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Sample records for magnetic gellan gum

  1. Preparation and Evaluation of Soft Gellan Gum Gel Containing Paracetamol

    PubMed Central

    Gohel, M. C.; Parikh, R. K.; Nagori, S. A.; Shah, S. N.; Dabhi, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop soft paracetamol gel using gellan gum as a gelling agent and sodium citrate as a source of cation. Different batches were prepared using three different concentrations of gellan gum (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5%), each with two different sodium citrate concentrations (0.3 and 0.5%). The consistency of the paracetamol gel was dependent on the concentration of gellan gum, sodium citrate and co-solute. The results of dissolution study of soft gel containing 0.3% gellan gum and 0.3% sodium citrate revealed that paracetamol was completely released in 30 min. Polyethylene glycol 400 worked as a solubilizer for paracetamol. All the gels possessed acceptable sensory characteristics when evaluated by human volunteers. Short term stability study carried out for four weeks at different temperatures revealed no considerable changes in performance characteristics of developed optimized formulation. PMID:20336205

  2. A Study of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticle RF Heating in Gellan Gum Polymer Under Various Experimental Conditions for Potential Application in Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Gabriel E.

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have found use in a wide variety of biomedical applications including hyperthermia, imaging and drug delivery. Certain physical properties, such as the ability to generate heat in response to an alternating magnetic field, make these structures ideal for such purposes. This study's objective was to elucidate the mechanisms primarily responsible for RF MNP heating and determine how such processes affect polymer solutions that might be useful in drug delivery. 15-20 nm magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles at 0.2% and 0.5% concentrations were heated with RF fields of different strengths (200 Oe, 400 Oe and 600 Oe) in water and in 0.5% gellan gum solution. Mixing and fan cooling were used in an attempt to improve accuracy of data collection. Specific absorption rate (SAR) values were determined experimentally for each combination of solvent, concentration and field strength. Theoretical calculation of SAR was performed using a model based on linear response theory. Mixing yielded greater precision in experimental determination of SAR while the effects of cooling on this parameter were negligible. Solutions with gellan gum displayed smoother heating over time but no significant changes in SAR values. This was attributed to low polymer concentration and lack of structural phase transition. The LRT model was found to be adequate for calculating SAR at low polymer concentration and was useful in identifying Neel relaxation as the dominant heating process. Heating trials with MNPs in 2% agar confirmed Neel relaxation to be primarily responsible for heat generation in the particles studied.

  3. Deproteinization of gellan gum produced by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Yuan, Yong; Wang, Kainai; Zhang, Dezhong; Yang, Zhengting; Xu, Ping

    2007-02-01

    Deproteinization is a technical bottleneck in the purification of viscous water-soluble polysaccharides. The aim of this work is to provide an appropriate approach to deproteinize crude gellan gum. Several methods of deproteinization were investigated, including Sevag method, alkaline protease, papain and neutral protease. The results revealed that Sevag method had high deproteinization efficiency (87.9%), but it showed dissatisfactory recovery efficiency of gellan gum (28.6%), which made it less advisable in industrial applications. The deproteinization by alkaline protease was demonstrated in this work for the first time, indicating alkaline protease was preferred in the deproteinization of crude gellan gum with high polysaccharide recovery (89.3%) and high deproteinization efficiency (86.4%).

  4. Modeling for gellan gum production by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461 in a simplified medium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Ping; Yuan, Yong; Liu, Changlong; Zhang, Dezhong; Yang, Zhengting; Yang, Chunyu; Ma, Cuiqing

    2006-05-01

    Gellan gum production was carried out by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461 in a simplified medium with a short incubation time, and a kinetic model for understanding, controlling, and optimizing the fermentation process was proposed. The results revealed that glucose was the best carbon source and that the optimal concentration was 30 g liter(-1). As for the fermenting parameters, considerably large amounts of gellan gum were yielded by an 8-h-old culture and a 4% inoculum at 200 rpm on a rotary shaker. Under the optimized conditions, the maximum level of gellan gum (14.75 g liter(-1)) and the highest conversion efficiency (49.17%) were obtained in a 30-liter fermentor in batch fermentation. Logistic and Luedeking-Piret models were confirmed to provide a good description of gellan gum fermentation, which gave some support for the study of gellan gum fermentation kinetics. Additionally, this study is the first demonstration that gellan gum production is largely growth associated by analysis of kinetics in its batch fermentation process. Based on model prediction, higher gellan gum production (17.71 g liter(-1)) and higher conversion efficiency (57.12%) were obtained in fed-batch fermentation at the same total glucose concentration (30 g liter(-1)).

  5. Bioremediation of Petrochemical Wastewater Containing BTEX Compounds by a New Immobilized Bacterium Comamonas sp. JB in Magnetic Gellan Gum.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bei; Zhou, Zunchun; Dong, Ying; Wang, Bai; Jiang, Jingwei; Guan, Xiaoyan; Gao, Shan; Yang, Aifu; Chen, Zhong; Sun, Hongjuan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the bioremediation of petrochemical wastewater containing BTEX compounds by immobilized Comamonas sp. JB cells. Three kinds of magnetic nanoparticles were evaluated as immobilization supports for strain JB. After comparison with Fe3O4 and a-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, r-Fe2O3 nanoparticle was selected as the optimal immobilization support. The highest biodegradation activity of r-Fe2O3-magnetically immobilized cells was obtained when the concentration of r-Fe2O3 nanoparticle was 120 mg L(-1). Additionally, the recycling experiments demonstrated that the degradation activity of r-Fe2O3-magnetically immobilized cells was still high and led to less toxicity than untreated wastewater during the eight recycles. qPCR suggested the concentration of strain JB in r-Fe2O3-magnetically immobilized cells was evidently increased after eight cycles of degradation experiments. These results supported developing efficient biocatalysts using r-Fe2O3-magnetically immobilized cells and provided a promising technique for improving biocatalysts used in the bioremediation of not only petrochemical wastewater but also other hazardous wastewater.

  6. Optimization of culture medium compositions for gellan gum production by a halobacterium Sphingomonas paucimobilis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Dong, Ya-chen; Fan, Lin-lin; Jiao, Zhi-hua; Chen, Qi-he

    2015-01-22

    The effect of culture medium compositions on gellan gum production produced by fermentation with a halobacterium Sphingomonas paucimobilis QHZJUJW CGMCC2428 was studied. In this work, a fractional factorial design was applied to investigate the main factors that affected gellan gum production by S. paucimobilis QHZJUJW CGMCC2428. Sucrose was the best carbon source for gellan gum and peptone displayed better inducing effect. Central composite design and response surface methodology were adopted to derive a statistical model for optimizing submerged culture medium composition. These experimental results showed that the optimum culture medium for producing gellan gum was composed of 40.00 (w/v) sucrose, 3.00% peptone (w/v), MgSO4 (w/v), 9.20% KH2PO4 (w/v), 7.50% Na2HPO4 (w/v), 4.30% K2SO4 (w/v), pH 6.8-7.0. The maximal gellan gum was 19.89±0.68 g/L, which was agreed closely with the predicated value (20.12 g/L). After incubated for 72 h under the optimized culture medium in 5-L bioreactor, the gellan gum fermentation reached about 19.90±0.68 g/L, which was higher than that in the initial cultivation medium.

  7. Biodegradation of gasoline by gellan gum-encapsulated bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Moslemy, Peyman; Neufeld, Ronald J; Guiot, Serge R

    2002-10-20

    Encapsulated cell bioaugmentation is a novel alternative solution to in situ bioremediation of contaminated aquifers. This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of such a remediation strategy based on the performance of encapsulated cells in the biodegradation of gasoline, a major groundwater contaminant. An enriched bacterial consortium, isolated from a gasoline-polluted site, was encapsulated in gellan gum microbeads (16-53 microm diameter). The capacity of the encapsulated cells to degrade gasoline under aerobic conditions was evaluated in comparison with free (non-encapsulated) cells. Encapsulated cells (2.6 mg(cells) x g(-1) bead) degraded over 90% gasoline hydrocarbons (initial concentration 50-600 mg x L(-1)) within 5-10 days at 10 degrees C. Equivalent levels of free cells removed comparable amounts of gasoline (initial concentration 50-400 mg x L(-1)) within the same period but required up to 30 days to degrade the highest level of gasoline tested (600 mg x L(-1)). Free cells exhibited a lag phase in biodegradation, which increased from 1 to 5 days with an increase in gasoline concentration (200-600 x mg L(-1)). Encapsulation provided cells with a protective barrier against toxic hydrocarbons, eliminating the adaptation period required by free cells. The reduction of encapsulated cell mass loading from 2.6 to 1.0 mg(cells) x g(-1) bead caused a substantial decrease in the extent of biodegradation within a 30-day incubation period. Encapsulated cells dispersed within the porous soil matrix of saturated soil microcosms demonstrated a reduced performance in the removal of gasoline (initial concentrations of 400 and 600 mg x L(-1)), removing 30-50% gasoline hydrocarbons compared to 40-60% by free cells within 21 days of incubation. The results of this study suggest that gellan gum-encapsulated bacterial cells have the potential to be used for biodegradation of gasoline hydrocarbons in aqueous systems.

  8. Gellan gum-graft-polyaniline--An electrical conducting biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Karthika, J S; Vishalakshi, B; Naik, Jagadish

    2016-01-01

    Grafting of polyaniline (PANI) on to gellan gum (GG) was carried out in the presence of catalytic amount of ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS) as oxidant/initiator under mild acidic conditions by microwave irradiation technique. The grafting condition was optimized by varying the microwave power, exposure time and the composition of the reaction mixture. The graft copolymer GG-g-PANI was characterized by FTIR, TGA, UV/vis, (1)H NMR and SEM techniques. The characteristic peaks at 1506, 1462, 1070 and 830 cm(-1) in the IR spectrum and signals at 7.3, 7.2, 7.1 and 4.0 δ in the (1)H NMR spectrum confirms the grafting process. The TGA data reveals GG-g-PANI to be thermally less stable than GG. The optimum grafting was observed when the reaction mixture containing 0.066 mmol APS, 0.1M aniline, 1M hydrochloric acid and 0.1g/dL GG was exposed to 80 W microwave power for 40s. The DC and AC conductivity of the GG-g-PANI were measured using the 'Two-point probe' method based on which the dielectric properties were evaluated. GG-g-PANI exhibited appreciable electrical conductivity, which increased with the extent of grafting. The results indicate threefold increase in DC conductivity of graft copolymer as compared to GG.

  9. Enhanced gellan gum production by hydrogen peroxide (H2O 2) induced oxidative stresses in Sphingomonas paucimobilis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guilan; Sheng, Long; Tong, Qunyi

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the effect of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on gellan gum production and cell growth were investigated. Gellan gum production was improved and cell growth was inhibited by H2O2. A multiple H2O2 stresses with different concentrations were developed to optimize gellan gum production. A maximal gellan gum yield (22.52 g/L), which was 35.58 % higher than the control, was observed with 2, 2, 3, 4 mmol/L H2O2 added at 6, 12, 18, 24 h, respectively. Moreover, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity and glucosyltransferase activity were increased with H2O2 stresses. This new strategy of multiple H2O2-induced oxidative stresses would be further applied to gellan gum production in future study.

  10. Statistical approach to optimization of fermentative production of gellan gum from Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Ishwar B; Saudagar, Parag S; Singhal, Rekha S; Pandey, Ashok

    2006-09-01

    Gellan gum, a high-molecular-weight anionic linear polysaccharide produced by pure-culture fermentation from Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461, has elicited industrial interest in recent years as a high-viscosity biogum, a suspending agent, a gelling agent, and an agar substitute in microbial media. In this paper we report on the optimization of gellan gum production using a statistical approach. In the first step, the one factor-at-a-time method was used to investigate the effect of medium constituents such as carbon and nitrogen sources; subsequently, the intuitive analysis based on statistical calculations carried out using the L16 -orthogonal array method. The design for the L16 -orthogonal array was developed and analyzed using MINITAB 13.30 software. All the fermentation runs were carried out at 30+/-2 degrees C on a rotary orbital shaker at 180 rpm for 48 h. In the second step, the effects of amino acids and gellan precursors such as uridine-5'-diphospate (UDP) and adenosine-5'-diphospate (ADP) on the fermentative production of gellan gum were studied. Media containing 4% soluble starch, 0.025% yeast extract, 1.0 mM ADP and 0.05% tryptophan gave a maximum yield of 43.6 g l(-1) starch-free gellan gum, which was significantly higher than reported values in the literature.

  11. Yield stress determines bioprintability of hydrogels based on gelatin-methacryloyl and gellan gum for cartilage bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Mouser, Vivian H M; Melchels, Ferry P W; Visser, Jetze; Dhert, Wouter J A; Gawlitta, Debby; Malda, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting of chondrocyte-laden hydrogels facilitates the fabrication of constructs with controlled organization and shape e.g. for articular cartilage implants. Gelatin-methacryloyl (gelMA) supplemented with gellan gum is a promising bio-ink. However, the rheological properties governing the printing process, and the influence of gellan gum on the mechanical properties and chondrogenesis of the blend, are still unknown. Here, we investigated the suitability of gelMA/gellan for cartilage bioprinting. Multiple concentrations, ranging from 3% to 20% gelMA with 0%-1.5% gellan gum, were evaluated for their printability, defined as the ability to form filaments and to incorporate cells at 15 °C-37 °C. To support the printability assessment, yield stress and viscosity of the hydrogels were measured. Stiffness of UV-cured constructs, as well as cartilage-like tissue formation by embedded chondrocytes, were determined in vitro. A large range of gelMA/gellan concentrations were printable with inclusion of cells and formed the bioprinting window. The addition of gellan gum improved filament deposition by inducing yielding behavior, increased construct stiffness and supported chondrogenesis. High gellan gum concentrations, however, did compromise cartilage matrix production and distribution, and even higher concentrations resulted in too high yield stresses to allow cell encapsulation. This study demonstrates the high potential of gelMA/gellan blends for cartilage bioprinting and identifies yield stress as a dominant factor for bioprintability. PMID:27431733

  12. Yield stress determines bioprintability of hydrogels based on gelatin-methacryloyl and gellan gum for cartilage bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Mouser, Vivian H M; Melchels, Ferry P W; Visser, Jetze; Dhert, Wouter J A; Gawlitta, Debby; Malda, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting of chondrocyte-laden hydrogels facilitates the fabrication of constructs with controlled organization and shape e.g. for articular cartilage implants. Gelatin-methacryloyl (gelMA) supplemented with gellan gum is a promising bio-ink. However, the rheological properties governing the printing process, and the influence of gellan gum on the mechanical properties and chondrogenesis of the blend, are still unknown. Here, we investigated the suitability of gelMA/gellan for cartilage bioprinting. Multiple concentrations, ranging from 3% to 20% gelMA with 0%-1.5% gellan gum, were evaluated for their printability, defined as the ability to form filaments and to incorporate cells at 15 °C-37 °C. To support the printability assessment, yield stress and viscosity of the hydrogels were measured. Stiffness of UV-cured constructs, as well as cartilage-like tissue formation by embedded chondrocytes, were determined in vitro. A large range of gelMA/gellan concentrations were printable with inclusion of cells and formed the bioprinting window. The addition of gellan gum improved filament deposition by inducing yielding behavior, increased construct stiffness and supported chondrogenesis. High gellan gum concentrations, however, did compromise cartilage matrix production and distribution, and even higher concentrations resulted in too high yield stresses to allow cell encapsulation. This study demonstrates the high potential of gelMA/gellan blends for cartilage bioprinting and identifies yield stress as a dominant factor for bioprintability.

  13. Nanoparticulate bioactive-glass-reinforced gellan-gum hydrogels for bone-tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Gantar, Ana; da Silva, Lucilia P; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Marques, Alexandra P; Correlo, Vitor M; Novak, Saša; Reis, Rui L

    2014-10-01

    This work presents bioactive-glass-reinforced gellan-gum spongy-like hydrogels (GG-BAG) as novel hydrophilic materials for use as the scaffolding in bone-tissue engineering. The reinforcement with bioactive-glass particles resulted in an improvement to the microstructure and to the mechanical properties of the material. These mechanical properties were found to be dependent on the composition and improved with the amount of bioactive glass; however, values necessary to accommodate biomechanical loading were not achieved in this study. Nevertheless, by incorporating the bioactive-glass particles, the composite material acquired the ability to form an apatite layer when soaked in simulated body fluid. Furthermore, human-adipose-derived stem cells were able to adhere and spread within the gellan-gum, spongy-like hydrogels reinforced with the bioactive glass, and remain viable, which is an important result when considering their use in bone-tissue engineering. Thus, hydrogels based on gellan gum and bioactive glass are promising biomaterials for use either alone or with cells, and with the potential for use in osteogenic differentiation.

  14. Fabrication of Porous α-TCP/Gellan Gum Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jian; Kim, Ill Yong; Kikuta, Koichi; Ohtsuki, Chikara

    2016-03-01

    α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP, α-Ca3(PO4)2) receives great attention for bone repairing due to its biodegradability and capability of transformation to human bone's main inorganic components, hydroxyapatite (HAp). α-TCP porous scaffold is easily procurable by sintering of the low-temperature polymorph of TCP, β-TCR Still, porous body of α-TCP is too brittle to being handled and shaped, limiting its clinical application as implant materials. To improve mechanical properties of α-TCP porous scaffold, the present study focused on coating of a type of polysaccharides on α-TCP scaffolds. Gellan gum was chosen as the polysaccharide for coating because of its biodegradability as well as the potential acting as substrate for HAp deposition during hydration of α-TCP after exposure to body fluid. After coating of gellan gum on α-TCP scaffolds with porosity of 75 vol%, the compressive strength increased from 0.45 MPa to around 2.00 MPa. Among the coated scaffold, the maximum compressive strength, 3.97 MPa, was obtained on the scaffold with porosity of 63 vol%. Improvement of mechanical properties of α-TCP/gellan gum composites was achieved to show easy handling performance for a bone substitute for tissue repairing. The dissolving rate of the coated scaffolds was also controlled by adjusting the concentration of GG solutions. PMID:27455764

  15. Optimisation of gellan gum edible coating for ready-to-eat mango (Mangifera indica L.) bars.

    PubMed

    Danalache, Florina; Carvalho, Claudia Y; Alves, Vitor D; Moldão-Martins, Margarida; Mata, Paulina

    2016-03-01

    The optimisation of an edible coating based on low acyl (L)/high acyl (H) gellan gum for ready-to-eat mango bars was performed through a central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The independent variables were the concentration of gellan (L/H90/10) and the concentration of Ca(2+) in the coating solution, as well as the storage time after coating application. The response variables studied were the coating thickness, mango bars firmness, syneresis, and colour alterations. Gellan concentration was the independent variable that most influenced the thickness of the coating. Syneresis was quite low for the conditions tested (<1.64%). Similarly, the colour alterations were low during the entire storage time (ΔE<5). Considering the model predictions, 1.0%wt L/H90/10 with addition of 6 mM Ca(2+) could represent the optimal coating formulation for the mango bars. The release of eight volatile compounds from the uncoated and coated mango bars with the selected formulation was analysed by Headspace - Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography during 9 days of refrigerated storage. This work showed that the coating can improve mango bars sensory characteristics (appearance and firmness) and stability in terms of syneresis, colour and volatiles content during storage increasing the commercial value of the final product.

  16. Novel stimuli responsive gellan gum-graft-poly(DMAEMA) hydrogel as adsorbent for anionic dye.

    PubMed

    Karthika, J S; Vishalakshi, B

    2015-11-01

    In this study, gellan gum-grafted-poly((2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) (GG-g-poly(DMAEMA)) hydrogel was made by free radical polymerization in aqueous media employing microwave irradiation technique. Ammonium persulfate (APS)/N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA) were used as initiator-accelerator pair. N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) has been used as crosslinker. The gel was characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA, DSC and SEM techniques. The characteristic peaks at 1724, 2630, 1147, 1650 and 1535cm(-1) in the IR spectrum confirms grafting and gel formation. The TGA data reveals that synthesized gels were thermally more stable than gellan gum. The XRD studies confirm the crystalline nature of the synthesized material. Swelling behaviour of the hydrogel under different temperatures and pH conditions was investigated. The results indicated drastic changes in swelling around pH 7.0 and 50°C. The gels were evaluated as an adsorbent to remove an anionic dye, methyl orange (MO), from aqueous solution. The pH conditions for maximum adsorption were optimized, the adsorption data is observed to fit best to the Freundlich isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 25.8mgg(-1). The kinetic analysis revealed a second-order adsorption process. The thermodynamic parameters showed the adsorption to be exothermic and non-spontaneous at high temperatures.

  17. Gellan gum-g-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone: synthesis, swelling, metal ion uptake and flocculation behavior.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shiv Kumar; Pandey, Vijay Shankar; Behari, Mithilesh Yadav Kunj

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of graft copolymer (gellan gum-g-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) is carried out in nitrogen atmosphere using potassium bromate and silver as redox system. The reaction conditions for maximum grafting have been optimized by varying the reaction variables, including the concentration of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (12.0 × 10(--2) to 28 × 10(--2) mol dm(-3)), potassium bromate (6 × 10(-3) to 22 × 10(-3) mol dm(-3)), silver (2.4 × 10(-3)to 5.6 × 10(-3) mol dm(-3)), sulphuric acid (2.0 × 10(-3) to 10 × 10(-3) mol dm(-3)), gellan gum (0.6-1.4 g dm(-3)) along with time duration (60 to 180 min) and temperature (30-50 °C).Water swelling capacity, metal ion sorption and flocculation studies of synthesized graft copolymer have been performed with respect to the parent polymer. The graft copolymer has been characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.

  18. Novel stimuli responsive gellan gum-graft-poly(DMAEMA) hydrogel as adsorbent for anionic dye.

    PubMed

    Karthika, J S; Vishalakshi, B

    2015-11-01

    In this study, gellan gum-grafted-poly((2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) (GG-g-poly(DMAEMA)) hydrogel was made by free radical polymerization in aqueous media employing microwave irradiation technique. Ammonium persulfate (APS)/N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA) were used as initiator-accelerator pair. N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) has been used as crosslinker. The gel was characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA, DSC and SEM techniques. The characteristic peaks at 1724, 2630, 1147, 1650 and 1535cm(-1) in the IR spectrum confirms grafting and gel formation. The TGA data reveals that synthesized gels were thermally more stable than gellan gum. The XRD studies confirm the crystalline nature of the synthesized material. Swelling behaviour of the hydrogel under different temperatures and pH conditions was investigated. The results indicated drastic changes in swelling around pH 7.0 and 50°C. The gels were evaluated as an adsorbent to remove an anionic dye, methyl orange (MO), from aqueous solution. The pH conditions for maximum adsorption were optimized, the adsorption data is observed to fit best to the Freundlich isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 25.8mgg(-1). The kinetic analysis revealed a second-order adsorption process. The thermodynamic parameters showed the adsorption to be exothermic and non-spontaneous at high temperatures. PMID:26325677

  19. Physicochemical studies of glucose, gellan gum, and hydroxypropyl cellulose--inhibition of cast iron corrosion.

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, Velayutham; Kesavan, Devarayan; Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy

    2013-06-01

    Glucose, gellan gum, and hydroxypropyl cellulose were studied against the acid corrosion of cast iron by means of weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, and AC impedance spectroscopy techniques. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing concentration of the inhibitors. The effect of immersion time and temperature were also studied. The addition of potassium iodide to the corrosion-inhibition system showed both antagonism and synergism toward inhibition efficiency. Polarization studies revealed the mixed-type inhibiting nature of the carbohydrates. The adsorption of inhibitors on the cast iron surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, both in presence and absence of KI. Physical interaction between the inhibitor molecules and the iron surface was suggested by the thermochemical parameters, rather than chemical interaction.

  20. A semi-fluid gellan gum medium improves nematode toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Brinke, Marvin; Heininger, Peter; Traunspurger, Walter

    2011-10-01

    This study examined an alternative test medium for nematodes that use gellan gum as the gelling agent instead of agar. The semi-fluid consistency of the gel-like component nematode growth gellan gum (CNGG) supports three-dimensional distribution of the nematodes and food bacteria, but still allows free movement of the former. Moreover, flexible preparation of the medium and easy recovery of the test organisms are possible. Here, the effects of the nematicides ivermectin (pharmaceutical) and aldicarb (pesticide) and of the metal cadmium on the growth and reproduction of the free-living nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Panagrolaimus cf. thienemanni were studied in CNGG media. Results were compared to those obtained with the standard liquid test media in order to evaluate the applicability of CNGG for nematode toxicity testing. The sensitivity of P. cf. thienemanni to all three substances was found to be higher than that of C. elegans, but both nematodes showed the highest sensitivity to ivermectin exposure. This raises concerns about the risk posed by the pharmaceutical to non-target nematodes. In contrast to ivermectin bioassays carried out in CNGG medium, those conducted in liquid medium resulted in wide-ranging variability between and within replicates. Thus, CNGG seems to be particularly valuable for testing hydrophobic substances with a high sorption affinity as it favors their sorption to food bacteria and minimizes contact with the surfaces of the test vessels. However, the medium was less suitable for deriving toxicity thresholds for cadmium and may likewise not be an appropriate choice for testing other metals. The medium introduced herein was shown to be appropriate for sublethal nematode toxicity testing and likely provides a convenient environment for testing other nematode species. Besides improved testing of hydrophobic substances, CNGG also offers advantages for long-term studies, such as full life-cycle experiments, in which fresh medium is

  1. 3D printing of layered brain-like structures using peptide modified gellan gum substrates.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Rodrigo; Stevens, Leo; Thompson, Brianna C; Gilmore, Kerry J; Gorkin, Robert; Stewart, Elise M; in het Panhuis, Marc; Romero-Ortega, Mario; Wallace, Gordon G

    2015-10-01

    The brain is an enormously complex organ structured into various regions of layered tissue. Researchers have attempted to study the brain by modeling the architecture using two dimensional (2D) in vitro cell culturing methods. While those platforms attempt to mimic the in vivo environment, they do not truly resemble the three dimensional (3D) microstructure of neuronal tissues. Development of an accurate in vitro model of the brain remains a significant obstacle to our understanding of the functioning of the brain at the tissue or organ level. To address these obstacles, we demonstrate a new method to bioprint 3D brain-like structures consisting of discrete layers of primary neural cells encapsulated in hydrogels. Brain-like structures were constructed using a bio-ink consisting of a novel peptide-modified biopolymer, gellan gum-RGD (RGD-GG), combined with primary cortical neurons. The ink was optimized for a modified reactive printing process and developed for use in traditional cell culturing facilities without the need for extensive bioprinting equipment. Furthermore the peptide modification of the gellan gum hydrogel was found to have a profound positive effect on primary cell proliferation and network formation. The neural cell viability combined with the support of neural network formation demonstrated the cell supportive nature of the matrix. The facile ability to form discrete cell-containing layers validates the application of this novel printing technique to form complex, layered and viable 3D cell structures. These brain-like structures offer the opportunity to reproduce more accurate 3D in vitro microstructures with applications ranging from cell behavior studies to improving our understanding of brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26231917

  2. 3D printing of layered brain-like structures using peptide modified gellan gum substrates.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Rodrigo; Stevens, Leo; Thompson, Brianna C; Gilmore, Kerry J; Gorkin, Robert; Stewart, Elise M; in het Panhuis, Marc; Romero-Ortega, Mario; Wallace, Gordon G

    2015-10-01

    The brain is an enormously complex organ structured into various regions of layered tissue. Researchers have attempted to study the brain by modeling the architecture using two dimensional (2D) in vitro cell culturing methods. While those platforms attempt to mimic the in vivo environment, they do not truly resemble the three dimensional (3D) microstructure of neuronal tissues. Development of an accurate in vitro model of the brain remains a significant obstacle to our understanding of the functioning of the brain at the tissue or organ level. To address these obstacles, we demonstrate a new method to bioprint 3D brain-like structures consisting of discrete layers of primary neural cells encapsulated in hydrogels. Brain-like structures were constructed using a bio-ink consisting of a novel peptide-modified biopolymer, gellan gum-RGD (RGD-GG), combined with primary cortical neurons. The ink was optimized for a modified reactive printing process and developed for use in traditional cell culturing facilities without the need for extensive bioprinting equipment. Furthermore the peptide modification of the gellan gum hydrogel was found to have a profound positive effect on primary cell proliferation and network formation. The neural cell viability combined with the support of neural network formation demonstrated the cell supportive nature of the matrix. The facile ability to form discrete cell-containing layers validates the application of this novel printing technique to form complex, layered and viable 3D cell structures. These brain-like structures offer the opportunity to reproduce more accurate 3D in vitro microstructures with applications ranging from cell behavior studies to improving our understanding of brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Inflammatory response study of gellan gum impregnated duck's feet derived collagen sponges.

    PubMed

    Song, Jeong Eun; Lee, Seon Eui; Cha, Se Rom; Jang, Na Keum; Tripathy, Nirmalya; Reis, Rui L; Khang, Gilson

    2016-10-01

    Tissue engineered biomaterials have biodegradable and biocompatible properties. In this study, we have fabricated sponges using duck's feet derived collagen (DC) and gellan gum (GG), and further studied its inflammatory responses. The as-prepared duck's feet DC/GG sponges showed the possibility of application as a tissue engineering material through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The physical and chemical properties of sponges were characterized by compression strength, porosity, and scanning electron microscopy, etc. In vitro cell viability were investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. An inflammatory response was studied after seeding RAW264.7 cells on as-fabricated sponges using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In vivo studies were carried out by implanting in subcutaneous nude mouse followed by extraction, histological staining. Collectively, superior results were showed by DC/GG sponges than GG sponge in terms of physical property and cell proliferation and thus can be considered as a potential candidate for future tissue engineering applications.

  4. Gastroretentive extended release of metformin from methacrylamide-g-gellan and tamarind seed gum composite matrix.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshini, Rosy; Nandi, Gouranga; Changder, Abhijit; Chowdhury, Sailee; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Ghosh, Lakshmi Kanta

    2016-02-10

    Formulation of a gastroretentive extended release tablet of metformin based on polymethacrylamide-g-gellan (Pmaa-g-GG)-tamarind seed gum (TSG) composite matrix is the main purpose of this study. Tablets were prepared employing wet granulation method taking amount of Pmaa-g-GG, TSG and NaHCO3 (SBC, buoyancy contributor) as independent formulation variables. The tablets were then evaluated for in vitro drug release, buoyancy, ex vivo mucoadhesion, swelling and surface morphology. Compatibility between drug and excipients was checked by DSC, FTIR and XRD analysis. Buoyancy-lag-time, mucoadhesive strength, % drug release and release-rate constant were statistically analyzed using Design-Expert software (version 9.0.4.1) and the formulation was then numerically optimized to obtain USP-reference release profile. The optimized formulation showed excellent buoyancy over a 10h period with buoyancy lag time of 2.76min, significant mucoadhesion and drug release over a period of 10h with f2=71.58. Kinetic modeling unveiled anomalous non-Fickian transport based drug release mechanism.

  5. Artocarpus heterophyllus L. seed starch-blended gellan gum mucoadhesive beads of metformin HCl.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-04-01

    Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., family: Moraceae) seed starch (JFSS)-gellan gum (GG) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were developed through ionotropic gelation technique. The effect of GG to JFSS ratio and CaCl2 concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h, %) was optimized and analyzed using response surface methodology based on 3(2) factorial design. The optimized JFSS-GG beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 92.67±4.46%, R10h of 61.30±2.37%, and mean diameter of 1.67±0.27 mm. The optimized beads showed pH-dependent swelling and mucoadhesivity with the goat intestinal mucosa. The in vitro drug release from all these JFSS-GG beads containing metformin HCl was followed zero-order pattern (R(2)=0.9907-0.9975) with super case-II transport mechanism over a period of 10 h. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The optimized JFSS-GG beads containing metformin HCl exhibited significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  6. Artocarpus heterophyllus L. seed starch-blended gellan gum mucoadhesive beads of metformin HCl.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-04-01

    Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., family: Moraceae) seed starch (JFSS)-gellan gum (GG) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were developed through ionotropic gelation technique. The effect of GG to JFSS ratio and CaCl2 concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and cumulative drug release at 10h (R10h, %) was optimized and analyzed using response surface methodology based on 3(2) factorial design. The optimized JFSS-GG beads containing metformin HCl showed DEE of 92.67±4.46%, R10h of 61.30±2.37%, and mean diameter of 1.67±0.27 mm. The optimized beads showed pH-dependent swelling and mucoadhesivity with the goat intestinal mucosa. The in vitro drug release from all these JFSS-GG beads containing metformin HCl was followed zero-order pattern (R(2)=0.9907-0.9975) with super case-II transport mechanism over a period of 10 h. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The optimized JFSS-GG beads containing metformin HCl exhibited significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. PMID:24447799

  7. Microfabricated photocrosslinkable polyelectrolyte-complex of chitosan and methacrylated gellan gum

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Daniela F.; Sant, Shilpa; Shakiba, Mojdeh; Wang, Ben; Gomes, Manuela E.; Neves, Nuno M.; Reis, Rui L.

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan (CHT) based polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) have been receiving great attention for tissue engineering approaches. These hydrogels are held together by ionic forces and can be disrupted by changes in physiological conditions. In this study, we present a new class of CHT-based PEC hydrogels amenable to stabilization by chemical crosslinking. The photocrosslinkable anionic methacrylated gellan gum (MeGG) was complexed with cationic CHT and exposed to light, forming a PEC hydrogel. The chemical characterization of the photocrosslinkable PEC hydrogel by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed absorption peaks specific to the raw polymers. A significantly higher swelling ratio was observed for the PEC hydrogel with higher CHT content. The molecular interactions between both polysaccharides were evaluated chemically and microscopically, indicating the diffusion of CHT to the interior of the hydrogel. We hypothesized that the addition of MeGG to CHT solution first leads to a membrane formation around MeGG. Then, migration of CHT inside the MeGG hydrogel occurs to balance the electrostatic charges. The photocrosslinkable feature of MeGG further allowed the formation of cell-laden microscale hydrogel units with different shapes and sizes. Overall, this system is potentially useful for a variety of applications including the replication of microscale features of tissues for modular tissue engineering. PMID:23293429

  8. Gastroretentive extended release of metformin from methacrylamide-g-gellan and tamarind seed gum composite matrix.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshini, Rosy; Nandi, Gouranga; Changder, Abhijit; Chowdhury, Sailee; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Ghosh, Lakshmi Kanta

    2016-02-10

    Formulation of a gastroretentive extended release tablet of metformin based on polymethacrylamide-g-gellan (Pmaa-g-GG)-tamarind seed gum (TSG) composite matrix is the main purpose of this study. Tablets were prepared employing wet granulation method taking amount of Pmaa-g-GG, TSG and NaHCO3 (SBC, buoyancy contributor) as independent formulation variables. The tablets were then evaluated for in vitro drug release, buoyancy, ex vivo mucoadhesion, swelling and surface morphology. Compatibility between drug and excipients was checked by DSC, FTIR and XRD analysis. Buoyancy-lag-time, mucoadhesive strength, % drug release and release-rate constant were statistically analyzed using Design-Expert software (version 9.0.4.1) and the formulation was then numerically optimized to obtain USP-reference release profile. The optimized formulation showed excellent buoyancy over a 10h period with buoyancy lag time of 2.76min, significant mucoadhesion and drug release over a period of 10h with f2=71.58. Kinetic modeling unveiled anomalous non-Fickian transport based drug release mechanism. PMID:26686110

  9. Inflammatory response study of gellan gum impregnated duck's feet derived collagen sponges.

    PubMed

    Song, Jeong Eun; Lee, Seon Eui; Cha, Se Rom; Jang, Na Keum; Tripathy, Nirmalya; Reis, Rui L; Khang, Gilson

    2016-10-01

    Tissue engineered biomaterials have biodegradable and biocompatible properties. In this study, we have fabricated sponges using duck's feet derived collagen (DC) and gellan gum (GG), and further studied its inflammatory responses. The as-prepared duck's feet DC/GG sponges showed the possibility of application as a tissue engineering material through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The physical and chemical properties of sponges were characterized by compression strength, porosity, and scanning electron microscopy, etc. In vitro cell viability were investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. An inflammatory response was studied after seeding RAW264.7 cells on as-fabricated sponges using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In vivo studies were carried out by implanting in subcutaneous nude mouse followed by extraction, histological staining. Collectively, superior results were showed by DC/GG sponges than GG sponge in terms of physical property and cell proliferation and thus can be considered as a potential candidate for future tissue engineering applications. PMID:27416732

  10. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii using alginate and gellan gum.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Flores, Walfred; Ramos-Ramírez, Emma Gloria; Salazar-Montoya, Juan Alfredo

    2013-10-15

    Sodium alginate (SA) at 2% (w/v) and low acylated gellan gum (LAG) at 0.2% (w/v) were used to microencapsulate Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii spp lactis by employing the internal ionic gelation technique through water-oil emulsions at three different stirring rates: 480, 800 and 1200 rpm. The flow behavior of the biopolymer dispersions, the activation energy of the emulsion, the microencapsulation efficiency, the size distribution, the microcapsules morphology and the effect of the stirring rate on the culture viability were analyzed. All of the dispersions exhibited a non-Newtonian shear-thinning flow behavior because the apparent viscosity decreased in value when the shear rate was increased. The activation energy was calculated using the Arrhenius-like equation; the value obtained for the emulsion was 32.59 kJ/mol. It was observed that at 400 rpm, the microencapsulation efficiency was 92.83%, whereas at 800 and 1200 rpm, the stirring rates reduced the efficiency to 15.83% and 4.56%, respectively, evidencing the sensitivity of the microorganisms to the shear rate (13.36 and 20.05 s(-1)). Both optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed spherical microcapsules with irregular topography due to the presence of holes on its surface. The obtained size distribution range was modified when the stirring rate was increased. At 400 rpm, bimodal behavior was observed in the range of 20-420 μm; at 800 and 1200 rpm, the behavior became unimodal and the range was from 20 to 200 μm and 20 to 160 μm, respectively. PMID:23987441

  11. Gellan gum microspheres containing a novel α-amylase from marine Nocardiopsis sp. strain B2 for immobilization.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Samrat; Jana, Sougata; Gandhi, Arijit; Sen, Kalyan Kumar; Zhiang, Wang; Kokare, Chandrakant

    2014-09-01

    A Nocardiopsis sp. stain B2 with an ability to produce stable α-amylase was isolated from marine sediments. The characterization of microorganism was done by biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequencing. The α-amylase was purified by gel filtration chromatography by using sephadex G-75. The molecular mass of the amylase was found to be 45 kDa by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography. The isolated α-amylase was immobilized by ionotropic gelation technique using gellan gum (GG). These microspheres were spherical with average particle size of 375.62±21.76 to 492.54±32.18 μm. The entrapment efficiency of these α-amylase loaded GG microspheres was found 74.76±1.32 to 87.64±1.52%. Characterization of α-amylase-gellan gum microspheres was confirmed using FTIR and SEM analysis. The in vitro amylase release kinetic have been studied by various mathematical models that follow the Korsmeyer-Peppas model (R2=0.9804-0.9831) with anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion release mechanism.

  12. Evaluation of the ability of xanthan gum/gellan gum/hyaluronan hydrogel membranes to prevent the adhesion of postrepaired tendons.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shyh Ming; Chang, Shwu Jen; Wang, Hung-Yi; Tang, Shu Ching; Yang, Shan-Wei

    2014-12-19

    After tendon-repair surgery, adhesion between the surgical tendon and the synovial sheath is often presented resulting in poor functional repair of the tendon. This may be prevented using a commercially available mechanical barrier implant, Seprafilm, which is composed of hyaluronan (HA) and carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogels. In a rat model, prepared membranes of various compositions of gellan gum (GG), xanthan gum (XG) and HA as well as Seprafilm were wrapped around repaired tendons and the adhesion of the tendons was examined grossly and histologically after 3 weeks of healing. Certain formulations of the XG/GG/HA hydrogel membranes reduced tendon adhesion with equal efficacy but without reducing the tendon strength compared to Seprafilm. The designed membranes swelled rapidly and blanketed onto the tendon tissue more readily and closely than Seprafilm. Also they degraded slowly, which allowed the membranes to function as barriers for extended periods.

  13. Strain-rate and temperature dependent material properties of Agar and Gellan Gum used in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Schiavi, Alessandro; Cuccaro, Rugiada; Troia, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Agar and Gellan Gum are biocompatible polymers extensively used in several fields of tissue engineering research (e.g. tissue replacement, tissue support, tissue mimicking), due to their mechanical behaviour effectively representative of actual biological tissues. Since mechanical properties of artificial tissues are related to biocompatibility and functionality of medical implants and significantly influence adhesion, growth and differentiation of cells in tissue-engineering scaffolds, an accurate characterization of Young׳s modulus and relaxation time processes is needed. In this study, the strain-rate and temperature dependent material properties of Agarose and one among the numerous kind of Gellan Gum commercially available, known as Phytagel(®), have been investigated. Nine hydrogel samples have been realized with different mechanical properties: the first one Agar-based as a reference material, the further eight samples Gellan Gum based in which the effect of dispersed solid particles like kieselguhr and SiC, as enhancing mechanical properties factors, have been investigated as a function of concentration. Stress-strain has been investigated in compression and relaxation time has been evaluated by means of the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts time decay function. Mechanical properties have been measured as a function of temperature between 20 °C and 35 °C and at different strain rates, from ~10(-3)s(-1) and ~10(-2)s(-1) (or deformation rate from ~0.01 mms(-1) to ~0.1 mms(-1)). From experimental data, the combined temperature and strain-rate dependence of hydrogels Young׳s modulus is determined on the basis of a constitutive model. In addition to a dependence of Young׳s modulus on temperature, a remarkable influence of strain-rate has been observed, especially in the sample containing solid particles; in same ranges of temperature and strain-rate, also relaxation time variations have been monitored in order to identify a possible dependence of damping

  14. The composite hydrogels of polyvinyl alcohol-gellan gum-Ca(2+) with improved network structure and mechanical property.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Wen, Ying; Bai, Tongchun

    2016-12-01

    The composite hydrogels of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and gellan gum (GG) are of interesting in the biomaterials application. To improve the structure and mechanical property, in this work, Ca(2+) ion was introduced to crosslink the polymer chain, and the PVA-GG-Ca(2+) hydrogel was formed. By analyzing its structure, mechanical properties, swelling and dehydration kinetics, the effect of molecular interaction on hydrogel structure and properties have been observed. Our result indicates that, as GG is added to hydrogel network, the role of Ca(2+) ion is stand out, it reorganizes the network structure, enhances the mechanical properties, and strengthens the electrolytic and hydrogen bonding interactions in PVA-GG-Ca(2+) hydrogels. These observations will benefit the development of hydrogels in biomaterials application.

  15. The composite hydrogels of polyvinyl alcohol-gellan gum-Ca(2+) with improved network structure and mechanical property.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Wen, Ying; Bai, Tongchun

    2016-12-01

    The composite hydrogels of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and gellan gum (GG) are of interesting in the biomaterials application. To improve the structure and mechanical property, in this work, Ca(2+) ion was introduced to crosslink the polymer chain, and the PVA-GG-Ca(2+) hydrogel was formed. By analyzing its structure, mechanical properties, swelling and dehydration kinetics, the effect of molecular interaction on hydrogel structure and properties have been observed. Our result indicates that, as GG is added to hydrogel network, the role of Ca(2+) ion is stand out, it reorganizes the network structure, enhances the mechanical properties, and strengthens the electrolytic and hydrogen bonding interactions in PVA-GG-Ca(2+) hydrogels. These observations will benefit the development of hydrogels in biomaterials application. PMID:27612713

  16. Gellan gum nanohydrogel containing anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer drugs: a multi-drug delivery system for a combination therapy in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    D'Arrigo, Giorgia; Navarro, Gemma; Di Meo, Chiara; Matricardi, Pietro; Torchilin, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    During the last decades, it has become evident that inflammation plays a critical role in tumorigenesis: tumor microenvironment is largely orchestrated by inflammatory cells. In the present work, a novel gellan gum nanohydrogel system (NH) able to carry and deliver simultaneously anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory drugs was developed. Prednisolone was chemically linked to the carboxylic groups of gellan gum to serve as a hydrophobic moiety promoting nanohydrogel formation, whereas paclitaxel was then physically entrapped in it. NH improved drug performances, acting as paclitaxel and prednisolone solubility enhancer and favoring the drug uptake in the cells. Moreover, NH allowed an increased cytotoxic effect in vitro on several types of cancer cells due to the synergistic effect of the combination of anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer drugs. Thus, NH can be useful in a combination therapy that attacks both, malignant cells and tumor inflammatory components. PMID:24215783

  17. A novel in situ gel base of deacetylase gellan gum for sustained ophthalmic drug delivery of ketotifen: in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lina; Ao, Junping; Li, Peiling

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an ion-activated ketotifen ophthalmic delivery system was developed by using a natural polysaccharide, deacetylase gellan gum. Its rheological characteristics, stability, in vitro gelation, release in vitro, and pharmacodynamic activity in vivo were investigated. The formulation had an optimum viscosity that will allow easy drop as a liquid, which then underwent a rapid sol–gel transition due to ionic interaction. There were negligible alterations in the initial values of viscosity of the formulations over a storage period of 180 days. The in vitro release profiles indicated that the release of ketotifen from in situ gels exhibited a sustained feature. Scintigraphic studies indicated that deacetylase gellan gum could increase the residence time of the formulation. At the same dose, in situ gels demonstrated a typical sustained and prolonged drug-effects behavior compared with the common drops. PMID:26251573

  18. Fabrication of Apigenin loaded gellan gum-chitosan hydrogels (GGCH-HGs) for effective diabetic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Rajesh; Kashaw, Sushil K; Jain, Alok Pal; Lodhi, Santram

    2016-10-01

    The Apigenin (APN) was isolated from ethanolic extract of M. alba leaves and screened by in-vivo wound models (Diabetic and Dead space) in rats. Apigenin loaded hydrogel (HGs) was prepared using gellan gum-chitosan (GGCH) with PEG as a cross linker and characterized for various parameter like AFM, swelling property, entrapment efficiency and drug release. Further performance of hydrogel was evaluated by wound healing activity tested against wound contraction, collagen content, dried granuloma weights and antioxidant activity. The percent entrapment efficiency of optimized hydrogel found to be 87.15±1.20. APN loaded GGCH-HGs were able to release 96.11% APN in 24h. The level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were found increased significantly in granuloma tissue of APN treated group. APN GGCH-HGs found higher wound healing effect in diabetic as well as normal wound tissues with significant antioxidant activity. Results proven the utility of prepared hydrogel (APN loaded GGCH-HGs) seems to be highly suitable for wound healing due to its unique properties of biocompatibility, biodegradability, moist nature and antioxidant effectiveness. PMID:27344952

  19. Enzymatic mineralization of gellan gum hydrogel for bone tissue-engineering applications and its enhancement by polydopamine.

    PubMed

    Douglas, T E L; Wlodarczyk, M; Pamula, E; Declercq, H A; de Mulder, E L W; Bucko, M M; Balcaen, L; Vanhaecke, F; Cornelissen, R; Dubruel, P; Jansen, J A; Leeuwenburgh, S C G

    2014-11-01

    Interest is growing in the use of hydrogels as bone tissue-engineering (TE) scaffolds due to advantages such as injectability and ease of incorporation of active substances such as enzymes. Hydrogels consisting of gellan gum (GG), an inexpensive calcium-crosslinkable polysaccharide, have been applied in cartilage TE. To improve GG suitability as a material for bone TE, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme involved in mineralization of bone by cleaving phosphate from organic phosphate, was incorporated into GG hydrogels to induce mineralization with calcium phosphate (CaP). Incorporated ALP induced formation of apatite-like material on the submicron scale within GG gels, as shown by FTIR, SEM, EDS, XRD, ICP-OES, TGA and von Kossa staining. Increasing ALP concentration increased amounts of CaP as well as stiffness. Mineralized GG was able to withstand sterilization by autoclaving, although stiffness decreased. In addition, mineralizability and stiffness of GG was enhanced by the incorporation of polydopamine (PDA). Furthermore, mineralization of GG led to enhanced attachment and vitality of cells in vitro while cytocompatibility of the mineralized gels was comparable to one of the most commonly used bone substitute materials. The results proved that ALP-mediated enzymatic mineralization of GG could be enhanced by functionalization with PDA.

  20. Optimization of nutrients for gellan gum production by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC-31461 in molasses based medium using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Banik, R M; Santhiagu, A; Upadhyay, S N

    2007-03-01

    A molasses based medium for the production of gellan by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC-31461 was developed. Placket-Burman design criterion was applied to study the effect of various nutrient supplements on gellan production using molasses. Among the 20 variables tested, molasses, tryptone, casaminoacid, disodium hydrogen orthophosphate and manganese chloride showed significant effect on gellan production. A central composite design was applied to determine the optimum concentrations of the significant variables obtained from Placket-Burman design. Most suitable medium composition for production of gellan was (g/l): molasses-112.5; tryptone-1; casaminoacid-1; disodium hydrogen orthophosphate-1; manganese chloride-0.947 and the optimum gellan production was 13.814 g/l.

  1. Novel in situ gel systems based on P123/TPGS mixed micelles and gellan gum for ophthalmic delivery of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yuwei; Cai, Xiaoqing; Du, Hongliang; Zhai, Guangxi

    2015-04-01

    Curcumin, a natural polyphenol compound, has been widely reported for diverse pharmacological effects and already been investigated for eye diseases. However, the water-insolubility of curcumin and the inherent penetration barriers in cornea make it difficult for curcumin to enter eye. This work aimed to develop ion-sensitive curcumin-loaded Pluronic P123 (P123)/D-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycolsuccinate (TPGS) mixed micelle in situ gels (CUR-MM-ISGs) to prolong ocular retention time and improve cornea permeability. Central composite design-response surface methodology was applied for the optimization of curcumin-loaded P123/TPGS mixed micelles (CUR-MMs). Characterization tests showed that CUR-MMs were in spherical shape with small size and low critical micelle concentration. After dispersing the micelles in gellan gum solution (0.2%, w/w) at the ratio of 3:1 and 1:1 (v/v), respectively, CUR-MM-ISGs were formed and presented transparent appearance. Sustained release profile was obtained in vitro for both CUR-MM-ISGs (3:1 or 1:1, v/v). The irritation test proved that CUR-MM-ISGs as ophthalmic formulations were gentle and biocompatible towards ocular tissues. In addition, the ex vivo corneal penetration study indicated that the cumulative drug permeation amount of CUR-MM-ISGs (3:1, v/v) was respectively 1.16-fold and 1.32-fold higher than CUR-MM-ISGs (1:1, v/v) and curcumin solution. It can be concluded from these results that the developed ion-sensitive mixed micelle in situ gel system is a potential ophthalmic delivery carrier for curcumin as a poorly soluble drug.

  2. Improvement in production and quality of gellan gum by Sphingomonas paucimobilis under high dissolved oxygen tension levels.

    PubMed

    Banik, R M; Santhiagu, A

    2006-09-01

    The effect of agitation rate and dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) on growth and gellan production by Sphingomonas paucimobilis was studied. Higher cell growth of 5.4 g l(-1) was obtained at 700 rpm but maximum gellan (15 g l(-1)) was produced at 500 rpm. DOT levels above 20% had no effect on cell growth but gellan yield was increased to 23 g l(-1 )with increase in DOT level to 100%. Higher DOT levels improved the viscosity and molecular weight of the polymer with change in acetate and glycerate content of the polymer.

  3. Optimization of gellan gum production by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461 with nonionic surfactants using central composite design.

    PubMed

    Arockiasamy, Santhiagu; Banik, Rathindra Mohan

    2008-03-01

    The effect of nonionic surfactants on gellan production by Sphingomonas paucimobilis was studied by the addition of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 and 1.5 g/l surfactants to shake flask culture. The nonionic surfactants Tween 80, Tween 40 and Triton X-100 improved gellan production by S. paucimobilis, and the maximum yield (10.44 g/l) was obtained with Triton X-100 at 0.75 g/l compared with that of the control fermentation (8.63 g/l) without surfactant. The DO profiles associated with gellan production in a 5-l laboratory fermentor showed higher oxygen and mass transfers during fermentation with surfactant than during control fermentation without surfactant. The addition of surfactant also resulted in a polymer with high viscosity as manifested by its lower acetyl content, than that obtained by control fermentation. A central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the maximum gellan production at optimum values for three process parameters (Triton X-100 concentration, pH, and temperature) each at five levels in a laboratory fermentor. The maximum gellan yield (14.62 g/l) was obtained in a 5-l laboratory fermentor with 1.0 g/l Triton X-100 and at pH 6.0 and temperature 29.6 degrees C. Further studies on the effects of agitation and DOT level demonstrated that the surfactants enhanced oxygen transfer resulting in higher gellan production (27.86 g/l) at higher agitation speed (1000 rpm) and 100% DOT level.

  4. Development of Re-Usable Yeast-Gellan Gum Micro-Bioreactors for Potential Application in Continuous Fermentation to Produce Bio-Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Sook Mun; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Chan, Lai Wah

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the feasibility of encapsulating yeast cells using gellan gum by an emulsification method and to evaluate the fermentation efficiency and the reusability of the micro-bioreactors produced. It was found that yeast cells could be successfully encapsulated to form relatively spherical micro-bioreactors with high specific surface area for mass transfer. Cell viability was found to be reduced by one log reduction after the emulsification process. The ethanol yield of the micro-bioreactors was comparable to that of free yeast in the first fermentation cycle. The micro-bioreactors remained intact and could be re-used up to 10 cycles of fermentation. Despite cell breakthrough, relatively high ethanol yields were obtained, indicating that the micro-bioreactors also functioned as regenerative reservoirs of yeast. PMID:24309306

  5. Free radical grafting of gallic acid (GA) on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCS) and evaluation of antioxidant reinforced gellan gum films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criado, P.; Fraschini, C.; Salmieri, S.; Becher, D.; Safrany, A.; Lacroix, M.

    2016-01-01

    Antiradical properties were introduced on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by redox pair (RP) initiator and γ-radiation treatments. Different procedures were tested on CNC, first a 2 h reaction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)/ascorbic acid (AA) was performed on CNC solution. γ-Radiation treatment at 20 kGy dose was then applied and immediately after GA was reacted during 24 h with the pretreated CNCs, giving CNC-H2O2-AA-γ-GA. The formation of new carboxylic acids and carbonyl groups were characterized by FT-IR at 1650 and 1730 cm-1 respectively. Carboxylic acid functionalities were also analyzed by conductometric titration where an increase from 49 to 134 mmol COOH kg-1 was found from native to irradiated CNCs. A similar increase in the carboxylic acid content (132 mmol kg-1) was observed for CNC-H2O2-AA-γ-GA, showing the highest radical scavenging properties (8 mM Trolox eq/mg CNC). Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the structural changes onto CNC. Film packaging containing 20% of CNC-H2O2-AA-γ-GA was then added to a gellan-based film packaging. A significant improvement (p<0.05) of the tensile strength (TS), the tensile modulus (TM) and the elongation at break (EB) and water vapor permeability reduction was observed when CNC-H2O2-AA-γ-GA was added to the film packaging formulation.

