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Sample records for magnetization transfer contrast

  1. Magnetic Transfer Contrast Accurately Localizes Substantia Nigra Confirmed by Histology

    PubMed Central

    Bolding, Mark S.; Reid, Meredith A.; Avsar, Kathy B.; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Gamlin, Paul D.; Gawne, Timothy J.; White, David M.; den Hollander, Jan A.; Lahti, Adrienne C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has multiple contrast mechanisms. Like various staining techniques in histology, each contrast type reveals different information about the structure of the brain. However, it is not always clear how structures visible in MRI correspond to structures previously identified by histology. The purpose of this study was to determine if magnetic transfer contrast (MTC) or T2 contrast MRI was better at delineating the substantia nigra. Methods MRI scans were acquired in-vivo from two non-human primates (NHPs). The NHPs were subsequently euthanized, perfused, and their brains sectioned for histological analyses. Each slice was photographed prior to sectioning. Each brain was sectioned into approximately 500, 40-micron sections, encompassing most of the cortex, midbrain, and dorsal parts of the hindbrain. Levels corresponding to anatomical MRI images were selected. From these, adjacent sections were stained using Kluver Barrera (myelin and cell bodies) or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (dopaminergic neurons) immunohistochemistry. The resulting images were coregistered to the block-face images using a moving least squares algorithm with similarity transformations. MR images were similarly coregistered to the block-face images, allowing the structures in the MRI to be identified with structures in the histological images. Results We found that hyperintense (light) areas in MTC images were coextensive with the SN as delineated histologically. The hypointense (dark) areas in T2-weighted images were not coextensive with the SN, but extended partially into the SN and partially into the cerebral peduncles. Conclusions MTC is a more accurate contrast mechanism than T2-weighting for localizing the SN in vivo. PMID:22981657

  2. Physical characteristics of lanthanide complexes that act as magnetization transfer (MT) contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shanrong; Sherry, A. Dean

    2003-02-01

    Rapid water exchange is normally considered a prerequisite for efficient Gd3+-based MRI contrast agents. Yet recent measures of exchange rates in some Gd3+ complexes have shown that water exchange can become limiting when such complexes are attached to larger macromolecular structures. A new class of lanthanide complexes that display unusually slow water exchange (bound water lifetimes (τM298) > 10 μs) has recently been reported. This apparent disadvantage may be taken advantage of by switching the metal ion from gadolinium(III) to a lanthanide that shifts the bound water resonance substantially away from bulk water. Given appropriate water exchange kinetics, one can then alter the intensity of the bulk water signal by selective presaturation of this highly shifted, Ln3+-bound water resonance. This provides the basis of a new method to alter MR image contrast in tissue. We have synthesized a variety of DOTA-tetra(amide) ligands to evaluate as potential magnetization transfer (MT) contrast agents and found that the bound water lifetimes in these complexes are sensitive to both ligand structure (a series of Eu3+ complexes have τM298 values that range from 1 to 1300 μs) and the identity of the paramagnetic Ln3+ cation (from 3 to 800 μs for a single ligand). This demonstrates that it may be possible either to fine-tune the ligand structure or to select proper lanthanide cation to create an optimal MT agent for any clinical imaging field.

  3. Magnetization transfer contrast-suppressed imaging of amide proton transfer and relayed nuclear overhauser enhancement chemical exchange saturation transfer effects in the human brain at 7T.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiang; Yadav, Nirbhay N; Zeng, Haifeng; Jones, Craig K; Zhou, Jinyuan; van Zijl, Peter C M; Xu, Jiadi

    2016-01-01

    To use the variable delay multipulse (VDMP) chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) approach to obtain clean amide proton transfer (APT) and relayed Nuclear Overhauser enhancement (rNOE) CEST images in the human brain by suppressing the conventional magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) and reducing the direct water saturation contribution. The VDMP CEST scheme consists of a train of RF pulses with a specific mixing time. The CEST signal with respect to the mixing time shows distinguishable characteristics for protons with different exchange rates. Exchange rate filtered CEST images are generated by subtracting images acquired at two mixing times at which the MTC signals are equal, while the APT and rNOE-CEST signals differ. Because the subtraction is performed at the same frequency offset for each voxel and the CEST signals are broad, no B0 correction is needed. MTC-suppressed APT and rNOE-CEST images of human brain were obtained using the VDMP method. The APT-CEST data show hyperintensity in gray matter versus white matter, whereas the rNOE-CEST images show negligible contrast between gray and white matter. The VDMP approach provides a simple and rapid way of recording MTC-suppressed APT-CEST and rNOE-CEST images without the need for B0 field correction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Simulation of the modulation transfer function dependent on the partial Fourier fraction in dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Takatsu, Yasuo; Ueyama, Tsuyoshi; Miyati, Tosiaki; Yamamura, Kenichirou

    2016-12-01

    The image characteristics in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) depend on the partial Fourier fraction and contrast medium concentration. These characteristics were assessed and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated by computer simulation. A digital phantom was created from signal intensity data acquired at different contrast medium concentrations on a breast model. The frequency images [created by fast Fourier transform (FFT)] were divided into 512 parts and rearranged to form a new image. The inverse FFT of this image yielded the MTF. From the reference data, three linear models (low, medium, and high) and three exponential models (slow, medium, and rapid) of the signal intensity were created. Smaller partial Fourier fractions, and higher gradients in the linear models, corresponded to faster MTF decline. The MTF more gradually decreased in the exponential models than in the linear models. The MTF, which reflects the image characteristics in DCE-MRI, was more degraded as the partial Fourier fraction decreased.

  5. Pulsed magnetization transfer contrast MRI by a sequence with water selective excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Schick, F.

    1996-01-01

    A water selective SE imaging sequence was developed providing suitable properties for the assessment of magnetization transfer (MT) effects in tissues with considerable amounts of fat. The sequence with water selective excitation and slice selective refocusing combines the following features: The RIF exposure on the macromolecular protons is relatively low for single slice imaging without MT prepulses, since no additional pulses for fat saturation are necessary. Water selection by frequency selective excitation diminishes faults in the subtraction of images recorded with and without MT prepulses (which might arise from movements). High differences in the signal amplitudes from hyaline cartilage andmore » muscle tissue were obtained comparing images recorded with irradiation of the series of prepulses for MT and those lacking MT prepulses. Utilizations of the described water selective approach for the assessment of MT effects in lesions of cartilage and bone are demonstrated. MT saturation was also examined in muscles with fatty degeneration of patients suffering from progressive muscular dystrophy. The described technique allows determination of MT effects with good precision in a single slice, especially in regions with dominating fat signals. 22 refs., 5 figs.« less

  6. Osmotically shrunken LIPOCEST agents: an innovative class of magnetic resonance imaging contrast media based on chemical exchange saturation transfer.

    PubMed

    Terreno, Enzo; Delli Castelli, Daniela; Violante, Elisabetta; Sanders, Honorius M H F; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M; Aime, Silvio

    2009-01-01

    The peculiar properties of osmotically shrunken liposomes acting as magnetic resonance imaging-chemical exchange saturation transfer (MRI-CEST) contrast agents have been investigated. Attention has been primarily devoted to assessing the contribution arising from encapsulated and incorporated paramagnetic lanthanide(III)-based shift reagents in determining the chemical shift of the intraliposomal water protons, which is a relevant factor for generating the CEST contrast. It is demonstrated that a highly shifted resonance for the encapsulated water can be attained by increasing the percentage of the amphiphilic shift reagent incorporated in the liposome bilayer. It is also demonstrated that the shift contribution arising from the bulk magnetic susceptibility can be optimized through the modulation of the osmotic shrinkage. In terms of sensitivity, it is shown that the saturation transfer efficiency can be significantly improved by increasing the size of the vesicle, thus allowing a high number of exchangeable protons to be saturated. In addition, the role played by the intensity of the saturating radiofrequency field has also been highlighted.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Paul H.; Brainard, James R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1997-01-01

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

  9. Cardio-chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging reveals molecular signatures of endogenous fibrosis and exogenous contrast media.

    PubMed

    Vandsburger, Moriel; Vandoorne, Katrien; Oren, Roni; Leftin, Avigdor; Mpofu, Senzeni; Delli Castelli, Daniela; Aime, Silvio; Neeman, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Application of emerging molecular MRI techniques, including chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST)-MRI, to cardiac imaging is desirable; however, conventional methods are poorly suited for cardiac imaging, particularly in small animals with rapid heart rates. We developed a CEST-encoded steady state and retrospectively gated cardiac cine imaging sequence in which the presence of fibrosis or paraCEST contrast agents was directly encoded into the steady-state myocardial signal intensity (cardioCEST). Development of cardioCEST: A CEST-encoded cardiac cine MRI sequence was implemented on a 9.4T small animal scanner. CardioCEST of fibrosis was serially performed by acquisition of a series of CEST-encoded cine images at multiple offset frequencies in mice (n=7) after surgically induced myocardial infarction. Scar formation was quantified using a spectral modeling approach and confirmed with histological staining. Separately, circulatory redistribution kinetics of the paramagnetic CEST agent Eu-HPDO3A were probed in mice using cardioCEST imaging, revealing rapid myocardial redistribution, and washout within 30 minutes (n=6). Manipulation of vascular tone resulted in heightened peak CEST contrast in the heart, but did not alter redistribution kinetics (n=6). At 28 days after myocardial infarction (n=3), CEST contrast kinetics in infarct zone tissue were altered, demonstrating gradual accumulation of Eu-HPDO3A in the increased extracellular space. cardioCEST MRI enables in vivo imaging of myocardial fibrosis using endogenous contrast mechanisms, and of exogenously delivered paraCEST agents, and can enable multiplexed imaging of multiple molecular targets at high-resolution coupled with conventional cardiac MRI scans. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Double agents and secret agents: the emerging fields of exogenous chemical exchange saturation transfer and T2-exchange magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents for molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Daryaei, Iman; Pagel, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Two relatively new types of exogenous magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents may provide greater impact for molecular imaging by providing greater specificity for detecting molecular imaging biomarkers. Exogenous chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents rely on the selective saturation of the magnetization of a proton on an agent, followed by chemical exchange of a proton from the agent to water. The selective detection of a biomarker-responsive CEST signal and an unresponsive CEST signal, followed by the ratiometric comparison of these signals, can improve biomarker specificity. We refer to this improvement as a “double-agent” approach to molecular imaging. Exogenous T2-exchange agents also rely on chemical exchange of protons between the agent and water, especially with an intermediate rate that lies between the slow exchange rates of CEST agents and the fast exchange rates of traditional T1 and T2 agents. Because of this intermediate exchange rate, these agents have been relatively unknown and have acted as “secret agents” in the contrast agent research field. This review exposes these secret agents and describes the merits of double agents through examples of exogenous agents that detect enzyme activity, nucleic acids and gene expression, metabolites, ions, redox state, temperature, and pH. Future directions are also provided for improving both types of contrast agents for improved molecular imaging and clinical translation. Therefore, this review provides an overview of two new types of exogenous contrast agents that are becoming useful tools within the armamentarium of molecular imaging. PMID:27747191

  11. Double agents and secret agents: the emerging fields of exogenous chemical exchange saturation transfer and T2-exchange magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents for molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Daryaei, Iman; Pagel, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Two relatively new types of exogenous magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents may provide greater impact for molecular imaging by providing greater specificity for detecting molecular imaging biomarkers. Exogenous chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents rely on the selective saturation of the magnetization of a proton on an agent, followed by chemical exchange of a proton from the agent to water. The selective detection of a biomarker-responsive CEST signal and an unresponsive CEST signal, followed by the ratiometric comparison of these signals, can improve biomarker specificity. We refer to this improvement as a "double-agent" approach to molecular imaging. Exogenous T 2 -exchange agents also rely on chemical exchange of protons between the agent and water, especially with an intermediate rate that lies between the slow exchange rates of CEST agents and the fast exchange rates of traditional T 1 and T 2 agents. Because of this intermediate exchange rate, these agents have been relatively unknown and have acted as "secret agents" in the contrast agent research field. This review exposes these secret agents and describes the merits of double agents through examples of exogenous agents that detect enzyme activity, nucleic acids and gene expression, metabolites, ions, redox state, temperature, and pH. Future directions are also provided for improving both types of contrast agents for improved molecular imaging and clinical translation. Therefore, this review provides an overview of two new types of exogenous contrast agents that are becoming useful tools within the armamentarium of molecular imaging.

  12. Smart Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Célia S; Tóth, Éva

    2016-01-01

    By visualizing bioactive molecules or biological parameters in vivo, molecular imaging is searching for information at the molecular level in living organisms. In addition to contributing to earlier and more personalized diagnosis in medicine, it also helps understand and rationalize the molecular factors underlying physiological and pathological processes. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), complexes of paramagnetic metal ions, mostly lanthanides, are commonly used to enhance the intrinsic image contrast. They rely either on the relaxation effect of these metal chelates (T(1) agents), or on the phenomenon of paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (PARACEST agents). In both cases, responsive molecular magnetic resonance imaging probes can be designed to report on various biomarkers of biological interest. In this context, we review recent work in the literature and from our group on responsive T(1) and PARACEST MRI agents for the detection of biogenic metal ions (such as calcium or zinc), enzymatic activities, or neurotransmitter release. These examples illustrate the general strategies that can be applied to create molecular imaging agents with an MRI detectable response to biologically relevant parameters.

  13. Contrast agents in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yuling; Sun, Xilin; Shen, Baozhong

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is a noninvasive method to assess angiogenesis, which is widely used in clinical applications including diagnosis, monitoring therapy response and prognosis estimation in cancer patients. Contrast agents play a crucial role in DCE-MRI and should be carefully selected in order to improve accuracy in DCE-MRI examination. Over the past decades, there was much progress in the development of optimal contrast agents in DCE-MRI. In this review, we describe the recent research advances in this field and discuss properties of contrast agents, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we discuss the research perspectives for improving this promising imaging method. PMID:28415647

  14. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection. PMID:27049630

  15. Wireless power transfer magnetic couplers

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Hunter; Gilchrist, Aaron; Sealy, Kylee

    2016-01-19

    A magnetic coupler is disclosed for wireless power transfer systems. A ferrimagnetic component is capable of guiding a magnetic field. A wire coil is wrapped around at least a portion of the ferrimagnetic component. A screen is capable of blocking leakage magnetic fields. The screen may be positioned to cover at least one side of the ferrimagnetic component and the coil. A distance across the screen may be at least six times an air gap distance between the ferrimagnetic component and a receiving magnetic coupler.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging using chemical exchange saturation transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaeseok

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used as a valuable diagnostic imaging modality that exploits water content and water relaxation properties to provide both structural and functional information with high resolution. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) in MRI has been recently introduced as a new mechanism of image contrast, wherein exchangeable protons from mobile proteins and peptides are indirectly detected through saturation transfer and are not observable using conventional MRI. It has been demonstrated that CEST MRI can detect important tissue metabolites and byproducts such as glucose, glycogen, and lactate. Additionally, CEST MRI is sensitive to pH or temperature and can calibrate microenvironment dependent on pH or temperature. In this work, we provide an overview on recent trends in CEST MRI, introducing general principles of CEST mechanism, quantitative description of proton transfer process between water pool and exchangeable solute pool in the presence or absence of conventional magnetization transfer effect, and its applications

  17. Magnetic field transfer device and method

    DOEpatents

    Wipf, S.L.

    1990-02-13

    A magnetic field transfer device includes a pair of oppositely wound inner coils which each include at least one winding around an inner coil axis, and an outer coil which includes at least one winding around an outer coil axis. The windings may be formed of superconductors. The axes of the two inner coils are parallel and laterally spaced from each other so that the inner coils are positioned in side-by-side relation. The outer coil is outwardly positioned from the inner coils and rotatable relative to the inner coils about a rotational axis substantially perpendicular to the inner coil axes to generate a hypothetical surface which substantially encloses the inner coils. The outer coil rotates relative to the inner coils between a first position in which the outer coil axis is substantially parallel to the inner coil axes and the outer coil augments the magnetic field formed in one of the inner coils, and a second position 180[degree] from the first position, in which the augmented magnetic field is transferred into the other inner coil and reoriented 180[degree] from the original magnetic field. The magnetic field transfer device allows a magnetic field to be transferred between volumes with negligible work being required to rotate the outer coil with respect to the inner coils. 16 figs.

  18. Magnetic field transfer device and method

    DOEpatents

    Wipf, Stefan L.

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic field transfer device includes a pair of oppositely wound inner coils which each include at least one winding around an inner coil axis, and an outer coil which includes at least one winding around an outer coil axis. The windings may be formed of superconductors. The axes of the two inner coils are parallel and laterally spaced from each other so that the inner coils are positioned in side-by-side relation. The outer coil is outwardly positioned from the inner coils and rotatable relative to the inner coils about a rotational axis substantially perpendicular to the inner coil axes to generate a hypothetical surface which substantially encloses the inner coils. The outer coil rotates relative to the inner coils between a first position in which the outer coil axis is substantially parallel to the inner coil axes and the outer coil augments the magnetic field formed in one of the inner coils, and a second position 180.degree. from the first position, in which the augmented magnetic field is transferred into the other inner coil and reoriented 180.degree. from the original magnetic field. The magnetic field transfer device allows a magnetic field to be transferred between volumes with negligible work being required to rotate the outer coil with respect to the inner coils.

  19. Magnetic and Plasmonic Contrast Agents in Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Oldenburg, Amy L.; Blackmon, Richard L.; Sierchio, Justin M.

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has gained widespread application for many biomedical applications, yet the traditional array of contrast agents used in incoherent imaging modalities do not provide contrast in OCT. Owing to the high biocompatibility of iron oxides and noble metals, magnetic and plasmonic nanoparticles, respectively, have been developed as OCT contrast agents to enable a range of biological and pre-clinical studies. Here we provide a review of these developments within the past decade, including an overview of the physical contrast mechanisms and classes of OCT system hardware addons needed for magnetic and plasmonic nanoparticle contrast. A comparison of the wide variety of nanoparticle systems is also presented, where the figures of merit depend strongly upon the choice of biological application. PMID:27429543

  20. Brain magnetic resonance imaging with contrast dependent on blood oxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, S.; Lee, T.M.; Kay, A.R.

    1990-12-01

    Paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin in venous blood is a naturally occurring contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By accentuating the effects of this agent through the use of gradient-echo techniques in high yields, the authors demonstrate in vivo images of brain microvasculature with image contrast reflecting the blood oxygen level. This blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast follows blood oxygen changes induced by anesthetics, by insulin-induced hypoglycemia, and by inhaled gas mixtures that alter metabolic demand or blood flow. The results suggest that BOLD contrast can be used to provide in vivo real-time maps of blood oxygenation in the brain under normalmore » physiological conditions. BOLD contrast adds an additional feature to magnetic resonance imaging and complement other techniques that are attempting to provide position emission tomography-like measurements related to regional neural activity.« less

  1. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Contrast Dependent on Blood Oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, S.; Lee, T. M.; Kay, A. R.; Tank, D. W.

    1990-12-01

    Paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin in venous blood is a naturally occurring contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By accentuating the effects of this agent through the use of gradient-echo techniques in high fields, we demonstrate in vivo images of brain microvasculature with image contrast reflecting the blood oxygen level. This blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast follows blood oxygen changes induced by anesthetics, by insulin-induced hypoglycemia, and by inhaled gas mixtures that alter metabolic demand or blood flow. The results suggest that BOLD contrast can be used to provide in vivo real-time maps of blood oxygenation in the brain under normal physiological conditions. BOLD contrast adds an additional feature to magnetic resonance imaging and complements other techniques that are attempting to provide positron emission tomography-like measurements related to regional neural activity.

  2. Effect of injection rate on contrast-enhanced MR angiography image quality: Modulation transfer function analysis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Toshimasa J; Wilson, Gregory J; Maki, Jeffrey H

    2017-07-01

    Contrast-enhanced (CE)-MRA optimization involves interactions of sequence duration, bolus timing, contrast recirculation, and both R 1 relaxivity and R2*-related reduction of signal. Prior data suggest superior image quality with slower gadolinium injection rates than typically used. A computer-based model of CE-MRA was developed, with contrast injection, physiologic, and image acquisition parameters varied over a wide gamut. Gadolinium concentration was derived using Verhoeven's model with recirculation, R 1 and R2* calculated at each time point, and modulation transfer curves used to determine injection rates, resulting in optimal resolution and image contrast for renal and carotid artery CE-MRA. Validation was via a vessel stenosis phantom and example patients who underwent carotid CE-MRA with low effective injection rates. Optimal resolution for renal and carotid CE-MRA is achieved with injection rates between 0.5 to 0.9 mL/s and 0.2 to 0.3 mL/s, respectively, dependent on contrast volume. Optimal image contrast requires slightly faster injection rates. Expected signal-to-noise ratio varies with both contrast volume and cardiac output. Simulated vessel phantom and clinical carotid CE-MRA exams at an effective contrast injection rate of 0.4 to 0.5 mL/s demonstrate increased resolution. Optimal image resolution is achieved at intuitively low, effective injection rates (0.2-0.9 mL/s, dependent on imaging parameters and contrast injection volume). Magn Reson Med 78:357-369, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Magnetic to magnetic and kinetic to magnetic energy transfers at the top of the Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huguet, Ludovic; Amit, Hagay; Alboussière, Thierry

    2016-11-01

    We develop the theory for the magnetic to magnetic and kinetic to magnetic energy transfer between different spherical harmonic degrees due to the interaction of fluid flow and radial magnetic field at the top of the Earth's core. We show that non-zero secular variation of the total magnetic energy could be significant and may provide evidence for the existence of stretching secular variation, which suggests the existence of radial motions at the top of the Earth's core-whole core convection or MAC waves. However, the uncertainties of the small scales of the geomagnetic field prevent a definite conclusion. Combining core field and flow models we calculate the detailed magnetic to magnetic and kinetic to magnetic energy transfer matrices. The magnetic to magnetic energy transfer shows a complex behaviour with local and non-local transfers. The spectra of magnetic to magnetic energy transfers show clear maxima and minima, suggesting an energy cascade. The kinetic to magnetic energy transfers, which are much weaker due to the weak poloidal flow, are either local or non-local between degree one and higher degrees. The patterns observed in the matrices resemble energy transfer patterns that are typically found in 3-D MHD numerical simulations.

  4. Inherent Contrast in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Potential for Contrast Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Brasch, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is emerging as a powerful new diagnostic tool valued for its apparent lack of adverse effects. The excellent inherent contrast between biologic tissues and fluids afforded by MR imaging is one of the foremost characteristics of this technique and depends on physicochemical properties such as hydrogen density and T1 and T2 relaxation rates, on magnetic field strength and on operator-chosen factors for acquiring the MR imaging signal. Pharmaceutical contrast-enhancing agents shorten the MR imaging process and improve sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11. PMID:2992172

  5. [Gadolinium-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Carrasco Muñoz, S; Calles Blanco, C; Marcin, Javier; Fernández Álvarez, C; Lafuente Martínez, J

    2014-06-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents are increasingly being used in magnetic resonance imaging. These agents can improve the contrast in images and provide information about function and metabolism, increasing both sensitivity and specificity. We describe the gadolinium-based contrast agents that have been approved for clinical use, detailing their main characteristics based on their chemical structure, stability, and safety. In general terms, these compounds are safe. Nevertheless, adverse reactions, the possibility of nephrotoxicity from these compounds, and the possibility of developing nephrogenic systemic fibrosis will be covered in this article. Lastly, the article will discuss the current guidelines, recommendations, and contraindications for their clinical use, including the management of pregnant and breast-feeding patients. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Macromolecular and Dendrimer Based Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bumb, Ambika; Brechbiel, Martin W.; Choyke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful imaging modality that can provide an assessment of function or molecular expression in tandem with anatomic detail. Over the last 20–25 years, a number of gadolinium based MR contrast agents have been developed to enhance signal by altering proton relaxation properties. This review explores a range of these agents from small molecule chelates, such as Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA, to macromolecular structures composed of albumin, polylysine, polysaccharides (dextran, inulin, starch), poly(ethylene glycol), copolymers of cystamine and cystine with GD-DTPA, and various dendritic structures based on polyamidoamine and polylysine (Gadomers). The synthesis, structure, biodistribution and targeting of dendrimer-based MR contrast agents are also discussed. PMID:20590365

  7. A smart magnetic resonance contrast agent for selective copper sensing.

    PubMed

    Que, Emily L; Chang, Christopher J

    2006-12-20

    We describe the synthesis and properties of Copper-Gad-1 (CG1), a new type of smart magnetic resonance (MR) sensor for selective detection of copper. CG1 is composed of a gadolinium contrast agent core tethered to copper-selective recognition motif. Cu2+-induced modulation of inner-sphere water access to the Gd3+ center provides a sensing mechanism for reporting Cu2+ levels by reading out changes in longitudinal proton relaxivity values. CG1 features good selectivity for Cu2+ over abundant biological cations and a 41% increase in relaxivity upon Cu2+ binding and is capable of detecting micromolar changes in Cu2+ concentrations in aqueous media.

  8. Molecular nanomagnets as contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Elisenda; Roig, Anna; Molins, Elies; Arús, Carles; Cabañas, Miquel; Quintero, María Rosa; Cerdán, Sebastián; Sanfeliu, Coral

    2003-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive technique used in medicine to produce high quality images of human body slices. In order to enhance the contrast between different organs or to reveal altered portions of them such necrosis or tumors, the administration of a contrast agent is highly convenient. Currently Gd-DTPA, a paramagnetic complex, is the most widely administered compound. In this context, we have assayed molecular nanomagnets as MRI contrast agents. The complex [(tacn)_6Fe_8(μ_3-O)_2(μ_2-OH)_12]Br_8·9H_2O^1(Fe8 in brief) has been evaluated and shorter relaxation times, T1 and T_2, have been obtained for Fe8 than those obtained for the commercial Gd-DTPA. No toxic effects have been observed at concentrations up to 1 mM of Fe8 in cultured cells. Phantom studies with T_1-weighted MRI at 9.4 Tesla suggest that Fe8 can have potentiality as T_1-contrast agent. ^1Wieghardt K Angew Chem Intl Ed Engl 23 1 (1984) 77

  9. Target-specific contrast agents for magnetic resonance microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Megan L.; Farrar, Christian T.; Fischl, Bruce; Rosen, Bruce R.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used to delineate prominent architectonic features in the human brain, but increased contrast is required to visualize more subtle distinctions. To aid MR sensitivity to cell density and myelination, we have begun the development of target-specific paramagnetic contrast agents. This work details the first application of luxol fast blue (LFB), an optical stain for myelin, as a white matter-selective MR contrast agent for human ex vivo brain tissue. Formalin-fixed human visual cortex was imaged with an isotropic resolution between 80 and 150 μm at 4.7 and 14 T before and after en bloc staining with LFB. Longitudinal (R1) and transverse (R2) relaxation rates in LFB-stained tissue increased proportionally with myelination at both field strengths. Changes in R1 resulted in larger contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR), per unit time, on T1-weighted images between more myelinated cortical layers (IV–VI) and adjacent, superficial layers (I–III) at both field strengths. Specifically, CNR for LFB-treated samples increased by 229±13% at 4.7 T and 269±25% at 14 T when compared to controls. Also, additional cortical layers (IVca, IVd, and Va) were resolvable in 14T-MR images of LFB-treated samples but not in control samples. After imaging, samples were sliced in 40-micron sections, mounted, and photographed. Both the macroscopic and microscopic distributions of LFB were found to mimic those of traditional histological preparations. Our results suggest target-specific contrast agents will enable more detailed MR images with applications in imaging pathological ex vivo samples and constructing better MR atlases from ex vivo brains. PMID:19385012

  10. Non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosing shoulder injuries.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Heino

    2012-12-01

    To compare preoperative non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with arthroscopy findings in diagnosing labral and rotator cuff tears. 86 men and 60 women aged 21 to 70 (mean, 52) years underwent non-contrast MRI before arthroscopic operations on the glenohumeral joint. Slices were made in a transverse, parasagittal, and paracoronar orientation. The sequences used were T2- and proton-weighted for paracoronar imaging, T1- and T2-weighted for transverse and parasagittal imaging, and T2-weigthed sequences with fat suppression and short tau inversion recovery sequences. MRI was evaluated with the surgeon to eliminate interobserver bias. Arthroscopic surgery was performed by a single surgeon. If a labral or rotator cuff tear was found, surgery was performed using corkscrew anchors. For full thickness rotator cuff tears, MRI and arthroscopy detected them in 76 and 82 patients, respectively. One such tear found by MRI could not be confirmed by arthroscopy. MRI missed 4 subscapularis and 3 supraspinatus tears. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in diagnosing full thickness rotator cuff tears were 0.90 and 0.91, respectively. For labral tears, MRI and arthroscopy detected them in 16 and 31 patients, respectively. One anterior labral tear detected by MRI could not be verified by arthroscopy. All 16 labral tears detected by MRI were Bankart type-I tears (of the anterior glenoid) except for one superior labral tear from anterior to posterior (SLAP tear). All 13 SLAP tears (10 type 2 and 3 type 3) except for one could be found by arthroscopy only. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in diagnosing labral tears were 0.52 and 0.89, respectively. Non-contrast MRI is reliable only for diagnosing full thickness rotator cuff tears and anterior labral tears. Direct or indirect contrast enhancement is recommended for more differentiation. Special scan orientation is necessary for SLAP tears.

  11. Dual Contrast - Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (DC-MRF): A Platform for Simultaneous Quantification of Multiple MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christian E; Donnola, Shannon B; Jiang, Yun; Batesole, Joshua; Darrah, Rebecca; Drumm, Mitchell L; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M; Steinmetz, Nicole F; Yu, Xin; Griswold, Mark A; Flask, Chris A

    2017-08-16

    Injectable Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agents have been widely used to provide critical assessments of disease for both clinical and basic science imaging research studies. The scope of available MRI contrast agents has expanded over the years with the emergence of molecular imaging contrast agents specifically targeted to biological markers. Unfortunately, synergistic application of more than a single molecular contrast agent has been limited by MRI's ability to only dynamically measure a single agent at a time. In this study, a new Dual Contrast - Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (DC - MRF) methodology is described that can detect and independently quantify the local concentration of multiple MRI contrast agents following simultaneous administration. This "multi-color" MRI methodology provides the opportunity to monitor multiple molecular species simultaneously and provides a practical, quantitative imaging framework for the eventual clinical translation of molecular imaging contrast agents.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Tumors with the Use of Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles as a Contrast Agent.

    PubMed

    Semkina, A S; Abakumov, M A; Grinenko, N F; Lipengolts, A A; Nukolova, N V; Chekhonin, V P

    2017-04-01

    We studied the possibility of using BSA-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of C6 glioblastoma, 4T1 mammary adenocarcinoma, and RS-1 hepatic mucous carcinoma. In all three cases, magnetic nanoparticles accumulated in the tumor and its large vessels. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast agent allows visualization of the tumor tissue and its vascularization.

  13. Non-caloric sweetener provides magnetic resonance imaging contrast for cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Bagga, Puneet; Haris, Mohammad; D'Aquilla, Kevin; Wilson, Neil E; Marincola, Francesco M; Schnall, Mitchell D; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder

    2017-05-30

    Image contrast enhanced by exogenous contrast agents plays a crucial role in the early detection, characterization, and determination of the precise location of cancers. Here, we investigate the feasibility of using a non-nutritive sweetener, sucralose (commercial name, Splenda), as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent for cancer studies. High-resolution nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy and MR studies on sucralose solution phantom were performed to detect the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) property of sucralose hydroxyl protons with bulk water (sucCEST). For the animal experiments, female Fisher rats (F344/NCR) were used to generate 9L-gliosarcoma model. MRI with CEST experiments were performed on anesthetized rats at 9.4 T MR scanner. Following the baseline CEST scans, sucralose solution was intravenously administered in control and tumor bearing rats. CEST acquisitions were continued during and following the administration of sucralose. Following the sucCEST, Gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid was injected to perform Gd-enhanced imaging for visualizing the tumor. The sucCEST contrast in vitro was found to correlate positively with the sucralose concentration and negatively with the pH, indicating the potential of this technique in cancer imaging. In a control animal, the CEST contrast from the brain was found to be unaffected following the administration of sucralose, demonstrating its blood-brain barrier impermeability. In a 9L glioma model, enhanced localized sucCEST contrast in the tumor region was detected while the unaffected brain region showed unaltered CEST effect implying the specificity of sucralose toward the tumorous tissue. The CEST asymmetry plots acquired from the tumor region before and after the sucralose infusion showed elevation of asymmetry at 1 ppm, pointing towards the role of sucralose in increased contrast. We show the feasibility of using sucralose and sucCEST in study of preclinical models of

  14. Nonhelical inverse transfer of a decaying turbulent magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Axel; Kahniashvili, Tina; Tevzadze, Alexander G

    2015-02-20

    In the presence of magnetic helicity, inverse transfer from small to large scales is well known in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and has applications in astrophysics, cosmology, and fusion plasmas. Using high resolution direct numerical simulations of magnetically dominated self-similarly decaying MHD turbulence, we report a similar inverse transfer even in the absence of magnetic helicity. We compute for the first time spectral energy transfer rates to show that this inverse transfer is about half as strong as with helicity, but in both cases the magnetic gain at large scales results from velocity at similar scales interacting with smaller-scale magnetic fields. This suggests that both inverse transfers are a consequence of universal mechanisms for magnetically dominated turbulence. Possible explanations include inverse cascading of the mean squared vector potential associated with local near two dimensionality and the shallower k^{2} subinertial range spectrum of kinetic energy forcing the magnetic field with a k^{4} subinertial range to attain larger-scale coherence. The inertial range shows a clear k^{-2} spectrum and is the first example of fully isotropic magnetically dominated MHD turbulence exhibiting weak turbulence scaling.

