD and magnetic fields and the important role the experiments at NICA can play in tackling them.
Magnetic fields from inflation?
Demozzi, Vittoria; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Rubinstein, Hector E-mail: viatcheslav.mukhanov@physik.uni-muenchen.de
2009-08-01
We consider the possibility of generation of the primordial magnetic field on inflation and show that the effect of the back reaction of this field can be very important. Assuming that the back reaction does not spoil inflation we find a rather strong restriction on the amplitude of the primordial field which could be generated on inflation. Namely, this amplitude recalculated to the present epoch cannot exceed 10{sup −32}G in Mpc scales. This field seems to be too small to be amplified to the observable values by a possible dynamo mechanism.
Strong versus weak wave-turbulence in relativistic field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berges, Jürgen; Sexty, Dénes
2011-04-01
Nonthermal scaling phenomena can exhibit a characteristic dependence on the dimensionality d of space. For d=3 and 4 we simulate a relativistic scalar field theory on a lattice and compute turbulent scaling exponents. We recover Kolmogorov or weak wave-turbulence in the perturbative high-momentum regime, where it exhibits the scaling exponent κw=d-3/2. In the nonperturbative infrared regime, we find a different scaling exponent κs=4(5) for d=3(4), which is in agreement with the recently predicted anomalously large values κs=d+1 of strong turbulence. We show how the latter can be seen to characterize stationary transport of a conserved effective particle number.
Relativistic mean field models for finite nuclei and neutron stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wei-Chia
In this dissertation we have created theoretical models for finite nuclei, nuclear matter, and neutron stars within the framework of relativistic mean field (RMF) theory, and we have used these models to investigate the elusive isovector sector and related physics, in particular, the neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei, the nuclear symmetry energy, and the properties of neutron stars. To build RMF models that incorporate collective excitations in finite nuclei in addition to their ground-state properties, we have extended the non-relativistic sum rule approach to the relativistic domain. This allows an efficient estimate of giant monopole energies. Moreover, we have combined an exact shell-model-like approach with the mean-field calculation to describe pairing correlations in open-shell nuclei. All the ingredients were then put together to establish the calibration scheme. We have also extended the transformation between model parameters and pseudo data of nuclear matter within the RMF context. Performing calibration in this pseudo data space can not only facilitate the searching algorithm but also make the pseudo data genuine model predictions. This calibration scheme is also supplemented by a covariance analysis enabling us to extract the information content of a model, including theoretical uncertainties and correlation coefficients. A series of RMF models subject to the same isoscalar constraints but one differing isovector assumption were then created using this calibration scheme. By comparing their predictions of the nuclear matter equation of state to both experimental and theoretical constraints, we found that a small neutron skin of about 0.16 fm in Pb208 is favored, indicating that the symmetry energy should be soft. To obtain stronger evidence, we proceeded to examine the evolution of the isotopic chains in both oxygen and calcium. Again, it was found that the model with such small neutron skin and soft symmetry energy can best describe both isotopic
I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch; G.M. Fraiman
2003-02-06
The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions describing average motion of a relativistic particle under the action of intensive high-frequency electromagnetic radiation are obtained. In weak, low-frequency background fields, such a particle on average drifts with an effective, relativistically invariant mass, which depends on the intensity of the electromagnetic field.
Magnetic dipole in a nonuniform magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraftmakher, Yaakov
2017-05-01
The magnetic moment of a permanent magnet is determined from forces acting on the magnet in nonuniform magnetic fields produced by two coaxial current-carrying coils. Therefore, the measurements are performed under well controllable and reproducible conditions. With a data-acquisition system, the experiments can be done in a reasonably short time. The magnetic moment of the magnet is in good agreement with values obtained by other experimental techniques. The experiment is well suited for undergraduate laboratories.
High field superconducting magnets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.
Motion Caused by Magnetic Field in Lobachevsky Space
Kudryashov, V. V.; Kurochkin, Yu. A.; Ovsiyuk, E. M.; Red'kov, V. M.
2010-03-24
We study motion of a relativistic particle in the 3-dimensional Lobachevsky space in the presence of an external magnetic field which is analogous to a constant uniform magnetic field in the Euclidean space. Three integrals of motion are found and equations of motion are solved exactly in the special cylindrical coordinates. Motion on surface of the cylinder of constant radius is considered in detail.
The interplanetary magnetic field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, L., Jr.
1972-01-01
Large-scale properties of the interplanetary magnetic field as determined by the solar wind velocity structure are examined. The various ways in which magnetic fields affect phenomena in the solar wind are summarized. The dominant role of high and low velocity solar wind streams that persist, with fluctuations and evolution, for weeks or months is emphasized. It is suggested that for most purposes the sector structure is better identified with the stream structure than with the magnetic polarity and that the polarity does not necessarily change from one velocity sector to the next. Several mechanisms that might produce the stream structure are considered. The interaction of the high and low velocity streams is analyzed in a model that is steady state when viewed in a frame that corotates with the sun.
2011-12-16
This frame from an animation shows how the magnetic field lines emanating from our sun spiral out into the solar system as the sun rotates. NASA Voyager 1 is in an area scientists are calling the stagnation region, at the outer layer of the heliosphere.
Relativistic mean-field models and nuclear matter constraints
Dutra, M.; Lourenco, O.; Carlson, B. V.; Delfino, A.; Menezes, D. P.; Avancini, S. S.; Stone, J. R.; Providencia, C.; Typel, S.
2013-05-06
This work presents a preliminary study of 147 relativistic mean-field (RMF) hadronic models used in the literature, regarding their behavior in the nuclear matter regime. We analyze here different kinds of such models, namely: (i) linear models, (ii) nonlinear {sigma}{sup 3}+{sigma}{sup 4} models, (iii) {sigma}{sup 3}+{sigma}{sup 4}+{omega}{sup 4} models, (iv) models containing mixing terms in the fields {sigma} and {omega}, (v) density dependent models, and (vi) point-coupling ones. In the finite range models, the attractive (repulsive) interaction is described in the Lagrangian density by the {sigma} ({omega}) field. The isospin dependence of the interaction is modeled by the {rho} meson field. We submit these sets of RMF models to eleven macroscopic (experimental and empirical) constraints, used in a recent study in which 240 Skyrme parametrizations were analyzed. Such constraints cover a wide range of properties related to symmetric nuclear matter (SNM), pure neutron matter (PNM), and both SNM and PNM.
Some exact solutions for a scalar field in the relativistic theory of gravitation
Sveshnikov, K.A.; Silaev, P.K. )
1989-03-01
The problem of finding exact solutions for matter fields in the relativistic theory of gravitation is of great interest. Particularly important is the question of the existence of particle-like solutions with finite sizes. As matter field it is natural to take a scalar field as the simplest. Moreover, study of this case can also be helpful for the study of other fields. Static spherically symmetric solutions for a scalar field in the relativistic theory of gravitation are found.
Warm and dense stellar matter under strong magnetic fields
Rabhi, A.; Panda, P. K.; Providencia, C.
2011-09-15
We investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the equation of state of warm stellar matter as it may occur in a protoneutron star. Both neutrino-free and neutrino-trapped matter at a fixed entropy per baryon are analyzed. A relativistic mean-field nuclear model, including the possibility of hyperon formation, is considered. A density-dependent magnetic field with a magnitude of 10{sup 15} G at the surface and not more than 3x10{sup 18} G at the center is considered. The magnetic field gives rise to a neutrino suppression, mainly at low densities, in matter with trapped neutrinos. It is shown that a hybrid protoneutron star will not evolve into a low-mass black hole if the magnetic field is strong enough and the magnetic field does not decay. However, the decay of the magnetic field after cooling may give rise to the formation of a low-mass black hole.
Bhuyan, M.; Panda, R. N.; Routray, T. R.; Patra, S. K.
2010-12-15
In the framework of relativistic mean field (RMF) theory, we have calculated the density distribution of protons and neutrons for {sup 40,42,44,48}Ca with NL3 and G2 parameter sets. The microscopic proton-nucleus optical potentials for p+{sup 40,42,44,48}Ca systems are evaluated from the Dirac nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude and the density of the target nucleus using relativistic-Love-Franey and McNeil-Ray-Wallace parametrizations. We have estimated the scattering observables, such as the elastic differential scattering cross section, analyzing power and the spin observables with the relativistic impulse approximation (RIA). The results have been compared with the experimental data for a few selective cases and we find that the use of density as well as the scattering matrix parametrizations are crucial for the theoretical prediction.
Relativistic jets shine through shocks or magnetic reconnection?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sironi, Lorenzo; Petropoulou, Maria; Giannios, Dimitrios
2015-06-01
Observations of gamma-ray-bursts and jets from active galactic nuclei reveal that the jet flow is characterized by a high radiative efficiency and that the dissipative mechanism must be a powerful accelerator of non-thermal particles. Shocks and magnetic reconnection have long been considered as possible candidates for powering the jet emission. Recent progress via fully-kinetic particle-in-cell simulations allows us to revisit this issue on firm physical grounds. We show that shock models are unlikely to account for the jet emission. In fact, when shocks are efficient at dissipating energy, they typically do not accelerate particles far beyond the thermal energy, and vice versa. In contrast, we show that magnetic reconnection can deposit more than 50 per cent of the dissipated energy into non-thermal leptons as long as the energy density of the magnetic field in the bulk flow is larger than the rest-mass energy density. The emitting region, i.e. the reconnection downstream, is characterized by a rough energy equipartition between magnetic fields and radiating particles, which naturally accounts for a commonly observed property of blazar jets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kagan, Daniel; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi
2016-12-01
The maximum synchrotron burnoff limit of 160 MeV represents a fundamental limit to radiation resulting from electromagnetic particle acceleration in one-zone ideal plasmas. In magnetic reconnection, however, particle acceleration and radiation are decoupled because the electric field is larger than the magnetic field in the diffusion region. We carry out two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations to determine the extent to which magnetic reconnection can produce synchrotron radiation above the burnoff limit. We use the test particle comparison (TPC) method to isolate the effects of cooling by comparing the trajectories and acceleration efficiencies of test particles incident on such a reconnection region with and without cooling them. We find that the cooled and uncooled particle trajectories are typically similar during acceleration in the reconnection region, and derive an effective limit on particle acceleration that is inversely proportional to the average magnetic field experienced by the particle during acceleration. Using the calculated distribution of this average magnetic field as a function of uncooled final particle energy, we find analytically that cooling does not affect power-law particle energy spectra except at energies far above the synchrotron burnoff limit. Finally, we compare fully cooled and uncooled simulations of reconnection, confirming that the synchrotron burnoff limit does not produce a cutoff in the particle energy spectrum. Our results indicate that the TPC method accurately predicts the effects of cooling on particle acceleration in relativistic reconnection, and that, even far above the burnoff limit, the synchrotron energy of radiation produced in reconnection is not limited by cooling.
Pair production rates in mildly relativistic, magnetized plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, M. L.; Harding, A. K.
1984-01-01
Electron-positron pairs may be produced by either one or two photons in the presence of a strong magnetic field. In magnetized plasmas with temperatures kT approximately sq mc, both of these processes may be important and could be competitive. The rates of one-photon and two-photon pair production by photons with Maxwellian, thermal bremsstrahlung, thermal synchrotron and power law spectra are calculated as a function of temperature or power law index and field strength. This allows a comparison of the two rates and a determination of the conditions under which each process may be a significant source of pairs in astrophysical plasmas. It is found that for photon densities n(gamma) or = 10 to the 25th power/cu cm and magnetic field strengths B or = 10 to the 12th power G, one-photon pair production dominates at kT approximately sq mc for a Maxwellian, at kT approximately 2 sq mc for a thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum, at all temperatures for a thermal synchrotron spectrum, and for power law spectra with indices s approximately 4.
Weakly relativistic quantum kinetic theory for electrostatic wave modes in magnetized plasmas
Hussain, Azhar; Stefan, Martin; Brodin, Gert
2014-03-15
We have derived the electrostatic dispersion relation in a magnetized plasma using a recently developed quantum kinetic model based on the Dirac equation. The model contains weakly relativistic spin effects such as Thomas precession, the polarization currents associated with the spin and the spin-orbit coupling. It turns out that for strictly electrostatic perturbations the non-relativistic spin effects vanish, and the modification of the classical dispersion relation is solely associated with the relativistic terms. Several new wave modes appear due the electron spin effects, and an example for astrophysical plasmas are given.
Cheng, Lan; Xiao, Yunlong; Liu, Wenjian
2009-12-28
It is recognized only recently that the incorporation of the magnetic balance condition is absolutely essential for four-component relativistic theories of magnetic properties. Another important issue to be handled is the so-called gauge problem in calculations of, e.g., molecular magnetic shielding tensors with finite bases. It is shown here that the magnetic balance can be adapted to distributed gauge origins, leading to, e.g., magnetically balanced gauge-including atomic orbitals (MB-GIAOs) in which each magnetically balanced atomic orbital has its own local gauge origin placed on its center. Such a MB-GIAO scheme can be combined with any level of theory for electron correlation. The first implementation is done here at the coupled-perturbed Dirac-Kohn-Sham level. The calculated molecular magnetic shielding tensors are not only independent of the choice of gauge origin but also converge rapidly to the basis set limit. Close inspections reveal that (zeroth order) negative energy states are only important for the expansion of first order electronic core orbitals. Their contributions to the paramagnetism are therefore transferable from atoms to molecule and are essentially canceled out for chemical shifts. This allows for simplifications of the coupled-perturbed equations.
Cremaschini, Claudio Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Tessarotto, Massimo
2014-03-15
The kinetic description of relativistic plasmas in the presence of time-varying and spatially non-uniform electromagnetic (EM) fields is a fundamental theoretical issue both in astrophysics and plasma physics. This refers, in particular, to the treatment of collisionless and strongly-magnetized plasmas in the presence of intense radiation sources. In this paper, the problem is investigated in the framework of a covariant gyrokinetic treatment for Vlasov–Maxwell equilibria. The existence of a new class of kinetic equilibria is pointed out, which occur for spatially-symmetric systems. These equilibria are shown to exist in the presence of non-uniform background EM fields and curved space-time. In the non-relativistic limit, this feature permits the determination of kinetic equilibria even for plasmas in which particle energy is not conserved due to the occurrence of explicitly time-dependent EM fields. Finally, absolute stability criteria are established which apply in the case of infinitesimal symmetric perturbations that can be either externally or internally produced.
Meson spectrum in strong magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreichikov, M. A.; Kerbikov, B. O.; Orlovsky, V. D.; Simonov, Yu. A.
2013-05-01
We study the relativistic quark-antiquark system embedded in a magnetic field (MF). The Hamiltonian containing confinement, one gluon exchange, and spin-spin interaction is derived. We analytically follow the evolution of the lowest meson states as a function of MF strength. Calculating the one gluon exchange interaction energy ⟨VOGE⟩ and spin-spin contribution ⟨aSS⟩ we have observed that these corrections remain finite at large MF, preventing the vanishing of the total ρ meson mass at some Bcrit, as previously thought. We display the ρ masses as functions of the MF in comparison with recent lattice data.
Boers, J.E.
1994-12-31
High power microwave tubes require well focused, high energy electron beams. High frequencies cause the rf interaction with the beam to concentrate in the outer edge of the beam, making the center relatively unimportant. The Magnetron Injection Gun (MIG) uses a truncated cone for a cathode and an axial magnetic field to concentrate the electron current in an annulus, eliminating the current in the center of the beam. High power microwave tubes used for rf plasma generation, and for accelerators require these high current, relativistic beams. A theoretical study of Relativistic MIG`s has been carried out using PBGUNS, a digital program for the Poisson simulation of particle beams. The simulations show that there are two types of guns that need to be considered, those with cathodes that are short axially compared with their mean radius from the axis and those whose length are comparable to or longer than the mean radius. Short cathodes are dominated by the axial end conditions which need to be close to the Pierce angle but are little effected by the shape of the accelerating electrode. The longer cathodes are critically dependent on both the end conditions and the accelerating electrode. One or two transition regions are needed; one to transport the beam to its final diameter and a second to turn it axially in such a way that it does not ripple excessively.
On slow flows of a weakly stratified relativistic fluid in a static gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruban, V. P.
2014-04-01
Simplified equations for slow flows of a weakly stratified (in entropy) fluid inside or near a massive astrophysical object have been derived from the variational formulation of ideal general relativistic hydrodynamics under the conditions that the gravitational field in the leading order is centrosymmetric and static and that the effect of a magnetic field is negligibly small. Internal waves and vortices in such systems are soft modes as compared to sound. This circumstance allows the formulation of a "soundproof" Hamiltonian model. This model is an analog of nonrelativistic hydrodynamic anelastic models, which are widely used in studies of internal waves and/or convection in spatially inhomogeneous compressible media in atmospheric physics, geophysics, and astrophysics.
Jones, T.L.
1993-10-01
This letter is a response to an article by Savitz and Kaune, EHP 101:76-80. W-L wire code was applied to data from a 1988 Denver study, and an association was reported between high W-L wire code and childhood cancer. This author discusses several studies and provides explanations which weakens the argument that classification error resulted in an appreciable reduction in the association between W-L high wire code and childhood cancer. In conclusion, the fact that new wire code is only weakly correlated with magnetic field measurements (in the same manner as the original W-L wire code) suggests that the newly reported stronger association with childhood cancer is likely due to factors other than magnetic fields. Differential residential mobility and differential residential age are two possible explanations and are suggestive that the reported association may be false.
Photonic Magnetic Field Sensor
2007-11-02
reduce feedback in fiber optic links can be the basis for excellent magnetic field sensors. Based on the giant magneto-optical ( GMO ) or Faraday...Squids are those based upon the giant magneto-optical ( GMO ) effect in ferrimagnetic materials or YIG garnets and the giant magneto-resistance (GMR...effect in manganese based compounds. The development of the GMO material was mostly motivated by the need for compact, in-line fiber optical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Axford, W. I.
The fundamental principles of particle acceleration by magnetic reconnection in cosmic plasmas are reviewed. The history of reconnection models is traced, and consideration is given to the Kelvin-Helmholtz theorem, the frozen-field theorem, the application of the Kelvin-Helmholtz theorem to a collisionless plasma, solutions to specific reconnection problems, and configurational instability. Diagrams and graphs are provided, and the objections raised by critics of the reconnection theory and/or its astrophysical applications are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiegelmann, Thomas; Petrie, Gordon J. D.; Riley, Pete
2017-09-01
Coronal magnetic field models use photospheric field measurements as boundary condition to model the solar corona. We review in this paper the most common model assumptions, starting from MHD-models, magnetohydrostatics, force-free and finally potential field models. Each model in this list is somewhat less complex than the previous one and makes more restrictive assumptions by neglecting physical effects. The magnetohydrostatic approach neglects time-dependent phenomena and plasma flows, the force-free approach neglects additionally the gradient of the plasma pressure and the gravity force. This leads to the assumption of a vanishing Lorentz force and electric currents are parallel (or anti-parallel) to the magnetic field lines. Finally, the potential field approach neglects also these currents. We outline the main assumptions, benefits and limitations of these models both from a theoretical (how realistic are the models?) and a practical viewpoint (which computer resources to we need?). Finally we address the important problem of noisy and inconsistent photospheric boundary conditions and the possibility of using chromospheric and coronal observations to improve the models.
General relativistic considerations of the field shedding model of fast radio bursts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Punsly, Brian; Bini, Donato
2016-06-01
Popular models of fast radio bursts (FRBs) involve the gravitational collapse of neutron star progenitors to black holes. It has been proposed that the shedding of the strong neutron star magnetic field (B) during the collapse is the power source for the radio emission. Previously, these models have utilized the simplicity of the Schwarzschild metric which has the restriction that the magnetic flux is magnetic `hair' that must be shed before final collapse. But neutron stars have angular momentum and charge and a fully relativistic Kerr-Newman solution exists in which B has its source inside of the event horizon. In this Letter, we consider the magnetic flux to be shed as a consequence of the electric discharge of a metastable collapsed state of a Kerr-Newman black hole. It has also been argued that the shedding model will not operate due to pair creation. By considering the pulsar death line, we find that for a neutron star with B = 1011-1013 G and a long rotation period, >1s this is not a concern. We also discuss the observational evidence supporting the plausibility of magnetic flux shedding models of FRBs that are spawned from rapidly rotating progenitors.
Magnetic field contribution to the last electron-photon scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giovannini, Massimo
2010-11-01
When the cosmic microwave photons scatter electrons just prior to the decoupling of matter and radiation, magnetic fields do contribute to the Stokes matrix as well as to the scalar, vector and tensor components of the transport equations for the brightness perturbations. The magnetized electron-photon scattering is hereby discussed in general terms by including, for the first time, the contribution of magnetic fields with arbitrary direction and in the presence of the scalar, vector and tensor modes of the geometry. The propagation of relic vectors and relic gravitons is discussed for a varying magnetic field orientation and for different photon directions. The source terms of the transport equations in the presence of the relativistic fluctuations of the geometry are also explicitly averaged over the magnetic field orientations and the problem of a consistent account of the small-scale and large-scale magnetic field is briefly outlined.
Magnetic Field Topology in Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.
2000-01-01
We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.
Low field magnetic resonance imaging
Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.
2010-07-13
A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.
Magnetic Field Topology in Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.