  6. Enrichment of enzymatically mineralized gellan gum hydrogels with phlorotannin-rich Ecklonia cava extract Seanol(®) to endow antibacterial properties and promote mineralization.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Dokupil, Agnieszka; Reczyńska, Katarzyna; Brackman, Gilles; Krok-Borkowicz, Malgorzata; Keppler, Julia K; Božič, Mojca; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Pietryga, Krzysztof; Samal, Sangram Keshari; Balcaen, Lieve; van den Bulcke, Jan; Van Acker, Joris; Vanhaecke, Frank; Schwarz, Karin; Coenye, Tom; Pamuła, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogels offer several advantages as biomaterials for bone regeneration, including ease of incorporation of soluble substances such as mineralization-promoting enzymes and antibacterial agents. Mineralization with calcium phosphate (CaP) increases bioactivity, while antibacterial activity reduces the risk of infection. Here, gellan gum (GG) hydrogels were enriched with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and/or Seanol(®), a seaweed extract rich in phlorotannins (brown algae-derived polyphenols), to induce mineralization with CaP and increase antibacterial activity, respectively. The sample groups were unmineralized hydrogels, denoted as GG, GG/ALP, GG/Seanol and GG/Seanol/ALP, and hydrogels incubated in mineralization medium (0.1 M calcium glycerophosphate), denoted as GG/ALP_min, GG/Seanol_min and GG/Seanol/ALP_min. Seanol(®) enhanced mineralization with CaP and also increased compressive modulus. Seanol(®) and ALP interacted in a non-covalent manner. Release of Seanol(®) occurred in a burst phase and was impeded by ALP-mediated mineralization. Groups GG/Seanol and GG/ALP/Seanol exhibited antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. GG/Seanol/ALP_min, but not GG/Seanol_min, retained some antibacterial activity. Eluates taken from groups GG/ALP_min, GG/Seanol_min and GG/ALP/Seanol_min displayed comparable cytotoxicity towards MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. These results suggest that enrichment of hydrogel biomaterials with phlorotannin-rich extracts is a promising strategy to increase mineralizability and antibacterial activity. PMID:27509486

  7. Gellan gum-based mucoadhesive microspheres of almotriptan for nasal administration: Formulation optimization using factorial design, characterization, and in vitro evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Zaheer; Marihal, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Almotriptan malate (ALM), indicated for the treatment of migraine in adults is not a drug candidate feasible to be administered through the oral route during the attack due to its associated symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. This obviates an alternative dosage form and nasal drug delivery is a good substitute to oral and parenteral administration. Materials and Methods: Gellan gum (GG) microspheres of ALM, for intranasal administration were prepared by water-in-oil emulsification cross-linking technique employing a 23 factorial design. Drug to polymer ratio, calcium chloride concentration and cross-linking time were selected as independent variables, while particle size and in vitro mucoadhesion of the microspheres were investigated as dependent variables. Regression analysis was performed to identify the best formulation conditions. The microspheres were evaluated for characteristics such as practical percentage yield, particle size, percentage incorporation efficiency, swellability, zeta potential, in vitro mucoadhesion, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction study, and in vitro drug diffusion studies. Results: The shape and surface characteristics of the microspheres were determined by scanning electron microscopy, which revealed spherical nature and nearly smooth surface with drug incorporation efficiency in the range of 71.65 ± 1.09% – 91.65 ± 1.13%. In vitro mucoadhesion was observed the range of 79.45 ± 1.69% – 95.48 ± 1.27%. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction results indicated a molecular level dispersion of drug in the microspheres. In vitro drug diffusion was Higuchi matrix controlled and the release mechanism was found to be non-Fickian. Stability studies indicated that there were no significant deviations in the drug content, in vitro mucoadhesion and in vitro drug diffusion characteristics. Conclusion: The investigation revealed promising potential of GG microspheres for delivering ALM intranasally for the

  8. The mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of cell-laden double-network hydrogels based on photocrosslinkable gelatin and gellan gum biomacromolecules.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyeongho; Olsen, Bradley D; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2012-04-01

    A major goal in the application of hydrogels for tissue engineering scaffolds, especially for load-bearing tissues such as cartilage, is to develop hydrogels with high mechanical strength. In this study, a double-network (DN) strategy was used to engineer strong hydrogels that can encapsulate cells. We improved upon previously studied double-network (DN) hydrogels by using a processing condition compatible with cell survival. The DN hydrogels were created by a two-step photocrosslinking using gellan gum methacrylate (GGMA) for the rigid and brittle first network, and gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA) for the soft and ductile second network. We controlled the degree of methacrylation of each polymer so that they obtain relevant mechanical properties as each network. The DN was formed by photocrosslinking the GGMA, diffusing GelMA into the first network, and photocrosslinking the GelMA to form the second network. The formation of the DN was examined by diffusion tests of the large GelMA molecules into the GGMA network, the resulting enhancement in the mechanical properties, and the difference in mechanical properties between GGMA/GelMA single networks (SN) and DNs. The resulting DN hydrogels exhibited the compressive failure stress of up to 6.9 MPa, which approaches the strength of cartilage. It was found that there is an optimal range of the crosslink density of the second network for high strength of DN hydrogels. DN hydrogels with a higher mass ratio of GelMA to GGMA exhibited higher strength, which shows promise in developing even stronger DN hydrogels in the future. Three dimensional (3D) encapsulation of NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and the following viability test showed the cell-compatibility of the DN formation process. Given the high strength and the ability to encapsulate cells, the DN hydrogels made from photocrosslinkable macromolecules could be useful for the regeneration of load-bearing tissues.

  9. Human skin cell fractions fail to self-organize within a gellan gum/hyaluronic acid matrix but positively influence early wound healing.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Mariana T; da Silva, Lucília P; Santos, Tírcia C; Pirraco, Rogério P; Correlo, Vitor M; Marques, Alexandra P; Reis, Rui L

    2014-05-01

    Split-thickness autografts still are the current gold standard to treat skin, upon severe injuries. Nonetheless, autografts are dependent on donor site availability and often associated to poor quality neoskin. The generation of dermal-epidermal substitutes by tissue engineering is seen as a promising strategy to overcome this problematic. However, solutions that can be safely and conveniently transplanted in one single surgical intervention are still very challenging as their production normally requires long culture time, and graft survival is many times compromised by delayed vascularization upon transplantation. This work intended to propose a strategy that circumvents the prolonged and laborious preparation period of skin substitutes and allows skin cells self-organization toward improved healing. Human dermal/epidermal cell fractions were entrapped directly from isolation within a gellan gum/hyaluronic acid (GG-HA) spongy-like hydrogel formed from an off-the-shelf dried polymeric network. Upon transplantation into full-thickness mice wounds, the proposed constructs accelerated the wound closure rate and re-epithelialization, as well as tissue neovascularization. A synergistic effect of the GG-HA matrix and the transplanted cells over those processes was demonstrated at early time points. Despite the human-derived and chimeric blood vessels found, the proposed matrix did not succeed in prolonging cells residence time and in sustaining the self-organization of transplanted human cells possibly due to primitive degradation. Despite this, the herein proposed approach open the opportunity to tackle wound healing at early stages contributing to re-epithelialization and neovascularization.

  10. Biochemical characterization of the beta-1,4-glucuronosyltransferase GelK in the gellan gum-producing strain Sphingomonas paucimobilis A.T.C.C. 31461.

    PubMed

    Videira, P; Fialho, A; Geremia, R A; Breton, C; Sá-Correia, I

    2001-09-01

    Biosynthesis of bacterial polysaccharide-repeat units proceeds by sequential transfer of sugars, from the appropriate sugar donor to an activated lipid carrier, by committed glycosyltransferases (GTs). Few studies on the mechanism of action for this type of GT are available. Sphingomonas paucimobilis A.T.C.C. 31461 produces the industrially important polysaccharide gellan gum. We have cloned the gelK gene from S. paucimobilis A.T.C.C. 31461. GelK belongs to family 1 of the GT classification [Campbell, Davies, Bulone, Henrissat (1997) Biochem. J. 326, 929-939]. Sequence similarity studies suggest that GelK consists of two protein modules corresponding to the -NH(2) and -CO(2)H halves, the latter possibly harbouring the GT activity. The gelK gene and the open reading frames coding for the -NH(2) (GelK(NH2)) and -CO(2)H (GelK(COOH)) halves were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. GelK and GelK(NH2) were present in both the soluble and membrane fractions of E. coli, whereas GelK(COOH) was only present in the soluble fraction. GelK catalysed the transfer of [(14)C]glucuronic acid from UDP-[(14)C]glucuronic acid into a glycolipid extracted from S. paucimobilis or E. coli, even in the presence of EDTA, and the radioactive sugar was released from the glycolipid by beta-1,4-glucuronidase. GelK was not able to use synthetic glucosyl derivatives as acceptors, indicating that the PP(i)-lipid moiety is needed for enzymic activity. Recombinant GelK(NH2) and GelK(COOH) did not show detectable activity. Based on the biochemical characteristics of GelK and on sequence similarities with N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, we propose that GT families 1 and 28 form a superfamily.

  11. Characterization of the ugpG gene encoding a UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from the gellan gum producer Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461.

    PubMed

    Marques, A R; Ferreira, P B; Sá-Correia, I; Fialho, A M

    2003-03-01

    The ugpGgene, which codes for a UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP) (or glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase; EC 2.7.7.9) in Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461, was cloned and sequenced. This industrial strain produces the exopolysaccharide gellan, a new commercial gelling agent, and the ugpG gene may convert glucose-1-phosphate into UDP-glucose in the gellan biosynthetic pathway. The ugpG gene is capable of restoring the capacity of an Escherichia coli galU mutant to grow on galactose by functional complementation of its deficiency for UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity. As expected, the predicted gene product shows strong homology to UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases from several bacterial species. The N-terminal region of UgpG exhibits the motif GXGTRXLPXTK, which is highly conserved among bacterial XDP-sugar pyrophosphorylases, and a lysine residue (K(192)) is located within a VEKP motif predicted to be essential for substrate binding or catalysis. UgpG was purified to homogeneity as a heterologous fusion protein from crude cell extracts prepared from IPTG-induced cells of E. coli, using affinity chromatography. Under denaturing conditions, the fusion protein S-UgpG-His(6) migrated with an estimated molecular mass of 36 kDa [corresponding to the predicted molecular mass of native UgpG (31.2 kDa) plus 5 kDa for the S and histidine tags). Kinetic analysis of UgpG in the reverse reaction (pyrophosphorolysis) showed a typical Michaelis-Menten substrate saturation pattern. The apparent K(m) and V(max) values estimated for UDP-glucose were 7.5 microM and 1275 micromol/min/g.

  12. Gellan sulfate inhibits Plasmodium falciparum growth and invasion of red blood cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Recuenco, Frances Cagayat; Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Ishiwa, Akiko; Enomoto-Rogers, Yukiko; Fundador, Noreen Grace V.; Sugi, Tatsuki; Takemae, Hitoshi; Iwanaga, Tatsuya; Murakoshi, Fumi; Gong, Haiyan; Inomata, Atsuko; Horimoto, Taisuke; Iwata, Tadahisa; Kato, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we assessed the sulfated derivative of the microbial polysaccharide gellan gum and derivatives of λ and κ-carrageenans for their ability to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and Dd2 growth and invasion of red blood cells in vitro. Growth inhibition was assessed by means of flow cytometry after a 96-h exposure to the inhibitors and invasion inhibition was assessed by counting ring parasites after a 20-h exposure to them. Gellan sulfate strongly inhibited invasion and modestly inhibited growth for both P. falciparum 3D7 and Dd2; both inhibitory effects exceeded those achieved with native gellan gum. The hydrolyzed λ-carrageenan and oversulfated κ-carrageenan were less inhibitory than their native forms. In vitro cytotoxicity and anticoagulation assays performed to determine the suitability of the modified polysaccharides for in vivo studies showed that our synthesized gellan sulfate had low cytotoxicity and anticoagulant activity. PMID:24740150

  13. 21 CFR 172.665 - Gellan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hours, using a motorized stirrer and a propeller-type stirring blade. A small amount of the above... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the... and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA,...

  14. 21 CFR 172.665 - Gellan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hours, using a motorized stirrer and a propeller-type stirring blade. A small amount of the above... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the... and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA,...

  15. 21 CFR 172.665 - Gellan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... stirrer and a propeller-type stirring blade. A small amount of the above solution is drawn into a wide... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the United States... Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030 or go...

  16. 21 CFR 172.665 - Gellan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hours, using a motorized stirrer and a propeller-type stirring blade. A small amount of the above... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the... and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA,...

  17. 21 CFR 172.665 - Gellan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hours, using a motorized stirrer and a propeller-type stirring blade. A small amount of the above... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the... and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA,...

  18. Evaluation of different methods to prepare superabsorbent hydrogels based on deacetylated gellan.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Flavio Silva; de Mello Ferreira, Ivana Lourenço; da Silva Costa, Marcos Antonio; de Lima, Ana Luiza Ferreira; da Costa, Marcia Parente Melo; da Silva, Gustavo Monteiro

    2016-09-01

    This study stands out for analyzing distinct ways of preparing hydrogels from deacetylated gellan gum that have high swelling capacity and good thermal resistance. We carried out a thorough investigation, applying various combinations of different experimental parameters. Two preparation methods were evaluated, in which the pH was adjusted before or after thermal treatment of the gellan solution, with subsequent addition of the crosslinking agent, to assess the influence of preparation method on the conformation of the gellan chains regarding formation of double helices. The pH range tested varied from acid (2, 3 or 4) to basic (8, 9 or 10). Gellan solution was prepared in different concentrations. Both pure gellan and hydrogel samples were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. Pure gellan was also characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The swelling degree of the hydrogels was analyzed. The results showed that all the hydrogels had high swelling capacity (>400%), so they can be considered superabsorbent materials. Hydrogels prepared with acid pH in general had lower thermal resistance than samples prepared in alkaline pH, regardless of the preparation method. Samples prepared with alkaline pH tended to have initial decomposition temperature similar to that of pure gellan. PMID:27185144

  19. Gum arabic-coated magnetic nanoparticles for potential application in simultaneous magnetic targeting and tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Yu, Faquan; Cole, Adam J; Chertok, Beata; David, Allan E; Wang, Jingkang; Yang, Victor C

    2009-12-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNP) coated with gum arabic (GA), a biocompatible phytochemical glycoprotein widely used in the food industry, were successfully synthesized and characterized. GA-coated MNP (GA-MNP) displayed a narrow hydrodynamic particle size distribution averaging about 100 nm; a GA content of 15.6% by dry weight; a saturation magnetization of 93.1 emu/g Fe; and a superparamagnetic behavior essential for most magnetic-mediated applications. The GA coating offers two major benefits: it both enhances colloidal stability and provides reactive functional groups suitable for coupling of bioactive compounds. In vitro results showed that GA-MNP possessed a superior stability upon storage in aqueous media when compared to commercial MNP products currently used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, significant cellular uptake of GA-MNP was evaluated in 9L glioma cells by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and MRI analyses. Based on these findings, it was hypothesized that GA-MNP might be utilized as a MRI-visible drug carrier in achieving both magnetic tumor targeting and intracellular drug delivery. Indeed, preliminary in vivo investigations validate this clinical potential. MRI visually confirmed the accumulation of GA-MNP at the tumor site following intravenous administration to rats harboring 9L glioma tumors under the application of an external magnetic field. ESR spectroscopy quantitatively revealed a 12-fold increase in GA-MNP accumulation in excised tumors when compared to contralateral normal brain. Overall, the results presented show promise that GA-MNP could potentially be employed to achieve simultaneous tumor imaging and targeted intra-tumoral drug delivery.

  20. Self-structuring foods based on acid-sensitive low and high acyl mixed gellan systems to impact on satiety

    PubMed Central

    Bradbeer, Jennifer F.; Hancocks, Robin; Spyropoulos, Fotios; Norton, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the in vitro acid-induced gelation of mixed systems of two biopolymers; low acyl and high acyl gellan gum. Rheological and texture analysis showed that these mixed gels displayed textures that lay between the material properties exhibited for the low and high acyl variants. DSC analysis showed that mixtures of the low acyl and high acyl forms exhibit two separate conformational transitions at temperatures coincident with each of the individual biopolymers. Various metabolically relevant pH environments and hydrocolloid concentrations were investigated. These resulted in very different acid gelled structures, which were characterised by texture analysis. The structures of the acid gels were shown to depend upon the pH, hydrocolloid concentration and proportion of each biopolymer used during their production. A selection of these mixed gellan structures were assessed post-production in terms of their response to prolonged exposure to an acidic (pH 1), stomach-like, environment. This resulted in a significant increase in the gel strength, regardless of the biopolymer proportions. The high acyl gellan was less acid-sensitive, and subsequently no evidence of acid gelation was observed with high acyl gellan at a proportion greater than 60% of the total biopolymer. The findings presented here demonstrate that structuring as well as de-structuring of mixed gellan acid gels can be controlled in acidic environments similar to those that are present in the stomach after food consumption. PMID:24882914

  1. Magnetorheology of xanthan-gum-coated soft magnetic carbonyl iron microspheres and their polishing characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Seung Hyuk; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Lee, Jung Won; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Cho, Myeong Woo

    2013-06-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are colloidal suspensions of soft magnetic particles dispersed in a non-magnetic liquid. Among their applications, MR polishing has attracted considerable attention owing to its smart control of the polishing characteristics for dedicated microelectromechanical system applications. To improve the polishing characteristics of MR fluids, we fabricated carbonyl iron (CI) microspheres coated with xanthan gum (XG) by using a solvent casting method. The morphologies and densities of both pure CI and CI/XG particles were characterized using a scanning electron microscope and a pycnometer, respectively. In addition, the rheological characteristics of the MR fluids under various applied magnetic field strengths were examined using a rotational rheometer. The MR polishing characteristics were conducted using an MR polishing machine to examine the surface roughness and the material removal by MR polishing with added nano-ceria slurry abrasives.

  2. Gum Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... layer of germs that forms naturally on the teeth and gums. Plaque contains bacteria, which produce toxins that irritate and ... gingivitis include gum tenderness, redness, or puffiness. If plaque from teeth and gums isn't removed by good daily ...

  3. Gum biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - gingiva (gums) ... used to close the opening created for the biopsy. ... to eat for a few hours before the biopsy. ... Risks for this procedure include: Bleeding from the biopsy site Infection of the gums Soreness

  4. Nicotine Gum

    MedlinePlus

    ... program, which may include support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine gum is in a ... at room temperature and away from light, excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  5. Bleeding gums

    MedlinePlus

    ... line. This will lead to a condition called gingivitis , or inflamed gums. Plaque that is not removed ... Livingstone; 2009:chap 60. Read More Bleeding disorders Gingivitis Periodontitis Update Date 2/25/2014 Updated by: ...

  6. Flow behaviour of gellan sol with selected cations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shipra; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2015-02-01

    An understanding of the flow behaviour of the sols before gel formation is important for developing nutrient enriched gels. The influence of cations like CaCl2 (0.05 and 0.1 %, w/w) and FeSO4 (0.05 and 0.1 %, w/w) on the rheological properties of 1 % gellan sol (w/w) prior to gelling was investigated. The apparent viscosity, reported at a shear-rate of 100 s(-1), indicated that the gellan dispersion without any cation possessed lower values compared to other samples containing different cations. The Cross model provided the best fit (0.97 ≤ r ≤ 0.99, p ≤ 0.01) compared to moderate fitting to power law model (0.94 ≤ r ≤ 0.98). Among the different Cross model parameters, the zero-shear viscosity (ηo) increased with the addition of CaCl2 and FeSO4, and with an increase in their concentrations. Zero-shear viscosity values were 0.46 Pas for gellan sol, 0.79 Pas for gellan with 0.05 % (w/w) CaCl2, 1.41 Pas for gellan with 0.1 % CaCl2, 3.85 Pas for gellan with 0.05 % FeSO4 and 4.33 Pas for gellan with 0.1 % FeSO4. An increase in cation concentration from 0.05 to 0.10 % (w/w) marginally increased the relaxation time (λ) values indicating the development of more solid characteristics in the sol.

  7. Gum Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage to the tissue and bone supporting the teeth. In the worst cases, you can lose teeth. In gingivitis, the gums become red and swollen. ... flossing and regular cleanings by a dentist or dental hygienist. Untreated gingivitis can lead to periodontitis. If ...

  8. Tamarind seed polysaccharide-gellan mucoadhesive beads for controlled release of metformin HCl.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-03-15

    The paper describes the development, optimization and evaluation of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-blended gellan gum (GG) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl through Ca(2+)-ion cross-linked ionic gelation for oral drug delivery. Effects of GG to TSP ratio and cross-linker (CaCl2) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), and cumulative drug release after 10h (R10h, %) of TSP-GG mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were optimized by 32 factorial design. The optimized mucoadhesive beads (F-O) showed DEE of 95.73 ± 4.02%, R10h of 61.22 ± 3.44% and mean diameter of 1.70 ± 0.24 mm.These beads were characterized by SEM and FTIR analyses. The in vitro drug release from these beads showed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern over a period of 10h.The optimized TSP-GG mucoadhesive beads also exhibited pH-dependent swelling, good mucoadhesivity with biological mucosal membrane and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration.

  9. Ispaghula mucilage-gellan mucoadhesive beads of metformin HCl: development by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-07-17

    Response surface methodology based on 3(2) factorial design was used to develop ispaghula (Plantago ovata F.) husk mucilage (IHM)-gellan gum (GG) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl through Ca(2+)-ion cross-linked ionotropic-gelation technique for the use in oral drug delivery. GG to IHM ratio and cross-linker (CaCl2) concentration were investigated as independent variables. Drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and cumulative drug release after 10h (R10h, %) were analyzed as dependent variables. The optimized mucoadhesive beads (F-O) showed DEE of 94.24 ± 4.18%, R10h of 59.13 ± 2.27%. These beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR analyses. The in vitro drug release from these beads showed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism over 10h. The optimized beads showed pH-dependent swelling and good mucoadhesivity with the goat intestinal mucosa. The optimized IHM-GG mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl exhibited significant antidiabetic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over 10h. PMID:24702916

  10. Tamarind seed polysaccharide-gellan mucoadhesive beads for controlled release of metformin HCl.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Santra, Kousik

    2014-03-15

    The paper describes the development, optimization and evaluation of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-blended gellan gum (GG) mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl through Ca(2+)-ion cross-linked ionic gelation for oral drug delivery. Effects of GG to TSP ratio and cross-linker (CaCl2) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %), and cumulative drug release after 10h (R10h, %) of TSP-GG mucoadhesive beads containing metformin HCl were optimized by 32 factorial design. The optimized mucoadhesive beads (F-O) showed DEE of 95.73 ± 4.02%, R10h of 61.22 ± 3.44% and mean diameter of 1.70 ± 0.24 mm.These beads were characterized by SEM and FTIR analyses. The in vitro drug release from these beads showed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern over a period of 10h.The optimized TSP-GG mucoadhesive beads also exhibited pH-dependent swelling, good mucoadhesivity with biological mucosal membrane and significant hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats over prolonged period after oral administration. PMID:24528714

  11. Oscillatory and steady shear rheology of gellan/dextran blends.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nurul Hawa; Ahmed, Jasim; Hashim, Dzulkifly M; Manap, Yazid Abdul; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-05-01

    Oscillatory and steady shear rheology of gellan (G) and dextran (D) solution individually, and in blends (G/D ratio 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 w/v) with a total hydrocolloid concentration of 3 % (w/v) were studied at 25 °C. Individually, 1.5 % dextran and 1.5 % gellan in solution exhibited Newtonian and non-Newtonian behavior, respectively. A blend of equal proportion of dextran and gellan (G/D = 1:1) exhibits a distinct gel point (G' = G″), and further addition of dextran in the blend (G/D = 1:2 and 1:3) resulted predominating liquid-like (G″ > G') behavior. A plot of G' vs G″ distinctly showed the gradual transition of the blend. Shear stress (τ)-shear rate ([Formula: see text]) data fitted well the Herschel-Bulkley model. The G/D blend exhibited shear thinning behavior with flow behavior index less than unity. The Cox-Merz rule did not fit well for the complex shear viscosity (η*) and apparent viscosity (η) of the blend. PMID:25892789

  12. 21 CFR 184.1349 - Karaya gum (sterculia gum).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Karaya gum (sterculia gum). 184.1349 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1349 Karaya gum (sterculia gum). (a) Karaya gum (sterculia gum) is the dried gummy exudate from the trunk of trees of various species of the genus...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1349 - Karaya gum (sterculia gum).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Karaya gum (sterculia gum). 184.1349 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1349 Karaya gum (sterculia gum). (a) Karaya gum (sterculia gum) is the dried gummy exudate from the trunk of trees of various species of the genus...

  14. A novel gellan-PVA nanofibrous scaffold for skin tissue regeneration: Fabrication and characterization.

    PubMed

    Vashisth, Priya; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha; Pruthi, Parul A; Singh, Rajesh P; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-01-20

    In this investigation, we have introduced novel electrospun gellan based nanofibers as a hydrophilic scaffolding material for skin tissue regeneration. These nanofibers were fabricated using a blend mixture of gellan with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA reduced the repulsive force of resulting solution and lead to formation of uniform fibers with improved nanostructure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) confirmed the average diameter of nanofibers down to 50 nm. The infrared spectra (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis evaluated the crosslinking, thermal stability and highly crystalline nature of gellan-PVA nanofibers, respectively. Furthermore, the cell culture studies using human dermal fibroblast (3T3L1) cells established that these gellan based nanofibrous scaffold could induce improved cell adhesion and enhanced cell growth than conventionally proposed gellan based hydrogels and dry films. Importantly, the nanofibrous scaffold are biodegradable and could be potentially used as a temporary substrate/or biomedical graft to induce skin tissue regeneration.

  15. Evaluation of gellan gum fluid gels as modified release oral liquids.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Mohammed H; Conway, Barbara R; Smith, Alan M

    2014-11-20

    Oral liquids are often preferred for drug administration to patients for whom swallowing is difficult, however, formulating modified release versions can be challenging. A potential route to achieve modified release in oral liquids is by using fluid (sheared) gels formed by introducing a shear field during gelation in gel-forming biopolymers. These fluid gels can act as pourable viscoelastic fluids but retain true gel micro/nano structure. Here, we have demonstrated that fluid gels have potential as paediatric oral liquids preventing release of ibuprofen in simulated gastric fluid. Subsequent release at pH 7.4 was affected by the duration of exposure and magnitude of acid pH with a linear relationship between onset of release and the preceding acidic exposure duration. Delayed release was a result of increasing gel stiffness, a consequence of the acidity of the initial release media and exposure time. A much faster release rate was measured when exposure time in acid was 10 min compared with 60 min. This study highlights the potential to design fluid gels that are tuned to have a specified stiffness at a particular pH and exposure time. This could enable the preparation oral liquids with modified release behaviour.

  16. Gum (Periodontal) Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of gum disease are gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis and Periodontitis In gingivitis, the gums become red, swollen and can bleed easily. Gingivitis can usually be reversed with daily brushing and ...

  17. The effect of thermal history on the elasticity of K-type gellan gels.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Yoko; Yoshimura, Miki; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi

    2014-11-26

    Elasticity of potassium type gellan gels prepared at different thermal histories was examined using dynamic viscoelastic measurements. The storage Young's modulus E' decreased with increasing cooling rate during gelation. Once gel formation occurred, thermal history at lower temperature did not influence the elastic modulus and thermal stability of the gellan gels. On the other hand, thermal history around gelation temperature influenced strongly the elastic modulus and thermal stability of resulting gels. When the gellan solution was kept for a certain time before cooling at a temperature near the gelation temperature, it was found that gels with higher elastic modulus and thermal stability were formed.

  18. A new strategy to enhance gellan production by two-stage culture in Sphingomonas paucimobilis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guilan; Sheng, Long; Tong, Qunyi

    2013-10-15

    The effects of different initial sucrose concentrations and temperatures on gellan biosynthesis by Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461 were investigated. Lower sucrose concentrations and higher temperatures were favorable for cell growth. Higher sucrose concentrations and lower temperatures promoted gellan production but retarded cell growth. Based on these results, a two-stage culture strategy was developed to improve gellan production. During the first 24 h, S. paucimobilis was cultured in a pulse fed-batch mode with an initial sucrose concentration 10 g/L. Ten grams per liter of sucrose were added at 12 h and 24 h, and the temperature was controlled at 33 °C. Batch culture was performed, and the temperature was reduced to 28 °C to achieve a high gellan accumulation. The two-stage culture strategy achieved the highest gellan production (22.61 g/L) at 60 h that was 35.71% higher than the result of the best conventional batch operation (16.66 g/L). Meanwhile, high gellan yield was related to high UDPG-pyrophosphorylase activity and glucosyltransferase activity.

  19. A novel gellan-PVA nanofibrous scaffold for skin tissue regeneration: Fabrication and characterization.

    PubMed

    Vashisth, Priya; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha; Pruthi, Parul A; Singh, Rajesh P; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-01-20

    In this investigation, we have introduced novel electrospun gellan based nanofibers as a hydrophilic scaffolding material for skin tissue regeneration. These nanofibers were fabricated using a blend mixture of gellan with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA reduced the repulsive force of resulting solution and lead to formation of uniform fibers with improved nanostructure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) confirmed the average diameter of nanofibers down to 50 nm. The infrared spectra (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis evaluated the crosslinking, thermal stability and highly crystalline nature of gellan-PVA nanofibers, respectively. Furthermore, the cell culture studies using human dermal fibroblast (3T3L1) cells established that these gellan based nanofibrous scaffold could induce improved cell adhesion and enhanced cell growth than conventionally proposed gellan based hydrogels and dry films. Importantly, the nanofibrous scaffold are biodegradable and could be potentially used as a temporary substrate/or biomedical graft to induce skin tissue regeneration. PMID:26572421

  20. Magnetic field-enhanced cellular uptake of doxorubicin loaded magnetic nanoparticles for tumor treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, Indu; Pernal, Sebastian; Duproz, Alexandra; Bentley, Jeromy; Engelhard, Herbert; Linninger, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Cancer remains the second most common cause of death in the US, accounting for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths. In recent years, several varieties of nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized with the intent of being utilized as tumor drug delivery vehicles. We have produced superparamagnetic, gold-coated magnetite (Fe3O4@Au) NPs and loaded them with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) for magnetic drug targeting (MDT) of tumors. The synthetic strategy uses the food thickening agent gellan gum (Phytagel) as a negatively charged shell around the Fe3O4@Au NP onto which the positively charged DOX molecules are loaded via electrostatic attraction. The resulting DOX-loaded magnetic nanoparticles (DOX-MNPs) were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, surface area electron diffraction, zeta potential measurements, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as well as UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Cytotoxicity of the DOX-MNPs was demonstrated using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay on C6 glioma cells. Cellular uptake of DOX-MNPs was enhanced with magnetic fields, which was quantitatively determined using flow cytometry. This improved uptake also led to greater tumor cell death, which was measured using MTT assay. These MDT results are promising for a new therapy for cancer.

  1. The Effect of Three Gums on the Retrogradation of Indica Rice Starch

    PubMed Central

    Song, Rukun; Huang, Min; Li, Bin; Zhou, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Retrograded starch (RS3) was produced from indica rice starch with three kinds of gums (konjac glucomannan, KGM; carrageenan, CA, USA; and gellan, GA, USA) by autoclaving, respectively, and the effect of the gums on the retrogradation behavior of starch was estimated. The influences of polysaccharide concentration, sodium chloride concentration, autoclaving time, refrigerated time, and pH value on RS3 formation were discussed. Except for sodium chloride’s persistent restraint on RS3, the others all forced RS3 yields higher at first, but lowered it after the peak value. The influencing sequence of these impact factors was: sodium chloride concentration > polysaccharide concentration > autoclaving time > refrigerated time > pH value. The results also proved that in the three gums, KGM plays the most significant role in RS3 changing. It was concluded that the incorporation of each of these three gums into starch, especially KGM, results in an increase or decrease of RS3 under different conditions. This phenomenon could be taken into consideration when developing starchy food with appropriate amount of RS3. PMID:22822444

  2. Effects of inorganic cations on the rheology of aqueous welan, xanthan, gellan solutions and their mixtures.

    PubMed

    Xu, Long; Dong, Mingzhe; Gong, Houjian; Sun, Mengjiao; Li, Yajun

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different inorganic cations (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Al(3+)) on the rheological properties of single and mixture polysaccharide solutions have been systematically investigated. The apparent viscosity and viscoelasticity of welan solutions decrease with the addition of inorganic cations. Meanwhile, the addition of Al(3+) and K(+), respectively, enhances the apparent viscosity and viscoelasticity of xanthan and gellan solutions by promoting the gelation. The viscosity retention rate of welan/xanthan mixtures is higher than that of the single components in Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) solutions, and the viscosity retention rate of welan/gellan mixtures is higher than that of the single components in Ca(2+) solutions. The salt induced gelation expands the application for polysaccharides, and it is also believed that the method of combining welan and xanthan (or gellan) is an effective strategy to control the rheology and morphology of solutions in the presence of inorganic salts.

  3. Gum Graft Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meetings Meetings & Conferences 2016 Annual Meeting 2016 General Assembly and District Forums 2017 Annual Meeting Abstract Submissions ... tooth or several teeth to even your gum line and reduce sensitivity. What are the benefits of ...

  4. Chewing gum headaches.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, H J; Vance, D A

    1997-01-01

    Aspartame, a popular dietetic sweetener, may provoke headache in some susceptible individuals. Herein, we describe three cases of young women with migraine who reported their headaches could be provoked by chewing sugarless gum containing aspartame.

  5. Modification of palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsions with hydrocolloid gum for enhanced topical delivery of ibuprofen

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Norazlinaliza; Basri, Mahiran; Rahman, Mohd BA; Abdullah, Dzulkefly K; Basri, Hamidon

    2012-01-01

    Introduction During recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of nanoemulsion as a drug-carrier system for topical delivery. A nanoemulsion is a transparent mixture of oil, surfactant and water with a very low viscosity, usually the product of its high water content. The present study investigated the modification of nanoemulsions with different hydrocolloid gums, to enhanced drug delivery of ibuprofen. The in vitro characterization of the initial and modified nanoemulsions was also studied. Methods A palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsion was modified with different hydrocolloid gums for the topical delivery of ibuprofen. Three different hydrocolloids (gellan gum, xanthan gum, and carrageenan) were selected for use. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed using palm kernel oil esters as the oil, Tween 80 as the surfactant, and water. Nanoemulsions were prepared by phase inversion composition, and were gradually mixed with the freshly prepared hydrocolloids. The initial nanoemulsion and modified nanoemulsions were characterized. The abilities of the nanoemulsions to deliver ibuprofen were assessed in vitro, using a Franz diffusion cell fitted with rat skin. Results No significant changes were observed in droplet size (~16–20 nm) but a significant difference in polydispersity indexes were observed before and after the modification of nanoemulsions using gellan gum, carrageenan, and xanthan gum. The zeta potentials of the initial nanoemulsions (−11.0 mV) increased to −19.6 mV, −13.9 mV, and −41.9 mV, respectively. The abilities of both the initial nanoemulsion (T802) and the modified nanoemulsion to deliver ibuprofen through the skin were evaluated in vitro, using Franz diffusion cells fitted with rat skin. The in vitro permeation data showed that the modified nanoemulsion (Kp value of 55.4 × 10−3 cm · h−1) increased the permeability of ibuprofen 4.40 times over T802 (Kp value of 12.6 × 10−3 cm · h−1) (P < 0.05). Conclusion The

  6. Alginate- and gellan-based edible films for probiotic coatings on fresh-cut fruits.

    PubMed

    Tapia, M S; Rojas-Graü, M A; Rodríguez, F J; Ramírez, J; Carmona, A; Martin-Belloso, O

    2007-05-01

    Alginate- (2% w/v) or gellan-based (0.5%) edible films, containing glycerol (0.6% to 2.0%), N-acetylcysteine (1%), and/or ascorbic acid (1%) and citric acid (1%), were formulated and used to coat fresh-cut apple and papaya cylinders. Water vapor permeability (WVP) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in alginate films (0.30 to 0.31 x 10(-9) g m/Pa s m2) than in the gellan ones (0.26 to 0.27 x 10(-9) g m/Pa s m2). Addition of 0.025% (w/v) sunflower oil decreased WVP of gellan films (0.20 to 0.22 x 10(-9) g m/Pa s m2). Water solubility of gellan and alginate films at 25 degrees C (0.47 to 0.59 and 0.74 to 0.79, respectively) and their swelling ratios (2.3 to 2.6 and 1.6 to 2.0, respectively) indicate their potential for coating high moisture fresh-cut fruits. Fresh-cut apple and papaya cylinders were successfully coated with 2% (w/v) alginate or gellan film-forming solutions containing viable bifidobacteria. WVP in alginate (6.31 and 5.52 x 10(-9) g m/Pa s m2) or gellan (3.65 and 4.89 x 10(-9) g m/Pa s m2) probiotic coatings of papaya and apple, respectively, were higher than in the corresponding cast films. The gellan coatings and films exhibited better water vapor properties in comparison with the alginate coatings. Values > 10(6) CFU/g B. lactis Bb-12 were maintained for 10 d during refrigerated storage of fresh-cut fruits, demonstrating the feasibility of alginate- and gellan-based edible coatings to carry and support viable probiotics on fresh-cut fruit.

  7. Bubble gum simulating abdominal calcifications.

    PubMed

    Geller, E; Smergel, E M

    1992-01-01

    CT examination of the abdomens of two children demonstrated sites of high attenuation in the stomach, which were revealed to be bubble gum. Investigation of the CT appearance of samples of chewing gum showed that it consistently has high attenuation (178-345 HU). The attenuation of gum base, which contains calcium carbonate, was 476 HU. In addition, examination of a volunteer who had swallowed bubble gum confirmed the CT appearance. PMID:1523059

  8. Gum Disease in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone, and ironically, patients generally form very little dental plaque or calculus. Generalized aggressive periodontitis may begin around ... inflammation of the gums and heavy accumulations of plaque and calculus. Eventually it can cause the teeth to become loose. Signs of periodontal disease Four ...

  9. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as..., methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil, tragacanth, and xanthan gum. Esophageal obstruction...

  10. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as..., methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil, tragacanth, and xanthan gum. Esophageal obstruction...

  11. 21 CFR 201.319 - Water-soluble gums, hydrophilic gums, and hydrophilic mucilloids (including, but not limited to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as... gum, kelp, methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil tragacanth, and xanthan gum) as..., methylcellulose, plantago seed (psyllium), polycarbophil, tragacanth, and xanthan gum. Esophageal obstruction...

  12. Enzymatically-treated guar gums

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W.H.; Srivastava, V.K.

    1987-07-28

    A method is described of recovering oil from an oil bearing formation by fracturing the step of inserting into the formation, at high pressure, an aqueous composition comprising guar gum in water. The guar gum is first coated and impregnated, while in the solid particulate state, with an aqueous solution of a hydrolytic enzyme.

  13. 21 CFR 582.7349 - Sterculia gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterculia gum. 582.7349 Section 582.7349 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7349 Sterculia gum. (a) Product. Sterculia gum (karaya gum). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.7349 - Sterculia gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sterculia gum. 582.7349 Section 582.7349 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7349 Sterculia gum. (a) Product. Sterculia gum (karaya gum). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. Exudate gums: occurrence, production, and applications.

    PubMed

    Verbeken, D; Dierckx, S; Dewettinck, K

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents a review of the industrially most relevant exudate gums: gum arabic, gum karya, and gum tragacanth. Exudate gums are obtained as the natural exudates of different tree species and exhibit unique properties in a wide variety of applications. This review covers the chemical structure, occurrence and production of the different gums. It also deals with the size and relative importance of the various players on the world market. Furthermore, it gives an overview of the main application fields of the different gums, both food and non-food.

  16. Microwave assisted synthesis of acrylamide grafted locust bean gum and its application in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kaity, Santanu; Isaac, Jinu; Kumar, P Mahesh; Bose, Anirbandeep; Wong, Tin Wui; Ghosh, Animesh

    2013-10-15

    Acrylamide grafted copolymer of locust bean gum was prepared by microwave irradiation using ceric ammonium nitrate as redox initiator. The grafting process was optimized in terms of irradiation time, amount of initiator and acrylamide by using constant amount of native locust bean gum. The grafted gum was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction study (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), elemental analysis, contact angle, viscosity, molecular weight, swelling and biodegradability studies. The grafted gum was found to be biodegradable and non-toxic. It was further used to prepare controlled-release matrix tablet of buflomedil hydrochloride. The in vitro release profile of the tablet showed the rate controlling property of acrylamide grafted locust bean gum was similar to that of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC-K15M).

  17. Dispelling Myths about Gum Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... satisfied” with the results of their dental implants. Poor oral hygiene is the only way to develop ... increase your chance of developing gum disease. Stress, poor diet, and even genetics, can also play a ...

  18. What Happens to Swallowed Gum?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb ... t chew gum until they fully understand the importance of not swallowing it. By age 5, most ...

  19. Irradiation depolymerized guar gum as partial replacement of gum Arabic for microencapsulation of mint oil.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Shatabhisa; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun; Singhal, Rekha S

    2012-11-01

    Spray dried microcapsules of mint oil were prepared using gum Arabic alone and its blends with radiation or enzymatically depolymerized guar gum as wall materials. Microcapsules were evaluated for retention of mint oil during 8-week storage during which qualitative changes in encapsulated mint oil was monitored using principal component analysis. The microcapsules with radiation depolymerized guar gum as wall material component could better retain major mint oil compounds such as menthol and isomenthol. The t(1/2) calculated for mint oil in microcapsules of gum Arabic, gum Arabic:radiation depolymerized guar gum (90:10), gum Arabic:enzyme depolymerized guar gum (90:10) was 25.66, 38.50, and 17.11 weeks, respectively. The results suggested a combination of radiation depolymerized guar gum and gum Arabic to show better retention of encapsulated flavour than gum Arabic alone as wall material.

  20. Chewing gum bezoars of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Milov, D E; Andres, J M; Erhart, N A; Bailey, D J

    1998-08-01

    Children have chewed gum since the Stone Age. Black lumps of prehistoric tar with human tooth impressions have been found in Northern Europe dating from approximately 7000 BC (Middle Stone Age) to 2000 BC (Bronze Age). The bite impressions suggest that most chewers were between 6 and 15 years of age. The Greeks chewed resin from the mastic tree (mastic gum). North American Indians chewed spruce gum. The first manufacturing patent for chewing gum was issued in 1869 for a natural gum, chicle, derived from the Sopadilla tree, indigenous to Central America. Chewing gum sold today is a mixture of natural and synthetic gums and resins, with added color and flavor sweetened with corn syrup and sugar. Chewing gum is big business. A significant amount of the $21 billion US candy industry sales is from chewing gums, many of which appeal almost exclusively to children. Despite the history and prevalence of gum chewing, the medical literature contains very little information about the adverse effects of chewing gum. In the present report, we briefly review gum-chewing complications and describe three children who developed intestinal tract and esophageal obstruction as a consequence of swallowing gum. PMID:9685468

  1. Herbal-caffeinated chewing gum, but not bubble gum, improves aspects of memory.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Matthew G

    2011-08-01

    Research has shown that standard chewing gum can affect aspects of both attention and memory. The present study examined the effects of Think Gum®, a caffeinated-herbal chewing gum, on both concentration and memory using a series of paper-based and online testing. Compared to standard chewing gum and a no-gum control, chewing caffeinated-herbal gum during testing improved aspects of memory, but did not affect concentration. The findings suggest that caffeinated-herbal chewing gum is an effective memory aid.

  2. Herbal-caffeinated chewing gum, but not bubble gum, improves aspects of memory.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Matthew G

    2011-08-01

    Research has shown that standard chewing gum can affect aspects of both attention and memory. The present study examined the effects of Think Gum®, a caffeinated-herbal chewing gum, on both concentration and memory using a series of paper-based and online testing. Compared to standard chewing gum and a no-gum control, chewing caffeinated-herbal gum during testing improved aspects of memory, but did not affect concentration. The findings suggest that caffeinated-herbal chewing gum is an effective memory aid. PMID:21570431

  3. 21 CFR 582.7351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gum tragacanth. 582.7351 Section 582.7351 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7351 Gum tragacanth. (a) Product. Tragacanth (gum tragacanth). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.7351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gum tragacanth. 582.7351 Section 582.7351 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7351 Gum tragacanth. (a) Product. Tragacanth (gum tragacanth). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gum tragacanth. 184.1351 Section 184.1351 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1351 Gum tragacanth. (a) Gum tragacanth is the exudate from one of...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Gum tragacanth. 184.1351 Section 184.1351 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1351 Gum tragacanth. (a) Gum tragacanth is the exudate from one of...

  7. 21 CFR 582.7351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum tragacanth. 582.7351 Section 582.7351 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7351 Gum tragacanth. (a) Product. Tragacanth (gum tragacanth). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gum tragacanth. 184.1351 Section 184.1351 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1351 Gum tragacanth. (a) Gum tragacanth is the exudate from one of...

  9. 21 CFR 582.7351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gum tragacanth. 582.7351 Section 582.7351 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7351 Gum tragacanth. (a) Product. Tragacanth (gum tragacanth). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.7351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gum tragacanth. 582.7351 Section 582.7351 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7351 Gum tragacanth. (a) Product. Tragacanth (gum tragacanth). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gum tragacanth. 184.1351 Section 184.1351 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1351 Gum tragacanth. (a) Gum tragacanth is the exudate from one of...

  12. 21 CFR 573.1010 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1010 Xanthan gum. The food additive xanthan gum may be safely used in animal feed as follows: (a) The food additive is xanthan gum as defined in § 172.695 of this chapter and meets all of...

  13. 21 CFR 573.1010 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1010 Xanthan gum. The food additive xanthan gum may be safely used in animal feed as follows: (a) The food additive is xanthan gum as defined in § 172.695 of this chapter and meets all of...

  14. 21 CFR 573.1010 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1010 Xanthan gum. The food additive xanthan gum may be safely used in animal feed as follows: (a) The food additive is xanthan gum as defined in § 172.695 of this chapter and meets all of...

  15. 21 CFR 573.1010 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1010 Xanthan gum. The food additive xanthan gum may be safely used in animal feed as follows: (a) The food additive is xanthan gum as defined in § 172.695 of this chapter and meets all of...

  16. 21 CFR 573.1010 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.1010 Xanthan gum. The food additive xanthan gum may be safely used in animal feed as follows: (a) The food additive is xanthan gum as defined in § 172.695 of this chapter and meets all of...

  17. 21 CFR 582.7333 - Gum ghatti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gum ghatti. 582.7333 Section 582.7333 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7333 Gum ghatti. (a) Product. Gum ghatti. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  18. 21 CFR 582.7333 - Gum ghatti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum ghatti. 582.7333 Section 582.7333 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7333 Gum ghatti. (a) Product. Gum ghatti. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe...

  19. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  20. 21 CFR 582.7339 - Guar gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Guar gum. 582.7339 Section 582.7339 Food and Drugs..., AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7339 Guar gum. (a) Product. Guar gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  1. 21 CFR 582.7330 - Gum arabic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gum arabic. 582.7330 Section 582.7330 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7330 Gum arabic. (a) Product. Acacia (gum arabic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  2. 21 CFR 582.7339 - Guar gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guar gum. 582.7339 Section 582.7339 Food and Drugs..., AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Stabilizers § 582.7339 Guar gum. (a) Product. Guar gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  3. Alginate beads of Captopril using galactomannan containing Senna tora gum, guar gum and locust bean gum.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Harshal A; Lalitha, K G; Ruckmani, K

    2015-05-01

    Gastro-retentive Captopril loaded alginate beads were prepared by an ionotropic gelation method using sodium alginate in combination with natural gums containing galactomannans (Senna tora seed gum, guar gum and locust bean gum) in the presence of calcium chloride. The process variables such as concentration of sodium alginate/natural polymer, concentration of calcium chloride, curing time, stirring speed and drying condition were optimized. Prepared beads were evaluated for various parameters such as flow property, drug content and entrapment efficiency, size and shape, and swelling index. Surface morphology of the beads was studied using scanning electron microscopy. In vitro mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release studies were carried out on the prepared beads. From the entrapment efficiency and dissolution study, it was concluded that galactomannans in combination with sodium alginate show sustained release property. The bead formulation F4 prepared using combination of sodium alginate and guar gums in the ratio 2:1 showed satisfactory sustained release for 12h. The release of Captopril from the prepared beads was found to be controlled by the swelling of the polymer followed by drug diffusion through the swelled polymer and slow erosion of the beads.

  4. Alginate beads of Captopril using galactomannan containing Senna tora gum, guar gum and locust bean gum.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Harshal A; Lalitha, K G; Ruckmani, K

    2015-05-01

    Gastro-retentive Captopril loaded alginate beads were prepared by an ionotropic gelation method using sodium alginate in combination with natural gums containing galactomannans (Senna tora seed gum, guar gum and locust bean gum) in the presence of calcium chloride. The process variables such as concentration of sodium alginate/natural polymer, concentration of calcium chloride, curing time, stirring speed and drying condition were optimized. Prepared beads were evaluated for various parameters such as flow property, drug content and entrapment efficiency, size and shape, and swelling index. Surface morphology of the beads was studied using scanning electron microscopy. In vitro mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release studies were carried out on the prepared beads. From the entrapment efficiency and dissolution study, it was concluded that galactomannans in combination with sodium alginate show sustained release property. The bead formulation F4 prepared using combination of sodium alginate and guar gums in the ratio 2:1 showed satisfactory sustained release for 12h. The release of Captopril from the prepared beads was found to be controlled by the swelling of the polymer followed by drug diffusion through the swelled polymer and slow erosion of the beads. PMID:25720832

  5. One-step formation and sterilization of gellan and hyaluronan nanohydrogels using autoclave.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Elita; De Rugeriis, Maria Cristina; Di Meo, Chiara; Censi, Roberta; Coviello, Tommasina; Alhaique, Franco; Matricardi, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The sterilization of nanoparticles for biomedical applications is one of the challenges that must be faced in the development of nanoparticulate systems. Usually, autoclave sterilization cannot be applied because of stability concerns when polymeric nanoparticles are involved. This paper describes an innovative method which allows to obtain, using a single step autoclave procedure, the preparation and, at the same time, the sterilization of self-assembling nanohydrogels (NHs) obtained with cholesterol-derivatized gellan and hyaluronic acid. Moreover, by using this approach, NHs, while formed in the autoclave, can be easily loaded with drugs. The obtained NHs dispersion can be lyophilized in the presence of a cryoprotectant, leading to the original NHs after re-dispersion in water. PMID:25578710

  6. The effect of sugars on the retention of ethyl butyrate by gellan gels.

    PubMed

    Evageliou, Vasiliki; Patsiakou, Anna

    2014-08-15

    The effect of sucrose, glucose and fructose on the retention of ethyl butyrate by low acyl gellan gels was investigated by static headspace gas chromatography. The air/biopolymer partition coefficient (K) and percentage of retention (R%) were determined. When 5 g of sample were left to equilibrate at 37 °C for 24 h, the obtained results were explained in terms of gel rigidity, as increased rigidity resulted in increased aroma retention. Glucose showed the greatest aroma release among the sugars and resulted in either the same or increased aroma release with increasing concentration. Increasing concentrations of fructose and sucrose did not alter aroma release significantly. For 15 g of sample mass, sucrose exhibited the lowest partition coefficient values among the sugars. The two higher sucrose concentrations resulted in decreased coefficient values. For fructose and glucose, aroma retention decreased with increasing concentration. The percentage of retention values were positive for all sugars, throughout their concentration range and for both experiments.

  7. Yeast cells immobilized in spherical gellan particles cross-linked with magnesium acetate.

    PubMed

    Iurciuc Tincu, Camelia Elena; Alupei, Liana; Savin, Alexandru; Ibănescu, Constanța; Martin, Patrick; Popa, Marcel

    2016-10-20

    In this paper we report on the production of microbioreactors using ionically cross-linked gellan containing immobilized yeast cells with potential application in glucose fermentation. Cross-linking was achieved through a novel extrusion process in capillary by ionotropic gelation under the action of magnesium acetate. Compared to commonly used methods, this provides a host of practical advantages. The particles were physico-chemically and morphologically characterized as their mechanical stability, behavior in aqueous media, and bio-catalytic activity are influenced by the amount of cross-linker used. This demonstrated their ability to be reused in a large number of fermentation cycles without losing their bio-catalytic activity. Our results are wholly comparable with the behavior of free yeast. We show that fermentation cycles can succeed either immediately or at variable intervals, ensuring high yields of glucose transformation, comparable-if not superior-to results currently obtained using free yeast. PMID:27497758

  8. Preparation and characterization of antimicrobial wound dressings based on silver, gellan, PVA and borax.

    PubMed

    Cencetti, C; Bellini, D; Pavesio, A; Senigaglia, D; Passariello, C; Virga, A; Matricardi, P

    2012-10-15

    Silver-loaded dressings are designed to provide the same antimicrobial activity of topical silver, with the advantages of a sustained silver release and a reduced number of dressing changes. Moreover, such type of dressing must provide a moist environment, avoiding fiber shedding, dehydration and adherence to the wound site. Here we describe the preparation of a novel silver-loaded dressing based on a Gellan/Hyaff(®) (Ge-H) non woven, treated with a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/borax system capable to enhance the entrapment of silver in the dressing and to modulate its release. The new hydrophilic non woven dressings show enhanced water uptake capability and slow dehydration rates. A sustained silver release is also achieved. The antibacterial activity was confirmed on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:22939352

  9. Preparation and characterization of antimicrobial wound dressings based on silver, gellan, PVA and borax.

    PubMed

    Cencetti, C; Bellini, D; Pavesio, A; Senigaglia, D; Passariello, C; Virga, A; Matricardi, P

    2012-10-15

    Silver-loaded dressings are designed to provide the same antimicrobial activity of topical silver, with the advantages of a sustained silver release and a reduced number of dressing changes. Moreover, such type of dressing must provide a moist environment, avoiding fiber shedding, dehydration and adherence to the wound site. Here we describe the preparation of a novel silver-loaded dressing based on a Gellan/Hyaff(®) (Ge-H) non woven, treated with a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/borax system capable to enhance the entrapment of silver in the dressing and to modulate its release. The new hydrophilic non woven dressings show enhanced water uptake capability and slow dehydration rates. A sustained silver release is also achieved. The antibacterial activity was confirmed on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  10. Preparation and in vitro antibacterial evaluation of gatifloxacin mucoadhesive gellan system

    PubMed Central

    Kesavan, K.; Nath, G.; Pandit, JK.

    2010-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study The poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by the conventional ophthalmic solutions due to precorneal elimination of the drug may be overcome by the use of mucoadhesive in situ gel forming systems that are instilled as drops into the eye and undergo a sol-gel transition in the cul-de-sac and have good mucoadhesion with ocular mucus layers. The objective of this study was to formulate ophthalmic mucoadhesive system of gatifloxacin (GTN) and to evaluate its in vitro antibacterial potential against, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Methods : Mucoadhesive systems were prepared using gellan combined with sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) or sodium alginate to enhance the gel bioadhesion properties. The prepared formulations were evaluated for their gelation, and rheological behaviors, mucoadhesion force, in vitro drug release, and antibacterial activity. Results All formulations in non-physiological or physiological conditions showed pseudoplastic behaviors. Increase in the concentration of mucoadhesive agent enhanced the mucoadhesive force significantly. In vitro release of gatifloxacin from the mucoadhesive system in simulated tear fluid (STF, pH of 7.4) was influenced significantly by the properties and concentration of gellan, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate. Significant reduction in the total bacterial count was observed between drug solution (control) and mucoadhesive batches against both tested organisms. Major conclusion The developed mucoadhesive system is a viable alternative to conventional eye drops of GTN due to its ability to enhance bioavailability through its longer precorneal residence time and ability to sustain the release of the drug. PMID:22615622

  11. 21 CFR 172.615 - Chewing gum base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chewing gum base. 172.615 Section 172.615 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.615 Chewing gum base. The food additive chewing gum base may be safely used in the manufacture...

  12. Gellan sulfate core platinum coil with tenascin-C promotes intra-aneurysmal organization in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Kazuhide; Miura, Yoichi; Toma, Naoki; Miyamoto, Keiichi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Matsushima, Satoshi; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Taki, Waro; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a new coil, gellan sulfate core platinum coil (GSCC), that delivers tenascin-C (TNC) to an aneurysm (GSCC-TNC) and to evaluate the effects on intra-aneurysmal organization. We performed in vitro adsorption tests of TNC to gellan sulfate (GS). GSCC-TNC was produced by immersing GSCC in TNC solution under the following conditions (TNC concentration 10, 50, or 100 μg/mL; TNC immersion time 15, 30, or 60 min) by monitoring intra-aneurysmal organization in a rat blind-ended aneurysm model. In addition, 20 rats randomly underwent implantation of a platinum coil or the GSCC-TNC produced under optimum conditions into an aneurysm, whose organization effects were compared in a blind fashion at 2 weeks post-surgery. GS demonstrated a high affinity to TNC in a dose-dependent fashion (affinity constant = 1.79 × 10(10) (M(-1))). GSCC immersed in 10 μg/mL of TNC solution for 30 and 60 min induced similar and better organization of aneurysmal cavity compared with that for 15 min (the ratio of the organized areas in an aneurysmal cavity-15 min, 27.2 ± 11.8 %; 30 min, 75.6 ± 11.9 %; 60 min, 82.6 ± 19.7 %, respectively) with the preservation of the aneurysmal wall structure, while higher TNC concentrations caused the destruction of the aneurysmal wall. GSCC-TNC produced under 10 μg/mL of TNC solution for 30 min showed a significantly better organization of aneurysms compared with bare platinum coils in rats. A newly developed coil, GSCC-TNC, may be effective for improving intra-aneurysmal organization after coil embolization.

  13. FT-Raman spectroscopy of gums of technological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Falk, M. J.; Sibley, M. G.; Alvarez-Benedi, J.; Rull, F.

    1998-07-01

    The FT-Raman spectra of four technically important gums, namely, locust bean gum, karaya gum (five varieties), gum tragacanth (nine varieties) and gum ghatti (four varieties), are reported. Bands characteristic of each gum which can be used for their identification are identified and assigned to molecular species where possible. Because the gums contain similar chemical components, an integral part of the current study has been self-deconvolution of the Raman spectra. The spectra provide the first examples of a database for gums using a nondestructive analytical technique.