  15. New oil-in-water magnetic emulsion as contrast agent for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jaafar-Maalej, Chiraz; Eissa, Mohamed Mahmoud; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays, bio-imaging techniques are widely applied for the diagnosis of various diseased/tumoral tissues in the body using different contrast agents. Accordingly, the advancement in bionanotechnology research is enhanced in this regard. Among contrast agents used, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were developed by many researchers and applied for in vive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, a new oil-in-water magnetic emulsion was used as contrast agent in MRI, after being characterized in terms of particle size, iron oxide content, magnetic properties and colloidal stability using dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and zeta potential measurement techniques, respectively. The hydrodynamic size and magnetic content of the magnetic colloidal particles were found to be 250 nm and 75 wt%, respectively. In addition, the used magnetic emulsion possesses superparamagentic properties and high colloidal stability in aqueous medium. Then, the magnetic emulsion was highly diluted and administered intravenously to the Sprague dawley rats to be tested as contrast agent for in vivo MRI. In this preliminary study, MRI images showed significant enhancement in contrast, especially for T2 (relaxation time) contrast enhancement, indicating the distribution of magnetic colloidal nanoparticles within organs, like liver, spleen and kidneys of the Sprague dawley rats. In addition, it was found that 500 microL of the highly diluted magnetic emulsion (0.05 wt%) was found adequate for MRI analysis. This seems to be useful for further investigations especially in theranostic applications of magnetic emulsion.

  16. Preoperative prognostic value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI-derived contrast transfer coefficient and plasma volume in patients with cerebral gliomas.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T B; Cron, G O; Mercier, J F; Foottit, C; Torres, C H; Chakraborty, S; Woulfe, J; Jansen, G H; Caudrelier, J M; Sinclair, J; Hogan, M J; Thornhill, R E; Cameron, I G

    2015-01-01

    The prognostic value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging-derived plasma volume obtained in tumor and the contrast transfer coefficient has not been well-established in patients with gliomas. We determined whether plasma volume and contrast transfer coefficient in tumor correlated with survival in patients with gliomas in addition to other factors such as age, type of surgery, preoperative Karnofsky score, contrast enhancement, and histopathologic grade. This prospective study included 46 patients with a new pathologically confirmed diagnosis of glioma. The contrast transfer coefficient and plasma volume obtained in tumor maps were calculated directly from the signal-intensity curve without T1 measurements, and values were obtained from multiple small ROIs placed within tumors. Survival curve analysis was performed by dichotomizing patients into groups of high and low contrast transfer coefficient and plasma volume. Univariate analysis was performed by using dynamic contrast-enhanced parameters and clinical factors. Factors that were significant on univariate analysis were entered into multivariate analysis. For all patients with gliomas, survival was worse for groups of patients with high contrast transfer coefficient and plasma volume obtained in tumor (P < .05). In subgroups of high- and low-grade gliomas, survival was worse for groups of patients with high contrast transfer coefficient and plasma volume obtained in tumor (P < .05). Univariate analysis showed that factors associated with lower survival were age older than 50 years, low Karnofsky score, biopsy-only versus resection, marked contrast enhancement versus no/mild enhancement, high contrast transfer coefficient, and high plasma volume obtained in tumor (P < .05). In multivariate analysis, a low Karnofsky score, biopsy versus resection in combination with marked contrast enhancement, and a high contrast transfer coefficient were associated with lower survival rates (P < .05). In patients with glioma

  17. In vivo detection of cucurbit[6]uril, a hyperpolarized xenon contrast agent for a xenon magnetic resonance imaging biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Hane, Francis T.; Li, Tao; Smylie, Peter; Pellizzari, Raiili M.; Plata, Jennifer A.; DeBoef, Brenton; Albert, Mitchell S.

    2017-01-01

    The Hyperpolarized gas Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (HyperCEST) Magnetic Resonance (MR) technique has the potential to increase the sensitivity of a hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI contrast agent. Signal enhancement is accomplished by selectively depolarizing the xenon within a cage molecule which, upon exchange, reduces the signal in the dissolved phase pool. Herein we demonstrate the in vivo detection of the cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) contrast agent within the vasculature of a living rat. Our work may be used as a stepping stone towards using the HyperCEST technique as a molecular imaging modality. PMID:28106110

  18. Is nitrogen transfer among plants enhanced by contrasting nutrient-acquisition strategies?

    PubMed

    Teste, François P; Veneklaas, Erik J; Dixon, Kingsley W; Lambers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) transfer among plants has been found where at least one plant can fix N2 . In nutrient-poor soils, where plants with contrasting nutrient-acquisition strategies (without N2 fixation) co-occur, it is unclear if N transfer exists and what promotes it. A novel multi-species microcosm pot experiment was conducted to quantify N transfer between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM), ectomycorrhizal (EM), dual AM/EM, and non-mycorrhizal cluster-rooted plants in nutrient-poor soils with mycorrhizal mesh barriers. We foliar-fed plants with a K(15) NO3 solution to quantify one-way N transfer from 'donor' to 'receiver' plants. We also quantified mycorrhizal colonization and root intermingling. Transfer of N between plants with contrasting nutrient-acquisition strategies occurred at both low and high soil nutrient levels with or without root intermingling. The magnitude of N transfer was relatively high (representing 4% of donor plant N) given the lack of N2 fixation. Receiver plants forming ectomycorrhizas or cluster roots were more enriched compared with AM-only plants. We demonstrate N transfer between plants of contrasting nutrient-acquisition strategies, and a preferential enrichment of cluster-rooted and EM plants compared with AM plants. Nutrient exchanges among plants are potentially important in promoting plant coexistence in nutrient-poor soils. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Contrast medium enhanced magnetic resonance tomography of liver metastases: positive versus negative contrast media].

    PubMed

    Hammerstingl, R M; Schwarz, W; Hochmuth, K; Staib-Sebler, E; Lorenz, M; Vogl, T J

    2001-01-01

    The development in oncologic liver surgery as well as modified interventional therapy strategies of the liver have resulted in improved diagnostic imaging. The evolution of contrast agents for MR imaging of the liver has proceeded along several different paths with the common goal of improving liver-lesion contrast. In MRI contrast agents act indirectly by their effects on relaxation times. Contrast agents used for hepatic MR imaging can be categorized in those that target the extracellular space, the hepatobiliary system, and the reticuloendothelial system. The first two result in a positive enhancement, the last one in a negative enhancement. Positive enhancers allow a better characterization of liver metastases using dynamic sequence protocols. Detection rate of liver metastases is increased using hepatobiliary contrast-enhanced MRI compared to unenhanced MRI. Negative enhancers, iron oxide particles, significantly increase tumor-to-liver contrast and allow detection of more lesions than other diagnostic methods. Iron-oxide enhanced MRI enables differential diagnosis of liver metastases comparing morphologic features using T2 and T1-weighted sequences.

  20. Gadolinium chloride as a contrast agent for imaging wood composite components by magnetic resonance

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chi-Leung So; Andrea Protti; Po-Wah So

    2009-01-01

    Although paramagnetic contrast agents have an established track record in medical uses of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), only recently has a contrast agent been used for enhancing MRI images of solid wood specimens. Expanding on this concept, wood veneers were treated with a gadolinium-based contrast agent and used in a model system comprising three-ply plywood...

  1. Dynamics of magnetization in ferromagnet with spin-transfer torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zai-Dong; He, Peng-Bin; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2014-11-01

    We review our recent works on dynamics of magnetization in ferromagnet with spin-transfer torque. Driven by constant spin-polarized current, the spin-transfer torque counteracts both the precession driven by the effective field and the Gilbert damping term different from the common understanding. When the spin current exceeds the critical value, the conjunctive action of Gilbert damping and spin-transfer torque leads naturally the novel screw-pitch effect characterized by the temporal oscillation of domain wall velocity and width. Driven by space- and time-dependent spin-polarized current and magnetic field, we expatiate the formation of domain wall velocity in ferromagnetic nanowire. We discuss the properties of dynamic magnetic soliton in uniaxial anisotropic ferromagnetic nanowire driven by spin-transfer torque, and analyze the modulation instability and dark soliton on the spin wave background, which shows the characteristic breather behavior of the soliton as it propagates along the ferromagnetic nanowire. With stronger breather character, we get the novel magnetic rogue wave and clarify its formation mechanism. The generation of magnetic rogue wave mainly arises from the accumulation of energy and magnons toward to its central part. We also observe that the spin-polarized current can control the exchange rate of magnons between the envelope soliton and the background, and the critical current condition is obtained analytically. At last, we have theoretically investigated the current-excited and frequency-adjusted ferromagnetic resonance in magnetic trilayers. A particular case of the perpendicular analyzer reveals that the ferromagnetic resonance curves, including the resonant location and the resonant linewidth, can be adjusted by changing the pinned magnetization direction and the direct current. Under the control of the current and external magnetic field, several magnetic states, such as quasi-parallel and quasi-antiparallel stable states, out

  2. Magnetic nanoparticles as contrast agents for molecular imaging in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    For over twenty years, superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been developed for a number of medical applications ranging from bioseparations, magnetic drug targeting, hyperthermia and imaging. Recent studies have shown that they can be functionalized for in vivo biological targeting, potentially enabling nanoagents for molecular imaging and site-localized drug delivery. Here we review several imaging technologies developed using functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as targeted molecular agents. Several imaging modalities have exploited the large induced magnetic moment of SPIONs to create local mechanical force. Magnetic force microscopy can probe nanoparticle uptake in single cells. For in vivo applications, magnetomotive modulation of primary images in ultrasound (US), photoacoustics (PA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) can help identify very small concentrations of nanoagents while simultaneously suppressing intrinsic background signals from tissue.

  3. Back-illuminated CCD imager adapted for contrast transfer function measurements thereon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Peter A. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Stripe patterns of varying spatial frequency, formed in the top-metalization of a back-illuminated solid-state imager, facilitate on-line measurement of contrast transfer function during wafer-probe testing. The imager may be packaged to allow front-illumination during in-the-field testing after its manufacture.

  4. Aptamer-conjugated Magnetic Nanoparticles as Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Keshtkar, Mohammad; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Khoshfetrat, Seyyed Mehdi; Mehrgardi, Masoud A; Aghaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of breast cancer is the most effective way to improve the survival rate in women. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers high spatial resolution and good anatomic details, and its lower sensitivity can be improved by using targeted molecular imaging. In this study, AS1411 aptamer was conjugated to Fe 3 O 4 @Au nanoparticles for specific targeting of mouse mammary carcinoma (4T1) cells that overexpress nucleolin. In vitro cytotoxicity of aptamer-conjugated nanoparticles was assessed on 4T1 and HFFF-PI6 (control) cells. The ability of the synthesized nanoprobe to target specifically the nucleolin overexpressed cells was assessed with the MRI technique. Results show that the synthesized nanoprobe produced strongly darkened T 2 -weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images with 4T1 cells, whereas the MR images of HFFF-PI6 cells incubated with the nanoprobe are brighter, showing small changes compared to water. The results demonstrate that in a Fe concentration of 45 μg/mL, the nanoprobe reduced by 90% MR image intensity in 4T1 cells compared with the 27% reduction in HFFF-PI6 cells. Analysis of MR signal intensity showed statistically significant signal intensity difference between 4T1 and HFFF-PI6 cells treated with the nanoprobe. MRI experiments demonstrate the high potential of the synthesized nanoprobe as a specific MRI contrast agent for detection of nucleolin-expressing breast cancer cells.

  5. A quantitative study of ramped radio frequency, magnetization transfer, and slab thickness in three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography in a patient population.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, K C; Blatter, D D; Parker, D L; Du, Y P; Meyer, K J; Bernstein, M A

    1996-06-01

    The authors compare the effectiveness of various magnetic resonance (MR) angiography acquisition strategies in enhancing the visibility of small intracranial vessels. Blood vessel contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in time-of-flight MR angiography was studied as a function of vessel size and several selectable imaging parameters. Contrast-to-noise measurements were made on 257 vessel segments ranging in size from 0.3 mm to 4.2 mm in patients who recently had undergone intraarterial cerebral angiography. Imaging parameters studied included magnetization transfer, spatially variable radio frequency (RF) pulse profile (ramped RF), and imaging slab thickness. The combination of thin slabs (16 slices/slab), ramped RF, and magnetization transfer resulted in the highest CNR for all but the smallest vessel sizes. The smallest vessels (< 0.5 mm) had the highest CNR, using the thick slab (64 slices/slab) with ramped RF and magnetization transfer. Magnetization transfer always improved vessel CNR, but the improvement diminished as the slab thickness was reduced. The CNR increased with a decrease in slab thickness for all but the smallest vessel sizes. Overall, the results provide a quantitative demonstration that inflow enhancement of blood is reduced for small vessels. Thus, whereas magnetization transfer is important at all vessel sizes, it becomes the primary factor in improving the visibility of the smallest vessels.

  6. Evolution of magnetic flux ropes associated with flux transfer events and interplanetary magnetic clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, C. Q.; Lee, L. C.; Wang, S.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1991-01-01

    Spacecraft observations suggest that flux transfer events and interplanetary magnetic clouds may be associated with magnetic flux ropes which are magnetic flux tubes containing helical magnetic field lines. In the magnetic flux ropes, the azimuthal magnetic field is superposed on the axial field. The time evolution of a localized magnetic flux rope is studied. A two-dimensional compressible MHD simulation code with a cylindrical symmetry is developed to study the wave modes associated with the evolution of flux ropes. It is found that in the initial phase both the fast magnetosonic wave and the Alfven wave are developed in the flux rope. After this initial phase, the Alfven wave becomes the dominant wave mode for the evolution of the magnetic flux rope and the radial expansion velocity of the flux rope is found to be negligible. Numerical results further show that even for a large initial azimuthal component of the magnetic field, the propagation velocity along the axial direction of the flux rope remains the Alfven velocity. It is also found that the localized magnetic flux rope tends to evolve into two separate magnetic ropes propagating in opposite directions. The simulation results are used to study the evolution of magnetic flux ropes associated with flux transfer events observed at the earth's dayside magnetopause and magnetic clouds in the interplanetary space.

  7. Combining hard and soft magnetism into a single core-shell nanoparticle to achieve both hyperthermia and image contrast

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiuhong; Gong, Maogang; Cai, Shuang; Zhang, Ti; Douglas, Justin T; Chikan, Viktor; Davies, Neal M; Lee, Phil; Choi, In-Young; Ren, Shenqiang; Forrest, M Laird

    2015-01-01

    Background A biocompatible core/shell structured magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was developed to mediate simultaneous cancer therapy and imaging. Methods & results A 22-nm MNP was first synthesized via magnetically coupling hard (FePt) and soft (Fe3O4) materials to produce high relative energy transfer. Colloidal stability of the FePt@Fe3O4 MNPs was achieved through surface modification with silane-polyethylene glycol (PEG). Intravenous administration of PEG-MNPs into tumor-bearing mice resulted in a sustained particle accumulation in the tumor region, and the tumor burden of treated mice was a third that of the mice in control groups 2 weeks after a local hyperthermia treatment. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging exhibited enhanced T2 contrast in the tumor region. Conclusion This work has demonstrated the feasibility of cancer theranostics with PEG-MNPs. PMID:26606855

  8. Quantum approach of mesoscopic magnet dynamics with spin transfer torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Sham, L. J.

    2013-05-01

    We present a theory of magnetization dynamics driven by spin-polarized current in terms of the quantum master equation. In the spin coherent state representation, the master equation becomes a Fokker-Planck equation, which naturally includes the spin transfer and quantum fluctuation. The current electron scattering state is correlated to the magnet quantum states, giving rise to quantum correction to the electron transport properties in the usual semiclassical theory. In the large-spin limit, the magnetization dynamics is shown to obey the Hamilton-Jacobi equation or the Hamiltonian canonical equations.

  9. Serial Magnetization Transfer Imaging in Acute Optic Neuritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, S. J.; Toosy, A. T.; Jones, S. J.; Altmann, D. R.; Miszkiel, K. A.; MacManus, D. G.; Barker, G. J.; Plant, G. T.; Thompson, A. J.; Miller, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    In serial studies of multiple sclerosis lesions, reductions in magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) are thought to be due to demyelination and axonal loss, with later rises due to remyelination. This study followed serial changes in MTR in acute optic neuritis in combination with clinical and electrophysiological measurements to determine if the MTR…

  10. Magnetic MIMO Signal Processing and Optimization for Wireless Power Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gang; Moghadam, Mohammad R. Vedady; Zhang, Rui

    2017-06-01

    In magnetic resonant coupling (MRC) enabled multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless power transfer (WPT) systems, multiple transmitters (TXs) each with one single coil are used to enhance the efficiency of simultaneous power transfer to multiple single-coil receivers (RXs) by constructively combining their induced magnetic fields at the RXs, a technique termed "magnetic beamforming". In this paper, we study the optimal magnetic beamforming design in a multi-user MIMO MRC-WPT system. We introduce the multi-user power region that constitutes all the achievable power tuples for all RXs, subject to the given total power constraint over all TXs as well as their individual peak voltage and current constraints. We characterize each boundary point of the power region by maximizing the sum-power deliverable to all RXs subject to their minimum harvested power constraints. For the special case without the TX peak voltage and current constraints, we derive the optimal TX current allocation for the single-RX setup in closed-form as well as that for the multi-RX setup. In general, the problem is a non-convex quadratically constrained quadratic programming (QCQP), which is difficult to solve. For the case of one single RX, we show that the semidefinite relaxation (SDR) of the problem is tight. For the general case with multiple RXs, based on SDR we obtain two approximate solutions by applying time-sharing and randomization, respectively. Moreover, for practical implementation of magnetic beamforming, we propose a novel signal processing method to estimate the magnetic MIMO channel due to the mutual inductances between TXs and RXs. Numerical results show that our proposed magnetic channel estimation and adaptive beamforming schemes are practically effective, and can significantly improve the power transfer efficiency and multi-user performance trade-off in MIMO MRC-WPT systems.

  11. Molecular, dynamic, and structural origin of inhomogeneous magnetization transfer in lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Scott D; Malyarenko, Dariya I; Fabiilli, Mario L; Welsh, Robert C; Nielsen, Jon-Fredrik; Srinivasan, Ashok

    2017-03-01

    To elucidate the dynamic, structural, and molecular properties that create inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT) contrast. Amphiphilic lipids, lamellar phospholipids with cholesterol, and bovine spinal cord (BSC) specimens were examined along with nonlipid systems. Magnetization transfer (MT), enhanced MT (eMT, obtained with double-sided radiofrequency saturation), ihMT (MT - eMT), and dipolar relaxation, T 1D , were measured at 2.0 and 11.7 T. The amplitude of ihMT ratio (ihMTR) is positively correlated with T 1D values. Both ihMTR and T 1D increase with increasing temperature in BSC white matter and in phospholipids and decrease with temperature in other lipids. Changes in ihMTR with temperature arise primarily from alterations in MT rather than eMT. Spectral width of MT, eMT, and ihMT increases with increasing carbon chain length. Concerted motions of phospholipids in white matter decrease proton spin diffusion leading to increased proton T 1D times and increased ihMT amplitudes, consistent with decoupling of Zeeman and dipolar spin reservoirs. Molecular specificity and dynamic sensitivity of ihMT contrast make it a suitable candidate for probing myelin membrane disorders. Magn Reson Med 77:1318-1328, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Inorganic nanoparticle-based T1 and T1/T2 magnetic resonance contrast probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fengqin; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yields high spatially resolved contrast with anatomical details for diagnosis, deeper penetration depth and rapid 3D scanning. To improve imaging sensitivity, adding contrast agents accelerates the relaxation rate of water molecules, thereby greatly increasing the contrast between specific issues or organs of interest. Currently, the majority of T1 contrast agents are paramagnetic molecular complexes, typically Gd(iii) chelates. Various nanoparticulate T1 and T1/T2 contrast agents have recently been investigated as novel agents possessing the advantages of both the T1 contrast effect and nanostructural characteristics. In this minireview, we describe the recent progress of these inorganic nanoparticle-based MRI contrast agents. Specifically, we mainly report on Gd and Mn-based inorganic nanoparticles and ultrasmall iron oxide/ferrite nanoparticles.

  13. Testing of Prototype Magnetic Suspension Cryogenic Transfer Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Nagy, Z. F.; Sojourner, S. J.; Shu, Q. S.; Cheng, G.; Susta, J. T.

    2006-04-01

    A 6-meter prototype cryogenic transfer line with magnetic suspension was tested for its mechanical and thermal performance at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A test facility with two cryogenic end-boxes was designed and commissioned for the testing. Suspension mechanisms were verified through a series of tests with liquid nitrogen. The thermal performance of the prototype was determined using the new test apparatus. The tested prototype has incorporated temperature and vacuum pressure data acquisition ports, customized interfaces to cryogenic end-boxes, and instrumentation. All tests were conducted under simulated onsite transfer line working conditions. A static (boiloff rate measurement) testing method was employed to demonstrate the gross heat leak in the tested article. The real-time temperature distribution, vacuum level, levitation distance, and mass flow rate were measured. The main purpose of this paper is to summarize the testing facility design and preparation, test procedure, and primary test results. Special arrangements (such as turning on/off mechanical support units, observing levitation gap, and setting up the flowmeter) in testing of such a magnetically levitated transfer line are also discussed. Preliminary results show that the heat leak reduction of approximately one-third to one-half is achievable through such transfer lines with a magnetic suspension system.

  14. Contrast Media Extravasation of Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Management Guidelines for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Refky; Shaqdan, Khalid Wael; Aran, Shima; Prabhakar, Anand M; Singh, Ajay Kumar; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous contrast administration has been of great importance in diagnostic radiology, but it is not without risks either due to the local, systemic allergic reactions or due to subcutaneous extravasation of contrast media. Subcutaneous contrast medium extravasationis an infrequent, yet a well-recognized complication. However, most incidents are minor and can be managed conservatively, but there are a few cases that require immediate surgical intervention. This article discusses the risks factors, clinical manifestations, and conservative and surgical approaches of subcutaneous contrast media extravasation for both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Do we need gadolinium-based contrast medium for brain magnetic resonance imaging in children?

    PubMed

    Dünger, Dennis; Krause, Matthias; Gräfe, Daniel; Merkenschlager, Andreas; Roth, Christian; Sorge, Ina

    2018-06-01

    Brain imaging is the most common examination in pediatric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), often combined with the use of a gadolinium-based contrast medium. The application of gadolinium-based contrast medium poses some risk. There is limited evidence of the benefits of contrast medium in pediatric brain imaging. To assess the diagnostic gain of contrast-enhanced sequences in brain MRI when the unenhanced sequences are normal. We retrospectively assessed 6,683 brain MR examinations using contrast medium in children younger than 16 years in the pediatric radiology department of the University Hospital Leipzig to determine whether contrast-enhanced sequences delivered additional, clinically relevant information to pre-contrast sequences. All examinations were executed using a 1.5-T or a 3-T system. In 8 of 3,003 (95% confidence interval 0.12-0.52%) unenhanced normal brain examinations, a relevant additional finding was detected when contrast medium was administered. Contrast enhancement led to a change in diagnosis in only one of these cases. Children with a normal pre-contrast brain MRI rarely benefit from contrast medium application. Comparing these results to the risks and disadvantages of a routine gadolinium application, there is substantiated numerical evidence for avoiding routine administration of gadolinium in a pre-contrast normal MRI examination.

  16. On the origins of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast in tumors at 9.4 T.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junzhong; Zaiss, Moritz; Zu, Zhongliang; Li, Hua; Xie, Jingping; Gochberg, Daniel F; Bachert, Peter; Gore, John C

    2014-04-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) provides an indirect means to detect exchangeable protons within tissues through their effects on the water signal. Previous studies have suggested that amide proton transfer (APT) imaging, a specific form of CEST, detects endogenous amide protons with a resonance frequency offset 3.5 ppm downfield from water, and thus may be sensitive to variations in mobile proteins/peptides in tumors. However, as CEST measurements are influenced by various confounding effects, such as spillover saturation, magnetization transfer (MT) and MT asymmetry, the mechanism or degree of increased APT signal in tumors is not certain. In addition to APT, nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) effects upfield from water may also provide distinct information on tissue composition. In the current study, APT, NOE and several other MR parameters were measured and compared comprehensively in order to elucidate the origins of APT and NOE contrasts in tumors at 9.4 T. In addition to conventional CEST methods, a new intrinsic inverse metric was applied to correct for relaxation and other effects. After corrections for spillover, MT and T1 effects, corrected APT in tumors was found not to be significantly different from that in normal tissues, but corrected NOE effects in tumors showed significant decreases compared with those in normal tissues. Biochemical measurements verified that there was no significant enhancement of protein contents in the tumors studied, consistent with the corrected APT measurements and previous literature, whereas quantitative MT data showed decreases in the fractions of immobile macromolecules in tumors. Our results may assist in the better understanding of the contrast depicted by CEST imaging in tumors, and in the development of improved APT and NOE measurements for cancer imaging. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Assisted Writing in Spin Transfer Torque Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Samiran; Ahmed, Zeeshan; Datta, Supriyo; Marinero, Ernesto E.

    2015-03-01

    Spin transfer torque driven MRAM devices are now in an advanced state of development, and the importance of reducing the current requirement for writing information is well recognized. Different approaches to assist the writing process have been proposed such as spin orbit torque, spin Hall effect, voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy and thermal excitation. In this work,we report on our comparative study using the Spin-Circuit Approach regarding the total energy, the switching speed and energy-delay products for different assisted writing approaches in STT-MTJ devices using PMA magnets.

  18. Poynting vector analysis for wireless power transfer between magnetically coupled coils with different loads.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yunsheng; Li, Jiansheng; Hou, Xiaojuan; Lv, Xiaolong; Liang, Hao; Zhou, Ji; Wu, Hongya

    2017-04-07

    Wireless power transfer is a nonradiative type of transmission that is performed in the near-field region. In this region, the electromagnetic fields that are produced by both the transmitting and receiving coils are evanescent fields, which should not transmit energy. This then raises the question of how the energy can be transferred. Here we describe a theoretical study of the two evanescent field distributions at different terminal loads. It is shown that the essential principle of wireless energy transfer is the superposition of the two evanescent fields, and the resulting superimposed field is mediated through the terminal load. If the terminal load is either capacitive or inductive, then the superimposed field cannot transfer the energy because its Poynting vector is zero; in contrast, if the load is resistive, energy can then be conveyed from the transmitting coil to the receiving coil. The simulation results for the magnetic field distributions and the time-domain current waveforms agree very well with the results of the theoretical analysis. This work thus provides a comprehensive understanding of the energy transfer mechanism involved in the magnetic resonant coupling system.

  19. Magnetic metamaterial superlens for increased range wireless power transfer.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Guy; Ensworth, Joshua; Seetharam, Kushal; Huang, Da; Lee, Jae Seung; Schmalenberg, Paul; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Reynolds, Matthew S; Smith, David R; Urzhumov, Yaroslav

    2014-01-10

    The ability to wirelessly power electrical devices is becoming of greater urgency as a component of energy conservation and sustainability efforts. Due to health and safety concerns, most wireless power transfer (WPT) schemes utilize very low frequency, quasi-static, magnetic fields; power transfer occurs via magneto-inductive (MI) coupling between conducting loops serving as transmitter and receiver. At the "long range" regime - referring to distances larger than the diameter of the largest loop - WPT efficiency in free space falls off as (1/d)(6); power loss quickly approaches 100% and limits practical implementations of WPT to relatively tight distances between power source and device. A "superlens", however, can concentrate the magnetic near fields of a source. Here, we demonstrate the impact of a magnetic metamaterial (MM) superlens on long-range near-field WPT, quantitatively confirming in simulation and measurement at 13-16 MHz the conditions under which the superlens can enhance power transfer efficiency compared to the lens-less free-space system.

  20. Graphene-ferromagnet interfaces: hybridization, magnetization and charge transfer.

    PubMed

    Abtew, Tesfaye; Shih, Bi-Ching; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Zhang, Peihong

    2013-03-07

    Electronic and magnetic properties of graphene-ferromagnet interfaces are investigated using first-principles electronic structure methods in which a single layer graphene is adsorbed on Ni(111) and Co(111) surfaces. Due to the symmetry matching and orbital overlap, the hybridization between graphene pπ and Ni (or Co) d(z(2)) states is very strong. This pd hybridization, which is both spin and k dependent, greatly affects the electronic and magnetic properties of the interface, resulting in a significantly reduced (by about 20% for Ni and 10% for Co) local magnetic moment of the top ferromagnetic layer at the interface and an induced spin polarization on the graphene layer. The calculated induced magnetic moment on the graphene layer agrees well with a recent experiment. In addition, a substantial charge transfer across the graphene-ferromagnet interfaces is observed. We also investigate the effects of thickness of the ferromagnet slab on the calculated electronic and magnetic properties of the interface. The strength of the pd hybridization and the thickness-dependent interfacial properties may be exploited to design structures with desirable magnetic and transport properties for spintronic applications.

  1. Modeled ground magnetic signatures of flux transfer events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchenry, Mark A.; Clauer, C. Robert

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic field on the ground due to a small (not greater than 200 km scale size) localized field-aligned current (FAC) system interacting with the ionosphere is calculated in terms of an integral over the ionospheric distribution of FAC. Two different candidate current systems for flux transfer events (FTEs) are considered: (1) a system which has current flowing down the center of a cylindrical flux tube with a return current uniformly distributed along the outside edge; and (2) a system which has upward current on one half of the perimeter of a cylindrical flux tube with downward current on the opposite half. The peak magnetic field on the ground is found to differ by a factor of 2 between the two systems, and the magnetic perturbations are in different directions depending on the observer's position.

  2. Estimating contrast transfer function and associated parameters by constrained non-linear optimization.

    PubMed

    Yang, C; Jiang, W; Chen, D-H; Adiga, U; Ng, E G; Chiu, W

    2009-03-01

    The three-dimensional reconstruction of macromolecules from two-dimensional single-particle electron images requires determination and correction of the contrast transfer function (CTF) and envelope function. A computational algorithm based on constrained non-linear optimization is developed to estimate the essential parameters in the CTF and envelope function model simultaneously and automatically. The application of this estimation method is demonstrated with focal series images of amorphous carbon film as well as images of ice-embedded icosahedral virus particles suspended across holes.

  3. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pancreatic Cancer: Characteristics and Correlation With Histopathologic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wanling; Li, Na; Zhao, Weiwei; Ren, Jing; Wei, Mengqi; Yang, Yong; Wang, Yingmei; Fu, Xin; Zhang, Zhuoli; Larson, Andrew C; Huan, Yi

    2016-01-01

    To clarify diffusion and perfusion abnormalities and evaluate correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), MR perfusion and histopathologic parameters of pancreatic cancer (PC). Eighteen patients with PC underwent diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Parameters of DCE-MRI and ADC of cancer and non-cancerous tissue were compared. Correlation between the rate constant that represents transfer of contrast agent from the arterial blood into the extravascular extracellular space (K, volume of the extravascular extracellular space per unit volume of tissue (Ve), and ADC of PC and histopathologic parameters were analyzed. The rate constant that represents transfer of contrast agent from the extravascular extracellular space into blood plasma, K, tissue volume fraction occupied by vascular space, and ADC of PC were significantly lower than nontumoral pancreases. Ve of PC was significantly higher than that of nontumoral pancreas. Apparent diffusion coefficient and K values of PC were negatively correlated to fibrosis content and fibroblast activation protein staining score. Fibrosis content was positively correlated to Ve. Apparent diffusion coefficient values and parameters of DCE-MRI can differentiate PC from nontumoral pancreases. There are correlations between ADC, K, Ve, and fibrosis content of PC. Fibroblast activation protein staining score of PC is negatively correlated to ADC and K. Apparent diffusion coefficient, K, and Ve may be feasible to predict prognosis of PC.

  4. Spatial resolution characterization of differential phase contrast CT systems via modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Zambelli, Joseph; Bevins, Nicholas; Ge, Yongshuai; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2013-06-01

    By adding a Talbot-Lau interferometer to a conventional x-ray absorption computed tomography (CT) imaging system, both differential phase contrast (DPC) signal and absorption contrast signal can be simultaneously measured from the same set of CT measurements. The imaging performance of such multi-contrast x-ray CT imaging systems can be characterized with standard metrics such as noise variance, noise power spectrum, contrast-to-noise ratio, modulation transfer function (MTF), and task-based detectability index. Among these metrics, the measurement of the MTF can be challenging in DPC-CT systems due to several confounding factors such as phase wrapping and the difficulty of using fine wires as probes. To address these technical challenges, this paper discusses a viable and reliable method to experimentally measure the MTF of DPC-CT. It has been found that the spatial resolution of DPC-CT is degraded, when compared to that of the corresponding absorption CT, due to the presence of a source grating G0 in the Talbot-Lau interferometer. An effective MTF was introduced and experimentally estimated to describe the impact of the Talbot-Lau interferometer on the system MTF.

  5. Gd-Si Oxide Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-García, Alejandro; Vidal-Moya, Alejandro; Bernabeu, Ángela; Pacheco-Torres, Jesús; Checa-Chavarria, Elisa; Fernández, Eduardo; Botella, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We describe the synthesis, characterization and application as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging of a novel type of magnetic nanoparticle based on Gd-Si oxide, which presents high Gd3+ atom density. For this purpose, we have used a Prussian Blue analogue as the sacrificial template by reacting with soluble silicate, obtaining particles with nanorod morphology and of small size (75 nm). These nanoparticles present good biocompatibility and higher longitudinal and transversal relaxivity values than commercial Gd3+ solutions, which significantly improves the sensitivity of in vivo magnetic resonance images. PMID:28335240

  6. Magnetic iodixanol - a novel contrast agent and its early characterization.

    PubMed

    Arokiaraj, M C; Menesson, E; Feltin, N

    2018-02-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. The purpose of the study was to design and develop a novel contrast agent, which could be used to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy in the future. In total, 20-220nm magnetic nanoparticles were conjugated with iodixanol, and their radio-opacity and magnetic properties were assessed thereafter. Scanning electron microscopy pictures were acquired. Thereafter, the nanoparticles conjugate was tested in cell culture (HUVEC cells), and Quantibody ® assay was studied after cell treatment in 1:5 dilutions for 48h, compared with control. The conjugate preparation had an adequate radio-opacity. A 4mm magnetic bubble was attached to a bar magnet and the properties were studied. The magnetic bubble maintained its structural integrity in all angles including antigravity position. Scanning electron microscopy showed magnetic nanoparticles in all pictures and the particles are of 100-400nm agglomerates with primary particle sizes of roughly 20nm. 1:5 diluted particles had no effect on secretion of IL-1a, IL-1b, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and TNFa. Particles increased secretion of IL-8 from 24h and 48h. Secretion of IFNg was also increased when particles were added to the cells as early as 1h. Likewise, IL-6 was strongly secreted by HUVEC treated with particles from 24h incubation time. In contrast, the secretion of MCP-1 was slightly reduced on HUVEC treated with particles. There is potential for a novel iodixanol-magnetic nanoparticle conjugate to be used in cineradiography. Further investigations need to be performed to study its performance in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous topographic and elemental chemical and magnetic contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Volker; Preissner, Curt A; Hla, Saw-Wai; Wang, Kangkang; Rosenmann, Daniel

    2014-09-30

    A method and system for performing simultaneous topographic and elemental chemical and magnetic contrast analysis in a scanning, tunneling microscope. The method and system also includes nanofabricated coaxial multilayer tips with a nanoscale conducting apex and a programmable in-situ nanomanipulator to fabricate these tips and also to rotate tips controllably.