2000-01-01
We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.
Relativistic theory of nuclear magnetic resonance parameters in a Gaussian basis representation
Kutzelnigg, Werner; Liu Wenjian
2009-07-28
The calculation of NMR parameters from relativistic quantum theory in a Gaussian basis expansion requires some care. While in the absence of a magnetic field the expansion in a kinetically balanced basis converges for the wave function in the mean and for the energy with any desired accuracy, this is not necessarily the case for magnetic properties. The results for the magnetizability or the nuclear magnetic shielding are not even correct in the nonrelativistic limit (nrl) if one expands the original Dirac equation in a kinetically balanced Gaussian basis. This defect disappears if one starts from the unitary transformed Dirac equation as suggested by Kutzelnigg [Phys. Rev. A 67, 032109 (2003)]. However, a new difficulty can arise instead if one applies the transformation in the presence of the magnetic field of a point nucleus. If one decomposes certain contributions, the individual terms may diverge, although their sum is regular. A controlled cancellation may become difficult and numerical instabilities can arise. Various ways exist to avoid these singularities and at the same time get the correct nrl. There are essentially three approaches intermediate between the transformed and the untransformed formulation, namely, the bispinor decomposition, the decomposition of the lower component, and the hybrid unitary transformation partially at operator and partially at matrix level. All three possibilities were first considered by Xiao et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 214101 (2007)] in a different context and in a different nomenclature. Their analysis and classification in a more general context are given here for the first time. Use of an extended balanced basis has no advantages and has other drawbacks and is not competitive, while the use of a restricted magnetic balance basis can be justified.
Magnetic field switchable dry adhesives.
Krahn, Jeffrey; Bovero, Enrico; Menon, Carlo
2015-02-04
A magnetic field controllable dry adhesive device is manufactured. The normal adhesion force can be increased or decreased depending on the presence of an applied magnetic field. If the magnetic field is present during the entire normal adhesion test cycle which includes both applying a preloading force and measuring the pulloff pressure, a decrease in adhesion is observed when compared to when there is no applied magnetic field. Similarly, if the magnetic field is present only during the preload portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, a decrease in adhesion is observed because of an increased stiffness of the magnetically controlled dry adhesive device. When the applied magnetic field is present during only the pulloff portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, either an increase or a decrease in normal adhesion is observed depending on the direction of the applied magnetic field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Russell, C. T.
1979-01-01
The paper presents an overview of the Martian magnetic field measurements and the criticisms made of them. The measurements of the Mars 2, 3, and 5 spacecraft were interpreted by Dolginov et al. (1976, 1978) to be consistent with an intrinsic planetary magnetic moment of 2.5 times 10 to the 22nd power gauss cu cm, basing this result on the apparent size of the obstacle responsible for deflecting the solar wind and an apparent encounter of the spacecraft with the planetary field. It is shown that if the dependence of the Martian magnetic moment on the rotation rate was linear, the estimate of the moment would be far larger than reported by Dolginov et al. An upper limit of 250 km is calculated for the dynamo radius using the similarity law, compared with 500 km obtained by Dolginov et al. It is concluded that the possible strength of a Martian dynamo is below expectations, and it is likely that the Mars dynamo is not presently operative.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campanelli, Leonardo
2016-03-01
We analyze the evolution of superhorizon-scale magnetic fields from the end of inflation till today. Whatever is the mechanism responsible for their generation during inflation, we find that a given magnetic mode with wave number k evolves, after inflation, according to the values of k ηe , nk , and Ωk , where ηe is the conformal time at the end of inflation, nk is the number density spectrum of inflation-produced photons, and Ωk is the phase difference between the two Bogoliubov coefficients which characterize the state of that mode at the end of inflation. For any realistic inflationary magnetogenesis scenario, we find that nk-1≪|k ηe|≪1 , and three evolutionary scenarios are possible: (i) |Ωk∓π |=O (1 ) , in which case the evolution of the magnetic spectrum Bk(η ) is adiabatic, a2Bk(η )=const , with a being the expansion parameter; (ii) |Ωk∓π |≪|k ηe| , in which case the evolution is superadiabatic, a2Bk(η )∝η ; (iii) |k ηe|≪|Ωk∓π |≪1 or |k ηe|˜|Ωk∓π |≪1 , in which case an early phase of adiabatic evolution is followed, after a time η⋆˜|Ωk∓π |/k , by a superadiabatic evolution. Once a given mode reenters the horizon, it remains frozen into the plasma and then evolves adiabatically till today. As a corollary of our results, we find that inflation-generated magnetic fields evolve adiabatically on all scales and for all times in conformal-invariant free Maxwell theory, while they evolve superadiabatically after inflation on superhorizon scales in the nonconformal-invariant Ratra model, where the inflaton is kinematically coupled to the electromagnetic field. The latter result supports and, somehow, clarifies our recent claim that the Ratra model can account for the presence of cosmic magnetic fields without suffering from both backreaction and strong-coupling problems.
Green's function relativistic mean field theory for Λ hypernuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, S.-H.; Sun, T.-T.; Zhang, W.
2017-05-01
The relativistic mean field theory with the Green's function method is extended to study Λ hypernuclei. Taking the hypernucleus Ca61Λ as an example, the single-particle resonant states for Λ hyperons are investigated by analyzing the density of states, and the corresponding energies and widths are given. Different behaviors are observed for the resonant states, i.e., the distributions of the very narrow 1 f5 /2 and 1 f7 /2 states are very similar to bound states while those of the wide 1 g7 /2 and 1 g9 /2 states are like scattering states. Besides, the impurity effect of Λ hyperons on the single-neutron resonant states is investigated. For most of the resonant states, both the energies and widths decrease with adding more Λ hyperons due to the attractive Λ N interaction. Finally, the energy level structure of Λ hyperons in the Ca hypernucleus isotopes with mass number A =53 -73 are studied; obvious shell structure and small spin-orbit splitting are found for the single-Λ spectrum.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Etters, R. D.
1982-01-01
A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer. The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion. The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields.
Effects of non-linearities on magnetic field generation
Nalson, Ellie; Malik, Karim A.; Christopherson, Adam J. E-mail: achristopherson@gmail.com
2014-09-01
Magnetic fields are present on all scales in the Universe. While we understand the processes which amplify the fields fairly well, we do not have a ''natural'' mechanism to generate the small initial seed fields. By using fully relativistic cosmological perturbation theory and going beyond the usual confines of linear theory we show analytically how magnetic fields are generated. This is the first analytical calculation of the magnetic field at second order, using gauge-invariant cosmological perturbation theory, and including all the source terms. To this end, we have rederived the full set of governing equations independently. Our results suggest that magnetic fields of the order of 10{sup -30}- 10{sup -27} G can be generated (although this depends on the small scale cut-off of the integral), which is largely in agreement with previous results that relied upon numerical calculations. These fields are likely too small to act as the primordial seed fields for dynamo mechanisms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deák, A.; Simon, E.; Balogh, L.; Szunyogh, L.; dos Santos Dias, M.; Staunton, J. B.
2014-06-01
We develop a self-consistent relativistic disordered local moment (RDLM) scheme aimed at describing finite-temperature magnetism of itinerant metals from first principles. Our implementation in terms of the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker multiple-scattering theory and the coherent potential approximation allows us to relate the orientational distribution of the spins to the electronic structure, thus a self-consistent treatment of the distribution is possible. We present applications for bulk bcc Fe, L10-FePt, and FeRh ordered in the CsCl structure. The calculations for Fe show significant variation of the local moments with temperature, whereas according to the mean-field treatment of the spin fluctuations the Curie temperature is overestimated. The magnetic anisotropy of FePt alloys is found to depend strongly on intermixing between nominally Fe and Pt layers, and it shows a power-law behavior as a function of magnetization for a broad range of chemical disorder. In the case of FeRh we construct a lattice constant vs temperature phase diagram and determine the phase line of metamagnetic transitions based on self-consistent RDLM free-energy curves.
4-Component relativistic magnetically induced current density using London atomic orbitals.
Sulzer, David; Olejniczak, Małgorzata; Bast, Radovan; Saue, Trond
2011-12-14
We present the implementation and application of 4-component relativistic magnetically induced current density using London atomic orbitals for self-consistent field models. We obtain a magnetically balanced basis by a simple scheme where orbitals obtained by imposing restricted kinetic balance are extended by their unrestricted kinetic balance complement. The presented methodology makes it possible to analyze the concept of aromaticity based on the ring current criterion for closed-shell molecules across the periodic table and is independent of the choice of gauge origin. As a first illustration of the methodology we study plots of the magnetically induced current density and its divergence in the series C(5)H(5)E (E = CH, N, P, As, Sb, Bi) at the Kohn-Sham level, as well as integrated ring current susceptibilities, which we compare to previous results (R. Bast et al., Chem. Phys., 2009, 356, 187) obtained using a common gauge origin approach. We find that the current strength decreases monotonically along the series, but that all molecules qualify as aromatic according to the ring current criterion.
Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernandez, Juan; Kovtun, Pavel
2017-05-01
We present the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics coupled to dynamical electromagnetic fields, including the effects of polarization, electric fields, and the derivative expansion. We enumerate the transport coefficients at leading order in derivatives, including electrical conductivities, viscosities, and thermodynamic coefficients. We find the constraints on transport coefficients due to the positivity of entropy production, and derive the corresponding Kubo formulas. For the neutral state in a magnetic field, small fluctuations include Alfvén waves, magnetosonic waves, and the dissipative modes. For the state with a non-zero dynamical charge density in a magnetic field, plasma oscillations gap out all propagating modes, except for Alfvén-like waves with a quadratic dispersion relation. We relate the transport coefficients in the "conventional" magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using Maxwell's equations in matter) to those in the "dual" version of magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using the conserved magnetic flux).
Reconnection of Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1984-01-01
Spacecraft observations of steady and nonsteady reconnection at the magnetopause are reviewed. Computer simulations of three-dimensional reconnection in the geomagnetic tail are discussed. Theoretical aspects of the energization of particles in current sheets and of the microprocesses in the diffusion region are presented. Terrella experiments in which magnetospheric reconnection is simulated at both the magnetopause and in the tail are described. The possible role of reconnection in the evolution of solar magnetic fields and solar flares is discussed. A two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic computer simulation of turbulent reconnection is examined. Results concerning reconnection in Tokamak devices are also presented.
Matsumoto, Jin; Asano, Eiji; Shibata, Kazunari; Masada, Youhei
2011-05-20
The nonlinear dynamics of outflows driven by magnetic explosion on the surface of a compact star is investigated through special relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We adopt, as the initial equilibrium state, a spherical stellar object embedded in hydrostatic plasma which has a density {rho}(r) {proportional_to} r{sup -}{alpha} and is threaded by a dipole magnetic field. The injection of magnetic energy at the surface of a compact star breaks the equilibrium and triggers a two-component outflow. At the early evolutionary stage, the magnetic pressure increases rapidly around the stellar surface, initiating a magnetically driven outflow. A strong forward shock driven outflow is then excited. The expansion velocity of the magnetically driven outflow is characterized by the Alfven velocity on the stellar surface and follows a simple scaling relation v{sub mag} {proportional_to} v{sub A}{sup 1/2}. When the initial density profile declines steeply with radius, the strong shock is accelerated self-similarly to relativistic velocity ahead of the magnetically driven component. We find that it evolves according to a self-similar relation {Gamma}{sub sh} {proportional_to} r{sub sh}, where {Gamma}{sub sh} is the Lorentz factor of the plasma measured at the shock surface r{sub sh}. A purely hydrodynamic process would be responsible for the acceleration mechanism of the shock driven outflow. Our two-component outflow model, which is the natural outcome of the magnetic explosion, can provide a better understanding of the magnetic active phenomena on various magnetized compact stars.
Trends in magnetism of free Rh clusters via relativistic ab-initio calculations.
Šipr, O; Ebert, H; Minár, J
2015-02-11
A fully relativistic ab-initio study on free Rh clusters of 13-135 atoms is performed to identify general trends concerning their magnetism and to check whether concepts which proved to be useful in interpreting magnetism of 3d metals are applicable to magnetism of 4d systems. We found that there is no systematic relation between local magnetic moments and coordination numbers. On the other hand, the Stoner model appears well-suited both as a criterion for the onset of magnetism and as a guide for the dependence of local magnetic moments on the site-resolved density of states at the Fermi level. Large orbital magnetic moments antiparallel to spin magnetic moments were found for some sites. The intra-atomic magnetic dipole Tz term can be quite large at certain sites but as a whole it is unlikely to affect the interpretation of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments based on the sum rules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Wei; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bing; Li, Shengtai
2015-06-01
We perform 3D relativistic ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations to study the collisions between high-σ (Poynting-flux-dominated (PFD)) blobs which contain both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components. This is meant to mimic the interactions inside a highly variable PFD jet. We discover a significant electromagnetic field (EMF) energy dissipation with an Alfvénic rate with the efficiency around 35%. Detailed analyses show that this dissipation is mostly facilitated by the collision-induced magnetic reconnection. Additional resolution and parameter studies show a robust result that the relative EMF energy dissipation efficiency is nearly independent of the numerical resolution or most physical parameters in the relevant parameter range. The reconnection outflows in our simulation can potentially form the multi-orientation relativistic mini jets as needed for several analytical models. We also find a linear relationship between the σ values before and after the major EMF energy dissipation process. Our results give support to the proposed astrophysical models that invoke significant magnetic energy dissipation in PFD jets, such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence model for gamma-ray bursts, and reconnection triggered mini jets model for active galactic nuclei. The simulation movies are shown in http://www.physics.unlv.edu/∼deng/simulation1.html.
Deng, Wei; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bing; Li, Shengtai
2015-05-29
We perform 3D relativistic ideal MHD simulations to study the collisions between high-σ (Poynting- ux-dominated) blobs which contain both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components. This is meant to mimic the interactions inside a highly variable Poynting- ux-dominated jet. We discover a significant electromagnetic field (EMF) energy dissipation with an Alfvenic rate with the efficiency around 35%. Detailed analyses show that this dissipation is mostly facilitated by the collision-induced magnetic reconnection. Additional resolution and parameter studies show a robust result that the relative EMF energy dissipation efficiency is nearly independent of the numerical resolution or most physical parameters in the relevant parameter range. The reconnection outflows in our simulation can potentially form the multi-orientation relativistic mini-jets as needed for several analytical models. We also find a linear relationship between the σ values before and after the major EMF energy dissipation process. In conclusion, our results give support to the proposed astrophysical models that invoke signi cant magnetic energy dissipation in Poynting- ux-dominated jets, such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence (ICMART) model for GRBs, and reconnection triggered mini-jets model for AGNs.
Deng, Wei; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bing; ...
2015-05-29
We perform 3D relativistic ideal MHD simulations to study the collisions between high-σ (Poynting- ux-dominated) blobs which contain both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components. This is meant to mimic the interactions inside a highly variable Poynting- ux-dominated jet. We discover a significant electromagnetic field (EMF) energy dissipation with an Alfvenic rate with the efficiency around 35%. Detailed analyses show that this dissipation is mostly facilitated by the collision-induced magnetic reconnection. Additional resolution and parameter studies show a robust result that the relative EMF energy dissipation efficiency is nearly independent of the numerical resolution or most physical parameters in themore » relevant parameter range. The reconnection outflows in our simulation can potentially form the multi-orientation relativistic mini-jets as needed for several analytical models. We also find a linear relationship between the σ values before and after the major EMF energy dissipation process. In conclusion, our results give support to the proposed astrophysical models that invoke signi cant magnetic energy dissipation in Poynting- ux-dominated jets, such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence (ICMART) model for GRBs, and reconnection triggered mini-jets model for AGNs.« less
Deng, Wei; Zhang, Bing; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu E-mail: sli@lanl.gov
2015-06-01
We perform 3D relativistic ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations to study the collisions between high-σ (Poynting-flux-dominated (PFD)) blobs which contain both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components. This is meant to mimic the interactions inside a highly variable PFD jet. We discover a significant electromagnetic field (EMF) energy dissipation with an Alfvénic rate with the efficiency around 35%. Detailed analyses show that this dissipation is mostly facilitated by the collision-induced magnetic reconnection. Additional resolution and parameter studies show a robust result that the relative EMF energy dissipation efficiency is nearly independent of the numerical resolution or most physical parameters in the relevant parameter range. The reconnection outflows in our simulation can potentially form the multi-orientation relativistic mini jets as needed for several analytical models. We also find a linear relationship between the σ values before and after the major EMF energy dissipation process. Our results give support to the proposed astrophysical models that invoke significant magnetic energy dissipation in PFD jets, such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence model for gamma-ray bursts, and reconnection triggered mini jets model for active galactic nuclei. The simulation movies are shown in http://www.physics.unlv.edu/∼deng/simulation1.html.
Relativistic Effects on Electron Transport in Magnetic Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drchal, Václav; Kudrnovský, Josef; Turek, Ilja
We study the relativistic effects on electron transport in spin-polarized metals and random alloys on ab initio level using the fully relativistic tight-binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method. We employ a Kubo linear-response approach adapted to disordered multisublattice systems in which the chemical disorder is described in terms of the coherent potential approximation (CPA). The CPA vertex corrections are included. We calculate both the Fermi surface and Fermi sea terms of the full conductivity tensor. We find that in cubic ferromagnetic 3d transition metals (Fe, Co, Ni) and their random binary alloys (Ni-Fe, Fe-Si) the Fermi sea term in the anomalous Hall conductivity is small in comparison with the Fermi surface term, however, in more complicated structures, such as hexagonal Co and selected Co-based Heusler alloys, it becomes important. We find an overall good agreement between the theory and experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Ohsuga, Ken
2017-08-01
By performing 2.5-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we demonstrate supercritical accretion onto a non-rotating, magnetized neutron star, where the magnetic field strength of dipole fields is 1010 G on the star surface. We found the supercritical accretion flow consists of two parts: the accretion columns and the truncated accretion disk. The supercritical accretion disk, which appears far from the neutron star, is truncated at around ≃3 R * (R * = 106 cm is the neutron star radius), where the magnetic pressure via the dipole magnetic fields balances with the radiation pressure of the disks. The angular momentum of the disk around the truncation radius is effectively transported inward through magnetic torque by dipole fields, inducing the spin up of a neutron star. The evaluated spin-up rate, ˜-10-11 s s-1, is consistent with the recent observations of the ultraluminous X-ray pulsars. Within the truncation radius, the gas falls onto a neutron star along the dipole fields, which results in a formation of accretion columns onto the northern and southern hemispheres. The net accretion rate and the luminosity of the column are ≃66 L Edd/c 2 and ≲10 L Edd, where L Edd is the Eddington luminosity and c is the light speed. Our simulations support a hypothesis whereby the ultraluminous X-ray pulsars are powered by the supercritical accretion onto the magnetized neutron stars.
Relativistic effects on the nuclear magnetic shielding in the MF (M=Cu, Ag, Au) series
David, Jorge; Restrepo, Albeiro
2007-11-15
Relativistic effects on the nuclear magnetic shielding {sigma}(M) of the series of diatomics MF (M=Cu, Ag, Au) are calculated and analyzed using the Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) method in the random phase approximation (RPA). Significant differences due to relativistic effects on the shielding constant {sigma}(M) are found in this series of atoms. The high electronegativity of the fluorine atom works in conjunction with the spin-orbit coupling to increase the calculated value for {sigma}(Au). An unusually large diamagnetic contribution to the shielding constant is observed. Nonrelativistic nuclear magnetic shielding [{sigma}{sup NR}(M)] shows very good linear correlation with the nuclear charge (Z) of the metal, while the relativistic shielding [{sigma}{sup rel}(M)] varies as Z{sup 2.26}.
The Heliospheric Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owens, Mathew J.; Forsyth, Robert J.
2013-12-01
The heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) is the extension of the coronal magnetic field carried out into the solar system by the solar wind. It is the means by which the Sun interacts with planetary magnetospheres and channels charged particles propagating through the heliosphere. As the HMF remains rooted at the solar photosphere as the Sun rotates, the large-scale HMF traces out an Archimedean spiral. This pattern is distorted by the interaction of fast and slow solar wind streams, as well as the interplanetary manifestations of transient solar eruptions called coronal mass ejections. On the smaller scale, the HMF exhibits an array of waves, discontinuities, and turbulence, which give hints to the solar wind formation process. This review aims to summarise observations and theory of the small- and large-scale structure of the HMF. Solar-cycle and cycle-to-cycle evolution of the HMF is discussed in terms of recent spacecraft observations and pre-spaceage proxies for the HMF in geomagnetic and galactic cosmic ray records.
Polar Magnetic Field Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Russell, C. T.
1999-01-01
This grant covers the initial data reduction and analysis of the magnetic field measurements of the Polar spacecraft. At this writing data for the first three years of the mission have been processed and deposited in the key parameter database. These data are also available in a variety of time resolutions and coordinate systems via a webserver at UCLA that provides both plots and digital data. The flight software has twice been reprogrammed: once to remove a glitch in the data where there were rare collisions between commands in the central processing unit and once to provide burst mode data at 100 samples per second on a regular basis. The instrument continues to function as described in the instrument paper (1.1 in the bibliography attached below). The early observations were compared with observations on the same field lines at lower altitude. The polar magnetic measurements also proved to be most useful for testing the accuracy of MHD models. WE also made important contributions to study of waves and turbulence.