  14. Rheological and interfacial properties at the equilibrium of almond gum tree exudate (Prunus dulcis) in comparison with gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Mahfoudhi, Nesrine; Sessa, Mariarenata; Ferrari, Giovanna; Hamdi, Salem; Donsi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Almond gum contains an arabinogalactan-type polysaccharide, which plays an important role in defining its interfacial and rheological properties. In this study, rheological and interfacial properties of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions were comparatively investigated. The interfacial tension of almond gum and gum arabic aqueous dispersions was measured using the pendant drop method in hexadecane. The asymptotic interfacial tension values for almond gum were significantly lower than the corresponding values measured for gum arabic, especially at high concentration. Rheological properties were characterized by steady and oscillatory tests using a coaxial geometry. Almond gum flow curves exhibited a shear thinning non-Newtonian behavior with a tendency to a Newtonian plateau at low shear rate, while gum arabic flow curves exhibited such behavior only at high shear rate. The influence of temperature (5-50  ℃) on the flow curves was studied at 4% (m/m) gum concentration and the Newtonian viscosities at infinite and at zero shear rate, for gum arabic and almond gum, respectively, were accurately fitted by an Arrhenius-type equation. The dynamic properties of the two gum dispersions were also studied. Both gum dispersions exhibited viscoelastic properties, with the viscous component being predominant in a wider range of concentrations for almond gum, while for gum arabic the elastic component being higher than the elastic one especially at higher concentrations.The rheological and interfacial tension properties of almond gum suggest that it may represent a possible substitute of gum arabic in different food applications.

  15. Guar gum, xanthan gum, and HPMC can define release mechanisms and sustain release of propranolol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Mughal, Muhammad Akhlaq; Iqbal, Zafar; Neau, Steven Henry

    2011-03-01

    The objectives were to characterize propranolol hydrochloride-loaded matrix tablets using guar gum, xanthan gum, and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) as rate-retarding polymers. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation using these polymers alone and in combination, and physical properties of the granules and tablets were studied. Drug release was evaluated in simulated gastric and intestinal media. Rugged tablets with appropriate physical properties were obtained. Empirical and semi-empirical models were fit to release data to elucidate release mechanisms. Guar gum alone was unable to control drug release until a 1:3 drug/gum ratio, where the release pattern matched a Higuchi profile. Matrix tablets incorporating HPMC provided near zero-order release over 12 h and erosion was a contributing mechanism. Combinations of HPMC with guar or xanthan gum resulted in a Higuchi release profile, revealing the dominance of the high viscosity gel formed by HPMC. As the single rate-retarding polymer, xanthan gum retarded release over 24 h and the Higuchi model best fit the data. When mixed with guar gum, at 10% or 20% xanthan levels, xanthan gum was unable to control release. However, tablets containing 30% guar gum and 30% xanthan gum behaved as if xanthan gum was the sole rate-retarding gum and drug was released by Fickian diffusion. Release profiles from certain tablets match 12-h literature profiles and the 24-h profile of Inderal(®) LA. The results confirm that guar gum, xanthan gum, and HPMC can be used for the successful preparation of sustained release oral propranolol hydrochoride tablets. PMID:21174179

  16. Brief Report: Gum Chewing Affects Standardized Math Scores in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Craig A.; Tyler, Chermaine; Stansberry, Sandra A.; Moreno, Jennette P.; Foreyt, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Gum chewing has been shown to improve cognitive performance in adults; however, gum chewing has not been evaluated in children. This study examined the effects of gum chewing on standardized test scores and class grades of eighth grade math students. Math classes were randomized to a gum chewing (GC) condition that provided students with gum…

  17. Nicotine Gum and Behavioral Treatment: A Placebo Controlled Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assigned 139 subjects to intensive behavioral or to low-contact smoking treatment and to 2-milligram nicotine gum or to placebo gum in a 2x2 factorial design. Nicotine gum produced higher abstinence rates than did placebo. Subjects receiving low-contact condition plus nicotine gum had excellent abstinence rates at both 26 weeks and 52 weeks.…

  18. Chewing gum and context-dependent memory: the independent roles of chewing gum and mint flavour.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher

    2008-05-01

    Two experiments independently investigated the basis of the chewing gum induced context-dependent memory effect. At learning and/or recall, participants either chewed flavourless gum (Experiment 1) or received mint-flavoured strips (Experiment 2). No context-dependent memory effect was found with either flavourless gum or mint-flavoured strips, indicating that independently the contexts were insufficiently salient to induce the effect. This is found despite participants' subjective ratings indicating a perceived change in state following administration of flavourless gum or mint-flavoured strips. Additionally, some preliminary evidence for a non-additive facilitative effect of receiving gum or flavour at either learning and/or recall is reported. The findings raise further concerns regarding the robustness of the previously reported context-dependent memory effect with chewing gum. PMID:17651533

  19. Locust bean gum: a versatile biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Moradiya, Naresh G; Randeria, Narayan P; Nagar, Bhanu J

    2013-05-15

    Biopolymers or natural polymers are an attractive class of biodegradable polymers since they are derived from natural sources, easily available, relatively cheap and can be modified by suitable reagent. Locust bean gum is one of them that have a wide potentiality in drug formulations due to its extensive application as food additive and its recognized lack of toxicity. It can be tailored to suit its demands of applicants in both the pharmaceutical and biomedical areas. Locust bean gum has a wide application either in the field of novel drug delivery system as rate controlling excipients or in tissue engineering as scaffold formation. Through keen references of reported literature on locust bean gum, in this review, we have described critical aspects of locust bean gum, its manufacturing process, physicochemical properties and applications in various drug delivery systems.

  20. Diabetes, Gum Disease, and Other Dental Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor or dentist prescribes rinsing with a fluoride mouth rinse to prevent cavities using sugarless gum ... your teeth at least twice a day with fluoride toothpaste. Fluoride protects against tooth decay. Aim for ...

  1. 21 CFR 172.695 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polysaccharide gum derived from Xanthomonas campestris by a pure-culture fermentation process and purified by... hexose units and is manufactured as the sodium, potassium, or calcium salt. (b) The strain of...

  2. 21 CFR 172.695 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... polysaccharide gum derived from Xanthomonas campestris by a pure-culture fermentation process and purified by... hexose units and is manufactured as the sodium, potassium, or calcium salt. (b) The strain of...

  3. 21 CFR 172.695 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... polysaccharide gum derived from Xanthomonas campestris by a pure-culture fermentation process and purified by... hexose units and is manufactured as the sodium, potassium, or calcium salt. (b) The strain of...

  4. 21 CFR 172.695 - Xanthan gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... polysaccharide gum derived from Xanthomonas campestris by a pure-culture fermentation process and purified by... hexose units and is manufactured as the sodium, potassium, or calcium salt. (b) The strain of...

  5. Mind Your Mouth: Preventing Gum Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Mind Your Mouth Preventing Gum Disease If you have it, you’ ... dental care. The problem begins with bacteria. Our mouths are packed with these tiny microbes. They combine ...

  6. Gummed-up memory: chewing gum impairs short-term recall.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity. Experiment 3 demonstrated that manual tapping produces a similar pattern of impairment to that of chewing gum. These results clearly qualify the assertion that chewing gum improves short-term memory. They also pose a problem for short-term memory theories asserting that forgetting is based on domain-specific interference given that chewing does not interfere with verbal memory any more than tapping. It is suggested that tapping and chewing reduce the general capacity to process sequences. PMID:22150606

  7. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B.

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441 cm−1 (–OH), 1660 cm−1 (Alkenyl C–H & C=C Stretch), 1632 cm−1 (–COO–), 1414 cm−1 (–COO–), and 1219 cm−1 (–CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

  8. Effects of the conjugation of whey proteins with gellan polysaccharides on surfactant-induced competitive displacement from the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Cai, B; Ikeda, S

    2016-08-01

    Whey proteins can be used to stabilize foams and emulsions against coalescence because of their ability to form viscoelastic films at the interface that resist film rupture on collision between colloidal particles. However, whey proteins are competitively displaced from the interface if small-molecule surfactants are added, leading to destabilization of the entire system. This is because surfactants are more effective in molecular packing at the interface, and they lower interfacial tension to a greater degree than whey proteins do, but their interfacial films are poor in viscoelasticity. We hypothesized that whey proteins would become more resistant to surfactant-induced competitive displacement if they were conjugated with network-forming polysaccharides. The protein moiety of the conjugate would be expected to enable its adsorption to the interface, and the polysaccharide moiety would be expected to form self-assembled networks, strengthening the interfacial film as a whole. In this study, whey proteins were conjugated with gellan polysaccharides using the Maillard reaction. Atomic force microscopy images of interfacial films formed by the whey protein-gellan conjugate at the air-water interface and transferred onto mica sheets using the Langmuir-Blodgett method revealed that gellan did form self-assembled networks at the interface and that interfacial films also contained a large number of unconjugated whey protein molecules. Following the addition of a small-molecule surfactant (Tween 20) to the sub-phase, surface pressure increased, indicating spontaneous adsorption of surfactants to the interface. Atomic force microscopy images showed decreases in interfacial area coverage by whey proteins as surface pressure increased. At a given surface pressure, the interfacial area coverage by whey protein-gellan conjugates was greater than coverage by unconjugated whey proteins, confirming that whey proteins became more resistant to surfactant-induced displacement after

  9. Medicated chewing gum, a novel drug delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Rostami, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    New formulations and technologies have been developed through oral drug delivery systems’ researches. Such researches display significance of oral route amongst patients. We’ve reviewed all the features associated with medicated chewing gum as a modern drug delivery by introducing the history, advantages and disadvantages, methods of manufacturing, composition differences, evaluation tests and examples of varieties of medicated chewing gums. Acceptance of medicated chewing gum has been augmented through years. The advantages and therapeutic benefits of chewing gum support its development as we can see new formulations with new drugs contained have been produced from past and are going to find a place in market by formulation of new medicated chewing gums. Potential applications of medicated chewing gums are highly widespread as they will be recognized in future. Nowadays standards for qualifying chewing gums are the same as tablets. Patient-centered studies include medicated chewing gums as a delivery system too which creates compliance for patients. PMID:26109999

  10. Medicated chewing gum, a novel drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Rostami, Farnaz

    2015-04-01

    New formulations and technologies have been developed through oral drug delivery systems' researches. Such researches display significance of oral route amongst patients. We've reviewed all the features associated with medicated chewing gum as a modern drug delivery by introducing the history, advantages and disadvantages, methods of manufacturing, composition differences, evaluation tests and examples of varieties of medicated chewing gums. Acceptance of medicated chewing gum has been augmented through years. The advantages and therapeutic benefits of chewing gum support its development as we can see new formulations with new drugs contained have been produced from past and are going to find a place in market by formulation of new medicated chewing gums. Potential applications of medicated chewing gums are highly widespread as they will be recognized in future. Nowadays standards for qualifying chewing gums are the same as tablets. Patient-centered studies include medicated chewing gums as a delivery system too which creates compliance for patients. PMID:26109999

  11. 21 CFR 172.615 - Chewing gum base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chewing gum base. 172.615 Section 172.615 Food and..., Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.615 Chewing gum base. The food additive chewing gum base... Having an acid number of 3-8, a minimum drop-softening point of 109 °C, and a color of M or...

  12. 21 CFR 172.615 - Chewing gum base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chewing gum base. 172.615 Section 172.615 Food and..., Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.615 Chewing gum base. The food additive chewing gum base... Having an acid number of 3-8, a minimum drop-softening point of 109 °C, and a color of M or...

  13. 21 CFR 172.615 - Chewing gum base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chewing gum base. 172.615 Section 172.615 Food and..., Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.615 Chewing gum base. The food additive chewing gum base... Having an acid number of 3-8, a minimum drop-softening point of 109 °C, and a color of M or...

  14. 21 CFR 172.615 - Chewing gum base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chewing gum base. 172.615 Section 172.615 Food and..., Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.615 Chewing gum base. The food additive chewing gum base... Having an acid number of 3-8, a minimum drop-softening point of 109 °C, and a color of M or...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia siliqua (Linne), a leguminous...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  20. Biobased alternatives to guar gum as tackifiers for hydromulch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guar gum, obtained from guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] seeds, is currently the principal gum used as a tackifier (binder) for hydraulically-applied mulches (hydromulches) used in erosion control. The oil industry’s increased use of guar gum in hydraulic fracturing together with lower glo...

  1. 7 CFR 160.7 - Gum spirits of turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gum spirits of turpentine. 160.7 Section 160.7... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.7 Gum spirits of turpentine. The designation “gum spirits of turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by distillation of the oleoresin...

  2. 7 CFR 160.7 - Gum spirits of turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gum spirits of turpentine. 160.7 Section 160.7... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.7 Gum spirits of turpentine. The designation “gum spirits of turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by distillation of the oleoresin...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330... GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus Acacia, family Leguminosae. (b) The ingredient meets...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus Acacia,...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1330 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 184.1330 Section 184.1330... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1330 Acacia (gum arabic). (a) Acacia (gum arabic) is the dried gummy exudate from stems and branches of trees of various species of the genus...

  8. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. Compositional analysis and rheological properties of gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium): a tree gum from India.

    PubMed

    Vinod, V T P; Sashidhar, R B; Sarma, V U M; Vijaya Saradhi, U V R

    2008-03-26

    Gum kondagogu ( Cochlospermum gossypium) is a tree exudate gum that belongs to the family Bixaceae. Compositional analysis of the gum by HPLC and LC-MS revealed uronic acids to be the major component of the polymer ( approximately 26 mol %). Furthermore, analysis of the gum by GC-MS indicated the presence of sugars such as arabinose (2.52 mol %), mannose (8.30 mol %), alpha- d-glucose (2.48 mol %), beta- d-glucose (2.52 mol %), rhamnose (12.85 mol %), galactose (18.95 mol %), d-glucuronic acid (19.26 mol %), beta- d-galactouronic acid (13.22 mol %), and alpha- d-galacturonic acid (11.22 mol %). Gum kondagogu, being rich in rhamnose, galactose, and uronic acids, can be categorized on the basis of its sugar composition as a rhamnogalacturonan type of gum. The rheological measurements performed on the gum suggest that above 0.6% (w/v) it shows a Newtonian behavior and shear rate thinning behavior as a function of gum concentration. The viscoelastic behavior of gum kondagogu solutions (1 and 2%) in aqueous as well as in 100 mM NaCl solution exhibits a typical gel-like system. The G' (viscous modulus)/ G'' (elastic modulus) ratios of native gum kondagogu (1 and 2%) in aqueous solution were found to be 1.89 and 1.85 and those in 100 mM NaCl to be 1.54 and 2.2, respectively, suggesting a weak gel-like property of the polymer. Crossover values of G' and G'' were observed to be at frequencies of 0.432 Hz for 1% and 1.2 Hz for 2% for native gum in aqueous condition, indicating a predominantly liquid- to solid-like behavior, whereas crossover values of 2.1 Hz for 1% and 1.68 Hz for 2% gum in 100 mM NaCl solution suggest a larger elastic contribution.

  14. The size and shape of Gum's nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. M.

    1971-01-01

    The ionizing light of the supernova which produced the Gum nebula is now fossilized in the still live, though failing, H II region. The main body of the nebula suggests a hollow center or shell form, with a characteristic radius of about half the distance to the outlying fragments. The edges of the main body patches are typically sharp and often bright. The structure of the Gum nebula appears to be dependent on the event of ionization and possibly on the details of heating. It is not now an unstructured ambient medium, as it may have been before the recent ionization. Several hypotheses are presented for a structured ambient medium.

  15. Chewing-gum preservative induced toxidermic vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Faure, G; Bene, M C

    1986-09-01

    This paper reports the case of a young female patient who presented with a cutaneous urticarial disseminated eruption. Drug-induced side effects were eliminated, and the only recent dietary change was the regular use of chewing-gums containing chlorophylla (E140), menthol and BHT (butylhydroxytoluene). Immunohistological analysis of a cutaneous lesion revealed signs of vasculitis. Within 1 week after stopping chewing gum, the eruption subsided. Oral provocation tests at 4-day intervals confirmed the responsibility of BHT by the reinduction of the cutaneous signs after a few hours.

  16. The Gum Nebula and Related Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Proceedings of a symposium concerning the Gum Nebula (GN) and related topics are reported. Papers presented include: Colin Gum and the discovery of the GN; identification of the GN as the fossil Stromgren sphere of Vela X Supernova; size and shape of GN; formation of giant H-2 regions following supernova explosions; radio astronomy Explorer 1 observations of GN; cosmic ray effects in the GN; low intensity H beta emission from the interstellar medium; and how to recognize and analyze GN. Astronomical charts and diagrams are included.

  17. Effects on whole saliva of chewing gums containing calcium phosphates.

    PubMed

    Chow, L C; Takagi, S; Shern, R J; Chow, T H; Takagi, K K; Sieck, B A

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate chewing gums as a vehicle to increase salivary mineral saturation levels and enhance salivation, monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) and an equimolar mixture of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) with dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) were chosen as experimental chewing gum additives. Each of eight subjects chewed a commercial sugarless bubble gum (control) for 16 min or the same gum to which 5 wt% of MCPM or the TTCP-DCPM mixture had been added. The saliva samples collected every 2 min were analyzed for weight, pH, and total calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) concentrations. Both experimental gums were found to increase significantly the Ca and P concentrations of saliva during the 16-minute period even more than with a previously evaluated gum that contained dicalcium phosphate dihydrate. The degree of saturation of tooth mineral was significantly increased by both experimental gums, with the greater increase being produced by the TTCP-DCPA gum. The MCPM gum produced a significantly greater saliva flow and a lower salivary pH than did the control and TTCP-DCPA gums. The results suggest that the experimental gums may be useful for promoting remineralization in general and for inducing salivation in xerostomic patients. PMID:8294615

  18. Residual gastric fluid volume and chewing gum before surgery.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Renate C; Ponnamma, Chandra M; Freyle, David; Wang, Shu-Ming; Kain, Zeev N

    2006-02-01

    In this study we sought to determine if chewing gum preoperatively increases gastric fluid volume (GFV) and changes gastric acidity. Children, 5-17 yr old, were randomized to one of three groups: a control group that was not given any gum, a group that was given sugarless bubble gum, and a group that was given sugared bubble gum. Patients in the two gum groups were instructed to chew their gum for a period of 30 min. After induction of anesthesia and tracheal intubation, the stomach was suctioned with a salem sump orogastric tube. We found that children who did not chew gum had significantly smaller GFV as compared with children who chewed sugared and sugarless gum (0.35 [0.2-0.5] mL/kg versus 0.88 [0.6-1.4] mL/kg versus 0.69 [0.4-1.6] mL/kg; P = 0.0001). Children who did not chew gum also had a significantly lower gastric fluid pH as compared with children chewing sugared and sugarless gum (geometric mean, 1.91 versus 2.25 versus 2.19; P = 0.007). We conclude that children who present for surgery while chewing gum have significantly larger GFV and higher pH. PMID:16428535

  19. 21 CFR 582.3336 - Gum guaiac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gum guaiac. 582.3336 Section 582.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  20. [Recommended or forbidden: focus on chewing gum].

    PubMed

    Jonesco-Benaiche, N; Muller, M; Jasmin, J R

    1990-03-01

    The use of chewing-gum may be beneficial to oral hygiene and become part of an anti-cavity prevention protocol. The conditions of use must be well defined: the sweetener should not be used by the bacterial plaque and fluoride, an anti-cavity agent, must enter into its composition.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1333 - Gum ghatti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gum ghatti. 184.1333 Section 184.1333 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD... percent); and (v) Lead. Not more than 10 parts per million (0.001 percent). (3) Loss on drying. Not...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1333 - Gum ghatti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gum ghatti. 184.1333 Section 184.1333 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1333 - Gum ghatti.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gum ghatti. 184.1333 Section 184.1333 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3336 - Gum guaiac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gum guaiac. 582.3336 Section 582.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3336 - Gum guaiac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gum guaiac. 582.3336 Section 582.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3336 - Gum guaiac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gum guaiac. 582.3336 Section 582.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3336 - Gum guaiac.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gum guaiac. 582.3336 Section 582.3336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  8. Relationships Between Gum-Chewing and Stress.

    PubMed

    Konno, Michiyo; Takeda, Tomotaka; Kawakami, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Kazunori; Ozawa, Takamitsu; Ishigami, Keiichi; Takemura, Naohiro; Sakatani, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that chewing is thought to affect stress modification in humans. Also, studies in animals have demonstrated that active chewing of a wooden stick during immobilization stress ameliorates the stress-impaired synaptic plasticity and prevents stress-induced noradrenaline release in the amygdala. On the other hand, studies have suggested that the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) dominates the regulation of the stress response system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The International Affective Digitized Sounds-2 (IADS) is widely used in the study of emotions and neuropsychological research. Therefore, in this study, the effects of gum-chewing on physiological and psychological (including PFC activity measured by NIRS) responses to a negative stimulus selected from the IADS were measured and analyzed. The study design was approved by the Ethics Committee of Tokyo Dental College (No. 436). We studied 11 normal adults using: cerebral blood oxygenation in the right medial PFC by multi-channel NIRS; alpha wave intensity by EEG; autonomic nervous function by heart rate; and emotional conditions by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) test and the 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Auditory stimuli selected were fewer than 3.00 in Pleasure value. Sounds were recorded in 3 s and reproduced at random using software. Every task session was designed in a block manner; seven rests: Brown Noise (30 s) and six task blocks: auditory stimuli or auditory stimuli with gum-chewing (30 s). During the test, the participants' eyes were closed. Paired Student's t-test was used for the comparison (P<0.05). Gum-chewing showed a significantly greater activation in the PFC, alpha wave appearance rate and HR. Gum-chewing also showed a significantly higher VAS score and a smaller STAI level indicating 'pleasant'. Gum-chewing affected physiological and psychological responses including PFC activity. This PFC activation change might influence the HPA axis

  9. Effect of GutsyGum(tm), A Novel Gum, on Subjective Ratings of Gastro Esophageal Reflux Following A Refluxogenic Meal.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel; Sam, Cecilia H Y; Green, Tim; Wood, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Chewing gum alleviates symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) following a refluxogenic meal. GutsyGum(tm), a chewing gum developed to alleviate the symptoms of GER contains calcium carbonate, with a proprietary blend of licorice extract, papain, and apple cider vinegar (GiGs®). The efficacy of GutsyGum(tm) was determined in alleviating the symptoms of GER after a refluxogenic meal compared to placebo gum. This double-blind, placebo-controlled-crossover trial with a one-week washout between treatments had 24 participants with a history of GER consume a refluxogenic meal and then chew GutsyGum(tm) or placebo gum. Participants completed GER symptom questionnaires, consisting of symptom based 10 cm Visual Analogue Scales, immediately following the meal and then at regular intervals out to four hours postmeal. Adjusted mean ± SEM heartburn score (15-min postmeal to 240 min) was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo gum treatment (0.81 ± 0.20 vs. 1.45 ± 0.20 cm; p = 0.034). Mean acid reflux score was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo treatment (0.72 ± 0.19 vs. 1.46 ± 0.19 cm; p = 0.013). There were no significant differences for any of the secondary outcomes. However, pain approached significance with less pain reported in GutsyGum(tm) versus placebo treatment (0.4 ± 0.2 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 cm; p = 0.081). Although nausea (p = 0.114) and belching (p = 0.154) were lower following GutsyGum(tm), the difference was not statistically significant. GutsyGum(tm) is more effective than a placebo gum in alleviating primary symptoms of heartburn and acid reflux (Clinical Trial Registration: ACTRN12612000973819).

  10. An association between temporomandibular disorder and gum chewing.

    PubMed

    Correia, Diana; Real Dias, Maria Carlos; Castanho Moacho, Antonio; Crispim, Pedro; Luis, Henrique; Oliveira, Miguel; Carames, Joao

    2014-01-01

    This single center, randomized, small study sought to investigate the prevalence and frequency of chewing gum consumption, and whether there is a relationship between these factors and the presence of symptoms associated with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Subjects were divided into 7 groups based on their parafunctional oral habits. Of these, subjects who chewed gum were divided into 5 subgroups (A-E) based on their gum chewing habits. Group A chewed gum <1 hour/day (n = 12), Group B chewed gum 1-2 hours/day (n = 11), Group C chewed gum 3 hours/day (n = 6), and Group D chewed gum >3 hours at a time (n = 8); the frequency of gum chewing in Groups A-D was once a week. Group E subjects chewed gum 1-3 times/week for at least 1 hour each occurrence (n = 2). Sixty-three percent of the subjects in Group D reported TMD symptoms of arthralgia and myofascial pain. Thirty-three percent of the subjects in Group C showed symptoms of arthralgia. Eighty-three percent of the subjects in Group A and 27% in Group B reported myofascial pain. All subjects in Group E reported masseter hypertrophy. The remaining 2 groups were Group F, subjects that didn't chew gum but had other parafunctional oral habits (n = 2), and Group G, subjects who didn't have parafunctional oral habits (n = 12).

  11. Deformation Mechanisms of Gum Metals Under Nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Rohini Priya

    Gum Metal is a set of multi-component beta-Ti alloys designed and developed by Toyota Central R&D Labs in 2003 to have a nearly zero shear modulus in the direction. After significant amounts of cold-work (>90%), these alloys were found to have yield strengths at a significant fraction of the predicted ideal strengths and exhibited very little work hardening. It has been speculated that this mechanical behavior may be realized through an ideal shear mechanism as opposed to conventional plastic deformation mechanisms, such as slip, and that such a mechanism may be realized through a defect structure termed "nanodisturbance". It is furthermore theorized that for near ideal strength to be attained, dislocations need to be pinned at sufficiently high stresses. It is the search for these defects and pinning points that motivates the present study. However, the mechanism of plastic deformation and the true origin of specific defect structures unique to gum metals is still controversial, mainly due to the complexity of the beta-Ti alloy system and the heavily distorted lattice exhibited in cold worked gum metals, rendering interpretation of images difficult. Accordingly, the first aim of this study is to clarify the starting as-received microstructures of gum metal alloys through conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and aberration-corrected high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy with high-angle annular dark field detector (HAADF-HRSTEM) imaging. To elucidate the effects of beta-stability and starting microstructure on the deformation behavior of gum metals and thus to provide adequate context for potentially novel deformation structures, we investigate three alloy conditions: gum metal that has undergone solution heat treatment (STGM), gum metal that has been heavily cold worked (CWGM), and a solution treated alloy of nominal gum metal composition, but leaner in beta-stabilizing content (ST Ref-1). In order to directly relate observed

  12. Gellan co-polysaccharide micellar solution of budesonide for allergic anti-rhinitis: an in vitro appraisal.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Sabyasachi; Chakravorty, Amrita; Chowdhury, Moumita

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to design a novel amphiphilic co-polysaccharide for the development of anti-rhinitis micellar solution of budesonide. Herein, a long alkyl chain (C18) was successfully grafted onto gellan polysaccharide by etherification reaction. The dispersion of co-polysaccharide in water led to formation of spherical, nanomicellar structures. Depending upon the co-polysaccharide:drug weight ratio (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3), a maximum drug loading (>95%) was noted at the lowest level. The nanomicelles were in the range of 371-750nm and showed negative zeta potential (-48.3 to -67.2mV) values indicating their stability in aqueous system. They exhibited a longer dissolution profile in simulated nasal fluid (pH 5.5). The dissolution efficiency (39.79±0.93%) was maximal at the lowest polymer: drug ratio in 6h. The drug release was found to follow first order kinetic model. Korsmeyer-peppas modeling of in vitro drug release data indicated that besides simple diffusion, no other physical phenomenon was involved in the event of drug release from the nanostructures. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis suggested some degree of physical incompatibility; however Infrared spectroscopy revealed chemical compatibility between drug and co-polysaccharide. Thus, the co-polysaccharide micellar system offers a splendid outlook in controlled intranasal delivery of budesonide for the symptomatic relief of anti-rhinitis. PMID:24820153

  13. Antibacterial activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized with gum ghatti and gum olibanum: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kora, Aruna Jyothi; Sashidhar, Rao Beedu

    2015-02-01

    Presently, silver nanoparticles produced by biological methods have received considerable significance owing to the natural abundance of renewable, cost-effective and biodegradable materials, thus implementing the green chemistry principles. Compared with the nanoparticles synthesized using chemical methods, most biogenic silver nanoparticles are protein capped, which imparts stability and biocompatibility, and enhanced antibacterial activity. In this study, we compared the antibacterial effect of two biogenic silver nanoparticles produced with natural plant gums: gum ghatti and gum olibanum against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Bacterial interaction with nanoparticles was probed both in planktonic and biofilm modes of growth; employing solid agar and liquid broth assays for inhibition zone, antibiofilm activity, inhibition of growth kinetics, leakage of intracellular contents, membrane permeabilization and reactive oxygen species production. In addition, cytotoxicity of the biogenic nanoparticles was evaluated in HeLa cells, a human carcinoma cell line. Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of the silver nanoparticles synthesized with gum ghatti (Ag NP-GT) was greater than that produced with gum olibanum (Ag NP-OB). This could be attributed to the smaller size (5.7 nm), monodispersity and zeta potential of the Ag NP-GT. The study suggests that Ag NP-GT can be employed as a cytotoxic bactericidal agent, whereas Ag NP-OB (7.5 nm) as a biocompatible bactericidal agent. PMID:25138141

  14. Linear Mixed Models: Gum and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendacká, Barbora; Täubner, Angelika; Eichstädt, Sascha; Bruns, Thomas; Elster, Clemens

    2014-04-01

    In Annex H.5, the Guide to the Evaluation of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) [1] recognizes the necessity to analyze certain types of experiments by applying random effects ANOVA models. These belong to the more general family of linear mixed models that we focus on in the current paper. Extending the short introduction provided by the GUM, our aim is to show that the more general, linear mixed models cover a wider range of situations occurring in practice and can be beneficial when employed in data analysis of long-term repeated experiments. Namely, we point out their potential as an aid in establishing an uncertainty budget and as means for gaining more insight into the measurement process. We also comment on computational issues and to make the explanations less abstract, we illustrate all the concepts with the help of a measurement campaign conducted in order to challenge the uncertainty budget in calibration of accelerometers.

  15. Direct photography of the Gum Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Roosen, R. G.; Thompson, J.; Ludden, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses a series of wide-angle photographs taken of the Gum Nebula in the traditional region including H-alpha with the aid of a 40-cm and an 80-cm lens in both the red and the green. The photographs support the large dimensions (75 deg in galactic longitude by 40 deg in galactic latitude) of the Gum Nebula suggested earlier, and the appearance is consistent with an origin due to photons from a supernova outburst. The relatively high-density gas has cooled and is visible on the red plates. The low-density gas has remained at a high temperature and may be visible as diffuse emission on the green plates.

  16. The Gum nebula and related problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maran, S. P.; Brandt, J. C.; Stecher, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Papers were presented in conference sessions on the Gum nebula, the Vela X remnant, the hot stars gamma Velorum and zeta Puppis, the B associations in the Vela-Puppis complex, and pulsars. Ground-based optical and radio astronomy; rocket and satellite observations in the radio, visible, ultraviolet, and X-ray regions; and theoretical problems in the physical state of the interstellar medium, stellar evolution, and runaway star dynamics were considered.

  17. Tragacanth gum as a natural polymeric wall for producing antimicrobial nanocapsules loaded with plant extract.

    PubMed

    Ghayempour, Soraya; Montazer, Majid; Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz

    2015-11-01

    Tragacanth gum as a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer with good properties including emulsifying, viscosity and cross-linking ability can be used as the wall material in encapsulation of different compounds, specifically plant extracts. In this paper, for the first time, Tragacanth gum was used to produce nanocapsules containing plant extract through microemulsion method. The effect of different parameters on the average size of prepared nanocapsules in presence of aluminum and calcium chloride through ultrasonic and magnetic stirrer was investigated. The high efficient nanocapsules were prepared with spherical shape and smooth surface. The average size of nanocapsules prepared through ultrasonic using aluminum chloride (22nm) was smaller than other products. The structure of prepared nanocapsules was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. Antimicrobial activity of different nanocapsules against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans was investigated by shake flask method during their release showed 100% microbial reduction after 12h stirring.

  18. Flavor release measurement from gum model system.

    PubMed

    Ovejero-López, Isabel; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans; Bredie, Wender L P

    2004-12-29

    Flavor release from a mint-flavored chewing gum model system was measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (APCI-MS) and sensory time-intensity (TI). A data analysis method for handling the individual curves from both methods is presented. The APCI-MS data are ratio-scaled using the signal from acetone in the breath of subjects. Next, APCI-MS and sensory TI curves are smoothed by low-pass filtering. Principal component analysis of the individual curves is used to display graphically the product differentiation by APCI-MS or TI signals. It is shown that differences in gum composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory adaptation and sensitivity differences of human perception versus APCI-MS detection might explain the divergence between the two dynamic measurement methods. PMID:15612805

  19. Validating the applicability of the GUM procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Maurice G.; Harris, Peter M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper is directed at practitioners seeking a degree of assurance in the quality of the results of an uncertainty evaluation when using the procedure in the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) (JCGM 100 : 2008). Such assurance is required in adhering to general standards such as International Standard ISO/IEC 17025 or other sector-specific standards. We investigate the extent to which such assurance can be given. For many practical cases, a measurement result incorporating an evaluated uncertainty that is correct to one significant decimal digit would be acceptable. Any quantification of the numerical precision of an uncertainty statement is naturally relative to the adequacy of the measurement model and the knowledge used of the quantities in that model. For general univariate and multivariate measurement models, we emphasize the use of a Monte Carlo method, as recommended in GUM Supplements 1 and 2. One use of this method is as a benchmark in terms of which measurement results provided by the GUM can be assessed in any particular instance. We mainly consider measurement models that are linear in the input quantities, or have been linearized and the linearization process is deemed to be adequate. When the probability distributions for those quantities are independent, we indicate the use of other approaches such as convolution methods based on the fast Fourier transform and, particularly, Chebyshev polynomials as benchmarks.

  20. Guar gum: processing, properties and food applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, Bhupendar Singh

    2014-03-01

    Guar gum is a novel agrochemical processed from endosperm of cluster bean. It is largely used in the form of guar gum powder as an additive in food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, explosive, oil well drilling and cosmetics industry. Industrial applications of guar gum are possible because of its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. Thus, it is chiefly used as thickener and stabilizer. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of guar gum. PMID:24587515

  1. Guar gum: processing, properties and food applications-A Review.

    PubMed

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, Bhupendar Singh

    2014-03-01

    Guar gum is a novel agrochemical processed from endosperm of cluster bean. It is largely used in the form of guar gum powder as an additive in food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, explosive, oil well drilling and cosmetics industry. Industrial applications of guar gum are possible because of its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. Thus, it is chiefly used as thickener and stabilizer. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of guar gum.

  2. Quantification and qualification of bacteria trapped in chewed gum.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Stefan W; van der Mei, Henny C; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and remove them from the oral cavity. To test this hypothesis, we developed two methods to quantify numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum. In the first method, known numbers of bacteria were finger-chewed into gum and chewed gums were molded to standard dimensions, sonicated and plated to determine numbers of colony-forming-units incorporated, yielding calibration curves of colony-forming-units retrieved versus finger-chewed in. In a second method, calibration curves were created by finger-chewing known numbers of bacteria into gum and subsequently dissolving the gum in a mixture of chloroform and tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic-acid (TE)-buffer. The TE-buffer was analyzed using quantitative Polymerase-Chain-Reaction (qPCR), yielding calibration curves of total numbers of bacteria versus finger-chewed in. Next, five volunteers were requested to chew gum up to 10 min after which numbers of colony-forming-units and total numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum were determined using the above methods. The qPCR method, involving both dead and live bacteria yielded higher numbers of retrieved bacteria than plating, involving only viable bacteria. Numbers of trapped bacteria were maximal during initial chewing after which a slow decrease over time up to 10 min was observed. Around 10(8) bacteria were detected per gum piece depending on the method and gum considered. The number of species trapped in chewed gum increased with chewing time. Trapped bacteria were clearly visualized in chewed gum using scanning-electron-microscopy. Summarizing, using novel methods to quantify and qualify oral bacteria trapped in chewed gum, the hypothesis is confirmed that chewing of gum can trap

  3. Quantification and Qualification of Bacteria Trapped in Chewed Gum

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and remove them from the oral cavity. To test this hypothesis, we developed two methods to quantify numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum. In the first method, known numbers of bacteria were finger-chewed into gum and chewed gums were molded to standard dimensions, sonicated and plated to determine numbers of colony-forming-units incorporated, yielding calibration curves of colony-forming-units retrieved versus finger-chewed in. In a second method, calibration curves were created by finger-chewing known numbers of bacteria into gum and subsequently dissolving the gum in a mixture of chloroform and tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic-acid (TE)-buffer. The TE-buffer was analyzed using quantitative Polymerase-Chain-Reaction (qPCR), yielding calibration curves of total numbers of bacteria versus finger-chewed in. Next, five volunteers were requested to chew gum up to 10 min after which numbers of colony-forming-units and total numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum were determined using the above methods. The qPCR method, involving both dead and live bacteria yielded higher numbers of retrieved bacteria than plating, involving only viable bacteria. Numbers of trapped bacteria were maximal during initial chewing after which a slow decrease over time up to 10 min was observed. Around 108 bacteria were detected per gum piece depending on the method and gum considered. The number of species trapped in chewed gum increased with chewing time. Trapped bacteria were clearly visualized in chewed gum using scanning-electron-microscopy. Summarizing, using novel methods to quantify and qualify oral bacteria trapped in chewed gum, the hypothesis is confirmed that chewing of gum can trap

  4. Antiectoparasitic activity of the gum resin, gum haggar, from the East African plant, Commiphora holtziana.

    PubMed

    Birkett, Michael A; Abassi, Sate Al; Kröber, Thomas; Chamberlain, Keith; Hooper, Antony M; Guerin, Patrick M; Pettersson, Jan; Pickett, John A; Slade, Robin; Wadhams, Lester J

    2008-05-01

    The mechanism of ixodid tick (Acari: Ixodidae) repellency by gum haggar, a resin produced by Commiphora holtziana (Burseraceae), was investigated by evaluating activity against the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. In an arena bioassay, a hexane extract of the resin of C. holtziana exhibited a repellent effect lasting up to 5h. The hydrocarbon fraction of the resin extract was shown to account for the repellent activity, and was analysed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were tentatively identified as germacrene-D, delta-elemene and beta-bourbonene. The identity and stereochemistry of the former compound was confirmed as the (+)-isomer by peak enhancement using enantioselective GC, whereas the latter 2 compounds, which are most likely degradation products of germacrene-type precursors, were identified through isolation by preparative gas chromatography followed by microprobe-NMR spectroscopy. GC comparison of gum haggar with another resin, C. myrrha, which was inactive in the tick bioassay, showed that the latter contained much lower levels of these hydrocarbons. To assess the suitability of the gum haggar resin as a general acarine repellent, further tests were made on a major acarine pest of European and US animal husbandry systems, the red poultry mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae). Gum haggar extract, and the isolated hydrocarbon fraction, showed strong repellent effects in an olfactometer assay, and again gum myrrh showed no effect. These findings provide a scientific basis for the observed anti-tick properties of gum haggar, and demonstrate the potential for its development as a general acarine repellent for use in animal husbandry systems.

  5. Effect of gums on the rheological characteristics and microstructure of acid-induced SPI-gum mixed gels.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Dong; Wang, Li-Jun; Bi, Chong-Hao; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-08-01

    The effect of addition of xanthan gum (XG) and guar gum (GG) on the rheological properties and microstructure of glucono-δ-lactone induced soy protein isolate (SPI)-XG gels and SPI-GG gels was investigated using steady and dynamic rheological tests, creep-recovery and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results showed that the apparent viscosity of SPI-gum (XG, GG) mixed solutions increased with the increase in the gum (XG, GG) concentration. The storage (G') and loss (G″) moduli of SPI-gum (XG, GG) mixed gels increased in the presence and increase in the gum (XG, GG) concentration. The Burger's model fitted the creep recovery data well (R(2)>0.919) and showed that both the instantaneous and equilibrium (retarded) elastic components of this model increased with the increase in SPI and gum concentrations. The proportion occupied by gum in mixed gels was found to increase with the increase in the concentration of gums which increased the density of protein aggregates in the mixed gels.

  6. Gum Sensor: A Stretchable, Wearable, and Foldable Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotube/Chewing Gum Membrane.

    PubMed

    Darabi, Mohammad Ali; Khosrozadeh, Ali; Wang, Quan; Xing, Malcolm

    2015-12-01

    Presented in this work is a novel and facile approach to fabricate an elastic, attachable, and cost-efficient carbon nanotube (CNT)-based strain gauge which can be efficiently used as bodily motion sensors. An innovative and unique method is introduced to align CNTs without external excitations or any complicated procedure. In this design, CNTs are aligned and distributed uniformly on the entire chewing gum by multiple stretching and folding technique. The current sensor is demonstrated to be a linear strain sensor for at least strains up to 200% and can detect strains as high as 530% with a high sensitivity ranging from 12 to 25 and high durability. The gum sensor has been used as bodily motion sensors, and outstanding results are achieved; the sensitivity is quite high, capable of tracing slow breathing. Since the gum sensor can be patterned into various forms, it has wide applications in miniaturized sensors and biochips. Interestingly, we revealed that our gum sensor has the ability to monitor humidity changes with high sensitivity and fast resistance response capable of monitoring human breathing. PMID:26524110

  7. Gum Sensor: A Stretchable, Wearable, and Foldable Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotube/Chewing Gum Membrane.

    PubMed

    Darabi, Mohammad Ali; Khosrozadeh, Ali; Wang, Quan; Xing, Malcolm

    2015-12-01

    Presented in this work is a novel and facile approach to fabricate an elastic, attachable, and cost-efficient carbon nanotube (CNT)-based strain gauge which can be efficiently used as bodily motion sensors. An innovative and unique method is introduced to align CNTs without external excitations or any complicated procedure. In this design, CNTs are aligned and distributed uniformly on the entire chewing gum by multiple stretching and folding technique. The current sensor is demonstrated to be a linear strain sensor for at least strains up to 200% and can detect strains as high as 530% with a high sensitivity ranging from 12 to 25 and high durability. The gum sensor has been used as bodily motion sensors, and outstanding results are achieved; the sensitivity is quite high, capable of tracing slow breathing. Since the gum sensor can be patterned into various forms, it has wide applications in miniaturized sensors and biochips. Interestingly, we revealed that our gum sensor has the ability to monitor humidity changes with high sensitivity and fast resistance response capable of monitoring human breathing.

  8. [Constituents of essential oil of imported myrrh and gum opoponax].

    PubMed

    Tian, J; Shi, S

    1996-04-01

    The constitutents of essential oil in two kinds of Myrrha were analyzed by GC-MS. Fifteen compounds in Myrrh and thirty-three compounds in Gum opoponax were identified with their percent contents given. The main constituent of Myrrh is furanoeudesma-1,3-diene, and the main constituent of Gum opoponax is beta-trans-ocimene. PMID:9208557

  9. 78 FR 43226 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Register of February 27, 2013 (78 FR 13379). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on May 23, 2013, and... COMMISSION Xanthan Gum From Austria and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... with material injury by reason of imports from China of xanthan gum provided for in subheading...

  10. 77 FR 43857 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 12, 2012 (77 FR 34997). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Xanthan Gum From Austria and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... Austria and China of xanthan gum, provided for in subheading 3913.90.20 of the Harmonized Tariff...

  11. [Constituents of essential oil of imported myrrh and gum opoponax].

    PubMed

    Tian, J; Shi, S

    1996-04-01

    The constitutents of essential oil in two kinds of Myrrha were analyzed by GC-MS. Fifteen compounds in Myrrh and thirty-three compounds in Gum opoponax were identified with their percent contents given. The main constituent of Myrrh is furanoeudesma-1,3-diene, and the main constituent of Gum opoponax is beta-trans-ocimene.

  12. Impact of welan gum on tricalcium aluminate-gypsum hydration

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Lei Zhao Qinglin Yao Chukang; Zhou Mingkai

    2012-02-15

    The retarding effect of welan gum on tricalcium aluminate-gypsum hydration, as a partial system of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) hydration, was investigated with several methods. The tricalcium aluminate-gypsum hydration behavior in the presence or absence of welan gum was researched by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and zeta potential analysis. Meanwhile, we studied the surface electrochemical properties and adsorption characteristics of welan gum by utilizing a zeta potential analyzer and UV-VIS absorption spectrophotometer. By adding welan gum, the morphology change of ettringite and retardation of hydration stages in tricalcium aluminate-gypsum system was observed. Moreover, we detected the adsorption behavior and zeta potential inversion of tricalcium aluminate and ettringite, as well as a rapid decrease in the zeta potential of tricalcium aluminate-gypsum system. The reduction on nucleation rate of ettringite and hydration activity of C{sub 3}A was also demonstrated. Thus, through the adsorption effect, welan gum induces a retarding behavior in tricalcium aluminate-gypsum hydration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption characteristics of welan gum on C{sub 3}A and ettringite have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C{sub 3}A-gypsum hydration behavior and the hydration products are examined in L/S = 3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Welan gum retards the process of C{sub 3}A-gypsum hydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of welan gum changes the nucleation growth of ettringite.

  13. Dodecenylsuccinic anhydride derivatives of gum karaya (Sterculia urens): preparation, characterization, and their antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Padil, Vinod Vellora Thekkae; Senan, Chandra; Černík, Miroslav

    2015-04-15

    Esterifications of the tree-based gum, gum karaya (GK), using dodecenylsuccinic anhydride (DDSA) were carried out in aqueous solutions. GK was deacetylated using alkali treatment to obtain deacetylated gum karaya (DGK). The DGK and its DDSA derivative were characterized using gel permeation chromatography/multiangle laser light scattering (GPC/MALLS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, and rheological studies. The degree of substitution was found to be 10.25% for DGK using (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The critical aggregation concentration of DDSA-DGK was determined using dye solubilization and surface tension methods. The antibacterial activity of the DDSA-DGK derivative was then investigated against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. The DDSA-DGK derivative has the potential for use as a stabilizing agent in food and nonfood applications. It can also be developed as an antibacterial agent. PMID:25797306

  14. Gum Arabic as a Cause of Occupational Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Viinanen, Arja; Salokannel, Maija; Lammintausta, Kaija

    2011-01-01

    Background. Gum arabic is a potential sensitizer in food industry. Methods. We examined 11 candy factory workers referred to examinations due to respiratory and skin symptoms paying attention to exposure and sensitization to gum arabic. Skin tests, pulmonary function tests, and respiratory provocation tests were carried out as indicated by the symptoms and findings. Results. Occupational asthma, caused by gum arabic was diagnosed in 4/11 candy factory workers and two of them had also occupational contact urticaria and one had occupational rhinitis. One of them had oral symptoms associated with ingestion of products containing gum arabic. Conclusions. Airborne exposure to gum arabic may cause sensitization leading to allergic rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria. PMID:21747872

  15. Deformation Mechanisms of Gum Metals Under Nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Rohini Priya

    Gum Metal is a set of multi-component beta-Ti alloys designed and developed by Toyota Central R&D Labs in 2003 to have a nearly zero shear modulus in the direction. After significant amounts of cold-work (>90%), these alloys were found to have yield strengths at a significant fraction of the predicted ideal strengths and exhibited very little work hardening. It has been speculated that this mechanical behavior may be realized through an ideal shear mechanism as opposed to conventional plastic deformation mechanisms, such as slip, and that such a mechanism may be realized through a defect structure termed "nanodisturbance". It is furthermore theorized that for near ideal strength to be attained, dislocations need to be pinned at sufficiently high stresses. It is the search for these defects and pinning points that motivates the present study. However, the mechanism of plastic deformation and the true origin of specific defect structures unique to gum metals is still controversial, mainly due to the complexity of the beta-Ti alloy system and the heavily distorted lattice exhibited in cold worked gum metals, rendering interpretation of images difficult. Accordingly, the first aim of this study is to clarify the starting as-received microstructures of gum metal alloys through conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and aberration-corrected high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy with high-angle annular dark field detector (HAADF-HRSTEM) imaging. To elucidate the effects of beta-stability and starting microstructure on the deformation behavior of gum metals and thus to provide adequate context for potentially novel deformation structures, we investigate three alloy conditions: gum metal that has undergone solution heat treatment (STGM), gum metal that has been heavily cold worked (CWGM), and a solution treated alloy of nominal gum metal composition, but leaner in beta-stabilizing content (ST Ref-1). In order to directly relate observed

  16. Seed gum of Stryphnodendron barbatiman (Barbatimao)

    SciTech Connect

    Reicher, F.; Leitner, S.C.S.; Fontana, J.D.; Correa, J.B.C.; Sierakowski, M.R.

    1991-12-31

    Stryphnodendron barbatiman (barbatimao) is a native tree that is found throughout the {open_quotes}Cerrados,{close_quotes} a region of Central Brazil. Plant seeds, on water extraction, furnished 28 g% galactomannan (dry-weight basis), the monosaccharide composition of which (galactose to mannose ratio, 1.0:1.5) fits in the legume heteromannan group. This seed gum, after Sevag deproteinization, still retained 6 g% of associated protein and had a molecular weight of about 1.8 MD on gel filtration. A high intrinsic viscosity (1300 cP) was observed for the polysaccharide sample obtained after reflux of the crushed seeds in 80% aqueous methanol.

  17. Evaluation of Sterculia foetida gum as controlled release excipient.

    PubMed

    Chivate, Amit Ashok; Poddar, Sushilkumar Sharatchandra; Abdul, Shajahan; Savant, Gaurav

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to evaluate Sterculia foetida gum as a hydrophilic matrix polymer for controlled release preparation. For evaluation as a matrix polymer; characterization of Sterculia foetida gum was done. Viscosity, pH, scanning electronmicrographs were determined. Different formulation aspects considered were: gum concentration (10-40%), particle size (75-420 microm) and type of fillers and those for dissolution studies; pH, and stirring speed were considered. Tablets prepared with Sterculia foetida gum were compared with tablets prepared with Hydroxymethylcellulose K15M. The release rate profiles were evaluated through different kinetic equations: zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, Hixon-Crowell and Korsemeyer and Peppas models. The scanning electronmicrographs showed that the gum particles were somewhat triangular. The viscosity of 1% solution was found to be 950 centipoise and pH was in range of 4-5. Suitable matrix release profile could be obtained at 40% gum concentration. Higher sustained release profiles were obtained for Sterculia foetida gum particles in size range of 76-125 microm. Notable influences were obtained for type of fillers. Significant differences were also observed with rotational speed and dissolution media pH. The in vitro release profiles indicated that tablets prepared from Sterculia foetida gum had higher retarding capacity than tablets prepared with Hydroxymethylcellulose K15M prepared tablets. The differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that there are no interactions of Sterculia foetida gum with diltiazem hydrochloride. It was observed that release of the drug followed through surface erosion and anomalous diffusion. Thus, it could be concluded that Sterculia foetida gum could be used a controlled release matrix polymer.

  18. Determination of locust bean gum and guar gum by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Meyer, K; Rosa, C; Hischenhuber, C; Meyer, R

    2001-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to differentiate the thickening agents locust bean gum (LBG) and the cheaper guar gum in finished food products. Universal primers for amplification of the intergenic spacer region between trnL 3' (UAA) exon and trnF (GAA) gene in the chloroplast (cp) genome and subsequent restriction analysis were applied to differentiate guar gum and LBG. The presence of <5% (w/w) guar gum powder added to LBG powder was detectable. Based on data obtained from sequencing this intergenic spacer region, a second PCR method for the specific detection of guar gum DNA was also developed. This assay detected guar gum powder in LBG in amounts as low as 1% (w/w). Both methods successfully detected guar gum and/or LBG in ice cream stabilizers and in foodstuffs, such as dairy products, ice cream, dry seasoning mixes, a finished roasting sauce, and a fruit jelly product, but not in products with highly degraded DNA, such as tomato ketchup and sterilized chocolate cream. Both methods detected guar gum and LBG in ice cream and fresh cheese at levels <0.1%. PMID:11234856

  19. In vitro tooth whitening effect of two medicated chewing gums compared to a whitening gum and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Michael; Hasler-Nguyen, Nathalie; Saroea, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    Background Extrinsic staining of teeth may result from the deposition of a variety of pigments into or onto the tooth surface, which originate mainly from diet or from tobacco use. More recently, clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some chewing gums in removing extrinsic tooth staining. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two nicotine medicated chewing gums (A and B) on stain removal in an in vitro experiment, when compared with a confectionary whitening chewing gum (C) and human saliva (D). Methods Bovine incisors were stained by alternating air exposure and immersion in a broth containing natural pigments such as coffee, tea and oral microorganisms for 10 days. Stained enamel samples were exposed to saliva alone or to the test chewing gums under conditions simulating human mastication. The coloration change of the enamel samples was measured using a spectrophotometer. Measurements were obtained for each specimen (average of three absorbances) using the L*a*b scale: lightness (L*), red-green (a) and yellow-blue (b). Results Medicated chewing gums (A and B) removed a greater amount of visible extrinsic stain, while the confectionary chewing gum with a whitening claim (C) had a milder whitening effect as evaluated by quantitative and qualitative assessment. Conclusion The tested Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) chewing gums were more effective in the removal of the extrinsic tooth stain. This visible improvement in tooth whitening appearance could strengthen the smokers' motivation to quit smoking. PMID:18694488

  20. What do GUM physicians think should be taught in a modern undergraduate GUM module? A qualitative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Fernando, I

    2015-10-01

    Traditional undergraduate Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) teaching in the UK concentrated on the management of individual sexually transmitted infections. There is significant variation, however, in the GUM teaching provided by different medical schools today. I undertook a qualitative interview study to gather views of GUM and other sexual health clinicians regarding what should be taught within a modern undergraduate GUM module. Nine GUM clinicians and two Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) clinicians participated in the study; all were directly involved in undergraduate teaching. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with study participants by a single interviewer, focusing on three key topics: their individual opinions regarding important learning outcomes (LOs) for a modern model GUM curriculum, their preferred teaching methods and the total recommended teaching time required. Interviews were audio-recorded with consent and professionally transcribed. Data were analysed by the content analysis method. Interviewees frequently stressed skill and attitudinal LOs, even above knowledge. Recommended important skills included sexual history taking, HIV risk assessment and testing, and male and female genital examination. Recommended attitudinal LOs were developing an open and non-judgemental approach to sexual health issues and understanding sexual well-being to be an important component of general health. Respondents were keen for a mixture of teaching methods, but generally agreed that clinic attendance and experiential learning were beneficial. They preferred that GUM teaching should be delivered in the latter years of the undergraduate curriculum.

  1. Hydrophobic derivatives of guar gum hydrolyzate and gum Arabic as matrices for microencapsulation of mint oil.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Shatabhisa; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun; Singhal, Rekha S

    2013-06-01

    Guar gum hydrolyzate (GGH) modified with n-octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) and oleic acid having induced hydrophobicity was evaluated for encapsulation of mint oil and compared with gum Arabic (GA) and GA-OSA as wall material. Spray dried microcapsules prepared with these wall materials were evaluated for qualitative changes by principal component analysis and for percent retention of mint oil during 8-week storage. Results revealed that microcapsules with GGH-OSA and GGH-oleate showed slightly lower retention of mint oil as compared to GA. GA-OSA microcapsules showed better retention of mint oil than GA itself, as observed from the t1/2, the time required for the mint oil to come down to 50% of its original content. The t1/2 of mint oil in microcapsules of GA, GGH-oleate, GGH-OSA and GA-OSA was 26.12, 23.50, 24.11 and 29.67 weeks, respectively. The results suggested that GGH-OSA has the potential to replace gum Arabic for encapsulation of mint oil.