  8. Magnetic field and radiative transfer modelling of a quiescent prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunár, S.; Schwartz, P.; Dudík, J.; Schmieder, B.; Heinzel, P.; Jurčák, J.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to analyse the multi-instrument observations of the June 22, 2010 prominence to study its structure in detail, including the prominence-corona transition region and the dark bubble located below the prominence body. Methods: We combined results of the 3D magnetic field modelling with 2D prominence fine structure radiative transfer models to fully exploit the available observations. Results: The 3D linear force-free field model with the unsheared bipole reproduces the morphology of the analysed prominence reasonably well, thus providing useful information about its magnetic field configuration and the location of the magnetic dips. The 2D models of the prominence fine structures provide a good representation of the local plasma configuration in the region dominated by the quasi-vertical threads. However, the low observed Lyman-α central intensities and the morphology of the analysed prominence suggest that its upper central part is not directly illuminated from the solar surface. Conclusions: This multi-disciplinary prominence study allows us to argue that a large part of the prominence-corona transition region plasma can be located inside the magnetic dips in small-scale features that surround the cool prominence material located in the dip centre. We also argue that the dark prominence bubbles can be formed because of perturbations of the prominence magnetic field by parasitic bipoles, causing them to be devoid of the magnetic dips. Magnetic dips, however, form thin layers that surround these bubbles, which might explain the occurrence of the cool prominence material in the lines of sight intersecting the prominence bubbles. Movie and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Metastatic Potential of Melanoma Xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Ovrebo, Kirsti Marie; Ellingsen, Christine; Galappathi, Kanthi

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Gadolinium diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-based dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has been suggested as a useful noninvasive method for characterizing the physiologic microenvironment of tumors. In the present study, we investigated whether Gd-DTPA-based DCE-MRI has the potential to provide biomarkers for hypoxia-associated metastatic dissemination. Methods and Materials: C-10 and D-12 melanoma xenografts were used as experimental tumor models. Pimonidazole was used as a hypoxia marker. A total of 60 tumors were imaged, and parametric images of K{sup trans} (volume transfer constant of Gd-DTPA) and v{sub e} (fractional distribution volume of Gd-DTPA) were produced by pharmacokinetic analysis of themore » DCE-MRI series. The host mice were killed immediately after DCE-MRI, and the primary tumor and the lungs were resected and prepared for histologic assessment of the fraction of pimonidazole-positive hypoxic tissue and the presence of lung metastases, respectively. Results: Metastases were found in 11 of 26 mice with C-10 tumors and 14 of 34 mice with D-12 tumors. The primary tumors of the metastatic-positive mice had a greater fraction of hypoxic tissue (p = 0.00031, C-10; p < 0.00001, D-12), a lower median K{sup trans} (p = 0.0011, C-10; p < 0.00001, D-12), and a lower median v{sub e} (p = 0.014, C-10; p = 0.016, D-12) than the primary tumors of the metastatic-negative mice. Conclusions: These findings support the clinical attempts to establish DCE-MRI as a method for providing biomarkers for tumor aggressiveness and suggests that primary tumors characterized by low K{sup trans} and low v{sub e} values could have a high probability of hypoxia-associated metastatic spread.« less

  10. Spin-Transfer Studies in Magnetic Multilayer Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emley, N. C.; Albert, F. J.; Ryan, E. M.; Krivorotov, I. N.; Ralph, D. C.; Buhrman, R. A.

    2003-03-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated current-induced magnetization reversal in ferromagnet/paramagnet/ferromagnet nanostructures with the current in the CPP geometry. The primary mechanism for this reversal is the transfer of angular momentum from the spin-polarized conduction electrons to the nanomagnet moment the spin transfer effect. This phenomenon has potential application in nanoscale, current-controlled non-volatile memory elements, but several challenges must be overcome for realistic device implementation. Typical Co/Cu/Co nanopillar devices, although effective for fundamental studies, are not advantageous for technological applications because of their large switching currents Ic ( 3-10 mA) and small R·A (< 1 mΩ·µm^2). Here we report initial results testing some possible approaches for enhancing spin-transfer device performance which involve the addition of more layers, and hence, more complexity, to the simple Co/Cu/Co trilayer structure. These additions include synthetic antiferromagnet layers (SAF), exchange biased layers, nano-oxide layers (NOL), and additional magnetic layers. Research supported by NSF and DARPA

  11. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-gadolinium (DTPA-Gd)-conjugated polysuccinimide derivatives as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ha Young; Jee, Hye Won; Seo, Sung Mi; Kwak, Byung Kook; Khang, Gilson; Cho, Sun Hang

    2006-01-01

    Biocompatible polysuccinimide (PSI) derivatives conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium (DTPA-Gd) were prepared as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. In this study, we synthesized PSI derivatives incorporating methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) as hydrophilic ligand, hexadecylamine as hydrophobic ligand, and DTPA-Gd as contrast agent. PSI was synthesized by the polycondensation polymerization of aspartic acid. All the synthesized materials were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). Critical micellization concentrations were determined using fluorescent probes (pyrene). Micelle size and shape were measured by electro-photometer light scattering (ELS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The formed micelle size ranged from 100 to 300 nm. The T1-weighted MR images of the phantom prepared with PSI-mPEG-C16-(DTPA-Gd) were obtained in a 3.0 T clinical MR imager, and the conjugates showed a great potential as MRI contrast agents.

  12. Cellular transfer of magnetic nanoparticles via cell microvesicles: impact on cell tracking by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Silva, Amanda K Andriola; Wilhelm, Claire; Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Luciani, Nathalie; Gazeau, Florence

    2012-05-01

    Cell labeling with magnetic nanoparticles can be used to monitor the fate of transplanted cells in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging. However, nanoparticles initially internalized in administered cells might end up in other cells of the host organism. We investigated a mechanism of intercellular cross-transfer of magnetic nanoparticles to different types of recipient cells via cell microvesicles released under cellular stress. Three cell types (mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial cells and macrophages) were labeled with 8-nm iron oxide nanoparticles. Then cells underwent starvation stress, during which they produced microvesicles that were subsequently transferred to unlabeled recipient cells. The analysis of the magnetophoretic mobility of donor cells indicated that magnetic load was partially lost under cell stress. Microvesicles shed by stressed cells participated in the release of magnetic label. Moreover, such microvesicles were uptaken by naïve cells, resulting in cellular redistribution of nanoparticles. Iron load of recipient cells allowed their detection by MRI. Cell microvesicles released under stress may be disseminated throughout the organism, where they can be uptaken by host cells. The transferred cargo may be sufficient to allow MRI detection of these secondarily labeled cells, leading to misinterpretations of the effectiveness of transplanted cells.

  13. RGD-conjugated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement and hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Zheng, S W; Huang, M; Hong, R Y; Deng, S M; Cheng, L F; Gao, B; Badami, D

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a specific targeting magnetic nanoparticle probe for magnetic resonance imaging and therapy in the form of local hyperthermia. Carboxymethyl dextran-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with carboxyl groups were coupled to cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic peptides for integrin α(v)β₃ targeting. The particle size, magnetic properties, heating effect, and stability of the arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide were measured. The arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide demonstrates excellent stability and fast magneto-temperature response. Magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity of Bcap37 cells incubated with arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide was significantly decreased compared with that incubated with plain ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide. The preferential uptake of arginine-glycine-aspartic-ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide by target cells was further confirmed by Prussian blue staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  14. Contrast computation methods for interferometric measurement of sensor modulation transfer function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battula, Tharun; Georgiev, Todor; Gille, Jennifer; Goma, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    Accurate measurement of image-sensor frequency response over a wide range of spatial frequencies is very important for analyzing pixel array characteristics, such as modulation transfer function (MTF), crosstalk, and active pixel shape. Such analysis is especially significant in computational photography for the purposes of deconvolution, multi-image superresolution, and improved light-field capture. We use a lensless interferometric setup that produces high-quality fringes for measuring MTF over a wide range of frequencies (here, 37 to 434 line pairs per mm). We discuss the theoretical framework, involving Michelson and Fourier contrast measurement of the MTF, addressing phase alignment problems using a moiré pattern. We solidify the definition of Fourier contrast mathematically and compare it to Michelson contrast. Our interferometric measurement method shows high detail in the MTF, especially at high frequencies (above Nyquist frequency). We are able to estimate active pixel size and pixel pitch from measurements. We compare both simulation and experimental MTF results to a lens-free slanted-edge implementation using commercial software.

  15. Optical transfer function in corneal topography for clinical contrast sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bende, Thomas; Jean, Benedikt J.; Oltrup, Theo

    2000-06-01

    Customized ablation aiming to optimize visual acuity in refractive surgery requires objective data on corneal surface, like the contrast sensitivity. Fast ray tracing, using the high resolution 3-D elevation data in conjunction with Snell's law describe the diffraction of the incident rays and the resulting image on a 'virtual retina.' A retroprojection leads to a 'surface quality map.' For objective contrast sensitivity measurement a sinus (or cos) wave of different frequencies is used for a calculated projection in analogy to the clinical contrast sensitivity charts. The projection on the individual cornea surface is analyzed for the Modular Transfer Function (MTF) and the Phase Shift Function (PSF) as a function of frequencies. PSF, not yet clinically used, is a parameter to determine even minimal corneal tilt. The resulting corneal aberration map (CAM) as described here and applied to a 4.5 D PRK (OZD equals 6.5 mm) reveals that the area of minimal aberration measures only 4.2 mm. The CAM can likewise be used to describe the 'quality' of a laser system's ablation pattern based upon the area of minimal optical aberrations. The CAM only describes surface aberration with high resolution, an advantage over wave front sensing which measures all accumulated optical aberrations including the changing ones of the lens during accommodation and the transient ones due to lens aging and early cataract formation.

  16. Spin-transfer torque switched magnetic tunnel junctions in magnetic random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jonathan Z.

    2016-10-01

    Spin-transfer torque (or spin-torque, or STT) based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) is at the heart of a new generation of magnetism-based solid-state memory, the so-called spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory, or STT-MRAM. Over the past decades, STT-based switchable magnetic tunnel junction has seen progress on many fronts, including the discovery of (001) MgO as the most favored tunnel barrier, which together with (bcc) Fe or FeCo alloy are yielding best demonstrated tunnel magneto-resistance (TMR); the development of perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin CoFeB-type of thin films sufficient to support high density memories with junction sizes demonstrated down to 11nm in diameter; and record-low spin-torque switching threshold current, giving best reported switching efficiency over 5 kBT/μA. Here we review the basic device properties focusing on the perpendicularly magnetized MTJs, both in terms of switching efficiency as measured by sub-threshold, quasi-static methods, and of switching speed at super-threshold, forced switching. We focus on device behaviors important for memory applications that are rooted in fundamental device physics, which highlights the trade-off of device parameters for best suitable system integration.

  17. [Utilization of polymeric micelle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent for theranostic system].

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    We applied a polymeric micelle carrier system for the targeting of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. Prepared polymeric micelle MRI contrast agent exhibited a long circulation characteristic in blood, and considerable amount of the contrast agent was found to accumulate in colon 26 solid tumor by the EPR effect. The signal intensities of tumor area showed 2-folds increase in T1-weighted images at 24 h after i.v. injection. To observe enhancement of the EPR effect by Cderiv pretreatment on tumor targeting, we used the contrast agent for the evaluation by means of MRI. Cderiv pretreatment significantly enhanced tumor accumulation of the contrast agent. Interestingly, very high signal intensity in tumor region was found at 24 h after the contrast agent injection in Cderiv pretreated mice. The contrast agent visualized a microenvironmental change in tumor. These results indicate that the contrast agent exhibits potential use for tumor diagnostic agent. To combine with a polymeric micelle carrier system for therapeutic agent, the usage of the combination makes a new concept of "theranostic" for a better cancer treatment.

  18. Energy Transfer and Dual Cascade in Kinetic Magnetized Plasma Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plunk, G. G.; Tatsuno, T.

    2011-04-01

    The question of how nonlinear interactions redistribute the energy of fluctuations across available degrees of freedom is of fundamental importance in the study of turbulence and transport in magnetized weakly collisional plasmas, ranging from space settings to fusion devices. In this Letter, we present a theory for the dual cascade found in such plasmas, which predicts a range of new behavior that distinguishes this cascade from that of neutral fluid turbulence. These phenomena are explained in terms of the constrained nature of spectral transfer in nonlinear gyrokinetics. Accompanying this theory are the first observations of these phenomena, obtained via direct numerical simulations using the gyrokinetic code AstroGK. The basic mechanisms that are found provide a framework for understanding the turbulent energy transfer that couples scales both locally and nonlocally.

  19. Nanoparticles in magnetic resonance imaging: from simple to dual contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Estelrich, Joan; Sánchez-Martín, María Jesús; Busquets, Maria Antònia

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become one of the most widely used and powerful tools for noninvasive clinical diagnosis owing to its high degree of soft tissue contrast, spatial resolution, and depth of penetration. MRI signal intensity is related to the relaxation times (T1, spin–lattice relaxation and T2, spin–spin relaxation) of in vivo water protons. To increase contrast, various inorganic nanoparticles and complexes (the so-called contrast agents) are administered prior to the scanning. Shortening T1 and T2 increases the corresponding relaxation rates, 1/T1 and 1/T2, producing hyperintense and hypointense signals respectively in shorter times. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio can be improved with the acquisition of a large number of measurements. The contrast agents used are generally based on either iron oxide nanoparticles or ferrites, providing negative contrast in T2-weighted images; or complexes of lanthanide metals (mostly containing gadolinium ions), providing positive contrast in T1-weighted images. Recently, lanthanide complexes have been immobilized in nanostructured materials in order to develop a new class of contrast agents with functions including blood-pool and organ (or tumor) targeting. Meanwhile, to overcome the limitations of individual imaging modalities, multimodal imaging techniques have been developed. An important challenge is to design all-in-one contrast agents that can be detected by multimodal techniques. Magnetoliposomes are efficient multimodal contrast agents. They can simultaneously bear both kinds of contrast and can, furthermore, incorporate targeting ligands and chains of polyethylene glycol to enhance the accumulation of nanoparticles at the site of interest and the bioavailability, respectively. Here, we review the most important characteristics of the nanoparticles or complexes used as MRI contrast agents. PMID:25834422

  20. Development of New Contrast Agents for Imaging Function and Metabolism by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alexandra; Gonçalves, M Clara; Corvo, M Luísa; Martins, M Bárbara F

    2017-01-01

    Liposomes are interesting nanosystems with a wide range of medical application. One particular application is their ability to enhance contrast in magnetic resonance images; when properly loaded with magnetic/superparamagnetic nanoparticles, this means to act as contrast agents. The design of liposomes loaded with magnetic particles, magnetoliposomes, presents a large number of possibilities depending on the application from image function to metabolism. More interesting is its double function application as theranostics (diagnostics and therapy). The synthesis, characterization, and possible medical applications of two types of magnetoliposomes are reviewed. Their performance will be compared, in particular, their efficiency as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, measured by their relaxivities r1 and r2 relating to their particular composition. One of the magnetoliposomes had 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (soy) as the main phospholipid component, with and without cholesterol, varying its phospholipid to cholesterol molar ratios. The other formulation is a long-circulating liposome composed of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (egg), cholesterol, and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000]. Both nanosystems were loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with different sizes and coatings. PMID:28804244

  1. Tumor characterization in small animals using magnetic resonance-guided dynamic contrast enhanced diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuting; Thayer, Dave; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2011-10-01

    We present a magnetic resonance (MR)-guided near-infrared dynamic contrast enhanced diffuse optical tomography (DCE-DOT) system for characterization of tumors using an optical contrast agent (ICG) and a MR contrast agent [Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)] in a rat model. Both ICG and Gd-DTPA are injected and monitored simultaneously using a combined MRI-DOT system, resulting in accurate co-registration between two imaging modalities. Fisher rats bearing R3230 breast tumor are imaged using this hybrid system. For the first time, enhancement kinetics of the exogenous contrast ICG is recovered from the DCE-DOT data using MR anatomical a priori information. As tumors grow, they undergo necrosis and the tissue transforms from viable to necrotic. The results show that the physiological changes between viable and necrotic tissue can be differentiated more accurately based on the ICG enhancement kinetics when MR anatomical information is utilized.

  2. Longitudinal assessment of mouse renal injury using high-resolution anatomic and magnetization transfer MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Jiang, Rosie; Takahashi, Keiko; Gore, John; Harris, Raymond C; Takahashi, Takamune; Quarles, C Chad

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of high-resolution non-invasive endogenous high-field MRI methods for the longitudinal structural and quantitative assessments of mouse kidney disease using the model of unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO). T1-weighted, T2-weighted and magnetization transfer (MT) imaging protocols were optimized to improve the regional contrast in mouse kidney. Conventional T1 and T2 weighted images were collected in UUO mice on day 0 (~3h), day 1, day 3 and day 6 after injury, on a 7 T small animal MRI system. Cortical and medullary thickness, corticomedullary contrast and Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR) were assessed longitudinally. Masson trichrome staining was used to histologically assess changes in tissue microstructure. Over the course of UUO progression there were significant (p<0.05) changes in thickness of cortex and outer medulla, and regional changes in T2 signal intensity and MTR values. Histological changes included tubular cell death, tubular dilation, urine retention, and interstitial fibrosis, assessed by histology. The MRI measures of renal cortical and medullary atrophy, cortical-medullary differentiation and MTR changes provide an endogenous, non-invasive and quantitative evaluation of renal morphology and tissue composition during UUO progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Engineered contrast agents in a single structure for T1-T2 dual magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-García, Alejandro; Checa-Chavarria, Elisa; Pacheco-Torres, Jesús; Bernabeu-Sanz, Ángela; Vidal-Moya, Alejandro; Rivero-Buceta, Eva; Sastre, Germán; Fernández, Eduardo; Botella, Pablo

    2018-04-05

    The development of contrast agents (CAs) for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with T1-T2 dual-mode relaxivity requires the accurate assembly of T1 and T2 magnetic centers in a single structure. In this context, we have synthesized a novel hybrid material by monitoring the formation of Prussian Blue analogue Gd(H2O)4[Fe(CN)6] nanoparticles with tailored shape (from nanocrosses to nanorods) and size, and further protection with a thin and homogeneous silica coating through hydrolysis and polymerization of silicate at neutral pH. The resulting Gd(H2O)4[Fe(CN)6]@SiO2 magnetic nanoparticles are very stable in biological fluids. Interestingly, this combination of Gd and Fe magnetic centers closely packed in the crystalline network promotes a magnetic synergistic effect, which results in significant improvement of longitudinal relaxivity with regards to soluble Gd3+ chelates, whilst keeping the high transversal relaxivity inherent to the iron component. As a consequence, this material shows excellent activity as MRI CA, improving positive and negative contrasts in T1- and T2-weighted MR images, both in in vitro (e.g., phantom) and in vivo (e.g., Sprague-Dawley rats) models. In addition, this hybrid shows a high biosafety profile and has strong ability to incorporate organic molecules on the surface with variable functionality, displaying great potential for further clinical application.

  4. Surface impact on nanoparticle-based magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weizhong; Liu, Lin; Chen, Hongmin; Hu, Kai; Delahunty, Ian; Gao, Shi; Xie, Jin

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most widely used diagnostic tools in the clinic. To improve imaging quality, MRI contrast agents, which can modulate local T1 and T2 relaxation times, are often injected prior to or during MRI scans. However, clinically used contrast agents, including Gd3+-based chelates and iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs), afford mediocre contrast abilities. To address this issue, there has been extensive research on developing alternative MRI contrast agents with superior r1 and r2 relaxivities. These efforts are facilitated by the fast progress in nanotechnology, which allows for preparation of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) with varied size, shape, crystallinity, and composition. Studies suggest that surface coatings can also largely affect T1 and T2 relaxations and can be tailored in favor of a high r1 or r2. However, the surface impact of NPs has been less emphasized. Herein, we review recent progress on developing NP-based T1 and T2 contrast agents, with a focus on the surface impact. PMID:29721097

  5. Liposomes loaded with hydrophilic magnetite nanoparticles: Preparation and application as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    German, S V; Navolokin, N A; Kuznetsova, N R; Zuev, V V; Inozemtseva, O A; Anis'kov, A A; Volkova, E K; Bucharskaya, A B; Maslyakova, G N; Fakhrullin, R F; Terentyuk, G S; Vodovozova, E L; Gorin, D A

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic fluid-loaded liposomes (MFLs) were fabricated using magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and natural phospholipids via the thin film hydration method followed by extrusion. The size distribution and composition of MFLs were studied using dynamic light scattering and spectrophotometry. The effective ranges of magnetite concentration in MNPs hydrosol and MFLs for contrasting at both T2 and T1 relaxation were determined. On T2 weighted images, the MFLs effectively increased the contrast if compared with MNPs hydrosol, while on T1 weighted images, MNPs hydrosol contrasting was more efficient than that of MFLs. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrasting properties of MFLs and their effects on tumor and normal tissues morphology, were investigated in rats with transplanted renal cell carcinoma upon intratumoral administration of MFLs. No significant morphological changes in rat internal organs upon intratumoral injection of MFLs were detected, suggesting that the liposomes are relatively safe and can be used as the potential contrasting agents for MRI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Demonstration of a bronchobiliary fistula using magnetic resonance image with hepatospecific contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Baleato-González, S; Vieira-Leite, C; Alvárez-Castro, A M; García-Figueiras, R

    Bronchobiliary fistulas are a rare entity of difficult diagnosis. The utility of magnetic resonance image (MRI) with hepatospecific contrast agents to demonstrate such condition is seldom described in the literature. This case reports a patient with pulmonary infection with a past history of hepatic surgery for hydatid disease in whom the presence of bile in the sputum rose the suspicious of a bronchobiliary fistula. MRI with hepatospecific contrast agents showed the communication between the biliary and bronchial tree and provided anatomic data to allow a therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Gadolinium-based magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents in interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Atar, Eli

    2004-07-01

    Gadolinium-based agents are widely used in magnetic resonance imaging as contrast agents. These agents are radio-opaque enough for diagnostic imaging of the vascular tree by using digitally subtracted images as well as for imaging of the biliary system and the urinary tract. The recommended doses for gadolinium do not impair renal function or cause adverse reactions in patients with iodine sensitivity; thus patients with such conditions can safely undergo diagnostic angiography, either by MRI angiography or by catheterization using gadolinium as contrast agent, for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  8. Magnetization Transfer Ratio Relates to Cognitive Impairment in Normal Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Stephan; Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Fazekas, Franz; Mangin, Jean-Francois; Chabriat, Hugues; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) can detect microstructural brain tissue changes and may be helpful in determining age-related cerebral damage. We investigated the association between the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in gray and white matter (WM) and cognitive functioning in 355 participants of the Austrian stroke prevention family study (ASPS-Fam) aged 38–86 years. MTR maps were generated for the neocortex, deep gray matter structures, WM hyperintensities, and normal appearing WM (NAWM). Adjusted mixed models determined whole brain and lobar cortical MTR to be directly and significantly related to performance on tests of memory, executive function, and motor skills. There existed an almost linear dose-effect relationship. MTR of deep gray matter structures and NAWM correlated to executive functioning. All associations were independent of demographics, vascular risk factors, focal brain lesions, and cortex volume. Further research is needed to understand the basis of this association at the tissue level, and to determine the role of MTR in predicting cognitive decline and dementia. PMID:25309438

  9. Magnetic Proximity Effect in a Transferred Topological Insulator Thin Film on a Magnetic Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Xiaoyu; Murata, Koichi; Pan, Lei; He, Qinglin; Yin, Gen; Fan, Yabin; Bi, Lei; Wang, Kang Lung

    Exotic physical phenomena such as the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) arise by breaking the time-reversal symmetry (TRS) in topological insulators. However, substantial efforts have been made in improving the temperature for realizing the QAHE via magnetically doping, while the proximity coupling is another approach to develop the magnetic order without the introduction of additional carriers or the presence of local Fermi level fluctuation. Here we demonstrate the experimental signature of magnetic proximity effect in a molecular beam epitaxy-grown TI thin film of Bi2Se3 transferred to a magnetic substrate of yttrium iron garnet using a wet transfer technique. Comparing to the TI/GaAs control sample, the magnetic order is manifested by the anomalous Hall effect in magneto-transport characterization. Furthermore, due to TRS breaking by the proximity effect we observed a constituent weak localization component accompanied with the weak antilocalization behavior. The present work takes a step further toward realizing QAHE at higher temperature and opens up a new path in TI device designs for applications. We acknowledge the support from the ARO program under contract 15-1-10561, the SHINES Center under Award # S000686, NSF DMR-1350122, and the FAME Center, one of six centers of STARnet, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  10. Equilibrium structure of solar magnetic flux tubes: Energy transport with multistream radiative transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, S. S.; Kalkofen, W.

    1994-01-01

    We examine the equilibrium structure of vertical intense magnetic flux tubes on the Sun. Assuming cylindrical geometry, we solve the magnetohydrostatic equations in the thin flux-tube approximation, allowing for energy transport by radiation and convection. The radiative transfer equation is solved in the six-stream approximation, assuming gray opacity and local thermodynamic equilibrium. This constitutes a significant improvement over a previous study, in which the transfer was solved using the multidimensional generalization of the Eddington approximation. Convection in the flux tube is treated using mixing-length theory, with an additional parameter alpha, characterizing the suppression of convective energy transport in the tube by the strong magnetic field. The equations are solved using the method of partial linearization. We present results for tubes with different values of the magnetic field strength and radius at a fixed depth in the atmosphere. In general, we find that, at equal geometric heights, the temperature on the tube axis, compared to the ambient medium, is higher in the photosphere and lower in the convection zone, with the difference becoming larger for thicker tubes. At equal optical depths the tubes are generally hotter than their surroundings. The results are comparatively insensitive to alpha but depend upon whether radiative and convective energy transport operate simultaneously or in separate layers. A comparison of our results with semiempirical models shows that the temperature and intensity contrast are in broad agreement. However, the field strengths of the flux-tube models are somewhat lower than the values inferred from observations.

  11. Improved power transfer to wearable systems through stretchable magnetic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, N.; Bedair, S. S.

    2016-05-01

    The use of wireless power transfer is common in stretchable electronics since physical wiring can be easily destroyed as the system is stretched. This work presents the first demonstration of improved inductive power coupling to a stretchable system through the addition of a thin layer of ferroelastomeric material. A ferroelastomer, an elastomeric polymer loaded with magnetic particulates, has a permeability greater than one while retaining the ability to survive significant mechanical strains. A recently developed ferroelastomer composite based on sendust platelets within a soft silicone elastomer was incorporated into liquid metal stretchable inductors based on the liquid metal galinstan in fluidic channels. For a single-turn inductor, the maximum power transfer efficiency rises from 71 % with no backplane, to 81 % for a rigid ferrite backplane on the transmitter side alone, to 86 % with a ferroelastomer backplane on the receiver side as well. The coupling between a commercial wireless power transmitter coil with ferrite backplane to a five-turn liquid metal inductor was also investigated, finding an improvement in power transfer efficiency from 81 % with only a rigid backplane to 90 % with the addition of the ferroelastomer backplane. Both the single and multi-turn inductors were demonstrated surviving up to 50 % uniaxial applied strain.

  12. Development and Technology Transfer of the Syncro Blue Tube (Gabriel) Magnetically Guided Feeding Tube

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    other documentation. TITLE: Development and Technology Transfer of the Syncro Blue Tube (Gabriel) Magnetically Guided Feeding Tube REPORT DOCUMENTATION...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development and Technology Transfer of the Syncro Blue Tube (Gabriel) Magnetically Guided Feeding Tube 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-09-2...Technical Abstract: Further Development and Technology Transfer of the Syncro BLUETUBE™ (Gabriel) Magnetically Guided Feeding Tube. New Primary

  13. Development of a Tumor Histologic-Specific, Nano-Encapsulated Contrast for Enhancing Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Nano-Encapsulated Contrast for Enhancing Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Joel W. Slaton, M.D...2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Development of a Tumor Histologic-Specific, Nano-Encapsulated Contrast for Enhancing Magnetic...carry a contrast agent to human CaP cells growing in mice to enhance MR detection of cancer. Our work in the first year has focused on in vitro

  14. Water-dispersible magnetic carbon nanotubes as T2-weighted MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Hughes, Timothy C; Muir, Benjamin W; Waddington, Lynne J; Gengenbach, Thomas R; Easton, Christopher D; Hinton, Tracey M; Moffat, Bradford A; Hao, Xiaojuan; Qiu, Jieshan

    2014-01-01

    An efficient MRI T2-weighted contrast agent incorporating a potential liver targeting functionality was synthesized via the combination of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) was coated on the surface of acid treated MWCNTs via electrostatic interactions and SPIO nanoparticles modified with a potential targeting agent, lactose-glycine adduct (Lac-Gly), were subsequently immobilized on the surface of the PDDA-MWCNTs. A narrow magnetic hysteresis loop indicated that the product displayed superparamagnetism at room temperature which was further confirmed by ZFC (zero field cooling)/FC (field cooling) curves measured by SQUID. The multifunctional MWCNT-based magnetic nanocomposites showed low cytotoxicity in vitro to HEK293 and Huh7 cell lines. Enhanced T2 relaxivities were observed for the hybrid material (186 mM(-1) s(-1)) in comparison with the pure magnetic nanoparticles (92 mM(-1) s(-1)) due to the capacity of the MWCNTs to "carry" more nanoparticles as clusters. More importantly, after administration of the composite material to an in vivo liver cancer model in mice, a significant increase in tumor to liver contrast ratio (277%) was observed in T2 weighted magnetic resonance images. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An analytical model for scanning electron microscope Type I magnetic contrast with energy filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chim, W. K.

    1994-02-01

    In this article, a theoretical model for type I magnetic contrast calculations in the scanning electron microscope with energy filtering is presented. This model uses an approximate form of the secondary electron (SE) energy distribution by Chung and Everhart [M. S. Chung and T. E. Everhart, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 707 (1974). Closed form analytical expressions for the contrast and quality factors, which take into consideration the work function and field-distance integral of the material being studied, are obtained. This analytical model is compared with that of a more accurate numerical model. Results showed that the contrast and quality factors for the analytical model differed by not more than 20% from the numerical model, with the actual difference depending on the range of filtered SE energies considered. This model has also been extended to the situation of a two-detector (i.e., detector A and B) configuration, in which enhanced magnetic contrast and quality factor can be obtained by operating in the ``A-B'' mode.

  16. Aptamer-Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents and Their Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajie; Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Min; Kuang, Ye; Zu, Guangyue; Zhang, Kunchi; Cao, Yi; Pei, Renjun

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful diagnostic technology with high spatial resolution and non-invasion. The contrast agents have significant effect on the resolution of the MR imaging. However, the commercial contrast agents (CAs) usually consist of individual Gd3+ chelated with a low molecular weight acyclic or cyclic ligand, and these small-molecule CAs are usually subjected to nonspecificity, thus leading to rapid renal clearance and modest contrast enhancement for tumor imaging. In recent years, the nanostructured materials conjugated with aptamers were widely used and opened a new door in biomedical imaging due to excellent specificity, non-immunogenicity, easily synthesis and chemical modification of aptamers. This review summarizes all kinds of aptamertargeted MRI CAs and their applications.