Photonic Magnetic Field Sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wyntjes, Geert
2002-02-01
Small, in-line polarization rotators or isolators to reduce feedback in fiber optic links can be the basis for excellent magnetic field sensors. Based on the giant magneto-optical (GMO) or Faraday effect in iron garnets, they with a magnetic field of a few hundred Gauss, (20 mT) for an interaction length for an optical beam of a few millimeters achieve a polarization rotation or phase shift of 45 deg (1/8 cycle). When powered by a small laser diode, with the induced linear phase shift recovered at the shot noise limit, we have demonstrated sensitivities at the 3.3 nT/Hz1/2 level for frequencies from less than 1 Hz to frequencies into the high kHz range. Through further improvements; an increase in interaction length, better materials and by far the greatest factor, the addition of a flux concentrator, sensitivities at the pT/Hz1/2 level appear to be within reach. We will detail such a design and discuss the issues that may limit achieving these goals.
Polarization of radiation of electrons in highly turbulent magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prosekin, A. Yu.; Kelner, S. R.; Aharonian, F. A.
2016-09-01
We study the polarization properties of the jitter and synchrotron radiation produced by electrons in highly turbulent anisotropic magnetic fields. The net polarization is provided by the geometry of the magnetic field the directions of which are parallel to a certain plane. Such conditions may appear in the relativistic shocks during the amplification of the magnetic field through the so-called Weibel instability. While the polarization properties of the jitter radiation allows extraction of direct information on the turbulence spectrum as well as the geometry of magnetic field, the polarization of the synchrotron radiation reflects the distribution of the magnetic field over its strength. For the isotropic distribution of monoenergetic electrons, we found that the degree of polarization of the synchrotron radiation is larger than the polarization of the jitter radiation. For the power-law energy distribution of electrons the relation between the degree of polarization of synchrotron and jitter radiation depends on the spectral index of the distribution.
What is the magnetic field distribution for the equation of state of magnetized neutron stars?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dexheimer, V.; Franzon, B.; Gomes, R. O.; Farias, R. L. S.; Avancini, S. S.; Schramm, S.
2017-10-01
In this Letter, we report a realistic calculation of the magnetic field profile for the equation of state inside strongly magnetized neutron stars. Unlike previous estimates, which are widely used in the literature, we find that magnetic fields increase relatively slowly with increasing baryon chemical potential (or baryon density) of magnetized matter. More precisely, the increase is polynomial instead of exponential, as previously assumed. Through the analysis of several different realistic models for the microscopic description of stellar matter (including hadronic, hybrid and quark models) combined with general relativistic solutions endowed with a poloidal magnetic field obtained by solving Einstein-Maxwell's field equations in a self-consistent way, we generate a phenomenological fit for the magnetic field distribution in the stellar polar direction to be used as input in microscopic calculations.
Magnetic Fields: Visible and Permanent.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Winkeljohn, Dorothy R.; Earl, Robert D.
1983-01-01
Children will be able to see the concept of a magnetic field translated into a visible reality using the simple method outlined. Standard shelf paper, magnets, iron filings, and paint in a spray can are used to prepare a permanent and well-detailed picture of the magnetic field. (Author/JN)
López, Rodrigo A.; Moya, Pablo S.; Muñoz, Víctor; Viñas, Adolfo F.; Valdivia, J. Alejandro
2014-09-15
We use a kinetic treatment to study the linear transverse dispersion relation for a magnetized isotropic relativistic electron-positron plasma with finite relativistic temperature. The explicit linear dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves propagating along a constant background magnetic field is presented, including an analytical continuation to the whole complex frequency plane for the case of Maxwell-Jüttner velocity distribution functions. This dispersion relation is studied numerically for various temperatures. For left-handed solutions, the system presents two branches, the electromagnetic ordinary mode and the Alfvén mode. In the low frequency regime, the Alfvén branch has two dispersive zones, the normal zone (where ∂ω/∂k > 0) and an anomalous zone (where ∂ω/∂k < 0). We find that in the anomalous zone of the Alfvén branch, the electromagnetic waves are damped, and there is a maximum wave number for which the Alfvén branch is suppressed. We also study the dependence of the Alfvén velocity and effective plasma frequency with the temperature. We complemented the analytical and numerical approaches with relativistic full particle simulations, which consistently agree with the analytical results.
Mesons in ultra-intense magnetic field: an evaded collapse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerbikov, B. O.; Andreichikov, M. A.; Simonov, Yu. A.
2017-03-01
Spectra of qq¯ mesons are investigated in the framework of the Hamiltonian obtained from the relativistic path integral in external homogeneous magnetic field. The spectra of all 12 spin-isospin s-wave states generated by π- and ρ-mesons with different spin projections, are studied analytically as functions of the field strength. Three types of behavior with characteristic splittings are found. The results are in agreement with recent lattice calculations.
Dissipation in relativistic pair-plasma reconnection
Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji
2007-11-15
An investigation into the relativistic dissipation in magnetic reconnection is presented. The investigated system consists of an electron-positron plasma. A relativistic generalization of Ohm's law is derived. A set of numerical simulations is analyzed, composed of runs with and without guide magnetic field, and of runs with different species temperatures. The calculations indicate that the thermal inertia-based dissipation process survives in relativistic plasmas. For antiparallel reconnection, it is found that the pressure tensor divergence remains the sole contributor to the reconnection electric field, whereas relativistic guide field reconnection exhibits a similarly important role of the bulk inertia terms.
Dissipation in Relativistic Pair-Plasma Reconnection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji
2007-01-01
We present an investigation of the relativistic dissipation in magnetic reconnection. The investigated system consists of an electron-positron plasma. A relativistic generalization of Ohm's law is derived. We analyze a set of numerical simulations, composed of runs with and without guide magnetic field, and of runs with different species temperatures. The calculations indicate that the thermal inertia-based dissipation process survives in relativistic plasmas. For anti-parallel reconnection, it is found that the pressure tensor divergence remains the sole contributor to the reconnection electric field, whereas relativistic guide field reconnection exhibits a similarly important role of the bulk inertia terms.
Fast superconducting magnetic field switch
Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.
1996-08-06
The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.
Fast superconducting magnetic field switch
Goren, Yehuda; Mahale, Narayan K.
1996-01-01
The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.
Martian external magnetic field proxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langlais, Benoit; Civet, Francois
2015-04-01
Mars possesses no dynamic magnetic field of internal origin as it is the case for the Earth or for Mercury. Instead Mars is characterized by an intense and localized magnetic field of crustal origin. This field is the result of past magnetization and demagnetization processes, and reflects its evolution. The Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) interacts with Mars' ionized environment to create an external magnetic field. This external field is weak compared to lithospheric one but very dynamic, and may hamper the detailed analysis of the internal magnetic field at some places or times. Because there are currently no magnetic field measurements made at Mars' surface, it is not possible to directly monitor the external field temporal variability as it is done in Earth's ground magnetic observatories. In this study we examine to indirect ways of quantifying this external field. First we use the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission which measures the solar wind about one hour upstream of the bow-shock resulting from the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth's internal magnetic field. These measurements are extrapolated to Mars' position taking into account the orbital configurations of the Mars-Earth system and the velocity of particles carrying the IMF. Second we directly use Mars Global Surveyor magnetic field measurements to quantify the level of variability of the external field. We subtract from the measurements the internal field which is otherwise modeled, and bin the residuals first on a spatial and then on a temporal mesh. This allows to compute daily or semi daily index. We present a comparison of these two proxies and demonstrate their complementarity. We also illustrate our analysis by comparing our Martian external field proxies to terrestrial index at epochs of known strong activity. These proxies will especially be useful for upcoming magnetic field measurements made around or at the surface of Mars.
Magnetic Fields in Irregular Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kepley, Amanda A.; Muehle, S.; Robishaw, T.; Everett, J.; Wilcots, E.; Zweibel, E.; Heiles, C.
2007-12-01
Magnetic fields are an important component of the interstellar medium (ISM). They provide a source of pressure support, transfer energy from supernovae, are a possible heating mechanism for the ISM, and channel gas flows. Despite the importance of magnetic fields in the ISM, what generates and sustains galactic magnetic fields or how magnetic fields, gas, and stars interact in galaxies is not well understood. The magnetic fields may be especially important in low-mass galaxies like irregulars where the magnetic pressure may be great enough for the field to be dynamically important. Only three irregular galaxies besides the LMC and the SMC have previously observed magnetic field structures. NGC 4449 (Chyzy et al. 2000) and the LMC (Gaensler et al. 2005) both have large-scale fields, while IC 10 and NGC 6822 have mostly random fields (Chyzy et al. 2003). Our goal is to determine what mechanisms generate and sustain large-scale magnetic fields in irregular galaxies and what causes the range of magnetic field structure in irregular galaxies. We have observed the polarized radio continuum emission of four irregular galaxies with the VLA, GBT, and ATCA. Our observations double the number of irregular galaxies with observed magnetic field structure. Here we present results from two of our galaxies: NGC 4214 and NGC 1569. We find that NGC 4214 has a mostly random magnetic field structure, which is not surprising given its weak bar, small size, and high star formation rate. The magnetic field of NGC 1569 has large-scale structure which has been shaped not by a dynamo, but by an outflow generated by the massive star formation rate in this galaxy. Support for this research has been provided by a GBT Student Support Award, a Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium Graduate Fellowship, and an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship.
Evolution of twisted magnetic fields
Zweibel, E.G.; Boozer, A.H.
1985-02-01
The magnetic field of the solar corona evolves quasistatically in response to slowly changing photospheric boundary conditions. The magnetic topology is preserved by the low resistivity of the solar atmosphere. We show that a magnetic flux coordinate system simplifies the problem of calculating field evolution with invariant topology. As an example, we calculate the equilibrium of a thin magnetic flux tube with small twist per unit length.
Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields
Miller, G.
1987-12-01
The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.
Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields.
Miller, G
1987-12-01
The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.
Magnetic-field-dosimetry system
Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.
1981-01-21
A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.
Magnetic-field-dosimetry system
Lemon, D.K.; Skorpik, J.R.; Eick, J.L.
1981-01-21
A device is provided for measuring the magnetic field dose and peak field exposure. The device includes three Hall-effect sensors all perpendicular to each other, sensing the three dimensional magnetic field and associated electronics for data storage, calculating, retrieving and display.
Muñoz-Castro, Alvaro
2011-10-06
Relativistic density functional calculations were carried out on several nickel toroid mercaptides of the general formula [Ni(μ-SR)(2)](n), with the aim to characterize and analyze their stability and magnetic response properties, in order to gain more insights into their stabilization and size-dependent behavior. The Ni-ligand interaction has been studied by means projected density of states and energy decomposition analysis, which denotes its stabilizing character. The graphical representation of the response to an external magnetic field is applied for the very first time taking into account the spin-orbit term. This map allows one to clearly characterize the magnetic behavior inside and in the closeness of the toroid structure showing the prescence of paratropic ring currents inside the Ni(n) ring, and by contrast, diatropic currents confined in each Ni(2)S(2) motif denoting an aromatic behavior (in terms of magnetic criteria). The calculated data suggests that the Ni(2)S(2) moiety can be regarded as a stable constructing block, which can afford several toroid structures of different nuclearities in agreement with that reported in the experimental literature. In addition, the effects of the relativistic treatment over the magnetic response properties on these lighter compounds are denoted by comparing nonrelativistic, scalar relativistic, and scalar plus spin-orbit relativistic treatments, showing their acting, although nonpronunced, role.
Compton scattering in strong magnetic fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daugherty, Joseph K.; Harding, Alice K.
1986-01-01
The relativistic cross section for Compton scattering by electrons in strong magnetic fields is derived. The results confirm and extend earlier work which has treated only transitions to the lowest or first excited Landau levels. For the teragauss field strengths expected in neutron star magnetospheres, the relative rates for excited state transitions are found to be significant, especially for incident photon energies several times the cyclotron frequency. Since these transitions must result in the rapid emission of one or more cyclotron photons as well as the Compton-scattered photon, the scattering process actually becomes a photon 'splitting' mechanism which acts to soften hard photon spectra, and also provides a specific mechanism for populating higher Landau levels in the electron distribution function. The results should be significant for models of gamma-ray bursters and pulsating X-ray sources.
Fields and fluids on curved non-relativistic spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geracie, Michael; Prabhu, Kartik; Roberts, Matthew M.
2015-08-01
We consider non-relativistic curved geometries and argue that the background structure should be generalized from that considered in previous works. In this approach the derivative operator is defined by a Galilean spin connection valued in the Lie algebra of the Galilean group. This includes the usual spin connection plus an additional "boost connection" which parameterizes the freedom in the derivative operator not fixed by torsion or metric compatibility. As an example we write down the most general theory of dissipative fluids consistent with the second law in curved non-relativistic geometries and find significant differences in the allowed transport coefficients from those found previously. Kubo formulas for all response coefficients are presented. Our approach also immediately generalizes to systems with independent mass and charge currents as would arise in multicomponent fluids. Along the way we also discuss how to write general locally Galilean invariant non-relativistic actions for multiple particle species at any order in derivatives. A detailed review of the geometry and its relation to non-relativistic limits may be found in a companion paper.
On the perpendicular propagating modes in the ultra-relativistic weakly magnetized plasma
Abbas, Gohar; Iqbal, Z.; Murtaza, G.
2015-03-15
The dispersion relations for the weakly magnetized perpendicular propagating modes (O-mode, X-mode, and upper hybrid mode) based on the ultra-relativistic Fermi-Dirac distribution function with chemical potential are derived using the Vlasov–Maxwell model. The results are presented in terms of Polylog functions without making any approximation. It is found that as the ratio μ/T is increased, the cutoff points shift downward. A comparison is also performed with the previously derived results for ultra-relativistic Maxwellian distribution.
Vestibular stimulation by magnetic fields
Ward, Bryan K.; Roberts, Dale C.; Della Santina, Charles C.; Carey, John P.; Zee, David S.
2015-01-01
Individuals working next to strong static magnetic fields occasionally report disorientation and vertigo. With the increasing strength of magnetic fields used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, these reports have become more common. It was recently learned that humans, mice and zebrafish all demonstrate behaviors consistent with constant peripheral vestibular stimulation while inside a strong, static magnetic field. The proposed mechanism for this effect involves a Lorentz force resulting from the interaction of a strong static magnetic field with naturally occurring ionic currents flowing through the inner ear endolymph into vestibular hair cells. The resulting force within the endolymph is strong enough to displace the lateral semicircular canal cupula, inducing vertigo and the horizontal nystagmus seen in normal mice and in humans. This review explores the evidence for interactions of magnetic fields with the vestibular system. PMID:25735662
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hedayati, Roohollah; Jafari, Saed; Batebi, Saeed
2017-06-01
Significant progress has been made using plasma channels to guide relativistic e-beams in magnetostatic wiggler free-electron lasers (FELs). In this regard, we study the interaction of an intense laser pulse (as a laser wiggler) with a relativistic electron beam embedded in a background of magnetized plasma. The short wavelength of the laser wiggler (∼ μm) allows a higher radiation frequency to be obtained than from conventional magnetostatic wigglers. Laser-plasma interaction in a magnetized plasma channel has been studied. Numerical results reveal that the laser self-focusing and self-compression can be enhanced with increasing the external axial magnetic field strength, which leads to a decrease in the spot size of the laser beam. Hence, we employ the laser beam as a suitable laser wiggler in a FEL-device. Injection of plasma in the interaction region of a laser-wiggler-FEL suggests the possibility of producing short wavelengths (∼ x-ray) using lower energy beams (∼ O(10) MeV). Furthermore, this configuration has a higher tunability by controlling the plasma density in addition to the e-beam energy tunability of the conventional FELs. Effects of the external axial guide magnetic field and plasma medium on the gain of the FEL have been studied. It is found that by increasing the plasma frequency the FEL-gain increases. The effects of e-beam self-electric and self-magnetic fields on the laser gain have also been investigated in the presence of various plasma frequencies. The results indicate that in the presence of beam self-fields, the sensitivity of the gain increases in the vicinity of resonance regions. Besides, the normalized wiggler-induced self-magnetic field has been obtained which reveals that it is a positive parameter, i.e., it can act as a paramagnetic correction to the wiggler magnetic field, therefore, the gain enhancement can be due to the paramagnetic effect of the self-magnetic field. This concept opens a path
Magnetic fields around evolved stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leal-Ferreira, M.; Vlemmings, W.; Kemball, A.; Amiri, N.; Maercker, M.; Ramstedt, S.; Olofsson, G.
2014-04-01
A number of mechanisms, such as magnetic fields, (binary) companions and circumstellar disks have been suggested to be the cause of non-spherical PNe and in particular collimated outflows. This work investigates one of these mechanisms: the magnetic fields. While MHD simulations show that the fields can indeed be important, few observations of magnetic fields have been done so far. We used the VLBA to observe five evolved stars, with the goal of detecting the magnetic field by means of water maser polarization. The sample consists in four AGB stars (IK Tau, RT Vir, IRC+60370 and AP Lyn) and one pPN (OH231.8+4.2). In four of the five sources, several strong maser features were detected allowing us to measure the linear and/or circular polarization. Based on the circular polarization detections, we infer the strength of the component of the field along the line of sight to be between ~30 mG and ~330 mG in the water maser regions of these four sources. When extrapolated to the surface of the stars, the magnetic field strength would be between a few hundred mG and a few Gauss when assuming a toroidal field geometry and higher when assuming more complex magnetic fields. We conclude that the magnetic energy we derived in the water maser regions is higher than the thermal and kinetic energy, leading to the conclusion that, indeed, magnetic fields probably play an important role in shaping Planetary Nebulae.
Copeland, R L; Adamski, J L; Doggett, W O; Morrow, D L; Bennett, W H
1979-02-01
A fast response magnetic loop current monitor has been developed to measure relativistic electron beam return currents. The monitor has a rise time of about a nanosecond and a high degree of symmetry with moderate sensitivity, variable from about 1 to 10 V/kA. This simple monitor, with a thickness of 0.254 mm or less, is thin enough to be placed between segments of return current path in the diode or drift tube regions, is insensitive to flashover, beam and plasma bombardment, and radiation effects, and measures net current, thus offering some advantages over conventional magnetic probes, since the main components are outside of the vacuum region. Design criteria, an equivalent circuit analysis, and typical calibration waveforms are presented. Experimental current measurements for a pinched electron beam diode configuration using both conventional magnetic probes and ''gasket-type''current monitors with the FX-75 relativistic electron beam accelerator are presented.
The Capacitive Magnetic Field Sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zyatkov, D. O.; Yurchenko, A. V.; Balashov, V. B.; Yurchenko, V. I.
2016-01-01
The results of a study of sensitive element magnetic field sensor are represented in this paper. The sensor is based on the change of the capacitance with an active dielectric (ferrofluid) due to the magnitude of magnetic field. To prepare the ferrofluid magnetic particles are used, which have a followingdispersion equal to 50 < Ø < 56, 45 < Ø < 50, 40 < Ø < 45 and Ø < 40micron of nanocrystalline alloy of brand 5BDSR. The dependence of the sensitivity of the capacitive element from the ferrofluid with different dispersion of magnetic particles is considered. The threshold of sensitivity and sensitivity of a measuring cell with ferrofluid by a magnetic field was determined. The experimental graphs of capacitance change of the magnitude of magnetic field are presented.
Measurements of magnetic field alignment
Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.
1987-11-06
The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs.
Relativistic mean-field hadronic models under nuclear matter constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutra, M.; Lourenço, O.; Avancini, S. S.; Carlson, B. V.; Delfino, A.; Menezes, D. P.; Providência, C.; Typel, S.; Stone, J. R.
2014-11-01
Background: The microscopic composition and properties of infinite hadronic matter at a wide range of densities and temperatures have been subjects of intense investigation for decades. The equation of state (EoS) relating pressure, energy density, and temperature at a given particle number density is essential for modeling compact astrophysical objects such as neutron stars, core-collapse supernovae, and related phenomena, including the creation of chemical elements in the universe. The EoS depends not only on the particles present in the matter, but, more importantly, also on the forces acting among them. Because a realistic and quantitative description of infinite hadronic matter and nuclei from first principles in not available at present, a large variety of phenomenological models has been developed in the past several decades, but the scarcity of experimental and observational data does not allow a unique determination of the adjustable parameters. Purpose: It is essential for further development of the field to determine the most realistic parameter sets and to use them consistently. Recently, a set of constraints on properties of nuclear matter was formed and the performance of 240 nonrelativistic Skyrme parametrizations was assessed [M. Dutra et al., Phys. Rev. C 85, 035201 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevC.85.035201] in describing nuclear matter up to about three times nuclear saturation density. In the present work we examine 263 relativistic-mean-field (RMF) models in a comparable approach. These models have been widely used because of several important aspects not always present in nonrelativistic models, such as intrinsic Lorentz covariance, automatic inclusion of spin, appropriate saturation mechanism for nuclear matter, causality, and, therefore, no problems related to superluminal speed of sound in medium. Method: Three different sets of constraints related to symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter, symmetry energy, and its derivatives were used. The
The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.
2014-01-01
The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a quantization uncertainty of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05%. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers - multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes - to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.
The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.