  2. Evaluation of a Treatment Approach Combining Nicotine Gum with Self-Guided Behavioral Treatments for Smoking Relapse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Joel D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Randomly assigned 1,218 smokers to cells in 4 (nicotine gum delivered ad lib, fixed regimen nicotine gum, placebo gum, no gum) x 3 (self-selected relapse prevention modules, randomly administered modules, no modules) design. Subjects receiving nicotine gum were more likely to be abstinent at 2- and 6-month followups. Fixed regimen accounted for…

  3. Equipment for drug release testing of medicated chewing gums.

    PubMed

    Kvist, L C; Andersson, S B; Berglund, J; Wennergren, B; Fors, S M

    2000-04-01

    An apparatus was specially designed and constructed for release testing of medicated chewing gums. The adjustable instrumental settings such as temperature, chewing frequency, chewing time, volume of test medium, distance between the jaws and twisting angle increased the versatility of the apparatus. Selection of the test medium was also an important parameter. Each sample was kneaded mechanically in separate test chambers and the drug release was followed by sampling and HPLC analysis. Different gum formulations were tested and the obtained results demonstrated satisfactory release curves for a variety of formulations and active ingredients. The tested gum formulations comprised nicotine, meclizine, dimenhydrinate and xylitol. The apparatus proved to be suitable in product control of commercial batches but also a useful tool in the research and development of medicated gum formulations. PMID:10766358

  4. Evaluation of CDs and chewing gum in teaching dental anatomy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kenneth L; Galvis, Diana; Katz, Ralph V

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this pilot study were: 1. to compare two methods of teaching dental anatomy-CD + lab vs. standard lecture + lab; and 2. to determine whether actively chewing gum during lecture, lab and studying would have an effect on learning. Only the written examination average scores for the gum vs. no gum chewing groups showed differences that appear to be educationally meaningful, though not statistically significant because of the limited number of subjects in this pilot study. This pilot study suggests that: 1. the cost-effective method of using a self-study CD is as educationally effective as a standard lecture; 2. gum chewing resulted in higher scores in the written examination; and 3. future, full-sized studies should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  5. Keep Gum Disease Away! | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... good dental hygiene. "People need to brush and floss every day, and see the dentist regularly. No lapses," he urges. To Find Out More MedlinePlus: medlineplus.gov ; type "gum disease" in Search box National Institute of ...

  6. Design, formulation and evaluation of green tea chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Khalafi, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study is to design, formulate and evaluate the green tea gums with a suitable taste and quality in order to produce an anti-oxidant chewing gum. Materials and Methods: Fresh green tea leaves obtained from Northern Iran for extraction. Maceration is the extraction method that is used in this study. The contents of caffeine, catechin and flavonoids of the hydro alcoholic extract were measured. Various formulations of the 120 mg green tea extract chewing gums with different sweeteners, flavoring agents and various gum bases were prepared afterward release pattern, content uniformity, organoleptic results and other properties were characterized. Results: The contents of caffeine, catechin and flavonoid of the hydro alcoholic extraction were 207.32 mg/g, 130.00 mg/g and 200.82 mg/g, respectively. Release pattern of green tea chewing gum with different gum base ratios and various sweeteners in phosphate buffer were prepared. A total of 60 persons who were 20-30 years of age, participated in our panel test for organoleptic properties such as taste, stiffness, stickiness, etc., Acceptable gum was the one with the same ratio of the used rubber bases. Cinnamon selected as the preferred taste by volunteers. Combination of aspartame, sugar and maltitol has appropriate taste. The effect of various sweetener on release pattern was negligible, on the other hand rubber bases ratio variation, changed the release pattern obviously. Conclusion: The green tea chewing gum with sugar, maltitol and aspartame sweeteners and cinnamon flavor, using the same rubber bases ratio may be a desirable antioxidant product. PMID:25161989

  7. Safety Assessment of Microbial Polysaccharide Gums as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel assessed the safety of 34 microbial polysaccharide gums for use in cosmetics, finding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. The microbial polysaccharide gums named in this report have a variety of reported functions in cosmetics, including emulsion stabilizer, film former, binder, viscosity-increasing agent, and skin-conditioning agent. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety. PMID:27383198

  8. GUM Analysis for TIMS and SIMS Isotopic Ratios in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, Patrick G.; Gerlach, David C.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Steven L.

    2007-04-01

    This report describes GUM calculations for TIMS and SIMS isotopic ratio measurements of reactor graphite samples. These isotopic ratios are used to estimate reactor burn-up, and currently consist of various ratios of U, Pu, and Boron impurities in the graphite samples. The GUM calculation is a propagation of error methodology that assigns uncertainties (in the form of standard error and confidence bound) to the final estimates.

  9. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used...

  10. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used...

  11. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acacia (gum arabic). 172.780 Section 172.780 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used...

  12. Potential utilization of guar gum industrial waste in vermicompost production.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surendra

    2006-12-01

    Recycling of guar gum industrial waste through vermitechnology was studied under laboratory conditions by using composting earthworm Perionyx excavatus (Perrier). Three different combination of guar gum industrial waste namely guar gum industrial waste:cow dung:saw dust in 40:30:30 ratio (T1), guar gum industrial waste:cow dung:saw dust in 60:20:20 ratio (T2), and guar gum industrial waste:cow dung:saw dust in 75:15:10 ratio (T3) were used for vermicomposting experiments. Chemical changes during vermicomposting were measured and comparatively T2 showed great increase (from its initial level) for total N (25.4%), phosphorus (72.8%) and potassium (20.9%) than the other treatments. T2 also showed higher vermicomposting coefficient (VC), higher mean biomass for P. excavatus (146.68 mg) and higher cocoon production (about 21.9% and 645.5% more than the T1 and T3, respectively). Maximum earthworm mortality during vermicomposting was recorded with T3 treatment while zero mortality was recorded for T2 treatment after 150 days. Overall, T2 treatment appeared to be an ideal combination for enhancing maximum biopotential of earthworms to management guar gum industrial waste as well as for earthworm biomass and cocoon production.

  13. Flavor improvement does not increase abuse liability of nicotine chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Houtsmuller, Elisabeth J; Fant, Reginald V; Eissenberg, Thomas E; Henningfield, Jack E; Stitzer, Maxine L

    2002-06-01

    Because the taste of nicotine gum has impeded compliance with dosing recommendations, nicotine gum with improved taste (mint, orange) was developed and marketed. Prior to marketing, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required a rigorous abuse liability assessment to examine whether enhanced palatability of nicotine gum would increase its abuse liability. Subjective, physiological, and psychomotor effects of mint flavor and original nicotine gum were tested in adult smokers (22-55 years old); a group of younger subjects (18-21 years old) was also included to allow for assessment of abuse liability in young adults specifically. Amphetamine and confectionery gum served as positive controls for abuse liability and palatability. Subjects rated palatability of mint gum higher than original nicotine gum, but substantially lower than confectionery gum. Palatability decreased with increasing dose of nicotine. Neither original nor mint gum increased ratings of traditional abuse liability predictors [Good Effect, Like Effect, Morphine-Benzedrine Group (MBG) scales of Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI)], while amphetamine increased ratings of all these measures. Both flavors of nicotine gum decreased craving during 2 h of abstinence. These effects were more pronounced in the adult group and mint gum was more effective than original gum. Younger subjects reported fewer withdrawal symptoms and lower ratings for drug effects and flavor. Improved flavor of nicotine gum does not increase abuse liability, but may be associated with enhanced craving reduction. PMID:12175452

  14. Flavor improvement does not increase abuse liability of nicotine chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Houtsmuller, Elisabeth J; Fant, Reginald V; Eissenberg, Thomas E; Henningfield, Jack E; Stitzer, Maxine L

    2002-06-01

    Because the taste of nicotine gum has impeded compliance with dosing recommendations, nicotine gum with improved taste (mint, orange) was developed and marketed. Prior to marketing, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required a rigorous abuse liability assessment to examine whether enhanced palatability of nicotine gum would increase its abuse liability. Subjective, physiological, and psychomotor effects of mint flavor and original nicotine gum were tested in adult smokers (22-55 years old); a group of younger subjects (18-21 years old) was also included to allow for assessment of abuse liability in young adults specifically. Amphetamine and confectionery gum served as positive controls for abuse liability and palatability. Subjects rated palatability of mint gum higher than original nicotine gum, but substantially lower than confectionery gum. Palatability decreased with increasing dose of nicotine. Neither original nor mint gum increased ratings of traditional abuse liability predictors [Good Effect, Like Effect, Morphine-Benzedrine Group (MBG) scales of Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI)], while amphetamine increased ratings of all these measures. Both flavors of nicotine gum decreased craving during 2 h of abstinence. These effects were more pronounced in the adult group and mint gum was more effective than original gum. Younger subjects reported fewer withdrawal symptoms and lower ratings for drug effects and flavor. Improved flavor of nicotine gum does not increase abuse liability, but may be associated with enhanced craving reduction.

  15. Evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of a new polysaccharide gum from Prosopis africana.

    PubMed

    Adikwu, M U; Ezeabasili, S I; Esimone, C O

    2001-01-01

    The gum obtained from the ripe seeds of Prosopis africana was processed to compendial standard for plant gums and characterised. Toxicological studies of the polysaccharide on mice showed the material to be safe. The material hydrates slowly in aqueous media to form a colloidal dispersion. Swelling studies on the gum shows that the gum has a higher swelling capacity than methylcellulose. Rheological studies showed that the material is more viscous than tragacanth gum at equivalent concentrations. Acid hydrolysis and thin layer chromatography of the resulting hydrolysates showed that the gum contains glucose, fructose, galactose and xylose as the monosaccharide components. Microbial tests showed the gum to contain 8.26 x 10(4) viable cells per gram when freshly prepared. Other properties of the gum evaluated includes; melting or charring temperature, optical properties, true density, ash values, element content as well as its reactions with lead subacetate solution and 0.02 M iodine.

  16. Investigations on interpolymer complexes of cationic guar gum and xanthan gum for formulation of bioadhesive films.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Tiwary, A K; Kaur, G

    2010-07-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the possible use of inter polymer complexed (IPC) films of xanthan gum (XG) and cationic guar gum (CGG) for formulating domperidone bioadhesive films. Formation of bonds between -COO¯ groups of XG and -N(+)(CH(3))(3) groups of CGG was evident in the FTIR spectra of IPC films. Bioadhesive strength of the films was evaluated employing texture analyser. Water uptake studies indicated swelling to be a function of XG concentration in the interpolymer complexes. The bioadhesive films were found to possess neutral pH. In vitro drug release studies and residence time studies indicated that the film comprising CGG:XG (80:20) released 98% of domperidone in 8 h and exhibited a residence time of approximately 8 h. Enhanced bioavailability of domperidone was observed from bioadhesive films as compared to orally administered conventional tablets. Overall, the findings suggest that IPC films of XG and CGG, exhibiting desired bioadhesive strength and enhanced bioavailability of domperidone, can be prepared. PMID:21589796

  17. Microencapsulation of saffron petal anthocyanins with cress seed gum compared with Arabic gum through freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Seid-Mahdi; Mahdavi-Khazaei, Katayoun; Hemmati-Kakhki, Abbas

    2016-04-20

    In this research, encapsulation efficiency of cress seed gum (CSG) as a native hydrocolloid was compared with Arabic gum (AG) and maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent of 20 (M20), and 7 (M7)) for saffron (Crocus sativus) petal's extract by freeze drying method. Combinations of CSG-M20, AG-M20, and M7-M20 with ratios of 50:50 and M20 alone (100%) were used as wall materials. A mixture of 1:5 (based on dry matter) between core (concentrated anthocyanin extract of saffron petal) and wall materials were freeze dried and stability of encapsulated anthocyanins along with color parameters (a*, b*, L*, C, H° and TCD) of final powders were measured during 10 weeks of storage (at 35°C as an accelerated method). Total anthocyanins were determined through pH differential method every week. Four prepared formulations of encapsulated powders didn't show any significant differences (P>0.01) in terms of total anthocyanin content measured immediately after production and after 10 weeks storage. AG-M20 mixture and M20 alone showed the highest and lowest TCD, respectively. The mixture of CSG-M20 in comparison with AG-M20 and M20 had the same protecting effect (P<0.01) but showed a relatively high TCD (9.33). PMID:26876823

  18. Studies on gum of Moringa oleifera for its emulsifying properties

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Dibya Sundar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emulsion has been a form of presenting water insoluble substances for a long period of time. Now a day, it has been a way of presenting various intravenous additives and diagnostic agents in X-ray examinations. Various substances can be used as emulsifying agent, which can be operationally defined as a stabilizer of the droplets formed of the internal phase. Materials and Methods: Gum from Moringa oleifera was evaluated for its emulsifying properties. Castor oil emulsions 30 percent (o/w), containing 2 to 4% Moringa oleifera gum was prepared. Emulsions containing equivalent concentration of acacia were also prepared for comparison. All the emulsions prepared were stored at room temperature and studied for stability at various time intervals for 8 weeks. The prepared emulsions were evaluated for creaming rate, globule size and rate of coalescence. 23 factorial design was chosen to investigate the effects of centrifugation, pH, temperature changes and electrolytes on the creaming rate and globule size. Results: The results of the investigations show that the gum of Moringa oleifera possesses better emulsifying properties as compared to gum acacia. Conclusion: Gum of Moringa oleifera could be used in pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical preparation. PMID:24741276

  19. The degradation of guar gum by a faecal incubation system.

    PubMed

    Tomlin, J; Read, N W; Edwards, C A; Duerden, B I

    1986-05-01

    1. Homogenized and diluted faeces (50 g/l) from one human source were incubated with the complex plant polysaccharide, guar gum, to investigate the degradation of viscous polysaccharides by intestinal bacteria. 2. Incubation of the faecal homogenate with guar gum produced a rapid decrease in viscosity and in pH, accompanied by the release of hydrogen. 3. No changes in viscosity or pH were observed and there was no production of H2 gas when guar gum was incubated with autoclaved faecal homogenate (20 min, 1.03 x 10(5) Pa). 4. A bacteria-free filtrate of faeces was prepared by centrifuging the faecal homogenate (2400 g for 100 min) followed by filtration through a Seitz filter and then a millipore filter (size 0.45 micron). Incubating this with guar gum produced a slow decrease in viscosity, but no significant change in pH and no generation of H2. 5. Our results show that guar gum can be fermented by human colonic bacteria and suggest the possibility of predigestion by extracellular free enzymes.

  20. Circulatory response and autonomic nervous activity during gum chewing.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yoko; Sakagami, Joe; Ono, Takahiro; Hori, Kazuhiro; Zhang, Min; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2009-08-01

    Mastication has been proven to enhance the systemic circulation, with circulatory responses seeming to be largely regulated by autonomic nervous activity via a more complex regulatory system than those of other activities. However, few studies have examined the relationships between changes in autonomic nervous activity and the systemic circulation that are induced by masticatory movement. We investigated changes in the systemic circulation and autonomic nervous activity during gum chewing to clarify the influence of mastication. Electrocardiograms, arterial blood pressure, and masseter electromyograms were taken while chewing gum continuously as indicators of systemic circulation in 10 healthy subjects with normal dentition. Cardiac sympathetic activity and vagus nervous activity, as well as vasomotor sympathetic nervous activity, were evaluated by fluctuation analysis of heart rate and blood pressure. Repeated analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were performed to determine chronological changes in each indicator during gum chewing. Gum chewing increased the heart rate and the mean arterial pressure. Although cardiac sympathetic activity and vagus nervous activity showed significant changes, vasomotor sympathetic nervous activity did not. These results suggest that changes in the autonomic nervous activity of the heart are mainly involved in the enhancement of systemic circulation with gum chewing. This explains some characteristics of autonomic nervous regulation in masticatory movement.

  1. Effects of xanthan, guar, carrageenan and locust bean gum addition on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Zeynep Ozben; Yılmaz, Ismail; Demirci, Ahmet Şukru

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of xanthan gum, guar gum, carrageenan and locust bean gum on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs. Meatball samples were produced with three different formulations including of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% each gum addition and gum added samples were compared with the control meatballs. Physical and chemical analyses were carried out on raw and cooked samples separately. Moisture contents of raw samples decreased by addition of gums. There were significant decreases (p < 0.05) in moisture and fat contents of raw and cooked meatball samples formulated with gum when compared with control. Ash contents and texture values increased with gum addition to meatballs. Meatball redness decreased with more gum addition in raw and cooked meatball samples, which means that addition of gums resulted in a lighter-coloured product. According to sensory analysis results, locust bean gum added (1%) samples were much preferred by the panelists.

  2. Effects of xanthan, guar, carrageenan and locust bean gum addition on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Zeynep Ozben; Yılmaz, Ismail; Demirci, Ahmet Şukru

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of xanthan gum, guar gum, carrageenan and locust bean gum on physical, chemical and sensory properties of meatballs. Meatball samples were produced with three different formulations including of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% each gum addition and gum added samples were compared with the control meatballs. Physical and chemical analyses were carried out on raw and cooked samples separately. Moisture contents of raw samples decreased by addition of gums. There were significant decreases (p < 0.05) in moisture and fat contents of raw and cooked meatball samples formulated with gum when compared with control. Ash contents and texture values increased with gum addition to meatballs. Meatball redness decreased with more gum addition in raw and cooked meatball samples, which means that addition of gums resulted in a lighter-coloured product. According to sensory analysis results, locust bean gum added (1%) samples were much preferred by the panelists. PMID:24803701

  3. The effect of sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) as a chewing gum additive on caries increments in children.

    PubMed

    Finn, S B; Frew, R A; Leibowitz, R; Morse, W; Manson-Hing, L; Brunelle, J

    1978-04-01

    A three-year study on school-age children using trimetaphosphate as a chewing gum additive produced significant reductions in proximal surface dental caries increments as compared to an non-chewing gum group. The reductions were 23.3% for the TMP sucrose gum group and 47.6% for the TMP nonsugar group as compared to the no-gum group. PMID:273637

  4. Acute and chronic effects of gum chewing on food reinforcement and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Swoboda, Christine; Temple, Jennifer L

    2013-04-01

    Although chewing gum has been considered a potential method for reducing energy intake, little empirical data exist to support this idea. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that chewing gum before eating reduces motivation to eat, hunger, and energy intake. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments in which participants chewed gum prior to completing a food reinforcement task or before all eating occasions for two of three weeks. In Experiment 1, we found that chewing gum had no influence on the reinforcing value of food, but chewing mint gum reduced liking of and energy intake from fruit. In addition, chewing gum reduced self-reported hunger immediately after gum chewing and after eating compared with the no gum condition. In Experiment 2, gum chewing had no significant effect on total energy intake, but participants consumed fewer meals, consumed more energy per meal, and had a lower nutrient adequacy ratio during the gum chewing weeks. These studies provide no evidence that acute or chronic gum chewing reduces hunger or energy intake. In fact, chewing mint-flavored gum may deter consumption of fruit and reduce diet quality. PMID:23557811

  5. Metabolic Effects of Nicotine Gum and Cigarette Smoking: Potential Implications for Postcessation Weight Gain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klesges, Robert C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Twenty smoking women participated in nicotine gum and smoking administration, after which resting energy expenditures (REEs) were measured. Results indicated acute increase in REE for both nicotine gum and cigarettes. Metabolic rates for nicotine gum slowly returned to baseline; rates for cigarettes quickly fell significantly below baseline.…

  6. 40 CFR 454.20 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory. 454.20 Section 454.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GUM AND WOOD CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Gum Rosin and Turpentine Subcategory § 454.20 Applicability; description...

  7. Acute and chronic effects of gum chewing on food reinforcement and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Swoboda, Christine; Temple, Jennifer L

    2013-04-01

    Although chewing gum has been considered a potential method for reducing energy intake, little empirical data exist to support this idea. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that chewing gum before eating reduces motivation to eat, hunger, and energy intake. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments in which participants chewed gum prior to completing a food reinforcement task or before all eating occasions for two of three weeks. In Experiment 1, we found that chewing gum had no influence on the reinforcing value of food, but chewing mint gum reduced liking of and energy intake from fruit. In addition, chewing gum reduced self-reported hunger immediately after gum chewing and after eating compared with the no gum condition. In Experiment 2, gum chewing had no significant effect on total energy intake, but participants consumed fewer meals, consumed more energy per meal, and had a lower nutrient adequacy ratio during the gum chewing weeks. These studies provide no evidence that acute or chronic gum chewing reduces hunger or energy intake. In fact, chewing mint-flavored gum may deter consumption of fruit and reduce diet quality.

  8. 40 CFR 454.20 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory. 454.20 Section 454.20 Protection of Environment... the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine....

  9. 40 CFR 454.20 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory. 454.20 Section 454.20 Protection of Environment... the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine....

  10. Cigarette and nicotine chewing gum toxicity in children.

    PubMed

    Smolinske, S C; Spoerke, D G; Spiller, S K; Wruk, K M; Kulig, K; Rumack, B H

    1988-01-01

    A prospective review of 51 cases of tobacco ingestion and 5 cases of nicotine resin chewing gum exposure was conducted to evaluate the incidence and degree of toxicity caused by these products in children. A dose-response relationship was observed for cigarette exposures. Nine of 10 children ingesting more than one cigarette or three cigarette butts developed signs or symptoms, while 12 of 24 ingesting lesser amounts became symptomatic (P less than 0.01). Severe symptoms (e.g. limb jerking and unresponsiveness) were only seen with the larger amounts. Nicotine resin gum produced toxicity in 4 of 5 children who chewed 1/2 to 4 pieces. Agitation, lethargy, tachycardia, hypotension, abdominal pain, and vomiting were seen within 30 min of exposure to the gum.

  11. Evaluation of Prosopis africana gum in the formulation of gels.

    PubMed

    Adikwu, M U; Attama, A A

    2000-01-01

    Prosopis africana gum was evaluated for use in the formulation of gels. The rate of release of salicylic acid from gels prepared from prosoopis gum was investigated. The rate of permeation of the drug through the gel was also evaluated. Surfactants were incorporated into the gels and the effect on the release and permeation was also investigated. Tragacanth gum gel was also prepared and used as the standard. The release and permeation of the drug from the gel was low. Incorporation of surfactants did not enhance the release of the drug. However the low release and permeation rates may be due to the poor water solubility of the incorporated drug. Correlation of the quantity of drug released with viscosity shows that drug release was dependent on the viscosity of the gels; the highly viscous gels showed slower release rates.

  12. Hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction in batch bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zabot, Giovani L; Mecca, Jaqueline; Mesomo, Michele; Silva, Marceli F; Prá, Valéria Dal; de Oliveira, Débora; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Castilhos, Fernanda; Treichel, Helen; Mazutti, Marcio A

    2011-10-01

    This work is focused on hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction process by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of stirred speed and superficial gas velocity on the kinetics of cell growth, lactose consumption and xanthan gum production in a batch bioreactor using cheese whey as substrate. A hybrid model was employed to simulate the bio-process making use of an artificial neural network (ANN) as a kinetic parameter estimator for the phenomenological model. The hybrid modeling of the process provided a satisfactory fitting quality of the experimental data, since this approach makes possible the incorporation of the effects of operational variables on model parameters. The applicability of the validated model was investigated, using the model as a process simulator to evaluate the effects of initial cell and lactose concentration in the xanthan gum production.

  13. Design, formulation, and evaluation of ginger medicated chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Rostami, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various ginger compounds improve gastrointestinal problems and motion sickness. The main effects of ginger allocate to some phenolics such as gingerols and shogaols that act as their active agents. Chewing gums are among convenient dosage forms which patients prefer due to their advantages. Hence, this study tried to design, formulate, and evaluate ginger chewing gum of favorable taste and texture to avoid motion sickness and have gastro-protective and anti-oxidant effect. Materials and Methods: Dried ginger rhizomes were percolated to extract ginger compounds. Total phenolics were measured in 70% hydro-alcoholic extract of ginger by gallic and tannic acid standards using Folin–Ciocalteu’s reagent. Chewing gums containing 50 mg of concentrated extract were prepared. Content uniformity, weight variation, release pattern, organoleptic, and mechanical properties were evaluated. Results: Phenolic content was measured 61.50 ± 5.27 mg/g and 76.75 ± 5.45 mg/g of concentrated extract as gallic acid and tannic acid equivalents, respectively. Release pattern of formulations with different gum bases and sweeteners demonstrated almost 100% release of drug. Evaluation of organoleptic properties was on 10 healthy volunteers and later prepared formulations exhibited better characteristics. Formulations without any flavorants have higher acceptability. Evaluation of mechanical properties showed higher stiffness of F15. Conclusion: Ginger chewing gum comprises admissible properties to be used as a modern drug delivery system due to its advantageous results in motion sickness. It passed all the specified tests for an acceptable chewing gum. Thus, it may be successfully produced to help GI problems. PMID:27563640

  14. Design, formulation and evaluation of Aloe vera chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydrate content was determined according to mannose and phenolic compounds in terms of gallic acid. Aloe vera powder, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, sweeteners and different flavors were added to the soft gum bases. In Aloe vera chewing gum formulation, 10% of dried Aloe vera extract entered the gum base. Then the chewing gum was cut into pieces of suitable sizes. Weight uniformity, content uniformity, the organoleptic properties evaluation, releasing the active ingredient in the phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) and taste evaluation were examined by Latin square method. Results: One gram of Aloe vera powder contained 5.16 ± 0.25 mg/g of phenolic compounds and 104.63 ± 4.72 mg/g of carbohydrates. After making 16 Aloe vera chewing gum formulations, the F16 formulation was selected as the best formulation according to its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. In fact F16 formulation has suitable hardness, lack of adhesion to the tooth and appropriate size and taste; and after 30 min, it released more than 90% of its drug content. Conclusion: After assessments made, the F16 formulation with maltitol, aspartame and sugar sweeteners was selected as the best formulation. Among various flavors used, peppermint flavor which had the most acceptance between consumers was selected. PMID:26605214

  15. The Efficacy of Green Tea Chewing Gum on Gingival Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Behfarnia, Parichehr; Aslani, Ahmad; Jamshidian, Foroogh; Noohi, Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem According to previous studies, the components of green tea extracts can inhibit the growth of a wide range of gram-pos-itive and -negative bacterial species and might be useful in controlling oral infections. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the effect of green tea chewing gum on the rate of plaque and gingival inflammation in subjects with gingivitis. Materials and Method In this double-blind randomize controlled clinical trial, 45 patients with generalized marginal gingivitis were selected and divided into two groups of green tea (23) and placebo (22) chewing gum. The patients chewed two gums for 15 minutes daily for three weeks. Sulcus bleeding index (SBI) and approximal plaque index (API) were studied at the baseline, 7 and 21 days later. Saliva sampling was conducted before and after 21 days for evaluation of IL-1β. The results were analyzed and compared by using repeated measures ANOVA, paired t test, and independent two-sample t test (α=0.05). Result The results showed that chewing gum significantly affected the SBI and API (p< 0.001). Paired t test showed that the two groups were significantly different regarding the mean changes of SBI and API at different periods of 1-7, 1-21, and 7-21 (p< 0.001). Concerning IL-1β, the repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the effect of chewing gum was significant (p<0.001). Moreover, paired t-test represented no significant difference between the mean changes of IL-1β within 1-21 day (p= 0.086). Conclusion The green tea chewing gum improved the SBI and API and effectively reduced the level of IL-1β. PMID:27284561

  16. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Dionísio, Marita; Grenha, Ana

    2012-07-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua). This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed.

  17. Promoter analysis of the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris gum operon directing biosynthesis of the xanthan polysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Katzen, F; Becker, A; Zorreguieta, A; Pühler, A; Ielpi, L

    1996-01-01

    The Xanthomonas campestris gum gene cluster is composed of 12 genes designated gumB, -C, -D, -E, -F, -G, -H, -I, -J, -K, -L, and -M. The transcriptional organization of this gene cluster was analyzed by the construction of gum-lacZ transcriptional fusions in association with plasmid integration mutagenesis. This analysis, coupled with primer extension assays, indicated that the gum region was mainly expressed as an operon from a promoter located upstream of the first gene, gumB. PMID:8763965

  18. Biochemical effects of gum arabic, gum tragacanth, methylcellulose and carboxymethylcellulose-Na in rat heart and liver.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, E; Weber, E; Post, M; Zbinden, G

    1978-01-01

    Repeated oral administration of commonly used suspending media, gum arabic, gum tragacanth, methylcellulose, and carboxymethylcellulose-Na to rats caused uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in liver and heart mitochondria and partial inhibition of mixed function oxidases of liver endoplasmic reticulum, as measured by 2-biphenylhydroxylation and 4-biphenylhydroxylation. There were considerable differences between the compounds with regard to potency and reversibility of these effects. Only methylcellulose at a concentration of 0.5% did not alter mitochondrial function and mixed function oxidases. It is recommended as suspending medium for the use in pharmacological and toxicological experiments.

  19. Rheological properties and thickening mechanism of aqueous diutan gum solution: Effects of temperature and salts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Long; Gong, Houjian; Dong, Mingzhe; Li, Yajun

    2015-11-01

    Rheological properties of a new microbial polysaccharide, diutan gum in aqueous solution have been systematically investigated. It is found that molecular aggregates of diutan gum can be formed at a very low concentration (0.12 g/L), and the mechanism of thickening by diutan gum is proposed. The viscosity retention rate of diutan gum changes little when increasing the temperature from 298 K to 348 K or in a high salinity solution (55.5 g L(-1)). Gel structure can be formed in the diutan gum solution, owing to the finding that the dynamic modulus has an exponential relationship with the concentration. The gel properties of diutan gum are not sensitive to temperature, and are virtually independent of cationic environment (Na(+) and Ca(2+)). The temperature/salt tolerance of the diutan gum solution is mainly attributed to its perfect double helix molecular conformation, the location of the side chains of its molecules, and its water retention capacity.

  20. Identification from a bitemark in a wad of chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, P; Carson, G; Taylor, J A; Brown, K A

    2001-06-01

    A wad of used chewing gum recovered from the scene of a burglary contained impressions of human teeth. Casts of these impressions displayed unique morphological characteristics which were found to show concordance with corresponding features present on casts of the posterior teeth of a suspect. PMID:11494677

  1. Viscofying properties of corn fiber gum with various polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of corn fiber gum (CFG) on the aqueous solutions of a series of widely-used commercial polysaccharides has been studied by rheological techniques using stress synergism index to evaluate its viscosifying action. Though CFG solution exhibited Newtonian fluid behaviour with a very low vis...

  2. Improved emulsification performance of corn fiber gum following maturation treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn fiber gum (CFG) in the solid state (milled powder form) was subjected to a maturation treatment by heating under atmospheric pressure at 110 degrees C for 5 (CFG5) and 24 hours (CFG24). The treatment reduced the solubility and aggregation of the proteinaceous component with increased heating t...

  3. Nicotine Gum and Behavioral Treatment in Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 120 smoking cessation subjects to either intensive behavioral treatment, nicotine gum in low-contact treatment, or to combined treatment. Combined treatment produced higher abstinence rates than other conditions at all assessments. Differences were significant at 3, 12, and 26 weeks, but not at 52 weeks. (NRB)

  4. Investigation of Transport Properties of a New Biomaterials - GUM Mangosteen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Sourav S.; Sarkar, A.

    2006-06-01

    Biomaterial has occupied leading position in material science for various scientific and technological applications. This present work is carried out over a natural gum extracted from raw fruit of Mangosteen, an east Indian tree (Gercinia Mangostana) following extraction and purification process. Solid specimen of the said gum is developed following sol-gel like process. AC and DC electrical analysis on the dried solid specimen of the gum were carried out and showed high electrical conduction with σ ~ 1 E-03 S/cm, of which ionic and electronic contributions are 70% and 30% respectively. Analysis shows that origin of high electrical conductivity is due to presence of substantial amount of organic acid unit in its polysaccharide background. In fact the observed σ is about 1000 times of that observed in gum Arabica. Optical absorption of this new bio- materials are also studied using UV-VIS analysis. The results show its high absorption co-efficient in UV and blue part of analysed range. A complete electrical characterization of the material have been made. It has also been observed that the electronic conduction can be enhanced to 70% of the total electrical conductivity by forming complex with Iodine and organic (Citric) acid from Lemon fruit. This high potential material is being studied for development of electronic device application.

  5. Effect of chewing gums on plaque pH after a sucrose challenge.

    PubMed

    Park, K K; Hernandez, D; Schemehorn, B R; Katz, B P; Stookey, G K; Sanders, P G; Butchko, H H

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether sugarless chewing gums sweetened with different sweeteners differ in their ability to reduce an acidogenic response from a 10 percent sucrose-rinse challenge. Five commercially available chewing gums and two control regimens ("no gum" or paraffin) were tested using a plaque pH telemetry system. The gums were sweetened with sucrose, high-intensity sweeteners (aspartame, saccharin, or acesulfame-K), or a polyol (xylitol). Using a seven-period randomized block design, eight adult panelists were challenged with a 10 percent sucrose solution and then randomly used one of the test regimens during each of the seven test sessions. Each two-hour test session was divided into five periods: resting baseline (five minutes); sucrose rinse challenge (two minutes); postsucrose challenge (ten minutes); gum chewing (ten minutes); post gum chewing (ninety-three minutes). The factors analyzed were: the area of the curve (pH X Time) below pH 5.5, the minimum plaque pH attained, the changes in plaque pH over relevant intervals, and the length of time the plaque pH remained below pH 5.5. The various response variables showed a similar pattern of statistically significant differences. All of the sugarless gums were effective in significantly increasing plaque pH and in reducing the area under the curve after the sucrose challenge compared with "no gum" treatment. No statistically significant differences were noted among the sugarless gums. The response to sucrose gum was intermediate between sugarless gums and "no gum" but was not statistically different from "no gum" or three of the sugarless gums.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Diffusivity of whey protein and gum arabic in their coacervates.

    PubMed

    Weinbreck, Fanny; Rollema, Harry S; Tromp, R Hans; de Kruif, Cornelis G

    2004-07-20

    Structural properties of whey protein (WP)/gum arabic (GA) coacervates were investigated by measuring the diffusivity of WP and GA in their coacervate phase as a function of pH by means of three different complementary techniques. The combination of these measurements revealed new insights into the structure of coacervates. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measured the self-diffusion coefficient of the GA in the coacervate phase prepared at various pH values. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) was measured using a confocal scanning laser microscope. The WP and GA were covalently labeled with two different dyes. The time of fluorescence recovery, related to the inverse of the diffusion coefficient, was evaluated from the measurements, and the diffusivity of the WP and GA on a long time scale could be individually estimated at each pH value. Diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) combined with transmission measurement was carried out in the coacervate phase, and the diffusion coefficient, corresponding to the averaged diffusion of all particles that scattered in the system, was calculated as a function of pH. Independently of the technique used, the results showed that the diffusion of the WP and GA within the coacervate phase was reduced as compared to a diluted biopolymer mixture. NMR, DWS, and FRAP measurements gave similar results, indicating that the biopolymers moved the slowest in the coacervate matrix at pH 4.0-4.2. It is assumed that the diffusion of the WP and GA is reduced because of a higher electrostatic interaction between the biopolymers. Furthermore, FRAP results showed that in the coacervate phase WP molecules diffused 10 times faster than GA molecules. This result is very relevant because it shows that WP and GA move independently in the liquid coacervate phase. Finally, DWS measurements revealed that the coacervate phase rearranged with time, as evidenced by a decrease of the diffusion coefficient and a loss of the turbidity of the sample

  7. Chewing gum increases energy expenditure before and after controlled breakfasts.

    PubMed

    Kresge, Daniel L; Melanson, Kathleen

    2015-04-01

    Chewing has been associated with improved satiation and satiety, but little is known about the metabolic impact of gum chewing. We tested the hypothesis that gum chewing would increase energy expenditure (EE) and reduce respiratory exchange ratio (RER) before and after a controlled test meal. Seventeen males and 13 females (age 21.5 ± 6.6 years, body mass index 23.9 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover study in which subjects chewed sugar-free gum for a total of 1 h (3 sessions of 20 min) on the test day (GC) and did not chew gum on a control day (NG). EE and RER were measured by indirect calorimetry after an overnight fast. Subjects consumed a breakfast shake containing 30% of their measured energy needs, and then postprandial EE and RER were measured for 3 h. Blood glucose (GLC) was measured in the fasting and postprandial states at regular intervals. Fasting EE was higher during GC (1.23 ± 0.04 kcal/min; 1 kcal = 4.2 kJ) than during NG (1.17 ± 0.04 kcal/min; p = 0.016). Postprandial EE was also higher during GC (1.46 ± 0.05 kcal/min) than during NG (1.42 ± 0.05 kcal/min; p = 0.037). Fasting and postprandial RER and GLC did not differ between GC and NG. The findings demonstrate that GC is associated with higher fasting and postprandial EE without altering blood glucose or substrate oxidation as measured by RER. These data suggest that gum chewing potentially could influence short-term energy balance in this population; however, longer-term research is needed. PMID:25794237

  8. Cetirizine release from cyclodextrin formulated compressed chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Stojanov, Mladen; Larsen, Kim L

    2012-09-01

    Beside the efficient effect on masking cetirizine bitter taste, the cyclodextrins (CDs) as well could have influence on the release from the formulation. In vitro release profiles of cetirizine from compressed chewing gums containing α-, β- and γ-CD were investigated using a three cell chewing apparatus. Different cetirizine/CD formulations were produced and analysed with respect to type of CD (α-, β- and γ-CD), the molar ratio between cetirizine and CD and the formulation of cetirizine (complex or physical mixture). Release experiments from all compressed chewing gum formulations gave similar release patterns, but with variations in the total amount released. Chewing gum formulated with cetirizine alone, demonstrated a release of 75% after 8 min of chewing. The presence of CDs resulted in increased cetirizine release. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that parameters with the most important influence on the release were the molar ratio of cetirizine/CD (P < 0.05) and the formulation of cetirizine/CD (complex or physical mixture) (P < 0.05). The compressed chewing gum formulations with 1:5 molar ratio of cetirizine/CD in complexed form demonstrated the highest release. Even though the statistical analysis (ANOVA) demonstrated significance in the release (P < 0.05) for the complex/physical mixture factor, this difference was negligible compared to the release from chewing gums containing cetirizine without CD. This makes physical mixtures suitable for use in cetirizine/CD formulations instead the complexes with respect to release yield. Thus unnecessary expenses for the complex preformulation may be avoided.

  9. Saffron and beetroot extracts encapsulated in maltodextrin, gum Arabic, modified starch and chitosan: Incorporation in a chewing gum system.

    PubMed

    Chranioti, Charikleia; Nikoloudaki, Aspasia; Tzia, Constantina

    2015-08-20

    Maltodextrin (MD-21DE), gum Arabic (GA), gum Arabic-modified starch (GA-MS), modified starch-chitosan (MS-CH) and modified starch-maltodextrin-chitosan (MS-MD-CH) were used as agents for beetroot and saffron coloring-extracts microencapsulation by freeze drying. The produced powders were evaluated in terms of coloring strength (E) during storage at 40°C for 10 weeks and a first-order kinetic was applied. Color parameters (L(*), a(*), b(*), C(*) and ΔE(*)) and water sorption behavior was also studied. Moreover, incorporation of the powders in a chewing gum model system was conducted. The type of encapsulating agent significantly (P<0.05) affected the studied parameters with the order of protection in both extracts being as follows: MD>GA>GA-MS>MS-CH>MS-MD-CH. The water sorption study revealed that MD and GA kept their structural integrity up to water activities of 0.66 and 0.82, respectively. The chewing gum samples produced with coloring extracts encapsulated in GA-MS showed the greatest a(*)(for beetroot) and b(*) (for saffron) values indicating a better protection. PMID:25965482

  10. Saffron and beetroot extracts encapsulated in maltodextrin, gum Arabic, modified starch and chitosan: Incorporation in a chewing gum system.

    PubMed

    Chranioti, Charikleia; Nikoloudaki, Aspasia; Tzia, Constantina

    2015-08-20

    Maltodextrin (MD-21DE), gum Arabic (GA), gum Arabic-modified starch (GA-MS), modified starch-chitosan (MS-CH) and modified starch-maltodextrin-chitosan (MS-MD-CH) were used as agents for beetroot and saffron coloring-extracts microencapsulation by freeze drying. The produced powders were evaluated in terms of coloring strength (E) during storage at 40°C for 10 weeks and a first-order kinetic was applied. Color parameters (L(*), a(*), b(*), C(*) and ΔE(*)) and water sorption behavior was also studied. Moreover, incorporation of the powders in a chewing gum model system was conducted. The type of encapsulating agent significantly (P<0.05) affected the studied parameters with the order of protection in both extracts being as follows: MD>GA>GA-MS>MS-CH>MS-MD-CH. The water sorption study revealed that MD and GA kept their structural integrity up to water activities of 0.66 and 0.82, respectively. The chewing gum samples produced with coloring extracts encapsulated in GA-MS showed the greatest a(*)(for beetroot) and b(*) (for saffron) values indicating a better protection.

  11. Contribution of lipids, phenolic acids, and protein rich components to emulsifying properties of corn fiber gum and acacia gum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn fiber gum (CFG) is an arabinoxylan enriched fraction obtained by the extraction of corn bran/fiber using a proprietary alkaline hydrogen peroxide process. When purified CFG prepared by this process was hydrolyzed with concentrated base (1.5 N methanolic KOH at 70 °C for one hour) considerable ...

  12. Characterization and in vitro antioxidant activity of Albizia stipulata Boiv. gum exudates.

    PubMed

    Thanzami, K; Malsawmtluangi, C; Lalhlenmawia, H; Seelan, T Veenus; Palanisamy, Selvamani; Kandasamy, Ruckmani; Pachuau, Lalduhsanga

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study is to characterize the physicochemical properties and to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity of Albizia stipulata Boiv. gum exudates collected from Northeast India. The total carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein contents, monosaccharide composition and the molecular weight distribution of the purified gum was determined. The powder flow property and preliminary compressibility test were performed on the dried gum exudates. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study was performed to analyze the functional groups present in the structure. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA/DTA) analyses were performed to study the thermal stability of the gum. The antioxidant properties of the gum were evaluated by determining 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl scavenging activities and reducing power. The total carbohydrate and protein contents of the gum were found to be 75.17±3.21% and 2.60±1.05% respectively. The viscosity of 2% aqueous solution of the gum exhibited non-Newtonian type of flow showing pH dependent swelling. Arabinose and galactose were found to be the main monosaccharides present in the gum exudates and the molecular weight distribution of the gum was also found to be polydispersed. Results from DPPH, hydroxyl scavenging and reducing power studies showed the gum possesses antioxidant properties.

  13. MAGNETS

    DOEpatents

    Hofacker, H.B.

    1958-09-23

    This patent relates to nmgnets used in a calutron and more particularly to means fur clamping an assembly of magnet coils and coil spacers into tightly assembled relation in a fluid-tight vessel. The magnet comprises windings made up of an assembly of alternate pan-cake type coils and spacers disposed in a fluid-tight vessel. At one end of the tank a plurality of clamping strips are held firmly against the assembly by adjustable bolts extending through the adjacent wall. The foregoing arrangement permits taking up any looseness which may develop in the assembly of coils and spacers.

  14. Effects of dietary oat, barley, and guar gums on serum and liver lipid concentrations in diet-induced hypertriglyceridemic rats.

    PubMed

    Oda, T; Aoe, S; Imanishi, S; Kanazawa, Y; Sanada, H; Ayano, Y

    1994-04-01

    Effects of dietary oat, barley, and guar gums on serum and liver triglyceride or cholesterol concentrations were examined in diet-induced hypertriglyceridemic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a hypertriglyceridemic diet that contained 20% coconut oil, 17.5% fructose, 17.5% sucrose, and 5% cellulose at 4 weeks of age for 14 days. In the gum-supplemented diets, 2% cellulose was replaced by oat gum, barley gum, or guar gum. Hypertriglyceridemia was observed in the control group, whereas serum cholesterol concentration was not increased. All of the gums lowered serum and liver cholesterol concentrations except barley gum which had no significant effect on liver cholesterol. Both oat and barley gums suppressed the elevation of serum and liver triglyceride concentrations but guar gum had no effect. PMID:7931729

  15. Use of Cassia javahikai seed gum and gum-g-polyacrylamide as coagulant aid for the decolorization of textile dye solutions.

    PubMed

    Sanghi, Rashmi; Bhattacharya, Bani; Singh, Vandana

    2006-07-01

    Investigations were carried out for possible exploitation of Cassia javahikai seeds as potential source of commercial gum for the textile wastewater treatment. Graft copolymerization with acrylamide was done to modify the seed gum for the favorable properties. C. javahikai seed gum, and its copolymer grafted with acrylamide were synthesized in the presence of oxygen using potassium persulphate/ascorbic acid redox system. Both C. javahikai seed gum (CJ) and its grafted-polyacrylamide (CJG), were found to be good working substitutes as coagulant aids in conjunction with PAC, for the decolorization of all the dyes in varying ratios. CJ and CJG alone could effectively decolorize direct dyes (DBR and DO) and in conjunction with a very low dose of PAC could decolorize all the dyes (DBR, DO, ASR, and PBB) to more than 70%. Grafting also increased the decolorizing ability of CJ gum.

  16. Effect of guar gum and xanthan gum on pasting and noodle-making properties of potato, corn and mung bean starches.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Shevkani, Khetan; Singh, Narpinder; Sharma, Parul; Kaur, Seeratpreet

    2015-12-01

    The effect of xanthan and guar-gum on pasting and noodle-making properties of potato, corn and mung bean starches was studied. Mung bean starch showed the highest amylose content (43.4 %) followed by potato (23.2 %) and corn starch (15.5 %). Potato starch showed the highest swelling power (19.0 g/g) and solubility index (17.5 %) and exhibited the highest paste viscosities. Addition of both gums improved peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity and final viscosity for mung and corn starches; while for potato starch, guar gum increased peak and final viscosities and decreased hot paste viscosity while xanthan gum increased hot paste and final viscosities and decreased peak viscosity. The noodles made from mung bean starch showed the most desirable characteristics in terms of the lowest-cooking loss and adhesiveness. The gums increased noodle cooking time and decreased cooking loss, firmness and cohesiveness.

  17. In situ remineralization of subsurface enamel lesion after the use of a fluoride chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Lamb, W J; Corpron, R E; More, F G; Beltran, E D; Strachan, D S; Kowalski, C J

    1993-01-01

    In situ remineralization of early enamel lesions by a fluoride chewing gum was studied. Human enamel specimens with subsurface lesions were mounted in removable lower appliances for 6 adults. Subjects used a F-free dentifrice 3x/day and chewed five sticks/day for the F gum group (0.1 mg F/stick) or five sticks of sugarless gum. No gum was chewed for controls. Surface microhardness was performed on: (1) sound enamel; (2) lesions; (3) after intraoral exposure, and (4) after acid-resistance testing (ART). Separate specimens were etched and measured for F uptake and image analyses on microradiographs were performed for all regimens. delta Z values were calculated and converted to percent of mineralization. Values for F gum were significantly higher (p > 0.05) than non-F gum and controls for ART, percent remineralization, and F uptake up to 70 microns depth.

  18. Preparation and characterization of tragacanth-locust bean gum edible blend films.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Fatemeh Sadat; Kadkhodaee, Rassoul; Emadzadeh, Bahareh; Koocheki, Arash

    2016-03-30

    The present work introduces the structure and physicomechanical properties of a novel blend film made from binary solutions of gum tragacanth (GT) and locust bean gum (LBG) at different mixing ratios. Apparent viscosities and surface tensions of individual and blend gum solutions were also investigated. The viscosity data indicated that there was a distinct synergism between the two gums at all mixing ratios. FTIR spectra showed the existence of noncovalent intermolecular interactions between gums. The surface tensions of binary solutions were significantly lower than those of individual gums which is advantageous for coating applications. All films had homogenous and smooth surface morphology and their transparency, water vapour barrier and mechanical properties were improved by incorporating LBG in blend. The results of this study suggest that GT-LBG blend film, owing to its desirable properties, has the potential to be used as a new degradable food packaging material. PMID:26794942

  19. Influence of tragacanth gum in egg white based bioplastics: Thermomechanical and water uptake properties.

    PubMed

    López-Castejón, María Luisa; Bengoechea, Carlos; García-Morales, Moisés; Martínez, Inmaculada

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to extend the range of applications of tragacanth gum by studying its incorporation into bioplastics formulation, exploring the influence that different gum contents (0-20wt.%) exert over the thermomechanical and water uptake properties of bioplastics based on egg white albumen protein (EW). The effect of plasticizer nature was also evaluated through the modification of the water/glycerol ratio within the plasticizer fraction (fixed at 40wt.%). The addition of tragacanth gum generally yielded an enhancement of the water uptake capacity, being doubled at the highest content. Conversely, presence of tragacanth gum resulted in a considerable decrease in the bioplastic mechanical properties: both tensile strength and maximum elongation were reduced up to 75% approximately when compared to the gum-free system. Ageing of selected samples was also studied, revealing an important effect of storage time when tragacanth gum is present, possibly due to its hydrophilic character.

  20. Influence of tragacanth gum in egg white based bioplastics: Thermomechanical and water uptake properties.

    PubMed

    López-Castejón, María Luisa; Bengoechea, Carlos; García-Morales, Moisés; Martínez, Inmaculada

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to extend the range of applications of tragacanth gum by studying its incorporation into bioplastics formulation, exploring the influence that different gum contents (0-20wt.%) exert over the thermomechanical and water uptake properties of bioplastics based on egg white albumen protein (EW). The effect of plasticizer nature was also evaluated through the modification of the water/glycerol ratio within the plasticizer fraction (fixed at 40wt.%). The addition of tragacanth gum generally yielded an enhancement of the water uptake capacity, being doubled at the highest content. Conversely, presence of tragacanth gum resulted in a considerable decrease in the bioplastic mechanical properties: both tensile strength and maximum elongation were reduced up to 75% approximately when compared to the gum-free system. Ageing of selected samples was also studied, revealing an important effect of storage time when tragacanth gum is present, possibly due to its hydrophilic character. PMID:27516250

  1. An assessment of gum-based environmental enrichment for captive gummivorous primates.

    PubMed

    Huber, Hillary F; Lewis, Kerrie P

    2011-01-01

    In the wild, many primates consume gums exuded from trees, and many species are gum specialists. In spite of this, few data exist concerning gum feeding in captivity. Using a web-based survey of 46 zoos in 12 countries, we evaluated the extent to which zoos feed gum to primates. We found that although callitrichids and galagos receive gum-based enrichment, cercopithecines generally do not. Environmental enrichment is important for stimulating naturalistic behavior to promote the psychological wellbeing of animals. Thus, gum-based enrichment is important for captive gummivores. Our study highlights the need to improve environmental enrichment for captive gummivores, in particular that of cercopithecines. This is most striking for the patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas), an obligate gummivore. The exchange of ecological data between field research and captive settings is crucial, and is just one way primate caretakers can contribute to the conservation and welfare of some of our closest living relatives.

  2. Functionality of maize, wheat, teff and cassava starches with stearic acid and xanthan gum.

    PubMed

    Maphalla, Thabelang Gladys; Emmambux, Mohammad Naushad

    2016-01-20

    Consumer concerns to synthetic chemicals have led to strong preference for 'clean' label starches. Lipid and hydrocolloids are food friendly chemicals. This study determines the effects of stearic acid and xanthan gum alone and in combination on the functionality of maize, wheat, teff and cassava starches. An increase in viscosity was observed for all starches with stearic acid and xanthan gum compared to the controls with cassava having the least increase. A further increase in viscosity was observed for the cereal starches with combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum. Stearic acid reduced retrogradation, resulting in soft textured pastes. Combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum reduced the formation of type IIb amylose-lipid complexes, syneresis, and hysteresis in cereal starches compared to stearic acid alone. A combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum produce higher viscosity non-gelling starches and xanthan gum addition increases physical stability to freezing and better structural recovery after shear.

  3. Preparation and characterization of tragacanth-locust bean gum edible blend films.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Fatemeh Sadat; Kadkhodaee, Rassoul; Emadzadeh, Bahareh; Koocheki, Arash

    2016-03-30

    The present work introduces the structure and physicomechanical properties of a novel blend film made from binary solutions of gum tragacanth (GT) and locust bean gum (LBG) at different mixing ratios. Apparent viscosities and surface tensions of individual and blend gum solutions were also investigated. The viscosity data indicated that there was a distinct synergism between the two gums at all mixing ratios. FTIR spectra showed the existence of noncovalent intermolecular interactions between gums. The surface tensions of binary solutions were significantly lower than those of individual gums which is advantageous for coating applications. All films had homogenous and smooth surface morphology and their transparency, water vapour barrier and mechanical properties were improved by incorporating LBG in blend. The results of this study suggest that GT-LBG blend film, owing to its desirable properties, has the potential to be used as a new degradable food packaging material.

  4. Strategy to identify and quantify polysaccharide gums in gelled food concentrates.

    PubMed

    Grün, Christian H; Sanders, Peter; van der Burg, Monique; Schuurbiers, Eric; van Adrichem, Linda; van Velzen, Ewoud J J; de Roo, Niels; Brunt, Kommer; Westphal, Yvonne; Schols, Henk A

    2015-01-01

    A strategy for the unambiguous identification and selective quantification of xanthan gum and locust bean gum (LBG) in gelled food concentrates is presented. DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed to be a fast, sensitive, and selective method that can be used as a first screening tool in intact gelled food concentrates. An efficient isolation procedure is described removing components that may interfere with subsequent analyses. NMR spectroscopy enabled the direct identification of xanthan gum and the discrimination between different galactomannans in the isolated polysaccharide fraction. An enzymatic fingerprinting method using endo-β-mannanase, in addition to being used to differentiate between galactomannans, was developed into a selective, quantitative method for LBG, whereas monosaccharide analysis was used to quantify xanthan gum. Recoveries for xanthan gum and LBG were 87% and 70%, respectively, with in-between day relative standard deviations below 20% for xanthan gum and below 10% for LBG. PMID:25053026

  5. The effect of chewing sugar-free gum after meals on clinical caries incidence.

    PubMed

    Beiswanger, B B; Boneta, A E; Mau, M S; Katz, B P; Proskin, H M; Stookey, G K

    1998-11-01

    To determine the effect of chewing sugar-free gum on caries incidence, the authors conducted a randomized clinical study. A total of 1,402 children in Puerto Rico, in grades 5 through 7 at baseline, completed the study. They were randomized by classroom into a control group or chewing gum group; those in the gum group were instructed to chew sugar-free gum for 20 minutes after each of three meals a day. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed at baseline and after two and three years. The results show that all subjects and high-risk subjects, respectively, in the gum group developed 7.9 percent and 11.0 percent fewer decayed, missing or filled surfaces than subjects in the control group. Based on these findings, the authors concluded that chewing sorbitol-based sugar-free gum after eating significantly reduces the incidence of dental caries.

  6. Functionality of maize, wheat, teff and cassava starches with stearic acid and xanthan gum.

    PubMed

    Maphalla, Thabelang Gladys; Emmambux, Mohammad Naushad

    2016-01-20

    Consumer concerns to synthetic chemicals have led to strong preference for 'clean' label starches. Lipid and hydrocolloids are food friendly chemicals. This study determines the effects of stearic acid and xanthan gum alone and in combination on the functionality of maize, wheat, teff and cassava starches. An increase in viscosity was observed for all starches with stearic acid and xanthan gum compared to the controls with cassava having the least increase. A further increase in viscosity was observed for the cereal starches with combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum. Stearic acid reduced retrogradation, resulting in soft textured pastes. Combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum reduced the formation of type IIb amylose-lipid complexes, syneresis, and hysteresis in cereal starches compared to stearic acid alone. A combination of stearic acid and xanthan gum produce higher viscosity non-gelling starches and xanthan gum addition increases physical stability to freezing and better structural recovery after shear. PMID:26572436

  7. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications

    PubMed Central

    Dionísio, Marita; Grenha, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua). This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed. PMID:22923958

  8. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH

    PubMed Central

    Karami Nogourani, Maryam; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Kowsari Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini Beheshti, Mozhgan

    2012-01-01

    Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women) healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1–3, and 3–6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (P < 0.001). The flow rate of all products reached peak in the 1st minute of stimulation, except spearmint-flavored gums which reached peak in the 6th minute. In the 1st minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest SFR. During 1–3 minutes, strawberry- and apple-flavored gums showed higher SFR, respectively. Only the spearmint- and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions. PMID:22505903

  9. Hepatoprotective triterpenes from the gum resin of Boswellia carterii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Gai; Ma, Qin-Ge; Tian, Jin; Ren, Jin; Wang, Ai-Guo; Ji, Teng-Fei; Yang, Jian-Bo; Su, Ya-Lun

    2016-03-01

    Ten tirucallane-type triterpenes named boscartene A-J and a nor-tetracyclic triterpene boscartene K, together with ten known compounds were isolated from the gum resin of Boswellia carterii Birdw. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. In vitro assay, some of these compounds (10 μM) showed moderate hepatoprotective activities against d-galactosamine-induced HL-7702 cell damage.