  17. [Feasibility study of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging qualitative diagnosis of musculoskeletal tumors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Zuo, P L; Cheng, K B; Yu, A H; Cheng, X G

    2016-04-18

    To investigate the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters in differentiating musculoskeletal tumors with different behaviours of pathological findings before therapy. A total of 34 subjects of musculoskeletal tumors were involved in this retrospective analysis. DCE-MRI was performed using a fat-saturated 3D VIBE (volumetric interpolated breath-hold exam) imaging sequence with following parameters: FA, 10 degree; TR/TE, 5.6/2.4 ms; slice thickness, 4.0 mm with no intersection gap; field of view, 310 mm×213 mm; matrix, 256×178; voxel size, 1.2 mm×1.2 mm×4.0 mm; parallel imaging acceleration factor. The actuation time for the DCE-MRI sequence was 255 s with a temporal resolution of 5 s and 40 image volumes. Using pathological results as a gold standard, tumors were divided into benign, borderline and malignant tumors. Toft's model was used for calculation of K(trans) (volume transfer constant), Ve (extravascular extracellular space distribute volume per unit tissue volume) and Kep (microvascular permeability reflux constant). Those parameters were compared between the lesions and the control tissues using paired t tests. The one-way analysis of variance was used to assess the difference among benign, borderline and malignant tumors. P values <0.05 difference was statistically significant. Based on the WHO Classification of Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone(2012) criteria, 34 patients were divided into three groups: 11 for benign tumors, 12 for borderline tumors, and 11 for malignancies. Compared with control tissues, K(trans) and Kep showed no difference, but Ve was increased in benign tumors, Kep showed no difference, but K(trans) and Ve were increased in borderline tumors,K(trans), Kep and Ve were increased in malignant tumors. K(trans) (P<0.001) and Kep (P<0.01) were significantly higher in malignant tumors than in benign and borderline tumors, but did not show any difference between benign tumors and borderline

  18. Metal-oxo containing polymer nanobeads as potential contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablico, Michele Huelar

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has greatly revolutionized the way diseases are detected and treated, as it is a non-invasive imaging modality solely based on the interaction of radiowaves and hydrogen nuclei in the presence of an external magnetic field. It is widely used today for the diagnosis of diseases as it offers an efficient method of mapping structure and function of soft tissues in the body. Most MRI examinations utilize paramagnetic materials known as contrast agents, which enhance the MR signal by decreasing the longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times of the surrounding water protons in biological systems. This results into increased signal intensity differences thereby allowing better interpretation and analysis of pathological tissues. Contrast agents function by lowering the T1 or lowering the T2, resulting into bright and dark contrasts, respectively. The most common MRI contrast agents that are in clinical use today are gadolinium chelates and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, both of which have their own advantages in terms of contrast enhancement properties. In the past few years, however, there has been interest in utilizing metal-containing clusters for MRI contrast enhancement as these materials bridge the gap between the constrained structure and magnetic properties of the gadolinium chelates with the superparamagnetic behavior of the iron oxide nanoparticles. Recently, metallic clusters containing Mn and Fe metal centers have received increased attention mainly because of their potential for high spin states and benign nature. In the quest to further develop novel imaging agents, this research has focused on investigating the use of metal-oxo clusters as potential contrast agents for MRI. The primary goal of this project is to identify clusters that meet the following criteria: high paramagnetic susceptibility, water-soluble, stable, cheap, contain environmentally benign metals, and easily derivatized. This work is

  19. Quantitative Magnetization Transfer in Monitoring Glioblastoma (GBM) Response to Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mehrabian, Hatef; Myrehaug, Sten; Soliman, Hany; Sahgal, Arjun; Stanisz, Greg J

    2018-02-06

    Quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) was used as a biomarker to monitor glioblastoma (GBM) response to chemo-radiation and identify the earliest time-point qMT could differentiate progressors from non-progressors. Nineteen GBM patients were recruited and MRI-scanned before (Day 0 ), two weeks (Day 14 ), and four weeks (Day 28 ) into the treatment, and one month after the end of the treatment (Day 70 ). Comprehensive qMT data was acquired, and a two-pool MT model was fit to the data. Response was determined at 3-8 months following the end of chemo-radiation. The amount of magnetization transfer ([Formula: see text]) was significantly lower in GBM compared to normal appearing white matter (p < 0.001). Statistically significant difference was observed in [Formula: see text] at Day 0 between non-progressors (1.06 ± 0.24) and progressors (1.64 ± 0.48), with p = 0.006. Changes in several qMT parameters between Day 14 and Day 0 were able to differentiate the two cohorts with [Formula: see text] providing the best separation (relative [Formula: see text] = 1.34 ± 0.21, relative [Formula: see text] = 1.07 ± 0.08, p = 0.031). Thus, qMT characteristics of GBM are more sensitive to treatment effects compared to clinically used metrics. qMT could assess tumor aggressiveness and identify early progressors even before the treatment. Changes in qMT parameters within the first 14 days of the treatment were capable of separating early progressors from non-progressors, making qMT a promising biomarker to guide adaptive radiotherapy for GBM.

  20. Superparamagnetic And Paramagnetic MRI Contrast Agents: Application Of Rapid Magnetic Resonance Imaging To Assess Renal Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvlin, Mark J.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Arger, Peter; Kundel, Harold L.; Dougherty, Larry; Axel, Leon; Kassab, Eleanor; Moore, Bethanne

    1988-06-01

    The paramagnetic chelate complex, gadolinium-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid, Gd-DTPA, and superparamagnetic particles, such as those composed of dextran coated magnetite, function as magnetic resonance contrast agents by changing the relaxation rates, 1/T1 and 1/T2. The effects that these agents have upon MR signal intensity are determined by: the inherent biophysical properties of the tissue being imaged, the concentration of the contrast agent and the data acquisition scheme (pulse sequence parameters) employed. Following the time course of MR signal change in the first minutes after the injection of contrast agent(s) allows a dynamic assessment of organ functions in a manner analogous to certain nuclear medicine studies. In order to study renal function, sequential MR fast scan images, gradient echo (TR=35/TE=7 msec, flip angle=25 degrees), were acquired, one every 12 seconds, after intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA and/or dextran-magnetite. Gd-DTPA, which is freely filtered at the glomerulus and is neither secreted nor reabsorbed, provides information concerning renal perfusion, glomerular filtration and tubular concentrating ability. Dextran-magnetite (200 A diameter), which is primarily contained within the intravascular space shortly after injection, provides information on blood flow to and distribution within the kidney. The MR signal change observed after administration of contrast agents varied dramatically depending upon the agents injected and the imaging parameters used. Hence a broad range of physiolgic processes may be described using these techniques, i.e. contrast agent enhanced functional MR examinations.

  1. Absolute quantification of regional renal blood flow in swine by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using a blood pool contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Lüdemann, Lutz; Nafz, Benno; Elsner, Franz; Grosse-Siestrup, Christian; Meissler, Michael; Kaufels, Nicola; Rehbein, Hagen; Persson, Pontus B; Michaely, Henrik J; Lengsfeld, Philipp; Voth, Matthias; Gutberlet, Matthias

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate for the first time in an animal model the possibility of absolute regional quantification of renal medullary and cortical perfusion by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using a blood pool contrast agent. A total of 18 adult female pigs (age, 16-22 weeks; body weight, 45-65 kg; no dietary restrictions) were investigated by DCE-MRI. Absolute renal blood flow (RBF) measured by an ultrasound transit time flow probe around the renal vein was used as the standard of reference. An inflatable stainless cuff placed around the renal artery near its origin from the abdominal aorta was used to reduce RBF to 60%, 40%, and 20% of the baseline flow. The last measurement was performed with the cuff fully reopened. Absolute RBF values during these 4 perfusion states were compared with the results of DCE-MRI performed on a 1.5-T scanner with an 8-channel phased-array surface coil. All scans were acquired in breath-hold technique in the coronal plane using a field of view of 460 mm.Each dynamic scan commenced with a set of five 3D T1-weighted gradient echo sequences with different flip angles (alpha = 2 degrees, 5 degrees, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, 30 degrees): TE, 0.88 milliseconds; TR, 2.65 milliseconds; slice thickness, 8.8 mm for 4 slices; acquisition matrix, 128 x 128; and acquisitions, 4. These data served to calculate 3D intrinsic longitudinal relaxation rate maps (R10) and magnetization (M0). Immediately after these images, the dynamic 3D T1-weighted gradient echo images were acquired with the same parameters and a constant alpha = 30 degrees, half Fourier, 1 acquisition, 64 frames, a time interval of 1.65 seconds between each frame, and a total duration of 105.6. Three milliliters of an albumin-binding blood pool contrast agent (0.25 mmol/mL gadofosveset trisodium, Vasovist, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany) was injected at a rate of 3 mL/s. Perfusion was calculated using the arterial input function from the aorta, which was

  2. Repeatability Evaluation of a Contrast Sensitivity System for Transfer to the Eye Clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalde, N. G.; Castillo, L. R.; Filgueira, C. Paz; Colombo, E. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF) is a valuable tool which can be used to characterize functional vision and also for the diagnosis and management of patients with different eye diseases. In spite of its usefulness, the CSF is currently hardly ever used in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to validate the use of the system called FVC-100 (Tecnovinc-UNT-CONICET, Argentina), which calculates the CSF, in order to transfer this important tool to ophthalmological clinics. The validation was carried out through the design of a repeatability test and the subsequent analysis of the results. Furthermore, we evaluated the impact of different factors influencing the repeatability of the measurements such as age and previous training. The tests were based on the discrimination of sinusoidal gratings for different spatial frequencies (1, 4 and 12 c/°) in both eyes of 12 people, aged between 20 and 70. The results show that the calculated values of SC of each subject have a high repeatability and are not dependent on age or training. These results allow us to conclude positively regarding the effectiveness of the FVC-100, and to validate its use in clinics for the calculation of the FSC as a standard measure of functional vision quality.

  3. Multilayer thin-film phantoms for axial contrast transfer function measurement in optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anant; Chen, Chao-Wei; Baxi, Jigesh; Chen, Yu; Pfefer, T Joshua

    2013-07-01

    In optical coherence tomography (OCT), axial resolution is one of the most critical parameters impacting image quality. It is commonly measured by determining the point spread function (PSF) based on a specular surface reflection. The contrast transfer function (CTF) provides more insights into an imaging system's resolving characteristics and can be readily generated in a system-independent manner, without consideration for image pixel size. In this study, we developed a test method for determination of CTF based on multi-layer, thin-film phantoms, evaluated using spectral- and time-domain OCT platforms with different axial resolution values. Phantoms representing six spatial frequencies were fabricated and imaged. The fabrication process involved spin coating silicone films with precise thicknesses in the 8-40 μm range. Alternating layers were doped with a specified concentration of scattering particles. Validation of layer optical properties and thicknesses were achieved with spectrophotometry and stylus profilometry, respectively. OCT B-scans were used to calculate CTFs and results were compared with convetional PSF measurements based on specular reflections. Testing of these phantoms indicated that our approach can provide direct access to axial resolution characteristics highly relevant to image quality. Furthermore, tissue phantoms based on our thin-film fabrication approach may have a wide range of additional applications in optical imaging and spectroscopy.

  4. Contrast Induced by a Static Magnetic Field for Improved Detection in Nanodiamond Fluorescence Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singam, Shashi K. R.; Motylewski, Jaroslaw; Monaco, Antonina; Gjorgievska, Elena; Bourgeois, Emilie; Nesládek, Milos; Giugliano, Michele; Goovaerts, Etienne

    2016-12-01

    Diamond nanoparticles with negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers are highly efficient nonblinking emitters that exhibit spin-dependent intensity. An attractive application of these emitters is background-free fluorescence microscopy exploiting the fluorescence quenching induced either by resonant microwaves (RMWs) or by an applied static magnetic field (SMF). Here, we compare RMW- and SMF-induced contrast measurements over a wide range of optical excitation rates for fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) and for NV centers shallowly buried under the (100)-oriented surface of a diamond single crystal (SC). Contrast levels are found to be systematically lower in the FNDs than in the SC. At low excitation rates, the RMW contrast initially rises to a maximum (up to 7% in FNDs and 13% in the SC) but then decreases steadily at higher intensities. Conversely, the SMF contrast increases from approximately 12% at low excitation rates to high values of 20% and 38% for the FNDs and SC, respectively. These observations are well described in a rate-equations model for the charged NV defect using parameters in good agreement with the literature. The SMF approach yields higher induced contrast in image collection under commonly applied optical excitation. Unlike the RMW method, there is no thermal load exerted on the aqueous media in biological samples in the SMF approach. We demonstrate imaging by SMF-induced contrast in neuronal cultures incorporating FNDs (i) in a setup for patch-clamp experiments in parallel with differential-interference-contrast microscopy, (ii) after a commonly used staining procedure as an illustration of the high selectivity against background fluorescence, and (iii) in a confocal fluorescence microscope in combination with bright-field microscopy.

  5. Fluorescent Heterodoped Nanotetrapods as Synergistically Enhancing Positive and Negative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Alipour, A; Soran-Erdem, Z; Kelestemur, Y; Aykut, Z G; Demir, H V

    2016-05-18

    In this work, we report Mn-Fe heterodoped ZnSe tetrapod nanocrystals (NCs) synthesized to synergistically enhance contrast in both T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The proposed NCs were prepared using a customized heteroarchitecture such that the manganese (Mn) is confined in the core and iron (Fe) in the branches of the tetrapods. The elemental composition and profile of these NCs were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Photoluminescence quantum yield of these heterodoped NCs in water is ∼30%. Magnetic measurements reveal the simultaneous presence of superparamagnetic and paramagnetic behavior in these NCs because of the coexistence of Mn(2+) and Fe(2+) dopants. Their potential as simultaneous positive and negative MRI contrast agents was demonstrated by relaxivity measurements and in vivo MRI. From the in vivo studies, we also found that these NCs (with a hydrodynamic diameter of 20 nm) are excreted from the body within 24 h after the injection. Therefore, these heterodoped tetrapods NCs, while being fluorescent and safe, hold great future as a synergistically enhancing dual-modal MRI contrast agent.

  6. Thin chitosan films containing super-paramagnetic nanoparticles with contrasting capability in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Farjadian, Fatemeh; Moradi, Sahar; Hosseini, Majid

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have found application as MRI contrasting agents. Herein, chitosan thin films containing super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are evaluated in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To determine their contrasting capability, super-paramagnetic nanoparticles coated with citrate (SPIONs-cit) were synthesized. Then, chitosan thin films with different concentrations of SPIONs-cit were prepared and their MRI data (i.e., r 2 and r 2 *) was evaluated in an aqueous medium. The synthesized SPIONs-cit and chitosan/SPIONs-cit films were characterized by FTIR, EDX, XRD as well as VSM with the morphology evaluated by SEM and AFM. The nanoparticle sizes and distribution confirmed well-defined nanoparticles and thin films formation along with high contrasting capability in MRI. Images revealed well-dispersed uniform nanoparticles, averaging 10 nm in size. SPIONs-cit's hydrodynamic size averaged 23 nm in diameter. The crystallinity obeyed a chitosan and SPIONs pattern. The in vitro cellular assay of thin films with a novel route was performed within Hek293 cell lines showing that thin films can be biocompatible.

  7. Porous silicon nanoparticles as biocompatible contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gongalsky, M. B., E-mail: mgongalsky@gmail.com; Kargina, Yu. V.; Osminkina, L. A.

    2015-12-07

    We propose porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) with natural oxide coating as biocompatible and bioresorbable contrast agents for magnetic resonant imaging (MRI). A strong shortening of the transversal proton relaxation time (T{sub 2}) was observed for aqueous suspensions of PSi NPs, whereas the longitudinal relaxation time (T{sub 1}) changed moderately. The longitudinal and transversal relaxivities are estimated to be 0.03 and 0.4 l/(g·s), respectively, which are promising for biomedical studies. The proton relaxation is suggested to undergo via the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction with Si dangling bonds on surfaces of PSi NPs. MRI experiments with phantoms have revealed the remarkable contrastingmore » properties of PSi NPs for medical diagnostics.« less

  8. Synthesis of cytocompatible Fe3O4@ZSM-5 nanocomposite as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atashi, Zahra; Divband, Baharak; Keshtkar, Ahmad; Khatamian, Maasoumeh; Farahmand-Zahed, Farzane; Nazarlo, Ali Kiani; Gharehaghaji, Nahideh

    2017-09-01

    In this study, ZSM-5 nano zeolite was used as a support material for iron oxide nanoparticles and the potential ability of the nanocomposite for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was investigated. The nanocomposite was synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. MRI was carried out by use of a 1.5 Tesla clinical scanner. The T2 weighted images were prepared and the r2 relaxivity was calculated. The sizes of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and related nanocomposite were 13-24 nm and 80-150 nm, respectively. Results of MTT assay confirmed that the prepared nanocomposite is cytocompatible. The r2 relaxivity of the Fe3O4@ZSM-5 nanocomposite was 457.1 mM-1 s-1. This study suggests that the Fe3O4@ZSM-5 nanocomposite has potential to use as an MRI T2 contrast agent.

  9. Non-invasive assessment of pulsatile intracranial pressure with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrøm, Erika Kristina; Vatnehol, Svein Are Sirirud; Mardal, Kent-André; Emblem, Kyrre Eeg; Eide, Per Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Invasive monitoring of pulsatile intracranial pressure can accurately predict shunt response in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, but may potentially cause complications such as bleeding and infection. We tested how a proposed surrogate parameter for pulsatile intracranial pressure, the phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging derived pulse pressure gradient, compared with its invasive counterpart. In 22 patients with suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, preceding invasive intracranial pressure monitoring, and any surgical shunt procedure, we calculated the pulse pressure gradient from phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging derived cerebrospinal fluid flow velocities obtained at the upper cervical spinal canal using a simplified Navier-Stokes equation. Repeated measurements of the pulse pressure gradient were also undertaken in four healthy controls. Of 17 shunted patients, 16 responded, indicating high proportion of “true” normal pressure hydrocephalus in the patient cohort. However, there was no correlation between the magnetic resonance imaging derived pulse pressure gradient and pulsatile intracranial pressure (R = -.18, P = .43). Pulse pressure gradients were also similar in patients and healthy controls (P = .26), and did not differ between individuals with pulsatile intracranial pressure above or below established thresholds for shunt treatment (P = .97). Assessment of pulse pressure gradient at level C2 was therefore not found feasible to replace invasive monitoring of pulsatile intracranial pressure in selection of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus for surgical shunting. Unlike invasive, overnight monitoring, the pulse pressure gradient from magnetic resonance imaging comprises short-term pressure fluctuations only. Moreover, complexity of cervical cerebrospinal fluid flow and -pulsatility at the upper cervical spinal canal may render the pulse pressure gradient a poor surrogate marker for

  10. Non-invasive assessment of pulsatile intracranial pressure with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ringstad, Geir; Lindstrøm, Erika Kristina; Vatnehol, Svein Are Sirirud; Mardal, Kent-André; Emblem, Kyrre Eeg; Eide, Per Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Invasive monitoring of pulsatile intracranial pressure can accurately predict shunt response in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, but may potentially cause complications such as bleeding and infection. We tested how a proposed surrogate parameter for pulsatile intracranial pressure, the phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging derived pulse pressure gradient, compared with its invasive counterpart. In 22 patients with suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, preceding invasive intracranial pressure monitoring, and any surgical shunt procedure, we calculated the pulse pressure gradient from phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging derived cerebrospinal fluid flow velocities obtained at the upper cervical spinal canal using a simplified Navier-Stokes equation. Repeated measurements of the pulse pressure gradient were also undertaken in four healthy controls. Of 17 shunted patients, 16 responded, indicating high proportion of "true" normal pressure hydrocephalus in the patient cohort. However, there was no correlation between the magnetic resonance imaging derived pulse pressure gradient and pulsatile intracranial pressure (R = -.18, P = .43). Pulse pressure gradients were also similar in patients and healthy controls (P = .26), and did not differ between individuals with pulsatile intracranial pressure above or below established thresholds for shunt treatment (P = .97). Assessment of pulse pressure gradient at level C2 was therefore not found feasible to replace invasive monitoring of pulsatile intracranial pressure in selection of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus for surgical shunting. Unlike invasive, overnight monitoring, the pulse pressure gradient from magnetic resonance imaging comprises short-term pressure fluctuations only. Moreover, complexity of cervical cerebrospinal fluid flow and -pulsatility at the upper cervical spinal canal may render the pulse pressure gradient a poor surrogate marker for

  11. Macrophages mediated diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis using fibrin based magnetic nanoparticles as MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Periyathambi, Prabu; Sastry, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara; Anandasadagopan, Suresh Kumar; Manickavasagam, Kanagavel

    2017-01-01

    A variety of bioimaging tools assists in the diagnosis and evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other osteoarthritis. However, detection of RA in the early stages by targeting its macrophages with suitable contrast agents will help in arresting the progression of the disease. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of using magnetic fibrin nanoparticles (MFNPs) conjugated with folic acid (FA-MFNPs) as a specific contrast agent to target the activated macrophages, which overexpress the folate receptors (FR) in the knee joints of rats with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). FA-MFNPs were spherical with an average size of 18.3±1.6nm. In vitro studies have shown effective internalization of FA-MFNPs into the Raw264.7 macrophage cells. In vivo studies were carried out by injecting FA-MFNPs intravenously into the arthritic rats. The results showed enhanced MR imaging in the synovium of arthritic joints. Prussian blue histological staining confirmed uptake of FA-MFNPs by macrophages in the synovial tissue. The animal experiment results indicate that FA-MFNPs can be used as a specific MRI contrast agent in identifying phagocytic active macrophages in the synovial joints. Blood is the precursor source for synthesising the fibrin-based iron oxide (magnetic) nanoparticles (MFNPs) with diameters between 12 and 15nm. It has excellent superparamagnetic behaviour, biocompatibility, osteogenic potency, hemocompatibility, and biodegradable properties. MFNPs-based nanocomposites might be a promising contrast agent for bioimaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Concept of contrast transfer function for edge illumination x-ray phase-contrast imaging and its comparison with the free-space propagation technique.

    PubMed

    Diemoz, Paul C; Vittoria, Fabio A; Olivo, Alessandro

    2016-05-16

    Previous studies on edge illumination (EI) X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCi) have investigated the nature and amplitude of the signal provided by this technique. However, the response of the imaging system to different object spatial frequencies was never explicitly considered and studied. This is required in order to predict the performance of a given EI setup for different classes of objects. To this scope, in the present work we derive analytical expressions for the contrast transfer function of an EI imaging system, using the approximation of near-field regime, and study its dependence upon the main experimental parameters. We then exploit these results to compare the frequency response of an EI system with respect of that of a free-space propagation XPCi one. The results achieved in this work can be useful for predicting the signals obtainable for different types of objects and also as a basis for new retrieval methods.

  13. Modulation of spin transfer torque amplitude in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Clément, P.-Y.; Baraduc, C., E-mail: claire.baraduc@cea.fr; Chshiev, M.

    2015-09-07

    Magnetization switching induced by spin transfer torque is used to write magnetic memories (Magnetic Random Access Memory, MRAM) but can be detrimental to the reading process. It would be quite convenient therefore to modulate the efficiency of spin transfer torque. A solution is adding an extra degree of freedom by using double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with two spin-polarizers, with controllable relative magnetic alignment. We demonstrate, for these structures, that the amplitude of in-plane spin transfer torque on the middle free layer can be efficiently tuned via the magnetic configuration of the electrodes. Using the proposed design could thus pavemore » the way towards more reliable read/write schemes for MRAM. Moreover, our results suggest an intriguing effect associated with the out-of-plane (field-like) spin transfer torque, which has to be further investigated.« less

  14. Non-contrast 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography for visualization of intracranial aneurysms in patients with absolute contraindications to CT or MRI contrast.

    PubMed

    Yanamadala, Vijay; Sheth, Sameer A; Walcott, Brian P; Buchbinder, Bradley R; Buckley, Deidre; Ogilvy, Christopher S

    2013-08-01

    The preoperative evaluation of patients with intracranial aneurysms typically includes a contrast-enhanced vascular study, such as computed tomography angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), or digital subtraction angiography. However, there are numerous absolute and relative contraindications to the administration of imaging contrast agents, including pregnancy, severe contrast allergy, and renal insufficiency. Evaluation of patients with contrast contraindications thus presents a unique challenge. We identified three patients with absolute contrast contraindications who presented with intracranial aneurysms. One patient was pregnant, while the other two had previous severe anaphylactic reactions to iodinated contrast. Because of these contraindications to intravenous contrast, we performed non-contrast time-of-flight MRA with 3D reconstruction (TOF MRA with 3DR) with maximum intensity projections and volume renderings as part of the preoperative evaluation prior to successful open surgical clipping of the aneurysms. In the case of one paraclinoid aneurysm, a high-resolution non-contrast CT scan was also performed to assess the relationship of the aneurysm to the anterior clinoid process. TOF MRA with 3DR successfully identified the intracranial aneurysms and adequately depicted the surrounding microanatomy. Intraoperative findings were as predicted by the preoperative imaging studies. The aneurysms were successfully clip-obliterated, and the patients had uneventful post-operative courses. These cases demonstrate that non-contrast imaging is a viable modality to assess intracranial aneurysms as part of the surgical planning process in patients with contrast contraindications. TOF MRA with 3DR, in conjunction with high-resolution non-contrast CT when indicated, provides adequate visualization of the microanatomy of the aneurysm and surrounding structures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pulsed magnetization transfer imaging with body coil transmission at 3 Tesla: feasibility and application.

    PubMed

    Smith, Seth A; Farrell, Jonathan A D; Jones, Craig K; Reich, Daniel S; Calabresi, Peter A; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2006-10-01

    Pulsed magnetization transfer (MT) imaging has been applied to quantitatively assess brain pathology in several diseases, especially multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, however, because of the high power deposition associated with the use of short, rapidly repeating MT prepulses, clinical application has been limited to lower field strengths. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of MT is limited, and this method would greatly benefit from the use of higher magnetic fields and phased-array coil reception. However, power deposition is proportional to the square of the magnetic field and scales with coil size, and MT experiments are already close to the SAR limit at 1.5T even when smaller transmit coils are used instead of the body coil. Here we show that these seemingly great obstacles can be ameliorated by the increased T(1) of tissue water at higher field, which allows for longer maintenance of sufficiently high saturation levels while using a reduced duty cycle. This enables a fast (5-6 min) high-resolution (1.5 mm isotropic) whole-brain MT acquisition with excellent anatomical visualization of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) structures, and even substructures. The method is demonstrated in nine normal volunteers and five patients with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS), and the results show a clear delineation of heterogeneous lesions.

  16. Fast magnetic resonance fingerprinting for dynamic contrast-enhanced studies in mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yuning; Wang, Charlie Y; Anderson, Christian E; Liu, Yuchi; Hu, He; Johansen, Mette L; Ma, Dan; Jiang, Yun; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro; Brady-Kalnay, Susann; Griswold, Mark A; Flask, Chris A; Yu, Xin

    2018-05-09

    The goal of this study was to develop a fast MR fingerprinting (MRF) method for simultaneous T 1 and T 2 mapping in DCE-MRI studies in mice. The MRF sequences based on balanced SSFP and fast imaging with steady-state precession were implemented and evaluated on a 7T preclinical scanner. The readout used a zeroth-moment-compensated variable-density spiral trajectory that fully sampled the entire k-space and the inner 10 × 10 k-space with 48 and 4 interleaves, respectively. In vitro and in vivo studies of mouse brain were performed to evaluate the accuracy of MRF measurements with both fully sampled and undersampled data. The application of MRF to dynamic T 1 and T 2 mapping in DCE-MRI studies were demonstrated in a mouse model of heterotopic glioblastoma using gadolinium-based and dysprosium-based contrast agents. The T 1 and T 2 measurements in phantom showed strong agreement between the MRF and the conventional methods. The MRF with spiral encoding allowed up to 8-fold undersampling without loss of measurement accuracy. This enabled simultaneous T 1 and T 2 mapping with 2-minute temporal resolution in DCE-MRI studies. Magnetic resonance fingerprinting provides the opportunity for dynamic quantification of contrast agent distribution in preclinical tumor models on high-field MRI scanners. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the sarcopenic muscle

    PubMed Central

    Nicolato, Elena; Farace, Paolo; Asperio, Roberto M; Marzola, Pasquina; Lunati, Ernesto; Sbarbati, Andrea; Osculati, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    Background Studies about capillarity of the aged muscle provided conflicting results and no data are currently available about the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo characteristics of the microvascular bed in aged rats. We have studied age-related modifications of the skeletal muscle by in vivo T2-relaxometry and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) at high field intensity (4.7 T). The aim of the work was to test the hypothesis that the ageing process involves microvessels in skeletal muscle. Methods The study was performed in 4-month-old (n = 6) and 20-month-old (n = 6) rats. Results At MRI examination, the relaxation time T2 of the gastrocnemius muscle showed no significant difference between these two groups. The kinetic of contrast penetration in the tissue showed that in 4-month-old rats the enhancement values of the signal intensity at different time-points were significantly higher than those found in senescent rats. Conclusion The reported finding suggests that there is a modification of the microcirculatory function in skeletal muscle of aged rats. This work also demonstrates that CE-MRI allows for an in vivo quantification of the multiple biological processes involving the skeletal muscle during aging. Therefore, CE-MRI could represent a further tool for the follow up of tissue modification and therapeutic intervention both in patients with sarcopenia and in experimental models of this pathology. PMID:12049675

  18. Magnetic and Contrast Properties of Labeled Platelets for Magnetomotive Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Oldenburg, Amy L.; Gallippi, Caterina M.; Tsui, Frank; Nichols, Timothy C.; Beicker, Kellie N.; Chhetri, Raghav K.; Spivak, Dmitry; Richardson, Aaron; Fischer, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a new functional imaging paradigm that uses optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect rehydrated, lyophilized platelets (RL platelets) that are in the preclinical trial stage and contain superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Platelets are highly functional blood cells that detect and adhere to sites of vascular endothelial damage by forming primary hemostatic plugs. By applying magnetic gradient forces, induced nanoscale displacements (magnetomotion) of the SPIO-RL platelets are detected as optical phase shifts in OCT. In this article, we characterize the iron content and magnetic properties of SPIO-RL platelets, construct a model to predict their magnetomotion in a tissue medium, and demonstrate OCT imaging in tissue phantoms and ex vivo pig arteries. Tissue phantoms containing SPIO-RL platelets exhibited >3 dB contrast/noise ratio at ≥1.5 × 109 platelets/cm3. OCT imaging was performed on ex vivo porcine arteries after infusion of SPIO-RL platelets, and specific contrast was obtained on an artery that was surface-damaged (P < 10−6). This may enable new technologies for in vivo monitoring of the adherence of SPIO-RL platelets to sites of bleeding and vascular damage, which is broadly applicable for assessing trauma and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20923673

  19. New insight into the contrast in diffusional kurtosis images: does it depend on magnetic susceptibility?

    PubMed

    Palombo, Marco; Gentili, Silvia; Bozzali, Marco; Macaluso, Emiliano; Capuani, Silvia

    2015-05-01

    In this MRI study, diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) and T2 * multiecho relaxometry were measured from the white matter (WM) of human brains and correlated with each other, with the aim of investigating the influence of magnetic-susceptibility (Δχ (H2O-TISSUE) ) on the contrast. We focused our in vivo analysis on assessing the dependence of mean, axial, and radial kurtosis (MK, K‖ , K⊥ ), as well as DTI indices on Δχ (H2O-TISSUE) (quantified by T2 *) between extracellular water and WM tissue molecules. Moreover, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to elucidate experimental data. A significant positive correlation was observed between K⊥ , MK and R2 * = 1/T2 *, suggesting that Δχ (H2O-TISSUE) could be a source of DKI contrast. In this view, K⊥ and MK-map contrasts in human WM would not just be due to different restricted diffusion processes of compartmentalized water but also to local Δχ (H2O-TISSUE) . However, MC simulations show a strong dependence on microstructure rearrangement and a feeble dependence on Δχ (H2O-TISSUE) of DKI signal. Our results suggests a concomitant and complementary existence of multi-compartmentalized diffusion process and Δχ (H2O-TISSUE) in DKI contrast that might explain why kurtosis contrast is more sensitive than DTI in discriminating between different tissues. However, more realistic numerical simulations are needed to confirm this statement. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of osteosarcoma using a bis(alendronate)-based bone-targeted contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Ge, Pingju; Sheng, Fugeng; Jin, Yiguang; Tong, Li; Du, Lina; Zhang, Lei; Tian, Ning; Li, Gongjie

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) is currently used for diagnosis of osteosarcoma but not well even though contrast agents are administered. Here, we report a novel bone-targeted MR imaging contrast agent, Gd 2 -diethylenetriaminepentaacetate-bis(alendronate) (Gd 2 -DTPA-BA) for the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. It is the conjugate of a bone cell-seeking molecule (i.e., alendronate) and an MR imaging contrast agent (i.e., Gd-DTPA). Its physicochemical parameters were measured, including pK a , complex constant, and T 1 relaxivity. Its bone cell-seeking ability was evaluated by measuring its adsorption on hydroxyapatite. Hemolysis was investigated. MR imaging and biodistribution of Gd 2 -DTPA-BA and Gd-DTPA were studied on healthy and osteosarcoma-bearing nude mice. Gd 2 -DTPA-BA showed high adsorption on hydroxyapatite, the high MR relaxivity (r 1 ) of 7.613mM -1 s -1 (2.6 folds of Gd-DTPA), and no hemolysis. The MR contrast effect of Gd 2 -DTPA-BA was much higher than that of Gd-DTPA after intravenous injection to the mice. More importantly, the MR imaging of osteosarcoma was significantly improved by Gd 2 -DTPA-BA. The signal intensity of Gd 2 -DTPA-BA reached 120.3% at 50min, equal to three folds of Gd-DTPA. The bone targeting index (bone/blood) of Gd 2 -DTPA-BA in the osteosarcoma-bearing mice was very high to 130 at 180min. Furthermore, the contrast enhancement could also be found in the lung due to metastasis of osteosarcoma. Gd 2 -DTPA-BA plays a promising role in the diagnoses of osteosacomas, including the primary bone tumors and metastases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Design Principles of Nanoparticles as Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Liang; Gu, Xinbin; Wang, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Molecular imaging is an emerging field that introduces molecular agents into traditional imaging techniques, enabling visualization, characterization and measurement of biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels in humans and other living systems. The promise of molecular imaging lies in its potential for selective potency by targeting biomarkers or molecular targets and the imaging agents serve as reporters for the selectivity of targeting. Development of an efficient molecular imaging agent depends on well-controlled high-quality experiment design involving target selection, agent synthesis, in vitro characterization, and in vivo animal characterization before it is applied in humans. According to the analysis from the Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database (MICAD, ), more than 6000 molecular imaging agents with sufficient preclinical evaluation have been reported to date in the literature and this number increases by 250-300 novel agents each year. The majority of these agents are radionuclides, which are developed for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) account for only a small part. This is largely due to the fact that MRI is currently not a fully quantitative imaging technique and is less sensitive than PET and SPECT. However, because of the superior ability to simultaneously extract molecular and anatomic information, molecular MRI is attracting significant interest and various targeted nanoparticle contrast agents have been synthesized for MRI. The first and one of the most critical steps in developing a targeted nanoparticle contrast agent is target selection, which plays the central role and forms the basis for success of molecular imaging. This chapter discusses the design principles of targeted contrast agents in the emerging frontiers of molecular MRI.

  2. On the inverse transfer of (non-)helical magnetic energy in a decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kiwan

    2017-12-01

    In our conventional understanding, large-scale magnetic fields are thought to originate from an inverse cascade in the presence of magnetic helicity, differential rotation or a magneto-rotational instability. However, as recent simulations have given strong indications that an inverse cascade (transfer) may occur even in the absence of magnetic helicity, the physical origin of this inverse cascade is still not fully understood. We here present two simulations of freely decaying helical and non-helical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We verified the inverse transfer of helical and non-helical magnetic fields in both cases, but we found the underlying physical principles to be fundamentally different. In the former case, the helical magnetic component leads to an inverse cascade of magnetic energy. We derived a semi-analytic formula for the evolution of large-scale magnetic field using α coefficient and compared it with the simulation data. But in the latter case, the α effect, including other conventional dynamo theories, is not suitable to describe the inverse transfer of non-helical magnetic energy. To obtain a better understanding of the physics at work here, we introduced a 'field structure model' based on the magnetic induction equation in the presence of inhomogeneities. This model illustrates how the curl of the electromotive force leads to the build up of a large-scale magnetic field without the requirement of magnetic helicity. And we applied a quasi-normal approximation to the inverse transfer of magnetic energy.