2015-12-01
The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a resolution of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05 %. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers—multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes—to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.
Cosmic Magnetic Fields - An Overview
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wielebinski, Richard; Beck, Rainer
Magnetic fields have been known in antiquity. Aristotle attributes the first of what could be called a scientific discussion on magnetism to Thales, who lived from about 625 BC. In China “magnetic carts” were in use to help the Emperor in his journeys of inspection. Plinius comments that in the Asia Minor province of Magnesia shepherds' staffs get at times “glued” to a stone, a alodestone. In Europe the magnetic compass came through the Arab sailors who met the Portuguese explorers. The first scientific treatise on magnetism, “De Magnete”, was published by William Gilbert who in 1600 described his experiments and suggested that the Earth was a huge magnet. Johannes Kepler was a correspondent of Gilbert and at times suggested that planetary motion was due to magnetic forces. Alas, this concept was demolished by Isaac Newton,who seeing the falling apple decided that gravity was enough. This concept of dealing with gravitational forces only remains en vogue even today. The explanations why magnetic effects must be neglected go from “magnetic energy is only 1% of gravitation” to “magnetic fields only complicate the beautiful computer solutions”. What is disregarded is the fact that magnetic effects are very directional(not omni-directional as gravity) and also the fact that magnetic fields are seen every where in our cosmic universe.
Lattice Study of Magnetic Catalysis in Graphene Effective Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winterowd, Christopher; Detar, Carleton; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas
2016-03-01
The discovery of graphene ranks as one of the most important developments in condensed matter physics in recent years. As a strongly interacting system whose low-energy excitations are described by the Dirac equation, graphene has many similarities with other strongly interacting field theories, particularly quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Graphene, along with other relativistic field theories, have been predicted to exhibit spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) when an external magnetic field is present. Using nonperturbative methods developed to study QCD, we study the low-energy effective field theory (EFT) of graphene subject to an external magnetic field. We find strong evidence supporting the existence of SSB at zero-temperature and characterize the dependence of the chiral condensate on the external magnetic field. We also present results for the mass of the Nambu-Goldstone boson and the dynamically generated quasiparticle mass that result from the SSB.
Dynamically important magnetic fields near accreting supermassive black holes.
Zamaninasab, M; Clausen-Brown, E; Savolainen, T; Tchekhovskoy, A
2014-06-05
Accreting supermassive black holes at the centres of active galaxies often produce 'jets'--collimated bipolar outflows of relativistic particles. Magnetic fields probably play a critical role in jet formation and in accretion disk physics. A dynamically important magnetic field was recently found near the Galactic Centre black hole. If this is common and if the field continues to near the black hole event horizon, disk structures will be affected, invalidating assumptions made in standard models. Here we report that jet magnetic field and accretion disk luminosity are tightly correlated over seven orders of magnitude for a sample of 76 radio-loud active galaxies. We conclude that the jet-launching regions of these radio-loud galaxies are threaded by dynamically important fields, which will affect the disk properties. These fields obstruct gas infall, compress the accretion disk vertically, slow down the disk rotation by carrying away its angular momentum in an outflow and determine the directionality of jets.
Magnetic Fields of Nondegenerate Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donati, J.-F.; Landstreet, J. D.
2009-09-01
Magnetic fields are present in a wide variety of stars throughout the HR diagram and play a role at basically all evolutionary stages, from very-low-mass dwarfs to very massive stars, and from young star-forming molecular clouds and protostellar accretion discs to evolved giants/supergiants and magnetic white dwarfs/neutron stars. These fields range from a few μG (e.g., in molecular clouds) to TG and more (e.g., in magnetic neutron stars); in nondegenerate stars in particular, they feature large-scale topologies varying from simple nearly axisymmetric dipoles to complex nonaxsymmetric structures, and from mainly poloidal to mainly toroidal topologies. After recalling the main techniques of detecting and modeling stellar magnetic fields, we review the existing properties of magnetic fields reported in cool, hot, and young nondegenerate stars and protostars, and discuss our understanding of the origin of these fields and their impact on the birth and life of stars.
Magnetic Field Generation and Its Nonlinear Evolution of the Weibel Instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mae, H.; Kazimura, Y.; Bulanov, S. V.; Sakai, J. I.
The Weibel instability caused by anisotropic velocity distribution may play an important role for the generation of magnetic field in the laser produced plasmas. A three dimensional electromagnetic and relativistic particle-in-cell (PIC) code is used to show the generation of magnetic field and its nonlinear evolution. As a result, we confirm that strong magnetic fields are generated with coherent structures. Loop-like magnetic fields are generated in ``football-shaped" anisotropy and sheet-like magnetic fields are generated in ``pancake-shaped" anisotropy.
Anisotropic magnetic particles in a magnetic field
Martchenko, Ilya; Mihut, Adriana M.; Bialik, Erik; Hirt, Ann M.; Rufier, Chantal; Menzel, Andreas; Dietsch, Hervé; Linse, Per
2016-01-01
We characterize the structural properties of magnetic ellipsoidal hematite colloids with an aspect ratio ρ ≈ 2.3 using a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering and computer simulations. The evolution of the phase diagram with packing fraction φ and the strength of an applied magnetic field B is described, and the coupling between orientational order of magnetic ellipsoids and the bulk magnetic behavior of their suspension addressed. We establish quantitative structural criteria for the different phase and arrest transitions and map distinct isotropic, polarized non-nematic, and nematic phases over an extended range in the φ–B coordinates. We show that upon a rotational arrest of the ellipsoids around φ = 0.59, the bulk magnetic behavior of their suspension switches from superparamagnetic to ordered weakly ferromagnetic. If densely packed and arrested, these magnetic particles thus provide persisting remanent magnetization of the suspension. By exploring structural and magnetic properties together, we extend the often used colloid-atom analogy to the case of magnetic spins. PMID:27722439
Relativistic theory of magnetic inertia in ultrafast spin dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mondal, Ritwik; Berritta, Marco; Nandy, Ashis K.; Oppeneer, Peter M.
2017-07-01
The influence of possible magnetic inertia effects has recently drawn attention in ultrafast magnetization dynamics and switching. Here we derive rigorously a description of inertia in the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation on the basis of the Dirac-Kohn-Sham framework. Using the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation up to the order of 1 /c4 gives the intrinsic inertia of a pure system through the second order time derivative of magnetization in the dynamical equation of motion. Thus, the inertial damping I is a higher order spin-orbit coupling effect, ˜1 /c4 , as compared to the Gilbert damping Γ that is of order 1 /c2 . Inertia is therefore expected to play a role only on ultrashort timescales (subpicoseconds). We also show that the Gilbert damping and inertial damping are related to one another through the imaginary and real parts of the magnetic susceptibility tensor, respectively.
Radiation Signatures of Sub-Larmor Scale Magnetic Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medvedev, Mikhail V.; Frederiksen, Jacob Trier; Haugbølle, Troels; Nordlund, Åke
2011-08-01
Spontaneous rapid growth of strong magnetic fields is rather ubiquitous in high-energy density environments ranging from astrophysical sources (e.g., gamma-ray bursts and relativistic shocks), to reconnection, to laser-plasma interaction laboratory experiments, where they are produced by kinetic streaming instabilities of the Weibel type. Relativistic electrons propagating through these sub-Larmor-scale magnetic fields radiate in the jitter regime, in which the anisotropy of the magnetic fields and the particle distribution have a strong effect on the produced radiation. Here we develop the general theory of jitter radiation, which (1) includes anisotropic magnetic fields and electron velocity distributions, (2) accounts for the effects of trapped electrons, and (3) extends the description to large deflection angles of radiating particles thus establishing a cross-over between the classical jitter and synchrotron regimes. Our results are in remarkable agreement with the radiation spectra obtained from particle-in-cell simulations of the classical Weibel instability. Particularly interesting is the onset of the field growth, when the transient hard synchrotron-violating spectra are common as a result of the dominant role of the trapped population. This effect can serve as a distinct observational signature of the violent field growth in astrophysical sources and lab experiments. It is also interesting that a system with small-scale fields tends to evolve toward the small-angle jitter regime, which can, under certain conditions, dominate the overall emission of a source.
Vlasov, A.A.; Logunov, A.A.
1986-01-01
It is shown that the external gravitational field of a nonstatic spherically symmetric body is static in the relativistic theory of gravitation. In the general theory of relativity it is shown that the graviational field exterior to a nonstatic spherically symmetric body reduces to a static gravitational field given by the Schwarzschild metric (Birkhoff's theorem). However, the Schwarzschild solution does not satisfy the equations of the relativistic theory of gravitation, and it is therefore necessary to prove the analogous theorem in the latter theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bashir, Muhammad Fraz; Murtaza, G.
2012-12-01
Using kinetic theory for homogeneous collisionless magnetized plasmas, we present an extended review of the plasma waves and instabilities and discuss the anisotropic response of generalized relativistic dielectric tensor and Onsager symmetry properties for arbitrary distribution functions. In general, we observe that for such plasmas only those modes whose magnetic-field perturbations are perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, i.e., B 1 bot B 0, are effected by the anisotropy. However, in oblique propagation all modes do show such anisotropic effects. Considering the non-relativistic bi-Maxwellian distribution and studying the relevant components of the general dielectric tensor under appropriate conditions, we derive the dispersion relations for various modes and instabilities. We show that only the electromagnetic R- and L- waves, those derived from them (i.e., the whistler mode, pure Alfvén mode, firehose instability, and whistler instability), and the O-mode are affected by thermal anisotropies, since they satisfy the required condition {B}1bot {B}0. By contrast, the perpendicularly propagating X-mode and the modes derived from it (the pure transverse X-mode and Bernstein mode) show no such effect. In general, we note that the thermal anisotropy modifies the parallel propagating modes via the parallel acoustic effect, while it modifies the perpendicular propagating modes via the Larmor-radius effect. In oblique propagation for kinetic Alfvén waves, the thermal anisotropy affects the kinetic regime more than it affects the inertial regime. The generalized fast mode exhibits two distinct acoustic effects, one in the direction parallel to the ambient magnetic field and the other in the direction perpendicular to it. In the fast-mode instability, the magneto-sonic wave causes suppression of the firehose instability. We discuss all these propagation characteristics and present graphic illustrations. The threshold conditions for different instabilities are
Magnetic field synthesis for microwave magnetics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morgenthaler, F. R.
1982-04-01
The Microwave and Quantum Magnetics Group of the M.I.T. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science undertook a two-year research program directed at developing synthesis procedures that allow magnetostatic and/or magnetoelastic modes to be specially tailored for microwave signal processing applications that include magnetically tunable filters and limiters as well as delay lines that are either linearly dispersive or nondispersive over prescribed bandwidths. Special emphasis was given to devices employing thin films of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) that are blessed with spatially nonuniform dc magnetic fields.
Visualizing Special Relativity: The Field of An Electric Dipole Moving at Relativistic Speed
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Glenn S.
2011-01-01
The electromagnetic field is determined for a time-varying electric dipole moving with a constant velocity that is parallel to its moment. Graphics are used to visualize this field in the rest frame of the dipole and in the laboratory frame when the dipole is moving at relativistic speed. Various phenomena from special relativity are clearly…
Visualizing Special Relativity: The Field of An Electric Dipole Moving at Relativistic Speed
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Glenn S.
2011-01-01
The electromagnetic field is determined for a time-varying electric dipole moving with a constant velocity that is parallel to its moment. Graphics are used to visualize this field in the rest frame of the dipole and in the laboratory frame when the dipole is moving at relativistic speed. Various phenomena from special relativity are clearly…
Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines
Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.
1978-01-01
This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.
PREPROCESSING MAGNETIC FIELDS WITH CHROMOSPHERIC LONGITUDINAL FIELDS
Yamamoto, Tetsuya T.; Kusano, K.
2012-06-20
Nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation is a powerful tool for the modeling of the magnetic field in the solar corona. However, since the photospheric magnetic field does not in general satisfy the force-free condition, some kind of processing is required to assimilate data into the model. In this paper, we report the results of new preprocessing for the NLFFF extrapolation. Through this preprocessing, we expect to obtain magnetic field data similar to those in the chromosphere. In our preprocessing, we add a new term concerning chromospheric longitudinal fields into the optimization function proposed by Wiegelmann et al. We perform a parameter survey of six free parameters to find minimum force- and torque-freeness with the simulated-annealing method. Analyzed data are a photospheric vector magnetogram of AR 10953 observed with the Hinode spectropolarimeter and a chromospheric longitudinal magnetogram observed with SOLIS spectropolarimeter. It is found that some preprocessed fields show the smallest force- and torque-freeness and are very similar to the chromospheric longitudinal fields. On the other hand, other preprocessed fields show noisy maps, although the force- and torque-freeness are of the same order. By analyzing preprocessed noisy maps in the wave number space, we found that small and large wave number components balance out on the force-free index. We also discuss our iteration limit of the simulated-annealing method and magnetic structure broadening in the chromosphere.
New parameterization of the effective field theory motivated relativistic mean field model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Bharat; Singh, S. K.; Agrawal, B. K.; Patra, S. K.
2017-10-01
A new parameter set is generated for finite and infinite nuclear system within the effective field theory motivated relativistic mean field (ERMF) formalism. The isovector part of the ERMF model employed in the present study includes the coupling of nucleons to the δ and ρ mesons and the cross-coupling of ρ mesons to the σ and ω mesons. The results for the finite and infinite nuclear systems obtained using our parameter set are in harmony with the available experimental data. We find the maximum mass of the neutron star to be 2.03M⊙ and yet a relatively smaller radius at the canonical mass, 12.69 km, as required by the available data.
Preflare magnetic and velocity fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hagyard, M. J.; Gaizauskas, V.; Chapman, G. A.; Deloach, A. C.; Gary, G. A.; Jones, H. P.; Karpen, J. T.; Martres, M.-J.; Porter, J. G.; Schmeider, B.
1986-01-01
A characterization is given of the preflare magnetic field, using theoretical models of force free fields together with observed field structure to determine the general morphology. Direct observational evidence for sheared magnetic fields is presented. The role of this magnetic shear in the flare process is considered within the context of a MHD model that describes the buildup of magnetic energy, and the concept of a critical value of shear is explored. The related subject of electric currents in the preflare state is discussed next, with emphasis on new insights provided by direct calculations of the vertical electric current density from vector magnetograph data and on the role of these currents in producing preflare brightenings. Results from investigations concerning velocity fields in flaring active regions, describing observations and analyses of preflare ejecta, sheared velocities, and vortical motions near flaring sites are given. This is followed by a critical review of prevalent concepts concerning the association of flux emergence with flares
Turbulent Magnetic Field Amplification behind Strong Shock Waves in GRB and SNR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, Tsuyoshi
2012-09-01
Using three-dimensional (special relativistic) magnetohydrodynamics simulations, the amplification of magnetic field behind strong shock wave is studied. In supernova remnants and gamma-ray bursts, strong shock waves propagate through an inhomogeneous density field. When the shock wave hit a density bump or density dent, the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is induced that cause a deformation of the shock front. The deformed shock leaves vorticity behind the shock wave that amplifies the magnetic field due to the stretching of field lines.
AC photovoltaic module magnetic fields
Jennings, C.; Chang, G.J.; Reyes, A.B.; Whitaker, C.M.
1997-12-31
Implementation of alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) modules, particularly for distributed applications such as PV rooftops and facades, may be slowed by public concern about electric and magnetic fields (EMF). This paper documents magnetic field measurements on an AC PV module, complementing EMF research on direct-current PV modules conducted by PG and E in 1993. Although not comprehensive, the PV EMF data indicate that 60 Hz magnetic fields (the EMF type of greatest public concern) from PV modules are comparable to, or significantly less than, those from household appliances. Given the present EMF research knowledge, AC PV module EMF may not merit considerable concern.
Magnetic Field of Strange Dwarfs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baghdasaryan, D. S.
2016-03-01
The generation of a magnetic field in a strange quark star owing to differential rotation of the superfluid and superconducting quark core relative to the normal electron-nuclear crust of the star is examined. The maximum possible magnetic field on the surface is estimated for various models of strange dwarfs. Depending on the configuration parameters, i.e., the mass M and radius R of the star, a range of 103-105 G is found. These values of the magnetic field may be an additional condition for identification of strange dwarfs among the extensive class of observed white dwarfs.
Magnetoconvection in sheared magnetic fields
Bian, N. H.; Garcia, O. E.
2008-10-15
The development of magnetoconvection in a sheared magnetic field is investigated. The equilibrium magnetic field B{sub 0} is horizontal and its orientation varies linearly along the vertical axis. Preliminary consideration of the transition from the inertial to the viscous regime of the gravitational resistive interchange instability, reveals that the latter is characterized by the existence of viscoresistive boundary layers of vertical width which scales as Q{sup -1/6}, where Q is the Chandrasekhar number. The situation is analogous to the one encountered in magnetically confined laboratory plasmas, where convective flows are constrained by the magnetic shear to develop in boundary layers located around resonant magnetic surfaces in order to fulfill the 'interchange condition'k{center_dot}B{sub 0}=0, where k is the wave vector of the magnetic perturbation. It follows that when the effect of thermal diffusion is taken into account in the process, convection can only occur above a certain critical value of the Rayleigh number which scales as Q{sup 2/3} for large Q. At the onset, the convection pattern is a superposition of identically thin convective rolls everywhere aligned with the local magnetic field lines and which therefore adopt the magnetic field geometry, a situation also reminiscent of the penumbra of sunspots. Using this degeneracy, equations describing the weakly nonlinear state are obtained and discussed. A reduced magnetohydrodynamic description of magnetoconvection is introduced. Since it is valid for arbitrary magnetic field configurations, it allows a simple extension to the case where there exists an inclination between the direction of gravity and the plane spanned by the equilibrium magnetic field. These reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations are proposed as a powerful tool for further investigations of magnetoconvection in more complex field line geometries.
Preface: Cosmic magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosovichev, Alexander
2015-02-01
Recent advances in observations and modeling have opened new perspectives for the understanding of fundamental dynamical processes of cosmic magnetism, and associated magnetic activity on the Sun, stars and galaxies. The goal of the Special Issue is to discuss the progress in solar physics and astrophysics, similarities and differences in phenomenology and physics of magnetic phenomena on the Sun and other stars. Space observatories, ground-based telescopes, and new observational methods have provided tremendous amount of data that need to be analyzed and understood. The solar observations discovered multi-scale organization of solar activity, dramatically changing current paradigms of solar variability. On the other side, stellar observations discovered new regimes of dynamics and magnetism that are different from the corresponding solar phenomena, but described by the same physics. Stars represent an astrophysical laboratory for studying the dynamical, magnetic and radiation processes across a broad range of stellar masses and ages. These studies allow us to look at the origin and evolution of our Sun, whereas detailed investigations of the solar magnetism give us a fundamental basis for interpretation and understanding of unresolved stellar data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, J. Y.; Lin, J.; Li, Y. T.; Wang, X.; Li, Y.; Zhang, K.; Yuan, D. W.; Ping, Y. L.; Wei, H. G.; Wang, J. Q.; Su, L. N.; Li, F.; Han, B.; Liao, G. Q.; Yin, C. L.; Fang, Y.; Yuan, X.; Wang, C.; Sun, J. R.; Liang, G. Y.; Wang, F. L.; Ding, Y. K.; He, X. T.; Zhu, J. Q.; Sheng, Z. M.; Li, G.; Zhao, G.; Zhang, J.
2016-08-01
Laboratory experiments have been carried out to model the magnetic reconnection process in a solar flare with powerful lasers. Relativistic electrons with energy up to megaelectronvolts are detected along the magnetic separatrices bounding the reconnection outflow, which exhibit a kappa-like distribution with an effective temperature of ˜109 K. The acceleration of non-thermal electrons is found to be more efficient in the case with a guide magnetic field (a component of a magnetic field along the reconnection-induced electric field) than in the case without a guide field. Hardening of the spectrum at energies ≥500 keV is observed in both cases, which remarkably resembles the hardening of hard X-ray and γ-ray spectra observed in many solar flares. This supports a recent proposal that the hardening in the hard X-ray and γ-ray emissions of solar flares is due to a hardening of the source-electron spectrum. We also performed numerical simulations that help examine behaviors of electrons in the reconnection process with the electromagnetic field configurations occurring in the experiments. The trajectories of non-thermal electrons observed in the experiments were well duplicated in the simulations. Our numerical simulations generally reproduce the electron energy spectrum as well, except for the hardening of the electron spectrum. This suggests that other mechanisms such as shock or turbulence may play an important role in the production of the observed energetic electrons.
Magnetic fields during galaxy mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodenbeck, Kai; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.
2016-09-01
Galaxy mergers are expected to play a central role for the evolution of galaxies and may have a strong effect on their magnetic fields. We present the first grid-based 3D magnetohydrodynamical simulations investigating the evolution of magnetic fields during merger events. For this purpose, we employed a simplified model considering the merger event of magnetized gaseous disks in the absence of stellar feedback and without a stellar or dark matter component. We show that our model naturally leads to the production of two peaks in the evolution of the average magnetic field strength within 5 kpc, within 25 kpc, and on scales in between 5 and 25 kpc. The latter is consistent with the peak in the magnetic field strength previously reported in a merger sequence of observed galaxies. We show that the peak on the galactic scale and in the outer regions is most likely due to geometrical effects, as the core of one galaxy enters the outskirts of the other one. In addition, the magnetic field within the central ~5 kpc is physically enhanced, which reflects the enhancement in density that is due to efficient angular momentum transport. We conclude that high-resolution observations of the central regions will be particularly relevant for probing the evolution of magnetic field structures during merger events.