  10. Hepatoprotective triterpenes from the gum resin of Boswellia carterii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Gai; Ma, Qin-Ge; Tian, Jin; Ren, Jin; Wang, Ai-Guo; Ji, Teng-Fei; Yang, Jian-Bo; Su, Ya-Lun

    2016-03-01

    Ten tirucallane-type triterpenes named boscartene A-J and a nor-tetracyclic triterpene boscartene K, together with ten known compounds were isolated from the gum resin of Boswellia carterii Birdw. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. In vitro assay, some of these compounds (10 μM) showed moderate hepatoprotective activities against d-galactosamine-induced HL-7702 cell damage. PMID:26739386

  11. Adult sudden death caused by aspiration of chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Njau, S N

    2004-01-28

    A case of a fatal foreign material aspiration is presented in the following text. A 24-year-old white male died suddenly. A piece of chewing gum lodged in a pool of frothy fluid was revealed at autopsy. Microscopic examinations revealed atelectasia emphysema, eosinophilic exudate and empty spaces. Blood and urine samples were analyzed, for alcohol and drug use by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) on an Abbott AXSYM system. No alcohol or other drugs were detected in blood or urine. PMID:15040903

  12. Effect of salt on turbulent drag reduction of xanthan gum.

    PubMed

    Hong, Cheng Hai; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Zhang, Ke; Renou, Frederic; Grisel, Michel

    2015-05-01

    The turbulent flow of an aqueous KCl solution driven by a rotating disc in a closed chamber showed significant drag reduction (DR) when a small amount of xanthan gum (XG) was added. The effects of the experimental parameters (XG and KCl concentrations, and time) on the drag reduction efficiency were examined. While the DR efficiency of XG decreased with increasing salt (KCl) concentration, the time-dependent DR efficiency was found to be fitted well using Brostow model equation.

  13. Radiation induced degradation of xanthan gum in the solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şen, Murat; Hayrabolulu, Hande; Taşkın, Pınar; Torun, Murat; Demeter, Maria; Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Güven, Olgun

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the effect of ionizing radiation on xanthan gum was investigated. Xanthan samples were irradiated with gamma rays in air at ambient temperature in the solid state at different dose rates and doses. Change in their molecular weights was followed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Chain scission yield (G(S)), and degradation rate constants (k) were calculated. The calculated G(S) values are 0.0151±0.0015, 0.0144±0.0020, 0.0098±0.0010 μmol/J and k values are 1.4×10-8±1.4×10-9, 1.3×10-8±2.0×10-9, 8.7×10-9±1.0×10-9 Gy-1 for 0.1, 3.3 and 7.0 kGy/h dose rates, respectively. It was observed that the dose rate was an important factor controlling the G(S) and degradation rate of xanthan gum. Considering its use in food industry, the effect of irradiation on rheological properties of xanthan gum solutions was also investigated and flow model parameters were determined for all dose rates and doses. Rheological analysis showed that xanthan solution showed non-Newtonian shear thinning behaviour and ionizing radiation does not change the non-Newtonian and shear thinning flow behaviour of xanthan gum solutions in concentration ranges of this work. It was determined that, Power Law model well described the flow behaviour of unirradiated and irradiated xanthan solutions.

  14. Pressure-controlled injection of guar gum stabilized microscale zerovalent iron for groundwater remediation.

    PubMed

    Luna, M; Gastone, F; Tosco, T; Sethi, R; Velimirovic, M; Gemoets, J; Muyshondt, R; Sapion, H; Klaas, N; Bastiaens, L

    2015-10-01

    The paper reports a pilot injection test of microsized zerovalent iron (mZVI) dispersed in a guar gum shear thinning solution. The test was performed in the framework of the EU research project AQUAREHAB in a site in Belgium contaminated by chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). The field application was aimed to overcome those critical aspects which hinder mZVI field injection, mainly due to the colloidal instability of ZVI-based suspensions. The iron slurry properties (iron particles size and concentration, polymeric stabilizer type and concentration, slurry viscosity) were designed in the laboratory based on several tests (reactivity tests towards contaminants, sedimentation tests and rheological measurements). The particles were delivered into the aquifer through an injection well specifically designed for controlled-pressure delivery (approximately 10 bars). The well characteristics and the critical pressure of the aquifer (i.e. the injection pressure above which fracturing occurs) were assessed via two innovative injection step rate tests, one performed with water and the other one with guar gum. Based on laboratory and field preliminary tests, a flow regime at the threshold between permeation and preferential flow was selected for mZVI delivery, as a compromise between the desired homogeneous distribution of the mZVI around the injection point (ensured by permeation flow) and the fast and effective injection of the slurry (guaranteed by high discharge rates and injection pressure, resulting in the generation of preferential flow paths). A monitoring setup was designed and installed for the real-time monitoring of relevant parameters during injection, and for a fast determination of the spatial mZVI distribution after injection via non-invasive magnetic susceptibility measurements. PMID:25971233

  15. Pressure-controlled injection of guar gum stabilized microscale zerovalent iron for groundwater remediation.

    PubMed

    Luna, M; Gastone, F; Tosco, T; Sethi, R; Velimirovic, M; Gemoets, J; Muyshondt, R; Sapion, H; Klaas, N; Bastiaens, L

    2015-10-01

    The paper reports a pilot injection test of microsized zerovalent iron (mZVI) dispersed in a guar gum shear thinning solution. The test was performed in the framework of the EU research project AQUAREHAB in a site in Belgium contaminated by chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). The field application was aimed to overcome those critical aspects which hinder mZVI field injection, mainly due to the colloidal instability of ZVI-based suspensions. The iron slurry properties (iron particles size and concentration, polymeric stabilizer type and concentration, slurry viscosity) were designed in the laboratory based on several tests (reactivity tests towards contaminants, sedimentation tests and rheological measurements). The particles were delivered into the aquifer through an injection well specifically designed for controlled-pressure delivery (approximately 10 bars). The well characteristics and the critical pressure of the aquifer (i.e. the injection pressure above which fracturing occurs) were assessed via two innovative injection step rate tests, one performed with water and the other one with guar gum. Based on laboratory and field preliminary tests, a flow regime at the threshold between permeation and preferential flow was selected for mZVI delivery, as a compromise between the desired homogeneous distribution of the mZVI around the injection point (ensured by permeation flow) and the fast and effective injection of the slurry (guaranteed by high discharge rates and injection pressure, resulting in the generation of preferential flow paths). A monitoring setup was designed and installed for the real-time monitoring of relevant parameters during injection, and for a fast determination of the spatial mZVI distribution after injection via non-invasive magnetic susceptibility measurements.

  16. Low viscosity hydrogel of guar gum: preparation and physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Pablyana L R; Castro, Rondinelle R; Rocha, Francisco A C; de Paula, Regina C M; Feitosa, Judith P A

    2005-10-30

    Guar gum was cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and characterized by GPC, rheology, WADX, SEM and TGA. This guar gum is a galactomannan polysaccharide, that contains small amount of arabinose, glucose and uronic acid, besides galactose and mannose. The polymer has high molar mass, with Mw, Mn and Mv values of 2.0x10(6), 1.2x10(6) and 1.9x10(6)g/mol, respectively. The reticulation follows a slow process and lead to a viscosity increase of 40 times compared with the original gum solution. The final viscosity was similar to that of Hylan G-F 20, a hyaluronate derivative, commercially used in viscosupplementation treatment. The gel contains 95.6% of water and the amount of residual glutaraldehyde is much lower than the LD-50. Porous structure was detected by SEM and thermal stability was improved by the cross-linking. The low viscosity, the small amount of remained glutaraldehyde, and the thermal stability indicates that the guar hydrogel has potential to be applied as biomaterial with specific rheological requirements. PMID:16221491

  17. Synthesis and characterization of monodisperse copper nanoparticles using gum acacia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chunfa; Cai, Hao; Zhang, Xianglin; Cao, Chuanliang

    2014-03-01

    A simple method was put forward in this paper for preparing colloidal copper nanoparticles in aqueous solutions using copper sulfate, gum acacia and hydrazine hydrate as copper precursor, capping agents and reducing agents, respectively, without any inert gas. The formation of nanosized copper was confirmed by its characteristic surface plasmon absorption peak at 604 nm in UV-vis spectra. The transmission electron microscopic (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that the as-synthesized copper fine spherical particles are distributed uniformly with a narrow distribution from 3 nm to 9 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) demonstrated that the obtained metallic nanoparticles are single crystalline copper nanoparticles. Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopic data suggested that the copper nanoparticles are coated with gum acacia. The effects of the quantity of gum acacia on the particle size were investigated by the UV-vis spectra and TEM images. The growth process of the nanoparticles was monitored by the UV-vis spectra. The mechanism of the formation copper nanoparticles was discussed. The process raised in this study can be served as an excellent candidate for the preparation of copper nanoparticles in a large scale production.

  18. Fabrication of electrospun almond gum/PVA nanofibers as a thermostable delivery system for vanillin.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Atefe; Tavanai, Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the fabrication of vanillin incorporated almond gum/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers through electrospinning has been investigated. Electrospinning of only almond gum was proved impossible. It was found that the aqueous solution of almond gum/PVA (80:20, concentration=7% (w/w)) containing 3% (w/w) vanillin could have successfully electrospun to uniform nanofibers with diameters as low as 77nm. According to the thermal analysis, incorporated vanillin in almond gum/PVA nanofibers showed higher thermal stability than free vanillin, making this composite especially suitable for high temperature applications. XRD and FTIR analyses proved the presence of vanillin in the almond gum/PVA nanofibers. It was also found that vanillin was dispersed as big crystallites in the matrix of almond gum/PVA nanofibers. FTIR analysis showed almond gum and PVA had chemical cross-linking by etheric bonds between COH groups of almond gum and OH groups of PVA. Also, in the nanofibers, there were no major interaction between vanillin and either almond gum or PVA. PMID:27267574

  19. Locust bean gum: processing, properties and food applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak

    2014-05-01

    Locust bean gum or carob gum is a galactomannan obtained from seed endosperm of carob tree i.e. Ceratonia siliqua. It is widely utilized as an additive in various industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, oil well drilling and cosmetics. Industrial applications of locust bean gum are due to its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer due to its dietary fiber action. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of locust bean gum.

  20. Formulation of Eco-friendly Medicated Chewing Gum to Prevent Motion Sickness.

    PubMed

    Shete, Rahul B; Muniswamy, Vimalkumar J; Pandit, Ashlesha P; Khandelwal, Kishanchandra R

    2015-10-01

    An attempt was made to formulate medicated chewing gum to prevent motion sickness using natural gum base for faster onset of action and easy administration, anywhere and anytime, without access to water. To avoid the discard issue of gum cud, natural gum base of Triticum aestivum (wheat grain) was explored because of its biodegradable and biocompatible nature and easy availability. Prolamin, extracted from wheat, showed good chewing capacity, elasticity, high water retention capacity, antifungal activity, and compatibility with the drug. Formulations were prepared based on a two-factor and three-level factorial design. Amount of calcium carbonate (texturizer) and gum base were selected as independent variables. Elasticity and drug release were considered as the dependent variables. All batches were evaluated for the content uniformity, elasticity study, texture study, in vitro drug release study, and chewiness study. Results revealed that medicated chewing gum containing 80 mg of calcium carbonate and 500 mg of gum base showed good elasticity and more than 90% drug release within 16 min. Thus, this study suggested that both good elasticity and chew ability and abundant availability of wheat grain can act as a potential gum base for medicated chewing gum. PMID:25652732

  1. Fabrication of electrospun almond gum/PVA nanofibers as a thermostable delivery system for vanillin.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Atefe; Tavanai, Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the fabrication of vanillin incorporated almond gum/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers through electrospinning has been investigated. Electrospinning of only almond gum was proved impossible. It was found that the aqueous solution of almond gum/PVA (80:20, concentration=7% (w/w)) containing 3% (w/w) vanillin could have successfully electrospun to uniform nanofibers with diameters as low as 77nm. According to the thermal analysis, incorporated vanillin in almond gum/PVA nanofibers showed higher thermal stability than free vanillin, making this composite especially suitable for high temperature applications. XRD and FTIR analyses proved the presence of vanillin in the almond gum/PVA nanofibers. It was also found that vanillin was dispersed as big crystallites in the matrix of almond gum/PVA nanofibers. FTIR analysis showed almond gum and PVA had chemical cross-linking by etheric bonds between COH groups of almond gum and OH groups of PVA. Also, in the nanofibers, there were no major interaction between vanillin and either almond gum or PVA.

  2. Locust bean gum: processing, properties and food applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak

    2014-05-01

    Locust bean gum or carob gum is a galactomannan obtained from seed endosperm of carob tree i.e. Ceratonia siliqua. It is widely utilized as an additive in various industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, oil well drilling and cosmetics. Industrial applications of locust bean gum are due to its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer due to its dietary fiber action. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of locust bean gum. PMID:24548746

  3. Chewing-gum flavor affects measures of global complexity of multichannel EEG.

    PubMed

    Yagyu, T; Wackermann, J; Kinoshita, T; Hirota, T; Kochi, K; Kondakor, I; Koenig, T; Lehmann, D

    1997-01-01

    Global complexity of spontaneous brain electric activity was studied before and after chewing gum without flavor and with 2 different flavors. One-minute, 19-channel, eyes-closed electroencephalograms (EEG) were recorded from 20 healthy males before and after using 3 types of chewing gum: regular gum containing sugar and aromatic additives, gum containing 200 mg theanine (a constituent of Japanese green tea), and gum base (no sugar, no aromatic additives); each was chewed for 5 min in randomized sequence. Brain electric activity was assessed through Global Omega (Omega)-Complexity and Global Dimensional Complexity (GDC), quantitative measures of complexity of the trajectory of EEG map series in state space; their differences from pre-chewing data were compared across gum-chewing conditions. Friedman Anova (p < 0.043) showed that effects on Omega-Complexity differed significantly between conditions and differences were maximal between gum base and theanine gum. No differences were found using GDC. Global Omega-Complexity appears to be a sensitive measure for subtle, central effects of chewing gum with and without flavor.

  4. Self-healing guar gum and guar gum-multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite gels prepared in an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Mukesh, Chandrakant; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2013-10-15

    Guar gum is a galactomannan extracted from the seed of the leguminous shrub Cyamopsis tetragonoloba. It was found to form a soft viscoelastic gel in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, an ionic liquid at an optimized concentration of 10%w/v. A nanocomposite gel of the gum with enhanced strength could be prepared with 0.2%w/v of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the ionic liquid. When the gels thus prepared were subjected to surface fractures or bisected completely, they found to self-heal at room temperature without any external interventions. The self-healing process could be repeated several times. These viscoelastic gel systems showed thixotropic nature and recovery of the storage modulus with time for several cycles was observed upon rheological investigations. The interaction took place between ionic liquid, guar gum and MWCNT was studied by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, powder XRD and rheometry. The results suggested that, upon standing at room temperature development of electrostatic interactions and the van der Waals interactions among the ionic liquid molecules facilitated the formation of reversible noncovalent bonds and eventually activated the self-healing in the gel systems through appropriate chain entanglements.

  5. Physical and chemical stability of gum arabic-stabilized conjugated linoleic acid oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaolin; Xu, Qiong; Tian, Dazhi; Wang, Nana; Fang, Yapeng; Deng, Zhongyang; Phillips, Glyn O; Lu, Jiang

    2013-05-15

    Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions have been used as a delivery system to protect conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, from oxidation. Conventional gum arabic (GA) and two matured gum arabic samples (EM2 and EM10) were used as emulsifiers to prepare CLA-in-water emulsions. The emulsions have optimal physical and chemical stability at gum concentrations of 5% for all three gums. Emulsions with higher gum concentrations are more susceptible to lipid oxidation. This is attributed to reduced physical stability at higher gum concentrations because of the coalescence and depletion-induced flocculation of the emulsion droplets. The prooxidants iron and copper intrinsically contained in the gums could also contribute to this instability. Among the three gums, EM10 provides the most effective protection for CLA both physically and chemically, because of its superior interfacial properties over GA and EM2. PMID:23614832

  6. Physical and chemical stability of gum arabic-stabilized conjugated linoleic acid oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaolin; Xu, Qiong; Tian, Dazhi; Wang, Nana; Fang, Yapeng; Deng, Zhongyang; Phillips, Glyn O; Lu, Jiang

    2013-05-15

    Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions have been used as a delivery system to protect conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, from oxidation. Conventional gum arabic (GA) and two matured gum arabic samples (EM2 and EM10) were used as emulsifiers to prepare CLA-in-water emulsions. The emulsions have optimal physical and chemical stability at gum concentrations of 5% for all three gums. Emulsions with higher gum concentrations are more susceptible to lipid oxidation. This is attributed to reduced physical stability at higher gum concentrations because of the coalescence and depletion-induced flocculation of the emulsion droplets. The prooxidants iron and copper intrinsically contained in the gums could also contribute to this instability. Among the three gums, EM10 provides the most effective protection for CLA both physically and chemically, because of its superior interfacial properties over GA and EM2.

  7. Characterisation of natural polysaccharides (plant gums) used as binding media for artistic and historic works by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Grössl, Michael; Harrison, Sabine; Kaml, Isabella; Kenndler, Ernst

    2005-06-01

    The monosaccharide constituents of plant gums were separated by capillary electrophoresis at pH 12.1 and detected with indirect UV absorbance. The plant gums investigated were gum arabic, gum acacia, gum tragacanth, cherry gum and locust bean gum (carob gum). The monosaccharides obtained after hydrolysis with 2M trifluoroacetic acid and lyophilisation of the hydrolysate were arabinose, galactose, mannose, rhamnose, xylose, fucose, and glucose, and the two sugar acids galacturonic and glucuronic acid, in accordance with the literature. They were separated in a background electrolyte consisting of NaOH to adjust the pH, 20 mM 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid as chromophore for detection and 0.5 mM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as additive to reverse the electroosmotic flow. Based on their electropherograms, the plant gums could be identified by their typical composition (depicted in a decision scheme) as follows: a peak of glucuronic acid, together with that of rhamnose, is indicative for gum arabic. Peaks of galacturonic acid and fucose point to gum tragacanth. Locust bean gum shows a major peak for mannose (with the concomitant galactose peak in ratio 4-1), whereas a glucuronic acid and a mannose peak together with a prominent arabinose peak indicates cherry gum. The method was applied to identify the plant gums in samples like watercolours and in several paint layers like gum tempera or those with egg white or drying oils as additives. Artificial aging experiments of thin layers of gum arabic on paper or glass carried out with UV-A radiation (366 nm) did not result in changes of the saccharide patterns, in contrast to the simultaneously conducted aging of a drying oil layer.

  8. Potentials of gum from Detarium microcarpum (DM) and Mucuna flagellipes (MF) seeds as raw beef burger stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Onweluzo, J C; Obanu, Z A; Okwandu, M C

    2004-01-01

    Raw beef burgers containing graded levels (0.25, 0.5, 0.75. and 1.0%) of polysaccharide gums extracted from Detarium microcarpum (DM) and Mucuna flagellipes (MF) were produced. Unstabilized beef burgers and beef burgers containing gum tragacanth (TR) were also produced simultaneously to serve as control. The raw beef burgers were evaluated for selected physicochemical and sensory properties so as to assess the stabilization potentials of DM and MF polysaccharide gums relative to the conventional TR. Beef burgers containing the polysaccharide gums had significantly (P < 0.05) lower shrinkage, higher water holding capacity (WHC), and better stability under ambient conditions (27 +/- 1 degrees C and RH 90.6%) then the unstabilized burgers. Among the stabilized burgers, DM gum burgers had lower (P < or = 0.05) shrinkage and higher WHC than MF and TR gums burgers. All the gum-stabilized beef burgers required 9-26% higher compression force indicating a less friable product than the unstabilized burgers. At 0.25 and 0.5% levels of gum incorporation DM gum burgers had comparable compression force with TR gum burgers and this was lower (P < or = 0.05) than the compression force of MF gum burgers. Sensory panel results indicated a lower score for finger feel in gum-stablized burgers than the unstabilized burgers. DM and TR gum burgers had comparable scores with TR gum burgers in all the sensory attributes tested. Overall acceptability score showed that all the gum-stabilized beef burgers were acceptable. It was evident from the study that polysaccharide gums from DM and MF seeds can serve as effective stabilizers in beef burgers without adverse effect on the quality of the product.

  9. Ethanol-resistant ethylcellulose/guar gum coatings--importance of formulation parameters.

    PubMed

    Rosiaux, Y; Velghe, C; Muschert, S; Chokshi, R; Leclercq, B; Siepmann, F; Siepmann, J

    2013-11-01

    Recently, ethylcellulose/guar gum blends have been reported to provide ethanol-resistant drug release kinetics from coated dosage forms. This is because the ethanol insoluble guar gum effectively avoids undesired ethylcellulose dissolution in ethanol-rich bulk fluids. However, so far the importance of crucial formulation parameters, including the minimum amount of guar gum to be incorporated and the minimum required guar gum viscosity, remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the most important film coating properties, determining whether or not the resulting drug release kinetics is ethanol-resistant. Theophylline matrix cores were coated in a fluid bed with blends of the aqueous ethylcellulose dispersion "Aquacoat®ECD30" and guar gum. The polymer blend ratio, guar gum viscosity, and degree of dilution of the final coating dispersion were varied. Importantly, it was found that more than 5% guar gum (referred to the total polymer content) must be incorporated in the film coating and that the apparent viscosity of a 1% aqueous guar gum solution must be greater than 150 cP to provide ethanol-resistance. In contrast, the investigated degree of coating dispersion dilution was not found to be decisive for the ethanol sensitivity. Furthermore, all investigated formulations were long term stable, even upon open storage under stress conditions for 6 months.

  10. 40 CFR 454.20 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability; description of the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory. 454.20 Section 454.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) GUM AND WOOD...

  11. Physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of Prunus cerasoides D. Don gum exudates.

    PubMed

    Malsawmtluangi, C; Thanzami, K; Lalhlenmawia, H; Selvan, Veenus; Palanisamy, Selvamani; Kandasamy, Ruckmani; Pachuau, Lalduhsanga

    2014-08-01

    The physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of Prunus cerasoides D. Don gum exudates was investigated in this study. The total carbohydrate and protein content were found to be 73.72±2.44% and 2.33±1.25%, respectively. Analysis of monosaccharide composition by HPLC-RI system after acid hydrolysis of the gum showed the presence of arabinose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose and xylose. The molecular weight of the gum was also found to be 5.55×10(5)Da. FTIR and DSC studies showed characteristics typical of a natural polysaccharide. The viscosity of 2% aqueous solution of the gum exhibited non-Newtonian type of flow and the gum was also found to show pH dependent swelling. Determination of the angle of repose, Carr's index and Hausner ratio indicate the gum possess fairly good powder flow property. The antioxidant properties of the gum were evaluated by determining DPPH and hydroxyl scavenging activities, reducing power and total phenolic contents which showed the gum possess antioxidant property.

  12. Small scale production and characterization of xanthan gum synthesized by local isolates of Xanthomonas campestris.

    PubMed

    Barua, Rajesh; Alam, Md Jahangir; Salim, Mohammad; Ashrafee, Tamzida Shamim

    2016-02-01

    Xanthan gum is a commercially important microbial exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Xanthomonas campestris. X. campestris is a plant pathogen causing various plant diseases such as black rot of crucifers, bacterial leaf blight and citrus canker disease resulting in crop damage. In this study, we isolated efficient local bacterial isolates which are capable to produce xanthan gum utilizing different sources of carbon (maltose, sucrose and glucose). Bacterial isolates from different plant leaves and fruits were identified as Xanthomonas campestris based on their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Among the 23 isolates, 70% were capable of producing gum. Taro plant, considered as new bacterial host, also have the capability to produce xanthan gum. Production conditions of xanthan gum and their relative viscosity by these bacterial isolates were optimized using basal medium containing commercial carbon and nitrogen sources and various temperature and rotation. Highest level of xanthan gum (18.286 g/l) with relative viscosity (7.2) was produced (Host, Citrus macroptera) at 28 degrees C, pH 7.0, 150 rpm using sucrose as a carbon source at orbital shaker. Whereas, in lab fermenter, same conditions gave best result (19.587 g/l gum) with 7.8 relative viscosity. Chilled alcohol (96%) was used to recover the xanthan gum. FTIR studies also carried out for further confirmation of compatibility by detecting the chemical groups. PMID:26934783

  13. Adverse Reaction to Nicotine Gum in Malay Female Smoker: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorzurani, Md Haris Robson; Bond, Alyson; Wolff, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are prescribed in smoking cessation programmes to help smokers stop smoking. The ideal dosage of NRT should control cravings and withdrawal symptoms but avoid adverse reactions. This report describes a case of adverse reaction to nicotine gum in a female Malay smoker. Assays taken 2 h after the gum, showed that…

  14. 40 CFR 454.20 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the manufacture of gum rosin and turpentine subcategory. 454.20 Section 454.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GUM AND WOOD...

  15. Reduction of lipid oxidation by formation of caseinate-oil-oat gum emulsions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration of oat gum, though important for formation of stable emulsion, has no effect on oxidation of Omega 3 oil; this is most prominent in fish-oil based Omega 3 oil. The optimal concentration of oat gum is about 0.2% wt for emulsion stability and visual appearance. We found that concentr...

  16. Terminological aspects of the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, Charles

    2014-08-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) provided for the first time an international consensus on how to approach the widespread difficulties associated with conveying information about how reliable the value resulting from a measurement is thought to be. This paper examines the evolution in thinking and its impact on the terminology that accompanied the development of the GUM. Particular emphasis is put on the very clear distinction in the GUM between measurement uncertainty and measurement error, and on the reasons that even though ‘true value’ and ‘error’ are considered in the GUM to be ‘unknowable’ and, sometimes by implication, of little (or even no) use in measurement analysis, they remain as key concepts, especially when considering the objective of measurement. While probability theory in measurement analysis from a frequentist perspective was in widespread use prior to the publication of the GUM, a key underpinning principle of the GUM was to instead consider probability as a ‘degree of belief.’ The terminological changes necessary to make this transition are also covered. Even twenty years after the publication of the GUM, the scientific and metrology literatures sometimes contain uncertainty analyses, or discussions of measurement uncertainty, that are not terminologically consistent with the GUM, leading to the inability of readers to fully understand what has been done and what is intended in the associated measurements. This paper concludes with a discussion of the importance of using proper methodology and terminology for reporting measurement results.

  17. Rheological and Quality Characteristics of Taftoon Bread as Affected by Salep and Persian Gums

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, R.; Hamidi Esfehani, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of salep gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/w flour basis) and the Persian gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 3% (w/w flour basis) and combination of the two gums at concentrations of 0.5% + 0.5%, 0.75% + 0.25%, and 0.25% + 0.75% on rheological properties of the wheat flour dough and quality of Taftoon bread were studied with regard to retardation of staling. Rheological (farinograph and extensograph) characteristics, staling, and organoleptic evaluations were performed on the dough and the resulting Taftoon bread. Statistical results showed that the salep gum at 5% and Persian gum at 3% (w/w flour basis) had a significant effect on the dough properties. Salep and Persian gums when each separately added increased and decreased dough water absorption, respectively. Both hydrocolloids increased the dough resistance to extension and decreased its extensibility. Persian gum shows dual nature in water absorption and some other baking properties. Textural studies revealed that addition of 5% salep gum (w/w flour basis) reduced the bread crumb firmness and delayed the staling process of the Taftoon bread. X-ray diffraction study also confirmed this result. PMID:26904649

  18. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric characterisation of plant gums in samples from painted works of art.

    PubMed

    Bonaduce, Ilaria; Brecoulaki, Hariclia; Colombini, Maria Perla; Lluveras, Anna; Restivo, Vincenzo; Ribechini, Erika

    2007-12-21

    This paper presents an analytical GC-MS procedure to study the chemical composition of plant gums, determining aldoses and uronic acids in one step. The procedure is based on the silylation of aldoses and uronic acids, released from plant gums by microwave assisted hydrolysis, and previously converted into the corresponding diethyl-dithioacetals and diethyl-dithioacetal lactones. Using this method only one peak for each compound is obtained, thus providing simple and highly reproducible chromatograms. The analytical procedure was optimised using reference samples of raw plant gums (arabic, karaya, ghatti, guar, locust bean and tragacanth, cherry, plum and peach gums), commercial watercolours and paint layers prepared according to ancient recipes at the Opificio delle Pietre Dure of Florence (Italy). To identify gum media in samples of unknown composition, a decisional schema for the gum identification and the principal component analysis of the relative sugar percentage contents were employed. The procedure was used to study samples collected from wall paintings from Macedonian tombs (4th-3rd centuries bc) and from the Mycenaean "Palace of Nestor" (13th century bc) in Pylos, Greece. The presence of carbohydrates was ascertained and plant gum binders (fruit and a mixture of tragacanth and fruit tree gums) were identified in some of the samples. PMID:18023451

  19. Recent advances in Rosaceae gum exudates: From synthesis to food and non-food applications.

    PubMed

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Ellouz Ghorbel, Raoudha; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, great interest has been devoted to the development of new applications for natural gums. These molecules were used for a variety of purposes since they are chemically inert, non-toxic, less expensive, biodegradable and widely available. They represent one of the most abundant raw materials used not only in commercial food products, but also in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Plant gums take their advantages compared to other gums (e.g., from animal and microbial sources) mainly because of their acceptance by consumers. Despite of the well description given in literature for the features of plant gum exudates, there is a lack distinguishing the different families that are producing gums, and their potential applications. Among these gums, the ones produced by Rosaceae family (e.g., almond, apricot, cherry, peach, and plum plants) have been taking special attention. Thus, the aim of this review is to report the recent advances in Rosaceae gum exudates. An emphasis is given for the formation mechanisms of these gums, their chemical composition, functional properties and structures, beneficial properties, as well as their food/non-food applications. PMID:26836615

  20. Characterisation and molecular association of Nigerian and Sudanese Acacia gum exudates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical and physicochemical characteristics of gum exudate samples harvested from mature trees of Acacia senegal at two specific locations in Nigeria have been investigated together with gum samples harvested from Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal originating from Sudan. The monosaccharide sugar ...

  1. The effect of chewing gum flavor on the negative affect associated with tobacco abstinence among dependent cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lee M; Collins, Frank L; Vanderveen, Joseph W; Weaver, Cameron C

    2010-11-01

    Many smokers relapse during cessation attempts due to increases in negative affect. Previous research has shown that chewing confectionary chewing gum appears to lessen the severity of acute nicotine withdrawal symptoms and help individuals who are trying to reduce smoking in part due to the flavor of the gum chewed. The current study compared the effects of three flavored gums to a No Gum Control during 48-hour cessation periods for young dependent smokers. Forty-nine smokers participated in three experimental conditions (peppermint, vanilla, and baked apple cardamom flavored gum) as well as a No Gum Control across four weeks while abstaining from smoking for 48-hours each week. Compared to the No Gum Control, participants in the Gum conditions reported lower levels of anxiety, dysphoria, and tension. Vanilla and baked apple cardamom flavored gum resulted in lower levels of negative affect while peppermint flavored gum was not different from the No Gum Control. These findings indicate that some flavors of gum are effective in reducing the negative affect associated with nicotine withdrawal and may serve as a valuable tool in helping smokers quit. PMID:20598808

  2. Psychological and Pharmacological Influences in Cigarette Smoking Withdrawal: Effects of Nicotine Gum and Expectancy on Smoking Withdrawal Symptoms and Relapse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Andrew M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined effects of expectancy and nicotine depletion on withdrawal symptoms by giving 109 smokers nicotine gum or placebo. Subjects who believed they had nicotine gum reported fewer physical symptoms of withdrawal, showed less arousal, and smoked fewer cigarettes than did those who thought they had placebo. Actual nicotine content of gum had no…

  3. Interaction of calcium sulfate with xanthan gum: effect on in vitro bioadhesion and drug release behavior from xanthan gum based buccal discs of buspirone.

    PubMed

    Jaipal, A; Pandey, M M; Abhishek, A; Vinay, S; Charde, S Y

    2013-11-01

    Bioadhesive polymers in buccal drug delivery systems play an important role in delivery of therapeutic drug molecules for local and systemic action. Xanthan gum, a GRAS listed natural polymer was used to design buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride by direct compression method. Effect of calcium sulfate on bioadhesive and drug release behavior of xanthan gum buccal discs was studied. Varying amount of calcium sulfate (0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%, w/w) in combination with xanthan gum was used to prepare buccal bioadhesive discs. Increase in calcium sulfate concentration resulted in faster drug release and decreased the bioadhesive strength of the designed discs. Further, in rheological evaluation it was observed that viscosity of xanthan gum gel reduces with increasing concentration of calcium sulfate. Compatibility of drug with various excipients was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. PMID:23907052

  4. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Sarika, P R; Cinthya, Kuriakose; Jayakrishnan, A; Anilkumar, P R; James, Nirmala Rachel

    2014-10-01

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. PMID:25175214

  5. [Analysis of constituents of ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives].

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Masuda, Aino; Sugimoto, Naoki; Yamagata, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2007-12-01

    The differences in the constituents of ten ester-type gum bases used as natural food additives in Japan (urushi wax, carnauba wax, candelilla wax, rice bran wax, shellac wax, jojoba wax, bees wax, Japan wax, montan wax, and lanolin) were investigated. Several kinds of gum bases showed characteristic TLC patterns of lipids. In addition, compositions of fatty acid and alcohol moieties of esters in the gum bases were analyzed by GC/MS after methanolysis and hydrolysis, respectively. The results indicated that the varieties of fatty acids and alcohols and their compositions were characteristic for each gum base. These results will be useful for identification and discrimination of the ester-type gum bases. PMID:18203503

  6. Immunogenicity of foods and food additives--in vivo testing of gums arabic, karaya and tragacanth.

    PubMed

    Strobel, S; Ferguson, A; Anderson, D M

    1982-12-01

    An inexpensive animal model is described, for investigation of the immunogenicity of substances such as food additives. Inbred mice were immunised with antigen emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant, and specific cell-mediated immunity subsequently measured by a footpad swelling test. This method has been applied in an investigation of the immunogenicity of the exudate gums, gum arabic, gum karaya and gum tragacanth. These substances are capable of eliciting an immune response which is comparable to the specific immune responses elicited by a protein antigen, e.g. hens' egg ovalbumin. Purification of commercially available gum preparations led to a significant (P less than 0.005) reduction of the immune response under in vivo test conditions.

  7. Cigarette smoking and chewing gum: response to a laboratory-induced stressor.

    PubMed

    Britt, D M; Cohen, L M; Collins, F L; Cohen, M L

    2001-09-01

    The current study examined the anxiolytic effects of cigarette smoking and chewing gum on urge to smoke, withdrawal, and anxiety in response to a public speaking task in 45 undergraduate smokers. Participants were asked to smoke, chew gum, or do nothing in response to the stressor. Participants completed measures of anxiety, withdrawal symptoms, and urge to smoke pre- and poststressor. The smoke group reported fewer urges to smoke pre- and poststressor than the other groups. The smoke and gum groups reported fewer withdrawal symptoms than did the control group poststressor. Chewing gum was helpful in managing levels of withdrawal symptoms compared with the control group. Groups did not differ on measures of anxiety. Results suggest that smoking in response to a stressor may not reduce levels of affective stress. Furthermore, chewing gum may be helpful in managing withdrawal symptoms in response to a stressor. PMID:11570650

  8. [Gum-like exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) as culture media for fungi].

    PubMed

    Mesa, L M; León-Pinto, G

    1993-01-01

    Morphological studies of eight species of fungus: Aspergillus flavus Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Curvularia lunata, Cladosporium carrionii, Natrassia mangífera (Edo. Scytalidium), Sporotrix schenckii y Rhizophus oligosporus, which belong to families Mucedinaceae, Dematiaceae and Mucoraceae have been carried out in support medium based in gum exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (mangle blanco). This native polimer contains galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, uronic acid and proteins. Nitrogen calcium and magnesium are microconstituents of the gum. An economical substrate which contained gum exudate (4%) and agar (1.5%) was used in these studies. The results obtained showed that gum exudate-agar medium (EGA) permits an adequate identification of the studied species, therefore, it is a possible substitute for Sabouraud. It is important to know that the gum exudate is a natural product, economical and easy to obtain.

  9. Composition and physicochemical properties of Zedo gum exudates from Amygdalus scoparia.

    PubMed

    Fadavi, Ghasem; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Zargarran, Azizollaah; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad; Komeili, Rozita

    2014-01-30

    Composition and physicochemical properties of three types of Zedo gum exudates from Amygdalus scoparia were investigated. Monosaccharide analysis by GC-MS indicated the occurrence of arabinose and galactose as the main sugars. FTIR spectra showed no differences in functional groups among the samples. Steady shear rheological data and power law parameters revealed that the white gum (W) was the most shear sensitive type and had the highest value of consistency coefficient. The mechanical spectra derived from the strain and frequency sweep measurements indicated a liquid viscoelastic behavior for Zedo gum dispersions. GPC-MALLS revealed that the white sample had the highest apparent average molecular weight (4.74 × 10(6)Da) and the lowest dispersity (1.045). TG-DTA analysis showed that the character of gum decomposition significantly depended on the gum type and the white sample had the highest thermal stability. PMID:24299876

  10. Pressure production in oral vestibule during gum chewing.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, M; Ono, T; Yoshinaka, M; Fujiwara, S; Yoshinaka, M; Maeda, Y

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to record oral vestibule pressure (OVP) by the lip and cheek contraction during gum chewing, to examine the characteristics of these pressures and coordination between the OVP and jaw movement. The subjects were eight healthy adult men (mean age of 29·3 ± 3·3 years). An experimental plate that incorporated four pressure sensors on the midline of the upper jaw (Ch. 1), upper right canine (Ch. 2), upper right first molar (Ch. 3) and upper left first molar (Ch. 4) was used for measuring OVP. The right masseter electromyogram (EMG) was recorded simultaneously. Subjects chewed gum on the right side 20 times, and eight consecutive strokes were used for the analysis of the sequential order, maximal magnitude and duration of each OVP. Onset of OVP was observed at the molar on the non-chewing side (Ch. 4) before chewing side (Ch. 3), and offset was largely simultaneous at each site. On the chewing side (Chs. 1-3), OVP onset during the interval of EMG activity reached to the peak around the end of interval and offset in the duration of EMG activity. The maximal pressure was significantly larger at Chs. 1-3 than at Ch. 4, but no significant differences were observed in duration of pressure among each site. These results suggest that OVP is coordinated with jaw movement during gum chewing, and larger pressure is produced on the chewing side than on the non-chewing side. Our findings are quantitative indices for the evaluation of lip and cheek function during mastication.

  11. Enterocutaneous Fistula: Different Surgical Intervention Techniques for Closure along with Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Paint, Karaya Gum (Hollister) and Gum Acacia for Peristomal Skin Care

    PubMed Central

    Namrata; Ahmad, Shabi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastrointestinal fistulas are serious complications and are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. In majority of the patients, fistulas are treatable. However, the treatment is very complex and often multiple therapies are required. These highly beneficial treatment options which could shorten fistula closure time also result in considerable hospital cost savings. Aim This study was planned to study aetiology, clinical presentation, morbidity and mortality of enterocutaneous fistula and to evaluate the different surgical intervention techniques for closure of enterocutaneous fistula along with a comparative evaluation of different techniques for management of peristomal skin with special emphasis on aluminum paint, Karaya gum (Hollister) and Gum Acacia. Materials and Methods This prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Surgery, M.L.N. Medical College, Allahabad and its associated hospital (S.R.N. Hospital, Allahabad) for a period of five years. Results Majority of enterocutaneous fistula were of small bowel and medium output fistulas (500-1000 ml/24hours). Most of the patients were treated with conservative treatment as compared to surgical intervention. Large bowel fistula has maximum spontaneous closure rate compare to small bowel and duodenum. Number of orifice whether single or multiple does not appear to play statistically significant role in spontaneous closure of fistula. Serum Albumin is a significantly important predictor of spontaneous fistula closure and mortality. Surgical management appeared to be the treatment of choice in distal bowel fistula. The application of karaya gum (Hollister kit), Gum Acacia and Aluminum Paint gave similar outcome. Conclusion Postoperative fistulas are the most common aetiology of enterocutaneous fistula and various factors do play role in management. Peristomal skin care done with Karaya Gum, Gum Acacia and Aluminum Paint has almost equal efficiency in management of skin

  12. Guar gum solutions for improved delivery of iron particles in porous media (Part 1): Porous medium rheology and guar gum-induced clogging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastone, Francesca; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-10-01

    The present work is the first part of a comprehensive study on the use of guar gum to improve delivery of microscale zero-valent iron particles in contaminated aquifers. Guar gum solutions exhibit peculiar shear thinning properties, with high viscosity in static conditions and lower viscosity in dynamic conditions: this is beneficial both for the storage of MZVI dispersions, and also for the injection in porous media. In the present paper, the processes associated with guar gum injection in porous media are studied performing single-step and multi-step filtration tests in sand-packed columns. The experimental results of single-step tests performed by injecting guar gum solutions prepared at several concentrations and applying different dissolution procedures evidenced that the presence of residual undissolved polymeric particles in the guar gum solution may have a relevant negative impact on the permeability of the porous medium, resulting in evident clogging. The most effective preparation procedure which minimizes the presence of residual particles is dissolution in warm water (60 °C) followed by centrifugation (procedure T60C). The multi-step tests (i.e. injection of guar gum at constant concentration with a step increase of flow velocity), performed at three polymer concentrations (1.5, 3 and 4 g/l) provided information on the rheological properties of guar gum solutions when flowing through a porous medium at variable discharge rates, which mimic the injection in radial geometry. An experimental protocol was defined for the rheological characterization of the fluids in porous media, and empirical relationships were derived for the quantification of rheological properties and clogging with variable injection rate. These relationships will be implemented in the second companion paper (Part II) in a radial transport model for the simulation of large-scale injection of MZVI-guar gum slurries.

  13. Guar gum solutions for improved delivery of iron particles in porous media (part 1): porous medium rheology and guar gum-induced clogging.

    PubMed

    Gastone, Francesca; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-10-01

    The present work is the first part of a comprehensive study on the use of guar gum to improve delivery of microscale zero-valent iron particles in contaminated aquifers. Guar gum solutions exhibit peculiar shear thinning properties, with high viscosity in static conditions and lower viscosity in dynamic conditions: this is beneficial both for the storage of MZVI dispersions, and also for the injection in porous media. In the present paper, the processes associated with guar gum injection in porous media are studied performing single-step and multi-step filtration tests in sand-packed columns. The experimental results of single-step tests performed by injecting guar gum solutions prepared at several concentrations and applying different dissolution procedures evidenced that the presence of residual undissolved polymeric particles in the guar gum solution may have a relevant negative impact on the permeability of the porous medium, resulting in evident clogging. The most effective preparation procedure which minimizes the presence of residual particles is dissolution in warm water (60°C) followed by centrifugation (procedure T60C). The multi-step tests (i.e. injection of guar gum at constant concentration with a step increase of flow velocity), performed at three polymer concentrations (1.5, 3 and 4g/l) provided information on the rheological properties of guar gum solutions when flowing through a porous medium at variable discharge rates, which mimic the injection in radial geometry. An experimental protocol was defined for the rheological characterization of the fluids in porous media, and empirical relationships were derived for the quantification of rheological properties and clogging with variable injection rate. These relationships will be implemented in the second companion paper (Part II) in a radial transport model for the simulation of large-scale injection of MZVI-guar gum slurries. PMID:25065767

  14. Guar gum solutions for improved delivery of iron particles in porous media (part 1): porous medium rheology and guar gum-induced clogging.

    PubMed

    Gastone, Francesca; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-10-01

    The present work is the first part of a comprehensive study on the use of guar gum to improve delivery of microscale zero-valent iron particles in contaminated aquifers. Guar gum solutions exhibit peculiar shear thinning properties, with high viscosity in static conditions and lower viscosity in dynamic conditions: this is beneficial both for the storage of MZVI dispersions, and also for the injection in porous media. In the present paper, the processes associated with guar gum injection in porous media are studied performing single-step and multi-step filtration tests in sand-packed columns. The experimental results of single-step tests performed by injecting guar gum solutions prepared at several concentrations and applying different dissolution procedures evidenced that the presence of residual undissolved polymeric particles in the guar gum solution may have a relevant negative impact on the permeability of the porous medium, resulting in evident clogging. The most effective preparation procedure which minimizes the presence of residual particles is dissolution in warm water (60°C) followed by centrifugation (procedure T60C). The multi-step tests (i.e. injection of guar gum at constant concentration with a step increase of flow velocity), performed at three polymer concentrations (1.5, 3 and 4g/l) provided information on the rheological properties of guar gum solutions when flowing through a porous medium at variable discharge rates, which mimic the injection in radial geometry. An experimental protocol was defined for the rheological characterization of the fluids in porous media, and empirical relationships were derived for the quantification of rheological properties and clogging with variable injection rate. These relationships will be implemented in the second companion paper (Part II) in a radial transport model for the simulation of large-scale injection of MZVI-guar gum slurries.

  15. Assessment of ferula Gummosa gum as a binding agent in tablet formulations.

    PubMed

    Enauyatifard, Reza; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Fadakar, Yousef

    2012-01-01

    Ferula gummosa Boiss. (Apiaceae) is one of the natural plants of Iran. The whole plant, but especially the root, contains the gum resin "galbanum". A study of the comparative effects of galbanum gum and two standard binding agents--polyvinylpyrolidone and acacia--on characteristics of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts was made. The Ferula gummosa gum was extracted and its swelling index was determined. Acetaminophen and calcium carbonate granules were prepared using the wet granulation method and were evaluated for their micromeritics and flow properties, while the compacts were evaluated for mechanical properties using the hardness, tensile strength and friability. The drug release from acetaminophen compacts were assessed using dissolution studies. The dry powder of Ferula gummosa gum resin (galbanum) yielded 14% w/w of gum using distilled water as extraction solvent. The swelling index indicates that galbanum gum swelled to about 190% of initial volume in distilled water. Thus galbanum gum has the ability to hydrate and swells in cold water. The bulk and tapped densities and the interspace porosity (void porosity) percent of the granules prepared with different binders showed significant difference. The hardness and tensile strength of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts containing various binders was of the rank order PVP > acacia > galbanum gum (p < 0.05) and the friability percent was of the reverse order (p < 0.05). The ranking for the dissolution rate of tablets containing the different binders was PVP> galbanum gum > acacia. The results of mechanical properties of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts indicate that galbanum gum could be useful to produce tablets with desired mechanical characteristics for specific purposes, and could be used as an alternative substitute binder in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:22568044

  16. Reversible gels for electrophoresis and isolation of DNA.

    PubMed

    Cole, K D

    1999-04-01

    Here, the application of the gel-forming carbohydrate polymer, gellan gum, for the electrophoresis and isolation of DNA is detailed. Gellan gun forms gels in the presence of divalent metal cations, and the gels can be converted back to a solution by the addition of a chelating agent such as EDTA. Also, gellan electrophoresis gels can be formed using diamines. These gels are reversible by increasing the pH, which results in the deprotonation of the diamine. Gellan electrophoresis gels were used for separations at concentrations as low as 0.03%. Native gellan electrophoresis gels have significant electroosmosis and were generally run overnight. A gellan electrophoresis gel (0.1%) showed good resolution of DNA from approximately 50-1 kbp. The addition of linear polymers, such as hydroxethyl cellulose, to the gellan gum before casting greatly reduced the electroosmosis. The additional polymer increased the resolution of low-molecular-weight DNA down to approximately 200 bp and allowed gels to be run in a few hours. DNA isolated from gellan electrophoresis gels could be cut by common restriction enzymes and ligated in the presence of the gellan gum. The presence of gellan gum did not significantly inhibit the transformation of competent E. coli cells by plasmid DNA.

  17. Antinociceptive activity of Astragalus gummifer gum (gum tragacanth) through the adrenergic system: A in vivo study in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Keyhani, Leila; Heydari, Mehrangiz; Dashti-R, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Iranian traditional medicine, gum obtained from Astragalus gummifer and some other species of Astragalus was used as analgesic agent. Objective: In this study, we investigated the antinociceptive effect of several concentrations (125, 250, and 500 μg/kg body weight) of Astragalus gummifer gum (AGG) on thermal and acetic acid induced pain in mice. Materials and Methods: AGG was dissolved in distillated water and injected i.p to male mice 15 minute before the onset of experiment. Writhing and hot-plate tests were applied to study the analgesic effect of AGG and compared with that of diclofenac sodium (30 mg/kg, i.p.) or morphine (8 mg/kg, i.p). To investigate the mechanisms involved in antinociception, yohimbine, naloxone, glibenclamide, and theophylline were used in writhing test. These drugs were injected intraperitoneally 15 min before the administration of AGG. The number of writhes were counted in 30 minutes and analyzed. Results: AGG exhibited a significant antinociceptive effect and the most effective dose of AGG was 500 μg/kg. The most maximum possible effect (%MPE) was observed (117.4%) 15 min after drug administration. The %inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhing in AGG 125, 250 and 500 was 47%, 50% and 54% vs %15 of control and 66.3% of diclofenac sodium group. The antinociceptive effect induced by this gum in the writhing test was reversed by the systemic administration of yohimbine (α2-adrenergic antagonist), but naloxone, glibenclamide, and theophylline did not reverse this effect. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicated that AGG induced its antinociceptive through the adrenergic system. PMID:25878459

  18. The effect of chewing gum's flavor on salivary flow rate and pH

    PubMed Central

    Karami-Nogourani, Maryam; Kowsari-Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini-Beheshti, Mozhgan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Chewing sugar-free gums is a convenient way to increase salivary flow. Salivary flow increases in response to both gustatory (taste) and mechanical (chewing) stimuli, and chewing gum can provide both of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of five different flavors of sugar-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH. Materials and Methods: Fifteen dental students volunteered at the same time on six consecutive days, to collect one minute unstimulated saliva. After five minutes, while some volunteers continued to collect only unstimulated saliva, the others asked to start chewing one of the five flavored gums randomly. The flavors were spearmint, cinnamon, watermelon, strawberry, and apple. The whole saliva was collected over time periods of 0 – 1, 1 – 3, and 3 – 6 minutes, and the SFR and pH were also measured. The data were subjected to pair t-test, repeated-measures analysis of variance, and Duncan tests. Results: Compared to the unstimulated rate, all five different flavored gums significantly increased the SFR within six minutes. Although the flow rate peaked during the first minute of stimulation with all five products, it reduced gradually, but still remained above the unstimulated saliva, after six minutes. In the first minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest weight, yet, it only induced a significantly higher SFR compared to the cinnamon-flavored gums. During one to three minutes, strawberry and apple-flavored gums showed significantly higher SFR, respectively, compared to cinnamon-flavored gums. There were no significant differences in the flow rates elicited by each flavored gum through the three-to-six minute interval, although the spearmint-flavored gums induced slightly higher SFR. Only the spearmint and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased the salivary pH. Conclusion: Gum flavor can affect the SFR and special flavors may be advised for different individuals according to

  19. Synthesis and characterization of guar gum templated hybrid nano silica.

    PubMed

    Singh, V; Singh, S K; Pandey, S; Sanghi, R

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the present study was the fabrication of green adsorbent hybrids for which native guar gum was used as template to polymerize tetraethoxysilane. The properties and performances of the hybrids could be tailored by using varying molecular sizes of the partially depolymerized guar gum templates of various molecular sizes as control. Zn(II) uptake from aqueous solution was used as a criterion for evaluating the adsorbent efficiency. The optimum material (H4) in terms of maximum Zn(II) uptake, was obtained when the template size used was 375 kDa at a calcination temperature of 700°C. H4 was also evaluated for Ca(II), Mg(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) adsorption. To explore the other applicability areas, the hybrids have been extensively characterized using FTIR, XRD, TGA-DTA, PL, SEM, TEM and BET analyses. H4 was found to be as efficient as previously reported vinyl modified-silica nanohybrids. It had a high surface area (264 m(2)/g) with silica nanoparticles in the size range of 90-140 nm. Being thermally very stable and photoluminescent, the material can be potentially used for many biological, medical and environmental applications.

  20. Gum containing calcium fluoride reinforces enamel subsurface lesions in situ.

    PubMed

    Kitasako, Y; Sadr, A; Hamba, H; Ikeda, M; Tagami, J

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chewing gum containing phosphoryl oligosaccharides of calcium (POs-Ca) and a low concentration of fluoride (F) on the hardness of enamel subsurface lesions, utilizing a double-blind, randomized, and controlled in situ model. Fifteen individuals wore removable lingual appliances with 3 bovine-enamel insets containing subsurface demineralized lesions. Three times a day for 14 days, they chewed one of the 3 chewing gums (placebo, POs-Ca, POs-Ca+F). After the treatment period, cross-sectional mineral content, nanoindentation hardness, and fluoride ion mapping by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) were evaluated. Although there were no statistical differences in overall mineral content and hardness recovery rates between POs-Ca and POs-Ca+F subsurface lesions (p > 0.05), nanoindentation at 1-μm distance increments from the surface showed statistical differences in hardness recovery rate between POs-Ca and POs-Ca+F in the superficial 20-μm region (p < 0.05). Fluoride mapping revealed distribution of the ion up to 20 μm from the surface in the POs-Ca+F group. Nanoindentation and TOF-SIMS results highlighted the benefits of bioavailability of fluoride ion on reinforcement of the superficial zone of subsurface lesions in situ (NCT01377493).

  1. Structure of the arabinogalactan from gum tragacanth (Astralagus gummifer).

    PubMed

    Tischer, Cesar A; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J

    2002-10-01

    The polysaccharide obtained by ethanol precipitation from an aqueous solution of gum tragacanth contained arabinogalactan and tragacanthic acid, as well as starch ( approximately 0.6%). GC-MS, NMR, and ESI-MS analyses showed the structure of the arabinogalactan to be even more complex than previously determined, with core structures containing Arap, beta-Araf, and alpha-Galp units, as well as known terminal, and 2-O- and 3-O-substituted alpha-Araf units. Analysis was aided by examination of free, reducing oligosaccharides present in the gum. In addition to maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, and maltopentaose, the following were characterized: mixed alpha-Araf (1-->2)-alpha-Araf-(1-->4)-Ara and alpha-Araf-(1-->2)-alpha-Araf-(1-->5)-Ara, which correspond to the side chains of the arabinogalactan, beta-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-Galp-(1-->4)-Gal; and a mixture of beta-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-Galp-(1-->4)-Gal and beta-Glcp-(1-->4)-beta-Galp-(1-->4)-beta-Galp-(1-->4)-Gal, which did not resemble side-chain structures of the arabinogalactan. The latter are suggested to be related to tragacanthic acid, which has been previously found to contain beta-Galp nonreducing end-units.

  2. Electrospun fibers based on Arabic, karaya and kondagogu gums.

    PubMed

    Padil, Vinod Vellora Thekkae; Senan, Chandra; Wacławek, Stanisław; Černík, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    Nanofibers of natural tree polysaccharides based on three gums namely Arabic (GA), karaya (GK) and kondagogu (KG) have been prepared for the first time using electrospinning. Electrospinning solutions were prepared by mixing gum solutions of GA, GK & KG with eco-friendly polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polyethylene oxide (PEO). The present study focuses on the effect of electrospinning blended solutions of GA, GK or KG with PVA or PEO, additives which influence system parameters and process parameters. This has important effects on the electrospinning process and the resulting fibers whose morphology and physicochemical properties were evaluated. The mass ratios of 70:30 to 90:10 for PVA: GA, PVA: GK and PVA: KG were observed to establish an optimum blend solution ratio in order to fabricate uniform beadless nanofibers with an average diameter of 240±50, 220±40 and 210±30nm, respectively. Various structural and physicochemical properties of the electrospun fibers were investigated. Furthermore, the comparisons of various functionalities of the untreated and plasma treated electrospun fibers were assessed. The methane plasma treated nanofibers were shown to be of extremely specific surface area, improved water contact angle, high surface porosity and roughness and superior hydrophobic properties compared to untreated fibers. PMID:27212218

  3. New structural features of Acacia tortuosa gum exudate.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Maritza; Beltrán, Olga; Rincón, Fernando; León de Pinto, Gladys; Igartuburu, José Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Acacia tortuosa produces a clear gum, very soluble in water. Previous reports showed that it was constituted by four fractions, one of them an arabinogalactan-protein complex. The elucidation of the A. tortuosa gum structure by the combination of classical chemical methods, size exclusion chromatography and NMR spectroscopy, was the objective of this investigation. The data obtained show that the heteropolysaccharide is an arabinogalactan type II, highly ramified, with lateral chains at C-2 as well as at C-6 of the galactose 3-O residues; mono-O-substituted galactoses were not detected. There are residues of mannose, the arabinose, pyranose predominantly, is terminal and 2-O-linked. The abundance of the 4-O-methyl-α-d-glucuronic acid was not previously reported. The proteic fraction is probably represented by an arabinogalactan-protein complex that binds poorly with β-glucosyl Yariv reagent, and two glycoproteins. The NMR spectra suggest that the carbohydrate links to hydroxyproline through the galactose (galactosylation).