  3. Carbon-Based Nanostructures as Advanced Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananta Narayanan, Jeyarama S.

    2011-12-01

    Superparamagnetic carbon-based nanostructures are presented as contrast agents (CAs) for advanced imaging applications such as cellular and molecular imaging using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gadolinium-loaded, ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotubes (gadonanotubes; GNTs) are shown to have extremely high r1 relaxivities (contrast enhancement efficacy), especially at low-magnetic field strengths. The inherent lipophilicity of GNTs provides them the ability to image cells at low magnetic field strength. A carboxylated dextran-coated GNT (GadoDex) has been synthesized and proposed as a new biocompatible high-performance MRI CA. The r1 relaxivity is ca. 20 times greater than for other paramagnetic Gd-based CAs. This enhanced relaxivity for GadoDex is due to the synergistic effects of an increased molecular tumbling time (tauR) and a faster proton exchange rate (taum). GNTs also exhibit very large transverse relaxivities (r2) at high magnetic fields (≥ 3 T). The dependence of the transverse relaxation rates (especially R2*) of labeled cells on GNT concentration offers the possibility to quantify cell population in vivo using R2* mapping. The cell-labeling efficiency and high transverse relaxivities of GNTs has enabled the first non-iron oxide-based single-cell imaging using MRI. The residual metal catalyst particles of SWNT materials also have transverse relaxation properties. All of the SWNT materials exhibit superior transverse relaxation properties. However, purified SWNTs and US-tubes with less residual metal content exhibit better transverse relaxivities (r2), demonstrating the importance of the SWNT structure for enhanced MRI CA performance. A strategy to improve the r1 relaxivity of Gd-CAs by geometrically confining them within porous silicon particles (SiMPs) has been investigated. The enhancement in relaxivity is attributed to the slow diffusion of water molecules through the pores and the increase in the molecular tumbling time of the nanoconstruct

  4. Pushing the sensitivity envelope of lanthanide-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents for molecular imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Aime, Silvio; Castelli, Daniela Delli; Crich, Simonetta Geninatti; Gianolio, Eliana; Terreno, Enzo

    2009-07-21

    Contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) arises from changes in the intensity of the proton signal of water between voxels (essentially, the 3D counterpart of pixels). Differences in intervoxel intensity can be significantly enhanced with chemicals that alter the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) intensity of the imaged spins; this alteration can occur by various mechanisms. Paramagnetic lanthanide(III) complexes are used in two major classes of MRI contrast agent: the well-established class of Gd-based agents and the emerging class of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents. A Gd-based complex increases water signal by enhancing the longitudinal relaxation rate of water protons, whereas CEST agents decrease water signal as a consequence of the transfer of saturated magnetization from the exchangeable protons of the agent. In this Account, we survey recent progress in both areas, focusing on how MRI is becoming a more competitive choice among the various molecular imaging methods. Compared with other imaging modalities, MRI is set apart by its superb anatomical resolution; however, its success in molecular imaging suffers because of its intrinsic insensitivity. A relatively high concentration of molecular agents (0.01-0.1 mM) is necessary to produce a local alteration in the water signal intensity. Unfortunately, the most desirable molecules for visualization in molecular imaging are present at much lower concentrations, in the nano- or picomolar range. Therefore, augmenting the sensitivity of MRI agents is key to the development of MR-based molecular imaging applications. In principle, this task can be tackled either by increasing the sensitivity of the reporting units, through the optimization of their structural and dynamic properties, or by setting up proper amplification strategies that allow the accumulation of a huge number of imaging reporters at the site of interest. For Gd-based agents, high sensitivities can be attained by exploiting a

  5. Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles as High Efficiency Magnetic Resonance Imaging T2 Contrast Agent.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Fernanda; Sanavio, Barbara; Saccani, Alessandra; Tang, Yun; Zucca, Ileana; Carney, Tamara M; Mastropietro, Alfonso; Jacob Silva, Paulo H; Carney, Randy P; Schenk, Kurt; Omrani, Arash O; Huang, Ping; Yang, Lin; Rønnow, Henrik M; Stellacci, Francesco; Krol, Silke

    2017-01-18

    Nanoparticle-based magnetic resonance imaging T 2 negative agents are of great interest, and much effort is devoted to increasing cell-loading capability while maintaining low cytotoxicity. Herein, two classes of mixed-ligand protected magnetic-responsive, bimetallic gold/iron nanoparticles (Au/Fe NPs) synthesized by a two-step method are presented. Their structure, surface composition, and magnetic properties are characterized. The two classes of sulfonated Au/Fe NPs, with an average diameter of 4 nm, have an average atomic ratio of Au to Fe equal to 7 or 8, which enables the Au/Fe NPs to be superparamagnetic with a blocking temperature of 56 K and 96 K. Furthermore, preliminary cellular studies reveal that both Au/Fe NPs show very limited toxicity. MRI phantom experiments show that r 2 /r 1 ratio of Au/Fe NPs is as high as 670, leading to a 66% reduction in T 2 relaxation time. These nanoparticles provide great versatility and potential for nanoparticle-based diagnostics and therapeutic applications and as imaging contrast agents.

  6. Highly stabilized gadolinium chelates functionalized on metal nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Talha S.

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive method for imaging and diagnosing tissue damage, organ function and the vascular system. Magnevist(TM) a complex of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and Gd3+ is a clinically approved contrast agent for MRI. A derivative of DTPA was formed by the addition of two cysteine groups (DTPA-L-Cys) through amide linkage. The Gd complex of this ligand bonds with the silver surfaces through the cysteine thiols. GdDTPA-L-Cys was bound to ˜10nm diameter Ag nanoparticles for use as a multifunctional MRI contrast agent. The ligand and complex were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, ESI-MS and IR spectroscopy. The silver construct was characterized by TEM, TGA and UV-Vis absorption spectra. The per metal complex r1 relaxivity of GdDTPA-L-Cys{Ag} greater than that of Magnavist(TM) with the same molarity for both compounds. The synthesis of a DTPA derivative is described that allows it to bind to silver or gold nanoparticles through a single thiol linkage (DTPASH). The resulting Gd complex, GdDTPASH, was bound to Ag nanoparticles to create a single monolayer on the surface. The construct was further stabilized in buffered solution with the addition of a thiolated PEG chain. The highly stabilized nanoparticle construct delivers a high payload of Gd compelex and is an effective T1 brightening agent. The production of this type of construct opens the way for engineered multimodal MRI contrast agents.

  7. Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Cholangiography: Practical Tips and Clinical Indications for Biliary Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Palmucci, Stefano; Roccasalva, Federica; Piccoli, Marina; Fuccio Sanzà, Giovanni; Foti, Pietro Valerio; Ragozzino, Alfonso; Milone, Pietro; Ettorre, Giovanni Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Since its introduction, MRCP has been improved over the years due to the introduction of several technical advances and innovations. It consists of a noninvasive method for biliary tree representation, based on heavily T2-weighted images. Conventionally, its protocol includes two-dimensional single-shot fast spin-echo images, acquired with thin sections or with multiple thick slabs. In recent years, three-dimensional T2-weighted fast-recovery fast spin-echo images have been added to the conventional protocol, increasing the possibility of biliary anatomy demonstration and leading to a significant benefit over conventional 2D imaging. A significant innovation has been reached with the introduction of hepatobiliary contrasts, represented by gadoxetic acid and gadobenate dimeglumine: they are excreted into the bile canaliculi, allowing the opacification of the biliary tree. Recently, 3D interpolated T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo images have been proposed for the evaluation of the biliary tree, obtaining images after hepatobiliary contrast agent administration. Thus, the acquisition of these excretory phases improves the diagnostic capability of conventional MRCP-based on T2 acquisitions. In this paper, technical features of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography are briefly discussed; main diagnostic tips of hepatobiliary phase are showed, emphasizing the benefit of enhanced cholangiography in comparison with conventional MRCP.

  8. Conception of the first magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents: a brief history.

    PubMed

    de Haën, C

    2001-08-01

    About 20 years ago, a technological innovation process started that eventually led to the affirmation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, which are used today in about 25% of all MRI procedures, as medical diagnostic tools. The process began with exploration of various technical possibilities and the conception in the years 1981 to 1982 of two types of agents (soluble paramagnetic chelates and protection colloid-stabilized colloidal particle solutions of magnetite) that eventually found embodiments in commercially available products. The pioneering products that eventually reached the market were gadopentetate dimeglumine (Magnevist, Schering AG) and the ferumoxides (Endorem, Guerbet SA; or Ferridex , Berlex Laboratories Inc.). The history of the conception phase of the technology is reconstructed here, focusing on the social dynamics rather than on technological aspects. In the period 1981 to 1982, a number of independent inventors from industry and academia conceived of water-soluble paramagnetic chelates and protection colloid-stabilized colloidal solutions of small particles of magnetite, both of acceptable tolerability, as contrast agents for MRI. Priorities on patents conditioned the further course of events. The analyzed history helps in understanding the typical roles of different institutions in technological innovation. The foundation of MRI contrast agent technology in basic science clearly was laid in academia. During the conception of practical products, industry assumed a dominant role. Beginning with the radiological evaluation of candidate products, the collaboration between industry and academia became essential.

  9. Interactive neonatal gastrointestinal magnetic resonance imaging using fruit juice as an oral contrast media.

    PubMed

    Arthurs, Owen J; Graves, Martin J; Edwards, Andrea D; Joubert, Ilse; Set, Pat A K; Lomas, David J

    2014-09-22

    The objective was to evaluate the use of fruit juice with an interactive inversion recovery (IR) MR pulse sequence to visualise the gastrointestinal tract. We investigated the relaxation properties of 12 different natural fruit juices in vitro, to identify which could be used as oral contrast. We then describe our initial experience using an interactive MR pulse sequence to allow optimal visualisation after administering pineapple juice orally, and suppressing pre-existing bowel fluid contents, with variable TI in three adult and one child volunteer. Pineapple juice (PJ) had both the shortest T1 (243 ms) and shortest T2 (48 ms) of the fruit juices tested. Optimal signal differentiation between pre-existing bowel contents and oral PJ administration was obtained with TIs of between 900 and 1100 ms. The use of an inversion recovery preparation allowed long T1 pre-existing bowel contents to be suppressed whilst the short T1 of fruit juice acts as a positive contrast medium. Pineapple juice could be used as oral contrast agent for neonatal gastrointestinal magnetic resonance imaging.

  10. Characterization of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) in low contrast helical abdominal imaging via a transfer function based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da; Li, Xinhua; Liu, Bob

    2012-03-01

    Since the introduction of ASiR, its potential in noise reduction has been reported in various clinical applications. However, the influence of different scan and reconstruction parameters on the trade off between ASiR's blurring effect and noise reduction in low contrast imaging has not been fully studied. Simple measurements on low contrast images, such as CNR or phantom scores could not explore the nuance nature of this problem. We tackled this topic using a method which compares the performance of ASiR in low contrast helical imaging based on an assumed filter layer on top of the FBP reconstruction. Transfer functions of this filter layer were obtained from the noise power spectra (NPS) of corresponding FBP and ASiR images that share the same scan and reconstruction parameters. 2D transfer functions were calculated as sqrt[NPSASiR(u, v)/NPSFBP(u, v)]. Synthesized ACR phantom images were generated by filtering the FBP images with the transfer functions of specific (FBP, ASiR) pairs, and were compared with the ASiR images. It is shown that the transfer functions could predict the deterministic blurring effect of ASiR on low contrast objects, as well as the degree of noise reductions. Using this method, the influence of dose, scan field of view (SFOV), display field of view (DFOV), ASiR level, and Recon Mode on the behavior of ASiR in low contrast imaging was studied. It was found that ASiR level, dose level, and DFOV play more important roles in determining the behavior of ASiR than the other two parameters.

  11. Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Gastric Emptying and Motility in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kun-Han; Cao, Jiayue; Oleson, Steven Thomas; Powley, Terry L; Liu, Zhongming

    2017-11-01

    The assessment of gastric emptying and motility in humans and animals typically requires radioactive imaging or invasive measurements. Here, we developed a robust strategy to image and characterize gastric emptying and motility in rats based on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computer-assisted image processing. The animals were trained to naturally consume a gadolinium-labeled dietgel while bypassing any need for oral gavage. Following this test meal, the animals were scanned under low-dose anesthesia for high-resolution T1-weighted MRI in 7 Tesla, visualizing the time-varying distribution of the meal with greatly enhanced contrast against non-gastrointestinal (GI) tissues. Such contrast-enhanced images not only depicted the gastric anatomy, but also captured and quantified stomach emptying, intestinal filling, antral contraction, and intestinal absorption with fully automated image processing. Over four postingestion hours, the stomach emptied by 27%, largely attributed to the emptying of the forestomach rather than the corpus and the antrum, and most notable during the first 30 min. Stomach emptying was accompanied by intestinal filling for the first 2 h, whereas afterward intestinal absorption was observable as cumulative contrast enhancement in the renal medulla. The antral contraction was captured as a peristaltic wave propagating from the proximal to distal antrum. The frequency, velocity, and amplitude of the antral contraction were on average 6.34 ± 0.07 contractions per minute, 0.67 ± 0.01 mm/s, and 30.58 ± 1.03%, respectively. These results demonstrate an optimized MRI-based strategy to assess gastric emptying and motility in healthy rats, paving the way for using this technique to understand GI diseases, or test new therapeutics in rat models.The assessment of gastric emptying and motility in humans and animals typically requires radioactive imaging or invasive measurements. Here, we developed a robust strategy to image and

  12. Heat transfer enhancement of Fe3O4 ferrofluids in the presence of magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadaei, Farzad; Shahrokhi, Mohammad; Molaei Dehkordi, Asghar; Abbasi, Zeinab

    2017-05-01

    In this article, three-dimensional (3D) forced-convection heat transfer of magnetic nanofluids in a pipe subject to constant wall heat flux in the presence of single or double permanent magnet(s) or current-carrying wire has been investigated and compared. In this regard, laminar fluid flow and equilibrium magnetization for the ferrofluid were considered. In addition, variations of magnetic field in different media were taken into account and the assumption of having a linear relationship of magnetization with applied magnetic field intensity was also relaxed. Effects of magnetic field intensity, nanoparticle volume fraction, Reynolds number value, and the type of magnetic field source (i.e., a permanent magnet or current-carrying wire) on the forced-convection heat transfer of magnetic nanofluids were carefully investigated. It was found that by applying the magnetic field, the fluid mixing could be intensified that leads to an increase in the Nusselt number value along the pipe length. Moreover, the obtained simulation results indicate that applying the magnetic field induced by two permanent magnets with a magnetization of 3×105 (A/m) (for each one), the fully developed Nusselt number value can be increased by 196%.

  13. Performance characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging without contrast agents or sedation in pediatric appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Didier, Ryne A; Hopkins, Katharine L; Coakley, Fergus V; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Spiro, David M; Foster, Bryan R

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a promising modality for evaluating pediatric appendicitis. However optimal imaging protocols, including roles of contrast agents and sedation, have not been established and diagnostic criteria have not been fully evaluated. To investigate performance characteristics of rapid MRI without contrast agents or sedation in the diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis. We included patients ages 4-18 years with suspicion of appendicitis who underwent rapid MRI between October 2013 and March 2015 without contrast agent or sedation. After two-radiologist review, we determined performance characteristics of individual diagnostic criteria and aggregate diagnostic criteria by comparing MRI results to clinical outcomes. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to determine cut-points for appendiceal diameter and wall thickness for optimization of predictive power, and we calculated area under the curve (AUC) as a measure of test accuracy. Ninety-eight MRI examinations were performed in 97 subjects. Overall, MRI had a 94% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 91% positive predictive value and 97% negative predictive value. Optimal cut-points for appendiceal diameter and wall thickness were ≥7 mm and ≥2 mm, respectively. Independently, those cut-points produced sensitivities of 91% and 84% and specificities of 84% and 43%. Presence of intraluminal fluid (30/33) or localized periappendiceal fluid (32/33) showed a significant association with acute appendicitis (P<0.01), with sensitivities of 91% and 97% and specificities of 60% and 50%. For examinations in which the appendix was not identified by one or both reviewers (23/98), the clinical outcome was negative. Rapid MRI without contrast agents or sedation is accurate for diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis when multiple diagnostic criteria are considered in aggregate. Individual diagnostic criteria including optimized cut-points of ≥7 mm for diameter and ≥2 mm for wall

  14. Protein corona affects the relaxivity and MRI contrast efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Houshang; Bordonali, Lorenzo; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Wan, Sha; Monopoli, Marco P.; Lynch, Iseult; Laurent, Sophie; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2013-08-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly being considered for use in biomedical applications such as biosensors, imaging contrast agents and drug delivery vehicles. In a biological fluid, proteins associate in a preferential manner with NPs. The small sizes and high curvature angles of NPs influence the types and amounts of proteins present on their surfaces. This differential display of proteins bound to the surface of NPs can influence the tissue distribution, cellular uptake and biological effects of NPs. To date, the effects of adsorption of a protein corona (PC) on the magnetic properties of NPs have not been considered, despite the fact that some of their potential applications require their use in human blood. Here, to investigate the effects of a PC (using fetal bovine serum) on the MRI contrast efficiency of superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs), we have synthesized two series of SPIONs with variation in the thickness and functional groups (i.e. surface charges) of the dextran surface coating. We have observed that different physico-chemical characteristics of the dextran coatings on the SPIONs lead to the formation of PCs of different compositions. 1H relaxometry was used to obtain the longitudinal, r1, and transverse, r2, relaxivities of the SPIONs without and with a PC, as a function of the Larmor frequency. The transverse relaxivity, which determines the efficiency of negative contrast agents (CAs), is very much dependent on the functional group and the surface charge of the SPIONs' coating. The presence of the PC did not alter the relaxivity of plain SPIONs, while it slightly increased the relaxivity of the negatively charged SPIONs and dramatically decreased the relaxivity of the positively charged ones, which was coupled with particle agglomeration in the presence of the proteins. To confirm the effect of the PC on the MRI contrast efficiency, in vitro MRI experiments at ν = 8.5 MHz were performed using a low-field MRI scanner. The MRI

  15. Current status of superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agents for liver magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J

    2015-12-21

    Five types of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), i.e. Ferumoxides (Feridex(®) IV, Berlex Laboratories), Ferucarbotran (Resovist(®), Bayer Healthcare), Ferumoxtran-10 (AMI-227 or Code-7227, Combidex(®), AMAG Pharma; Sinerem(®), Guerbet), NC100150 (Clariscan(®), Nycomed,) and (VSOP C184, Ferropharm) have been designed and clinically tested as magnetic resonance contrast agents. However, until now Resovist(®) is current available in only a few countries. The other four agents have been stopped for further development or withdrawn from the market. Another SPIO agent Ferumoxytol (Feraheme(®)) is approved for the treatment of iron deficiency in adult chronic kidney disease patients. Ferumoxytol is comprised of iron oxide particles surrounded by a carbohydrate coat, and it is being explored as a potential imaging approach for evaluating lymph nodes and certain liver tumors.

  16. Hemodynamic analysis of intracranial aneurysms using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuemei; Li, Rui; Chen, Yu; Sia, Sheau Fung; Li, Donghai; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Aihua

    2017-04-01

    Additional hemodynamic parameters are highly desirable in the clinical management of intracranial aneurysm rupture as static medical images cannot demonstrate the blood flow within aneurysms. There are two ways of obtaining the hemodynamic information—by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PCMRI) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this paper, we compared PCMRI and CFD in the analysis of a stable patient's specific aneurysm. The results showed that PCMRI and CFD are in good agreement with each other. An additional CFD study of two stable and two ruptured aneurysms revealed that ruptured aneurysms have a higher statistical average blood velocity, wall shear stress, and oscillatory shear index (OSI) within the aneurysm sac compared to those of stable aneurysms. Furthermore, for ruptured aneurysms, the OSI divides the positive and negative wall shear stress divergence at the aneurysm sac.

  17. Biocompatible KMnF3 nanoparticular contrast agent with proper plasma retention time for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-jun; Song, Xiao-xia; Xu, Xian-zhu; Tang, Qun

    2014-04-18

    Nanoparticular MRI contrast agents are rapidly becoming suitable for use in clinical diagnosis. An ideal nanoparticular contrast agent should be endowed with high relaxivity, biocompatibility, proper plasma retention time, and tissue-specific or tumor-targeting imaging. Herein we introduce PEGylated KMnF3 nanoparticles as a new type of T1 contrast agent. Studies showed that the nanoparticular contrast agent revealed high bio-stability with bovine serum albumin in PBS buffer solution, and presented excellent biocompatibility (low cytotoxicity, undetectable hemolysis and hemagglutination). Meanwhile the new contrast agent possessed proper plasma retention time (circulation half-life t1/2 is approximately 2 h) in the body of the administrated mice. It can be delivered into brain vessels and maintained there for hours, and is mostly cleared from the body within 48 h, as demonstrated by time-resolved MRI and Mn-biodistribution analysis. Those distinguishing features make it suitable to obtain contrast-enhanced brain magnetic resonance angiography. Moreover, through the process of passive targeting delivery, the T1 contrast agent clearly illuminates a brain tumor (glioma) with high contrast image and defined shape. This study demonstrates that PEGylated KMnF3 nanoparticles represent a promising biocompatible vascular contrast agent for magnetic resonance angiography and can potentially be further developed into an active targeted tumor MRI contrast agent.

  18. Use of contrast media in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in horses: Techniques, adverse events and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Nelson, B B; Goodrich, L R; Barrett, M F; Grinstaff, M W; Kawcak, C E

    2017-07-01

    The use of contrast media in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasing in horses. These contrast-enhanced imaging techniques provide improved tissue delineation and evaluation, thereby expanding diagnostic capabilities. While generally considered safe, not all contrast media exhibit the same safety profiles. The safety of contrast media use and descriptions of adverse events occurring in horses are sparsely reported. This review summarises the reported evidence of contrast media use and adverse events that occur in horses, with added contribution from other veterinary species and studies in man for comparison. This comprehensive data set empowers equine clinicians to develop use and monitoring strategies when working with contrast media. Finally, it summarises the current state-of-the-art and highlights the potential applications of contrast-enhanced CT and MRI for assessment of diseased or injured equine tissues, as well as (patho)physiological processes. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  19. Evidence for Coherent Transfer of para-Hydrogen-Induced Polarization at Low Magnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Kiryutin, Alexey S; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V; Kaptein, Robert; Vieth, Hans-Martin; Ivanov, Konstantin L

    2013-08-01

    We have investigated the mechanism of para-hydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) transfer from the original strongly aligned protons to other nuclei at low external magnetic fields. Although it is known that PHIP is efficiently transferred at low fields, the nature of the transfer mechanism, that is, coherent spin mixing or cross-relaxation, is not well established. Polarization transfer kinetics for individual protons of styrene was, for the first time, measured and modeled theoretically. Pronounced oscillations were observed indicating a coherent transfer mechanism. Spin coherences were excited by passing through an avoided level crossing of the nuclear spin energy levels. Transfer at avoided level crossings is selective with respect to spin order. Our work provides evidence that the coherent PHIP transfer mechanism is dominant at low magnetic fields.

  20. Contrast detection in fluid-saturated media with magnetic resonance poroelastography

    PubMed Central

    Perriñez, Phillip R.; Pattison, Adam J.; Kennedy, Francis E.; Weaver, John B.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Recent interest in the poroelastic behavior of tissues has led to the development of magnetic resonance poroelastography (MRPE) as an alternative to single-phase MR elastographic image reconstruction. In addition to the elastic parameters (i.e., Lamé’s constants) commonly associated with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), MRPE enables estimation of the time-harmonic pore-pressure field induced by external mechanical vibration. Methods: This study presents numerical simulations that demonstrate the sensitivity of the computed displacement and pore-pressure fields to a priori estimates of the experimentally derived model parameters. In addition, experimental data collected in three poroelastic phantoms are used to assess the quantitative accuracy of MR poroelastographic imaging through comparisons with both quasistatic and dynamic mechanical tests. Results: The results indicate hydraulic conductivity to be the dominant parameter influencing the deformation behavior of poroelastic media under conditions applied during MRE. MRPE estimation of the matrix shear modulus was bracketed by the values determined from independent quasistatic and dynamic mechanical measurements as expected, whereas the contrast ratios for embedded inclusions were quantitatively similar (10%–15% difference between the reconstructed images and the mechanical tests). Conclusions: The findings suggest that the addition of hydraulic conductivity and a viscoelastic solid component as parameters in the reconstruction may be warranted. PMID:20831058

  1. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography findings prior to hemodialysis vascular access creation: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Planken, R N; Leiner, T; Nijenhuis, R J; Duijm, L E; Cuypers, P W; Douwes-Draaijer, P; Van Der Sande, F M; Kessels, A G; Tordoir, J H M

    2008-01-01

    To determine prospectively the clinical value of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) for assessment of the arterial inflow and venous outflow prior to vascular access (VA) creation. Seventy-three patients underwent duplex ultrasonography (DUS) and CE-MRA prior to VA creation for detection of stenoses and occlusions. Two observers read the CE-MRA images for determination of inter-observer agreement. A VA was considered functional if it could be used for successful two-needle hemodialysis therapy within 2 months after creation. CE-MRA detected 6 stenosed, 8 occluded arterial vessel segments and 12 stenosed and 41 occluded venous vessel segments in 70 patients. Inter-observer agreement for detection of upper extremity arterial and venous stenoses and occlusions with CE-MRA was substantial to almost perfect (kappa values 0.76-0.96). CE-MRA detected lesions, not detected by DUS, that were associated with VA early failure and non-maturation in 33% of patients (7/21). Accessory veins detected preoperatively were the cause of VA non-maturation in a substantial group of patients (47%: 7/15). CE-MRA enables accurate detection of upper extremity arterial and venous stenosis and occlusions prior to VA creation. Preoperative CE-MRA identified arterial and venous stenoses, not detected by DUS that were associated with VA early failure and non-maturation. However, the use of gadolinium containing contrast media is currently contraindicated due the reported incidence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

  2. Cross-linkable liposomes stabilize a magnetic resonance contrast-enhancing polymeric fastener.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cartney E; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2014-04-08

    Liposomes are commonly used to deliver drugs and contrast agents to their target site in a controlled manner. One of the greatest obstacles in the performance of such delivery vehicles is their stability in the presence of serum. Here, we demonstrate a method to stabilize a class of liposomes that load gadolinium, a magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent, as a model cargo on their surfaces. We hypothesized that the sequential adsorption of a gadolinium-binding chitosan fastener on the liposome surface followed by covalent cross-linking of the lipid bilayer would provide enhanced stability and improved MR signal in the presence of human serum. To investigate this hypothesis, liposomes composed of diyne-containing lipids were assembled and functionalized via chitosan conjugated with a hydrophobic anchor and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This postadsorption cross-linking strategy served to stabilize the thermodynamically favorable association between liposome and polymeric fastener. Furthermore, the chitosan-coated, cross-linked liposomes proved more effective as delivery vehicles of gadolinium than uncross-linked liposomes due to the reduced liposome degradation and chitosan desorption. Overall, this study demonstrates a useful method to stabilize a broad class of particles used for systemic delivery of various molecular payloads.

  3. Cross-Linkable Liposomes Stabilize a Magnetic Resonance Contrast-Enhancing Polymeric Fastener

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are commonly used to deliver drugs and contrast agents to their target site in a controlled manner. One of the greatest obstacles in the performance of such delivery vehicles is their stability in the presence of serum. Here, we demonstrate a method to stabilize a class of liposomes that load gadolinium, a magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent, as a model cargo on their surfaces. We hypothesized that the sequential adsorption of a gadolinium-binding chitosan fastener on the liposome surface followed by covalent cross-linking of the lipid bilayer would provide enhanced stability and improved MR signal in the presence of human serum. To investigate this hypothesis, liposomes composed of diyne-containing lipids were assembled and functionalized via chitosan conjugated with a hydrophobic anchor and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This postadsorption cross-linking strategy served to stabilize the thermodynamically favorable association between liposome and polymeric fastener. Furthermore, the chitosan-coated, cross-linked liposomes proved more effective as delivery vehicles of gadolinium than uncross-linked liposomes due to the reduced liposome degradation and chitosan desorption. Overall, this study demonstrates a useful method to stabilize a broad class of particles used for systemic delivery of various molecular payloads. PMID:24635565

  4. Diagnostic Accuracy of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Characterizing Lung Masses

    PubMed Central

    Inan, Nagihan; Arslan, Arzu; Donmez, Muhammed; Sarisoy, Hasan Tahsin

    2016-01-01

    Background Imaging plays a critical role not only in the detection, but also in the characterization of lung masses as benign or malignant. Objectives To determine the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lung masses. Patients and Methods Ninety-four masses were included in this prospective study. Five dynamic series of T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FFE) images were obtained, followed by a T1-weighted FFE sequence in the late phase (5th minutes). Contrast enhancement patterns in the early (25th second) and late (5th minute) phase images were evaluated. For the quantitative evaluation, signal intensity (SI)-time curves were obtained and the maximum relative enhancement, wash-in rate, and time-to-peak enhancement of masses in both groups were calculated. Results The early phase contrast enhancement patterns were homogeneous in 78.2% of the benign masses, while heterogeneous in 74.4% of the malignant tumors. On the late phase images, 70.8% of the benign masses showed homogeneous enhancement, while most of the malignant masses showed heterogeneous enhancement (82.4%). During the first pass, the maximum relative enhancement and wash-in rate values of malignant masses were significantly higher than those of the benign masses (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). The cutoff value at 15% yielded a sensitivity of 85.4%, specificity of 61.2%, and positive predictive value of 68.7% for the maximum relative enhancement. Conclusion Contrast enhancement patterns and SI-time curve analysis of MRI are helpful in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lung masses. PMID:27703654

  5. 31P-Magnetization Transfer Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Measurements of In Vivo Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Befroy, Douglas E.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy offers a broad range of noninvasive analytical methods for investigating metabolism in vivo. Of these, the magnetization-transfer (MT) techniques permit the estimation of the unidirectional fluxes associated with metabolic exchange reactions. Phosphorus (31P) MT measurements can be used to examine the bioenergetic reactions of the creatine-kinase system and the ATP synthesis/hydrolysis cycle. Observations from our group and others suggest that the inorganic phosphate (Pi) → ATP flux in skeletal muscle may be modulated by certain conditions, including aging, insulin resistance, and diabetes, and may reflect inherent alterations in mitochondrial metabolism. However, such effects on the Pi → ATP flux are not universally observed under conditions in which mitochondrial function, assessed by other techniques, is impaired, and recent articles have raised concerns about the absolute magnitude of the measured reaction rates. As the application of 31P-MT techniques becomes more widespread, this article reviews the methodology and outlines our experience with its implementation in a variety of models in vivo. Also discussed are potential limitations of the technique, complementary methods for assessing oxidative metabolism, and whether the Pi → ATP flux is a viable biomarker of metabolic function in vivo. PMID:23093656

  6. An abnormal periventricular magnetization transfer ratio gradient occurs early in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J William L; Pardini, Matteo; Brownlee, Wallace J; Fernando, Kryshani; Samson, Rebecca S; Prados Carrasco, Ferran; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In established multiple sclerosis, tissue abnormality—as assessed using magnetization transfer ratio—increases close to the lateral ventricles. We aimed to determine whether or not (i) these changes are present from the earliest clinical stages of multiple sclerosis; (ii) they occur independent of white matter lesions; and (iii) they are associated with subsequent conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis and disability. Seventy-one subjects had MRI scanning a median of 4.6 months after a clinically isolated optic neuritis (49 females, mean age 33.5 years) and were followed up clinically 2 and 5 years later. Thirty-seven healthy controls (25 females, mean age 34.4 years) were also scanned. In normal-appearing white matter, magnetization transfer ratio gradients were measured 1–5 mm and 6–10 mm from the lateral ventricles. In control subjects, magnetization transfer ratio was highest adjacent to the ventricles and decreased with distance from them; in optic neuritis, normal-appearing white matter magnetization transfer ratio was lowest adjacent to the ventricles, increased over the first 5 mm, and then paralleled control values. The magnetization transfer ratio gradient over 1–5 mm differed significantly between the optic neuritis and control groups [+0.059 percentage units/mm (pu/mm) versus −0.033 pu/mm, P = 0.010], and was significantly steeper in those developing clinically definite multiple sclerosis within 2 years compared to those who did not (0.132 pu/mm versus 0.016 pu/mm, P = 0.020). In multivariate binary logistic regression the magnetization transfer ratio gradient was independently associated with the development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis within 2 years (magnetization transfer ratio gradient odds ratio 61.708, P = 0.023; presence of T2 lesions odds ratio 8.500, P = 0.071). At 5 years, lesional measures overtook magnetization transfer ratio gradients as significant predictors of conversion to multiple

  7. Trapping and dynamic manipulation of polystyrene beads mimicking circulating tumor cells using targeted magnetic/photoacoustic contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chen-Wei; Xia, Jinjun; Pelivanov, Ivan; Hu, Xiaoge; Gao, Xiaohu; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2012-10-01

    Results on magnetically trapping and manipulating micro-scale beads circulating in a flow field mimicking metastatic cancer cells in human peripheral vessels are presented. Composite contrast agents combining magneto-sensitive nanospheres and highly optical absorptive gold nanorods were conjugated to micro-scale polystyrene beads. To efficiently trap the targeted objects in a fast stream, a dual magnet system consisting of two flat magnets to magnetize (polarize) the contrast agent and an array of cone magnets producing a sharp gradient field to trap the magnetized contrast agent was designed and constructed. A water-ink solution with an optical absorption coefficient of 10 cm-1 was used to mimic the optical absorption of blood. Magnetomotive photoacoustic imaging helped visualize bead trapping, dynamic manipulation of trapped beads in a flow field, and the subtraction of stationary background signals insensitive to the magnetic field. The results show that trafficking micro-scale objects can be effectively trapped in a stream with a flow rate up to 12 ml/min and the background can be significantly (greater than 15 dB) suppressed. It makes the proposed method very promising for sensitive detection of rare circulating tumor cells within high flow vessels with a highly absorptive optical background.