Radiation from Relativistic Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Mizuno, Y.; Hardee, P.; Sol, H.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J. T.; Fishman, G. J.; Preece, R.
2008-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-ion (electron-positron) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. In the presence of relativistic jets, instabilities such as the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability create collisionless shocks, which are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The 'jitter' radiation from deflected electrons in small-scale magnetic fields has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation, a case of diffusive synchrotron radiation, may be important to understand the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
Neutron stars including the effects of chaotic magnetic fields and anomalous magnetic moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Fei; Wu, Chen; Ren, Zhong-Zhou
2017-04-01
The relativistic mean field (RMF) FSUGold model extended to include hyperons is employed to study the properties of neutron stars with strong magnetic fields. The chaotic magnetic field approximation is utilized. The effect of anomalous magnetic moments (AMMs) is also investigated. It is shown that the equation of state (EOS) of neutron star matter is stiffened by the presence of the magnetic field, which increases the maximum mass of a neutron star by around 6%. The AMMs only have a small influence on the EOS of neutron star matter, and increase the maximum mass of a neutron star by 0.02M sun. Neutral particles are spin polarized due to the presence of the AMMs. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11535004, 11375086, 11120101005, 11175085, 11235001), 973 National Major State Basic Research and Development of China (2013CB834400), and Science and Technology Development Fund of Macau (068/2011/A)
High frequency electromagnetic modes in a weakly magnetized relativistic electron plasma
Abbas, Gohar; Murtaza, G.; Kingham, R. J.
2010-07-15
Using the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell model, the polarization tensor for a weakly magnetized electron plasma is derived. For isotropic relativistic Maxwellian velocity distribution function, dispersion relations are obtained for both parallel and perpendicular propagations. The integrals (called Meijer G functions) that arise due to relativistic effects are examined in various limits and dispersion relations are derived for the nonrelativistic, weakly, strongly, and ultrarelativistic Maxwellian velocity distributions. It is generally observed that the propagation domains of the modes are enlarged as one proceeds from the nonrelativistic to the highly relativistic regime. Resultantly, due to the relativistic effects, the Whistler mode is suppressed in the R-wave, the nonpropagation band of X-mode is reduced, and the X-mode itself approaches the O-mode. Further, the results derived in the ultra- and nonrelativistic limits found to be in agreement with the earlier calculations [G. Abbas et al. Phys. Scr. 76, 649 (2007); F. F. Chen, Introduction to Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Plenum, New York, 1984), Vol. 1].
High frequency electromagnetic modes in a weakly magnetized relativistic electron plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbas, Gohar; Murtaza, G.; Kingham, R. J.
2010-07-01
Using the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell model, the polarization tensor for a weakly magnetized electron plasma is derived. For isotropic relativistic Maxwellian velocity distribution function, dispersion relations are obtained for both parallel and perpendicular propagations. The integrals (called Meijer G functions) that arise due to relativistic effects are examined in various limits and dispersion relations are derived for the nonrelativistic, weakly, strongly, and ultrarelativistic Maxwellian velocity distributions. It is generally observed that the propagation domains of the modes are enlarged as one proceeds from the nonrelativistic to the highly relativistic regime. Resultantly, due to the relativistic effects, the Whistler mode is suppressed in the R-wave, the nonpropagation band of X-mode is reduced, and the X-mode itself approaches the O-mode. Further, the results derived in the ultra- and nonrelativistic limits found to be in agreement with the earlier calculations [G. Abbas et al. Phys. Scr. 76, 649 (2007); F. F. Chen, Introduction to Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Plenum, New York, 1984), Vol. 1].
Generation of intense magnetic field in a counter-streaming system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Yan
2016-10-01
Intense magnetic field generation by excitation of Weibel instability in dense plasmas has been investigated using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. As energetic electrons driven by laser propagate in dense plasmas, a return current is excited to compensate the charge neutrality offset. In such a counter-streaming system, Weibel instability is driven, leading to current filamentation and magnetic field generation. The current filaments self-organize in coaxial structures where the relativistic current in the center is surrounded by the return current sheath and intense magnetic field. The magnetic field peaks in the current center with magnitude as high as several hundreds of MegaGauss, and decreases to zero outside the relativistic current. The influences of counter-streaming density and energy on the magnetic field generation are examined.
General Relativistic Theory of the VLBI Time Delay in the Gravitational Field of Moving Bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kopeikin, Sergei
2003-01-01
The general relativistic theory of the gravitational VLBI experiment conducted on September 8, 2002 by Fomalont and Kopeikin is explained. Equations of radio waves (light) propagating from the quasar to the observer are integrated in the time-dependent gravitational field of the solar system by making use of either retarded or advanced solutions of the Einstein field equations. This mathematical technique separates explicitly the effects associated with the propagation of gravity from those associated with light in the integral expression for the relativistic VLBI time delay of light. We prove that the relativistic correction to the Shapiro time delay, discovered by Kopeikin (ApJ, 556, L1, 2001), changes sign if one retains direction of the light propagation but replaces the retarded for the advanced solution of the Einstein equations. Hence, this correction is associated with the propagation of gravity. The VLBI observation measured its speed, and that the retarded solution is the correct one.
Magnetic fields from phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hindmarsh, Mark; Everett, Allen
1998-11-01
The generation of primordial magnetic fields from cosmological phase transitions is discussed, paying particular attention to the electroweak transition and to the various definitions of the ``average'' field that have been put forward. It is emphasized that only the volume average has dynamical significance as a seed for galactic dynamos. On rather general grounds of causality and energy conservation, it is shown that, in the absence of MHD effects that transfer power in the magnetic field from small to large scales, processes occurring at the electroweak transition cannot generate fields stronger than 10-20 G on a scale of 0.5 Mpc. However, it is implausible that this upper bound could ever be reached, as it would require all the energy in the Universe to be turned into a magnetic field coherent at the horizon scale. Non-linear MHD effects seem therefore to be necessary if the electroweak transition is to create a primordial seed field.
Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stewart, Gay B.
2000-01-01
Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)
Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stewart, Gay B.
2000-01-01
Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)
The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connerney, J. E. P.; Benn, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Denver, T.; Espley, J.; Jorgensen, J. L.; Jorgensen, P. S.; Lawton, P.; Malinnikova, A.; Merayo, J. M.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Smith, E. J.
2017-02-01
The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter's planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor suites, each consisting of a tri-axial Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located imaging sensors mounted on an ultra-stable optical bench. The imaging system sensors are part of a subsystem that provides accurate attitude information (to ˜20 arcsec on a spinning spacecraft) near the point of measurement of the magnetic field. The two sensor suites are accommodated at 10 and 12 m from the body of the spacecraft on a 4 m long magnetometer boom affixed to the outer end of one of 's three solar array assemblies. The magnetometer sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics boards within the magnetometer electronics package mounted inside Juno's massive radiation shielded vault. The imaging sensors are controlled by a fully hardware redundant electronics package also mounted within the radiation vault. Each magnetometer sensor measures the vector magnetic field with 100 ppm absolute vector accuracy over a wide dynamic range (to 16 Gauss = 1.6 × 106 nT per axis) with a resolution of ˜0.05 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range (±1600 nT per axis). Both magnetometers sample the magnetic field simultaneously at an intrinsic sample rate of 64 vector samples per second. The magnetic field instrumentation may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. The attitude determination system compares images with an on-board star catalog to provide attitude solutions (quaternions) at a rate of up to 4 solutions per second, and may be configured to acquire images of selected targets for science and engineering analysis. The system tracks and catalogs objects that pass through the imager field of
The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Connerney, J. E. P.; Benna, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Denver, T.; Espley, J.; Jorgensen, J. L.; Jorgensen, P. S.; Lawton, P.; Malinnikova, A.; Merayo, J. M.;
2017-01-01
The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter's planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor suites, each consisting of a tri-axial Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located imaging sensors mounted on an ultra-stable optical bench. The imaging system sensors are part of a subsystem that provides accurate attitude information (to approx. 20 arcsec on a spinning spacecraft) near the point of measurement of the magnetic field. The two sensor suites are accommodated at 10 and 12 m from the body of the spacecraft on a 4 m long magnetometer boom affixed to the outer end of one of 's three solar array assemblies. The magnetometer sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics boards within the magnetometer electronics package mounted inside Juno's massive radiation shielded vault. The imaging sensors are controlled by a fully hardware redundant electronics package also mounted within the radiation vault. Each magnetometer sensor measures the vector magnetic field with 100 ppm absolute vector accuracy over a wide dynamic range (to 16 Gauss = 1.6 x 10(exp. 6) nT per axis) with a resolution of approx. 0.05 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range (+/-1600 nT per axis). Both magnetometers sample the magnetic field simultaneously at an intrinsic sample rate of 64 vector samples per second. The magnetic field instrumentation may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. The attitude determination system compares images with an on-board star catalog to provide attitude solutions (quaternions) at a rate of up to 4 solutions per second, and may be configured to acquire images of selected targets for science and engineering analysis. The system tracks and catalogs objects that pass through
Investigation of Magnetic Field Measurements.
1983-02-28
the magnetic field in space by cancelling the ambient magnetic field. An observatory-quality, proton - precession magnetometer is available to monitor...test and calibrate the fluxgate magnetometers . Changes in design of the induction-coil magnetometere should enhance their reliability. The value of...Report) Ill. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES IS. KEY WORDS (CoEntnue on revere side I necoseer mnd Identify by block mamber) AFGL Magnetometer Network Fluxgate
Magnetic-Field Hazards Bibliography.
1985-09-01
Puchalska, I. B., Influence of magnetic fields on frog sciatic nerve , Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 91:118 (1979). 35. Fardon, 3. C., "Effect of magnetic...fields, Bioelectromagnetic 2:357 (1981). 41. Gaffey, C. T. and Tenforde, T. S., Bioelectric properties of frog sciatic nerves during exposure to...available from: U.S. Dept. of Energy, Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon 97208 (1982). 29. Levy , R. H., and Jones, G. S., "Plasma
Dielectric tensor of a weakly relativistic, nonequilibrium, and magnetized plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsai, S. T.; Wu, C. S.; Wang, Y. D.; Kang, S. W.
1981-01-01
The dielectric tensor of a magnetized plasma is investigated in order to obtain analytic expressions which can be used to study wave-plasma interactions for the case of wave frequencies lying close to the cyclotron harmonics of ions or electrons. Work on this topic by Trubnikov (1959) and Shkarovsky (1966) is extended to the nonequilibrium cases, in which the particles may have drift motions, thermal anisotropy, and loss-cone-type distributions. Account is taken of these features, and a set of analytic expressions in terms of an integral is derived. The discussion presented is pertinent to the absorption and emission of radiation near the electron cyclotron harmonics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binz, Ernst; Schempp, Walter
2001-06-01
Quantum holography is a well established theory of mathematical physics based on harmonic analysis on the Heisenberg Lie group G. The geometric quantization is performed by projectivization of the complexified coadjoint orbit picture of the unitary dual Ĝ of G in order to achieve a geometric adjustment of the quantum scenario to special relativity theory. It admits applications to various imaging modalities such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in the microwave range, and, most importantly for the field of non-invasive medical diagnosis, to the clinical imaging modality of magnetic resonance tomography (MRI) in the radio frequency range. Quantum holography explains the quantum teleportation phenomemon through Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) channels which is a consequence of the non-locality of phase coherent quantum field theory, the concept of absolute simultaneity of special relativity theory which provides the Einstein equivalence of energy and Fitzgerald-Lorentz dilated mass, and the perfect quantum holographic replication process of molecular genetic information processing. It specifically reveals what was before unobservable in quantum optics, namely the interference phenomena of matter wavelets of Bose-Einstein condensates, and what was before unobservable in special relativity, namely the light in flight (LIF) recording processing by ultrafast laser pulse trains. Finally, it provides a Lie group theoretical approach to the Kruskal coordinatized Schwarzschild manifold of relativistic cosmology with large scale applications to general relativity theory such as gravitational instanton symmetries and the theory of black holes. The direct spinorial detection of gravitational wavelets emitted by the binary radio pulsar PSR 1913+16 and known only by anticipatory system computation so far will also be based on the principles of quantum holography applied to very large array (VLA) radio interferometers. .
Optical sensor of magnetic fields
Butler, M.A.; Martin, S.J.
1986-03-25
An optical magnetic field strength sensor for measuring the field strength of a magnetic field comprising a dilute magnetic semi-conductor probe having first and second ends, longitudinally positioned in the magnetic field for providing Faraday polarization rotation of light passing therethrough relative to the strength of the magnetic field. Light provided by a remote light source is propagated through an optical fiber coupler and a single optical fiber strand between the probe and the light source for providing a light path therebetween. A polarizer and an apparatus for rotating the polarization of the light is provided in the light path and a reflector is carried by the second end of the probe for reflecting the light back through the probe and thence through the polarizer to the optical coupler. A photo detector apparatus is operably connected to the optical coupler for detecting and measuring the intensity of the reflected light and comparing same to the light source intensity whereby the magnetic field strength may be calculated.
Sergeichev, K. F.; Karfidov, D. M.; Lukina, N. A.
2007-06-15
Results are presented from experiments on the acceleration of electrons by a 2.45-GHz microwave field in an adiabatic mirror trap under electron cyclotron resonance conditions, the electric and wave vectors of the wave being orthogonal to the trap axis. At a microwave electric field of {>=}10 V/cm and air pressures of 10{sup -6}-10{sup -4} Torr (the experiments were also performed with helium and argon), a self-sustained discharge was initiated in which a fraction of plasma electrons were accelerated to energies of 0.3-0.5 MeV. After the onset of instability, the acceleration terminated; the plasma decayed; and the accelerated electrons escaped toward the chamber wall, causing the generation of X-ray emission. Estimates show that electrons can be accelerated to the above energies only in the regime of self-phased interaction with the microwave field, provided that the electrons with a relativistically increased mass penetrate into the region with a higher magnetic field. It is shown that the negative-mass instability also can contribute to electron acceleration. The dynamic friction of the fast electrons by neutral particles in the drift space between the resonance zones does not suppress electron acceleration, so the electrons pass into a runaway regime. Since the air molecules excited by relativistic runaway electrons radiate primarily in the red spectral region, this experiment can be considered as a model of high-altitude atmospheric discharges, known as 'red sprites.'.
Magnets in an electric field: hidden forces and momentum conservation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redfern, Francis
2017-06-01
In 1967 Shockley and James addressed the situation of a magnet in an electric field. The magnet is at rest and contains electromagnetic momentum, but there was no obvious mechanical momentum to balance this for momentum conservation. They concluded that some sort of mechanical momentum, which they called "hidden momentum", was contained in the magnet and ascribed this momentum to relativistic effects, a contention that was apparently confirmed by Coleman and Van Vleck. Since then, a magnetic dipole in an electric field has been considered to have this new form of momentum, but this view ignores the electromagnetic forces that arise when an electric field is applied to a magnet or a magnet is formed in an electric field. The electromagnetic forces result in the magnet-charge system gaining electromagnetic momentum and an equal and opposite amount of mechanical momentum so that it is moving in its original rest frame. This moving reference frame is erroneously taken to be the rest frame in studies that purport to show hidden momentum. Here I examine the analysis of Shockley and James and of Coleman and Van Vleck and consider a model of a magnetic dipole formed in a uniform electric field. These calculations show no hidden momentum.
Mesoscopic Superposition States in Relativistic Landau Levels
Bermudez, A.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.; Solano, E.
2007-09-21
We show that a linear superposition of mesoscopic states in relativistic Landau levels can be built when an external magnetic field couples to a relativistic spin 1/2 charged particle. Under suitable initial conditions, the associated Dirac equation produces unitarily superpositions of coherent states involving the particle orbital quanta in a well-defined mesoscopic regime. We demonstrate that these mesoscopic superpositions have a purely relativistic origin and disappear in the nonrelativistic limit.
Quantum oscillations without magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Tianyu; Pikulin, D. I.; Franz, M.
2017-01-01
When the magnetic field B is applied to a metal, nearly all observable quantities exhibit oscillations periodic in 1 /B . Such quantum oscillations reflect the fundamental reorganization of electron states into Landau levels as a canonical response of the metal to the applied magnetic field. We predict here that, remarkably, in the recently discovered Dirac and Weyl semimetals, quantum oscillations can occur in the complete absence of magnetic field. These zero-field quantum oscillations are driven by elastic strain which, in the space of the low-energy Dirac fermions, acts as a chiral gauge potential. We propose an experimental setup in which the strain in a thin film (or nanowire) can generate a pseudomagnetic field b as large as 15 T and demonstrate the resulting de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations periodic in 1 /b .
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mizuno, Y.; Nishikawa, K.I.; Zhang, B.; Giacomazzo, B.; Hardee, P.E.; Nagataki, S.; Hartmann, D.H.
2008-01-01
We solve the Riemann problem for the deceleration of arbitrarily magnetized relativistic ejecta injected into a static unmagnetized medium. We find that for the same initial Lorentz factor, the reverse shock becomes progressively weaker with increasing magnetization s (the Poynting-to-kinetic energy flux ratio), and the shock becomes a rarefaction wave when s exceeds a critical value, sc, defined by the balance between the magnetic pressure in the ejecta and the thermal pressure in the forward shock. In the rarefaction wave regime, we find that the rarefied region is accelerated to a Lorentz factor that is significantly larger than the initial value. This acceleration mechanism is due to the strong magnetic pressure in the ejecta.
B. Julia-Diaz, H. Kamano, T.-S. H. Lee, A. Matsuyama, T. Sato, N. Suzuki
2009-04-01
Within the relativistic quantum field theory, we analyze the differences between the $\\pi N$ reaction models constructed from using (1) three-dimensional reductions of Bethe-Salpeter Equation, (2) method of unitary transformation, and (3) time-ordered perturbation theory. Their relations with the approach based on the dispersion relations of S-matrix theory are dicusssed.
Magnetic fields in spiral galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beck, Rainer
2015-12-01
Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and Faraday rotation of the polarization angle are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of magnetic fields in galaxies. Unpolarized synchrotron emission traces isotropic turbulent fields which are strongest in spiral arms and bars (20-30 \\upmu G) and in central starburst regions (50-100 \\upmu G). Such fields are dynamically important; they affect gas flows and drive gas inflows in central regions. Polarized emission traces ordered fields, which can be regular or anisotropic turbulent, where the latter originates from isotropic turbulent fields by the action of compression or shear. The strongest ordered fields (10-15 \\upmu G) are generally found in interarm regions. In galaxies with strong density waves, ordered fields are also observed at the inner edges of spiral arms. Ordered fields with spiral patterns exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies and in central regions. Ordered fields in interacting galaxies have asymmetric distributions and are a tracer of past interactions between galaxies or with the intergalactic medium.—Faraday rotation measures of the diffuse polarized radio emission from galaxy disks reveal large-scale spiral patterns that can be described by the superposition of azimuthal modes; these are signatures of regular fields generated by mean-field dynamos. "Magnetic arms" between gaseous spiral arms may also be products of dynamo action, but need a stable spiral pattern to develop. Helically twisted field loops winding around spiral arms were found in two galaxies so far. Large-scale field reversals, like the one found in the Milky Way, could not yet be detected in external galaxies. In radio halos around edge-on galaxies, ordered magnetic fields with X-shaped patterns are observed. The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetic fields, in particular their first occurrence in young galaxies and their dynamical importance during galaxy evolution, will be studied with
Nanometric alternating magnetic field generator.
Espejo, A P; Tejo, F; Vidal-Silva, N; Escrig, J
2017-07-05
In this work we introduce an alternating magnetic field generator in a cylindrical nanostructure. This field appears due to the rotation of a magnetic domain wall located at some position, generating a magnetic region that varies its direction of magnetization alternately, thus inducing an alternating magnetic flux in its vicinity. This phenomenon occurs due to the competition between a spin-polarized current and a magnetic field, which allows to control both the angular velocity and the pinning position of the domain wall. As proof of concept, we study the particular case of a diameter-modulated nanowire with a spin-polarized current along its axis and the demagnetizing field produced by its modulation. This inhomogeneous field allows one to control the angular velocity of the domain wall as a function of its position along the nanowire allowing frequencies in the GHz range to be achieved. This generator could be used in telecommunications for devices in the range of radiofrequencies or, following Faraday's induction law, could also induce an electromotive force and be used as a movable alternate voltage source in future nanodevices.
Strong Magnetic Field Characterisation
2012-04-01
coils were driven by a pulsed-power system to generate the fields. All the sources were characterised through a series of measurements and modelling... generated for the coils. Options for further investigation were provided. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED This...investigation. The desired field strength was based on assessments [1] from preliminary magnetohydrodynamic ( MHD ) modelling and while not achievable by
Objective realism and freedom of choice in relativistic quantum field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bednorz, Adam
2016-10-01
Traditional Bell's argument shows that freedom of choice is inconsistent with quantum realism if lack of signaling and sufficiently fast choices and readouts are assumed. While no-signaling alone is a consequence of special relativity, this is not the case of spacetime location of choice and readout. Here we attempt to incorporate freedom of choice into quantum objective realism relying solely on relativistic quantum field theory. We conclude that this is impossible without breaking relativistic invariance and put forward the possibility of signaling faster than light, which cannot be excluded if an ultimate theory violates relativity.