  4. Guar gum based biodegradable, antibacterial and electrically conductive hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Kaith, Balbir S; Sharma, Reena; Kalia, Susheel

    2015-04-01

    Guar gum-polyacrylic acid-polyaniline based biodegradable electrically conductive interpenetrating network (IPN) structures were prepared through a two-step aqueous polymerization. Hexamine and ammonium persulfate (APS) were used as a cross linker-initiator system to crosslink the poly(AA) chains on Guar gum (Ggum) backbone. Optimum reaction conditions for maximum percentage swelling (7470.23%) were time (min) = 60; vacuum (mmHg) = 450; pH = 7.0; solvent (mL) = 27.5; [APS] (mol L(-1)) = 0.306 × 10(-1); [AA] (mol L(-1)) = 0.291 × 10(-3) and [hexamine] (mol L(-1))=0.356 × 10(-1). The semi-interpenetrating networks (semi-IPNs) were converted into IPNs through impregnation of polyaniline chains under acidic and neutral conditions. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to characterize the semi-IPNs and IPNs. Synthesized semi-IPNs and IPNs were further evaluated for moisture retention in different soils, antibacterial and biodegradation behavior. PMID:25660656

  5. Mechanically modified xanthan gum: Rheology and polydispersity aspects.

    PubMed

    Eren, Necla Mine; Santos, Paulo H S; Campanella, Osvaldo

    2015-12-10

    Xanthan gum solutions were treated with high-pressure homogenization (HPH) in order to provide alternative treatments to enzymatic and chemical modification of this carbohydrate. Rheological properties of the treated and control samples were investigated in detail to gain an understanding of functional consequences of physical modification. The molecular structural properties were investigated via Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with Multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and Circular dichroism (CD). Structured network of xanthan gum solutions was lost gradually depending on the severity of the HPH treatment as evidenced by the observed changes in the viscosity and viscoelasticity of the treated solutions. Reduction in molecular weight and a significant increase in polydispersity of the polymer were the expected causes of these rheological changes. Observed increase in hydrodynamic volume upon HPH treatment was not surprising and attributed to the loss of structured networks. Changes in the rheological and structural characteristics of biopolymer were irreversible and significant recovery was not detected over a period of 11 weeks. PMID:26428149

  6. Electrospun fibers based on Arabic, karaya and kondagogu gums.

    PubMed

    Padil, Vinod Vellora Thekkae; Senan, Chandra; Wacławek, Stanisław; Černík, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    Nanofibers of natural tree polysaccharides based on three gums namely Arabic (GA), karaya (GK) and kondagogu (KG) have been prepared for the first time using electrospinning. Electrospinning solutions were prepared by mixing gum solutions of GA, GK & KG with eco-friendly polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polyethylene oxide (PEO). The present study focuses on the effect of electrospinning blended solutions of GA, GK or KG with PVA or PEO, additives which influence system parameters and process parameters. This has important effects on the electrospinning process and the resulting fibers whose morphology and physicochemical properties were evaluated. The mass ratios of 70:30 to 90:10 for PVA: GA, PVA: GK and PVA: KG were observed to establish an optimum blend solution ratio in order to fabricate uniform beadless nanofibers with an average diameter of 240±50, 220±40 and 210±30nm, respectively. Various structural and physicochemical properties of the electrospun fibers were investigated. Furthermore, the comparisons of various functionalities of the untreated and plasma treated electrospun fibers were assessed. The methane plasma treated nanofibers were shown to be of extremely specific surface area, improved water contact angle, high surface porosity and roughness and superior hydrophobic properties compared to untreated fibers.

  7. The effect of xylitol and chlorhexidine acetate/xylitol chewing gums on plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation.

    PubMed

    Simons, D; Beighton, D; Kidd, E A; Collier, F I

    1999-06-01

    Chewing gums may be suitable vehicles for the delivery of xylitol (X) and chlorhexidine acetate (CHX), both of which can aid oral health. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical effectiveness of chewing gums containing X or a combination of X and CHX in a double-blind, randomised, cross over, 5-day clinical trial, with a 9-day washout period in a group of participants over 40 years old. After professional tooth cleaning, 8 subjects (mean age 51.3+/-10.4 years) used in a random order 2 pieces of ACHX (a liquorice flavoured CHX/X) gum, 2 pieces of BCHX (a chocolate mint flavoured CHX/X), 2 pieces of X (a liquorice flavoured X gum) and 1 piece of ACHX. Gums were chewed 2x daily for 15 min and volunteers refrained from all other oral hygiene procedures. Data were analysed using Friedman nonparametric analysis of variance. Plaque indices for chewing 2 pieces of ACHX gum (0.78+/-0.15) and BCHX gum (0.52+/-0.15) were significantly lower (p<0.0006) than for X gum (1.57+/-0.08). The gingival index was significantly greater (p<0.05) for X containing gum than for the other chewing regimes. The subjects' attitudes to the gums were also assessed by structured questionnaires which showed that all gums were easy to chew, did not adhere to dentures, teeth or restorations and that the subjects preferred to chew 2 pellets rather than 1. PMID:10382579

  8. Rheological Behavior of Xanthan Gum Solution Related to Shear Thinning Fluid Delivery for Subsurface Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Szecsody, James E.

    2013-01-15

    Xanthan gum, a biopolymer, forms shear thinning fluids which can be used as delivery media to improve the distribution of remedial amendments injected into heterogeneous subsurface environments. The rheological behavior of the shear thinning solution needs to be known to develop an appropriate design for field injection. In this study, the rheological properties of xanthan gum solutions were obtained under various chemical and environmental conditions relevant to delivery of remedial amendments to groundwater. Higher xanthan concentration raised the absolute solution viscosity and increased the degree of shear thinning. Addition of remedial amendments (e.g., phosphate, sodium lactate, ethyl lactate) caused the dynamic viscosity of xanthan gum to decrease, but the solutions maintained shear-thinning properties. Use of simple salt (e.g. Na+, Ca2+) to increase the solution ionic strength also decreased the dynamic viscosity of xanthan and the degree of shear thinning, although the effect is a function of xanthan gum concentration and diminished as the xanthan gum concentration was increased. At high xanthan concentration, addition of salt to the solution increased dynamic viscosity. In the absence of sediments, xanthan gum solutions maintain their viscosity properties for months. However, xanthan gum solutions were shown to lose dynamic viscosity over a period of days to weeks when contacted with saturated site sediment. Loss of viscosity is attributed to physical and biodegradation processes.

  9. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum.

    PubMed

    Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi; Ciau-Solís, Norma; Rosado-Rubio, Gabriel; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG) and gum partly defatted (PDCG). Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P < 0.05). The PDCG had higher protein, ash, and carbohydrates content than the FCG, in addition to higher water-holding (110.5 g water/g fiber) and water-binding capacities (0.84 g water/g fiber). The FCG had greater oil-holding capacity (25.7 g oil/g fiber) and water absorption capacity (44 g water/g fiber). In dispersion trials, the gums exhibited a non-Newtonian fluid behavior, specifically shear thinning or pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry.

  10. Chewing gum: cognitive performance, mood, well-being, and associated physiology.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew P; Smith, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance. PMID:26075253

  11. Effects of prolonged gum chewing on pain and fatigue in human jaw muscles.

    PubMed

    Farella, M; Bakke, M; Michelotti, A; Martina, R

    2001-04-01

    Gum chewing has been accepted as an adjunct to oral hygiene, as salivary stimulant and vehicle for various agents, as well as for jaw muscle training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged gum chewing on pain, fatigue and pressure tenderness of the masticatory muscles. Fifteen women without temporomandibular disorders (TMD) were requested to perform one of the following chewing tasks in three separate sessions: chewing a very hard gum, chewing a soft gum, and empty-chewing with no bolus. Unilateral chewing of gum or empty chewing was performed for 40 min at a constant rate of 80 cycles/min. In each session, perceived muscle pain and masticatory fatigue were rated on visual analog scales (VAS) before, throughout, and after the chewing task. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) of masseter and anterior temporalis muscles were assessed before and immediately after the chewing tasks, and again after 24 h. The VAS scores for pain and fatigue significantly increased only during the hard gum chewing, and after 10 min of recovery VAS scores had decreased again, almost to their baseline values. No significant changes were found for PPTs either after hard or soft gum chewing. The findings indicate that the jaw muscles recover quickly from prolonged chewing activity in subjects without TMD.

  12. Formulation development and evaluation of metformin chewing gum with bitter taste masking

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Sayed Abolfazl; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Arabian, Saber

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medicated gums are intended to be chewed and act either locally, absorbed via the buccal mucosa or swallowed with saliva. We prepared the metformin gum to overcome its side effects including vomiting, diarrhea, and abdomen discomfort. Furthermore, it could be useful for those who have swallowing problems. Materials and Methods: Metformin hydrochloride (250 mg) with suitable sweeteners was mixed manually for 5 min. This mixture was spray dried, freeze dried, or directly mixed with chewing gum base. Glycerin, xylitol, and menthol were added and the produced paste was kept in the freezer for 2 h to be stable. As the metformin shows bitter taste, we tried to mask this unpleasant taste with using different methods explained. The releasing pattern was evaluated by using a mechanical chewing machine. The best formulation with the optimized releasing pattern, suitable physicochemical properties and pleasant taste were selected. Content uniformity, releasing percent, and other physicochemical properties were identified as well. Taste, flavor, and appearance characteristics were evaluated by using a self-made questionnaire based on the hedonic test method. Results: The chewing gum dosage content was about 86.2%. The release rate of metformin chewing gum was about 70% after 5 min of mastication. Masking the bitter taste of drug was achieved by using acesulfame-isomalt as sweeteners and prepared it by freeze drying equipment. Conclusion: Metfornin chewing gum had suitable appearance and appropriate invitro characteristics that fallow the pharmacopeia suggestions. This chewable gum showed bitterness suppression with a suitable release rate. PMID:24800181

  13. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew P.; Smith, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance. PMID:26075253

  14. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi; Ciau-Solís, Norma; Rosado-Rubio, Gabriel; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG) and gum partly defatted (PDCG). Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P < 0.05). The PDCG had higher protein, ash, and carbohydrates content than the FCG, in addition to higher water-holding (110.5 g water/g fiber) and water-binding capacities (0.84 g water/g fiber). The FCG had greater oil-holding capacity (25.7 g oil/g fiber) and water absorption capacity (44 g water/g fiber). In dispersion trials, the gums exhibited a non-Newtonian fluid behavior, specifically shear thinning or pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry. PMID:26904622

  15. Effects of chewing gum on short-term appetite regulation in moderately restrained eaters.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Marion M; Regan, Martin F

    2011-10-01

    Orosensory stimulation is an important contributing factor to the development of satiation. Providing orosensory stimulation with few calories may satisfy appetite and help to suppress cravings for high energy snacks. This may be a useful strategy for those motivated to lose or maintain weight. The present study tested the hypothesis that chewing sweetened gum will reduce subjective appetite and subsequent snack intake in moderately restrained eaters. Within-subjects, repeated measures study, sixty healthy participants (53 women; body mass index, in kg/m(2): 26.2±4.5) came to the laboratory 4 times for a standard lunch. Immediately after this meal, participants rated hunger, appetite and cravings for sweet and salty snacks every hour until they returned to the laboratory 3 h later for snack. On two occasions during this 3 h period participants chewed gum for at least 15 min at hourly intervals (45 min) and on two occasions no gum was chewed. On two occasions salty snacks were offered and on two occasions sweet snacks were provided. A small but significant reduction in snack intake was observed, chewing gum reduced weight of snack consumed by 10% compared to no gum (p<0.05). Overall, chewing gum for at least 45 min significantly suppressed rated hunger, appetite and cravings for snacks and promoted fullness (p<0.05). This study demonstrated some benefit of chewing gum which could be of utility to those seeking an aid to appetite control. PMID:21718732

  16. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum.

    PubMed

    Segura-Campos, Maira Rubi; Ciau-Solís, Norma; Rosado-Rubio, Gabriel; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2014-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG) and gum partly defatted (PDCG). Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (P < 0.05). The PDCG had higher protein, ash, and carbohydrates content than the FCG, in addition to higher water-holding (110.5 g water/g fiber) and water-binding capacities (0.84 g water/g fiber). The FCG had greater oil-holding capacity (25.7 g oil/g fiber) and water absorption capacity (44 g water/g fiber). In dispersion trials, the gums exhibited a non-Newtonian fluid behavior, specifically shear thinning or pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry. PMID:26904622

  17. Advances in identification of plant gums in cultural heritage by thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation.

    PubMed

    Riedo, Chiara; Scalarone, Dominique; Chiantore, Oscar

    2010-02-01

    Plant gums are present in works of art as binding media for watercolours and adhesives for cellulosic substrates. Thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM) in combination with analytical pyrolysis coupled to GC/MS has been applied to the characterisation of plant gums typically used in artworks. THM products from standard samples of arabic gum, tragacanth gum and cherry gum were characterised. The main products identified are permethylated and partially methylated aldonic acids, characteristic of specific epimeric sugars. Aldonic acids were formed by alkaline hydrolysis of free reducing sugars and of reducing polysaccharide terminal groups, while methylation occurs during pyrolysis. The presence of these characteristic markers allows gum identification. A systematic analysis of all the parameters that can affect the marker yields was performed. In particular, the influence of pyrolysis temperature, reagent concentration and contact time between tetramethylammonium hydroxide and sample were studied, and different kinds of sample preparation procedures were tested. Some analyses on real watercolours were performed, and gum binders were classified using the peak area ratio of the main monosaccharide markers.

  18. The contrasting physiological and subjective effects of chewing gum on social stress.

    PubMed

    Gray, Gemma; Miles, Christopher; Wilson, Nigel; Jenks, Rebecca; Cox, Martin; Johnson, Andrew J

    2012-04-01

    Uncertainty exists with respect to the extent to which chewing gum may attenuate stress-induced rises in cortisol secretion (Johnson, Jenks, Miles, Albert, & Cox, 2011; Scholey et al., 2009; Smith, 2010). The present study used the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST: Kirschbaum, Pirke, & Hellhammer, 1993), a task known to elevate cortisol secretion (Kudielka, Schommer, Hellhammer, & Kirschbaum, 2004), in order to examine the moderating physiological and subjective effects of chewing gum on social stress. Forty participants completed the TSST either with or without chewing gum. As expected, completion of the TSST elevated both cortisol and subjective stress levels, whilst impairing mood. Although gum moderated the perception of stress, cortisol concentrations were higher following the chewing of gum. The findings are consistent with Smith (2010) who argued that elevations in cortisol following the chewing of gum reflect heightened arousal. The findings suggest that chewing gum only benefits subjective measures of stress. The mechanism remains unclear; however, this may reflect increased cerebral blood flow, cognitive distraction, and/or effects secondary to task facilitation. PMID:22123610

  19. Purification of cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: Physicochemical characterization and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Ale, Marcel Tutor

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different purification methods (ethanol, isopropanol and ethanol-isopropanol) on the physicochemical and functional characteristics of cress seed gum. Sugar composition and molecular weight of the samples varied significantly. All the purification methods reduced ash and protein content and molecular weight of cress seed gum. The main decomposition of the purified samples started above 200°C and initial decomposition temperature of the crude gum was 190.21°C. DSC thermograms of the purified gums showed two exothermic events at 257.81-261.95°C and 302.46-311.57°C. Crude gum displayed an exothermic peak at 259.42°C. Sample I (purified using isopropanol) imparted the best surface activity among the purified samples as it had the highest protein and uronic acid contents and the lowest Mw. All the purification methods could improve emulsifying properties of cress seed gum and there was no significant difference among the purified samples. Crude gum showed the lowest foaming properties, while samples I and E (purified using ethanol) showed the highest foaming capacity and foam stability, respectively.

  20. Guar gum coupled microscale ZVI for in situ treatment of CAHs: continuous-flow column study.

    PubMed

    Velimirovic, Milica; Simons, Queenie; Bastiaens, Leen

    2014-01-30

    A column study was performed under in situ conditions to evaluate to which extend the inactivation of the microscale zerovalent iron (mZVI) by guar gum occurs under continuous flow conditions. Five aquifer containing columns were set up under different conditions. Efficient removal of trichloroethene was observed for the column amended by mZVI. Stabilization of the mZVI with guar gum led to slightly reduced activity. More reduced reactivity was observed in the poisoned column containing guar gum stabilized mZVI. This confirms that soil microorganisms can degrade guar gum and that subsequent removal of the oligosaccharides by the groundwater flow (flushing effect) can reactivate the mZVI. After more than six months of continuous operation the columns were dismantled. DNA-based qPCR analysis revealed that mZVI does not significantly affect the bacterial community, while guar gum stabilized mZVI particles can even induce bacterial growth. Overall, this study suggests that the temporarily decreased mZVI reactivity due to guar gum, has a rather limited impact on the performance of in situ reactive zones. The presence of guar gum slightly reduced the reactivity of iron, but also slowed down the iron corrosion rate which prolongs the life time of reactive zone.

  1. Ex vivo skin permeation and retention studies on chitosan-ibuprofen-gellan ternary nanogel prepared by in situ ionic gelation technique--a tool for controlled transdermal delivery of ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Abioye, Amos Olusegun; Issah, Sureya; Kola-Mustapha, Adeola Tawakalitu

    2015-07-25

    The chemical potentials of drug-polymer electrostatic interaction have been utilized to develop a novel ternary chitosan-ibuprofen-gellan nanogel as controlled transdermal delivery tool for ibuprofen. The ternary nanogels were prepared by a combination of electrostatic nanoassembly and ionic gelation techniques. The electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions as well as hydrogen bonding between ibuprofen and chitosan were confirmed with FTIR, while DSC, TGA and SEM confirmed the physical state, thermal and morphological characteristics, respectively. The ex vivo delivery of ibuprofen onto and across the skin was evaluated based on system specific drug release parameters such as steady state permeation rate, permeability coefficient, permeability enhancement ratio, skin/gel partition coefficient, diffusion coefficient, lag time and release rate constant and mechanisms of release were determined using mathematical models. Interaction between ibuprofen and chitosan produced new spherical eutectic nanoconjugates with remarkable decrease in particle size of ibuprofen from 4580 (length-to-breadth aspect ratio) to a minimum of 14.15 nm (324-times), and thermally stable amorphous characteristics. The nanogels exhibited significant elastic and pseudoplastic characteristics dictated by the concentration of chitosan with maximum swelling capacity of 775% w/w at 6.55 mM chitosan compared with 281.16 and 506.50% for plain gellan and control ibuprofen hydrogel, respectively. Chitosan enhanced the skin penetration, permeability and the rate of transdermal release of ibuprofen by a factor of 4, dictated by the extent of ibuprofen-chitosan ionic interaction and its concentration. The major mechanism of ibuprofen release through the pig skin was drug diffusion however drug partition and matrix erosion also occurred. It was evident that ternary nanogels are novel formulations with potential application in controlled transdermal delivery of ibuprofen.

  2. Rheology of dispersions of xanthan gum, locust bean gum and mixed biopolymer gel with silicon dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Jordan R M; Kent, Katherine E; Brown, Jennifer R

    2015-03-01

    Mixed xanthan gum (XG) and locust bean gum (LBG) biopolymers form thermally reversible gels of interest in tissue engineering and drug delivery. 1% solutions of XG, LBG and 1:1 ratio XG/LBG mixed gels (LX) containing silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles were rheologically characterized with respect to nanoparticle concentration and temperature. 10% nanoparticles in XG created larger domains of associated polymer, resulting in enhanced viscosity and viscoelastic moduli. In LBG with 10% particles, transient viscosity and a gel-sol transition occurred due to particle bridging and aggregation. In the LX gel, 10% SiO2 particles caused an increase in elasticity. When ramping temperature from 25°C to 85°C, the complex modulus for all solutions containing 10% SiO2 was relatively constant, indicating that nanoparticles counteracted the effect of temperature on the material properties. Understanding the influence of nanoparticle loading on material properties is necessary for biopolymer material development where property prediction and control are critical.

  3. Native and structurally modified gum arabic: exploring the effect of the gum's microstructure in obtaining electroactive nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cornelsen, Patricia A; Quintanilha, Ronaldo C; Vidotti, Marcio; Gorin, Philip A J; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Riegel-Vidotti, Izabel C

    2015-03-30

    Electroactive nanoparticles combining gum arabic (GA) and polyaniline (PANI) were prepared by chemical synthesis. The gum consists of highly branched anionic polysaccharides with some protein content. GA was structurally modified by Smith controlled degradation, in order to reduce its degree of branching (GAD), aiming the elucidation of the relationship between the structure and the properties of complex polysaccharides. The modification was studied by SEC, GC-MS, (13)C NMR and colorimetric methods. GAD has lower molecular mass, lower degree of branching and lower uronic acid content. Besides it is enriched in galactose and protein when compared with GA. The obtained composites (GA-PANI and GAD-PANI) were thoroughly characterized. Although the use of both polysaccharides (GA and GAD) produced highly stable electroactive nanoparticles, the best combination of properties was achieved for GA-PANI. The sample GAD was not able to prevent the occurrence of crosslinking between PANI chains, possibly due to its lower microstructural complexity which diminishes the occurrence of hydrogen bonds between the polymers. PMID:25563942

  4. Rheology of dispersions of xanthan gum, locust bean gum and mixed biopolymer gel with silicon dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Jordan R M; Kent, Katherine E; Brown, Jennifer R

    2015-03-01

    Mixed xanthan gum (XG) and locust bean gum (LBG) biopolymers form thermally reversible gels of interest in tissue engineering and drug delivery. 1% solutions of XG, LBG and 1:1 ratio XG/LBG mixed gels (LX) containing silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles were rheologically characterized with respect to nanoparticle concentration and temperature. 10% nanoparticles in XG created larger domains of associated polymer, resulting in enhanced viscosity and viscoelastic moduli. In LBG with 10% particles, transient viscosity and a gel-sol transition occurred due to particle bridging and aggregation. In the LX gel, 10% SiO2 particles caused an increase in elasticity. When ramping temperature from 25°C to 85°C, the complex modulus for all solutions containing 10% SiO2 was relatively constant, indicating that nanoparticles counteracted the effect of temperature on the material properties. Understanding the influence of nanoparticle loading on material properties is necessary for biopolymer material development where property prediction and control are critical. PMID:25579932

  5. Freeze-dried Xanthan/Guar Gum Nasal Inserts for the Delivery of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Mohamed Hassan; Girase, Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged residence of drug formulation in the nasal cavity is important for the enhancing intranasal drug delivery. The objective of the present study was to develop a mucoadhesive in-situ gelling nasal insert which would enable the reduced nasal mucociliary clearance in order to improve the bioavailability of metoclopramide hydrochloride. Metoclopramide hydrochloride is a potent antiemetic and effective for preventing emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy, migraine, pregnancy and gastroparesis. It undergoes hepatic first pass metabolism and both the absolute bioavailability and the plasma concentrations are subjected to wide inter-individual variation showing values between 32% and 98%. Oral antiemetic often gets vomited out before the systemic absorption compelling parenteral administration which results in low patient compliance. Adverse effect of metoclopramide HCL on CNS caused by high plasma peaks can be avoided through sustained formulation. A novel combination of xanthan gum and guar gum was used to prepare the nasal inserts and the effect of blend ratio of xanthan gum and guar gum on drug release from in-situ gelling nasal inserts and on other insert properties such as bioadhesion potential and water uptake was studied. PXRD was used to determine the effect of freeze-drying on crystalline nature of formulation. The viscosities of xanthan gum in combination with guar gum were observed to be higher than that of single polymer solutions. This is because of the synergistic rheological interaction between xanthan and guar gum. There is a substantial loss in crystalline nature of the formulation after freeze-drying. The best nasal inserts formulation containing xanthan gum and guar gum ratio 1:5, showed good release (91.83%) as well as bioadhesion which may result in an increase in the nasal residence time. PMID:24250474

  6. Binding of the substrate UDP-glucuronic acid induces conformational changes in the xanthan gum glucuronosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Salinas, S R; Petruk, A A; Brukman, N G; Bianco, M I; Jacobs, M; Marti, M A; Ielpi, L

    2016-06-01

    GumK is a membrane-associated glucuronosyltransferase of Xanthomonas campestris that is involved in xanthan gum biosynthesis. GumK belongs to the inverting GT-B superfamily and catalyzes the transfer of a glucuronic acid (GlcA) residue from uridine diphosphate (UDP)-GlcA (UDP-GlcA) to a lipid-PP-trisaccharide embedded in the membrane of the bacteria. The structure of GumK was previously described in its apo- and UDP-bound forms, with no significant conformational differences being observed. Here, we study the behavior of GumK toward its donor substrate UDP-GlcA. Turbidity measurements revealed that the interaction of GumK with UDP-GlcA produces aggregation of protein molecules under specific conditions. Moreover, limited proteolysis assays demonstrated protection of enzymatic digestion when UDP-GlcA is present, and this protection is promoted by substrate binding. Circular dichroism spectroscopy also revealed changes in the GumK tertiary structure after UDP-GlcA addition. According to the obtained emission fluorescence results, we suggest the possibility of exposure of hydrophobic residues upon UDP-GlcA binding. We present in silico-built models of GumK complexed with UDP-GlcA as well as its analogs UDP-glucose and UDP-galacturonic acid. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we also show that a relative movement between the domains appears to be specific and to be triggered by UDP-GlcA. The results presented here strongly suggest that GumK undergoes a conformational change upon donor substrate binding, likely bringing the two Rossmann fold domains closer together and triggering a change in the N-terminal domain, with consequent generation of the acceptor substrate binding site. PMID:27099353

  7. Freeze-dried Xanthan/Guar Gum Nasal Inserts for the Delivery of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Dehghan, Mohamed Hassan; Girase, Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged residence of drug formulation in the nasal cavity is important for the enhancing intranasal drug delivery. The objective of the present study was to develop a mucoadhesive in-situ gelling nasal insert which would enable the reduced nasal mucociliary clearance in order to improve the bioavailability of metoclopramide hydrochloride. Metoclopramide hydrochloride is a potent antiemetic and effective for preventing emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy, migraine, pregnancy and gastroparesis. It undergoes hepatic first pass metabolism and both the absolute bioavailability and the plasma concentrations are subjected to wide inter-individual variation showing values between 32% and 98%. Oral antiemetic often gets vomited out before the systemic absorption compelling parenteral administration which results in low patient compliance. Adverse effect of metoclopramide HCL on CNS caused by high plasma peaks can be avoided through sustained formulation. A novel combination of xanthan gum and guar gum was used to prepare the nasal inserts and the effect of blend ratio of xanthan gum and guar gum on drug release from in-situ gelling nasal inserts and on other insert properties such as bioadhesion potential and water uptake was studied. PXRD was used to determine the effect of freeze-drying on crystalline nature of formulation. The viscosities of xanthan gum in combination with guar gum were observed to be higher than that of single polymer solutions. This is because of the synergistic rheological interaction between xanthan and guar gum. There is a substantial loss in crystalline nature of the formulation after freeze-drying. The best nasal inserts formulation containing xanthan gum and guar gum ratio 1:5, showed good release (91.83%) as well as bioadhesion which may result in an increase in the nasal residence time. PMID:24250474

  8. Xanthan gum: an economical substitute for agar in plant tissue culture media.

    PubMed

    Jain, R; Babbar, S B

    2006-03-01

    Xanthan gum, a microbial desiccation-resistant polysaccharide prepared commercially by aerobic submerged fermentation from Xanthomonas campestris, has been successfully used as a solidifying agent for plant tissue culture media. Its suitability as a substitute to agar was demonstrated for in vitro seed germination, caulogenesis and rhizogenesis of Albizzia lebbeck, androgenesis in anther cultures of Datura innoxia, and somatic embryogenesis in callus cultures of Calliandra tweedii. Culture media used for eliciting these morphogenic responses were gelled with either 1% xanthan gum or 0.9% agar. Xanthan gum, like agar, supported all these responses.

  9. The amino acid composition of the proteinaceous component of gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.).

    PubMed

    Anderson, D M; Howlett, J F; McNab, C G

    1985-01-01

    Six Iranian and seven Turkish samples of commercial gum tragacanth, and a sample of Turkish 'gum traganton', have been studied. Their nitrogen content varied from 0.17 to 0.58%. Their amino acid compositions are characterized by the presence of very large but variable proportions of hydroxyproline and substantial proportions of serine, proline and valine. The data presented may be useful for extending the current specifications for identity and purity, at present based solely on polysaccharide parameters, for gum tragacanth (E413).

  10. [Cytological study of gum epithelium in connection with diabetes mellitus compensation stage].

    PubMed

    Ashurov, G G; Dzhuraeva, Sh F

    2009-01-01

    The structure of interphased nuclei of gum's epithelium and inflammation of periodontal structure in patients with glycolitic disorders in coonection of degree compensation of diabetes mellitus were studied. In patients with diabetes mellitus and inflammation of gum mucosa 67,33+/-0,05% of gum's cells epithelium had morphology changes nuclei from the date of control group (50,99+/-0,05%) patients. This difference were more essential at deterioration of compensation (62,03+/-0,08%), sub - (67,05+/-0,05%), decompensate (75,11+/-0,07%) diabetes mellitus. PMID:19491782

  11. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Gum from Flaxseed Hulls

    PubMed Central

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J.; Roohinejad, Shahin; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2016-01-01

    Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2.5 mg·mL−1), strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (% inhibition ABTS = 75.6% ± 2.6% at 40 mg·mL−1), high reducing power capacity (RPSFG = 5 mg·mL−1), and potent β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity (IC50 SFG = 10 mg·mL−1). All of the obtained results demonstrate the promising potential use of SFG in numerous industrial applications, and a way to valorize flaxseed hulls. PMID:27490574

  12. An outflow linked to a YSO in Gum 31?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazzano, M. M.; Cappa, C. E.; Bosch, G.; Vásquez, J.

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the distribution of the molecular gas associated with 10349-5824, a young stellar object located on the edge of the H ii region Gum31, with the aim of investigating the existence of bipolar outflows. We use CO(2-1) line observations obtained with the APEX telescope, H line observations on the K band taken with Flamingos 2 in Gemini South and additional data from at 4.5, 8 and 24 m. J103648.97-584010.7 (1), classified as class II, coincides with extended emission in 4.5 m, suggesting the presence of bipolar flows, and with H emission at 2.12 m. Three extended sources detected in H at 0.5 and 1.5 of 1 could also suggest the presence of shocked gas. Additional evidence of bipolar outflows comes from CO(2-1) spectra.

  13. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Gum from Flaxseed Hulls.

    PubMed

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J; Roohinejad, Shahin; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2016-01-01

    Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2.5 mg·mL(-1)), strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (% inhibition ABTS = 75.6% ± 2.6% at 40 mg·mL(-1)), high reducing power capacity (RPSFG = 5 mg·mL(-1)), and potent β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity (IC50 SFG = 10 mg·mL(-1)). All of the obtained results demonstrate the promising potential use of SFG in numerous industrial applications, and a way to valorize flaxseed hulls. PMID:27490574

  14. Nonionic gelation agents prepared from hydroxypropyl guar gum.

    PubMed

    Kono, Hiroyuki; Hara, Hideyuki; Hashimoto, Hisaho; Shimizu, Yuuichi

    2015-03-01

    Nonionic gels were prepared from hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG) with different molar substitution degrees by crosslinking with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE). FTIR and solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealed that the crosslinking degree of HPG gels increased with the amount of EGDE used during the reaction; this result was also confirmed by the water mobility in the swollen gels. Rheological characterization revealed behaviors typical of true gels, and their viscoelastic behaviors strongly depended on the crosslinking degree. The HPG gels absorbed buffers, aqueous saline, and water, and the absorption was not affected by the ionic strength or pH of the solution. In addition, HPG gels with high crosslinking degrees and molar substitution degrees exhibited gelation ability toward protic organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol. These HPG gels may find application as gelation agents for many industrial uses. PMID:25498682

  15. Chewing gum in the preoperative fasting period: an analysis of de-identified incidents reported to webAIRS.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, S; Goulding, G; Gibbs, N M; Taraporewalla, K; Culwick, M

    2016-03-01

    The role of preoperative fasting is well established in current anaesthetic practice with different guidelines for clear fluids and food. However, chewing gum may not be categorised as either food or drink by some patients, and may not always be specified in instructions given to patients about preoperative fasting. The aim of this paper was to review anaesthesia incidents involving gum chewing reported to webAIRS to obtain information on the risks, if any, of gum chewing during the preoperative fasting period. There were nine incidents involving chewing gum reported between late 2009 and early 2015. There were no adverse outcomes from the nine incidents other than postponement of surgery in three cases and cancellation in one. In particular, there were no reports of aspiration or airway obstruction. Nevertheless, there were five cases in which the gum was not detected preoperatively and was found in the patient's mouth either intraoperatively or postoperatively. These cases of undetected gum occurred despite patient and staff compliance with their current preoperative checklists. While the risk of increased gastric secretions related to chewing gum preoperatively are not known, the potential for airway obstruction if the gum is not detected and removed preoperatively is very real. We recommend that patients should be specifically advised to avoid gum chewing once fasting from clear fluids is commenced, and that a specific question regarding the presence of chewing gum should be added to all preoperative checklists.

  16. Chewing gum in the preoperative fasting period: an analysis of de-identified incidents reported to webAIRS.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, S; Goulding, G; Gibbs, N M; Taraporewalla, K; Culwick, M

    2016-03-01

    The role of preoperative fasting is well established in current anaesthetic practice with different guidelines for clear fluids and food. However, chewing gum may not be categorised as either food or drink by some patients, and may not always be specified in instructions given to patients about preoperative fasting. The aim of this paper was to review anaesthesia incidents involving gum chewing reported to webAIRS to obtain information on the risks, if any, of gum chewing during the preoperative fasting period. There were nine incidents involving chewing gum reported between late 2009 and early 2015. There were no adverse outcomes from the nine incidents other than postponement of surgery in three cases and cancellation in one. In particular, there were no reports of aspiration or airway obstruction. Nevertheless, there were five cases in which the gum was not detected preoperatively and was found in the patient's mouth either intraoperatively or postoperatively. These cases of undetected gum occurred despite patient and staff compliance with their current preoperative checklists. While the risk of increased gastric secretions related to chewing gum preoperatively are not known, the potential for airway obstruction if the gum is not detected and removed preoperatively is very real. We recommend that patients should be specifically advised to avoid gum chewing once fasting from clear fluids is commenced, and that a specific question regarding the presence of chewing gum should be added to all preoperative checklists. PMID:27029662

  17. Immunogenicity, immunological cross reactivity and non-specific irritant properties of the exudate gums, arabic, karaya and tragacanth.

    PubMed

    Strobel, S; Ferguson, A; Anderson, D M

    1986-01-01

    An animal model has been used to investigate the immunogenicity and non-specific irritant properties of exudate gums. The materials studied were four preparations of gum arabic (Acacia spp.), two of gum karaya (Sterculia spp.), two of gum tragacanth (Astralagus spp.) and a residue obtained after ethanol extraction of gum arabic. Groups of animals were intradermally immunized with the gum in complete Freund's adjuvant. Serum antibody levels were measured by an ELISA technique and delayed hypersensitivity responses by a footpad swelling test. Antigenic cross-reactivity within each gum species was tested in a crossover fashion. All gum preparations elicited systemic immune responses after immunization. Further processing reduced immunogenicity, although there was no evidence that systemic immunity to these complex polysaccharide antigens responses could be completely abolished by processing or purification. The ethanolic extract, and some of the gum preparations, particularly tragacanth and karaya, caused considerable footpad swelling when injected intradermally. It is concluded that processing and awareness of subspecies differences can reduce the inherent immunogenicity and potential irritant effects of exudate gums.

  18. Overexpression, purification, and biochemical characterization of GumC, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharide by Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    de Pieri, Celina; Beltramini, Leila M; Selistre-de-Araújo, Heloisa S; Vettore, André L; da Silva, Felipe R; Arruda, Paulo; Oliva, Glaucius; de Souza, Dulce H F

    2004-04-01

    GumC is one of nine enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of fastidian gum, an exopolysaccharide produced by Xylella fastidiosa that may be linked directly to the pathogenicity of the microorganism. GumC may be responsible for gum polymerization or secretion through the membrane of X. fastidiosa. To perform structure and functions studies, we developed an expression system for the production of GumC as a fusion protein with maltose binding protein (MBP) using pMAL-c2x vector. The GumC-MBP fusion protein was expressed as a 94 kDa protein, which strongly reacts with anti-MBP antibodies. GumC-MBP was isolated by affinity chromatography through an amylose column and used to produce antibodies against the fusion protein. After the enzymatic cleavage of MBP, GumC was purified on a Q Sepharose Fast Flow column. GumC showed a molecular weight corresponding to the expected one (52 kDa) and its N-terminal sequence was identical to that deduced from the DNA. The shape of the circular dichroism spectrum was compatible with a folded protein that contains alpha-helical regions in its structure. Therefore, in this study we describe, for the first time, the production of GumC recombinant protein. PMID:15003255

  19. Application and Characterization of Gum from Bombax buonopozense Calyxesas an Excipient in Tablet Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Ngwuluka, Ndidi C.; Kyari, Jehu; Taplong, John; Uwaezuoke, Onyinye J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore gum from Bombax buonopozense calyxes as a binding agent in formulation of immediate release dosage forms using wet granulation method. The granules were characterized to assess the flow and compression properties and when compressed, non-compendial and compendial tests were undertaken to assess the tablet properties for tablets prepared with bombax gum in comparison with those prepared with tragacanth and acacia gums. Granules prepared with bombax exhibited good flow and compressible properties with angle of repose 28.60°, Carr’s compressibility of 21.30% and Hausner’s quotient of 1.27. The tablets were hard, but did not disintegrate after one hour. Furthermore, only 52.5% of paracetamol was released after one hour. The drug release profile followed zero order kinetics. Tablets prepared with bombax gum have the potential to deliver drugs in a controlled manner over a prolonged period at a constant rate. PMID:24300296

  20. Xanthan gum and its derivatives as a potential bio-polymeric carrier for drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Badwaik, Hemant R; Giri, Tapan Kumar; Nakhate, Kartik T; Kashyap, Pranita; Tripathi, Dulal Krishna

    2013-10-01

    Xanthan gum is a high molecular weight natural polysaccharide produced by fermentation process. It consists of 1, 4-linked β-D-glucose residues, having a trisaccharide side chain attached to alternate D-glucosyl residues. Although the gum has many properties desirable for drug delivery, its practical use is mainly confined to the unmodified forms due to slow dissolution and substantial swelling in biological fluids. Xanthan gum has been chemically modified by conventional chemical methods like carboxymethylation, and grafting such as free radical, microwave-assisted, chemoenzymatic and plasma assisted chemical grafting to alter physicochemical properties for a wide spectrum of biological applications. This article reviews various techniques utilized for modification of xanthan gum and its applications in a range of drug delivery systems.

  1. Antibacterial activities of some constituents from oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora mukul.

    PubMed

    Saeed, M Asif; Sabir, A W

    2004-03-01

    The essential oil, chloroform extract and seven sesquiterpenoids compounds newly isolated from the oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora mukul showed a wide range of inhibiting activity against both Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria. PMID:15030926

  2. Application and Characterization of Gum from Bombax buonopozense Calyxes as an Excipient in Tablet Formulation.

    PubMed

    Ngwuluka, Ndidi C; Kyari, Jehu; Taplong, John; Uwaezuoke, Onyinye J

    2012-08-03

    This study was undertaken to explore gum from Bombax buonopozense calyxes as a binding agent in formulation of immediate release dosage forms using wet granulation method. The granules were characterized to assess the flow and compression properties and when compressed, non-compendial and compendial tests were undertaken to assess the tablet properties for tablets prepared with bombax gum in comparison with those prepared with tragacanth and acacia gums. Granules prepared with bombax exhibited good flow and compressible properties with angle of repose 28.60°, Carr's compressibility of 21.30% and Hausner's quotient of 1.27. The tablets were hard, but did not disintegrate after one hour. Furthermore, only 52.5% of paracetamol was released after one hour. The drug release profile followed zero order kinetics. Tablets prepared with bombax gum have the potential to deliver drugs in a controlled manner over a prolonged period at a constant rate.

  3. ISO/GUM UNCERTAINTIES AND CIAAW (UNCERTAINTY TREATMENT FOR RECOMMENDED ATOMIC WEIGHTS AND ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCES)

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2007-07-23

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published a Guide to the expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). The IUPAC Commission on Isotopic Abundance and Atomic Weight (CIAAW) began attaching uncertainty limits to their recommended values about forty years ago. CIAAW's method for determining and assigning uncertainties has evolved over time. We trace this evolution to their present method and their effort to incorporate the basic ISO/GUM procedures into evaluations of these uncertainties. We discuss some dilemma the CIAAW faces in their present method and whether it is consistent with the application of the ISO/GUM rules. We discuss the attempt to incorporate variations in measured isotope ratios, due to natural fractionation, into the ISO/GUM system. We make some observations about the inconsistent treatment in the incorporation of natural variations into recommended data and uncertainties. A recommendation for expressing atomic weight values using a tabulated range of values for various chemical elements is discussed.

  4. The Quantitative Determination of Butylated Hydroxytoluene in Chewing Gum Using GC--MS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witter, A. E.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment to measure concentration of Photophysical Characterization(BHT) and determine percent recovery in chewing gum is described. The results demonstrated that over time, the concentration of BHT in the extract decreased owing to aerial oxidation.

  5. Chewing nicotine gum for 3 months: what happens to plasma nicotine levels?

    PubMed Central

    McNabb, M E

    1984-01-01

    Techniques that help patients stop smoking should also reduce their exposure to agents such as nicotine. The mean plasma nicotine levels in 50 subjects while they were still smoking and then while they were chewing pieces of gum containing either 2 or 4 mg of nicotine over a 12-week period of abstinence were 35, 9 and 23 ng/mL (217, 56 and 143 nmol/L) respectively. A small number of subjects given an unlimited supply of gum used 14 to 24 pieces of 4-mg gum daily and had plasma nicotine levels exceeding the levels achieved while smoking. There were no acute symptoms necessitating medical intervention associated with these excessive levels. Side effects were uncommon and usually controllable. When simple dosage rules are followed people who chew nicotine gum for a few months to stop smoking lower their exposure to nicotine. PMID:6478344

  6. GUM Analysis for SIMS Isotopic Ratios in BEP0 Graphite Qualification Samples, Round 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, David C.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Reid, Bruce D.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes GUM calculations for TIMS and SIMS isotopic ratio measurements of reactor graphite samples. These isotopic ratios are used to estimate reactor burn-up, and currently consist of various ratios of U, Pu, and Boron impurities in the graphite samples. The GUM calculation is a propagation of error methodology that assigns uncertainties (in the form of standard error and confidence bound) to the final estimates.

  7. Guar gum--its acceptability to diabetic patients when incorporated into baked food products.

    PubMed

    Tredger, J; Ransley, J

    1978-12-01

    Guar gum was incorporated into 10 g carbohydrate portions of cheese biscuits and 20 g carbohydrate portions of pizza and egg and bacon flan. Their acceptability to diabetic patients was assessed by means of a taste panel. The results were favourable. Other diabetic patients were asked to judge three cheese biscuits of varying guar gum content. The biscuit with the lowest content was most favoured.

  8. Effect of gel-forming gums on the intestinal unstirred layer and sugar transport in vitro.

    PubMed

    Johnson, I T; Gee, J M

    1981-05-01

    The effect of two gel-forming polysaccharide gums, guar gum and Na-carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC), on glucose transport in vitro was investigated using everted sacs of rat jejunum. The gums were added to the mucosal bathing media to give apparent viscosities in the range of 1-110 Pascal seconds X 10(-3), mPa.s(cP). Serosal glucose transport fell steeply by about 60% as the viscosities of the mucosal media rose to 20mPa.s, and levelled off thereafter. A similar effect was observed in sacs preincubated with guar gum (15 minutes) and exposed to glucose in a subsequent guar-free incubation. Glucose transport with and without the addition of guar gum was found to be sensitive to mucosal stirring, so that, when shaken at 130 oscillations per minute, sacs exposed to guar gum (0.25 %, viscosity c.a. 16 mPa.s (cP) transported glucose at a similar rate to sacs incubated without guar at 80 oscillations per minute. By measuring the time course for the establishment of osmotic induced potentials, it was shown that incubation with guar or CMC led to an increase in the apparent thickness of the unstirred fluid layer overlying the mucosa (guar-free thickness = 317 +/- 15 mu, guar treated thickness = 468 +/- 25 mu). It is suggested that the presence of a polysaccharide gum in the fluid film surrounding the villi increases its viscosity, and thus gives rise to a thickening of the rate-limiting unstirred layer. If such an effect occurs in vivo, this could contribute to the diminished post-prandial glycaemia observed in human subjects fed guar gum. PMID:7250752

  9. Reduced aggregation and sedimentation of zero-valent iron nanoparticles in the presence of guar gum.

    PubMed

    Tiraferri, Alberto; Chen, Kai Loon; Sethi, Rajandrea; Elimelech, Menachem

    2008-08-01

    Injection of nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) is potentially a promising technology for remediation of contaminated groundwaters. However, the efficiency of this process is significantly hindered by the rapid aggregation of the iron nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to enhance the colloidal stability of the nanoparticles through the addition of the "green" polymer guar gum. We evaluated the properties of guar gum and its influence on the surface properties, particle size, aggregation, and sedimentation of iron nanoparticles. Commercial iron nanoparticles were dispersed in guar gum solutions, and their aggregation and sedimentation behaviors were compared to those of bare iron nanoparticles and commercial nanoparticles modified with a biodegradable polymer (polyaspartate). High performance size exclusion chromatography, charge titration, and viscosity assessment showed that guar gum is a high molecular weight polymer which is nearly neutrally charged, rendering it suitable for steric stabilization of the iron nanoparticles. Electrophoretic mobility measurements demonstrated the ability of guar gum to adsorb on the nanoparticles, forming a slightly negatively charged layer. Dynamic light scattering experiments were conducted to estimate the particle size of the different nanoparticle suspensions and to determine the aggregation behavior at different ionic strengths. Guar gum effectively reduced the hydrodynamic radius of the bare nanoparticles from 500 nm to less than 200 nm and prevented aggregation of the nanoparticles even at very high salt concentrations (0.5 M NaCl and 3 mM CaCl(2)). Sedimentation profiles of the different nanoparticle suspensions confirmed the improved stability of the iron nanoparticles in the presence of guar gum. The results strongly suggest that guar gum can be used to effectively deliver stabilized zero-valent iron nanoparticles for remediation of contaminated groundwater aquifers.

  10. Pasting properties of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) kernel powder in the presence of Xanthan, Carboxymethylcellulose and Locust bean gum in comparison to Rice and Potato flour.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder; Sandhu, Kawaljit Singh; Kaur, Jasmeen

    2013-08-01

    Effects of addition of different levels of gums (xanthan, carboxymethylcellulose and locust bean gum) on the pasting properties of tamarind kernel, potato and rice flour were studied by using Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA). Tamarind kernel powder (TKP) varied significantly (P < 0.05) from rice and potato flours with respect to its highest protein, ash and fat contents. The results of RVA analysis indicated that pasting properties of flour/gum mixtures were dependent upon the concentration and type of the gums. Peak, breakdown and final viscosity increased with increase in gum concentration in the flour/gum mixture, but the effect was more pronounced for rice and potato flour than for TKP which showed much lower viscosity responses to all of the gums. Among the three gums studied, the increase in viscosity was significantly higher with addition of locust bean gum followed by xanthan while the lowest was observed with carboxymethylcellulose.

  11. Implications of partial conjugation of whey protein isolate to durian seed gum through Maillard reactions: foaming properties, water holding capacity and interfacial activity.

    PubMed

    Amid, Bahareh Tabatabaee; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Poorazarang, Hashem; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the conjugation of durian seed gum (DSG) with whey protein isolate (WPI) through Maillard reactions. Subsequently, the functional properties of durian seed gum in the non-conjugated (control sample) and conjugated forms were compared with several commercial gums (i.e., Arabic gum, sodium alginate, kappa carrageenan, guar gum, and pectin). The current study revealed that the conjugation of durian seed gum with whey protein isolate significantly (p < 0.05) improved its foaming properties. In this study, the conjugated durian seed gum produced the most stable foam among all samples. On the other hand, the emulsion stabilized with the conjugated durian seed gum also showed more uniform particles with a larger specific surface area than the emulsion containing the non-conjugated durian seed gum. The conjugated durian seed gum showed significant different foaming properties, specific surface area, particle uniformity and water holding capacity (WHC) as compared to the target polysaccharide gums. The conjugated durian seed gum showed more similar functional properties to Arabic gum rather than other studied gums.

  12. Gum-Chewing and Headache: An Underestimated Trigger of Headache Pain in Migraineurs?

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Tension-type headache and migraine are currently considered the second and third most frequent human diseases. Since a variety of conditions that involve the temporomandibular joint and chewing muscles are frequent causes of orofacial pain, the aim of this article was to review current published evidence about the potential relationship between gum-chewing and headache. A systematic electronic search performed on Medline, Scopus and Web of Science using the keywords "headache" or "migraine" and "chewing" allowed to finally identify 1 cross-sectional, 1 observational and 3 randomized studies, along with 3 case reports about the potential association between gum-chewing and headache. Despite the limited evidence, it seems reasonable to suggest that headache attacks may be triggered by gum-chewing in migraineurs and in patients with tension-type headache. Opposite results were obtained in non-migraineurs, since in none of these studies an increased prevalence of headache pain was reported after gum-chewing. Although larger randomized studies will be necessary to definitely establish the relationship between gum-chewing and headache across different populations, it seems cautionary to suggest that subjects with migraine or tension-type headache should avoid or limit gum-chewing in their lifestyle. PMID:25714969

  13. Effects of nicotine-containing chewing gum on oral soft and hard tissues: A clinical study.

    PubMed

    Christen, A G; Beiswanger, B B; Mallatt, M E; Tomich, C E; Drook, C A; McDonald, J L; Olson, B L; Stookey, G K

    1985-01-01

    A double-blind clinical trial was conducted to determine whether the use of a chewing gum containing 2.0 mg nicotine (as an adjunct to a stop-smoking program) had any effects upon oral health. A total of 193 adults who smoked cigarettes volunteered with informed consent, were given routine dental prophylaxes, and were examined for the presence of plaque, stained pellicle, gingivitis, calculus, and general oral pathosis. The subjects were then randomly assigned to use either a nicotine-containing or a placebo chewing gum. After 15 weeks the subjects were recalled and re-examined. Smoking cessation was determined through questionnaire and analysis of the carbon monoxide content of alveolar air. At the completion of the study, 79 subjects had used the placebo gum and 78 had used the nicotine gum. Data analysis indicated that the nicotine chewing gum had no significant influence on any of the oral health parameters graded, as compared to the placebo gum. The continuation of smoking, however, was associated with significant increases in gingivitis and calculus rates.

  14. Influence of gum tragacanth on the physicochemical and rheological properties of kashk.

    PubMed

    Shiroodi, Setareh Ghorban; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Gorji, Elham Ghorbani; Ezzatpanah, Hamid; Zohouri, Nilofar

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the physicochemical properties of a low-fat dried yogurt paste (kashk) were determined, and the effects of different concentrations (0, 0·1, 0·3 and 0·5% w/w) of gum tragacanth exudates from Astragalus gossypinus on the stability and texture of the samples were investigated by measuring amount of syneresis, turbidity, particle size distribution (PSD), flow behaviour and viscoelastic properties. The flow behaviour index was not very sensitive to the concentration of gum, while a remarkable concentration dependency of the power-law consistency coefficient and Herschel-Bulkley yield stress was observed. The initial increase in the gum concentration at 0·1 and 0·3% levels led to a higher degree of syneresis, which was related to the depletion flocculation mechanism. However, the reduced amount of syneresis in samples containing 0·5% gum tragacanth was attributed to the significant increase in viscosity of the continuous phase, which is also accompanied by trapping of the aggregated casein particles. The presence of 3% salt in the samples may have led to the neutralization of charges on the surface of gum tragacanth; consequently, the non-adsorbing behaviour of high-ionic-strength polysaccharides inhibited the formation of electrostatic protein-polysaccharide complexes. Furthermore, maximum values of polydispersity, syneresis and tan δ at high frequencies were found in samples containing 0·1% gum tragacanth.

  15. Role of glucose in chewing gum-related facilitation of cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Richard; Tunney, Richard J

    2004-10-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that chewing gum leads to cognitive benefits through improved delivery of glucose to the brain, by comparing the cognitive performance effects of gum and glucose administered separately and together. Participants completed a battery of cognitive tests in a fully related 2 x 2 design, where one factor was Chewing Gum (gum vs. mint sweet) and the other factor was Glucose Co-administration (consuming a 25 g glucose drink vs. consuming water). For four tests (AVLT Immediate Recall, Digit Span, Spatial Span and Grammatical Transformation), beneficial effects of chewing and glucose were found, supporting the study hypothesis. However, on AVLT Delayed Recall, enhancement due to chewing gum was not paralleled by glucose enhancement, suggesting an alternative mechanism. The glucose delivery model is supported with respect to the cognitive domains: working memory, immediate episodic long-term memory and language-based attention and processing speed. However, some other mechanism is more likely to underlie the facilitatory effect of chewing gum on delayed episodic long-term memory. PMID:15458808

  16. Salivary flow rate and pH during prolonged gum chewing in humans.

    PubMed

    Polland, K E; Higgins, F; Orchardson, R

    2003-09-01

    Gum chewing for 20 min causes an increase in salivary flow rate and salivary pH. Most people chew gum for longer than 20 min, and our aim was to determine how whole mouth salivary flow rate and pH might adapt during prolonged gum chewing. Resting saliva was collected over 5 min; gum-stimulated saliva was collected at intervals during 90 min, chewing a single pellet (1.5 g) of mint-flavoured, sugar-free gum (n = 19). Subjects chewed at their own preferred rate and style. Both salivary flow rate and pH were increased above resting levels for the entire 90 min. The salivary flow was significantly greater (anovaP < 0.05) than resting flows up to 55-min chewing. The saliva pH remained significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than the resting pH even after 90-min chewing. When the experiment was repeated with the gum pellets replaced at 30 and 60 min (n = 9), similar increases in salivary flow rate and pH were found. In the latter experiment, there was no evidence of any cumulative effects on flow or pH. The persistent increase in salivary pH in particular could be beneficial to oral and dental health. PMID:12950965

  17. Water adsorption isotherms of carboxymethyl cellulose, guar, locust bean, tragacanth and xanthan gums.

    PubMed

    Torres, María D; Moreira, Ramón; Chenlo, Francisco; Vázquez, María J

    2012-06-20

    Water adsorption isotherms of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), guar gum (GG), locust bean gum (LBG), tragacanth gum (TG) and xanthan gum (XG) were determined at different temperatures (20, 35, 50, and 65°C) using a gravimetric method. Several saturated salt solutions were selected to obtain different water activities in the range from 0.09 to 0.91. Water adsorption isotherms of tested hydrocolloids were classified like type II isotherms. In all cases, equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature at each water activity value. Three-parameter Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model was employed to fit the experimental data in the water activity range and statistical analysis indicated that this model gave satisfactory results. CMC and GG were the most and the least hygroscopic gums, respectively. Sorption heats decreased with increasing moisture content. Monolayer moisture content evaluated with GAB model was consistent with equilibrium conditions of maximum stability calculated from thermodynamic analysis of net integral entropy. Values of equilibrium relative humidity at 20°C are proposed to storage adequately the tested gums.

  18. Biological activity of some naturally occurring resins, gums and pigments against in vitro LDL oxidation.

    PubMed

    Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K; Kaliora, Andriana C; Assimopoulou, Andreana N; Papapeorgiou, Vassilios P

    2003-05-01

    Naturally occurring gums and resins with beneficial pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties were tested for their possible protective effect against copper-induced LDL oxidation in vitro. Chiosmastic gum (CMG) (Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia resin) was the most effective in protecting human LDL from oxidation. The minimum and maximum doses for the saturation phenomena of inhibition of LDL oxidation were 2.5 mg and 50 mg CMG (75.3% and 99.9%, respectively). The methanol/water extract of CMG was the most effective compared with other solvent combinations. CMG when fractionated in order to determine a structure-activity relationship showed that the total mastic essential oil, collofonium-like residue and acidic fractions of CMG exhibited a high protective activity ranging from 65.0% to 77.8%. The other natural gums and resins (CMG resin 'liquid collection', P. terebinthus var. Chia resin, dammar resin, acacia gum, tragacanth gum, storax gum) also tested as above, showed 27.0%-78.8% of the maximum LDL protection. The other naturally occurring substances, i.e. triterpenes (amyrin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, lupeol, 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid) and hydroxynaphthoquinones (naphthazarin, shikonin and alkannin) showed 53.5%-78.8% and 27.0%-64.1% LDL protective activity, respectively. The combination effects (68.7%-76.2% LDL protection) of ursolic-, oleanolic- and ursodeoxycholic- acids were almost equal to the effect (75.3%) of the CMG extract in comparable doses. PMID:12748987

  19. Glucose absorption, hormonal release and hepatic metabolism after guar gum ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoes Nunes, C.; Malmlof, K.