  8. Evaluation of pharmacokinetic models for perfusion imaging with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in porcine skeletal muscle using low-molecular-weight contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Hindel, Stefan; Papanastasiou, Giorgos; Wust, Peter; Maaß, Marc; Söhner, Anika; Lüdemann, Lutz

    2018-06-01

    Pharmacokinetic models for perfusion quantification with a low-molecular-weight contrast agent (LMCA) in skeletal muscle using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) were evaluated. Tissue perfusion was measured in seven regions of interest (ROIs) placed in the total hind leg supplied by the femoral artery in seven female pigs. DCE-MRI was performed using a 3D gradient echo sequence with k-space sharing. The sequence was acquired twice, first after LMCA and then after blood pool contrast agent injection. Blood flow was augmented by continuous infusion of the vasodilator adenosine into the femoral artery, resulting in up to four times increased blood flow. The results obtained with several LMCA models were compared with those of a two-compartment blood pool model (2CBPM) consisting of a capillary and an arteriolar compartment. Measurements performed with a Doppler flow probe placed at the femoral artery served as ground truth. The two-compartment exchange model extended by an arteriolar compartment (E2CXM) showed the highest fit quality of all LMCA models and the most significant correlation with the Doppler measurements, r = 0.78 (P < 0.001). The best correspondence between the capillary perfusion measurements of the LMCA models and those of the 2CBPM was found with the E2CXM (slope of the regression line equal to 1, r = 0.85, P < 0.001). The results for the clinical patient data corresponded very well with the results obtained in the animal experiments. Double-contrast agent DCE-MRI in combination with the E2CXM yields the most reliable results and can be used in clinical routine. Magn Reson Med 79:3154-3162, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. The influence of a magnetic field on the heat transfer of a magnetic nanofluid in a sinusoidal channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiallah Mousavi, S.; Barzegar Gerdroodbary, M.; Sheikholeslami, Mohsen; Ganji, D. D.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, two dimensional numerical simulations are performed to investigate the influence of the magnetic field on the nanofluid flow inside a sinusoidal channel. This work reveals the influence of variable magnetic field in the heat transfer of heat exchanger while the mixture is in a single phase. In this heat exchanger, the inner tube is sinusoidal and the outer tube is considered smooth. The magnetic field is applied orthogonal to the axis of the sinusoidal tube. In our study, the ferrofluid (water with 4 vol% nanoparticles (Fe3O4)) flows in a channel with sinusoidal bottom. The finite volume method with the SIMPLEC algorithm is used for handling the pressure-velocity coupling. The numerical results present validated data with experimentally measured data and show good agreement with measurement. The influence of different parameters, like the intensity of magnetic field and Reynolds number, on the heat transfer is investigated. According to the obtained results, the sinusoidal formation of the internal tube significantly increases the Nusselt number inside the channel. Our findings show that the magnetic field increases the probability of eddy formation inside the cavities and consequently enhances the heat transfer (more than 200%) in the vicinity of the magnetic field at low Reynolds number ( Re=50). In addition, the variation of the skin friction shows that the magnetic field increases the skin friction (more than 600%) inside the sinusoidal channel.

  10. Voltage-controlled magnetization switching in MRAMs in conjunction with spin-transfer torque and applied magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munira, Kamaram; Pandey, Sumeet C.; Kula, Witold; Sandhu, Gurtej S.

    2016-11-01

    Voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect has attracted a significant amount of attention in recent years because of its low cell power consumption during the anisotropy modulation of a thin ferromagnetic film. However, the applied voltage or electric field alone is not enough to completely and reliably reverse the magnetization of the free layer of a magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cell from anti-parallel to parallel configuration or vice versa. An additional symmetry-breaking mechanism needs to be employed to ensure the deterministic writing process. Combinations of voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy together with spin-transfer torque (STT) and with an applied magnetic field (Happ) were evaluated for switching reliability, time taken to switch with low error rate, and energy consumption during the switching process. In order to get a low write error rate in the MRAM cell with VCMA switching mechanism, a spin-transfer torque current or an applied magnetic field comparable to the critical current and field of the free layer is necessary. In the hybrid processes, the VCMA effect lowers the duration during which the higher power hungry secondary mechanism is in place. Therefore, the total energy consumed during the hybrid writing processes, VCMA + STT or VCMA + Happ, is less than the energy consumed during pure spin-transfer torque or applied magnetic field switching.

  11. Simple method for quantification of gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents using ESR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Keizo; Kinoshita, Shota; Okazaki, Shoko

    2012-01-01

    To develop an estimation method of gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, the effect of concentration of Gd compounds on the ESR spectrum of nitroxyl radical was examined. A solution of either 4-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPONE) or 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPOL) was mixed with a solution of Gd compound and the ESR spectrum was recorded. Increased concentration of gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid chelate (Gd-DTPA), an MRI contrast agent, increased the peak-to-peak line widths of ESR spectra of the nitroxyl radicals, in accordance with a decrease of their signal heights. A linear relationship was observed between concentration of Gd-DTPA and line width of ESR signal, up to approximately 50 mmol/L Gd-DTPA, with a high correlation coefficient. Response of TEMPONE was 1.4-times higher than that of TEMPOL as evaluated from the slopes of the lines. The response was slightly different among Gd compounds; the slopes of calibration curves for acua[N,N-bis[2-[(carboxymethyl)[(methylcarbamoyl)methyl]amino]ethyl]glycinato(3-)]gadolinium hydrate (Gd-DTPA-BMA) (6.22 μT·L/mmol) and gadolinium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid chelate (Gd-DOTA) (6.62 μT·L/mmol) were steeper than the slope for Gd-DTPA (5.45 μT·L/mmol), whereas the slope for gadolinium chloride (4.94 μT·L/mmol) was less steep than that for Gd-DTPA. This method is simple to apply. The results indicate that this method is useful for rough estimation of the concentration of Gd contrast agents if calibration is carried out with each standard compound. It was also found that the plot of the reciprocal square root of signal height against concentrations of contrast agents could be useful for the estimation if a constant volume of sample solution is taken and measured at the same position in the ESR cavity every time.

  12. Novel Imaging Contrast Methods for Hyperpolarized 13 C Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Galen Durant

    Magnetic resonance imaging using hyperpolarized 13C-labeled small molecules has emerged as an extremely powerful tool for the in vivo monitoring of perfusion and metabolism. This work presents methods for improved imaging, parameter mapping, and image contrast generation for in vivo hyperpolarized 13C MRI. Angiography using hyperpolarized urea was greatly improved with a highly T2-weighted acquisition in combination with 15N labeling of the urea amide groups. This is due to the fact that the T2 of [13C]urea is strongly limited by the scalar coupling to the neighboring quadrupolar 14N. The long in vivo T2 values of [13C, 15N2]urea were utilized for sub-millimeter projection angiography using a contrast agent that could be safely injected in concentrations of 10-100 mM while still tolerated in patients with renal insufficiency. This study also presented the first method for in vivo T2 mapping of hyperpolarized 13C compounds. The in vivo T2 of urea was short in the blood and long within the kidneys. This persistent signal component was isolated to the renal filtrate, thus enabling for the first time direct detection of an imaging contrast agent undergoing glomerular filtration. While highly T2-weighted acquisitions select for molecules with short rotational correlation times, high diffusion weighting selects for those with the long translational correlation times. A specialized spin-echo EPI sequence was developed in order to generate highly diffusion-weighted hyperpolarized 13C images on a clinical MRI system operating within clinical peak- RF and gradient amplitude constraints. Low power adiabatic spin echo pulses were developed in order to generate a sufficiently large refocused bandwidth while maintaining low nominal power. This diffusion weighted acquisition gave enhanced tumor contrast-to-noise ratio when imaging [1-13C]lactate after infusion of [1-13C]pyruvate. Finally, the first in-man hyperpolarized 13C MRI clinical trial is discussed.

  13. On magnetic field strength effect on velocity and turbulence characterization using Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PC-MRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Amili, Omid; Coletti, Filippo; Toloui, Mostafa

    2017-11-01

    Cardiovascular flows are predominantly laminar. Nevertheless, transient and even turbulent flows have been observed in the vicinity of the heart (e.g. valves, ascending aorta, valvular/vascular stenosis). Effective in-vivo hemodynamic-based diagnostics in these sites require both high-resolution velocity measurements (especially in the near-vessel wall regions) and accurate evaluation of blood flow turbulence level (e.g. in terms of TKE). In addition to phase contrast (PC), appropriately designed PC-MRI sequences provide intravoxel incoherent motion encoding, a unique tool for simultaneous, non-invasive evaluation of velocity 3D vector fields and Reynolds stresses in cardiovascular flows in vivo. However, limited spatial and temporal resolution of PC-MRI result in inaccuracies in the estimation of hemodynamics (e.g. WSS) and of flow turbulence characteristics. This study aims to assess whether SNR gains at higher magnetic field could overcome these limits, providing more accurate velocity and turbulence characterization at higher spatial resolution. Experiments are conducted on MR Scanners at 3 and 7 Tesla with a U-bent pipe flow shaped phantom. 3D velocity fields, Reynolds stresses and TKE are analyzed and compared to a reference PIV experiments.

  14. Practicing versus Inventing with Contrasting Cases: The Effects of Telling First on Learning and Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Daniel L.; Chase, Catherine C.; Oppezzo, Marily A.; Chin, Doris B.

    2011-01-01

    Being told procedures and concepts before problem solving can inadvertently undermine the learning of deep structures in physics. If students do not learn the underlying structure of physical phenomena, they will exhibit poor transfer. Two studies on teaching physics to adolescents compared the effects of "telling" students before and after…

  15. Magnetic Silica-Supported Ruthenium Nanoparticles: An Efficient Catalyst for Transfer Hydrogenation of Carbonyl Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    One-pot synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles on magnetic silica is described which involve the in situ generation of magnetic silica (Fe3O4@ SiO2) and ruthenium nano particles immobilization; the hydration of nitriles and transfer hydrogenation of carbonyl compounds occurs in hi...

  16. Effects of iodinated contrast agent, xylocaine and gadolinium concentration on the signal emitted in magnetic resonance arthrography: a samples study*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Yvana Lopes Pinheiro; Costa, Rita Zanlorensi Visneck; Pinho, Kátia Elisa Prus; Ferreira, Ricardo Rabello; Schuindt, Sueliton Miyamoto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of dilution of paramagnetic contrast agent with iodinated contrast and xylocaine on the signal intensity during magnetic resonance arthrography, and to improve the paramagnetic contrast agent concentration utilized in this imaging modality. Materials and Methods Samples specially prepared for the study with three different concentrations of paramagnetic contrast agent diluted in saline, iodinated contrast agent and xylocaine were imaged with fast spin echo T1-weighted sequences with fat saturation. The samples were placed into flasks and graphical analysis of the signal intensity was performed as a function of the paramagnetic contrast concentration. Results As compared with samples of equal concentrations diluted only with saline, the authors have observed an average signal intensity decrease of 20.67% for iodinated contrast agent, and of 28.34% for xylocaine. However, the increased gadolinium concentration in the samples caused decrease in signal intensity with all the dilutions. Conclusion Minimizing the use of iodinated contrast media and xylocaine and/or the use of a gadolinium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L diluted in saline will improve the sensitivity of magnetic resonance arthrography. PMID:25987746

  17. Screening and Monitoring Response to Treatment Using Subsecond Molecular Imaging and Hyperpolarized Contrast Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    Magnetization transfer MRI in multiple sclerosis . J Neuroimaging. 2007;17 Suppl 1:S22–S26. 82. Filippi M, Rocca MA. Magnetization transfer magnetic resonance... multiple sclerosis . Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2009;19(1):27–36. 84. Lundbom N. Determination of magnetization transfer contrast in tissue: an MR... multiple RF coils intended for optimal direct and indirect detection of hyperpolarized contrast agents in vivo. 4.b. Y1Q3-Y1Q4. Low field MRI: pre

  18. Biologically-compatible gadolinium(at)(carbon nanostructures) as advanced contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitharaman, Balaji

    2005-11-01

    Paramagnetic gadolinium-based carbon nanostructures are introduced as a new paradigm in high-performance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent (CA) design. Two Gd C60-based nanomaterials, Gd C60 [C(COOH)2]10 and Gd C60(OH)x are shown to have MRI efficacies (relaxivities) 5 to 20 times larger than any current Gd3+-based CA in clinical use. The first detailed and systematic physicochemical characterization was performed on these materials using the same experimental techniques usually applied to traditional Gd 3+-based CAs. Water-proton relaxivities were measured for the first time on these materials, as a function of magnetic field (5 x 10-4--9.4 T) to elucidate the different interaction mechanisms and dynamic processes influencing the relaxation behavior. These studies attribute the observed enhanced relaxivities completely to the "outer sphere" proton relaxation mechanism. These "outer sphere" relaxation effects are the largest reported for any Gd3+-based agent without inner-sphere water molecules. The proton relaxivities displayed a remarkable pH-dependency, increasing dramatically with decreasing pH (pH: 3--12). The increase in relaxivity resulted mainly from aggregation and subsequent three-order-of-magnitude increase in tauR, the rotational correlation time. Water-soluble fullerene materials (such as the neuroprotective fullerene drug, C3) readily cross cell membranes, suggesting an application for these gadofullerenes as the first intracellular, as well as pH-responsive MRI CAs. Studies performed at 60 MHz in the presence of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, mice serum pH: 7.4) to mimic physiological conditions demonstrated that the aggregates can be disrupted by addition of salts, leading to a decrease in relaxivity. Biological fluids present a high salt concentration and should strongly modify the behavior of any fullerenes/metallofullerene-based drug in vivo. Gd C60[C(COOH)2]10 also showed enhanced relaxivity (23% increase) in the presence of the

  19. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Swift, Andrew J; Telfer, Adam; Rajaram, Smitha; Condliffe, Robin; Marshall, Helen; Capener, Dave; Hurdman, Judith; Elliot, Charlie; Kiely, David G; Wild, Jim M

    2014-03-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) time-resolved magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a technique whereby the passage of an intravenous contrast bolus can be tracked through the pulmonary vascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of DCE-MR pulmonary blood transit times in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Seventy-nine patients diagnosed with PAH underwent pulmonary DCE imaging at 1.5 T using a time-resolved three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo sequence. The prognostic significance of two DCE parameters, full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the first-pass clearance curve and pulmonary transit time (PTT), along with demographic and invasive catheter measurements, was evaluated by univariate and bivariate Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. DCE-MR transit times were most closely correlated with cardiac index (CI) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) and were both found to be accurate for detecting reduced CI (FWHM area under the curve [AUC] at receiver operating characteristic analysis = 0.91 and PTT AUC = 0.92, respectively) and for detecting elevated PVRI (FWHM AUC = 0.88 and PTT AUC = 0.84, respectively). During the follow-up period, 25 patients died. Patients with longer measurements of FWHM (P = 0.0014) and PTT (P = 0.004) were associated with poor outcome at Kaplan-Meier analysis, and both parameters were strong predictors of adverse outcome from Cox proportional hazards analysis (P = 0.013 and 0.010, respectively). At bivariate analysis, DCE measurements predicted mortality independent of age, gender, and World Health Organization functional class; however, invasive hemodynamic indexes CI, PVRI, and DCE measurements were not independent of one another. In conclusion, DCE-MR transit times predict mortality in patients with PAH and are closely associated with clinical gold standards CI and PVRI.

  20. Gd2O3 nanoparticles stabilized by hydrothermally modified dextrose for positive contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babić-Stojić, Branka; Jokanović, Vukoman; Milivojević, Dušan; Požek, Miroslav; Jagličić, Zvonko; Makovec, Darko; Arsikin, Katarina; Paunović, Verica

    2016-04-01

    Gd2O3 nanoparticles of a few nm in size and their agglomerates dispersed in dextrose derived polymer template were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The produced nanosized material was investigated by TEM, FTIR spectroscopy, SQUID measurements and NMR relaxometry. Biological evaluation of this material was done by crystal violet and MTT assays to determine the cell viability. Longitudinal and transverse NMR relaxivities of water diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle dispersions measured at the magnetic field of 1.5 T, estimated to be r1(Gd2O3)=9.6 s-1 mM-1 in the Gd concentration range 0.1-30 mM and r2(Gd2O3)=17.7 s-1 mM-1 in the lower concentration range 0.1-0.8 mM, are significantly higher than the corresponding relaxivities measured for the standard contrast agent r1(Gd-DTPA)=4.1 s-1 mM-1 and r2(Gd-DTPA)=5.1 s-1 mM-1. The ratio of the two relaxivities for Gd2O3 nanoparticles r2/r1=1.8 is suitable for T1-weighted imaging. Good MRI signal intensities of the water diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle dispersions were recorded at lower Gd concentrations 0.2-0.8 mM. The Gd2O3 samples did not exert any significant cytotoxic effects at Gd concentrations of 0.2 mM and below. These properties of the produced Gd2O3 nanoparticles in hydrothermally modified dextrose make them promising for potential application in MRI for the design of a positive MRI contrast agent.

  1. Unusual negative permeability of single magnetic nanowire excited by the spin transfer torque effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Mangui; Zhou, Wu

    2018-07-01

    Due to the effect of spin transfer torque, negative imaginary parts of permeability (μ″ < 0) are reported in a ferromagnetic nanowire. It is found that negative μ″ values are resulted from the interaction of spin polarized conduction electrons with the spatially non-uniform distributed magnetic moments at both ends of nanowires. The results are well explained from the effect of spin transfer torque on the precession of magnetization under the excitation of both the pulsed magnetic field and static electric field.

  2. Experimental Study of Ultrasound Contrast Agent Mediated Heat Transfer for Therapeutic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razansky, D.; Adam, D. R.; Einziger, P. D.

    2006-05-01

    Ultrasound Contrast Agents (UCA) have been recently suggested as efficient enhancers of ultrasonic power deposition in tissue. The ultrasonic energy absorption by UCA, considered as disadvantageous in diagnostic imaging, might be valuable in therapeutic applications such as targeted hyperthermia or ablation treatments. The current study, based on theoretical predictions, was designed to experimentally measure the dissipation and heating effects of encapsulated UCA (Optison™) in a well-controlled and calibrated environment.

  3. A Magnetic Chameleon: Biocompatible Lanthanide Fluoride Nanoparticles with Magnetic Field Dependent Tunable Contrast Properties as a Versatile Contrast Agent for Low to Ultrahigh Field MRI and Optical Imaging in Biological Window.

    PubMed

    Biju, Silvanose; Gallo, Juan; Bañobre-López, M; Manshian, Bella B; Soenen, Stefaan J; Himmelreich, Uwe; Vander Elst, Luce; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2018-05-23

    A novel type of multimodal, magnetic resonance imaging/optical imaging (MRI/OI) contrast agent was developed, based on core-shell lanthanide fluoride nanoparticles composed of a β-NaHoF4 core plus a β-NaGdF4:Yb 3+ , Tm 3+ shell with an average size of ∼24 nm. The biocompatibility of the particles was ensured by a surface modification with poly acrylic acid (PAA) and further functionalization with an affinity ligand, folic acid (FA). When excited using 980 nm near infrared (NIR) radiation, the contrast agent (CA) shows intense emission at 802 nm with lifetime of 791±3 μs, due to the transition 3 H 4 → 3 H 6 of Tm 3+ . Proton nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion ( 1 H-NMRD) studies and magnetic resonance (MR) phantom imaging showed that the newly synthesized nanoparticles, decorated with poly(acrylic acid) and folic acid on the surface (NP-PAA-FA), can act mainly as a T 1 -weighted contrast agent below 1.5 T, a T 1 /T 2 dual-weighted contrast agent at 3 T, and as highly efficient T 2 -weighted contrast agent at ultrahigh fields. In addition, NP-PAA-FA showed very low cytotoxicity and no detectable cellular damage up to a dose of 500 μg mL -1 . © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Standardized volume-rendering of contrast-enhanced renal magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Smedby, O; Oberg, R; Asberg, B; Stenström, H; Eriksson, P

    2005-08-01

    To propose a technique for standardizing volume-rendering technique (VRT) protocols and to compare this with maximum intensity projection (MIP) in regard to image quality and diagnostic confidence in stenosis diagnosis with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Twenty patients were examined with MRA under suspicion of renal artery stenosis. Using the histogram function in the volume-rendering software, the 95th and 99th percentiles of the 3D data set were identified and used to define the VRT transfer function. Two radiologists assessed the stenosis pathology and image quality from rotational sequences of MIP and VRT images. Good overall agreement (mean kappa=0.72) was found between MIP and VRT diagnoses. The agreement between MIP and VRT was considerably better than that between observers (mean kappa=0.43). One of the observers judged VRT images as having higher image quality than MIP images. Presenting renal MRA images with VRT gave results in good agreement with MIP. With VRT protocols defined from the histogram of the image, the lack of an absolute gray scale in MRI need not be a major problem.

  5. Heat Transfer Affected by Transverse Magnetic Field using 3D Modeling of Arc Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Tatsuro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru

    2016-10-01

    Gas shielded metal arc welding is used to join the various metal because this is the high quality joining technology. Thus, this welding is used for a welding of large buildings such as bridges and LNG tanks. However, the welding defect caused by the heat transfer decrement may occur with increasing the wind velocity. This is because that the convection loss increases because the arc deflects to leeward side with increasing the wind velocity. In order to prevent from the arc deflection, it is used that the transverse magnetic field is applied to the arc. However, the arc deflection occurs with increasing the transverse magnetic field excessively. The energy balance of the arc is changed with increasing the convection loss caused by the arc deflection, and the heat transfer to the anode decreases. Therefore, the analysis including the arc and anode is necessary to elucidate the heat transfer to the anode. In this paper, the heat transfer affected by the transverse magnetic field using 3D modeling of the arc plasma is elucidated. The heat transfer to the anode is calculated by using the EMTF(electromagnetic thermal fluid) simulation with increasing the transverse magnetic field. As a result, the heat transfer decreased with increasing the transverse magnetic field.

  6. Noninvasive amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating the grading and cellularity of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Lin, Yusong; Zhang, Wei; Kong, Lingfei; Wang, Lifu; Zuo, Panli; Vallines, Ignacio; Schmitt, Benjamin; Tian, Jie; Song, Xiaolei; Zhou, Jinyuan; Wang, Meiyun

    2017-01-24

    Using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging techniques to accurately evaluate the grading and cellularity of gliomas is beneficial for improving the patient outcomes. Amide proton transfer imaging is a noninvasive molecular magnetic resonance imaging technique based on chemical exchange saturation transfer mechanism that detects endogenous mobile proteins and peptides in biological tissues. Between August 2012 and November 2015, a total number of 44 patients with pathologically proven gliomas were included in this study. We compared the capability of amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging with that of noninvasive diffusion-weighted imaging and noninvasive 3-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin imaging in evaluating the grading and cellularity of gliomas. Our results reveal that amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging is a superior imaging technique to diffusion-weighted imaging and 3-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin imaging in the grading of gliomas. In addition, our results showed that the Ki-67 index correlated better with the amide proton transfer-weighted signal intensity than with the apparent diffusion coefficient value or the cerebral blood flow value in the gliomas. Amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging is a promising method for predicting the grading and cellularity of gliomas.

  7. An automated skin segmentation of Breasts in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chang, Tzu-Fang; Chang, Nai-Yun; Chang, Yeun-Chung

    2018-04-18

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is used to diagnose breast disease. Obtaining anatomical information from DCE-MRI requires the skin be manually removed so that blood vessels and tumors can be clearly observed by physicians and radiologists; this requires considerable manpower and time. We develop an automated skin segmentation algorithm where the surface skin is removed rapidly and correctly. The rough skin area is segmented by the active contour model, and analyzed in segments according to the continuity of the skin thickness for accuracy. Blood vessels and mammary glands are retained, which remedies the defect of removing some blood vessels in active contours. After three-dimensional imaging, the DCE-MRIs without the skin can be used to see internal anatomical information for clinical applications. The research showed the Dice's coefficients of the 3D reconstructed images using the proposed algorithm and the active contour model for removing skins are 93.2% and 61.4%, respectively. The time performance of segmenting skins automatically is about 165 times faster than manually. The texture information of the tumors position with/without the skin is compared by the paired t-test yielded all p < 0.05, which suggested the proposed algorithm may enhance observability of tumors at the significance level of 0.05.

  8. Automatic detection of larynx cancer from contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Trushali; Soraghan, John; Grose, Derek; MacKenzie, Kenneth; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos

    2015-03-01

    Detection of larynx cancer from medical imaging is important for the quantification and for the definition of target volumes in radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being increasingly used in RTP due to its high resolution and excellent soft tissue contrast. Manually detecting larynx cancer from sequential MRI is time consuming and subjective. The large diversity of cancer in terms of geometry, non-distinct boundaries combined with the presence of normal anatomical regions close to the cancer regions necessitates the development of automatic and robust algorithms for this task. A new automatic algorithm for the detection of larynx cancer from 2D gadoliniumenhanced T1-weighted (T1+Gd) MRI to assist clinicians in RTP is presented. The algorithm employs edge detection using spatial neighborhood information of pixels and incorporates this information in a fuzzy c-means clustering process to robustly separate different tissues types. Furthermore, it utilizes the information of the expected cancerous location for cancer regions labeling. Comparison of this automatic detection system with manual clinical detection on real T1+Gd axial MRI slices of 2 patients (24 MRI slices) with visible larynx cancer yields an average dice similarity coefficient of 0.78+/-0.04 and average root mean square error of 1.82+/-0.28 mm. Preliminary results show that this fully automatic system can assist clinicians in RTP by obtaining quantifiable and non-subjective repeatable detection results in a particular time-efficient and unbiased fashion.

  9. Maximum Entropy Approach in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Farsani, Zahra Amini; Schmid, Volker J

    2017-01-01

    In the estimation of physiological kinetic parameters from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) data, the determination of the arterial input function (AIF) plays a key role. This paper proposes a Bayesian method to estimate the physiological parameters of DCE-MRI along with the AIF in situations, where no measurement of the AIF is available. In the proposed algorithm, the maximum entropy method (MEM) is combined with the maximum a posterior approach (MAP). To this end, MEM is used to specify a prior probability distribution of the unknown AIF. The ability of this method to estimate the AIF is validated using the Kullback-Leibler divergence. Subsequently, the kinetic parameters can be estimated with MAP. The proposed algorithm is evaluated with a data set from a breast cancer MRI study. The application shows that the AIF can reliably be determined from the DCE-MRI data using MEM. Kinetic parameters can be estimated subsequently. The maximum entropy method is a powerful tool to reconstructing images from many types of data. This method is useful for generating the probability distribution based on given information. The proposed method gives an alternative way to assess the input function from the existing data. The proposed method allows a good fit of the data and therefore a better estimation of the kinetic parameters. In the end, this allows for a more reliable use of DCE-MRI. Schattauer GmbH.

  10. Strategies for Optimizing Water-Exchange Rates of Lanthanide-Based Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardena-Mahanama, Buddhima N.; Allen, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    This review describes recent advances in strategies for tuning the water-exchange rates of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Water-exchange rates play a critical role in determining the efficiency of contrast agents; consequently, optimization of water-exchange rates, among other parameters, is necessary to achieve high efficiencies. This need has resulted in extensive research efforts to modulate water-exchange rates by chemically altering the coordination environments of the metal complexes that function as contrast agents. The focus of this review is coordination-chemistry-based strategies used to tune the water-exchange rates of lanthanide(III)-based contrast agents for MRI. Emphasis will be given to results published in the 21st century, as well as implications of these strategies on the design of contrast agents. PMID:23921796

  11. Topology of magnetic flux ropes and formation of fossil flux transfer events and boundary layer plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.; Ma, Z. W.; Fu, Z. F.; Otto, A.

    1993-01-01

    A mechanism for the formation of fossil flux transfer events and the low-level boundary layer within the framework of multiple X-line reconnection is proposed. Attention is given to conditions for which the bulk of magnetic flux in a flux rope of finite extent has a simple magnetic topology, where the four possible connections of magnetic field lines are: IMF to MSP, MSP to IMF, IMF to IMF, and MSP to MSP. For a sufficient relative shift of the X lines, magnetic flux may enter a flux rope from the magnetosphere and exit into the magnetosphere. This process leads to the formation of magnetic flux ropes which contain a considerable amount of magnetosheath plasma on closed magnetospheric field lines. This process is discussed as a possible explanation for the formation of fossil flux transfer events in the magnetosphere and the formation of the low-latitude boundary layer.

  12. Magnetic nanoparticles stimulation to enhance liquid-liquid two-phase mass transfer under static and rotating magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimi, Neda; Rahimi, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Rotating magnetic field (RMF) was applied on a micromixer to break the laminar flow and induce chaotic flow to enhance mass transfer between two-immiscible organic and aqueous phases. The results of RMF were compared to those of static magnetic field (SMF). For this purpose, experiments were carried out in a T-micromixer at equal volumetric flow rates of organic and aqueous phases. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation technique and they were dissolved in organic phase. Results obtained from RMF and SMF were compared in terms of overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient (KLa) and extraction efficiency (E) at various Reynolds numbers. Generally, RMF showed higher effect in mass transfer characteristics enhancement compared with SMF. The influence of rotational speeds of magnets (ω) in RMF was investigated, and measurable enhancements of KLa and E were observed. In RMF, the effect of magnetic field induction (B) was investigated. The results reveal that at constant concentration of nanoparticles, by increasing of B, mass transfer characteristics will be enhanced. The effect of various nanoparticles concentrations (ϕ) within 0.002-0.01 (w/v) on KLa and E at maximum induction of RMF (B=76 mT) was evaluated. Maximum values of KLa (2.1±0.001) and E (0.884±0.001) were achieved for the layout of RMF (B=76 mT), ω=16 rad/s and MNPs concentration of 0.008-0.01 (w/v).

  13. Quantized spin-momentum transfer in atom-sized magnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loth, Sebastian

    2010-03-01

    Our ability to quickly access the vast amounts of information linked in the internet is owed to the miniaturization of magnetic data storage. In modern disk drives the tunnel magnetoresistance effect (TMR) serves as sensitive reading mechanism for the nanoscopic magnetic bits [1]. At its core lies the ability to control the flow of electrons with a material's magnetization. The inverse effect, spin transfer torque (STT), allows one to influence a magnetic layer by high current densities of spin-polarized electrons and carries high hopes for applications in non-volatile magnetic memory [2]. We show that equivalent processes are active in quantum spin systems. We use a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operating at low temperature and high magnetic field to address individual magnetic structures and probe their spin excitations by inelastic electron tunneling [3]. As model system we investigate transition metal atoms adsorbed to a copper nitride layer grown on a Cu crystal. The magnetic atoms on the surface possess well-defined spin states [4]. Transfer of one magnetic atom to the STM tip's apex creates spin-polarization in the probe tip. The combination of functionalized tip and surface adsorbed atom resembles a TMR structure where the magnetic layers now consist of one magnetic atom each. Spin-polarized current emitted from the probe tip not only senses the magnetic orientation of the atomic spin system, it efficiently transfers spin angular momentum and pumps the quantum spin system between the different spin states. This enables further exploration of the microscopic mechanisms for spin-relaxation and stability of quantum spin systems. [4pt] [1] Zhu and Park, Mater. Today 9, 36 (2006).[0pt] [2] Huai, AAPPS Bulletin 18, 33 (2008).[0pt] [3] Heinrich et al., Science 306, 466 (2004).[0pt] [4] Hirjibehedin et al., Science 317, 1199 (2007).

  14. North Atlantic near-surface salinity contrasts and intra-basin water vapor transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagan, J. R.; Seidov, D.; Boyer, T.

    2017-12-01

    The geographic distribution of near-surface salinity (NSS) in the North Atlantic is characterized by a very salty (>37) subtropical region contrasting with a much fresher (<35) subpolar area. Multiple studies have shown that preserving this salinity contrast is important for maintaining the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), and that changes to this salinity balance may reduce the strength of the AMOC. High subtropical salinity is primarily due to evaporation (E) dominating precipitation (P), whereas low subpolar salinity is at least partly due to precipitation dominating evaporation. Present-day understanding of the fate of water vapor in the atmosphere over the extratropical North Atlantic is that the precipitation which falls in the subpolar region primarily originates from the water vapor produced through evaporation in the subtropical North Atlantic. With this knowledge and in conjunction with a basic understanding of North Atlantic storm tracks—the main meridional transport conduits in mid and high latitudes— a preliminary time and spatial correlation analysis was completed to relate the North Atlantic decadal climatological salinity between 1985 and 2012 to the evaporation and precipitation climatologies for the same period. Preliminary results indicate that there is a clear connection between subtropical E-P and subpolar NSS. Additional results and potential implications will be presented and discussed.

  15. Magnetic particle imaging for radiation-free, sensitive and high-contrast vascular imaging and cell tracking.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyi Y; Tay, Zhi Wei; Chandrasekharan, Prashant; Yu, Elaine Y; Hensley, Daniel W; Orendorff, Ryan; Jeffris, Kenneth E; Mai, David; Zheng, Bo; Goodwill, Patrick W; Conolly, Steven M

    2018-05-10

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging ionizing radiation-free biomedical tracer imaging technique that directly images the intense magnetization of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs). MPI offers ideal image contrast because MPI shows zero signal from background tissues. Moreover, there is zero attenuation of the signal with depth in tissue, allowing for imaging deep inside the body quantitatively at any location. Recent work has demonstrated the potential of MPI for robust, sensitive vascular imaging and cell tracking with high contrast and dose-limited sensitivity comparable to nuclear medicine. To foster future applications in MPI, this new biomedical imaging field is welcoming researchers with expertise in imaging physics, magnetic nanoparticle synthesis and functionalization, nanoscale physics, and small animal imaging applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of magnetic field strength and particle aggregation on relaxivity of ultra-small dual contrast iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, Hang T.; Li, Zhen; Wu, Yuao; Cowin, Gary; Zhang, Shaohua; Yago, Anya; Whittaker, Andrew K.; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to compare the relaxivities of ultra-small dual positive and negative contrast iron oxide nanoparticles (DCION) at different magnetic field strengths ranging from 4.7 to 16.4 T at physiological temperatures; and to investigate the effect of particle aggregation on relaxivities. Relaxivities of DCIONs were determined by magnetic resonance imaging scanners at 4.7, 7, 9.4, and 16.4 T. Both longitudinal (T 1) and transverse relaxation times (T 2) were measured by appropriate spin-echo sequences. It has been found that both longitudinal and transverse relaxivities are significantly dependent on the magnetic field strength. Particle aggregation also strongly affects the relaxivities. Awareness of the field strength and particle colloid stability is crucial for the comparison and evaluation of relaxivity values of these ultra-small iron oxide nanoparticles, and also for their medical applications as contrast agents.