Zhu, X. P.; Zhang, Z. C.; Lei, M. K.; Pushkarev, A. I.
2016-01-15
High-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) with ion current density above Child-Langmuir limit is achieved by extracting ion beam from anode plasma of ion diodes with suppressing electron flow under magnetic field insulation. It was theoretically estimated that with increasing the magnetic field, a maximal value of ion current density may reach nearly 3 times that of Child-Langmuir limit in a non-relativistic mode and close to 6 times in a highly relativistic mode. In this study, the behavior of ion beam enhancement by magnetic insulation is systematically investigated in three types of magnetically insulated ion diodes (MIDs) with passive anode, taking into account the anode plasma generation process on the anode surface. A maximal enhancement factor higher than 6 over the Child-Langmuir limit can be obtained in the non-relativistic mode with accelerating voltage of 200–300 kV. The MIDs differ in two anode plasma formation mechanisms, i.e., surface flashover of a dielectric coating on the anode and explosive emission of electrons from the anode, as well as in two insulation modes of external-magnetic field and self-magnetic field with either non-closed or closed drift of electrons in the anode-cathode (A-K) gap, respectively. Combined with ion current density measurement, energy density characterization is employed to resolve the spatial distribution of energy density before focusing for exploring the ion beam generation process. Consistent results are obtained on three types of MIDs concerning control of neutralizing electron flows for the space charge of ions where the high ion beam enhancement is determined by effective electron neutralization in the A-K gap, while the HIPIB composition of different ion species downstream from the diode may be considerably affected by the ion beam neutralization during propagation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, X. P.; Zhang, Z. C.; Pushkarev, A. I.; Lei, M. K.
2016-01-01
High-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) with ion current density above Child-Langmuir limit is achieved by extracting ion beam from anode plasma of ion diodes with suppressing electron flow under magnetic field insulation. It was theoretically estimated that with increasing the magnetic field, a maximal value of ion current density may reach nearly 3 times that of Child-Langmuir limit in a non-relativistic mode and close to 6 times in a highly relativistic mode. In this study, the behavior of ion beam enhancement by magnetic insulation is systematically investigated in three types of magnetically insulated ion diodes (MIDs) with passive anode, taking into account the anode plasma generation process on the anode surface. A maximal enhancement factor higher than 6 over the Child-Langmuir limit can be obtained in the non-relativistic mode with accelerating voltage of 200-300 kV. The MIDs differ in two anode plasma formation mechanisms, i.e., surface flashover of a dielectric coating on the anode and explosive emission of electrons from the anode, as well as in two insulation modes of external-magnetic field and self-magnetic field with either non-closed or closed drift of electrons in the anode-cathode (A-K) gap, respectively. Combined with ion current density measurement, energy density characterization is employed to resolve the spatial distribution of energy density before focusing for exploring the ion beam generation process. Consistent results are obtained on three types of MIDs concerning control of neutralizing electron flows for the space charge of ions where the high ion beam enhancement is determined by effective electron neutralization in the A-K gap, while the HIPIB composition of different ion species downstream from the diode may be considerably affected by the ion beam neutralization during propagation.
MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS FOR FAST-CHANGING MAGNETIC FIELDS.
JAIN, A.; ESCALLIER, J.; GANETIS, G.; LOUIE, W.; MARONE, A.; THOMAS. R.; WANDERER, P.
2004-10-03
Several recent applications for fast ramped magnets have been found that require rapid measurement of the field quality during the ramp. (In one instance, accelerator dipoles will be ramped at 1 T/sec, with measurements needed to the accuracy typically required for accelerators.) We have built and tested a new type of magnetic field measuring system to meet this need. The system consists of 16 stationary pickup windings mounted on a cylinder. The signals induced in the windings in a changing magnetic field are sampled and analyzed to obtain the field harmonics. To minimize costs, printed circuit boards were used for the pickup windings and a combination of amplifiers and ADPs used for the voltage readout system. New software was developed for the analysis. Magnetic field measurements of a model dipole developed for the SIS200 accelerator at GSI are presented. The measurements are needed to insure that eddy currents induced by the fast ramps do not impact the field quality needed for successful accelerator operation.
Olejniczak, Małgorzata; Bast, Radovan; Saue, Trond; Pecul, Magdalena
2012-01-07
We report the implementation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shielding tensors within the four-component relativistic Kohn-Sham density functional theory including non-collinear spin magnetization and employing London atomic orbitals to ensure gauge origin independent results, together with a new and efficient scheme for assuring correct balance between the large and small components of a molecular four-component spinor in the presence of an external magnetic field (simple magnetic balance). To test our formalism we have carried out calculations of NMR shielding tensors for the HX series (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At), the Xe atom, and the Xe dimer. The advantage of simple magnetic balance scheme combined with the use of London atomic orbitals is the fast convergence of results (when compared with restricted kinetic balance) and elimination of linear dependencies in the basis set (when compared to unrestricted kinetic balance). The effect of including spin magnetization in the description of NMR shielding tensor has been found important for hydrogen atoms in heavy HX molecules, causing an increase of isotropic values of 10%, but negligible for heavy atoms.
Tecimer, M.; Elias, L.R.
1995-12-31
Lienard-Wiechert (LW) fields, which are exact solutions of the Wave Equation for a point charge in free space, are employed to formulate a self-consistent treatment of the electron beam dynamics and the evolution of the generated radiation in long undulators. In a relativistic electron beam the internal forces leading to the interaction of the electrons with each other can be computed by means of retarded LW fields. The resulting electron beam dynamics enables us to obtain three dimensional radiation fields starting from an initial incoherent spontaneous emission, without introducing a seed wave at start-up. Based on the formalism employed here, both the evolution of the multi-bucket electron phase space dynamics in the beam body as well as edges and the relative slippage of the radiation with respect to the electrons in the considered short bunch are naturally embedded into the simulation model. In this paper, we present electromagnetic radiation studies, including multi-bucket electron phase dynamics and angular distribution of radiation in the time and frequency domain produced by a relativistic short electron beam bunch interacting with a circularly polarized magnetic undulator.
Fast magnetic field annihilation driven by two laser pulses in underdense plasma
Gu, Y. J.; Kumar, D.; Weber, S.; Korn, G.; Klimo, O.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.
2015-10-15
Fast magnetic annihilation is investigated by using 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of two parallel ultra-short petawatt laser pulses co-propagating in underdense plasma. The magnetic field generated by the laser pulses annihilates in a current sheet formed between the pulses. Magnetic field energy is converted to an inductive longitudinal electric field, which efficiently accelerates the electrons of the current sheet. This new regime of collisionless relativistic magnetic field annihilation with a timescale of tens of femtoseconds can be extended to near-critical and overdense plasma with the ultra-high intensity femtosecond laser pulses.
Indoor localization using magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar
Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, Aleksey
2013-04-01
The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws
Hainzl, Christian; Lewin, Mathieu; Sere, Eric; Solovej, Jan Philip
2007-11-15
We study a mean-field relativistic model which is able to describe both the behavior of finitely many spin-1/2 particles such as electrons and of the Dirac sea which is self-consistently polarized in the presence of the real particles. The model is derived from the QED Hamiltonian in Coulomb gauge neglecting the photon field. All our results are nonperturbative and mathematically rigorous.
Aharonov-Bohm scattering of relativistic Dirac particles with an anomalous magnetic moment
Lin Qionggui
2005-10-15
The Aharonov-Bohm scattering of relativistic spin-1/2 particles with an anomalous magnetic moment are studied. The scattering cross sections for unpolarized and polarized particles are obtained by solving the Dirac-Pauli equation. It is somewhat unexpected that the results are in general the same as those for particles without an anomalous magnetic moment. However, when the incident energy takes some special values, the cross section for polarized particles is dramatically changed. In these cases the helicity of scattered particles is not conserved. In particular, the helicity of particles scattered in the backward direction is all reversed. In the nonrelativistic limit, a very simple relation between the polarized directions of the incident and scattered particles is found, for both general and special incident energies. For particles without an anomalous magnetic moment this relation can be drawn from previous results but it appears to be unnoticed.
Relativistic Particle-In-Cell Simulations of Particle Accleration in Relativistic Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, J. F.
2008-01-01
Highly accelerated particles are observed in astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), microquasars, and Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic electron-ion and electron-positron jets injected into a stationary medium show that efficient acceleration occurs downstream in the jet. In collisionless relativistic shocks particle acceleration is due to plasma waves and their associated instabilities, e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-stream instabilities, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability. Simulations show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly non-uniform, small-scale magnetic fields. The instability depends on strength and direction of the magnetic field. Particles in relativistic jets may be accelerated in a complicated dynamics of relativistic jets with magnetic field. We present results of our recent PIC simulations.
Relativistic Particle-In-Cell Simulations of Particle Accleration in Relativistic Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fishman, J. F.
2008-01-01
Highly accelerated particles are observed in astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), microquasars, and Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic electron-ion and electron-positron jets injected into a stationary medium show that efficient acceleration occurs downstream in the jet. In collisionless relativistic shocks particle acceleration is due to plasma waves and their associated instabilities, e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-stream instabilities, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability. Simulations show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly non-uniform, small-scale magnetic fields. The instability depends on strength and direction of the magnetic field. Particles in relativistic jets may be accelerated in a complicated dynamics of relativistic jets with magnetic field. We present results of our recent PIC simulations.
Observations of Mercury's magnetic field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ness, N. F.; Behannon, K. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Whang, Y. C.
1975-01-01
Magnetic field data obtained by Mariner 10 during the third and final encounter with the planet Mercury on 16 March 1975 were studied. A well developed bow shock and modest magnetosphere, previously observed at first encounter on 29 March 1974, were again observed. In addition, a much stronger magnetic field near closest approach, 400 gamma versus 98 gamma, was observed at an altitude of 327 km and approximately 70 deg north Mercurian latitude. Spherical harmonic analysis of the data provide an estimate of the centered planetary magnetic dipole of 4.7 x 10 to the 22nd power Gauss/cu cm with the axis tilted 12 deg to the rotation axis and in the same sense as Earth's. The interplanetary field was sufficiently different between first and third encounters that in addition to the very large field magnitude observed, it argues strongly against a complex induction process generating the observed planetary field. While a possibility exists that Mercury possesses a remanent field due to magnetization early in its formation, a present day active dynamo seems to be a more likely candidate for its origin.
Satellite to study earth's magnetic field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
The Magnetic Field Satellite (Magsat) designed to measure the near earth magnetic field and crustal anomalies is briefly described. A scalar magnetometer to measure the magnitude of the earth's crustal magnetic field and a vector magnetometer to measure magnetic field direction as well as magnitude are included. The mission and its objectives are summarized along with the data collection and processing system.
Search for Ultra-relativistic Magnetic Monopoles with the Pierre Auger Observatory
Aab, Alexander
2016-10-03
In this paper, we present a search for ultra-relativistic magnetic monopoles with the Pierre Auger Observatory. Such particles, possibly a relic of phase transitions in the early universe, would deposit a large amount of energy along their path through the atmosphere, comparable to that of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). The air shower profile of a magnetic monopole can be effectively distinguished by the fluorescence detector from that of standard UHECRs. No candidate was found in the data collected between 2004 and 2012, with an expected background of less than 0.1 event from UHECRs. The corresponding 90% confidence level (C.L.) upper limits on the flux of ultra-relativistic magnetic monopoles range from $10^{-19}$ (cm$^{2}$ sr s)$^{-1}$ for a Lorentz factor $\\gamma=10^9$ to $2.5 \\times10^{-21}$ (cm$^{2}$ sr s)$^{-1}$ for $\\gamma=10^{12}$. Lastly, these results - the first obtained with a UHECR detector - improve previously published limits by up to an order of magnitude.
Search for Ultra-relativistic Magnetic Monopoles with the Pierre Auger Observatory
Aab, Alexander
2016-10-03
In this paper, we present a search for ultra-relativistic magnetic monopoles with the Pierre Auger Observatory. Such particles, possibly a relic of phase transitions in the early universe, would deposit a large amount of energy along their path through the atmosphere, comparable to that of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). The air shower profile of a magnetic monopole can be effectively distinguished by the fluorescence detector from that of standard UHECRs. No candidate was found in the data collected between 2004 and 2012, with an expected background of less than 0.1 event from UHECRs. The corresponding 90% confidence level (C.L.) upper limits on the flux of ultra-relativistic magnetic monopoles range frommore » $$10^{-19}$$ (cm$$^{2}$$ sr s)$$^{-1}$$ for a Lorentz factor $$\\gamma=10^9$$ to $$2.5 \\times10^{-21}$$ (cm$$^{2}$$ sr s)$$^{-1}$$ for $$\\gamma=10^{12}$$. Lastly, these results - the first obtained with a UHECR detector - improve previously published limits by up to an order of magnitude.« less
Search for relativistic magnetic monopoles with the AMANDA-II neutrino telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Benzvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Davis, J. C.; de Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemming, N.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Knops, S.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Lehmann, R.; Lennarz, D.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Marotta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Matusik, M.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Roucelle, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Voge, M.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.
2010-10-01
We present the search for Cherenkov signatures from relativistic magnetic monopoles in data taken with the AMANDA-II detector, a neutrino telescope deployed in the Antarctic ice cap at the Geographic South Pole. The non-observation of a monopole signal in data collected during the year 2000 improves present experimental limits on the flux of relativistic magnetic monopoles: Our flux limit varies between 3.8×10-17 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 (for monopoles moving at the vacuum speed of light) and 8.8×10-16 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 (for monopoles moving at a speed β= v/ c=0.76, just above the Cherenkov threshold in ice). These limits apply to monopoles that are energetic enough to penetrate the Earth and enter the detector from below the horizon. The limit obtained for monopoles reaching the detector from above the horizon is less stringent by roughly an order of magnitude, due to the much larger background from down-going atmospheric muons. This looser limit is however valid for a larger class of magnetic monopoles, since the monopoles are not required to pass through the Earth.
Search for Ultra-relativistic Magnetic Monopoles with the Pierre Auger Observatory
Aab, Alexander
2016-10-03
In this paper, we present a search for ultra-relativistic magnetic monopoles with the Pierre Auger Observatory. Such particles, possibly a relic of phase transitions in the early universe, would deposit a large amount of energy along their path through the atmosphere, comparable to that of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). The air shower profile of a magnetic monopole can be effectively distinguished by the fluorescence detector from that of standard UHECRs. No candidate was found in the data collected between 2004 and 2012, with an expected background of less than 0.1 event from UHECRs. The corresponding 90% confidence level (C.L.) upper limits on the flux of ultra-relativistic magnetic monopoles range from $10^{-19}$ (cm$^{2}$ sr s)$^{-1}$ for a Lorentz factor $\\gamma=10^9$ to $2.5 \\times10^{-21}$ (cm$^{2}$ sr s)$^{-1}$ for $\\gamma=10^{12}$. Lastly, these results - the first obtained with a UHECR detector - improve previously published limits by up to an order of magnitude.
Relativistic, QED, and nuclear mass effects in the magnetic shielding of 3He.
Rudziński, Adam; Puchalski, Mariusz; Pachucki, Krzysztof
2009-06-28
The magnetic shielding sigma of (3)He is studied. The complete relativistic corrections of order O(alpha(2)), leading QED corrections of order O(alpha(3) ln alpha), and finite nuclear mass effects of order O(m/m(N)) are calculated with high numerical precision. The resulting theoretical predictions for sigma = 59.967 43(10)x10(-6) are the most accurate to date among all elements and support the use of (3)He as a NMR standard.
The symmetric tensor field in the relativistic theory of gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoryan, A. Sh.; Gottlöber, S.
1995-07-01
The system of a self-gravitating scalar field is frequently used in inflationary cosmological models. In the present paper we study a more complicated system containing an extra linear tensor field ψik=ψki with minimal coupling. We determine five of the six free parameters that occur in the most general expression for the actionS ψ of this field. In doing so we assume that in flat space-time the field ψik must be invariant under gauge transformations. In a special case theS ψ found becomes a known expression for the action of a massless tensor field ψik. We compute the metric energy-momentum tensor that determines the contribution of ψik to the Einstein equations. We also exhibit the equations of motion of ψik in curved space-time.
2017-06-27
A smallish solar filament looks like it collapsed into the sun and set off a minor eruption that hurled plasma into space (June 20, 2017). Then, the disrupted magnetic field immediately began to reorganize itself, hence the bright series of spirals coiling up over that area. The magnetic field lines are made visible in extreme ultraviolet light as charged particles spin along them. Also of interest are the darker, cooler strands of plasma being pulled and twisted at the edge of the sun just below the active region. The activity here is in a 21-hour period. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21764
Estimates on Functional Integrals of Quantum Mechanics and Non-relativistic Quantum Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bley, Gonzalo A.; Thomas, Lawrence E.
2017-01-01
We provide a unified method for obtaining upper bounds for certain functional integrals appearing in quantum mechanics and non-relativistic quantum field theory, functionals of the form {E[{exp}(A_T)]} , the (effective) action {A_T} being a function of particle trajectories up to time T. The estimates in turn yield rigorous lower bounds for ground state energies, via the Feynman-Kac formula. The upper bounds are obtained by writing the action for these functional integrals in terms of stochastic integrals. The method is illustrated in familiar quantum mechanical settings: for the hydrogen atom, for a Schrödinger operator with {1/|x|^2} potential with small coupling, and, with a modest adaptation of the method, for the harmonic oscillator. We then present our principal applications of the method, in the settings of non-relativistic quantum field theories for particles moving in a quantized Bose field, including the optical polaron and Nelson models.
Cold atom simulation of interacting relativistic quantum field theories.
Cirac, J Ignacio; Maraner, Paolo; Pachos, Jiannis K
2010-11-05
We demonstrate that Dirac fermions self-interacting or coupled to dynamic scalar fields can emerge in the low energy sector of designed bosonic and fermionic cold atom systems. We illustrate this with two examples defined in two spacetime dimensions. The first one is the self-interacting Thirring model. The second one is a model of Dirac fermions coupled to a dynamic scalar field that gives rise to the Gross-Neveu model. The proposed cold atom experiments can be used to probe spectral or correlation properties of interacting quantum field theories thereby presenting an alternative to lattice gauge theory simulations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kosmahl, H. G.
1982-01-01
A theoretical investigation of three dimensional relativistic klystron action is described. The relativistic axisymmetric equations of motion are derived from the time-dependent Lagrangian function for a charged particle in electromagnetic fields. An analytical expression of the fringing RF electric and magnetic fields within and in the vicinity of the interaction gap and the space-charge forces between axially and radially elastic deformable rings of charges are both included in the formulation. This makes an accurate computation of electron motion through the tunnel of the cavities and the drift tube spaces possible. Method of analysis is based on Lagrangian formulation. Bunching is computed using a disk model of electron stream in which the electron stream is divided into axisymmetric disks of equal charge and each disk is assumed to consist of a number of concentric rings of equal charges. The Individual representative groups of electrons are followed through the interaction gaps and drift tube spaces. Induced currents and voltages in interacting cavities are calculated by invoking the Shockley-Ramo theorem.
On the usefulness of relativistic space-times for the description of the Earth's gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soffel, Michael; Frutos, Francisco
2016-12-01
The usefulness of relativistic space-times for the description of the Earth's gravitational field is investigated. A variety of exact vacuum solutions of Einstein's field equations (Schwarzschild, Erez and Rosen, Gutsunayev and Manko, Hernández-Pastora and Martín, Kerr, Quevedo, and Mashhoon) are investigated in that respect. It is argued that because of their multipole structure and influences from external bodies, all these exact solutions are not really useful for the central problem. Then, approximate space-times resulting from an MPM or post-Newtonian approximation are considered. Only in the DSX formalism that is of the first post-Newtonian order, all aspects of the problem can be tackled: a relativistic description (a) of the Earth's gravity field in a well-defined geocentric reference system (GCRS), (b) of the motion of solar system bodies in a barycentric reference system (BCRS), and (c) of inertial and tidal terms in the geocentric metric describing the external gravitational field. A relativistic SLR theory is also discussed with respect to our central problem. Orders of magnitude of many effects related to the Earth's gravitational field and SLR are given. It is argued that a formalism with accuracies better than of the first post-Newtonian order is not yet available.
Photospheric and coronal magnetic fields
Sheeley, N.R., Jr. )
1991-01-01
Research on small-scale and large-scale photospheric and coronal magnetic fields during 1987-1990 is reviewed, focusing on observational studies. Particular attention is given to the new techniques, which include the correlation tracking of granules, the use of highly Zeeman-sensitive infrared spectral lines and multiple lines to deduce small-scale field strength, the application of long integration times coupled with good seeing conditions to study weak fields, and the use of high-resolution CCD detectors together with computer image-processing techniques to obtain images with unsurpassed spatial resolution. Synoptic observations of large-scale fields during the sunspot cycle are also discussed. 101 refs.
Observations of Interstellar Magnetic Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crutcher, R.; Heiles, C.; Troland, T.