    1992-01-01

    Six non-anaesthetized Large White pigs (mean body weight 59 +/- 1.7 kg) were fitted with permanent catheters in the portal vein, the brachiocephalic artery and the right hepatic vein and with electromagnetic flow probes around the portal vein and the hepatic artery. The animals were provided a basal none-fibre diet (diet A) alone or together with 6% guar gum (diet B) or 15% purified cellulose (diet C). The diets were given for 1 week and according to a replicated 3 x 3 latin-square design. On the last day of each adaptation period test meals of 800 g were given prior to blood sampling. The sampling was continued for 8 h. Guar gum strongly reduced the glucose absorption as well as the insulin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) production. However, the reduction in peripheral blood insulin levels caused by guar gum was not associated with a change in hepatic insulin extraction. IGF-1 appeared to be strongly produced by the gut. The liver had a net uptake of the peptide. Ingestion of guar gum increased the hepatic extraction coefficient of gut produced IGF-1. Guar gum ingestion also appeared to decrease pancreatic glucagon secretion. Cellulose at the level consumed had very little effect on the parameters considered. It is suggested that the modulation of intestinal mechanisms by guar gum was sufficient to mediate the latter internal metabolic effects.

  20. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of guar gum on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Samarghandian; Mosa-Al-Reza, Hadjzadeh; Fatemeh, Amin Nya; Saeideh, Davoodi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicine is widely used in the treatment of diseases like diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of guar gum in diabetic rats for the reduction of the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Dietary pattern emphasizing foods high in complex carbohydrates and fiber are associated with low blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Materials and Methods: Diet containing 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% (w/w) guar gum was fed to diabetic rats for 28 days. Blood serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, atherogenic index levels, body weights and food intake were monitored at 0, 7.14 and 28 days after induction of diabetes. Results: In spite of the fact that diabetes elevated blood lipids in all rats after 14 days, the guar gum diet significantly decreased the serum concentration of cholesterol, triacylglicerols and LDL-C and atherogenic index. The most significant result in this study was the reduction of blood glucose in diabetic rats treated with the guar gum diet after 28 days versus non- and glibenclamide-treated rats. The gum promoted a general improvement in the condition of the diabetic rats in body weight and food intake in comparison with nontreated rats. Conclusion: The results of this research suggest that guar gum was significantly effective in comparison with glibenclamide in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in diabetes rats. Therefore, it may be suggested as a reliable fiber in diabetic regimes in diabetic patients. PMID:22438666

  1. Protein-free cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: Physicochemical characterization and rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Gavlighi, Hassan Ahmadi

    2016-11-20

    Protein-free cress seed gum (PFCSG) was obtained by precipitation of crude cress seed gum (CSG) with ethanol followed by treatment with protease. Molecular weight, moisture, ash and uronic acids content decreased after elimination of protein. Elimination of protein improved significantly rheological properties and thermal stability of cress seed gum. Mechanical spectra of the CSG and PFCSG were classified as weak gels and PFCSG showed stronger and more elastic network structure. The gum dispersions exhibited strong shear-thinning behavior which was described satisfactory by the Herschel-Bulkley and Moore models. Protein-free cress seed gum had higher apparent and intrinsic viscosities than the crude gum. CSG indicated lower hysteresis loop area, but degree of structural recovery of the samples showed no significant difference. The main decomposition of PFCSG started above 213°C with two peaks (at 261.72°C and 306.58°C) and initial decomposition temperature of CSG was 190.21°C with one peak at 258.28°C. DSC results coincided with those observed by thermogravimetric analysis. Enzyme treatment lowered the surface activity of CSG. PMID:27561467

  2. Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.

    PubMed

    Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

    2001-07-01

    A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P < .0001) and improved the whitened appearance of teeth (P < .0001) at both the 2-week interim and the final 4-week evaluations. ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth. PMID:11913307

  3. Gum arabic/starch/maltodextrin/inulin as wall materials on the microencapsulation of rosemary essential oil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Regiane Victória de Barros; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Botrel, Diego Alvarenga

    2014-01-30

    The effects of the partial or total replacement of gum arabic by modified starch, maltodextrin and inulin on the characteristics of rosemary essential oil microencapsulated by spray drying were evaluated in this study. The lowest level of water absorption under conditions of high relative humidity was observed in treatments containing inulin. The wettability property of the powders was improved by the addition of inulin. The total replacement of gum arabic by modified starch or a mixture of modified starch and maltodextrin (1:1, m/m) did not significantly affect the efficiency of encapsulation, although higher Tg values were exhibited by microcapsules prepared using pure gum arabic or gum arabic and inulin. 1,8-cineol, camphor and α-pinene were the main components identified by gas chromatography in the oils extracted from the microcapsules. The particles had smoother surfaces and more folds when gum arabic or inulin was present. Larger particles were observed in the powders prepared with pure gum arabic or modified starch.

  4. Application of guar-xanthan gum mixture as a partial fat replacer in meat emulsions.

    PubMed

    Rather, Sajad A; Masoodi, F A; Akhter, Rehana; Rather, Jahangir A; Gani, Adil; Wani, S M; Malik, A H

    2016-06-01

    The physicochemical, oxidative, texture and microstructure properties were evaluated for low fat meat emulsions containing varying levels of guar/xanthan gum mixture (1:1 ratio) as a fat substitute. Partial replacement of fat with guar/xanthan gum resulted in higher emulsion stability and cooking yield but lower penetration force. Proximate composition revealed that high fat control had significantly higher fat and lower moisture content due to the difference in basic formulation. Colour evaluation revealed that low fat formulations containing gum mixture had significantly lower lightness and higher yellowness values than high fat control formulation. However non-significant difference was observed in redness values between low fat formulations and the high fat control. The pH values of the low fat formulations containing gum mixture were lower than the control formulations (T0 and TC). The MetMb% of the high fat emulsion formulation was higher than low fat formulations. The significant increase of TBARS value, protein carbonyl groups and loss of protein sulphydryl groups in high fat formulation reflect the more oxidative degradation of lipids and muscle proteins during the preparation of meat emulsion than low fat formulations. The SEM showed a porous matrix in the treatments containing gum mixture. Thus, the guar/xanthan gum mixture improved the physicochemical and oxidative quality of low fat meat emulsions than the control formulations. PMID:27478244

  5. Prosopis alba exudate gum as excipient for improving fish oil stability in alginate-chitosan beads.

    PubMed

    Vasile, Franco Emanuel; Romero, Ana María; Judis, María Alicia; Mazzobre, María Florencia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to employ an exudate gum obtained from a South American wild tree (Prosopis alba), as wall material component to enhance the oxidative stability of fish oil encapsulated in alginate-chitosan beads. For this purpose, beads were vacuum-dried and stored under controlled conditions. Oxidation products, fatty acid profiles and lipid health indices were measured during storage. Alginate-chitosan interactions and the effect of gum were manifested in the FT-IR spectra. The inclusion of the gum in the gelation media allowed decreasing the oxidative damage during storage in comparison to the free oil and alginate-chitosan beads. The gum also improved wall material properties, providing higher oil retention during the drying step and subsequent storage. Fatty acids quality and lipid health indices were widely preserved in beads containing the gum. Present results showed a positive influence of the gum on oil encapsulation and stability, being the main mechanism attributed to a physical barrier effect.

  6. Cognitive advantages of chewing gum. Now you see them, now you don't.

    PubMed

    Onyper, Serge V; Carr, Timothy L; Farrar, John S; Floyd, Brittney R

    2011-10-01

    The current series of experiments investigated the effects of the timing of gum chewing on cognitive function, by administering a battery of cognitive tasks to participants who chewed gum either prior to or throughout testing, and comparing their performance to that of controls who did not chew gum. Chewing gum was associated with performance advantages on multiple measures when gum was chewed for 5 min before, but not during, cognitive testing. The benefits, however, persisted only for the first 15-20 min of the testing session, and did not extend to all cognitive domains. To explain this pattern of results, it is proposed that the time-limited nature of performance benefits can be attributed to mastication-induced arousal. Furthermore, the lack of improvement in cognitive function when gum is chewed throughout testing may be because of interference effects due to a sharing of resources by cognitive and masticatory processes. This dual-process mechanism is not only consistent with the outcome of present experiments but can potentially account for a wide range of findings reported in the literature. PMID:21645566

  7. Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.

    PubMed

    Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

    2001-07-01

    A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P < .0001) and improved the whitened appearance of teeth (P < .0001) at both the 2-week interim and the final 4-week evaluations. ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth.

  8. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris gum Mutants: Effects on Xanthan Biosynthesis and Plant Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Katzen, Federico; Ferreiro, Diego U.; Oddo, Cristian G.; Ielmini, M. Verónica; Becker, Anke; Pühler, Alfred; Ielpi, Luis

    1998-01-01

    Xanthan is an industrially important exopolysaccharide produced by the phytopathogenic, gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. It is composed of polymerized pentasaccharide repeating units which are assembled by the sequential addition of glucose-1-phosphate, glucose, mannose, glucuronic acid, and mannose on a polyprenol phosphate carrier (L. Ielpi, R. O. Couso, and M. A. Dankert, J. Bacteriol. 175:2490–2500, 1993). A cluster of 12 genes in a region designated xpsI or gum has been suggested to encode proteins involved in the synthesis and polymerization of the lipid intermediate. However, no experimental evidence supporting this suggestion has been published. In this work, from the biochemical analysis of a defined set of X. campestris gum mutants, we report experimental data for assigning functions to the products of the gum genes. We also show that the first step in the assembly of the lipid-linked intermediate is severely affected by the combination of certain gum and non-gum mutations. In addition, we provide evidence that the C-terminal domain of the gumD gene product is sufficient for its glucosyl-1-phosphate transferase activity. Finally, we found that alterations in the later stages of xanthan biosynthesis reduce the aggressiveness of X. campestris against the plant. PMID:9537354

  9. Protein-free cress seed (Lepidium sativum) gum: Physicochemical characterization and rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Gavlighi, Hassan Ahmadi

    2016-11-20

    Protein-free cress seed gum (PFCSG) was obtained by precipitation of crude cress seed gum (CSG) with ethanol followed by treatment with protease. Molecular weight, moisture, ash and uronic acids content decreased after elimination of protein. Elimination of protein improved significantly rheological properties and thermal stability of cress seed gum. Mechanical spectra of the CSG and PFCSG were classified as weak gels and PFCSG showed stronger and more elastic network structure. The gum dispersions exhibited strong shear-thinning behavior which was described satisfactory by the Herschel-Bulkley and Moore models. Protein-free cress seed gum had higher apparent and intrinsic viscosities than the crude gum. CSG indicated lower hysteresis loop area, but degree of structural recovery of the samples showed no significant difference. The main decomposition of PFCSG started above 213°C with two peaks (at 261.72°C and 306.58°C) and initial decomposition temperature of CSG was 190.21°C with one peak at 258.28°C. DSC results coincided with those observed by thermogravimetric analysis. Enzyme treatment lowered the surface activity of CSG.

  10. Influence of different purification and drying methods on rheological properties and viscoelastic behaviour of durian seed gum.

    PubMed

    Amid, Bahareh Tabatabaee; Mirhosseini, Hamed

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of different purification and drying methods on the viscoelastic behaviour and rheological properties of durian seed gum. The results indicated that the purified gum A (using isopropanol and ethanol) and D (using hydrochloric acid and ethanol) showed the highest and lowest viscosity, respectively. Four drying techniques included oven drying (105 °C), freeze drying, spray drying and vacuum oven drying. In the present work, all purified gums exhibited more elastic (gel-like) behaviour than the viscous (liquid-like) behaviour (G″gum. The freeze-dried gum and oven-dried (105 °C) gum exhibited the highest and lowest viscous modulus (G″), respectively. PMID:24751065

  11. Effect of Chewing Xylitol Containing and Herbal Chewing Gums on Salivary Mutans Streptococcus Count among School Children

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Sangeeta; Lakashminarayan, Nagesh; Kemparaj, Umesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study aims to assess and compare the reduction in salivary Mutans Streptococci counts after chewing Xylitol, herbal and placebo gums among high school children. Methods: The study was conducted among 72 school children (12–15 years) from 3 randomly selected schools (blocks). Xylitol, herbal and placebo gums were randomly allocated to 3 blocks. Subjects were instructed to chew one pellet four times a day for 21 days. The mean reduction in salivary Streptococcus mutans count was assessed. Results: The 100% Xylitol sweetened chewing gum “Xylitol”has shown statistically significant reduction in salivary Mutans Streptococci colony forming units at the end of 21 days (P < 0.01). The reduction was not statistically significant in herbal and placebo chewing gum. Conclusions: Hundred percentage Xylitol sweetened chewing gum was found to be more effective in reducing salivary Mutans Streptococci count when compared to herbal and placebo chewing gums. PMID:26097673

  12. Interaction of gums (guar, carboxymethylhydroxypropyl guar, diutan, and xanthan) with surfactants (DTAB, CTAB, and TX-100) in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Indrajyoti; Sarkar, Diptabhas; Moulik, Satya P

    2010-12-01

    The interaction of surfactants dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and p-tert-octylphenoxypolyoxyethylene (9.5) ether (TX-100) with guar (Gr), carboxymethylhydroxypropyl guar (CMHPG), diutan (Dn), and xanthan (Xn) gums has been studied employing conductometry, tensiometry, microcalorimetry, viscometry, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Both weak and strong interactions were observed. CTAB interacted stronger than DTAB with the gums. The surfactant-gum interaction process was enhanced by the presence of borate ions in the solution; the borate ion itself also manifested interaction with the surfactants comparable with that of water-soluble polymers polyvinyl alcohol, polyoxyethylene, and so forth. Viscometric results supported configurational changes of the gum molecules by interaction with surfactants. The geometry of the pure gums and their CTAB interacted products in the dried states was ascertained from AFM measurements; spherical and prolate shapes were observed for pure gums, and distorted states were observed for their surfactant complexed species. Detailed topological features of these entities were ascertained.

  13. Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment.

    PubMed

    Soparkar, P; Newman, M B

    2001-07-01

    An evaluation of the effects of ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) on extrinsic dental stain was made in 48 subjects presenting with measurable extrinsic stain. The subjects were randomized to use either the baking soda gum or a non-baking soda placebo gum for 20 minutes twice daily after lunch and dinner while brushing once daily. The procedure of limited brushing was chosen to simulate the level of hygiene normally practiced by participants entering a clinical study. After 4 weeks, the reduction in measurable extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was statistically significant (P = .0044) relative to baseline. Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks. PMID:11913306

  14. Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment.

    PubMed

    Soparkar, P; Newman, M B

    2001-07-01

    An evaluation of the effects of ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) on extrinsic dental stain was made in 48 subjects presenting with measurable extrinsic stain. The subjects were randomized to use either the baking soda gum or a non-baking soda placebo gum for 20 minutes twice daily after lunch and dinner while brushing once daily. The procedure of limited brushing was chosen to simulate the level of hygiene normally practiced by participants entering a clinical study. After 4 weeks, the reduction in measurable extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was statistically significant (P = .0044) relative to baseline. Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks.

  15. Transmission electron microscopy of jejunum, ileum, and caecum tissues from rats fed with gums arabic, karaya and tragacanth.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D M; Busuttil, A; Kempson, S A; Penman, D W

    1986-10-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to study the ultrastructure of rat jejunum, ileum and caecum after dietary supplementation with 10% (w/w) gum arabic, 7% (w/w) gum karaya, 4% (w/w) gum tragacanth for 45 days. Scrutiny of 65 micrographs, undertaken independently by 2 specialists, revealed no abnormalities in any of the organelles in any of the micrographs. Twelve representative micrographs are reproduced here.

  16. Changes in electrical energy requirements to operate an ice cream freezer as a function of sweeteners and gums

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.E.; Bakshi, A.S.; Gay, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in electrical energy required to operate a continuous freezer were monitored for various ice cream formulae. Ice cream formulae consisted of nine different combinations of sucrose, 36 DE corn syrup, and 42 high fructose corn syrup as well as two ratios of guar gum to locust bean gum. Within the same sweetening system, a mix high in locust bean gum tended to have a lower energy demand than mix with large amounts of guar gum. This was especially pronounced in mixes with 50% 42 high fructose corn syrup and/or 50% 36 DE corn syrup solids.

  17. Texture of low-fat Iranian White cheese as influenced by gum tragacanth as a fat replacer.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, J; Khosrowshahi, A; Madadlou, A; Aziznia, S

    2007-09-01

    The effect of different concentrations of gum tragacanth on the textural characteristics of low-fat Iranian White cheese was studied during ripening. A batch of full-fat and 5 batches of low-fat Iranian White cheeses with different gum tragacanth concentrations (without gum or with 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1 g of gum/kg of milk) were produced to study the effects of fat content reduction and gum concentration on the textural and functional properties of the product during ripening. Cheese samples were analyzed with respect to chemical, color, and sensory characteristics, rheological parameters (uniaxial compression and small-amplitude oscillatory shear), and microstructure. Reducing the fat content had an adverse effect on cheese yield, sensory characteristics, and the texture of Iranian White cheese, and it increased the instrumental hardness parameters (i.e., fracture stress, elastic modulus, storage modulus, and complex modulus). However, increasing the gum tragacanth concentration reduced the values of instrumental hardness parameters and increased the whiteness of cheese. Although when the gum concentration was increased, the low-fat cheese somewhat resembled its full-fat counterpart, the interaction of the gum concentration with ripening time caused visible undesirable effects on cheese characteristics by the sixth week of ripening. Cheeses with a high gum tragacanth concentration became very soft and their solid texture declined somewhat.

  18. Jumping mechanisms in gum treehopper insects (Hemiptera, Eurymelinae).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Malcolm

    2013-07-15

    Jumping in a species of Australian gum treehopper was analysed from high-speed images. Pauroeurymela amplicincta adults and nymphs lived together in groups that were tended by ants, but only adults jumped. The winged adults with a body mass of 23 mg and a body length of 7 mm had some morphological characteristics intermediate between those of their close relatives the leafhoppers (Cicadellidae) and the treehoppers (Membracidae). They, like leafhoppers, lacked the prominent prothoracic helmets of membracid treehoppers, and their large hind coxae were linked by press studs (poppers), that are present in leafhoppers but not treehoppers. The hindlegs were only 30-40% longer than the other legs and 67% of body length. They are thus of similar proportion to the hindlegs of treehoppers but much shorter than those of most leafhoppers. Jumping was propelled by the hindlegs, which moved in the same plane as each other beneath and almost parallel to the longitudinal axis of the body. A jump was preceded by full levation of the coxo-trochanteral joints of the hindlegs. In its best jumps, the rapid depression of these joints then accelerated the insect in 1.4 ms to a take-off velocity of 3.8 m s(-1) so that it experienced a force of almost 280 g. In 22% of jumps, the wings opened before take-off but did not flap until the gum treehopper was airborne, when the body rotated little in any plane. The energy expended was 170 μJ, the power output was 122 mW and the force exerted was 64 mN. Such jumps are predicted to propel the insect forwards 1450 mm (200 times body length) and to a height of 430 mm if there is no effect of wind resistance. The power output per mass of jumping muscle far exceeded the maximum active contractile limit of muscle and indicates that a catapult-like action must be used. This eurymelid therefore out-performs both leafhoppers and treehoppers in i ts faster acceleration and in its higher take-off velocity.

  19. Influence of xanthan gum on the structural characteristics of myofibrillar proteins treated by high pressure.

    PubMed

    Villamonte, Gina; Jury, Vanessa; Jung, Stéphanie; de Lamballerie, Marie

    2015-03-01

    The effects of xanthan gum on the structural modifications of myofibrillar proteins (0.3 M NaCl, pH 6) induced by high pressure (200, 400, and 600 MPa, 6 min) were investigated. The changes in the secondary and tertiary structures of myofibrillar proteins were analyzed by circular dichroism. The protein denaturation was also evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry. Likewise, the protein surface hydrophobicity and the solubility of myofibrillar proteins were measured. High pressure (600 MPa) induced the loss of α-helix structures and an increase of β-sheet structures. However, the presence of xanthan gum hindered the former mechanism of protein denaturation by high pressure. In fact, changes in the secondary (600 MPa) and the tertiary structure fingerprint of high-pressure-treated myofibrillar proteins (400 to 600 MPa) were observed in the presence of xanthan gum. These modifications were confirmed by the thermal analysis, the thermal transitions of high-pressure (400 to 600 MPa)-treated myofibrillar proteins were modified in systems containing xanthan gum. As consequence, the high-pressure-treated myofibrillar proteins with xanthan gum showed increased solubility from 400 MPa, in contrast to high-pressure treatment (600 MPa) without xanthan gum. Moreover, the surface hydrophobicity of high-pressure-treated myofibrillar proteins was enhanced in the presence of xanthan gum. These effects could be due to the unfolding of myofibrillar proteins at high-pressure levels, which exposed sites that most likely interacted with the anionic polysaccharide. This study suggests that the role of food additives could be considered for the development of meat products produced by high-pressure processing.

  20. A two-colored chewing gum test for assessing masticatory performance: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Endo, Toshiya; Komatsuzaki, Akira; Kurokawa, Hiroomi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Kojima, Koji

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare subjective and objective assessment methods of a two-colored chewing gum test and to find out whether these methods are capable of discriminating masticatory performances between sexes. 31 adults, 16 males and 15 females participated in this study. Each subject chewed five samples of two-colored chewing gum sticks for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 chewing strokes, respectively. The subjective color-mixing and shape indices for the gum bolus (SCMI-B, SSI-B) and the subjective color-mixing index and objective color-mixing ratio for the gum wafer (SCMI-W, OCMR-W) were evaluated by two independent examiners and, on a different day, re-evaluated by one of the examiners. The SCMI-B and SCMI-W assessments had inter- and intra-examiner reliable agreement at 20 or more chewing strokes. The OCMR-W measurement demonstrated high accuracy and low reproducibility between and within the examiners. There were significant gender differences in the distribution of SCMI-W scores (P = 0.044) and in the mean OCMI-W (P = 0.007). The SCMI-B and SCMI-W assessments and the OCMR-W measurement were reliable and valid at the 20 and 30 chewing strokes in this two-colored chewing gum test. The subjective color-mixing index (SCMI-W) and objective color-mixing ratio (OCMR-W) for the chewing gum wafer are capable of discriminating masticatory performance between sexes in this two-colored chewing gum test and that the OCMR-W measurement is discriminating better than the SCMI-W assessment. PMID:23076496

  1. Modulating Effects of Arabinogalactans from Plant Gum Exudates on Human Complement System.

    PubMed

    Bovo, F; Lenzi, R M; Yamassaki, F T; Messias-Reason, I J; Campestrini, L H; Stevan, F R; Zawadzki-Baggio, S F; Maurer, J B B

    2016-05-01

    Gum arabic and cashew nut tree gum exudate polysaccharide (CNTG) are plant polysaccharides composed of galactose and arabinose known as arabinogalactans (AGs). Although these fractions are used in food and pharmaceutical industry, cases of allergic reactions were described in clinical reports. As AGs were reported as modulators of the classical (CP) and alternative pathways (AP) of complement system (CS), in the present work, we investigate whether gum arabic and CNTG have an effect on both CS pathways. The complement fixation tests were performed with (CP-30 and AP-30) and without pre-incubation (CP-0 and AP-0). For CP-30, CNTG and gum arabic (833 μg/ml) showed a reduction of 28.0% (P = 0.000174) and 48.5% (P = 0.000143), respectively, on CP-induced haemolysis. However, no effect was observed for CP-0 in the CP-induced haemolysis. For AP-30, both CNTG and gum arabic (833 μg/ml) showed 87% reduction on the CP-induced haemolysis, with IC50 values of 100 and 7 μg/ml, respectively. For AP-0, a reduction of 11.3% for gum arabic and no effect for the CNTG on the CP-induced haemolysis were observed. These results suggested that gum arabic and CNTG could be acting as activators of the CS. Thus, this effect on the CS, especially on the AP, which accounts for up to 80-90% of total CS activation, indicates that both fractions may be harmful because of their potential pro-inflammatory action. Considering that CS activation induces inflammatory response, further studies confirming this immunomodulatory effect of these fractions are required to insure their safe use. PMID:26972106

  2. [Infrared Spectrum Analysis of Propolis and Tree Gum Collected from Different Areas].

    PubMed

    Luo, Huo-lin; Liu, Xing-xing; Gong, Shang-ji; Guo, Xia-li; Luo, Li-ping

    2015-11-01

    Propolis possesses functions of antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, and liver protection, and is known as the "purple gold", however, the phenomenon which making and selling of counterfeit are growing in intensity. In order to establish a authenticity and quality of propolis evaluation model, in this paper, forty-one Chinese propolis, one proplis from United States and two tree gums were used for experimental materials. The infrared spectrum collection was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and principal component analysis (PCA) was used for data analysis. The result showed that, the intrared spectrum of propolis and tree gum were significantly different. The propolis characteristic peak only appeared in 2500-3500 and 400-1800 cm⁻¹. All propolis had two frequency region of characteristic peaks, 2849.08-2848.53 and 2917.74- 2916.76 cm⁻¹, but tree gum did not have characteristic peak in this region. The characteristic peaks of gum were in 1150-1300 and 1550-1650 cm⁻¹. Differences in these aspects can be used to distinguish propolis and gum, and can be used to identify true and false propolis. We use Qinghai propolis as a standard sample, in 42 samples, the matching degree of other propolis is > 80%. In addition, the result of PCA shows that tree gum and the propolis from different climate zone, or with different colors could be distinguished well. This paper firstly performed analysis on different propolis and gum by infrared spectrum, and a new method, for authenticity and quality of propolis identification, could be developed.

  3. A two-colored chewing gum test for assessing masticatory performance: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Endo, Toshiya; Komatsuzaki, Akira; Kurokawa, Hiroomi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Kojima, Koji

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare subjective and objective assessment methods of a two-colored chewing gum test and to find out whether these methods are capable of discriminating masticatory performances between sexes. 31 adults, 16 males and 15 females participated in this study. Each subject chewed five samples of two-colored chewing gum sticks for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 chewing strokes, respectively. The subjective color-mixing and shape indices for the gum bolus (SCMI-B, SSI-B) and the subjective color-mixing index and objective color-mixing ratio for the gum wafer (SCMI-W, OCMR-W) were evaluated by two independent examiners and, on a different day, re-evaluated by one of the examiners. The SCMI-B and SCMI-W assessments had inter- and intra-examiner reliable agreement at 20 or more chewing strokes. The OCMR-W measurement demonstrated high accuracy and low reproducibility between and within the examiners. There were significant gender differences in the distribution of SCMI-W scores (P = 0.044) and in the mean OCMI-W (P = 0.007). The SCMI-B and SCMI-W assessments and the OCMR-W measurement were reliable and valid at the 20 and 30 chewing strokes in this two-colored chewing gum test. The subjective color-mixing index (SCMI-W) and objective color-mixing ratio (OCMR-W) for the chewing gum wafer are capable of discriminating masticatory performance between sexes in this two-colored chewing gum test and that the OCMR-W measurement is discriminating better than the SCMI-W assessment.

  4. [Infrared Spectrum Analysis of Propolis and Tree Gum Collected from Different Areas].

    PubMed

    Luo, Huo-lin; Liu, Xing-xing; Gong, Shang-ji; Guo, Xia-li; Luo, Li-ping

    2015-11-01

    Propolis possesses functions of antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, and liver protection, and is known as the "purple gold", however, the phenomenon which making and selling of counterfeit are growing in intensity. In order to establish a authenticity and quality of propolis evaluation model, in this paper, forty-one Chinese propolis, one proplis from United States and two tree gums were used for experimental materials. The infrared spectrum collection was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and principal component analysis (PCA) was used for data analysis. The result showed that, the intrared spectrum of propolis and tree gum were significantly different. The propolis characteristic peak only appeared in 2500-3500 and 400-1800 cm⁻¹. All propolis had two frequency region of characteristic peaks, 2849.08-2848.53 and 2917.74- 2916.76 cm⁻¹, but tree gum did not have characteristic peak in this region. The characteristic peaks of gum were in 1150-1300 and 1550-1650 cm⁻¹. Differences in these aspects can be used to distinguish propolis and gum, and can be used to identify true and false propolis. We use Qinghai propolis as a standard sample, in 42 samples, the matching degree of other propolis is > 80%. In addition, the result of PCA shows that tree gum and the propolis from different climate zone, or with different colors could be distinguished well. This paper firstly performed analysis on different propolis and gum by infrared spectrum, and a new method, for authenticity and quality of propolis identification, could be developed. PMID:26978908

  5. Chronotherapeutic drug delivery of Tamarind gum, Chitosan and Okra gum controlled release colon targeted directly compressed Propranolol HCl matrix tablets and in-vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Newton, A M J; Indana, V L; Kumar, Jatinder

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this investigation is to develop a chronotherapeutic drug delivery of various natural polymers based colon targeted drug delivery systems to treat early morning sign in BP. The polymers such as Tamarind gum, Okra gum and Chitosan were used in the formulation design. A model drug Propranolol HCl was incorporated in the formulation in order to assess the controlled release and time dependent release potential of various natural polymers. A novel polymer Tamarind gum was extracted and used as a prime polymer in this study to prove the superiority of this polymer over other leading natural polymer. Propranolol HCl was used as a model drug which undergoes hepatic metabolism and witnesses the poor bioavailability. The matrix tablets of Propranolol HCl were prepared by direct compression. The tablets were evaluated for various quality control parameters and found to be within the limits. Carbopol 940 was used as an auxiliary polymer to modify the drug release and physicochemical characteristics of the tablets. The in vitro release studies were performed in 0.1N HCl for 1.5h, followed by pH 6.8 phosphate buffer for 2h and pH 7.4 phosphate buffer till maximum amount of drug release. The in vitro release profile of the formulations were fitted with various pharmacokinetic mathematical models and analyzed for release profile. The formulations prepared with Tamarind gum prolonged the release for an extended period of time compared to other polymer based formulation and showed an excellent compression characteristic.

  6. Dynamic light scattering of xanthan gum biopolymer in colloidal dispersion.

    PubMed

    Rahdar, Abbas; Almasi-Kashi, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    The dynamical properties of nanogels of xanthan gum (XG) with hydrodynamic radius controlled in a size range from 5 nm to 35 nm, were studied at the different XG concentrations in water/sodium bis-2-ethylhexyl-sulfosuccinate (AOT)/decane reverse micelles (RMs) vs. mass fraction of nano-droplet (MFD) at W = 40, using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The diffusion study of nanometer-sized droplets by DLS technique indicated that enhancing concentration of the XG polysaccharide resulted in exchanging the attractive interaction between nano-gels to repulsive interaction, as the mass fraction of nano-droplets increased. The reorientation time (τr ) of water nanodroplets decreased with MFD for water-in-oil AOT micro-emulsion comprising high concentration (0.0000625) of XG. On the other hand, decreasing concentration of biopolymer led to increasing the rotational correlation time of water nanodroplets with MFD. In conclusion, a single relaxation curve was observed for AOT inverse microemulsions containing different XG concentrations. Furthermore, the interaction between nanogels was changed from attractive to repulsive versus concentration of XG in the AOT RMs. PMID:27489730

  7. Inhalable Antitubercular Therapy Mediated by Locust Bean Gum Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana D; Cavaco, Joana S; Guerreiro, Filipa; Lourenço, João P; Rosa da Costa, Ana M; Grenha, Ana

    2016-05-28

    Tuberculosis remains a major global health problem and alternative therapeutic approaches are needed. Considering the high prevalence of lung tuberculosis (80% of cases), the pulmonary delivery of antitubercular drugs in a carrier system capable of reaching the alveoli, being recognised and phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages (mycobacterium hosts), would be a significant improvement to current oral drug regimens. Locust bean gum (LBG) is a polysaccharide composed of galactose and mannose residues, which may favour specific recognition by macrophages and potentiate phagocytosis. LBG microparticles produced by spray-drying are reported herein for the first time, incorporating either isoniazid or rifabutin, first-line antitubercular drugs (association efficiencies >82%). Microparticles have adequate theoretical properties for deep lung delivery (aerodynamic diameters between 1.15 and 1.67 μm). The cytotoxic evaluation in lung epithelial cells (A549 cells) and macrophages (THP-1 cells) revealed a toxic effect from rifabutin-loaded microparticles at the highest concentrations, but we may consider that these were very high comparing with in vivo conditions. LBG microparticles further evidenced strong ability to be captured by macrophages (percentage of phagocytosis >94%). Overall, the obtained data indicated the potential of the proposed system for tuberculosis therapy.

  8. Beyond the GUM: variance-based sensitivity analysis in metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, I.

    2016-07-01

    Variance-based sensitivity analysis is a well established tool for evaluating the contribution of the uncertainties in the inputs to the uncertainty in the output of a general mathematical model. While the literature on this subject is quite extensive, it has not found widespread use in metrological applications. In this article we present a succinct review of the fundamentals of sensitivity analysis, in a form that should be useful to most people familiarized with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). Through two examples, it is shown that in linear measurement models, no new knowledge is gained by using sensitivity analysis that is not already available after the terms in the so-called ‘law of propagation of uncertainties’ have been computed. However, if the model behaves non-linearly in the neighbourhood of the best estimates of the input quantities—and if these quantities are assumed to be statistically independent—sensitivity analysis is definitely advantageous for gaining insight into how they can be ranked according to their importance in establishing the uncertainty of the measurand.

  9. The effects of dietary gum tragacanth in man.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, M A; Brydon, W G; Anderson, D M

    1984-04-01

    Following a 7-day control period, 5 male volunteers consumed 9.9 g gum tragacanth (GT) daily for 21 days. The GT was well tolerated and there were no adverse effects in any of the volunteers. The daily intake was very high in relation to the minor amounts of GT (estimated at 2 g per person per annum) likely to be ingested as a foodstuffs additive. The wide range of measurements made before and at the end of the test period show that the ingestion of GT had no significant effect on any of the following: plasma biochemistry; haematological indices; urinalysis parameters; glucose tolerance; serum cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids; breath hydrogen and methane concentrations. The intestinal transit time decreased and faecal fat concentration increased (P less than 0.01) for 4 subjects. The faecal wet and dry weights increased in all subjects (P less than 0.01). These changes may be of nutritional and physiological interest but do not reflect any adverse toxicological effects arising from the ingestion of large daily doses of GT.

  10. Inhalable Antitubercular Therapy Mediated by Locust Bean Gum Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana D; Cavaco, Joana S; Guerreiro, Filipa; Lourenço, João P; Rosa da Costa, Ana M; Grenha, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a major global health problem and alternative therapeutic approaches are needed. Considering the high prevalence of lung tuberculosis (80% of cases), the pulmonary delivery of antitubercular drugs in a carrier system capable of reaching the alveoli, being recognised and phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages (mycobacterium hosts), would be a significant improvement to current oral drug regimens. Locust bean gum (LBG) is a polysaccharide composed of galactose and mannose residues, which may favour specific recognition by macrophages and potentiate phagocytosis. LBG microparticles produced by spray-drying are reported herein for the first time, incorporating either isoniazid or rifabutin, first-line antitubercular drugs (association efficiencies >82%). Microparticles have adequate theoretical properties for deep lung delivery (aerodynamic diameters between 1.15 and 1.67 μm). The cytotoxic evaluation in lung epithelial cells (A549 cells) and macrophages (THP-1 cells) revealed a toxic effect from rifabutin-loaded microparticles at the highest concentrations, but we may consider that these were very high comparing with in vivo conditions. LBG microparticles further evidenced strong ability to be captured by macrophages (percentage of phagocytosis >94%). Overall, the obtained data indicated the potential of the proposed system for tuberculosis therapy. PMID:27240337

  11. Antiglycating potential of gum arabic capped-silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Jalaluddin M; Ansari, Mohammad Azam; Choi, Inho; Khan, Haris M; Alzohairy, Mohammad A

    2014-09-01

    Advanced glycation end products are major contributors to the pathology of diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and atherosclerosis; accordingly, identification of antiglycation compounds is attracting considerable interest. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of gum arabic capped-silver nanoparticles on advanced glycation end products formation was monitored by several biophysical techniques. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bovine serum albumin and methylglyoxal mixtures incubated with increasing concentrations of silver nanoparticles showed significant reductions in advanced glycation end product formation that were confirmed by ultraviolet-visible, fluorescence spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. High-performance liquid chromatography showed decreased adduct formation of glycated protein in the presence of silver nanoparticles. The structural changes induced by silver nanoparticles were further confirmed by circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Strong inhibition of advanced glycation end product formation was observed in the presence of elevated silver nanoparticles. The results of this study suggest that silver nanoparticles are a potent antiglycating agent. PMID:25080376

  12. Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum: Dilute solution and some physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Hesarinejad, M A; Razavi, Seyed M A; Koocheki, A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of various temperatures (25-65°C) on some dilute solution properties of Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum (AHSG) as a novel potential source of hydrocolloid. Monosaccharide composition, FTIR analysis and molecular parameters were determined to provide more structural information. The results indicated that AHSG had a low molecular weight (3.66×10(5)Da), medium intrinsic viscosity (18.34dl/g) at 25°C, relatively flexible chain with a chain flexibility parameter of 618.54, and activation energy of 0.51×10(7)J/kgmol. With rise in temperature from 25 to 55°C, the intrinsic viscosity decreased as well as coil radius and volume of AHSG. The shape factor of AHSG macromolecule was spherical at all temperatures. The electrostatic interaction and particle size of AHSG solution were -25.81mV (at neutral pH) and 225.36nm, respectively. The results revealed that AHSG had high total sugar content (85.33%), small amount of uronic acids (5.63%) and it is likely a galactan-type polysaccharide. The FTIR spectra showed that AHSG behaved like a typical polyelectrolyte because of the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups.

  13. An evaluation of sodium bicarbonate chewing gum as a supplement to toothbrushing for removal of dental plaque from children's teeth.

    PubMed

    Kleber, C J; Davidson, K R; Rhoades, M L

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this human clinical study was to determine whether a commercial chewing gum containing 5% sodium bicarbonate (ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum [AHDC]) was effective in removing dental plaque when used as a supplement to regular toothbrushing by children. Healthy children (N = 28, average age = 11 years) were randomly distributed into 2 groups. One group was instructed to chew 2 tablets of AHDC chewing gum for 20 minutes 2 times each day (after lunch and dinner) in addition to their normal toothbrushing regimen. The other group used a sugarless mint tablet twice daily during the same period in addition to toothbrushing. After 1 week of using their assigned product, all participants were again examined for oral health and plaque. After a 1-week washout period, subjects were crossed over to the opposite group. Among the 21 participants completing the study, the AHDC chewing gum significantly (P < .0001) reduced plaque by 15% after 1 week compared to the mint tablet control, as measured by the Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index. When longitudinally compared to the baseline plaque scores, the gum resulted in a significant (P < .01) 10% reduction of plaque on the teeth. Subanalysis of the data showed that the AHDC chewing gum was particularly effective on the lingual surfaces and the posterior teeth and least effective on the facial surfaces of the anterior teeth, which do not readily come into direct contact with the gum during mastication. The bicarbonate gum demonstrated significant plaque reduction in all other areas of the mouth, even on tooth surfaces not directly contacted during chewing. Compliance with the chewing gum regimen was excellent, and oral health exams did not indicate any adverse events among children using either the chewing gum or mint tablets. In this study, regular use of AHDC chewing gum was safe and effective in removing dental plaque and served as a significant complement to the daily toothbrushing regimen of children

  14. Final report of the safety assessment of Acacia catechu gum, Acacia concinna fruit extract, Acacia dealbata leaf extract, Acacia dealbata leaf wax, Acacia decurrens extract, Acacia farnesiana extract, Acacia farnesiana flower wax, Acacia farnesiana gum, Acacia senegal extract, Acacia senegal gum, and Acacia senegal gum extract.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    These ingredients are derived from various species of the acacia plant. Only material derived from Acacia senegal are in current use according to industry data. The concentration at which these ingredients are reported to be used ranges from 9% in mascara to 0.0001% in tonics, dressings, and other hair-grooming aids. Gum arabic is a technical name for Acacia Senegal Gum. Gum arabic is comprised of various sugars and glucuronic acid residues in a long chain of galactosyl units with branched oligosaccharides. Gum arabic is generally recognized as safe as a direct food additive. Little information is available to characterize the extracts of other Acacia plant parts or material from other species. Acacia Concinna Fruit Extract was generally described as containing saponins, alkaloids, and malic acid with parabens and potassium sorbate added as preservatives. Cosmetic ingredient functions have been reported for Acacia Decurrens Extract (astringent; skin-conditioning agent--occlusive) and Acacia Farnesiana Extract (astringent), but not for the other Acacias included in this review. Toxicity data on gum arabic indicates little or no acute, short-term, or subchronic toxicity. Gum arabic is negative in several genotoxicity assays, is not a reproductive or developmental toxin, and is not carcinogenic when given intraperitoneally or orally. Clinical testing indicated some evidence of skin sensitization with gum arabic. The extensive safety test data on gum arabic supports the safety of Acacia Senegal Gum and Acacia Senegal Gum Extract, and it was concluded that these two ingredients are safe as used in cosmetic formulations. It was not possible, however, to relate the data on gum arabic to the crude Acacias and their extracts from species other than Acacia senegal. Therefore, the available data were considered insufficient to support the safety of Acacia Catechu Gum, Acacia Concinna Fruit Extract, Acacia Dealbata Leaf Extract, Acacia Dealbata Leaf Wax, Acacia Decurrens

  15. Effect of flaxseed gum on reduction of blood glucose and cholesterol in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Goutam; Mitra, Analava; Pal, Kunal; Rousseau, Dérick

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ingestion of flaxseed gum on blood glucose and cholesterol, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, in type 2 diabetes were evaluated. Flaxseed gum was incorporated in wheat flour chapattis. Sixty patients of type 2 diabetes were fed a daily diet for 3 months, along with six wheat flour chapattis containing flaxseed gum (5 g), as per the recommendations of the American Diabetic Association. The control group (60 individuals) consumed an identical diet but the chapattis were without gum. The blood biochemistry profiles monitored before starting the study and at monthly intervals showed fasting blood sugar in the experimental group decreased from 154 ± 8 mg/dl to 136 ± 7 mg/dl (P=0.03) while the total cholesterol reduced from 182 ± 11 mg/dl to 163 ± 9 mg/dl (P=0.03). Results showed a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol from 110 ± 8 mg/dl to 92 ± 9 mg/dl (P=0.02). The study demonstrated the efficacy of flax gum in the blood biochemistry profiles of type 2 diabetes. PMID:19548163

  16. Comparative studies of binding potential of Prunus armeniaca and Prunus domestica gums in tablets formulations.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Haroon; Khan, Mir Azam; Sadiq, Abdul; Khan, Shahzeb; Chishti, Kamran Ahmad; Rahman, Inayat U

    2015-05-01

    The current study was undertaken to compare the binding potential of Prunus armeniaca L. and Prunus domestica L. gums in tablets' formulations. Tablet batches (F-1 to F-9) were prepared Diclofenac sodium as model drug using 5%, 7.5% and 10% of each Prunus armeniaca L., Prunus domestica L. gums as binder. PVP K30 was used as a standard binder. Magnesium stearate was used as lubricant. Flow properties of granules (like bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, angle of repose) as well as the physical parameters of compressed tablets including hardness, friability, thickness and disintegration time were determined. Flow parameters of granules of all the batches were found good. Physical parameters (drug content, weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration time) of formulated tablets were found within limit when tested. The dissolution studies showed that tablets formulations containing each Prunus domestica showed better binding capacity compared to Prunus armeniaca gum. The binding potential increased as the concentration of gums increased. The FTIR spectroscopic investigation showed that the formulations containing plant gum are compatible with the drug and other excipients used.

  17. Hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from bulbs of hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kensuke; Kotake, Toshihisa; Boncela, Anna Jarecka; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2015-02-01

    Hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis) bulbs infected by Fusarium oxysporum showed the symptoms of gummosis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from hyacinth bulbs. The application of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid), an ethylene-releasing compound, at 2% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis in hyacinth bulbs. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) at 1.5% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis as well. Simultaneous application of JA-Me and ethephon further enhanced gummosis. Molecular mass distribution of hyacinth gums analyzed by gel permeation chromatography indicated that the gums were mainly homogenous polysaccharides with an average molecular weight of ca. 30kDa. Analysis of the sugar composition of the gums after hydrolysis revealed that the majority were arabinose (ca. 35%) and galactose (ca. 40%) together with small amounts of fucose, rhamnose and uronic acids (ca. 5%, respectively), suggesting that the gums are pectic arabinogalactans. These results indicate that jasmonates (JAs) interact with ethylene to stimulate sugar metabolism, producing pectic arabinogalactans, and vice versa, leading to gummosis. These findings, together with those from our previous studies in tulips (Tulipa gesneriana) and grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum), revealed that sugar metabolism and hormonal regulation relating to gummosis are different among species of bulbous plants.

  18. Hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from bulbs of hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kensuke; Kotake, Toshihisa; Boncela, Anna Jarecka; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2015-02-01

    Hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis) bulbs infected by Fusarium oxysporum showed the symptoms of gummosis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the hormonal regulation of gummosis and composition of gums from hyacinth bulbs. The application of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid), an ethylene-releasing compound, at 2% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis in hyacinth bulbs. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) at 1.5% (w/w, in lanolin) induced gummosis as well. Simultaneous application of JA-Me and ethephon further enhanced gummosis. Molecular mass distribution of hyacinth gums analyzed by gel permeation chromatography indicated that the gums were mainly homogenous polysaccharides with an average molecular weight of ca. 30kDa. Analysis of the sugar composition of the gums after hydrolysis revealed that the majority were arabinose (ca. 35%) and galactose (ca. 40%) together with small amounts of fucose, rhamnose and uronic acids (ca. 5%, respectively), suggesting that the gums are pectic arabinogalactans. These results indicate that jasmonates (JAs) interact with ethylene to stimulate sugar metabolism, producing pectic arabinogalactans, and vice versa, leading to gummosis. These findings, together with those from our previous studies in tulips (Tulipa gesneriana) and grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum), revealed that sugar metabolism and hormonal regulation relating to gummosis are different among species of bulbous plants. PMID:25462960

  19. Surface analysis characterisation of gum binders used in modern watercolour paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Naoko; Cumpson, Peter J.

    2016-02-01

    Conducting this study has demonstrated that not only SEM-EDX but also XPS can be an efficient tool for characterising watercolour paint surfaces. We find that surface effects are mediated by water. Once the powdered components in the watercolour come into contact with water they dramatically transform their chemical structures at the surface and show the presence of pigment components with a random dispersion within the gum layer. Hence the topmost surface of the paint is confirmed as being composed of the gum binder components. This result is difficult to confirm using just one analytical technique (either XPS or SEM-EDX). In addition, peak fitting of C1s XPS spectra suggests that the gum binder in the commercial watercolour paints is probably gum arabic (by comparison with the reference materials). This identification is not conclusive, but the combination techniques of XPS and SEM shows the surface structure with material distribution of the gum binder and the other ingredients of the watercolour paints. Therefore as a unique technique, XPS combined with SEM-EDX may prove a useful method in the study of surface structure for not only watercolour objects but also other art objects; which may in future help in the conservation for art.

  20. Inter- and intra-manufacturer variability in pharmaceutical grades and lots of xanthan gum.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Ankur; Fu, Shao; Boni, Riccardo L; Block, Lawrence H

    2010-12-01

    A pharmaceutical formulation typically contains one or more excipients in addition to the active pharmaceutical ingredient(s). Though excipients have been considered inert components of a formulation, variability in their properties has been shown to affect the performance of drug dosage forms and delivery systems. This study investigates the inter- and intra-manufacturer variability among different NF grades and lots of xanthan gum made by two manufacturers. As many formulators rely on compendial standards to monitor and control the variability of excipients, this study focuses on the adequacy of the NF specifications, in particular the viscosity specification, to discern the variability in solution properties of different pharmaceutical grades and lots of xanthan gum. All the grades and lots in this study were NF grade materials. Xanthan gum solutions were prepared in accordance with NF test methodology and were rheologically evaluated using a rotational rheometer. Both steady shear measurements and small amplitude oscillatory measurements were carried out on 1% w/w xanthan gum solutions. Results showed significant inter- and intra-manufacturer variability among the NF grades and lots of xanthan gum that was not reflected in the NF viscosity test specifications.

  1. Structure of xanthan gum and cell ultrastructure at different times of alkali stress

    PubMed Central

    de Mello Luvielmo, Márcia; Borges, Caroline Dellinghausen; de Oliveira Toyama, Daniela; Vendruscolo, Claire Tondo; Scamparini, Adilma Regina Pippa

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alkali stress on the yield, viscosity, gum structure, and cell ultrastructure of xanthan gum was evaluated at the end of fermentation process of xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis 280-95. Although greater xanthan production was observed after a 24 h-alkali stress process, a lower viscosity was observed when compared to the alkali stress-free gum, regardless of the alkali stress time. However, this outcome is not conclusive as further studies on gum purification are required to remove excess sodium, verify the efficiency loss and the consequent increase in the polymer viscosity. Alkali stress altered the structure of xanthan gum from a polygon-like shape to a star-like form. At the end of the fermentation, early structural changes in the bacterium were observed. After alkali stress, marked structural differences were observed in the cells. A more vacuolated cytoplasm and discontinuities in the membrane cells evidenced the cell lysis. Xanthan was observed in the form of concentric circles instead of agglomerates as observed prior to the alkali stress. PMID:26887232

  2. Biosynthesis of xanthan gum by Xanthomonas campestris LRELP-1 using kitchen waste as the sole substrate.

    PubMed

    Li, Panyu; Li, Ting; Zeng, Yu; Li, Xiang; Jiang, Xiaolong; Wang, Yabo; Xie, Tonghui; Zhang, Yongkui

    2016-10-20

    Herein, we report the production of xanthan gum by fermentation using kitchen waste as the sole substrate. The kitchen waste was firstly pretreated by a simple hydrolysis method, after which the obtained kitchen waste hydrolysate was diluted with an optimal ratio 1:2. In a 5-L fermentor, the maximum xanthan production, reducing sugar conversion and utilization rates reached 11.73g/L, 67.07% and 94.82%, respectively. The kinetics of batch fermentation was also investigated. FT-IR and XRD characterizations confirmed the fermentation product as xanthan gum. TGA analyses showed that the thermal stability of the xanthan gum obtained in this study was similar to commercial sample. The molecular weights of xanthan gum were measured to be 0.69-1.37×10(6)g/mol. The maximum pyruvate and acetyl contents in xanthan gum were 6.11% and 2.49%, respectively. This study provides a cost-effective solution for the reusing of kitchen waste and a possible low-cost approach for xanthan production. PMID:27474614

  3. Mechanical and barrier properties of guar gum based nano-composite films.

    PubMed

    Saurabh, Chaturbhuj K; Gupta, Sumit; Bahadur, Jitendra; Mazumder, S; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-25

    Guar gum based nano-composite films were prepared using organically modified (cloisite 20A) and unmodified (nanofil 116) nanoclays. Effect of nanoclay incorporation on mechanical strength, water vapor barrier property, chromatic characteristics and opacity of films was evaluated. Nano-composites were characterized using X-ray scattering, FTIR and scanning electron microscopy. A nanoclay concentration dependent increase in mechanical strength and reduction in water vapor transmission rate was observed. Films containing nanofil 116 (2.5% w/w guar gum) and closite 20A (10% w/w guar gum) demonstrated a 102% and 41% higher tensile strength, respectively, as compared to the control. Lower tensile strength of cloisite 20A films as compared to nanofil 116 films was due to its incompatibility with guar gum. X-ray scattering analysis revealed that interstitial spacing between nanofil 116 and cloisite 20A sheets increased due to intercalation by guar gum polymer. This resulted in improved mechanical and barrier properties of nano-composites compared to control. PMID:25839796

  4. Electrically conducting silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, E S; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2014-08-01

    This article describes the synthesis of an electrically conducting silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite hydrogel. The synthesis process started with grafting acrylic acid monomers onto the natural polymer guar gum by the use of ammonium persulphate as a free radical initiator in acid medium. Guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) graft copolymer was separated from the polymerization medium, purified and subjected to crosslinking treatment, using alkaline epichlorohydrin as a crosslinking agent. Silver nitrate solution was added during the crosslinking treatment in varying concentrations, that the reaction conditions affect crosslinking of guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) graft copolymer to a hydrogel, as well as reduction of silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles, giving rise to the formation of silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite. Factors affecting the grafting reaction as well as those affecting the crosslinking/reduction treatment were optimized. The so synthesized nanocomposite hydrogel samples were fully characterized, regarding their contents of silver nanoparticles and swelling ratio. The electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite hydrogel was studied and it was found to be affected by the swelling ratio of the hydrogel as well as its content of silver nanoparticles. PMID:24928058

  5. Electrically conducting silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, E S; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2014-08-01

    This article describes the synthesis of an electrically conducting silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite hydrogel. The synthesis process started with grafting acrylic acid monomers onto the natural polymer guar gum by the use of ammonium persulphate as a free radical initiator in acid medium. Guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) graft copolymer was separated from the polymerization medium, purified and subjected to crosslinking treatment, using alkaline epichlorohydrin as a crosslinking agent. Silver nitrate solution was added during the crosslinking treatment in varying concentrations, that the reaction conditions affect crosslinking of guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) graft copolymer to a hydrogel, as well as reduction of silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles, giving rise to the formation of silver/guar gum/poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite. Factors affecting the grafting reaction as well as those affecting the crosslinking/reduction treatment were optimized. The so synthesized nanocomposite hydrogel samples were fully characterized, regarding their contents of silver nanoparticles and swelling ratio. The electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite hydrogel was studied and it was found to be affected by the swelling ratio of the hydrogel as well as its content of silver nanoparticles.

  6. Comparative studies of binding potential of Prunus armeniaca and Prunus domestica gums in tablets formulations.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Haroon; Khan, Mir Azam; Sadiq, Abdul; Khan, Shahzeb; Chishti, Kamran Ahmad; Rahman, Inayat U

    2015-05-01

    The current study was undertaken to compare the binding potential of Prunus armeniaca L. and Prunus domestica L. gums in tablets' formulations. Tablet batches (F-1 to F-9) were prepared Diclofenac sodium as model drug using 5%, 7.5% and 10% of each Prunus armeniaca L., Prunus domestica L. gums as binder. PVP K30 was used as a standard binder. Magnesium stearate was used as lubricant. Flow properties of granules (like bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, angle of repose) as well as the physical parameters of compressed tablets including hardness, friability, thickness and disintegration time were determined. Flow parameters of granules of all the batches were found good. Physical parameters (drug content, weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration time) of formulated tablets were found within limit when tested. The dissolution studies showed that tablets formulations containing each Prunus domestica showed better binding capacity compared to Prunus armeniaca gum. The binding potential increased as the concentration of gums increased. The FTIR spectroscopic investigation showed that the formulations containing plant gum are compatible with the drug and other excipients used. PMID:26004724

  7. Green stabilization of microscale iron particles using guar gum: bulk rheology, sedimentation rate and enzymatic degradation.

    PubMed

    Gastone, Francesca; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-05-01

    Guar gum can be used to effectively improve stability and mobility of microscale zerovalent iron particles (MZVI) used in groundwater remediation. Guar gum is a food-grade, environment friendly natural polysaccharide, which is often used as thickening agent in a broad range of food, pharmaceutical and industrial applications. Guar gum solutions are non-Newtonian, shear thinning fluids, characterized by high viscosity in static conditions and low viscosity in dynamic conditions. In particular, the high zero shear viscosity guarantees the MZVI dispersion stability, reducing the sedimentation rate of the particles thus enabling its storage and field operations. In this work, a comprehensive rheological characterization of guar gum-based slurries of MZVI particles is provided. First, we derived a model to link the bulk shear viscosity to the concentration of guar gum and then we applied it for the derivation of a modified Stokes law for the prediction of the sedimentation rate of the iron particles. The influence of the preparation procedure (cold or hot dissolution and high shear processing) on the viscosity and on the stability of the suspensions was then assessed. Finally, the dosage and concentration of enzymes - an environment friendly breaker--were studied for enhancing and controlling the degradation kinetics of the suspensions. The derived empirical relationships can be used for the implementation of an iron slurry flow and transport model and for the design of full scale injection interventions.