  17. New calcium-selective smart contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Verma, Kirti Dhingra; Forgács, Attila; Uh, Hyounsoo; Beyerlein, Michael; Maier, Martin E; Petoud, Stéphane; Botta, Mauro; Logothetis, Nikos K

    2013-12-23

    Calcium plays a vital role in the human body and especially in the central nervous system. Precise maintenance of Ca(2+) levels is very crucial for normal cell physiology and health. The deregulation of calcium homeostasis can lead to neuronal cell death and brain damage. To study this functional role played by Ca(2+) in the brain noninvasively by using magnetic resonance imaging, we have synthesized a new set of Ca(2+) -sensitive smart contrast agents (CAs). The agents were found to be highly selective to Ca(2+) in the presence of other competitive anions and cations in buffer and in physiological fluids. The structure of CAs comprises Gd(3+)-DO3A (DO3A=1,4,7-tris(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane) coupled to a Ca(2+) chelator o-amino phenol-N,N,O-triacetate (APTRA). The agents are designed to sense Ca(2+) present in extracellular fluid of the brain where its concentration is relatively high, that is, 1.2-0.8 mM. The determined dissociation constant of the CAs to Ca(2+) falls in the range required to sense and report changes in extracellular Ca(2+) levels followed by an increase in neural activity. In buffer, with the addition of Ca(2+) the increase in relaxivity ranged from 100-157%, the highest ever known for any T1-based Ca(2+)-sensitive smart CA. The CAs were analyzed extensively by the measurement of luminescence lifetime measurement on Tb(3+) analogues, nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD), and (17)O NMR transverse relaxation and shift experiments. The results obtained confirmed that the large relaxivity enhancement observed upon Ca(2+) addition is due to the increase of the hydration state of the complexes together with the slowing down of the molecular rotation and the retention of a significant contribution of the water molecules of the second sphere of hydration. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Differentiating perforated from non-perforated appendicitis on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Daniel G; Askin, Gulce; Beneck, Debra M; Kovanlikaya, Arzu

    2017-10-01

    The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in pediatric appendicitis is increasing; MRI findings predictive of appendiceal perforation have not been specifically evaluated. To assess the performance of MRI in differentiating perforated from non-perforated appendicitis. A retrospective review of pediatric patients undergoing contrast-enhanced MRI and subsequent appendectomy was performed, with surgicopathological confirmation of perforation. Appendiceal diameter and the following 10 MRI findings were assessed: appendiceal restricted diffusion, wall defect, appendicolith, periappendiceal free fluid, remote free fluid, restricted diffusion within free fluid, abscess, peritoneal enhancement, ileocecal wall thickening and ileus. Two-sample t-test and chi-square tests were used to analyze continuous and discrete data, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for individual MRI findings were calculated and optimal thresholds for measures of accuracy were selected. Seventy-seven patients (mean age: 12.2 years) with appendicitis were included, of whom 22 had perforation. The perforated group had a larger mean appendiceal diameter and mean number of MRI findings than the non-perforated group (12.3 mm vs. 8.6 mm; 5.0 vs. 2.0, respectively). Abscess, wall defect and restricted diffusion within free fluid had the greatest specificity for perforation (1.00, 1.00 and 0.96, respectively) but low sensitivity (0.36, 0.25 and 0.32, respectively). The receiver operator characteristic curve for total number of MRI findings had an area under the curve of 0.92, with an optimal threshold of 3.5. A threshold of any 4 findings had the best ability to accurately discriminate between perforated and non-perforated cases, with a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 85%. Contrast-enhanced MRI can differentiate perforated from non-perforated appendicitis. The presence of multiple findings increases diagnostic accuracy, with a threshold of any four findings optimally discriminating between

  19. Inter-Slice Blood Flow and Magnetization Transfer Effects as A New Simultaneous Imaging Strategy.

    PubMed

    Han, Paul Kyu; Barker, Jeffrey W; Kim, Ki Hwan; Choi, Seung Hong; Bae, Kyongtae Ty; Park, Sung-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The recent blood flow and magnetization transfer (MT) technique termed alternate ascending/descending directional navigation (ALADDIN) achieves the contrast using interslice blood flow and MT effects with no separate preparation RF pulse, thereby potentially overcoming limitations of conventional methods. In this study, we examined the signal characteristics of ALADDIN as a simultaneous blood flow and MT imaging strategy, by comparing it with pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) and conventional MT asymmetry (MTA) methods, all of which had the same bSSFP readout. Bloch-equation simulations and experiments showed ALADDIN perfusion signals increased with flip angle, whereas MTA signals peaked at flip angle around 45°-60°. ALADDIN provided signals comparable to those of pCASL and conventional MTA methods emulating the first, second, and third prior slices of ALADDIN under the same scan conditions, suggesting ALADDIN signals to be superposition of signals from multiple labeling planes. The quantitative cerebral blood flow signals from a modified continuous ASL model overestimated the perfusion signals compared to those measured with a pulsed ASL method. Simultaneous mapping of blood flow, MTA, and MT ratio in the whole brain is feasible with ALADDIN within a clinically reasonable time, which can potentially help diagnosis of various diseases.

  20. An anisotropic diffusion method for denoising dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Kenya; Yamazaki, Youichi; Shinohara, Masaaki; Kawakami, Kazunori; Kikuchi, Keiichi; Miki, Hitoshi; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Ikezoe, Junpei

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to present an application of a novel denoising technique for improving the accuracy of cerebral blood flow (CBF) images generated from dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI). The method presented in this study was based on anisotropic diffusion (AD). The usefulness of this method was firstly investigated using computer simulations. We applied this method to patient data acquired using a 1.5 T MR system. After a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA, we obtained 40-50 dynamic images with a 1.32-2.08 s time resolution in 4-6 slices. The dynamic images were processed using the AD method, and then the CBF images were generated using pixel-by-pixel deconvolution analysis. For comparison, the CBF images were also generated with or without processing the dynamic images using a median or Gaussian filter. In simulation studies, the standard deviation of the CBF values obtained after processing by the AD method was smaller than that of the CBF values obtained without any processing, while the mean value agreed well with the true CBF value. Although the median and Gaussian filters also reduced image noise, the mean CBF values were considerably underestimated compared with the true values. Clinical studies also suggested that the AD method was capable of reducing the image noise while preserving the quantitative accuracy of CBF images. In conclusion, the AD method appears useful for denoising DSC-MRI, which will make the CBF images generated from DSC-MRI more reliable.

  1. Contrast enhanced ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Cristiana I; Gheonea, Ioana A; Săndulescu, Larisa; Surlin, Valeriu; Săftoiu, Adrian; Dumitrescu, Daniela

    2013-12-01

    The new developments in imaging technology, including contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), allow a better diagnosis of both malignant and benign liver lesions. A retrospective trial of 126 patients was conducted in the Gastroenterology and Imaging Departments of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy Craiova, Romania. CEUS and MRI were the imaging techniques used for diagnosis of focal liver lesions (FLL), especially for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Histopathology was used only in 15 cases. For each method of investigation we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), positive and negative likelihood ratio (+LR, -LR), accuracy and we compared the ROC curves. Statistical analysis also included the Chi-square and Kappa tests. Seventy six cases were diagnosed as HCC, with average size of 5.2±3.3 cm in diameter. The sensitivity and specificity were 71.4% and 95.6% for CEUS and 91.4%, 98.9% respectively, for MRI. When comparing the ROC curves, we found a higher area under curve for MRI (0.952) then for CEUS (0.835) (p=0.005), and 95% confidence interval of 0.0343 to 0.199. No statistically significant difference in diagnosis of FLL was found between CEUS and MRI (p > 0.05) and the agreement between the two imaging techniques was good (k = 0.78). CEUS can be used as the first step in the diagnosis of liver lesions, but MRI remains the gold standard diagnostic method for liver tumors.

  2. Interferometric study on the mass transfer in cryogenic distillation under magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, S. R.; Zhang, R. P.; Y Rong, Y.; Zhi, X. Q.; Qiu, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Cryogenic distillation has long been used for the mass production of industrial gases because of its features of high efficiency, high purity, and capability to produce noble gases. It is of great theoretical and practical significance to explore methods to improve the mass transfer efficiency in cryogenic distillation. The negative correlation between the susceptibility of paramagnetic oxygen and temperature provides a new possibility of comprehensive utilization of boiling point and susceptibility differences in cryogenic distillation. Starting from this concept, we proposed a novel distillation intensifying method by using gradient magnetic field, in which the magnetic forces enhance the transport of the oxygen molecules to the liquid phase in the distillation. In this study, a cryogenic testbed was designed and fabricated to study the diffusion between oxygen and nitrogen under magnetic field. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used to visualize the concentration distribution during the diffusion process. The mass transfer characteristics with and without magnetic field, in the chamber filled with the magnetized medium, were systematically studied. The concentration redistribution of oxygen was observed, and the stable stratified diffusion between liquid oxygen and nitrogen was prolonged by the non-uniform magnetic field. The experimental results show that the magnetic field can efficiently influence the mass transfer in cryogenic distillation, which can provide a new mechanism for the optimization of air separation process.

  3. Chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI contrast in the human brain at 9.4 T.

    PubMed

    Zaiss, Moritz; Schuppert, Mark; Deshmane, Anagha; Herz, Kai; Ehses, Philipp; Füllbier, Lars; Lindig, Tobias; Bender, Benjamin; Ernemann, Ulrike; Scheffler, Klaus

    2018-06-15

    The high chemical shift separation at 9.4 T allows for selective saturation of proton pools in exchange with water protons. For the first time, highly selective and comprehensive chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) experiments were performed in the human brain at 9.4 T. This work provides insight into CEST signals in the human brain in comparison with existing animal studies, as well as with CEST effects in vivo at lower field strengths. A novel snapshot-CEST method for human brain scans at 9.4 T was optimized and employed for highly-spectrally-resolved (95 offsets) CEST measurements in healthy subjects and one brain tumor patient. Reproducibility and stability between scans was verified in grey and white matter after B 0 , B 1 , and motion correction of the acquired 3D CEST volumes. Two-step Lorentzian fitting was used to further improve separation of spectrally discernible signals to create known and novel CEST contrast maps at 9.4 T. At a saturation power of B 1  = 0.5 μT most selective CEST effects could be obtained in the human brain with high inter-scan reproducibility. While contrast behavior of previously measured signals at lower field, namely amide-, guanidyl- and NOE-CEST effects, could be reproduced, novel signals at 2.7 ppm, and -1.6 ppm could be verified in healthy subjects and in a brain tumor patient for the first time. High spectral resolution chemical exchange saturation transfer at 9.4 T allows deeper insights into the Z-spectrum structure of the human brain, and provides many different contrasts showing different correlations in healthy tissue and in tumor-affected areas of the brain, generating hypotheses for future investigations of in-vivo-CEST at UHF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Acoustic dipole radiation based electrical impedance contrast imaging approach of magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaodong; Fang, Dawei; Zhang, Dong; Ma, Qingyu

    2013-05-01

    Different from the theory of acoustic monopole spherical radiation, the acoustic dipole radiation based theory introduces the radiation pattern of Lorentz force induced dipole sources to describe the principle of magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI). Although two-dimensional (2D) simulations have been studied for cylindrical phantom models, layer effects of the dipole sources within the entire object along the z direction still need to be investigated to evaluate the performance of MAT-MI for different geometric specifications. The purpose of this work is further verifying the validity and generality of acoustic dipole radiation based theory for MAT-MI with two new models in different shapes, dimensions, and conductivities. Based on the theory of acoustic dipole radiation, the principles of MAT-MI were analyzed with derived analytic formulae. 2D and 3D numerical studies for two new models of aluminum foil and cooked egg were conducted to simulate acoustic pressures and corresponding waveforms, and 2D images of the scanned layers were reconstructed with the simplified back projection algorithm for the waveforms collected around the models. The spatial resolution for conductivity boundary differentiation was also analyzed with different foil thickness. For comparison, two experimental measurements were conducted for a cylindrical aluminum foil phantom and a shell-peeled cooked egg. The collected waveforms and the reconstructed images of the scanned layers were achieved to verify the validation of the acoustic dipole radiation based theory for MAT-MI. Despite the difference between the 2D and 3D simulated pressures, good consistence of the collected waveforms proves that wave clusters are generated by the abrupt pressure changes with bipolar vibration phases, representing the opposite polarities of the conductivity changes along the measurement direction. The configuration of the scanned layer can be reconstructed in terms of shape and size, and

  5. Synchrotron phase-contrast X-ray imaging reveals fluid dosing dynamics for gene transfer into mouse airways.

    PubMed

    Donnelley, M; Siu, K K W; Jamison, R A; Parsons, D W

    2012-01-01

    Although airway gene transfer research in mouse models relies on bolus fluid dosing into the nose or trachea, the dynamics and immediate fate of delivered gene transfer agents are poorly understood. In particular, this is because there are no in vivo methods able to accurately visualize the movement of fluid in small airways of intact animals. Using synchrotron phase-contrast X-ray imaging, we show that the fate of surrogate fluid doses delivered into live mouse airways can now be accurately and non-invasively monitored with high spatial and temporal resolution. This new imaging approach can help explain the non-homogenous distributions of gene expression observed in nasal airway gene transfer studies, suggests that substantial dose losses may occur at deliver into mouse trachea via immediate retrograde fluid motion and shows the influence of the speed of bolus delivery on the relative targeting of conducting and deeper lung airways. These findings provide insight into some of the factors that can influence gene expression in vivo, and this method provides a new approach to documenting and analyzing dose delivery in small-animal models.

  6. Conditionally activating optical contrast agent with enhanced sensitivity via gold nanoparticle plasmon energy transfer: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung Aih; Wang, Jianting

    2014-12-07

    Molecular sensing/imaging utilizing fluorophores has been one of the most frequently used techniques in biomedical research. As for any molecular imaging techniques, fluorescence mediated sensing always seeks for greater specificity and sensitivity. Since fluorophores emit fluorescence while their electron energy state changes, manipulating the local electromagnetic field around the fluorophores may be a way to enhance the specificity and sensitivity. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are known to form a very strong electromagnetic field on their surface [i.e., surface plasmon field (SPF)], upon receiving photonic energy. The level of fluorescence change by GNP-SPF may range from complete quenching to extensive enhancement, depending upon the SPF strength, excitation and emission wavelengths, and quantum yield of the fluorophore. Here, we report a novel design that utilizes BOTH fluorescence quenching and enhancement abilities of the GNP in one single nano-entity, providing high specificity and sensitivity. The construct utilizes a specially designed molecular dual-spacer that places the fluorphore at the location with an appropriate GNP-SFP strength before and after exposed to the biomarker. A model system to test the concept was an optical signal mediator activated by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA; breast cancer secreting enzyme). The resulting contrast agent shows less than 10% of the natural fluorescence but, in the presence of uPA, its fluorescence emission is triggered and emits its fluorescence approximately twice of the natural form. This study demonstrated that our novel design of an optical contrast agent can be conditionally activated with enhanced sensitivity, using both quenching and enhancement phenomena of fluorophores in the electromagnetic field of the appropriate strengths (in this case, locally generated by the GNP-SPF). This entity is similar to molecular beacon in terms of specificity but with greater sensitivity. In addition, it is not

  7. Water Vapor Transfer and Near-Surface Salinity Contrasts in the North Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Reagan, James; Seidov, Dan; Boyer, Tim

    2018-06-11

    Maintaining North Atlantic (NA) intra-basin near-surface salinity (NSS) contrast between the high NSS (>37.0) in the subtropical NA (STNA) and low NSS (<35.0) in the subpolar NA (SPNA) has been shown to be important in sustaining the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Evaporation (E) exceeding precipitation (P) in the STNA is primarily responsible for the high NSS there, whereas P dominating E in the SPNA contributes to its low NSS. With a basic understanding of NA intra-basin moisture transport, a correlation analysis was conducted between E-P/NSS over the NA subpolar gyre (SPG) and E-P across the rest of the NA over the 1985-2012 time period. Significant anti-correlations exist between E-P/NSS over the NA SPG and E-P over the central/northern STNA. This suggests that during times of high E over the central/northern STNA there is high (low) precipitation (NSS) over the SPG demonstrating a relationship likely exists between E over the STNA and NSS over the SPG. The maximum anti-correlated area is poleward of the maximum E-P location in the STNA, which is examined. These results provide a first step to ultimately utilizing NSS in the NA as a proxy for estimating changes in the hydrological cycle.

  8. Ultrasmall cationic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as nontoxic and efficient MRI contrast agent and magnetic-targeting tool

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Mayara Klimuk; Toma, Sergio Hiroshi; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes; Shimada, Ana Lucia Borges; Loiola, Rodrigo Azevedo; Cervantes Rodríguez, Hernán Joel; Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano; Luz, Maciel Santos; Rabbani, Said Rahnamaye; Toma, Henrique Eisi; Poliselli Farsky, Sandra Helena; Araki, Koiti

    2015-01-01

    Fully dispersible, cationic ultrasmall (7 nm diameter) superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, exhibiting high relaxivity (178 mM−1s−1 in 0.47 T) and no acute or subchronic toxicity in Wistar rats, were studied and their suitability as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging and material for development of new diagnostic and treatment tools demonstrated. After intravenous injection (10 mg/kg body weight), they circulated throughout the vascular system causing no microhemorrhage or thrombus, neither inflammatory processes at the mesentery vascular bed and hepatic sinusoids (leukocyte rolling, adhesion, or migration as evaluated by intravital microscopy), but having been spontaneously concentrated in the liver, spleen, and kidneys, they caused strong negative contrast. The nanoparticles are cleared from kidneys and bladder in few days, whereas the complete elimination from liver and spleen occurred only after 4 weeks. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that cationic ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles caused no effects on hepatic and renal enzymes dosage as well as on leukocyte count. In addition, they were readily concentrated in rat thigh by a magnet showing its potential as magnetically targeted carriers of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Summarizing, cationic ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are nontoxic and efficient magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents useful as platform for the development of new materials for application in theranostics. PMID:26251595

  9. Three-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for anterolateral thigh flap outlining: A retrospective case series of 68 patients.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chunjing; Lin, Ping; Fu, Xiaoyan; Shu, Jiner; Li, Huimin; Hu, Xiaogang; He, Jianrong; Ding, Mingxing

    2016-08-01

    Flap transfer is increasingly used for repairing limb defects secondary to trauma or tumor, and appropriate preoperative planning plays a critical role. The present study aimed to examine the use of three-dimensional (3D) contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) in evaluating the blood supply distribution and perforating branch pattern of anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps. Bilateral donor lower limbs were scanned in 68 patients (136 limbs) using a Siemens Avanto 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 3D fast low-angle shot sequence, following the thin-slab maximum intensity projection (TS-MIP) technique. The lateral femoral circumflex artery (LFCA) was visualized in all patients: 101 limbs (101/136, 74.3%) were type I; 20 limbs (20/136, 14.7%) were type II; 3 limbs (3/136, 2.2%) were type III; and 12 limbs (12/136, 8.8%) were type IV. Tertiary branches were identified in 94 limbs (94/136, 69.1%). Donor flaps were outlined according to MRA TS-MIP findings in 4 patients. All flaps survived uneventfully following the transfer. In donor flap outlining, 3D CE-MRA with the TS-MIP technique allowed an accurate, direct visualization of the branching pattern and distribution profile of the LFCA supplying the ALT flap.

  10. Low Thermal Loss Cryogenic Transfer Line with Magnetic Suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Quan-Sheng; Cheng, Guangfeng; Yu, Kun; Hull, John R.; Demko, Jonathan A.; Britcher, Colin P.; Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stan D.

    2004-06-01

    An energy efficient, cost effective cryogenic distribution system (up to several miles) is crucial for spaceport and in-space cryogenic systems. The conduction heat loss from the supports that connect the cold inner lines to the warm support structure is ultimately the most serious heat leak after thermal radiation has been minimized. The use of magnetic levitation by permanent magnets and high temperature superconductors provides support without mechanical contact and thus, the conduction part of the heat leak can be reduced to zero. A stop structure is carefully designed to hold the center tube when the system is warm. The novel design will provide the potential of extending many missions by saving cryogens, or reducing the overall launch mass.

  11. ENERGY TRANSFERS IN THREE-FREQUENCY CIRCUITS WITH MAGNETIC COUPLING,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    core are studied. Rules are given to determine the type of nonlinear characteristic needed to make energy transfers possible for given frequency...combinations. General energy relations of the Manley Rowe type are discussed, examining the validity and limitations of these relations for the practical...case where the frequency ratios are not irrational. Examples of the use of the analysis are given for oscillators, subringers and amplifiers with a variety of frequency ratios. (Author)

  12. Integrated information storage and transfer with a coherent magnetic device

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ning; Banchi, Leonardo; Bayat, Abolfazl; Dong, Guangjiong; Bose, Sougato

    2015-01-01

    Quantum systems are inherently dissipation-less, making them excellent candidates even for classical information processing. We propose to use an array of large-spin quantum magnets for realizing a device which has two modes of operation: memory and data-bus. While the weakly interacting low-energy levels are used as memory to store classical information (bits), the high-energy levels strongly interact with neighboring magnets and mediate the spatial movement of information through quantum dynamics. Despite the fact that memory and data-bus require different features, which are usually prerogative of different physical systems – well isolation for the memory cells, and strong interactions for the transmission – our proposal avoids the notorious complexity of hybrid structures. The proposed mechanism can be realized with different setups. We specifically show that molecular magnets, as the most promising technology, can implement hundreds of operations within their coherence time, while adatoms on surfaces probed by a scanning tunneling microscope is a future possibility. PMID:26347152

  13. Dynamics of paramagnetic agents by off-resonance rotating frame technique in the presence of magnetization transfer effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huiming; Xie, Yang

    2007-02-01

    The simple method for measuring the rotational correlation time of paramagnetic ion chelates via off-resonance rotating frame technique is challenged in vivo by the magnetization transfer effect. A theoretical model for the spin relaxation of water protons in the presence of paramagnetic ion chelates and magnetization transfer effect is described. This model considers the competitive relaxations of water protons by the paramagnetic relaxation pathway and the magnetization transfer pathway. The influence of magnetization transfer on the total residual z-magnetization has been quantitatively evaluated in the context of the magnetization map and various difference magnetization profiles for the macromolecule conjugated Gd-DTPA in cross-linked protein gels. The numerical simulations and experimental validations confirm that the rotational correlation time for the paramagnetic ion chelates can be measured even in the presence of strong magnetization transfer. This spin relaxation model also provides novel approaches to enhance the detection sensitivity for paramagnetic labeling by suppressing the spin relaxations caused by the magnetization transfer. The inclusion of the magnetization transfer effect allows us to use the magnetization map as a simulation tool to design efficient paramagnetic labeling targeting at specific tissues, to design experiments running at low RF power depositions, and to optimize the sensitivity for detecting paramagnetic labeling. Thus, the presented method will be a very useful tool for the in vivo applications such as molecular imaging via paramagnetic labeling.

  14. Diagnosing upper extremity deep vein thrombosis with non-contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Direct Thrombus Imaging: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dronkers, C E A; Klok, F A; van Haren, G R; Gleditsch, J; Westerlund, E; Huisman, M V; Kroft, L J M

    2018-03-01

    Diagnosing upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) can be challenging. Compression ultrasonography is often inconclusive because of overlying anatomic structures that hamper compressing veins. Contrast venography is invasive and has a risk of contrast allergy. Magnetic Resonance Direct Thrombus Imaging (MRDTI) and Three Dimensional Turbo Spin-echo Spectral Attenuated Inversion Recovery (3D TSE-SPAIR) are both non-contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequences that can visualize a thrombus directly by the visualization of methemoglobin, which is formed in a fresh blood clot. MRDTI has been proven to be accurate in diagnosing deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the leg. The primary aim of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of diagnosing UEDVT with these MRI techniques. MRDTI and 3D TSE-SPAIR were performed in 3 pilot patients who were already diagnosed with UEDVT by ultrasonography or contrast venography. In all patients, UEDVT diagnosis could be confirmed by MRDTI and 3D TSE-SPAIR in all vein segments. In conclusion, this study showed that non-contrast MRDTI and 3D TSE-SPAIR sequences may be feasible tests to diagnose UEDVT. However diagnostic accuracy and management studies have to be performed before these techniques can be routinely used in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased optical contrast in imaging of epidermal growth factor receptor using magnetically actuated hybrid gold/iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, Jesse S.; Oh, Junghwan; Larson, Timothy A.; Kumar, Sonia; Milner, Thomas E.; Sokolov, Konstantin V.

    2006-12-01

    We describe a new approach for optical imaging that combines the advantages of molecularly targeted plasmonic nanoparticles and magnetic actuation. This combination is achieved through hybrid nanoparticles with an iron oxide core surrounded by a gold layer. The nanoparticles are targeted in-vitro to epidermal growth factor receptor, a common cancer biomarker. The gold portion resonantly scatters visible light giving a strong optical signal and the superparamagnetic core provides a means to externally modulate the optical signal. The combination of bright plasmon resonance scattering and magnetic actuation produces a dramatic increase in contrast in optical imaging of cells labeled with hybrid gold/iron oxide nanoparticles.

  16. Electric-field responsive contrast agent based on liquid crystals and magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mair, Lamar O.; Martinez-Miranda, Luz J.; Kurihara, Lynn K.; Nacev, Aleksandar; Hilaman, Ryan; Chowdhury, Sagar; Jafari, Sahar; Ijanaten, Said; da Silva, Claudian; Baker-McKee, James; Stepanov, Pavel Y.; Weinberg, Irving N.

    2018-05-01

    The properties of liquid crystal-magnetic nanoparticle composites have potential for sensing in the body. We study the response of a liquid crystal-magnetic nanoparticle (LC-MNP) composite to applied potentials of hundreds of volts per meter. Measuring samples using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and imaging composites using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we demonstrate that electric potentials applied across centimeter scale LC-MNP composite samples can be detected using XRD and MRI techniques.

  17. Gadolinium chelate coated gold nanoparticles as contrast agents for both X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Alric, Christophe; Taleb, Jacqueline; Le Duc, Géraldine; Mandon, Céline; Billotey, Claire; Le Meur-Herland, Alice; Brochard, Thierry; Vocanson, Francis; Janier, Marc; Perriat, Pascal; Roux, Stéphane; Tillement, Olivier

    2008-05-07

    Functionalized gold nanoparticles were applied as contrast agents for both in vivo X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging. These particles were obtained by encapsulating gold cores within a multilayered organic shell which is composed of gadolinium chelates bound to each other through disulfide bonds. The contrast enhancement in MRI stems from the presence of gadolinium ions which are entrapped in the organic shell, whereas the gold core provides a strong X-ray absorption. This study revealed that these particles suited for dual modality imaging freely circulate in the blood vessels without undesirable accumulation in the lungs, spleen, and liver.

  18. Contrast Media for X-ray and Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Development, Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Thomas; Lawaczeck, Rüdiger; Taupitz, Matthias; Jost, Gregor; Lohrke, Jessica; Sieber, Martin A; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 120 years, the extensive advances in medical imaging allowed enhanced diagnosis and therapy of many diseases and thereby improved the quality of life of many patient generations. From the beginning, all technical solutions and imaging procedures were combined with dedicated pharmaceutical developments of contrast media, to further enhance the visualization of morphology and physiology. This symbiosis of imaging hardware and contrast media development was of high importance for the development of modern clinical radiology. Today, all available clinically approved contrast media fulfill the highest requirements for clinical safety and efficacy. All new concepts to increase the efficacy of contrast media have also to consider the high clinical safety standards and cost of goods of current marketed contrast media. Nevertheless, diagnostic imaging will contribute significantly to the progresses in medicine, and new contrast media developments are mandatory to address the medical needs of the future.

  19. An abnormal periventricular magnetization transfer ratio gradient occurs early in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Brown, J William L; Pardini, Matteo; Brownlee, Wallace J; Fernando, Kryshani; Samson, Rebecca S; Prados Carrasco, Ferran; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T

    2017-02-01

    In established multiple sclerosis, tissue abnormality-as assessed using magnetization transfer ratio-increases close to the lateral ventricles. We aimed to determine whether or not (i) these changes are present from the earliest clinical stages of multiple sclerosis; (ii) they occur independent of white matter lesions; and (iii) they are associated with subsequent conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis and disability. Seventy-one subjects had MRI scanning a median of 4.6 months after a clinically isolated optic neuritis (49 females, mean age 33.5 years) and were followed up clinically 2 and 5 years later. Thirty-seven healthy controls (25 females, mean age 34.4 years) were also scanned. In normal-appearing white matter, magnetization transfer ratio gradients were measured 1-5 mm and 6-10 mm from the lateral ventricles. In control subjects, magnetization transfer ratio was highest adjacent to the ventricles and decreased with distance from them; in optic neuritis, normal-appearing white matter magnetization transfer ratio was lowest adjacent to the ventricles, increased over the first 5 mm, and then paralleled control values. The magnetization transfer ratio gradient over 1-5 mm differed significantly between the optic neuritis and control groups [+0.059 percentage units/mm (pu/mm) versus -0.033 pu/mm, P = 0.010], and was significantly steeper in those developing clinically definite multiple sclerosis within 2 years compared to those who did not (0.132 pu/mm versus 0.016 pu/mm, P = 0.020). In multivariate binary logistic regression the magnetization transfer ratio gradient was independently associated with the development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis within 2 years (magnetization transfer ratio gradient odds ratio 61.708, P = 0.023; presence of T 2 lesions odds ratio 8.500, P = 0.071). At 5 years, lesional measures overtook magnetization transfer ratio gradients as significant predictors of conversion to multiple sclerosis. The

  20. Imaging biological tissues with electrical conductivity contrast below 1 S m−1 by means of magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Gang; Li, Xu; He, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is a recently introduced imaging modality for noninvasive electrical impedance imaging, with ultrasound imaging resolution and a contrast reflecting the electrical conductivity properties of tissues. However, previous MAT-MI systems can only image samples that are much more conductive than real human or animal tissues. To image real biological tissue samples, a large-current-carrying coil that can give stronger magnetic stimulations and stronger MAT-MI acoustic signals is employed in this study. The conductivity values of all the tissue samples employed in this study are also directly measured using a well calibrated four-electrode system. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility to image biological tissues with electrical conductivity contrast below 1.0 S∕m using the MAT-MI technique with safe level of electromagnetic energy applied to tissue samples. PMID:20938494

  1. Imaging biological tissues with electrical conductivity contrast below 1 S m-1 by means of magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Gang; Li, Xu; He, Bin

    2010-09-01

    Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is a recently introduced imaging modality for noninvasive electrical impedance imaging, with ultrasound imaging resolution and a contrast reflecting the electrical conductivity properties of tissues. However, previous MAT-MI systems can only image samples that are much more conductive than real human or animal tissues. To image real biological tissue samples, a large-current-carrying coil that can give stronger magnetic stimulations and stronger MAT-MI acoustic signals is employed in this study. The conductivity values of all the tissue samples employed in this study are also directly measured using a well calibrated four-electrode system. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility to image biological tissues with electrical conductivity contrast below 1.0 S/m using the MAT-MI technique with safe level of electromagnetic energy applied to tissue samples.

  2. The physical mechanism of "inhomogeneous" magnetization transfer MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Alan P.; Chang, Kimberley L.; MacKay, Alex L.; Michal, Carl A.

    2017-01-01

    Inhomogeneous MT (ihMT) is a new magnetic resonance imaging technique that shows promise for myelin selectivity. Materials with a high proportion of lipids, such as white matter tissue, show a reduced intensity in magnetic resonance images acquired with selective prepulses at positive and negative offsets simultaneously compared to images with a single positive or negative offset prepulse of the same power. This effect was initially explained on the basis of hole-burning in inhomogeneously broadened lines of the lipid proton spin system. Our results contradict this explanation. ihMT in lipids can be understood with a simple spin-1 model of a coupled methylene proton pair. More generally, Provotorov theory can be used to consider the evolution of dipolar order in the non-aqueous spins during the prepulses. We show that the flip-angle dependence of the proton spectrum of a model lipid system (Prolipid-161) following dipolar order generation is in quantitative agreement with the model. In addition, we directly observe dipolar order and ihMT signals in the non-aqueous components of Prolipid-161 and homogeneously-broadened systems (hair, wood, and tendon) following ihMT prepulses. The observation of ihMT signals in tendon suggests that the technique may not be as specific to myelin as previously thought. Our work shows that ihMT occurs because of dipolar couplings alone, not from a specific type of spectral line broadening as its name suggests.

  3. Measurement of renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging during septic acute kidney injury: a pilot investigation.