This article describes how interstellar magnetic fields are detected, measured, and mapped, the results of such observations, and the role played by interstellar magnetic fields in the physics of the interstellar medium. A goal of the observations is the measurement of the morphology and strengths of the uniform (Bu) and random (Br) components of magnetic fields. Observational techniques probe either the component of B parallel to the line of sight (B_parallel) or in the plane of the sky (B_⊥). Tracers of B_parallel are Faraday rotation of the position angle of linearly polarized radiation and Zeeman splitting of spectral lines. Tracers of B_⊥ are the strength of synchrotron radiation and linear polarization of syn chrotron radiation and of emission or absorption from dust and spectral lines. Starlight polarization shows that on large spatial scales the Galactic magnetic field is not heavily tangled (B_u/B_r ≈ 0.7 - 1.0), that the field is generally parallel to the Galactic plane near the plane, that the local field points approximately along the local spiral arm (pitch angle 9.4(°) , center of curvature 7.8 kpc distant towards ℓ ≈ -15.4(°) ), and that off the Galactic plane there is considerable small-scale structure to the field. Galactic synchrotron emission shows magnetic spiral arms with a total strength B_t ≈ 6 #55G and B_u ≈ 4 #55G. Pulsar data show evidence for reversals of the field direction with Galactic radius and yield B_r ≈ 5 #55G and B_u ≈ 1.5 #55G; the morphology of the large-scale mean field is consistent with dynamo generation. H I Zeeman detections for diffuse clouds yield B_parallel char 126 5 - 20 #55G with many limits B_parallel #55G. A recent survey of Galactic H I in absorption against extragalactic sources confirms the result that the fields in diffuse clouds are often quite weak. The critical parameter for evaluating the importance of magnetic fields in star formation is the ratio of the mass to the magnetic flux, M
Confined Dirac fermions in a constant magnetic field
Jellal, Ahmed; Alhaidari, Abdulaziz D.; Bahlouli, Hocine
2009-07-15
We obtain an exact solution of the Dirac equation in (2+1) dimensions in the presence of a constant magnetic field normal to the plane together with a two-dimensional Dirac-oscillator potential coupling. The solution space consists of positive- and negative-energy solutions, each of which splits into two disconnected subspaces depending on the sign of an azimuthal quantum number k=0,{+-}1,{+-}2,... and whether the cyclotron frequency is larger or smaller than the oscillator frequency. The spinor wave function is written in terms of the associated Laguerre polynomials. For negative k, the relativistic energy spectrum is infinitely degenerate due to the fact that it is independent of k. We compare our results with already published work and point out the relevance of these findings to a systematic formulation of the relativistic quantum Hall effect in a confining potential.
Fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coronel-Escamilla, A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Guerrero-Ramírez, G. V.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.
2016-02-01
In many physical applications the electrons play a relevant role. For example, when a beam of electrons accelerated to relativistic velocities is used as an active medium to generate Free Electron Lasers (FEL), the electrons are bound to atoms, but move freely in a magnetic field. The relaxation time, longitudinal effects and transverse variations of the optical field are parameters that play an important role in the efficiency of this laser. The electron dynamics in a magnetic field is a means of radiation source for coupling to the electric field. The transverse motion of the electrons leads to either gain or loss energy from or to the field, depending on the position of the particle regarding the phase of the external radiation field. Due to the importance to know with great certainty the displacement of charged particles in a magnetic field, in this work we study the fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields. Newton’s second law is considered and the order of the fractional differential equation is (0;1]. Based on the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, the discretization of fractional differential equations is reported to get numerical simulations. Comparison between the numerical solutions obtained on Euler’s numerical method for the classical case and the GL definition in the fractional approach proves the good performance of the numerical scheme applied. Three application examples are shown: constant magnetic field, ramp magnetic field and harmonic magnetic field. In the first example the results obtained show bistability. Dissipative effects are observed in the system and the standard dynamic is recovered when the order of the fractional derivative is 1.
Dipole magnetic field of neutron stars in f(R) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakirova, Elizat; Folomeev, Vladimir
2016-10-01
The structure of an interior dipole magnetic field of neutron stars in f( R) gravity is considered. For this purpose, the perturbative approaches are used when both the deviations from general relativity and the deformations of spherically symmetric configurations associated with the presence of the magnetic field are assumed to be small. Solutions are constructed which describe relativistic, spherically symmetric configurations consisting of a gravitating magnetized perfect fluid modeled by a realistic equation of state. Comparing configurations from general relativity and modified gravity, we reveal possible differences in the structure of the magnetic field which occur in considering neutron stars in modified gravity.
Amplification of Relativistic Electron Bunches by Acceleration in Laser Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braenzel, J.; Andreev, A. A.; Abicht, F.; Ehrentraut, L.; Platonov, K.; Schnürer, M.
2017-01-01
Direct acceleration of electrons in a coherent, intense light field is revealed by a remarkable increase of the electron number in the MeV energy range. Laser irradiation of thin polymer foils with a peak intensity of ˜1 ×1020 W /cm2 releases electron bunches along the laser propagation direction that are postaccelerated in the partly transmitted laser field. They are decoupled from the laser field at high kinetic energies, when a second foil target at an appropriate distance prevents their subsequent deceleration in the declining laser field. The scheme is established with laser pulses of high temporal contrast (1010 peak to background ratio) and two ultrathin polymer foils at a distance of 500 μ m . 2D particle in cell simulations and an analytical model confirm a significant change of the electron spectral distribution due to the double foil setup, which leads to an amplification of about 3 times of the electron number around a peak at 1 MeV electron energy. The result verifies a theoretical concept of direct electron bunch acceleration in a laser field that is scalable to extreme acceleration potential gradients. This method can be used to enhance the density and energy spread of electron bunches injected into postaccelerator stages of laser driven radiation sources.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruchin, Vyacheslav; Vacaru, Olivia; Vacaru, Sergiu I.
2017-03-01
Using double 2+2 and 3+1 nonholonomic fibrations on Lorentz manifolds, we extend the concept of W-entropy for gravitational fields in general relativity (GR). Such F- and W-functionals were introduced in the Ricci flow theory of three dimensional (3-d) Riemannian metrics by Perelman (the entropy formula for the Ricci flow and its geometric applications. arXiv:math.DG/0211159). Non-relativistic 3-d Ricci flows are characterized by associated statistical thermodynamical values determined by W-entropy. Generalizations for geometric flows of 4-d pseudo-Riemannian metrics are considered for models with local thermodynamical equilibrium and separation of dissipative and non-dissipative processes in relativistic hydrodynamics. The approach is elaborated in the framework of classical field theories (relativistic continuum and hydrodynamic models) without an underlying kinetic description, which will be elaborated in other work. The 3+1 splitting allows us to provide a general relativistic definition of gravitational entropy in the Lyapunov-Perelman sense. It increases monotonically as structure forms in the Universe. We can formulate a thermodynamic description of exact solutions in GR depending, in general, on all spacetime coordinates. A corresponding 2+2 splitting with nonholonomic deformation of linear connection and frame structures is necessary for generating in very general form various classes of exact solutions of the Einstein and general relativistic geometric flow equations. Finally, we speculate on physical macrostates and microstate interpretations of the W-entropy in GR, geometric flow theories and possible connections to string theory (a second unsolved problem also contained in Perelman's work) in Polyakov's approach.
Majorana neutrinos and magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schechter, J.; Valle, J. W. F.
1981-10-01
It is stressed that if neutrinos are massive they are probably of "Majorana" type. This implies that their magnetic-moment form factor vanishes identically so that the previously discussed phenomenon of spin rotation in a magnetic field would not appear to take place. We point out that Majorana neutrinos can, however, have transition moments. This enables an inhomogeneous magnetic field to rotate both spin and "flavor" of a neutrino. In this case the spin rotation changes particle to antiparticle. The spin-flavor-rotation effect is worked out in detail. We also discuss the parametrization and calculation of the electromagnetic form factors of Majorana neutrinos. Our discussion takes into account the somewhat unusual quantum theory of massive Majorana particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waelkens, A. H.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Enßlin, T. A.
2009-10-01
We describe a novel technique for probing the statistical properties of cosmic magnetic fields based on radio polarimetry data. Second-order magnetic field statistics like the power spectrum cannot always distinguish between magnetic fields with essentially different spatial structure. Synchrotron polarimetry naturally allows certain fourth-order magnetic field statistics to be inferred from observational data, which lifts this degeneracy and can thereby help us gain a better picture of the structure of the cosmic fields and test theoretical scenarios describing magnetic turbulence. In this work we show that a fourth-order correlator of specific physical interest, the tension force spectrum, can be recovered from the polarized synchrotron emission data. We develop an estimator for this quantity based on polarized emission observations in the Faraday rotation free frequency regime. We consider two cases: a statistically isotropic field distribution, and a statistically isotropic field superimposed on a weak mean field. In both cases the tension force power spectrum is measurable; in the latter case, the magnetic power spectrum may also be obtainable. The method is exact in the idealized case of a homogeneous relativistic electron distribution that has a power-law energy spectrum with a spectral index of p = 3, and assumes statistical isotropy of the turbulent field. We carry out numerical tests of our method using synthetic polarized emission data generated from numerically simulated magnetic fields. We show that the method is valid, that it is not prohibitively sensitive to the value of the electron spectral index p, and that the observed tension force spectrum allows one to distinguish between e.g. a randomly tangled magnetic field (a default assumption in many studies) and a field organized in folded flux sheets or filaments.
Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konar, Sushan
2017-09-01
This article briefly reviews our current understanding of the evolution of magnetic fields in neutron stars, which basically defines the evolutionary pathways between different observational classes of neutron stars. The emphasis here is on the evolution in binary systems and the newly emergent classes of millisecond pulsars.
Transverse Magnetic Field Propellant Isolator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foster, John E.
2000-01-01
An alternative high voltage isolator for electric propulsion and ground-based ion source applications has been designed and tested. This design employs a transverse magnetic field that increases the breakdown voltage. The design can greatly enhance the operating range of laboratory isolators used for high voltage applications.
Crystal field and magnetic properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flood, D. J.
1977-01-01
Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made in the temperature range 1.3 to 4.2 K on powdered samples of ErH3. The susceptibility exhibits Curie-Weiss behavior from 4.2 to 2 K, and intercepts the negative temperature axis at theta = 1.05 + or - 0.05 K, indicating that the material is antiferromagnetic. The low field effective moment is 6.77 + or - 0.27 Bohr magnetons per ion. The magnetization exhibits a temperature independent contribution, the slope of which is (5 + or - 1.2) x 10 to the -6th Weber m/kg Tesla. The saturation moment is 3.84 + or - 1 - 0.15 Bohr magnetons per ion. The results can be qualitatively explained by the effects of crystal fields on the magnetic ions. No definitive assignment of a crystal field ground state can be given, nor can a clear choice between cubically or hexagonally symmetric crystal fields be made. For hexagonal symmetry, the first excited state is estimated to be 86 to 100 K above the ground state. For cubic symmetry, the splitting is on the order of 160 to 180 K.
Separation of magnetic field lines
Boozer, Allen H.
2012-11-15
The field lines of magnetic fields that depend on three spatial coordinates are shown to have a fundamentally different behavior from those that depend on two coordinates. Unlike two-coordinate cases, a flux tube in a magnetic field that depends on all three spatial coordinates that has a circular cross section at one location along the tube characteristically has a highly distorted cross section at other locations. In an ideal evolution of a magnetic field, the current densities typically increase. Crudely stated, if the current densities increase by a factor {sigma}, the ratio of the long to the short distance across a cross section of a flux tube characteristically increases by e{sup 2{sigma}}, and the ratio of the longer distance to the initial radius increases as e{sup {sigma}}. Electron inertia prevents a plasma from isolating two magnetic field structures on a distance scale shorter than c/{omega}{sub pe}, which is about 10 cm in the solar corona, and reconnection must be triggered if {sigma} becomes sufficiently large. The radius of the sun, R{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }=7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm is about e{sup 23} times larger, so when {sigma} Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 23, two lines separated by c/{omega}{sub pe} at one location can be separated by the full scale of any magnetic structures in the corona at another. The conditions for achieving a large exponentiation, {sigma}, are derived, and the importance of exponentiation is discussed.
Systematic nuclear structure studies using relativistic mean field theory in mass region A ˜ 130
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, A.; Åberg, Sven; Bajpeyi, Awanish
2017-02-01
Nuclear structure studies for even-even nuclei in the mass region \\backsim 130, have been performed, with a special focus around N or Z = 64. On the onset of deformation and lying between two closed shell, these nuclei have attracted attention in a number of studies. A revisit to these experimentally accessible nuclei has been made via the relativistic mean field. The role of pairing and density depletion in the interior has been specially investigated. Qualitative analysis between two versions of relativistic mean field suggests that there is no significant difference between the two approaches. Moreover, the role of the filling {{{s}}}1/2 orbital in density depletion towards the centre has been found to be consistent with our earlier work on the subject Shukla and Åberg (2014 Phys. Rev. C 89 014329).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mullan, D. J.
1974-01-01
The observed properties of solar magnetic fields are reviewed, with particular reference to the complexities imposed on the field by motions of the highly conducting gas. Turbulent interactions between gas and field lead to heating or cooling of the gas according to whether the field energy density is less or greater than the maximum kinetic energy density in the convection zone. The field strength above which cooling sets in is 700 gauss. A weak solar dipole field may be primeval, but dynamo action is also important in generating new flux. The dynamo is probably not confined to the convection zone, but extends throughout most of the volume of the sun. Planetary tides appear to play a role in driving the dynamo.
Solution of relativistic quantum optics problems using clusters of graphical processing units
Gordon, D.F. Hafizi, B.; Helle, M.H.
2014-06-15
Numerical solution of relativistic quantum optics problems requires high performance computing due to the rapid oscillations in a relativistic wavefunction. Clusters of graphical processing units are used to accelerate the computation of a time dependent relativistic wavefunction in an arbitrary external potential. The stationary states in a Coulomb potential and uniform magnetic field are determined analytically and numerically, so that they can used as initial conditions in fully time dependent calculations. Relativistic energy levels in extreme magnetic fields are recovered as a means of validation. The relativistic ionization rate is computed for an ion illuminated by a laser field near the usual barrier suppression threshold, and the ionizing wavefunction is displayed.
A free-electron laser in a uniform magnetic field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ride, S. K.; Colson, W. B.
1979-01-01
The study shows that a free-electron laser can operate in a uniform, longitudinal magnetic field. The fully relativistic Lorentz force equations are examined and solved order by order in a radiation field strength to obtain analytic expressions for the electron trajectory and energy as functions of initial electron position within a wavelength of light. Analytic expressions for the longitudinal and transverse bunching and for laser gain are found. The bunching of this laser process is compared to the bunching processes involved in (1) a Stanford free-electron laser and (2) a cyclotron maser. The results received can be useful in exploring light amplification in astrophysical magnetic fields, the magnetosphere, and in laboratory devices.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.
1976-01-01
The paper is concerned mainly with the intrinsic planetary field which dominates the inner magnetosphere up to a distance of 10 to 12 Jovian radii where other phenomena, such as ring currents and diamagnetic effects of trapped charged particles, become significant. The main magnetic field of Jupiter as determined by in-situ observations by Pioner 10 and 11 is found to be relatively more complex than a simple offset tilted dipole. Deviations from a simple dipole geometry lead to distortions of the charged particle L shells and warping of the magnetic equator. Enhanced absorption effects associated with Io and Amalthea are predicted. The results are consistent with the conclusions derived from extensive radio observations at decimetric and decametric wavelengths for the planetary field.
Aspects of ultra-relativistic field theories via flat-space holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fareghbal, Reza; Naseh, Ali; Rouhani, Shahin
2017-08-01
Recently it was proposed that asymptotically flat spacetimes have a holographic dual which is an ultra-relativistic conformal field theory. In this paper, we obtain the conformal anomaly for such a theory via the flat-space holography technique. Furthermore, using flat-space holography we obtain a C-function for this theory which is monotonically decreasing from the UV to the IR by employing the null energy condition in the bulk.
Oxide superconductors under magnetic field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kitazawa, K.
1990-01-01
One of the current most serious problems for the oxide superconductors from the standpoint of practical application is the various novel features derived mainly from their extremely short coherence. In particular, the coherence length so far observed in the cuprate superconductors is in the range of 0.1 nm perpendicular to the CuO2 plane. This seems to be creating most of the difficulties in the device fabrication and in the performance under the magnetic field. Some of the superconducting properties under the magnetic field will be discussed in terms of the short coherence length. A model will be presented based on the gradual strengthening of the pinning force with decrease in temperature and the weak coupling at the grain boundaries. Secondly, the broadening of the superconducting transition under the magnetic field is discussed. This is observed significantly only when the field is applied perpendicular to the basal plane and the relative orientation of the current to the field is insignificant in determining the extent of the broadening. Besides, the change in the strength of the pinning force does not affect the width of the broadening. From these observations discussions will be made on a model based on the giant fluctuation. Based on this model, it is predicted that the coherence length along the c-axis will be the single most important material parameter to determine the performance of the superconductor under a strong magnetic field. It seems that BYCO is superior in this regard to Bi- or Tl-systems as far as the performance at 77 K is considered, although another material with the coherence length slightly longer along the c-axis is still highly desired.
Oxide superconductors under magnetic field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kitazawa, K.
1991-01-01
One of the current most serious problems for the oxide superconductors from the standpoint of practical application is the various novel features derived mainly from their extremely short coherence. In particular, the coherence length so far observed in the cuprate superconductors is in the range of 0.1 nm perpendicular to the CuO2 plane. This seems to be creating most of the difficulties in the device fabrication and in the performance under the magnetic field. Some of the superconducting properties under the magnetic field will be discussed in terms of the short coherence length. A model will be presented based on the gradual strengthening of the pinning force with decrease in temperature and the weak coupling at the grain boundaries. Secondly, the broadening of the superconducting transition under the magnetic field is discussed. This is observed significantly only when the field is applied perpendicular to the basal plane and the relative orientation of the current to the field is insignificant in determining the extent of broadening. Besides, the change in the strength of the pinning force does not affect the width of the broadening. From these observations discussions will be made on a model based on the giant fluctuation. Based on this model, it is predicted that the coherence length along the c-axis will be the single most important material parameter to determine the performance of the superconductor under a strong magnetic field. It seems that BYCO is superior in this regard to Bi- or Tl-systems as far as the performance at 77 K is considered, although another material with the coherence length slightly longer along the c-axis is still highly desired.
William Detmold; Tiburzi, Brian C.; Walker-Loud, Andre
2010-03-01
Nucleon properties are investigated in background electric fields. As the magnetic moments of baryons affect their relativistic propagation in constant electric fields, electric polarizabilities cannot be determined without knowledge of magnetic moments. We devise combinations of baryon two-point functions in external electric fields to isolate both observables. Using an ensemble of anisotropic gauge configurations with dynamical clover fermions, we demonstrate how magnetic moments and electric polarizabilities can be determined from lattice QCD simulations in background electric fields. We obtain results for both the neutron and proton. Our study is currently limited to electrically neutral sea quarks.
Das, Upasana; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata E-mail: bm@physics.iisc.ernet.in
2014-06-01
We address the issue of stability of recently proposed significantly super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs. We present stable solutions of magnetostatic equilibrium models for super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs pertaining to various magnetic field profiles. This has been obtained by self-consistently including the effects of the magnetic pressure gradient and total magnetic density in a general relativistic framework. We estimate that the maximum stable mass of magnetized white dwarfs could be more than 3 solar mass. This is very useful to explain peculiar, overluminous type Ia supernovae which do not conform to the traditional Chandrasekhar mass-limit.
Electro-optic measurement of the wake fields of a relativistic electron beam.
Fitch, M J; Melissinos, A C; Colestock, P L; Carneiro, J P; Edwards, H T; Hartung, W H
2001-07-16
When a relativistic electron bunch traverses a structure, strong electromagnetic fields are induced in its wake. For a 12 nC bunch of duration 4.2 ps FWHM, the peak field is measured >0.5 MV/m. Time resolution of approximately 5 ps is achieved using electro-optic sampling with a lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) crystal and a short-pulse infrared laser synchronized to the beam. We present measurements for both the longitudinal and radial components of the field and relate them to the wall impedance.
Imaging Black Hole Magnetic Fields with the Event Horizon Telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chael, Andrew; Doeleman, Sheperd; Johnson, Michael D.
2015-08-01
The Event Horizon Telescope is a global mm-wavelength Very Long Baseline Interferometry array which, when completed, will achieve a nominal resolution of 20 microarcseconds. Initial observations with three stations have detected Schwarzschild-radius-scale structure around the supermassive black holes in SgrA* and M87. Future, fully polarimetric EHT images of the synchrotron emission near supermassive black holes will reveal fine magnetic field structure, potentially illuminating the role of magnetic fields in driving black hole accretion and the connection between magnetic fields, black hole spin, and relativistic jets. I will review techniques for polarimetric VLBI imaging and present new image reconstruction techniques tailored for polarimetric EHT data. Application to synthetic data from simulations shows that the EHT will be able to image changing magnetic field structure on microarcsecond scales. I will also discuss applications to the variable magnetic fields that could power flares in Sgr A*. Finally, I will present initial results from application of these techniques to data from the 2013 EHT observing run.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bykov, Andrei M.; Toptygin, Igor'N.