  8. Tragacanth gum-based nanogel as a superparamagnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for quercetin recognition and controlled release.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Khadijeh; Masoumi, Arameh; Ghaemy, Mousa

    2016-01-20

    A highly selective magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP) with core-shell structure has been synthesized by a sol-gel process composed of Tragacanth Gum (TG) crosslinker, Fe3O4/SiO2 nanoparticles, and N-vinyl imidazole(VI) functional monomer in the presence of template Quercetin (QC). Different techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to verify the successful synthesis of MIP on the surface of Fe3O4/SiO2 nanoparticles. The swelling behavior of MMIP, its recognition and selectivity for QC and structural analog, Catechin (CT), were tested and compared with magnetic non imprinted polymer (MNIP). MMIP adsorbs the template drug quickly and equilibrium could be reached in 2h. The mechanism for adsorption was found to follow the Langmuir model with the maximum capacity of 175.43 mg g(-1). The MMIP indicated excellent recognition and binding affinity toward QC, selectivity factor (ɛ) relative to CT was 2.16. Finally, the MMIP was evaluated as a drug delivery device by performing in vitro release studies in PBS.

  9. Nicotine Gum and Self-Help Behavioral Treatment for Smoking Relapse Prevention: Results from a Trial Using Population-Based Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortmann, Stephen P.; Killen, Joel D.

    1995-01-01

    Smokers were randomized using a factorial design to compare nicotine gum use to no gum use, and self-help materials to no materials. Compared with the no-gum group, relapse occurred at a significantly lower rate in the gum group for the entire 12 months of follow-up. There was no significant main effect for the self-help materials and no…

  10. Effect of pH on the rheological properties of borate crosslinked hydroxypropyl guar gum hydrogel and hydroxypropyl guar gum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shibin; Tang, Hongbiao; Guo, Jianchun; Wang, Kunjie

    2016-08-20

    pH is an important factor affecting the performance of polymer fluid. The rheological properties of hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG) base fluid and the structural strength, rheological properties, viscoelastic properties and thixotropy properties of HPG gel depend largely on the pH values. For the base fluid, an apparent viscosity-increasing effect was observed over the pH range from 7 to 11, and the apparent viscosity gradually decreased at pH 11.5-14, exhibiting electrostatic repulsion behavior and steric effects. For the HPG gel, at pH 7-12.5, the gel possessed higher apparent viscosity, higher elastic modulus (G'), lower tanδ (the ratio of the viscous modulus to the elastic modulus) and an "8"-shaped hysteresis loop, indicating stronger gel structure strength and the elastic dominant property. At pH 13-13.5, the gel samples exhibited the transition from a pseudoplastic fluid to a Newtonian fluid, and their viscosity, elastic modulus decreased but tanδ increased with the increase in pH values, exhibiting gradually weakened elastic properties. When the pH was 14, the gel mainly exhibited viscous characteristics. PMID:27178952

  11. Effect of pH on the rheological properties of borate crosslinked hydroxypropyl guar gum hydrogel and hydroxypropyl guar gum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shibin; Tang, Hongbiao; Guo, Jianchun; Wang, Kunjie

    2016-08-20

    pH is an important factor affecting the performance of polymer fluid. The rheological properties of hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG) base fluid and the structural strength, rheological properties, viscoelastic properties and thixotropy properties of HPG gel depend largely on the pH values. For the base fluid, an apparent viscosity-increasing effect was observed over the pH range from 7 to 11, and the apparent viscosity gradually decreased at pH 11.5-14, exhibiting electrostatic repulsion behavior and steric effects. For the HPG gel, at pH 7-12.5, the gel possessed higher apparent viscosity, higher elastic modulus (G'), lower tanδ (the ratio of the viscous modulus to the elastic modulus) and an "8"-shaped hysteresis loop, indicating stronger gel structure strength and the elastic dominant property. At pH 13-13.5, the gel samples exhibited the transition from a pseudoplastic fluid to a Newtonian fluid, and their viscosity, elastic modulus decreased but tanδ increased with the increase in pH values, exhibiting gradually weakened elastic properties. When the pH was 14, the gel mainly exhibited viscous characteristics.

  12. Covalent coupling of gum arabic onto superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI cell labeling: physicochemical and in vitro characterization.

    PubMed

    Palma, Susana I C J; Carvalho, Alexandra; Silva, Joana; Martins, Pedro; Marciello, Marzia; Fernandes, Alexandra R; del Puerto Morales, Maria; Roque, Ana C A

    2015-01-01

    Gum arabic (GA) is a hydrophilic composite polysaccharide derived from exudates of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal trees. It is biocompatible, possesses emulsifying and stabilizing properties and has been explored as coating agent of nanomaterials for biomedical applications, namely magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Previous studies focused on the adsorption of GA onto MNPs produced by co-precipitation methods. In this work, MNPs produced by a thermal decomposition method, known to produce uniform particles with better crystalline properties, were used for the covalent coupling of GA through its free amine groups, which increases the stability of the coating layer. The MNPs were produced by thermal decomposition of Fe(acac)3 in organic solvent and, after ligand-exchange with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), GA coating was achieved by the establishment of a covalent bond between DMSA and GA moieties. Clusters of several magnetic cores entrapped in a shell of GA were obtained, with good colloidal stability and promising magnetic relaxation properties (r2 /r1 ratio of 350). HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cell line was used for in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation and cell-labeling efficiency studies. We show that, upon administration at the respective IC50 , GA coating enhances MNP cellular uptake by 19 times compared to particles bearing only DMSA moieties. Accordingly, in vitro MR images of cells incubated with increasing concentrations of GA-coated MNP present dose-dependent contrast enhancement. The obtained results suggest that the GA magnetic nanosystem could be used as a MRI contrast agent for cell-labeling applications. PMID:25766788

  13. The effect of chewing gum on physiological and self-rated measures of alertness and daytime sleepiness.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher; Haddrell, Ben; Harrison, Emily; Osborne, Liam; Wilson, Nigel; Jenks, Rebecca

    2012-02-01

    The proposition that chewing gum can improve alertness was investigated via both physiological and self-rated measures. The Pupillographic Sleepiness Test (PST) provided a measure of pupillary unrest (PUI); a physiological index of daytime sleepiness. Chewing gum reduced the extent of sleepiness as measured by both PUI and self-rated sleepiness. Specifically, in comparison with sham chewing and no chewing controls, the chewing gum condition significantly limited the increase in pupillary unrest following the 11-minute PST within a darkened laboratory: a finding indicating moderation of the daytime sleepiness increase for the chewing gum condition. In addition, there was some evidence that chewing gum (relative to the no-chewing condition only) moderated the increase in a self-rated measure of sleepiness (Stanford Sleepiness Scale). However, there was no evidence that chewing gum moderated the decrease in self-rated alertness (Bond-Lader Visual Analogue Mood Scale). Although the precise mechanism underpinning the effect of chewing gum is unclear, the reduction in daytime sleepiness may be underpinned via heightened cerebral activity following the chewing of gum or the arousing effects of mint flavour. PMID:22061430

  14. 78 FR 43143 - Xanthan Gum From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Less Than Fair Value, 78 FR 33351 (June 4, 2013) (``Final Determination''). \\2\\ See Xanthan Gum from... blended include, but are not limited to, sugars, minerals, and salts. Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide produced by aerobic fermentation of Xanthomonas campestris. The chemical structure of the...

  15. Overexpression, purification, biochemical characterization, and molecular modeling of recombinant GDP-mannosyltransferase (GumH) from Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Muniz, João Renato C; Alves, Claudia A; de Pieri, Celina; Beltramini, Leila M; Selistre-de-Araújo, Heloisa S; Vettore, André L; da Silva, Felipe R; Arruda, Paulo; Garratt, Richard C; Oliva, Glaucius; Souza, Dulce H F

    2004-03-01

    The GumH enzyme from Xylella fastidiosa catalyzes the transfer reaction of a mannose from GDP-mannose to the carrier lipid cellobiose-pyrophosphate-polyprenol (Glc(2)-PP-Lip), an intermediary in the reaction for the synthesis of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) fastidian gum. The gumH gene was subcloned in the pMal-c2x vector, allowing the expression of the GumH-MBP fusion protein. Various attempts were made to obtain protein with the necessary degree of purity for crystallographic studies but the yield was very low. The gumH gene was then subcloned in the pET28a vector allowing the expression of the GumH enzyme in fusion with a histidine-rich peptide. The protein was purified and characterized. The three-dimensional structure of the X. fastidiosa GumH enzyme was modeled by threading studies. The model consists of N- and C-terminal domains similar in size and topology and separated by a deep cleft, which includes the EX(7)E motif that can be involved in the catalysis of GumH. PMID:14766234

  16. Effects of different emulsifier types, fat contents, and gum types on retardation of staling of microwave-baked cakes.

    PubMed

    Seyhun, Nadide; Sumnu, Gülüm; Sahin, Serpil

    2003-08-01

    The effects of different types of emulsifiers, gums, and fat contents on the retardation of staling of microwave-baked cakes were investigated. First, different types of emulsifiers (DATEM, Lecigran, and Purawave) at three different fat contents (50%, 25%, and 0%) were added to cake formulations to retard staling of microwave-baked cakes. Then, three types of gums (guar gum, xanthan gum, and methylcellulose) were added to the optimum formulations chosen. As a control, cakes formulated without any emulsifier or gum addition and baked in an conventional oven at 175 degrees C for 25 min was used. Weight loss, firmness, soluble starch and amylose content of the cakes were used as the indicators of staling criteria. Cakes were baked in a microwave oven for 1.5 min at 100% power. Variation of staling parameters during storage of cakes followed zero-order kinetics. Use of emulsifiers and gums helped to retard staling of microwave-baked cakes. Fat content was found to be a significant factor in affecting variation of firmness and weight loss of the cakes during storage. DATEM and Purawave were the most effective emulsifier types. Using gums in combination with emulsifiers gave better moisture retention and softer cakes than using gums alone.

  17. Gum arabic-curcumin conjugate micelles with enhanced loading for curcumin delivery to hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sarika, P R; James, Nirmala Rachel; Kumar, P R Anil; Raj, Deepa K; Kumary, T V

    2015-12-10

    Curcumin is conjugated to gum arabic, a highly water soluble polysaccharide to enhance the solubility and stability of curcumin. Conjugation of curcumin to gum arabic is confirmed by (1)H NMR, fluorescence and UV spectroscopy studies. The conjugate self assembles to spherical nano-micelles (270 ± 5 nm) spontaneously, when dispersed in aqueous medium. Spherical morphology of the self assembled conjugate is evidenced by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The self assembly of the amphiphilic conjugate into micelle in aqueous medium significantly enhances the solubility (900 fold of that of free curcumin) and stability of curcumin in physiological pH. The anticancer activity of the conjugate micelles is found to be higher in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells than in human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. The conjugate exhibits enhanced accumulation and toxicity in HepG2 cells due to the targeting efficiency of the galactose groups present in gum arabic.

  18. The GUM revision: the Bayesian view toward the expression of measurement uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, I.

    2016-03-01

    The ‘Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement’ (GUM) has been in use for more than 20 years, serving its purposes worldwide at all levels of metrology, from scientific to industrial and commercial applications. However, the GUM presents some inconsistencies, both internally and with respect to its two later Supplements. For this reason, the Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology, which is responsible for these documents, has decided that a major revision of the GUM is needed. This will be done by following the principles of Bayesian statistics, a concise summary of which is presented in this article. Those principles should be useful in physics and engineering laboratory courses that teach the fundamentals of data analysis and measurement uncertainty evaluation.

  19. Structural features of an arabinogalactan gum exudates from Spondias dulsis (Anacardiaceae).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Maritza; León de Pinto, Gladys; Sanabria, Lilian; Beltrán, Olga; Igartuburu, José M; Bahsas, Ali

    2003-03-28

    The tree Spondias dulcis, located in Venezuela, exudes a light-brown gum. The polysaccharide, isolated from the original gum, contains galactose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, and its 4-O-methyl derivative. Application of chemical methods, in combination with 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy afforded interesting structural features of the gum polysaccharide. The unequivocal presence of rhamnose in the polymer structure was confirmed by chemical and spectral data [1H (1.03 ppm); 13C (16.92 ppm)]. Also confirmed was the existence of 3-O- and 6-O-substitutes galactose residues by the spectral data correlations observed in Heteronuclear Multiple Quantum Coherence (HMQC) and Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation (HMBC). Also observed were unequivocal resonances for beta-D-glucuronic acid and its 4-O-methyl derivative, and the presence of 3-O-alpha-L-arabinofuranose and 3-O-beta-L-arabinopyranose residues.

  20. Effect of sucrose on the perceived flavor intensity of chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J M; Linforth, R S; Hollowood, T A; Taylor, A J

    1999-10-01

    The release of sucrose and menthone from chewing gum was measured in-mouth and in-nose, respectively, during eating. Swabs of saliva were taken from the tongue and analyzed using a rapid, direct liquid-mass spectrometry procedure. Menthone concentration in-nose was monitored on a breath-by-breath basis using direct gas phase atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Simultaneously with the volatile release, trained panelists followed the change in mint flavor by time-intensity (TI) analysis. Two types of commercial chewing gum were analyzed. Both showed that the panelists perception of mint flavor followed sucrose release rather than menthone release. The temporal analysis of the chemical stimuli, with simultaneous TI analysis, provided unequivocal evidence of the perceptual interaction between nonvolatile and volatile flavor compounds from chewing gum. PMID:10552812

  1. Xylitol Gum Chewing to Achieve Early Postoperative Restoration of Bowel Motility After Laparoscopic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yunhui; Zhang, Qianwen; Qiao, Lin; Lv, Donghao; Ruan, Jiaying; Chen, Hongqin; Gong, Junming; Shi, Gang

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of postoperative xylitol gum chewing on gastrointestinal functional recovery after laparoscopy. Altogether, 120 patients undergoing elective gynecologic laparoscopy were randomly divided into 2 groups of 60 each (final numbers: 53 controls, 56 patients). Controls underwent a routine postoperative regimen. Starting 6 hour after surgery, study patients chewed mint-flavored, sugarless xylitol gum until flatus occurred thrice a day. Other postoperative management was routine. First bowel sounds, first flatus, first bowel movement, and discharge times were recorded. Symptoms included abdominal distension, nausea, and vomiting. First flatus and first bowel sounds occurred significantly (P<0.001) earlier in the study patients. No significant differences were found for first defecation time, hospitalization duration, or mild/severe intestinal obstruction (all P>0.05). Thus, xylitol gum chewing after laparoscopy can effectively shorten the time to first flatus and helps with postoperative gastrointestinal functional recovery. It is simple, convenient, and well tolerated. PMID:26121546

  2. Lack of carcinogenicity of tragacanth gum in B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, A; Boonyaphiphat, P; Kawabe, M; Naito, H; Shirai, T; Ito, N

    1992-08-01

    Tragacanth gum was administered at dietary levels of 0 (control), 1.25 and 5.0% to groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice for 96 wk after which all animals were maintained on a basal diet without tragacanth gum for a further 10 wk. Mean body weights of females in the 5.0% and 1.25% groups were lower than those of the controls after 11 and 16 wk, respectively. However, there were no treatment-related clinical signs or adverse effects on survival rate, urinalysis, haematology, blood biochemistry and organ weight. While detailed histopathology revealed the development of squamous cell hyperplasias, papillomas and one carcinoma in the forestomach, there was no significant treatment-related increase in the incidence of any preneoplastic or neoplastic lesion. Thus, under the experimental conditions used, tragacanth gum was not carcinogenic in B6C3F1 mice of either sex.

  3. Oxidation and gum formation in diesel fuels. Interim technical report, May-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, F.R.

    1985-12-20

    This Report describes experiments on oxidation and gum formation from n-dodecane, tetralin, and several diesel fuels at 43, 60, and 100 C, with and without added initiators, t-butyl peroxide and 2,2'azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (ABN). Experiments on gum determination and a manuscript for publication, Gum and Deposit Formation from Jet Turbine and Diesel Fuels at 100 C, are included. One objective of work on this Contract is to relate oxidations of diesel fuels at 100 and 130 C, where experiments can be performed in hours or days, to standard tests for fuel stability at ambient temperatures and 43.3 C (110 F), which require many weeks. A second objective is to devise a fast test for fuel stability.

  4. Effect of dry heating with ionic gums on physicochemical properties of starch.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingjie; Si, Fumei; Xiong, Liu; Chu, Lijun

    2013-02-15

    Corn starch, potato starch, pea starch were impregnated with ionic gums (sodium alginate, CMC, and xanthan, 1% based on starch solids) and heat-treated in a dry state for 0, 2, or 4 h at 130°C. Effects of the dry heating on paste viscosity (RVA), microstructure and thermal properties were examined. Dry heat treatment with ionic gums reduced the pasting temperature of the three starches. Heating with xanthan increased the paste viscosity of corn and potato starch. With heat treatment, the paste viscosity of all the starch-sodium alginate mixtures decreased. Heating with CMC increased the paste viscosity of potato starch, but decreased that of corn and pea starch. After dry-heating, To, Tp and Tc of potato starch with ionic gums decreased significantly. SEM of potato starch with CMC showed that the gel structure got compacter after drying-heating. Heat treatment obviously improved the functional properties of the three starches. PMID:23194543

  5. Glutamate transport and xanthan gum production in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Robert; Nishidomi, Sabrina; Nepomuceno, Roberto; Oshiro, Elisa; de Cassia Café Ferreira, Rita

    2013-11-01

    L-glutamate plays a central role in nitrogen metabolism in all living organisms. In the genus Xanthomonas, the nitrogen nutrition is an important factor involved in the xanthan gum production, an important exopolysaccharide with various industrial and biotechnological applications. In this report, we demonstrate that the use of L-glutamate by the phytopathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri as a nitrogen source in defined medium significantly increases the production of xanthan gum. This increase is dependent on the L-glutamate concentration. In addition, we have also characterized a glutamate transport system that is dependent on a proton gradient and on ATP and is modulated by amino acids that are structurally related to glutamate. This is the first biochemical characterization of an energy substrate transport system observed in a bacterial phytopathogen with a broad economic and industrial impact due to xanthan gum production. PMID:23719672

  6. Oxidation of linoleic acid encapsulated with gum arabic or maltodextrin by spray-drying.

    PubMed

    Minemoto, Y; Hakamata, K; Adachi, S; Matsuno, R

    2002-01-01

    Linoleic acid was emulsified with gum arabic or maltodextrin at various weight ratios of the acid to the polysaccharide in the presence or absence of a small-molecule emulsifier. The emulsions were spray-dried to produce microcapsules. Emulsions prepared with gum arabic were smaller in droplet size and more stable than those prepared with maltodextrin, and linoleic acid in a gum arabic-based microcapsule was also most resistant to oxidation than that in a maltodextrin-based microcapsule. Although the oil droplet size in the emulsion with maltodextrin decreased and the emulsion stability was improved by addition of a small-molecule emulsifier to linoleic acid, the oxidative stability of the encapsulated linoleic acid was not significantly improved. Encapsulated linoleic acid of small droplet size oxidized more slowly than that of large droplet size.

  7. Xylitol Gum Chewing to Achieve Early Postoperative Restoration of Bowel Motility After Laparoscopic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yunhui; Zhang, Qianwen; Qiao, Lin; Lv, Donghao; Ruan, Jiaying; Chen, Hongqin; Gong, Junming; Shi, Gang

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of postoperative xylitol gum chewing on gastrointestinal functional recovery after laparoscopy. Altogether, 120 patients undergoing elective gynecologic laparoscopy were randomly divided into 2 groups of 60 each (final numbers: 53 controls, 56 patients). Controls underwent a routine postoperative regimen. Starting 6 hour after surgery, study patients chewed mint-flavored, sugarless xylitol gum until flatus occurred thrice a day. Other postoperative management was routine. First bowel sounds, first flatus, first bowel movement, and discharge times were recorded. Symptoms included abdominal distension, nausea, and vomiting. First flatus and first bowel sounds occurred significantly (P<0.001) earlier in the study patients. No significant differences were found for first defecation time, hospitalization duration, or mild/severe intestinal obstruction (all P>0.05). Thus, xylitol gum chewing after laparoscopy can effectively shorten the time to first flatus and helps with postoperative gastrointestinal functional recovery. It is simple, convenient, and well tolerated.

  8. Dose response of xylitol and sorbitol for EPR retrospective dosimetry with applications to chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Israelsson, A; Gustafsson, H; Lund, E

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signal in sweeteners xylitol and sorbitol for use in retrospective dosimetry. For both sweeteners and chewing gum, the signal changed at an interval of 1-84 d after irradiation with minimal changes after 4-8 d. A dependence on storage conditions was noticed and the exposure of the samples to light and humidity was therefore minimised. Both the xylitol and sorbitol signals showed linearity with dose in the measured dose interval, 0-20 Gy. The dose-response measurements for the chewing gum resulted in a decision threshold of 0.38 Gy and a detection limit of 0.78 Gy. A blind test illustrated the possibility of using chewing gums as a retrospective dosemeter with an uncertainty in the dose determination of 0.17 Gy (1 SD).

  9. Increased mesquite gum formation in nodal explants cultures after treatment with a microbial biomass preparation.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Villafuerte, Juan; Buendía-González, Leticia; Cruz-Sosa, Francisco; Vernon-Carter, Eduardo J

    2005-08-01

    Prosopis laevigata nodal explants cultures were established in Murashige and Skoog medium. Simultaneously these cultures were subjected to stress with biotic elicitors and an environmental factor (temperature increase to promote heat stress) in order to promote and increase exuded mesquite gum production. The biotic elicitors were: Aspergillus nidulans and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes both used in concentrations of 10, 20 and 30 mg, whereas the environmental condition was different incubation temperatures (25, 35 and 40 degrees C). The greatest gum production (approximately 13 mg of pooled gum from 100 explants after 14 days incubation) took place when the culture medium was added 10, 20 and 30 mg of autoclaved fungal mycelium of A. nidulans or 30 mg of autoclaved bacterial biomass of P. pseudoalcaligenes in combination with an incubation temperature of 35 degrees C. These treatments were non-significantly different among themselves (P < 0.05), but were significantly different to the rest of the treatments (P > 0.05).

  10. Fastidian gum: the Xylella fastidiosa exopolysaccharide possibly involved in bacterial pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    da Silva, F R; Vettore, A L; Kemper, E L; Leite, A; Arruda, P

    2001-09-25

    The Gram-negative bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was the first plant pathogen to be completely sequenced. This species causes several economically important plant diseases, including citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC). Analysis of the genomic sequence of X. fastidiosa revealed a 12 kb DNA fragment containing an operon closely related to the gum operon of Xanthomonas campestris. The presence of all genes involved in the synthesis of sugar precursors, existence of exopolysaccharide (EPS) production regulators in the genome, and the absence of three of the X. campestris gum genes suggested that X. fastidiosa is able to synthesize an EPS different from that of xanthan gum. This novel EPS probably consists of polymerized tetrasaccharide repeating units assembled by the sequential addition of glucose-1-phosphate, glucose, mannose and glucuronic acid on a polyprenol phosphate carrier. PMID:11583843

  11. Xanthan Gum-a lyotropic, liquid crystalline polymer and its properties as a suspending agent

    SciTech Connect

    Salamone, J.C.; Clough, S.B.; Jamison, D.E.; Reid, K.I.G.; Salamone, A.B.

    1982-08-01

    Studies a variety of xanthan solutions of various polymer concentrations in the presence and absence of various salts under a polarized light microscope (100X) in order to test xanthan gum for liquid crystalline order. Xanthan gum, a polysaccharide used in drilling fluids and in tertiary recovery, has relatively stable viscosity properties as a function of salt concentration, pH, temperature, and shear degradation. With solutions from 2 to 10% (wt/vol) xanthan gum in distilled water at room temperature, birefringent, ordered domains were observed at 10% concentration, with a decrease in birefringence as the polymer concentration decreased. When the xanthan solution is sheared between a glass slide and a cover slip, the optic axis (chain direction) aligns using the shear direction (as determined by the colors displayed using a first-order red plate). Examines liquid crystalline behavior of other naturally occurring polymers.

  12. Ipomoea dasysperma seed gum: an effective natural coagulant for the decolorization of textile dye solutions.

    PubMed

    Sanghi, Rashmi; Bhattacharya, Bani; Dixit, Awantika; Singh, Vandana

    2006-10-01

    An investigation of dye decolorization from synthetic dye solutions using the non-ionic, water-soluble, high molecular weight seed gums Ipomoea dasysperma and guar gum as coagulants was undertaken. The use of galactomannans derived from plants in this system presents a sustainable method of textile effluent treatment. These natural coagulants extracted from plants proved to be workable alternatives to conventional coagulants like polyaluminum chloride, as they are biodegradable, safe to human health, are cost effective when compared to imported chemicals and have a wider effective dosage range for flocculation of various colloidal suspensions. Coagulant dose and coagulation pH are important factors influencing the mechanism of coagulation. Also the type and chemical structure of the dye plays an important role in the coagulation process. The seed gums alone were found to be effective for decolorization of direct dye and in combination with PAC their coagulation efficiency was well extended even for reactive and acid dyes.

  13. A Radio-Polarisation and Rotation Measure Study of the Gum Nebula and Its Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, C. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Sun, X. H.; Carretti, E.; Bernardi, G.; Haverkorn, M.; Kesteven, M. J.; Poppi, S.; Schnitzeler, D. H. F. M.; Staveley-Smith, L.

    2015-05-01

    The Gum Nebula is 36°-wide shell-like emission nebula at a distance of only ˜450 pc. It has been hypothesized to be an old supernova remnant, fossil H ii region, wind-blown bubble, or combination of multiple objects. Here we investigate the magneto-ionic properties of the nebula using data from recent surveys: radio-continuum data from the NRAO VLA and S-band Parkes All Sky Surveys, and H α data from the Southern H-Alpha Sky Survey Atlas. We model the upper part of the nebula as a spherical shell of ionized gas expanding into the ambient medium. We perform a maximum-likelihood Markov chain Monte Carlo fit to the NVSS rotation measure data, using the H α data to constrain average electron density in the shell ne. Assuming a latitudinal background gradient in rotation measure, we find {{n}e}=1.3-0.4+0.4 c{{m}-3}, angular radius {{φ }outer}=22\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 7-0.1+0.1, shell thickness dr=18.5-1.4+1.5 pc, ambient magnetic field strength {{B}0}=3.9-2.2+4.9 μ G, and warm gas filling factor f=0.3-0.1+0.3. We constrain the local, small-scale (˜260 pc) pitch-angle of the ordered Galactic magnetic field to +7{}^\\circ ≲ \\wp ≲ +44{}^\\circ , which represents a significant deviation from the median field orientation on kiloparsec scales (˜-7.°2). The moderate compression factor X=6.0-2.5+5.1 at the edge of the H α shell implies that the “old supernova remnant” origin is unlikely. Our results support a model of the nebula as a H ii region around a wind-blown bubble. Analysis of depolarization in 2.3 GHz S-PASS data is consistent with this hypothesis and our best-fitting values agree well with previous studies of interstellar bubbles.

  14. Productivity improvement in xanthan gum fermentation using multiple substrate optimization.

    PubMed

    Chaitali, Mandal; Kapadi, Mangesh; Suraishkumar, G K; Gudi, R D

    2003-01-01

    A novel and more comprehensive formulation of the optimal control problem that reflects the operational requirements of a typical industrial fermentation has been proposed in this work. This formulation has been applied to a fed-batch bioreactor with three control variables, i.e., feed rates of carbon source, nitrogen source, and an oxygen source, to result in a 148.7% increase in product formation. Xanthan gum production using Xanthomonas campestris has been used as the model system for this optimization study, and the liquid-phase oxygen supply strategy has been used to supply oxygen to the fermentation. The formulated optimization problem has several constraints associated with it due to the nature of the system. A robust stochastic technique, differential evolution, has been used to solve this challenging optimization problem. The infinite dimensional optimization problem has been approximated to a finite dimensional one by control vector parametrization. The state constraints that are path constraints have been addressed by using penalty functions and by integrating them over the total duration to ensure a feasible solution. End point constraints on final working volume of the reactor and on the final residual concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources have been included in the problem formulation. Further, the toxicity of the oxygen source, H(2)O(2), has been addressed by imposing a constraint on its maximum usable concentration. In addition, the initial volume of the bioreactor contents and feed concentrations have been handled as decision variables, which has enabled a well-grounded choice for their values from the optimization procedure; adhoc values are normally used in the industry. All results obtained by simulation have been validated experimentally with good agreements between experimental and simulated values.

  15. Interactions between whey protein isolate and gum Arabic.

    PubMed

    Klein, Miri; Aserin, Abraham; Ben Ishai, Paul; Garti, Nissim

    2010-09-01

    In this study we have attempted to understand the nature of "charge interactions" between two negatively charged biopolymers (whey protein isolate, WPI and gum Arabic, GA) and, consequently, why their mixture exhibits better interfacial activity. Surface tension (gamma(0)) measurements indicated that at ca. 1 wt.% of the biopolymer mixture (3:1 wt. ratio) the air/water surface is saturated. At 5 wt.% the gamma(0) of the mixture is lower than the calculated co-operative value. The zeta-potential measurements revealed that the isoelectric point of the WPI:GA 3:1 wt. ratio mixture is 3.8. The zeta-potential values up to pH 6 are below those calculated. Similarly, the electrical conductivities of the mixture are lower than those calculated. All these measurements indicate: (1) partial charge neutralization in spite of the fact that both biopolymers are negative or (2) partial charge-charge interactions between the two biopolymers. The thermal heating behavior of the frozen water in the aqueous mixture studied by DSC (heating cycle of the frozen sample) clearly indicates that the two biopolymers are interacting. We calculated the enthalpy, the free energy and the chemical potential of the interactions. We found that the interactions of the biopolymers are rather weak. They are likely derived from some local positively charged domains (pH 7) on the protein that neutralize some of the negatively charged GA. These interactions form weak charge adducts. These charge adducts are sufficient to improve its adsorption into the oil-water interface and enhance the emulsion stability.

  16. Paste, wrap, and shimmy: a regimen for the prevention of gum disease.

    PubMed

    Jester, Craig W

    2013-01-01

    The body of evidence showing a possible correlation between gum infection and systemic diseases is well documented and growing. At the same time, the prevalence of gum infection is increasing in the general populace. Gum infection and disease are routinely seen in patients who adhere to regular dental hygiene regimens and see their dentists on a regular basis. One of the reasons typical daily dental care does not eradicate gum disease (gingivitis) is that the usual home care regimens do not attack a major underlying cause of gingivitis: the layer of biofilm in the sulcus surrounding the tooth's root. This biofilm harbors and protects the bacteria that cause gum disease and root decay. Research has shown that there are no "magic bullets" in the form of rinses, pills, or special tools that effectively destroy the bacteria and its protective calyx. Therefore, daily dental regimens must be changed until the absence of gum infection and inflammation becomes the standard of care. The Paste, Wrap, and Shimmy method is presented in a way that can be understood by all patients. It can be reproduced and used as a teaching supplement by the dental team. The method is conceptually simple and inexpensive, but not intuitive or easy. It must be coached and reinforced; however, if implemented, it can be very effective. The author's office has increased the length of new patient and recurring hygiene visits so that the method can be properly taught through repetitive practice and visual presentations. Prevention is not insurance-driven, so dentists most often provide it as a free service. The rewards are significant, however, and on initial exposure to this method, patients routinely ask: "Why haven't I been shown this before?" They will also have an expectation that the learning process will be repeated at each visit until they are free of infection. PMID:23302359

  17. Cardiovascular responses in humans to experimental chewing of gums of different consistencies.

    PubMed

    Farella, M; Bakke, M; Michelotti, A; Marotta, G; Martina, R

    1999-10-01

    Although the cardiovascular effects of exercise have been extensively investigated in man, little attention has been paid to such responses to jaw muscle activity. The aim here was to investigate the general cardiovascular effects of chewing activity in a single-blind, cross-over design. Ten healthy individuals performed one of the following chewing tasks in four separate sessions: chewing a very hard gum, chewing a moderately hard gum, chewing a soft gum, and "empty chewing" without a bolus. Unilateral chewing of gum or empty chewing was performed for 20 min on the participant's most convenient chewing side at a constant rate of 80 cycles/min. In each session, heart rate and arterial blood pressure were recorded together with electromyographic activity in the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles on the chewing side. Ratings of perceived masticatory fatigue were recorded with visual analogue scales. The heart rate and blood pressure were significantly increased (ANOVA; p < or= 0.01) during the chewing tasks and the increases were, in parallel with the muscle activity, more pronounced the harder the gum. With the very hard gum, heart rate increased by up to 11 beats/min, the systolic blood pressure was 14 mmHg (1.9kPa) higher, and the diastolic blood pressure was 11 mmHg (1.5kPa) higher. The perceived fatigue was proportional to the level of muscle activity. After 10 min of recovery from exercise, heart rate and arterial blood pressures were slightly but still significantly elevated. The results demonstrate that chewing is associated with general circulatory effects proportional to the bolus resistance.

  18. The Association of Gum Bleeding with Respiratory Health in a Population Based Study from Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Real, Francisco; Pérez Barrionuevo, Laura; Franklin, Karl; Lindberg, Eva; Bertelsen, Randi Jacobsen; Benediktsdóttir, Bryndís; Forsberg, Bertil; Gislason, Thorarinn; Jögi, Rain; Johannessen, Ane; Omenaas, Ernst; Saure, Eirunn; Schlünssen, Vivi; Skorge, Trude Duelien; Torén, Kjell; Pérez Saavedra, Antonio; Svanes, Øistein; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little knowledge about how oral and respiratory health is interrelated even though the mucosa of the oral cavity and airways constitutes a continuum and the exposures to these are partly similar. Aims To investigate whether gum bleeding is related to asthma, respiratory symptoms and self-reported COPD. Methods A postal questionnaire including questions about respiratory and oral health was sent to general population samples in seven Northern European centres. In 13,409 responders, gum bleeding when brushing teeth was reported always/often by 4% and sometimes by 20%. Logistic regressions accounted for age, smoking, educational level, centre and gender. Effects of BMI, cardio-metabolic diseases, early life factors, gastro-oesophageal reflux, dental hygiene, nasal congestion, and asthma medication were addressed. Results Gum bleeding always/often was significantly associated with ≥3 asthma symptoms (OR 2.58, 95% CI 2.10–3.18), asthma (1.62 [1.23–2.14]) and self-reported COPD (2.02 [1.28–3.18]). There was a dose-response relationship between respiratory outcomes and gum bleeding frequency (≥3 symptoms: gum bleeding sometimes 1.42 [1.25–1.60], often/always 2.58 [2.10–3.18]), and there was no heterogeneity between centres (pheterogeneity = 0.49). None of the investigated risk factors explained the associations. The observed associations were significantly stronger among current smokers (pinteraction = 0.004). Conclusions A consistent link between gum bleeding and obstructive airways disease was observed, not explained by common risk factors or metabolic factors. We speculate that oral pathogens might have unfavourable impact on the airways, and that the direct continuity of the mucosa of the oral cavity and the airways reflects a pathway that might provide novel opportunities for interventions. PMID:26808490

  19. Puzzle Feeders and Gum Feeders as Environmental Enrichment for Common Marmosets.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R. Lucille; Roytburd, Luba A.; Newman, John D.

    1999-09-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) are highly social New World monkeys that consume a principally gummivorous and insectivorous diet. We examined the efficacy of two types of foraging devices, Puzzle-Feeders(tm) and gum feeders, as environmental enrichment for marmosets housed singly (n = 16) or in sibling (n = 4) and heterosexual (n = 8) pairs. In experiment 1, marmosets were exposed to each of the two types of foraging devices for three hours, once per week for two weeks. Thirty-minute observations were conducted at the beginning and end of each exposure period. Marmosets in all housing conditions experienced significant reductions in the frequency of stereotyped pacing and significantly less time sitting still while exposed to the foraging devices. Marmosets experienced significantly lower levels of feeder use and significantly more time sitting still at the end of the three-hour exposure than at the beginning. Marmosets that were singly or sibling housed used the devices the most and had the largest reductions in time spent sitting still during enrichment. In experiment 2, singly housed marmosets were given two types of gum feeders, a wooden and a Gumabone(tm) gum feeder, each for a week-long period. Thirty-minute observations were conducted three times per week immediately after loading the feeders with fresh gum. The wooden gum feeders were heavily gouged during the week-long exposure, although significantly less use of both types of gum feeders was observed on the third and fifth days. These results indicated that marmosets in variable social housing conditions can benefit from environmental enrichment additional to social housing, and that foraging enrichment promotes increased non-stereotyped movement and decreased pacing in this species. PMID:12086412

  20. Effects of Three Mastic Gums on the Number of Mutans Streptococci, Lactobacilli and PH of the Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Biria, Mina; Eslami, Gita; Taghipour, Elaheh; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In the recent years, herbal oral hygiene products have gained increasing attention. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of three types of mastic gums on the level of Mutans streptococci, Lactobacilli and pH of the saliva. Materials and Methods: Forty-two students in the age range of 20–30 years were divided into three parallel groups; each of them separately used pure mastic gum, xylitol mastic gum and probiotic mastic gum for three weeks. Number of microorganisms and pH of the saliva were assessed before and after the intervention. The data were analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank, paired-sample-t, Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey’s post-hoc tests and Oneway ANOVA. Results: Level of Mutans streptococci showed a significant reduction compared to its baseline value in all three groups (P<0001 for all). Salivary Lactobacillus count increased in the groups using pure and xylitol mastic gums but decreased in the group using probiotic type, albeit these changes were only significant in the group using probiotic mastic gum (P<0.001). Use of pure and xylitol mastic gums increased the pH of the saliva but not significantly. In the group using probiotic mastic gum, the pH of the saliva decreased significantly (P=0.029). Conclusion: Three weeks use of all mastic gums resulted in a significant drop in the number of Mutans streptococci in the saliva. However, the drop in the saliva pH due to the use of probiotic mastic gum is not in favor of dental health. PMID:25628697

  1. Gas chromatographic determination of sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol in chewing gum and sorbitol in mints.

    PubMed

    Daniels, D H; Warner, C R; Fazio, T

    1982-05-01

    A method has been developed for determination of sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol in chewing gum and sorbitol in mints. Chewing gum is partitioned between methylene chloride and water; the mint is simply dissolved in water. The aqueous extract is dried and the residue is derivatized with pyridine-acetic anhydride to form the corresponding peracetates. The derivatives are quantitated by gas chromatography using a 9 ft x 2 mm column packed with 10% Silar 10C on Chromosorb W/AW. Average recoveries of these sugar alcohols ranged from 96 to 102%. PMID:6807952

  2. Effect of nicotine chewing gum as an adjunct to general practitioner's advice against smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, M A; Merriman, R; Stapleton, J; Taylor, W

    1983-01-01

    This study was designed to see whether the offer and prescription of nicotine chewing gum would enhance the efficacy of general practitioners' advice to stop smoking. A sample of 1938 cigarette smokers who attended the surgeries of 34 general practitioners in six group practices were assigned by week of attendance (in a balanced design) to one of three groups: (a) non-intervention controls, (b) advice plus booklet, and (c) advice plus booklet plus the offer of nicotine gum. Follow up was done after four months and one year. The results show a clear advantage for those offered the nicotine gum (p less than 0.001). After correction for those who refused or failed chemical validation and those who switched from cigarettes to a pipe or cigars, the proportions who were abstinent at four months and still abstinent at one year were 3.9%, 4.1%, and 8.8% in the three groups, respectively. These percentages are based on all cigarette smokers who attended the surgeries including those who did not wish to stop and those in the gum group who did not try the gum (47%). The effect of the offer and prescription of gum was to motivate more smokers to try to stop, to increase the success rate among those who tried, and to reduce the relapse rate of those who stopped. The self selected subgroup of 8% who used more than one box of 105 pieces of gum achieved a success rate of 24%. It would be feasible and effective for general practitioners to include the offer of nicotine gum and brief instructions on its use as part of a minimal intervention routine with all cigarette smokers. A general practitioner who adopts such a routine with similar success could expect to achieve about 35-40 long term ex-smokers a year and so save the lives of about 10 of them. If replicated by all general practitioners throughout the country the yield of ex-smokers would be about one million a year. PMID:6416593

  3. Enhancement of anti-inflammatory activity of bromelain by its encapsulation in katira gum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bernela, Manju; Ahuja, Munish; Thakur, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Bromelain-loaded katira gum nanoparticles were synthesized using 3 level optimization process and desirability approach. Nanoparticles of the optimized batch were characterized using particle size analysis, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Investigation of their in vivo anti-inflammatory activity by employing carrageenan induced rat-paw oedema method showed that encapsulation of bromelain in katira gum nanoparticles substantially enhanced its anti-inflammatory potential. This may be attributed to enhanced absorption owing to reduced particle size or to protection of bromelain from acid proteases.

  4. Development and Antibacterial Activity of Cashew Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Quelemes, Patrick V.; Araruna, Felipe B.; de Faria, Bruna E. F.; Kuckelhaus, Selma A. S.; da Silva, Durcilene A.; Mendonça, Ronaldo Z.; Eiras, Carla; dos S. Soares, Maria José; Leite, José Roberto S. A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a green synthesis of silver nanoparticles reduced and stabilized by exuded gum from Anacardium occidentale L. and evaluates in vitro their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Characterization of cashew gum-based silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out based on UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis which revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape, measuring about 4 nm in size with a uniform dispersal. AgNPs presented antibacterial activity, especially against Gram-negative bacteria, in concentrations where no significant cytotoxicity was observed. PMID:23455467

  5. The deformation of gum metal under nanoindentation and sub-micron pillar compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withey, Elizabeth Ann

    Reaching ideal strength has proven to be difficult in most materials. Dislocation slip, phase transformations, twinning, and fracture all tend to occur at stresses well below the ideal strength of a material. Only on very small scales has it been possible to approach ideal strength. Thus, it was of great interest when a set of beta-Ti alloys, Gum Metal, were found to have a bulk yield strength close to half of its ideal strength. However, some recent studies have questioned the reliability of this claim. Several studies have suggested Gum Metal deforms by dislocation slip. Others have suggested the possibility of transformation-induced plasticity. The present study was undertaken in order to help clarify if and how Gum Metal can reach ideal strength. Two different experiments, ex situ nanoindentation and quantitative in situ nanopillar compression in a transmission electron microscope to correlate real-time deformation behavior, were performed on a single composition of Gum Metal, Ti-23Nb-0.7Ta-2Zr-1.20 at. %, obtained from Toyota Central R&D Laboratories. Nanoindented specimens were thinned from the bottom surface until the pits of multiple indentations became electron-transparent allowing for qualitative analysis of the deformation microstructure in both fully cold-worked and solution-treated specimens. Real-time load-displacement behavior from the nanopillar compression tests was correlated with real-time video recorded during each compression to determine both the compressive strength of each pillar and the timing and strengths of different deformation behaviors observed. Combining the results from both experiments provided several important conclusions. First, Gum Metal approaches and can attain ideal strength in nanopillars regardless of processing condition. While dislocations exist in Gum Metal, they can be tightly pinned by obstacles with spacing less than ˜20 nm, which should inhibit their motion at strengths below the ideal shear strength. The plastic

  6. Chronotherapeutic drug delivery of Tamarind gum, Chitosan and Okra gum controlled release colon targeted directly compressed Propranolol HCl matrix tablets and in-vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Newton, A M J; Indana, V L; Kumar, Jatinder

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this investigation is to develop a chronotherapeutic drug delivery of various natural polymers based colon targeted drug delivery systems to treat early morning sign in BP. The polymers such as Tamarind gum, Okra gum and Chitosan were used in the formulation design. A model drug Propranolol HCl was incorporated in the formulation in order to assess the controlled release and time dependent release potential of various natural polymers. A novel polymer Tamarind gum was extracted and used as a prime polymer in this study to prove the superiority of this polymer over other leading natural polymer. Propranolol HCl was used as a model drug which undergoes hepatic metabolism and witnesses the poor bioavailability. The matrix tablets of Propranolol HCl were prepared by direct compression. The tablets were evaluated for various quality control parameters and found to be within the limits. Carbopol 940 was used as an auxiliary polymer to modify the drug release and physicochemical characteristics of the tablets. The in vitro release studies were performed in 0.1N HCl for 1.5h, followed by pH 6.8 phosphate buffer for 2h and pH 7.4 phosphate buffer till maximum amount of drug release. The in vitro release profile of the formulations were fitted with various pharmacokinetic mathematical models and analyzed for release profile. The formulations prepared with Tamarind gum prolonged the release for an extended period of time compared to other polymer based formulation and showed an excellent compression characteristic. PMID:25936283

  7. Chemical composition and rheology of low-fat Iranian white cheese incorporated with guar gum and gum arabic as fat replacers.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, Hannan; Khosrowshahi Asl, Asghar; Madadlou, Ashkan; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    The effects of incorporating guar gum (GG) and gum arabic (GA) in cheese-making milk with various fat contents (0.4, 0.9, and 1.4 %) on chemical and rheological properties of Iranian white cheese were evaluated by response surface method (RSM). As GG concentration increased, dry matter content of cheese samples decreased due to the high water binding capacity of this gum. A similar trend was also observed for GA at concentrations less than 150 ppm. The higher the GG concentration, the higher was the free fatty acid content of cheese samples. GA at concentrations more than 150 ppm, increased the storage modulus (G'), causing an undesirable hard texture for the product. The G' and stress at fracture (бf) of samples decreased by the increasing concentration of GG incorporated into the cheese-making milk. Response surface minimization of rheological indices for Iranian white cheese showed that combination of two hydrocolloids (GG in the concentration range 75-170 ppm and GA at concentrations <75 ppm) would provide the softest texture. PMID:25328199

  8. Composition and structure of whey protein/gum arabic coacervates.

    PubMed

    Weinbreck, F; Tromp, R H; de Kruif, C G

    2004-01-01

    Complex coacervation in whey protein/gum arabic (WP/GA) mixtures was studied as a function of three main key parameters: pH, initial protein to polysaccharide mixing ratio (Pr:Ps)(ini), and ionic strength. Previous studies had already revealed under which conditions a coacervate phase was obtained. This study is aimed at understanding how these parameters influence the phase separation kinetics, the coacervate composition, and the internal coacervate structure. At a defined (Pr:Ps)(ini), an optimum pH of complex coacervation was found (pH(opt)), at which the strength of electrostatic interaction was maximum. For (Pr:Ps)(ini) = 2:1, the phase separation occurred the fastest and the final coacervate volume was the largest at pH(opt) = 4.0. The composition of the coacervate phase was determined after 48 h of phase separation and revealed that, at pH(opt), the coacervate phase was the most concentrated. Varying the (Pr:Ps)(ini) shifted the pH(opt) to higher values when (Pr:Ps)(ini) was increased and to lower values when (Pr:Ps)(ini) was decreased. This phenomenon was due to the level of charge compensation of the WP/GA complexes. Finally, the structure of the coacervate phase was studied with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). SAXS data confirmed that at pH(opt) the coacervate phase was dense and structured. Model calculations revealed that the structure factor of WP induced a peak at Q = 0.7 nm(-1), illustrating that the coacervate phase was more structured, inducing the stronger correlation length of WP molecules. When the pH was changed to more acidic values, the correlation peak faded away, due to a more open structure of the coacervate. A shoulder in the scattering pattern of the coacervates was visible at small Q. This peak was attributed to the presence of residual charges on the GA. The peak intensity was reduced when the strength of interaction was increased, highlighting a greater charge compensation of the polyelectrolyte. Finally, increasing the ionic

  9. The environs of the H II region Gum 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappa, C.; Niemela, V. S.; Amorín, R.; Vasquez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Aims:We analyze the distribution of the interstellar matter in the environs of the H ii region Gum 31, excited by the open cluster NGC 3324, located in the complex Carina region, with the aim of investigating the action of the massive stars on the surrounding neutral material. Methods: We use neutral hydrogen 21-cm line data, radio continuum images at 0.843, 2.4 and 4.9 GHz, 12CO(1-0) observations, and IRAS and MSX infrared data. Results: Adopting a distance of 3 kpc for the H ii region and the ionizing cluster, we derived an electron density of 33±3 cm-3 and an ionized mass of (3.3±1.1)×103 M⊙ based on the radio continuum data at 4.9 GHz. The H i 21-cm line images revealed an H i shell surrounding the H ii region. The H i structure is 10.0 ± 1.7 pc in radius, has a neutral mass of 1500 ± 500 M⊙, and is expanding at 11 km s-1. The associated molecular gas amounts to (1.1 ± 0.5)×105 M⊙, being its volume density of about 350 cm-3. This molecular shell could represent the remains of the cloud where the young open cluster NGC 3324 was born or could have originated by the shock front associated with the H ii region. The difference between the ambient density and the electron density of the H ii region suggests that the H ii region is expanding. The distributions of the ionized and molecular material, along with that of the emission in the MSX band A, suggest that a photodissociation region has developed at the interface between the ionized and molecular gas. The copious UV photon flux from the early type stars in NGC 3324 keeps the H ii region ionized. The characteristics of a relatively large number of the IRAS, MSX, and 2MASS point sources projected onto the molecular envelope are compatible with protostellar candidates, showing the presence of active star forming regions. Very probably, the expansion of the H ii region has triggered stellar formation in the molecular shell.

  10. Design and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets containing diclofenac sodium using fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M. Uday; Babu, M. Kishore

    2014-01-01

    Objective To formulate diclofenac sodium as fast dissolving tablets (FDTs) using fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant which also possess anti-inflammatory activity. Methods An attempt was made to extract the fenugreek gum and evaluated it for various physicochemical characterizations. The swelling index and viscosity of fenugreek gum was 221% and 293.4 mpa.s respectively. FDTs of diclofenac sodium was formulated by direct compression technique using different concentrations (1%-6%, w/w) of fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant and compared with renowned synthetic superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium. The anti-inflammatory activity of a formulation was evaluated with carrageenan induced experimental rats. Results The formulated tablets were evaluated for various physical tests like weight variation, friability, hardness and results complied with the limits. The drug release from all the formulations ascertained first order kinetics. Among all the formulations F3 containing fenugreek gum with the concentration of 6% produced least disintegrating time 21 seconds resulting in higher drug release rate 93.74% at the end of 25 min. Hence, it was considered as optimized formulation. The present study revealed that the fenugreek gum as a natural superdisintegrant showed better disintegrating property than the most widely used synthetic superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium in the formulations of FDTs. Conclusions The results suggested that the fenugreek gum act as a good super disintegrating agent and it showed promising additive anti-inflammatory activity with diclofenac sodium. PMID:25183106

  11. Development of Oral Dissolvable Films of Diclofenac Sodium for Osteoarthritis Using Albizia and Khaya Gums as Hydrophilic Film Formers

    PubMed Central

    Bonsu, Martina Aduenimaa; Kipo, Samuel Lugrie; Boakye-Gyasi, Mariam El; Fosu, Mary-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Oral dissolvable films (ODFs) of diclofenac sodium intended for osteoarthritis were prepared using Albizia and Khaya gums as hydrophilic film formers. The physicochemical properties of the gums were characterized and the gums were used to prepare diclofenac sodium ODFs (~50 mg/4 cm2 film) by solvent casting. The two gums showed satisfactory film forming properties. The physicomechanical properties, drug-excipient compatibility, and in vitro drug release of the films in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 were studied. Khaya gum had higher extraction yield, moisture content, insoluble matter and true density while Albizia gum showed greater swelling capacity, solubility, and minerals content. The ODFs were thin, soft, and flexible with smooth glossy surfaces and possessed satisfactory physicomechanical properties. FTIR studies showed that no interaction occurred between the drug and the gums. The ODFs disintegrated in <45 s achieved >75% drug release within 7 min with dissolution efficiencies of ~83–96%. Drug releases from F2, F3, F4, F5, and F6 were similar to F1 (p > 0.05; f1 < 15 and f2 ≥ 50) while F7 differed markedly from F1 (p < 0.001; f1 > 15 and f2 < 50). Drug release followed the Higuchi kinetic model which is indicative of Fickian drug diffusion. PMID:27313894

  12. Development of Oral Dissolvable Films of Diclofenac Sodium for Osteoarthritis Using Albizia and Khaya Gums as Hydrophilic Film Formers.

    PubMed

    Bonsu, Martina Aduenimaa; Ofori-Kwakye, Kwabena; Kipo, Samuel Lugrie; Boakye-Gyasi, Mariam El; Fosu, Mary-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Oral dissolvable films (ODFs) of diclofenac sodium intended for osteoarthritis were prepared using Albizia and Khaya gums as hydrophilic film formers. The physicochemical properties of the gums were characterized and the gums were used to prepare diclofenac sodium ODFs (~50 mg/4 cm(2) film) by solvent casting. The two gums showed satisfactory film forming properties. The physicomechanical properties, drug-excipient compatibility, and in vitro drug release of the films in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 were studied. Khaya gum had higher extraction yield, moisture content, insoluble matter and true density while Albizia gum showed greater swelling capacity, solubility, and minerals content. The ODFs were thin, soft, and flexible with smooth glossy surfaces and possessed satisfactory physicomechanical properties. FTIR studies showed that no interaction occurred between the drug and the gums. The ODFs disintegrated in <45 s achieved >75% drug release within 7 min with dissolution efficiencies of ~83-96%. Drug releases from F2, F3, F4, F5, and F6 were similar to F1 (p > 0.05; f1 < 15 and f2 ≥ 50) while F7 differed markedly from F1 (p < 0.001; f1 > 15 and f2 < 50). Drug release followed the Higuchi kinetic model which is indicative of Fickian drug diffusion. PMID:27313894

  13. The use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a solid oral dosage form.

    PubMed

    Zaharuddin, Nurul Dhania; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Kadivar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength.

  14. The use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a solid oral dosage form.

    PubMed

    Zaharuddin, Nurul Dhania; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Kadivar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength. PMID:24678512

  15. The Use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) Gum in Sustaining the Release of Propranolol Hydrochloride in a Solid Oral Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Kadivar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength. PMID:24678512

  16. Want to block earworms from conscious awareness? B(u)y gum!

    PubMed

    Beaman, C Philip; Powell, Kitty; Rapley, Ellie

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examine the role of articulatory motor planning in experiencing an involuntary musical recollection (an "earworm"). Experiment 1 shows that interfering with articulatory motor programming by chewing gum reduces both the number of voluntary and the number of involuntary-unwanted-musical thoughts. This is consistent with other findings that chewing gum interferes with voluntary processes such as recollections from verbal memory, the interpretation of ambiguous auditory images, and the scanning of familiar melodies, but is not predicted by theories of thought suppression, which assume that suppression is made more difficult by concurrent tasks or cognitive loads. Experiment 2 shows that chewing the gum affects the experience of "hearing" the music and cannot be ascribed to a general effect on thinking about a tune only in abstract terms. Experiment 3 confirms that the reduction of musical recollections by chewing gum is not the consequence of a general attentional or dual-task demand. The data support a link between articulatory motor programming and the appearance in consciousness of both voluntary and unwanted musical recollections. PMID:25896521

  17. Effects of corn fiber gum (CFG) on the pasting and thermal behaviors of maize starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn fiber gum (CFG) is a novel arabinoxylan hydrocolloid. Recent research showed its considerable potential in food processing. In this study, the interactions of maize starch and CFG were studied. Maize starch/CFG blend gels were prepared from maize starch suspension mixed with 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, ...

  18. 77 FR 65361 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Austria and the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 77 FR 39210... Determination Deadlines Pursuant to the Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended, 70 FR 24533 (May 10, 2005). This notice... International Trade Administration Xanthan Gum From Austria and the People's Republic of China: Postponement...

  19. Effects of caffeine chewing gum on race performance and physiology in male and female cyclists.

    PubMed

    Paton, Carl; Costa, Vitor; Guglielmo, Luiz

    2015-01-01

    This investigation reports the effects of chewing caffeinated gum on race performance with trained cyclists. Twenty competitive cyclists completed two 30-km time trials that included a maximal effort 0.2-km sprint each 10-km. Caffeine (~3-4 mg · kg(-1)) or placebo was administered double-blind via chewing gum at the 10-km point following completion of the first sprint. Measures of power output, oxygen uptake, heart rate, lactate and perceived exertion were taken at set intervals during the time trial. Results indicated no substantial differences in any measured variables between caffeine and placebo conditions during the first 20-km of the time trial. Caffeine gum did however lead to substantial enhancements (mean ± 90% confidence limits (CLs)) in mean power during the final 10-km (3.8% ± 2.3%), and sprint power at 30-km (4.0% ± 3.6%). The increases in performance over the final 10-km were associated with small increases in heart rate and blood lactate (effect size of 0.24 and 0.28, respectively). There were large inter-individual variations in the response to caffeine, and apparent gender related differences in sprint performance. Chewing caffeine gum improves mean and sprint performance power in the final 10-km of a 30-km time trial in male and female cyclists most likely through an increase in nervous system activation.

  20. Biobased adhesives, gums, emulsions and binders: current trends and future prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biopolymers derived from renewable resources are an emerging class of advanced materials that offer many useful properties for a wide range of food and non-food applications. Current state of the art in research and development of renewable polymers as adhesives, gums, binders and emulsions will be ...