2007-02-01
A system of MHD equations for the description of a magnetized nonequilibrium astrophysical plasma with neutral atoms and suprathermal (in particular, relativistic) particles is formulated. The instabilities of such a plasma, which arise from the presence of neutral and relativistic components, are considered. It is shown that the presence of nonthermal particles interacting with the thermal plasma component via regular and fluctuating electromagnetic fields is responsible for the emergence of specific mechanisms of MHD wave generation. The main generation mechanisms of static and turbulent magnetic fields near shock wave fronts in the Galaxy and interplanetary space are analyzed. We discuss the application of the generation effects of long-wave magnetic fluctuations to the problems of magnetic field origin and relativistic particle acceleration in astrophysical objects of various natures.
Magnetic field generation during intense laser channelling in underdense plasma
Smyth, A. G.; Sarri, G.; Doria, D.; Kar, S.; Borghesi, M.; Vranic, M.; Guillaume, E.; Silva, L. O.; Vieira, J.; Heathcote, R.; Norreys, P. A.; Hicks, G.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H.
2016-06-15
Channel formation during the propagation of a high-energy (120 J) and long duration (30 ps) laser pulse through an underdense deuterium plasma has been spatially and temporally resolved via means of a proton imaging technique, with intrinsic resolutions of a few μm and a few ps, respectively. Conclusive proof is provided that strong azimuthally symmetric magnetic fields with a strength of around 0.5 MG are created inside the channel, consistent with the generation of a collimated beam of relativistic electrons. The inferred electron beam characteristics may have implications for the cone-free fast-ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion.
Penning trap with an inclined magnetic field.
Yaremko, Yurij; Przybylska, Maria; Maciejewski, Andrzej J
2016-08-01
A modified Penning trap with a spatially uniform magnetic field B inclined with respect to the axis of rotational symmetry of the electrodes is considered. The inclination angle can be arbitrary. Canonical transformation of phase variables transforming the Hamiltonian of the considered system into a sum of three uncoupled harmonic oscillators is found. We determine the region of stability in space of two parameters controlling the dynamics: the trapping parameter κ and the squared sine of the inclination angle ϑ0. If the angle ϑ0 is smaller than 54°, a charge occupies a finite spatial volume within the processing chamber. A rigid hierarchy of trapping frequencies is broken if B is inclined at the critical angle: the magnetron frequency reaches the modified cyclotron frequency while the axial frequency exceeds them. Apart from this resonance, we reveal the family of resonant curves in the region of stability. In the relativistic regime, the system is not linear. We show that it is not integrable in the Liouville sense. The averaging over the fast variable allows to reduce the system to two degrees of freedom. An analysis of the Poincaré cross-sections of the averaged systems shows the regions of effective stability of the trap.
Penning trap with an inclined magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yaremko, Yurij; Przybylska, Maria; Maciejewski, Andrzej J.
2016-08-01
A modified Penning trap with a spatially uniform magnetic field B inclined with respect to the axis of rotational symmetry of the electrodes is considered. The inclination angle can be arbitrary. Canonical transformation of phase variables transforming the Hamiltonian of the considered system into a sum of three uncoupled harmonic oscillators is found. We determine the region of stability in space of two parameters controlling the dynamics: the trapping parameter κ and the squared sine of the inclination angle ϑ 0 . If the angle ϑ 0 is smaller than 54°, a charge occupies a finite spatial volume within the processing chamber. A rigid hierarchy of trapping frequencies is broken if B is inclined at the critical angle: the magnetron frequency reaches the modified cyclotron frequency while the axial frequency exceeds them. Apart from this resonance, we reveal the family of resonant curves in the region of stability. In the relativistic regime, the system is not linear. We show that it is not integrable in the Liouville sense. The averaging over the fast variable allows to reduce the system to two degrees of freedom. An analysis of the Poincaré cross-sections of the averaged systems shows the regions of effective stability of the trap.
Relativistic quantum channel of communication through field quanta
Cliche, M.; Kempf, A.
2010-01-15
Setups in which a system Alice emits field quanta that a system Bob receives are prototypical for wireless communication and have been extensively studied. In the most basic setup, Alice and Bob are modeled as Unruh-DeWitt detectors for scalar quanta, and the only noise in their communication is due to quantum fluctuations. For this basic setup, we construct the corresponding information-theoretic quantum channel. We calculate the classical channel capacity as a function of the spacetime separation, and we confirm that the classical as well as the quantum channel capacity are strictly zero for spacelike separations. We show that this channel can be used to entangle Alice and Bob instantaneously. Alice and Bob are shown to extract this entanglement from the vacuum through a Casimir-Polder effect.
Instability of Toroidal Magnetic Field in Jets and Plerions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Begelman, Mitchell C.
1998-01-01
Astrophysical jets and pulsar-fed supernova remnants (plerions) are expected to develop highly organized magnetic structures dominated by concentric loops of toroidal field, Bφ. It has been argued that such structures could explain the polarization properties of some jets and contribute to their lateral confinement through magnetic tension forces. A concentric toroidal field geometry is also central to the Rees-Gunn model for the Crab Nebula, the archetypal plerion, and leads to the deduction that the Crab pulsar's wind must have a weak magnetic field. Yet this kind of equilibrium between magnetic and gas pressure forces, the ``equilibrium Z-pinch'' of the controlled fusion literature, is well known to be susceptible to disruptive localized instabilities, even when the magnetic field is weak and/or boundary conditions (e.g., a dense external medium) slow or suppress global modes. Thus, the magnetic field structures imputed to the interiors of jets and plerions are unlikely to persist for very long. To determine the growth rates of Z-pinch instabilities under astrophysical conditions, I derive a dispersion relation that is valid for the relativistic fluids of which jets and plerions may be composed, in the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) limit. The dominant instabilities are kink (m = 1) and pinch (m = 0) modes. The former generally dominate, destroying the concentric field structure and probably driving the system toward a more chaotic state in which the mean field strength is independent of radius (and in which resistive dissipation of the field may be enhanced). I estimate the timescales over which the field structure is likely to be rearranged and relate these to distances along relativistic jets and radii from the central pulsar in a plerion. I conclude that the central tenet of the Rees-Gunn model for the Crab Nebula, the existence of a concentric toroidal field well outside the pulsar wind's termination shock, is physically unrealistic. With this assumption
The HMI Magnetic Field Pipeline
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoeksema, Jon Todd; Liu, Y.; Schou, J.; Scherrer, P.; HMI Science Team
2009-05-01
The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) will provide frequent full-disk magnetic field data after launch of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), currently scheduled for fall 2009. 16 megapixel line-of-sight magnetograms (Blos) will be recorded every 45 seconds. A full set of polarized filtergrams needed to determine the vector magnetic field requires 90 seconds. Quick-look data will be available within a few minutes of observation. Quick-look space weather and browse products must have identified users, and the list currently includes full disk magnetograms, feature identification and movies, 12-minute disambiguated vector fields in active region patches, time evolution of AR indices, synoptic synchronic frames, potential and MHD model results, and 1 AU predictions. A more complete set of definitive science data products will be offered about a day later and come in three types. "Pipeline” products, such as full disk vector magnetograms, will be computed for all data on an appropriate cadence. A larger menu of "On Demand” products, such as Non-Linear Force Free Field snapshots of an evolving active region, will be produced whenever a user wants them. Less commonly needed "On Request” products that require significant project resources, such as a high resolution MHD simulation of the global corona, will be created subject to availability of resources. Further information can be found at the SDO Joint Science Operations Center web page, jsoc.stanford.edu
A fast numerical integrator for relativistic charged particle tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiang, Ji
2017-09-01
In this paper, we report on a fast second-order numerical integrator to solve the Lorentz force equations of a relativistic charged particle in electromagnetic fields. This numerical integrator shows less numerical error than the popular Boris algorithm in tracking the relativistic particle subject to electric and magnetic space-charge fields and requires less number of operations than another recently proposed relativistic integrator.
Hot and dense matter beyond relativistic mean field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xilin; Prakash, Madappa
2016-05-01
Properties of hot and dense matter are calculated in the framework of quantum hadrodynamics by including contributions from two-loop (TL) diagrams arising from the exchange of isoscalar and isovector mesons between nucleons. Our extension of mean field theory (MFT) employs the same five density-independent coupling strengths which are calibrated using the empirical properties at the equilibrium density of isospin-symmetric matter. Results of calculations from the MFT and TL approximations are compared for conditions of density, temperature, and proton fraction encountered in the study of core-collapse supernovae, young and old neutron stars, and mergers of compact binary stars. The TL results for the equation of state (EOS) of cold pure neutron matter at sub- and near-nuclear densities agree well with those of modern quantum Monte Carlo and effective field-theoretical approaches. Although the high-density EOS in the TL approximation for cold and β -equilibrated neutron-star matter is substantially softer than its MFT counterpart, it is able to support a 2 M⊙ neutron star required by recent precise determinations. In addition, radii of 1.4 M⊙ stars are smaller by ˜1 km than those obtained in MFT and lie in the range indicated by analysis of astronomical data. In contrast to MFT, the TL results also give a better account of the single-particle or optical potentials extracted from analyses of medium-energy proton-nucleus and heavy-ion experiments. In degenerate conditions, the thermal variables are well reproduced by results of Landau's Fermi-liquid theory in which density-dependent effective masses feature prominently. The ratio of the thermal components of pressure and energy density expressed as Γth=1 +(Pth/ɛth) , often used in astrophysical simulations, exhibits a stronger dependence on density than on proton fraction and temperature in both MFT and TL calculations. The prominent peak of Γth at supranuclear density found in MFT is, however, suppressed in
Explaining Mercury's peculiar magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wicht, Johannes; Cao, Hao; Heyner, Daniel; Dietrich, Wieland; Christensen, Ulrich R.
2014-05-01
MESSENGER magnetometer data revealed that Mercury's magnetic field is not only particularly weak but also has a peculiar geometry. The MESSENGER team finds that the location of the magnetic equator always lies significantly north of the geographic equator, is largely independent of the distance to the planet, and also varies only weakly with longitude. The field is best described by an axial dipole that is offset to the north by about 20% of the planetary radius. In terms of classical Gauss coefficients, this translates into a low axial dipole component of g10= -190 nT but a relatively large axial quadrupole contribution that amounts to roughly 40% of this value. The axial octupole is also sizable while higher harmonic contributions are much weaker. Very remarkable is also the fact that the equatorial dipole contribution is very small, consistent with a dipole tilt below 0.8 degree, and this is also true for the other non-axisymmetic field contributions. We analyze several numerical dynamos concerning their capability of explaining Mercury's magnetic field. Classical schemes geared to model the geomagnetic field typically show a much weaker quadrupole component and thus a smaller offset. The onset only becomes larger when the dynamo operates in the multipolar regime at higher Rayleigh numbers. However, since the more complex dynamics generally promotes all higher multipole contributions the location of the magnetic equator varies strongly with longitude and distance to the planet. The situation improves when introducing a stably stratified outer layer in the dynamo region, representing either a rigid FeS layer or a sub-adiabatic core-mantle boundary heat flux. This layer filters out the higher harmonic contributions and the field not only becomes sufficiently weak but also assumes a Mercury like offset geometry during a few percent of the simulation time. To increase the likelihood for the offset configuration, the north-south symmetry must be permanently broken
Magnetic Fields in Massive Filaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pillai, Thushara
Magnetic fields pervade galaxies, shaping them from the largest scales to the smallest star forming scales. A firm understanding of their role is crucial to our understanding of the physics of ISM. A dominant phase of the ISM that has received considerable attention is that of filaments which are ubiquitous and dominate the mass reservoir in molecular clouds. Enormous progress has been made recently towards understanding filament properties. The next major step should be to understand the role of magnetic fields in filaments. We propose to take advantage of HAWC+ dust emission polarimeter now available on SOFIA to launch a pilot polarization study towards three major classes of filaments: (i) Pristine (ii) Hub-Filament systems and (iii) Perturbed. HAWC+ will trace the connection between the star forming cores and the filaments enveloping them. By covering a vast range in parameter space from quiescent to active filaments, we will be constraining the initial conditions prior to star formation, during star formation and after star formation (feedback from newly formed stars on their parent clouds.) The interpretation of observations will be supported by extensive custom-made numerical simulations of magnetized clouds and subsequent dust radiative transfer with various grain alignment mechanisms, as provided by collaborators. Combined, these observations will provide the first panoramic view of the magnetized nature of massive filaments in the ISM.
Magnetic Fields in Massive Filaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pillai, G. S. Thushara
2015-10-01
Magnetic fields pervade galaxies, shaping them from the largest scales to the smallest star forming scales. A firm understanding of their role is crucial to our understanding of the physics of ISM. A dominant phase of the ISM that has received considerable attention is that of filaments which are ubiquitous and dominate the mass reservoir in molecular clouds. Enormous progress has been made recently towards understanding filament properties. The next major step should be to understand the role of magnetic fields in filaments. We propose to take advantage of HAWC+ dust emission polarimeter now available on SOFIA to launch a pilot polarization study towards three major classes of filaments: (i) Pristine (ii) Hub-Filament systems and (iii) Perturbed. HAWC+ will trace the connection between the star forming cores and the filaments enveloping them. By covering a vast range in parameter space from quiescent to active filaments, we will be constraining the initial conditions prior to star formation, during star formation and after star formation (feedback from newly formed stars on their parent clouds.) The interpretation of observations will be supported by extensive custom--made numerical simulations of magnetized clouds and subsequent dust radiative transfer with various grain alignment mechanisms, as provided by collaborators. Combined, these observations will provide the first panoramic view of the magnetized nature of massive filaments in the ISM.
Field errors in superconducting magnets
Barton, M. Q.
1982-01-01
The mission of this workshop is a discussion of the techniques for tracking particles through arbitrary accelerator field configurations to look for dynamical effects that are suggested by various theoretical models but are not amenable to detailed analysis. A major motivation for this type of study is that many of our accelerator projects are based on the use of superconducting magnets which have field imperfections that are larger and of a more complex nature than those of conventional magnets. Questions such as resonances, uncorrectable closed orbit effects, coupling between planes, and diffusion mechanisms all assume new importance. Since, simultaneously, we are trying to do sophisticated beam manipulations such as stacking, high current accelerator, long life storage, and low loss extraction, we clearly need efficient and accurate tracking programs to proceed with confidence.
High field terahertz emission from relativistic laser-driven plasma wakefields
Chen, Zi-Yu; Pukhov, Alexander
2015-10-15
We propose a method to generate high field terahertz (THz) radiation with peak strength of GV/cm level in the THz frequency gap range of 1–10 THz using a relativistic laser interaction with a gaseous plasma target. Due to the effect of local pump depletion, an initially Gaussian laser pulse undergoes leading edge erosion and eventually evolves to a state with leading edge being step function. Interacting with such a pulse, electrons gain transverse residual momentum and excite net transverse currents modulated by the relativistic plasma frequency. These currents give rise to the low frequency THz emission. We demonstrate this process with one and two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.
Magnetic fields for fluid motion.
Weston, Melissa C; Gerner, Matthew D; Fritsch, Ingrid
2010-05-01
Three forces induced by magnetic fields offer unique control of fluid motion and new opportunities in microfluidics. This article describes magnetoconvective phenomena in terms of the theory and controversy, tuning by redox processes at electrodes, early-stage applications in analytical chemistry, mature applications in disciplines far afield, and future directions for micro total analysis systems. (To listen to a podcast about this article, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html .).
ON THE MAGNETIC FIELD OF PULSARS WITH REALISTIC NEUTRON STAR CONFIGURATIONS
Belvedere, R.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, R. E-mail: jorge.rueda@icra.it
2015-01-20
We have recently developed a neutron star model fulfilling global and not local charge neutrality, both in the static and in the uniformly rotating cases. The model is described by the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations, in which all fundamental interactions are accounted for in the framework of general relativity and relativistic mean field theory. Uniform rotation is introduced following Hartle's formalism. We show that the use of realistic parameters of rotating neutron stars, obtained from numerical integration of the self-consistent axisymmetric general relativistic equations of equilibrium, leads to values of the magnetic field and radiation efficiency of pulsars that are very different from estimates based on fiducial parameters that assume a neutron star mass M = 1.4 M {sub ☉}, radius R = 10 km, and moment of inertia I = 10{sup 45} g cm{sup 2}. In addition, we compare and contrast the magnetic field inferred from the traditional Newtonian rotating magnetic dipole model with respect to the one obtained from its general relativistic analog, which takes into account the effect of the finite size of the source. We apply these considerations to the specific high-magnetic field pulsar class and show that, indeed, all of these sources can be described as canonical pulsars driven by the rotational energy of the neutron star, and have magnetic fields lower than the quantum critical field for any value of the neutron star mass.
Magnetic Fields and Bow Shocks Illustration
2013-02-19
This illustration shows quasi-parallel top and quasi-perpendicular bottom magnetic field conditions at a planetary bow shock. Bow shocks are shockwaves created when the solar wind blows on a planet magnetic field.
Solar and Interstellar Magnetic Fields Artist Concept
2012-12-03
This artist concept shows the different expected directions of the magnetic fields in interstellar space black lines and the magnetic field emanating from our sun white lines as NASA Voyager 1 spacecraft travels northward out of the heliosphere.
Passing Comet Affects Magnetic Field at Mars
2016-03-09
This artist depiction shows the close encounter between comet Siding Sprng and Mars in 2014. The comet powerful magnetic field temporarily merged with, and overwhelmed, the planet weak magnetic field.
Comparing Magnetic Fields on Earth and Mars
This animation compares the magnetic fields on Earth and Mars. The Earth has a large-scale planetary magnetic field that can protect it from space weather and other hazards. Mars, on the other hand...
Field quality aspects of CBA superconducting magnets
Kahn, S.; Engelmann, R.; Fernow, R.; Greene, A.F.; Herrera, J.; Kirk, H.; Skaritka, J.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.
1983-01-01
A series of superconducting dipole magnets for the BNL Colliding Beam Accelerator which were manufactured to have the proper field quality characteristics has been tested. This report presents the analysis of the field harmonics of these magnets.
Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hagyard, M. J. (Editor)
1985-01-01
Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display.
Magnetic holes in the solar wind. [(interplanetary magnetic fields)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turner, J. M.; Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.; Lemaire, J. F.
1976-01-01
An analysis is presented of high resolution interplanetary magnetic field measurements from the magnetometer on Explorer 43 which showed that low magnetic field intensities in the solar wind at 1 AU occur as distinct depressions or 'holes'. These magnetic holes are new kinetic-scale phenomena, having a characteristic dimension on the order of 20,000 km. They occurred at a rate of 1.5/day in the 18-day time span (March 18 to April 6, 1971) that was analyzed. Most of the magnetic holes are characterized by both a depression in the absolute value of the magnetic field, and a change in the magnetic field direction; some of these are possibly the result of magnetic merging. However, in other cases the magnetic field direction does not change; such holes are not due to magnetic merging, but might be a diamagnetic effect due to localized plasma inhomogeneities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takamoto, Makoto; Lazarian, Alexandre
2016-11-01
In this Letter, we report compressible mode effects on relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) turbulence in Poynting-dominated plasmas using three-dimensional numerical simulations. We decomposed fluctuations in the turbulence into 3 MHD modes (fast, slow, and Alfvén) following the procedure of mode decomposition in Cho & Lazarian, and analyzed their energy spectra and structure functions separately. We also analyzed the ratio of compressible mode to Alfvén mode energy with respect to its Mach number. We found the ratio of compressible mode increases not only with the Alfvén Mach number, but also with the background magnetization, which indicates a strong coupling between the fast and Alfvén modes. It also signifies the appearance of a new regime of RMHD turbulence in Poynting-dominated plasmas where the fast and Alfvén modes are strongly coupled and, unlike the non-relativistic MHD regime, cannot be treated separately. This finding will affect particle acceleration efficiency obtained by assuming Alfvénic critical-balance turbulence and can change the resulting photon spectra emitted by non-thermal electrons.
General relativistic models for rotating magnetized neutron stars in conformally flat space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pili, A. G.; Bucciantini, N.; Del Zanna, L.
2017-09-01
The extraordinary energetic activity of magnetars is usually explained in terms of dissipation of a huge internal magnetic field of the order of 1015-16 G. How such a strong magnetic field can originate during the formation of a neutron star (NS) is still subject of active research. An important role can be played by fast rotation: if magnetars are born as millisecond rotators dynamo mechanisms may efficiently amplify the magnetic field inherited from the progenitor star during the collapse. In this case, the combination of rapid rotation and strong magnetic field determine the right physical condition not only for the development of a powerful jet-driven explosion, manifesting as a gamma-ray burst, but also for a copious gravitational waves emission. Strong magnetic fields are indeed able to induce substantial quadrupolar deformations in the star. In this paper, we analyse the joint effect of rotation and magnetization on the structure of a polytropic and axisymmetric NS, within the ideal magneto-hydrodynamic regime. We will consider either purely toroidal or purely poloidal magnetic field geometries. Through the sampling of a large parameter space, we generalize previous results in literature, inferring new quantitative relations that allow for a parametrization of the induced deformation, that takes into account also the effects due to the stellar compactness and the current distribution. Finally, in the case of purely poloidal field, we also discuss how different prescription on the surface charge distribution (a gauge freedom) modify the properties of the surrounding electrosphere and its physical implications.