    PubMed

    Prowle, John R; Molan, Maurice P; Hornsey, Emma; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2012-06-01

    In septic patients, decreased renal perfusion is considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury. However, the accurate measurement of renal blood flow in such patients is problematic and invasive. We sought to overcome such obstacles by measuring renal blood flow in septic patients with acute kidney injury using cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Pilot observational study. University-affiliated general adult intensive care unit. Ten adult patients with established septic acute kidney injury and 11 normal volunteers. Cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging measurement of renal blood flow and cardiac output. The median age of the study patients was 62.5 yrs and eight were male. At the time of magnetic resonance imaging, eight patients were mechanically ventilated, nine were on continuous hemofiltration, and five required vasopressors. Cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging examinations were carried out without complication. Median renal blood flow was 482 mL/min (range 335-1137) in septic acute kidney injury and 1260 mL/min (range 791-1750) in healthy controls (p = .003). Renal blood flow indexed to body surface area was 244 mL/min/m2 (range 165-662) in septic acute kidney injury and 525 mL/min/m2 (range 438-869) in controls (p = .004). In patients with septic acute kidney injury, median cardiac index was 3.5 L/min/m2 (range 1.6-8.7), and median renal fraction of cardiac output was only 7.1% (range 4.4-10.8). There was no rank correlation between renal blood flow index and creatinine clearance in patients with septic acute kidney injury (r = .26, p = .45). Cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging can be used to noninvasively and safely assess renal perfusion during critical illness in man. Near-simultaneous accurate measurement of cardiac output enables organ blood flow to be assessed in the context of the global circulation. Renal blood flow seems consistently reduced as a fraction of cardiac output in

  4. Effects of magnetic fields on improving mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Gui, Keting; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of magnetic fields on improving the mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed are investigated in the paper. In this research, the magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) is used as the reactor in which ferromagnetic particles are fluidized with simulated flue gas under the influence of an external magnetic field. Lime slurry is continuously sprayed into the reactor. As a consequence, the desulfurization reaction and the slurry drying process take place simultaneously in the MFB. In this paper, the effects of ferromagnetic particles and external magnetic fields on the desulphurization efficiency are studied and compared with that of quartz particles as the fluidized particles. Experimental results show that the ferromagnetic particles not only act as a platform for lime slurry to precipitate on like quartz particles, but also take part in the desulfurization reaction. The results also show that the specific surface area of ferromagnetic particles after reaction is enlarged as the magnetic intensity increases, and the external magnetic field promotes the oxidation of S(IV), improving the mass transfer between sulphur and its sorbent. Hence, the efficiency of desulphurization under the effects of external magnetic fields is higher than that in general fluidized beds.

  5. Magnetically Recoverable Supported Ruthenium Catalyst for Hydrogenation of Alkynes and Transfer Hydrogenation of Carbonyl Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    A ruthenium (Ru) catalyst supported on magnetic nanoparticles (NiFe2O4) has been successfully synthesized and used for hydrogenation of alkynes at room temperature as well as transfer hydrogenation of a number of carbonyl compounds under microwave irradiation conditions. The cata...

  6. Iterative optimization method for design of quantitative magnetization transfer imaging experiments.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Ives R; Sled, John G; Pike, G Bruce

    2011-09-01

    Quantitative magnetization transfer imaging (QMTI) using spoiled gradient echo sequences with pulsed off-resonance saturation can be a time-consuming technique. A method is presented for selection of an optimum experimental design for quantitative magnetization transfer imaging based on the iterative reduction of a discrete sampling of the Z-spectrum. The applicability of the technique is demonstrated for human brain white matter imaging at 1.5 T and 3 T, and optimal designs are produced to target specific model parameters. The optimal number of measurements and the signal-to-noise ratio required for stable parameter estimation are also investigated. In vivo imaging results demonstrate that this optimal design approach substantially improves parameter map quality. The iterative method presented here provides an advantage over free form optimal design methods, in that pragmatic design constraints are readily incorporated. In particular, the presented method avoids clustering and repeated measures in the final experimental design, an attractive feature for the purpose of magnetization transfer model validation. The iterative optimal design technique is general and can be applied to any method of quantitative magnetization transfer imaging. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Practical application of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance mammography [CE-MRM] by an algorithm combining morphological and enhancement patterns.

    PubMed

    Potente, Giuseppe; Messineo, Daniela; Maggi, Claudia; Savelli, Sara

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to report our practical utilization of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance mammography [DCE-MRM] in the diagnosis of breast lesions. In many European centers, was preferred a high-temporal acquisition of both breasts simultaneously in a large FOV. We preferred to scan single breasts, with the aim to combine the analysis of the contrast intake and washout with the morphological evaluation of breast lesions. We followed an interpretation model, based upon a diagnostic algorithm, which combined contrast enhancement with morphological evaluation, in order to increase our confidence in diagnosis. DCE-MRM with our diagnostic algorithm has identified 179 malignant and 41 benign lesions; final outcome has identified 178 malignant and 42 benign lesions, 3 false positives and 2 false negatives. Sensitivity of CE-MRM was 98.3%; specificity, 95.1%; positive predictive value, 98.9%; negative predictive value, 92.8% and accuracy, 97.7%.

  8. The Impact of Injector-Based Contrast Agent Administration on Bolus Shape and Magnetic Resonance Angiography Image Quality.

    PubMed

    Jost, Gregor; Endrikat, Jan; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2017-01-01

    To compare injector-based contrast agent (CA) administration with hand injection in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Gadobutrol was administered in 6 minipigs with 3 protocols: (a) hand injection (one senior technician), (b) hand injection (6 less-experienced technicians), and (c) power injector administration. The arterial bolus shape was quantified by test bolus measurements. A head and neck MRA was performed for quantitative and qualitative comparison of signal enhancement. A significantly shorter time to peak was observed for protocol C, whereas no significant differences between protocols were found for peak height and bolus width. However, for protocol C, these parameters showed a much lower variation. The MRA revealed a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio for injector-based administration. A superimposed strong contrast of the jugular vein was found in 50% of the hand injections. Injector-based CA administration results in a more standardized bolus shape, a higher vascular contrast, and a more robust visualization of target vessels.

  9. Amide proton transfer imaging with improved robustness to magnetic field inhomogeneity and magnetization transfer asymmetry using Saturation with Frequency Alternating RF Irradiation (SAFARI)

    PubMed Central

    Scheidegger, Rachel; Vinogradov, Elena; Alsop, David C

    2011-01-01

    Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging has shown promise as an indicator of tissue pH and as a marker for brain tumors. Sources of error in APT measurements include direct water saturation, and magnetization transfer (MT) from membranes and macromolecules. These are typically suppressed by post-processing asymmetry analysis. However, this approach is strongly dependent on B0 homogeneity and can introduce additional errors due to intrinsic MT asymmetry, aliphatic proton features opposite the amide peak, and radiation damping-induced asymmetry. Although several methods exist to correct for B0 inhomogeneity, they tremendously increase scan times and do not address errors induced by asymmetry of the z-spectrum. In this paper, a novel saturation scheme - saturation with frequency alternating RF irradiation (SAFARI) - is proposed in combination with a new magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) parameter designed to generate APT images insensitive to direct water saturation and MT, even in the presence of B0 inhomogeneity. The feasibility of the SAFARI technique is demonstrated in phantoms and in the human brain. Experimental results show that SAFARI successfully removes direct water saturation and MT contamination from APT images. It is insensitive to B0 offsets up to 180Hz without using additional B0 correction, thereby dramatically reducing scanning time. PMID:21608029

  10. Controlling the column spacing in isothermal magnetic advection to enable tunable heat and mass transfer.

    DOE PAGES

    Solis, Kyle Jameson; Martin, James E.

    2012-11-01

    Isothermal magnetic advection is a recently discovered method of inducing highly organized, non-contact flow lattices in suspensions of magnetic particles, using only uniform ac magnetic fields of modest strength. The initiation of these vigorous flows requires neither a thermal gradient nor a gravitational field and so can be used to transfer heat and mass in circumstances where natural convection does not occur. These advection lattices are comprised of a square lattice of antiparallel flow columns. If the column spacing is sufficiently large compared to the column length, and the flow rate within the columns is sufficiently large, then one wouldmore » expect efficient transfer of both heat and mass. Otherwise, the flow lattice could act as a countercurrent heat exchanger and only mass will be efficiently transferred. Although this latter case might be useful for feeding a reaction front without extracting heat, it is likely that most interest will be focused on using IMA for heat transfer. In this paper we explore the various experimental parameters of IMA to determine which of these can be used to control the column spacing. These parameters include the field frequency, strength, and phase relation between the two field components, the liquid viscosity and particle volume fraction. We find that the column spacing can easily be tuned over a wide range, to enable the careful control of heat and mass transfer.« less

  11. Influence of ultrasound induced cavitation on magnetic resonance imaging contrast in the rat liver in the presence of macromolecular contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Frulio, Nora; Trillaud, Hervé; Deckers, Roel; Lepreux, Sébastien; Moonen, Chrit; Quesson, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    Local drug delivery by ultrasound (US)-induced cavitation is a promising strategy for increasing the drug concentration at the target location and for decreasing the systemic toxicity effects. The presence of microbubbles during sonication at the targeted location improves the likelihood for cavitation that can be exploited to increase the capillary permeability. The objective of this work was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast changes in hepatic tissue in vivo, induced by US-triggered cavitation and destruction of microbubbles (Sonovue), in the presence of a coinjected blood pool MRI contrast agent (Vistarem) used as a reporter macromolecule. The potential tissue damage induced by microbubbles destruction was also evaluated by histology. The change in the hepatic distribution of the macromolecular MRI contrast agent associated with cavitation was monitored at 1.5 T with a look-locker fast inversion recovery sequence to map the longitudinal relaxation rates, before and during 1 hour after intravenous administration of Vistarem and Sonovue. In 1 group of rats (n = 5), these microbubbles were immediately destroyed with a clinical echograph, using a high mechanical index (MI = 1.5) at low frequency (2 MHz). The control group (n = 7) received identical injections without application of US. The parametric relaxation rate images were computed, and the changes in time were analyzed to account for the potential effect of microbubble destruction by US on the permeability of the hepatic vessels. The animals were killed 1 day after the experiment for routine histology of the liver. For both groups of animals, after an initial increase, a transient decay of the longitudinal relaxation rate was observed, followed by a constant plateau after 20 minutes. The analysis of the mean relaxation rates in the liver showed significant (P < 0.01) higher values for the group with destruction of microbubbles as compared with the control group. The US

  12. Magnetic field concentration using ferromagnetic material to propel a wireless power transfer based micro-robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongwook; Park, Bumjin; Park, Jaehyoung; Park, Hyun Ho; Ahn, Seungyoung

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel coil structure, using a ferromagnetic material which concentrates the magnetic field, as the propulsion system of a wireless power transfer (WPT) based micro-robot. This structure uses an incident magnetic field to induce current during wireless power transfer, to generate a Lorentz force. To prevent net cancelation of the Lorentz force in the load coil, ferrite films were applied to one side of the coil segment. The demonstrated simplicity and effectiveness of the proposed micro-robot showed its suitability for applications. Simulation and experimental results confirmed a velocity of 1.02 mm/s with 6 mW power transfer capacity for the 3 mm sized micro-robot.

  13. Myocardial blood flow estimates from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: three quantitative methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrazzo, Cristian; Galea, Nicola; Pacilio, Massimiliano; Altabella, Luisa; Preziosi, Enrico; Carnì, Marco; Ciolina, Federica; Vullo, Francesco; Francone, Marco; Catalano, Carlo; Carbone, Iacopo

    2018-02-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging can be used to quantitatively assess the myocardial blood flow (MBF), recovering the tissue impulse response function for the transit of a gadolinium bolus through the myocardium. Several deconvolution techniques are available, using various models for the impulse response. The method of choice may influence the results, producing differences that have not been deeply investigated yet. Three methods for quantifying myocardial perfusion have been compared: Fermi function modelling (FFM), the Tofts model (TM) and the gamma function model (GF), with the latter traditionally used in brain perfusion MRI. Thirty human subjects were studied at rest as well as under cold pressor test stress (submerging hands in ice-cold water), and a single bolus of gadolinium weighing 0.1  ±  0.05 mmol kg-1 was injected. Perfusion estimate differences between the methods were analysed by paired comparisons with Student’s t-test, linear regression analysis, and Bland-Altman plots, as well as also using the two-way ANOVA, considering the MBF values of all patients grouped according to two categories: calculation method and rest/stress conditions. Perfusion estimates obtained by various methods in both rest and stress conditions were not significantly different, and were in good agreement with the literature. The results obtained during the first-pass transit time (20 s) yielded p-values in the range 0.20-0.28 for Student’s t-test, linear regression analysis slopes between 0.98-1.03, and R values between 0.92-1.01. From the Bland-Altman plots, the paired comparisons yielded a bias (and a 95% CI)—expressed as ml/min/g—for FFM versus TM, -0.01 (-0.20, 0.17) or 0.02 (-0.49, 0.52) at rest or under stress respectively, for FFM versus GF, -0.05 (-0.29, 0.20) or  -0.07 (-0.55, 0.41) at rest or under stress, and for TM versus GF, -0.03 (-0.30, 0.24) or  -0.09 (-0.43, 0.26) at rest or under stress. With the

  14. Validation of Perfusion Quantification with 3D Gradient Echo Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using a Blood Pool Contrast Agent in Skeletal Swine Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hindel, Stefan; Sauerbrey, Anika; Maaß, Marc; Maderwald, Stefan; Schlamann, Marc; Lüdemann, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to validate perfusion quantification in a low-perfused tissue by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with shared k-space sampling using a blood pool contrast agent. Perfusion measurements were performed in a total of seven female pigs. An ultrasonic Doppler probe was attached to the right femoral artery to determine total flow in the hind leg musculature. The femoral artery was catheterized for continuous local administration of adenosine to increase blood flow up to four times the baseline level. Three different stable perfusion levels were induced. The MR protocol included a 3D gradient-echo sequence with a temporal resolution of approximately 1.5 seconds. Before each dynamic sequence, static MR images were acquired with flip angles of 5°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Both static and dynamic images were used to generate relaxation rate and baseline magnetization maps with a flip angle method. 0.1 mL/kg body weight of blood pool contrast medium was injected via a central venous catheter at a flow rate of 5 mL/s. The right hind leg was segmented in 3D into medial, cranial, lateral, and pelvic thigh muscles, lower leg, bones, skin, and fat. The arterial input function (AIF) was measured in the aorta. Perfusion of the different anatomic regions was calculated using a one- and a two-compartment model with delay- and dispersion-corrected AIFs. The F-test for model comparison was used to decide whether to use the results of the one- or two-compartment model fit. Total flow was calculated by integrating volume-weighted perfusion values over the whole measured region. The resulting values of delay, dispersion, blood volume, mean transit time, and flow were all in physiologically and physically reasonable ranges. In 107 of 160 ROIs, the blood signal was separated, using a two-compartment model, into a capillary and an arteriolar signal contribution, decided by the F-test. Overall flow in hind leg muscles, as measured by the

  15. Regional analysis of the magnetization transfer ratio of the brain in mild Alzheimer disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Mascalchi, M; Ginestroni, A; Bessi, V; Toschi, N; Padiglioni, S; Ciulli, S; Tessa, C; Giannelli, M; Bracco, L; Diciotti, S

    2013-01-01

    Manually drawn VOI-based analysis shows a decrease in magnetization transfer ratio in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer disease. We investigated with whole-brain voxelwise analysis the regional changes of the magnetization transfer ratio in patients with mild Alzheimer disease and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Twenty patients with mild Alzheimer disease, 27 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 30 healthy elderly control subjects were examined with high-resolution T1WI and 3-mm-thick magnetization transfer images. Whole-brain voxelwise analysis of magnetization transfer ratio maps was performed by use of Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software and was supplemented by the analysis of the magnetization transfer ratio in FreeSurfer parcellation-derived VOIs. Voxelwise analysis showed 2 clusters of significantly decreased magnetization transfer ratio in the left hippocampus and amygdala and in the left posterior mesial temporal cortex (fusiform gyrus) of patients with Alzheimer disease as compared with control subjects but no difference between patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and either patients with Alzheimer disease or control subjects. VOI analysis showed that the magnetization transfer ratio in the hippocampus and amygdala was significantly lower (bilaterally) in patients with Alzheimer disease when compared with control subjects (ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, at P < .05). Mean magnetization transfer ratio values in the hippocampus and amygdala in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment were between those of healthy control subjects and those of patients with mild Alzheimer disease. Support vector machine-based classification demonstrated improved classification performance after inclusion of magnetization transfer ratio-related features, especially between patients with Alzheimer disease versus healthy subjects. Bilateral but asymmetric decrease of magnetization transfer ratio reflecting

  16. Spin and Magnetism: Two Transfer Matrix Formulations of a Classical Heisenberg Ring in a Magnetic Field.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    determination of the partition function could be attempted. According to Gatteschi et al, however, [Ref. 15] when commenting on the quantum mechanical...1995 15. Gatteschi , D. et al, "Large Clusters of Metal Ions: The Transition from Molecular to Bulk Magnets" Science vol. 265, pp. 1054-1058, August... Gatteschi , D. et al, "Spin Dynamics in Mesoscopic Size Magnetic Systems... ", Phys. Rev. B, vol. 55, no. 21, 01 June, 1997 18. Tejeda, J. etal, "Quantum

  17. Nitroxide-Based Macromolecular Contrast Agents with Unprecedented Transverse Relaxivity and Stability for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Metal-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents could overcome the established toxicity associated with metal-based agents in some patient populations and enable new modes of functional MRI in vivo. Herein, we report nitroxide-functionalized brush-arm star polymer organic radical contrast agents (BASP-ORCAs) that overcome the low contrast and poor in vivo stability associated with nitroxide-based MRI contrast agents. As a consequence of their unique nanoarchitectures, BASP-ORCAs possess per-nitroxide transverse relaxivities up to ∼44-fold greater than common nitroxides, exceptional stability in highly reducing environments, and low toxicity. These features combine to provide for accumulation of a sufficient concentration of BASP-ORCA in murine subcutaneous tumors up to 20 h following systemic administration such that MRI contrast on par with metal-based agents is observed. BASP-ORCAs are, to our knowledge, the first nitroxide MRI contrast agents capable of tumor imaging over long time periods using clinical high-field 1H MRI techniques. PMID:28776023

  18. Gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast agents at 7 Tesla: in vitro T1 relaxivities in human blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris M; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Juras, Vladimír; Kraff, Oliver; Ladd, Mark E; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2010-09-01

    PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the T1 relaxivities (r1) of 8 gadolinium (Gd)-based MR contrast agents in human blood plasma at 7 Tesla, compared with 3 Tesla. Eight commercially available Gd-based MR contrast agents were diluted in human blood plasma to concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mmol/L. In vitro measurements were performed at 37 degrees C, on a 7 Tesla and on a 3 Tesla whole-body magnetic resonance imaging scanner. For the determination of T1 relaxation times, Inversion Recovery Sequences with inversion times from 0 to 3500 ms were used. The relaxivities were calculated. The r1 relaxivities of all agents, diluted in human blood plasma at body temperature, were lower at 7 Tesla than at 3 Tesla. The values at 3 Tesla were comparable to those published earlier. Notably, in some agents, a minor negative correlation of r1 with a concentration of up to 2 mmol/L could be observed. This was most pronounced in the agents with the highest protein-binding capacity. At 7 Tesla, the in vitro r1 relaxivities of Gd-based contrast agents in human blood plasma are lower than those at 3 Tesla. This work may serve as a basis for the application of Gd-based MR contrast agents at 7 Tesla. Further studies are required to optimize the contrast agent dose in vivo.

  19. Large magnetic to electric field contrast in azimuthally polarized vortex beams generated by a metasurface (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veysi, Mehdi; Guclu, Caner; Capolino, Filippo

    2015-09-01

    We investigate azimuthally E-polarized vortex beams with enhanced longitudinal magnetic field. Ideally, such beams possess strong longitudinal magnetic field on the beam axis where there is no electric field. First we formulate the electric field vector and the longitudinal magnetic field of an azimuthally E-polarized beam as an interference of right- and left-hand circularly polarized Laguerre Gaussian (LG) beams carrying the orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of -1 and +1, respectively. Then we propose a metasurface design that is capable of converting a linearly polarized Gaussian beam into an azimuthally E-polarized vortex beam with longitudinal magnetic field. The metasurface is composed of a rectangular array of double-layer double split-ring slot elements, though other geometries could be adopted as well. The element is specifically designed to have nearly a 180° transmission phase difference between the two polarization components along two orthogonal axes, similar to the optical axes of a half-wave plate. By locally rotating the optical axes of each metasurface element, the transmission phase profile of the circularly polarized waves over the metasurface can be tailored. Upon focusing of the generated vortex beam through a lens with a numerical aperture of 0.7, a 41-fold enhancement of the magnetic to electric field ratio is achieved on the beam axis with respect to that of a plane wave. Generation of beams with large magnetic field to electric field contrast can find applications in future spectroscopy systems based on magnetic dipole transitions, which are usually much weaker than electric dipole transitions.

  20. In Vitro Longitudinal Relaxivity Profile of Gd(ABE-DTTA), an Investigational Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent

    PubMed Central

    Varga-Szemes, Akos; Kiss, Pal; Rab, Andras; Suranyi, Pal; Lenkey, Zsofia; Simor, Tamas; Bryant, Robert G.; Elgavish, Gabriel A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose MRI contrast agents (CA) whose contrast enhancement remains relatively high even at the higher end of the magnetic field strength range would be desirable. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate such a desired magnetic field dependency of the longitudinal relaxivity for an experimental MRI CA, Gd(ABE-DTTA). Materials and Methods The relaxivity of 0.5mM and 1mM Gd(ABE-DTTA) was measured by Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Dispersion (NMRD) in the range of 0.0002 to 1T. Two MRI and five NMR instruments were used to cover the range between 1.5 to 20T. Parallel measurement of a Gd-DTPA sample was performed throughout as reference. All measurements were carried out at 37°C and pH 7.4. Results The relaxivity values of 0.5mM and 1mM Gd(ABE-DTTA) measured at 1.5, 3, and 7T, within the presently clinically relevant magnetic field range, were 15.3, 11.8, 12.4 s-1mM-1 and 18.1, 16.7, and 13.5 s-1mM-1, respectively. The control 4 mM Gd-DTPA relaxivities at the same magnetic fields were 3.6, 3.3, and 3.0 s-1mM-1, respectively. Conclusions The longitudinal relaxivity of Gd(ABE-DTTA) measured within the presently clinically relevant field range is three to five times higher than that of most commercially available agents. Thus, Gd(ABE-DTTA) could be a practical choice at any field strength currently used in clinical imaging including those at the higher end. PMID:26872055

  1. Liver enhancement in healthy dogs after gadoxetic acid administration during dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Borusewicz, P; Stańczyk, E; Kubiak, K; Spużak, J; Glińska-Suchocka, K; Jankowski, M; Nicpoń, J; Podgórski, P

    2018-05-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) consists of acquisition of native baseline images, followed by a series of acquisitions performed during and after administration of a contrast medium. DCE-MRI, in conjunction with hepatobiliary-specific contrast media, such as gadoxetic acid (GD-EOB-DTPA), allows for precise characterisation of the enhancement pattern of the hepatic parenchyma following administration of the contrast agent. The aim of the study was to assess the pattern of temporal resolution contrast enhancement of the hepatic parenchyma following administration of GD-EOB-DTPA and to determine the optimal time window for post-contrast assessment of the liver. The study was carried out on eight healthy beagle dogs. MRI was performed using a 1.5T scanner. The imaging protocol included T1 weighted (T1-W) gradient echo (GRE), T2 weighted (T2-W) turbo spin echo (TSE) and dynamic T1-W GRE sequences. The dynamic T1-W sequence was performed using single 10mm thick slices. Regions of interest (ROIs) were chosen and the signal intensity curves were calculated for quantitative image analysis. The mean time to peak for all dogs was 26min. The plateau phase lasted on average 21min. A gradual decrease in the signal intensity of the hepatic parenchyma was observed in all dogs. A DCE-MRI enhancement pattern of the hepatic parenchyma was evident in dogs following the administration of a GD-EOB-DTPA, establishing baseline data for an optimal time window between 26 and 41min after administration of the contrast agent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Studying the Transfer of Magnetic Helicity in Solar Active Regions with the Connectivity-based Helicity Flux Density Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmasse, K.; Pariat, É.; Valori, G.; Jing, J.; Démoulin, P.

    2018-01-01

    In the solar corona, magnetic helicity slowly and continuously accumulates in response to plasma flows tangential to the photosphere and magnetic flux emergence through it. Analyzing this transfer of magnetic helicity is key for identifying its role in the dynamics of active regions (ARs). The connectivity-based helicity flux density method was recently developed for studying the 2D and 3D transfer of magnetic helicity in ARs. The method takes into account the 3D nature of magnetic helicity by explicitly using knowledge of the magnetic field connectivity, which allows it to faithfully track the photospheric flux of magnetic helicity. Because the magnetic field is not measured in the solar corona, modeled 3D solutions obtained from force-free magnetic field extrapolations must be used to derive the magnetic connectivity. Different extrapolation methods can lead to markedly different 3D magnetic field connectivities, thus questioning the reliability of the connectivity-based approach in observational applications. We address these concerns by applying this method to the isolated and internally complex AR 11158 with different magnetic field extrapolation models. We show that the connectivity-based calculations are robust to different extrapolation methods, in particular with regard to identifying regions of opposite magnetic helicity flux. We conclude that the connectivity-based approach can be reliably used in observational analyses and is a promising tool for studying the transfer of magnetic helicity in ARs and relating it to their flaring activity.

  3. Magnetization reversal in ferromagnetic thin films induced by spin-orbit interaction with Slonczewski-like spin transfer torque

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jia, E-mail: lijia@wipm.ac.cn

    2014-10-07

    We theoretically investigate the dynamics of magnetization in ferromagnetic thin films induced by spin-orbit interaction with Slonczewski-like spin transfer torque. We reproduce the experimental results of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy films by micromagnetic simulation. Due to the spin-orbit interaction, the magnetization can be switched by changing the direction of the current with the assistant of magnetic field. By increasing the current amplitude, wider range of switching events can be achieved. Time evolution of magnetization has provided us a clear view of the process, and explained the role of minimum external field. Slonczewski-like spin transfer torque modifies the magnetization when current ismore » present. The magnitude of the minimum external field is determined by the strength of the Slonczewski-like spin transfer torque. The investigations may provide potential applications in magnetic memories.« less

  4. Heat and momentum transfer for magnetoconvection in a vertical external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zürner, Till; Liu, Wenjun; Krasnov, Dmitry; Schumacher, Jörg

    2016-11-01

    The scaling theory of Grossmann and Lohse for the turbulent heat and momentum transfer is extended to the magnetoconvection case in the presence of a (strong) vertical magnetic field. The comparison with existing laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations in the quasistatic limit allows to restrict the parameter space to very low Prandtl and magnetic Prandtl numbers and thus to reduce the number of unknown parameters in the model. Also included is the Chandrasekhar limit for which the outer magnetic induction field B is large enough such that convective motion is suppressed and heat is transported by diffusion. Our theory identifies four distinct regimes of magnetoconvection which are distinguished by the strength of the outer magnetic field and the level of turbulence in the flow, respectively. LIMTECH Research Alliance and Research Training Group GK 1567 on Lorentz Force Velocimetry, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  5. Phase gradient imaging for positive contrast generation to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-labeled targets in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haitao; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Sekino, Masaki

    2011-09-01

    Positive contrast imaging methods produce enhanced signal at large magnetic field gradient in magnetic resonance imaging. Several postprocessing algorithms, such as susceptibility gradient mapping and phase gradient mapping methods, have been applied for positive contrast generation to detect the cells targeted by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. In the phase gradient mapping methods, smoothness condition has to be satisfied to keep the phase gradient unwrapped. Moreover, there has been no discussion about the truncation artifact associated with the algorithm of differentiation that is performed in k-space by the multiplication with frequency value. In this work, phase gradient methods are discussed by considering the wrapping problem when the smoothness condition is not satisfied. A region-growing unwrapping algorithm is used in the phase gradient image to solve the problem. In order to reduce the truncation artifact, a cosine function is multiplied in the k-space to eliminate the abrupt change at the boundaries. Simulation, phantom and in vivo experimental results demonstrate that the modified phase gradient mapping methods may produce improved positive contrast effects by reducing truncation or wrapping artifacts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Highly stable silica-coated manganese ferrite nanoparticles as high-efficacy T2 contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Ashfaq; Bae, Hongsub; Rhee, Ilsu

    2018-05-01

    Highly stable silica-coated manganese ferrite nanoparticles were fabricated for application as magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) contrast agents. The manganese ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized using a hydrothermal technique and coated with silica. The particle size was investigated using transmission electron microscopy and was found to be 40-60 nm. The presence of the silica coating on the particle surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction, and the particles were revealed to have an inverse spinel structure. Superparamagnetism was confirmed by the magnetic hysteresis curves obtained using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The efficiency of the MRI contrast agents was investigated by using aqueous solutions of the particles in a 4.7 T MRI scanner. The T1 and T2 relaxivities of the particles were 1.42 and 60.65 s-1 mM-1, respectively, in water. The ratio r2/r1 was 48.91, confirming that the silica-coated manganese ferrite nanoparticles were suitable high-efficacy T2 contrast agents.

  7. Nano-sized Contrast Agents to Non-Invasively Detect Renal Inflammation by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, Joshua M.; Serkova, Natalie J.

    2013-01-01

    Several molecular imaging methods have been developed that employ nano-sized contrast agents to detect markers of inflammation within tissues. Renal inflammation contributes to disease progression in a wide range of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and a biopsy is currently the only method of definitively diagnosing active renal inflammation. However, the development of new molecular imaging methods that employ contrast agents capable of detecting particular immune cells or protein biomarkers will allow clinicians to evaluate inflammation throughout the kidneys, and to assess a patient's response to immunomodulatory drugs. These imaging tools will improve our ability to validate new therapies and to optimize the treatment of individual patients with existing therapies. This review describes the clinical need for new methods of monitoring renal inflammation, and recent advances in the development of nano-sized contrast agents for detection of inflammatory markers of renal disease. PMID:24206601

  8. In vivo magnetization transfer and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging detects thrombus composition in a mouse model of deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Phinikaridou, Alkystis; Andia, Marcelo E; Saha, Prakash; Modarai, Bijan; Smith, Alberto; Botnar, René M

    2013-05-01

    Deep vein thrombosis remains a major health problem necessitating accurate diagnosis. Thrombolysis is associated with significant morbidity and is effective only for the treatment of unorganized thrombus. We tested the feasibility of in vivo magnetization transfer (MT) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to detect thrombus organization in a murine model of deep vein thrombosis. Deep vein thrombosis was induced in the inferior vena cava of male BALB/C mice. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after thrombus induction using MT, diffusion-weighted, inversion-recovery, and T1-mapping protocols. Delayed enhancement and T1 mapping were repeated 2 hours after injection of a fibrin contrast agent. Finally, excised thrombi were used for histology. We found that MT and diffusion-weighted imaging can detect histological changes associated with thrombus aging. MT rate (MTR) maps and percentage of MT rate (%MTR) allowed visualization and quantification of the thrombus protein content, respectively. The %MTR increased with thrombus organization and was significantly higher at days 14, 21, and 28 after thrombus induction (days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28: %MTR=2483±451, 2079±1210, 7029±2490, 10 295±4356, 32 994±25 449; PANOVA<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the %MTR and the histological protein content of the thrombus (r=0.70; P<0.05). The apparent diffusion coefficient was lower in erythrocyte-rich and collagen-rich thrombus (0.72±0.10 and 0.69±0.05 [×10(-3) mm(2)/s]). Thrombus at days 7 and 14 had the highest apparent diffusion coefficient values (0.95±0.09 and 1.10±0.18 [×10(-3) mm(2)/s]). MT and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences are promising for the staging of thrombus composition and could be useful in guiding medical intervention.

  9. Optimal design of implants for magnetically mediated hyperthermia: A wireless power transfer approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Hans-Dieter; Sarris, Costas D.

    2017-09-01

    In magnetically mediated hyperthermia (MMH), an externally applied alternating magnetic field interacts with a mediator (such as a magnetic nanoparticle or an implant) inside the body to heat up the tissue in its proximity. Producing heat via induced currents in this manner is strikingly similar to wireless power transfer (WPT) for implants, where power is transferred from a transmitter outside of the body to an implanted receiver, in most cases via magnetic fields as well. Leveraging this analogy, a systematic method to design MMH implants for optimal heating efficiency is introduced, akin to the design of WPT systems for optimal power transfer efficiency. This paper provides analytical formulas for the achievable heating efficiency bounds as well as the optimal operating frequency and the implant material. Multiphysics simulations validate the approach and further demonstrate that optimization with respect to maximum heating efficiency is accompanied by minimizing heat delivery to healthy tissue. This is a property that is highly desirable when considering MMH as a key component or complementary method of cancer treatment and other applications.

  10. Magnetization transfer proportion: a simplified measure of dose response for polymer gel dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Heather M; Gochberg, Daniel F; Gore, John C

    2008-12-21

    The response to radiation of polymer gel dosimeters has most often been described by measuring the nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation rate as a function of dose. This approach is highly dependent upon the choice of experimental parameters, such as the echo spacing time for Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill-type pulse sequences, and is difficult to optimize in imaging applications where a range of doses are applied to a single gel, as is typical for practical uses of polymer gel dosimetry. Moreover, errors in computing dose can arise when there are substantial variations in the radiofrequency (B1) field or resonant frequency, as may occur for large samples. Here we consider the advantages of using magnetization transfer imaging as an alternative approach and propose the use of a simplified quantity, the magnetization transfer proportion (MTP), to assess doses. This measure can be estimated through two simple acquisitions and is more robust in the presence of some sources of system imperfections. It also has a dependence upon experimental parameters that is independent of dose, allowing simultaneous optimization at all dose levels. The MTP is shown to be less susceptible to B1 errors than are CPMG measurements of R2. The dose response can be optimized through appropriate choices of the power and offset frequency of the pulses used in magnetization transfer imaging.

  11. Preclinical evaluation of biodegradable macromolecular contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yi

    Macromolecular contrast agents have been shown to be superior to small molecular weight contrast agents for MRI in blood pool imaging, tumor diagnosis and grading. However, none has been approved by the FDA because they circulate in the bloodstream much longer than small molecular weight contrast agents and result in high tissue accumulation of toxic Gd(III) ions. Biodegradable macromolecular contrast agents (BMCA) were invented to alleviate the toxic accumulation. They have a cleavable disulfide bond based backbone that can be degraded in vivo and excreted out of the body via renal filtration. Furthermore, the side chain of the backbone can be modified to achieve various degradation rates. Three BMCA, (Gd-DTPA)-cystamine copolymers (GDCC), Gd-DTPA cystine copolymers (GDCP), and Gd-DTPA cystine diethyl ester copolymers (GDCEP), were evaluated as blood pool contrast agents in a rat model. They have excellent blood pool enhancement, preferred pharmacokinetics, and only minimal long-term tissue retention of toxic Gd(III) ions. GDCC and GDCP, the lead agents with desired degradation rates, with molecular weights of 20 KDa and 70 KDa, were chosen for dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) to differentiate human prostate tumor models of different malignancy and growth rates. GDCC and GDCP could differentiate these tumor models, providing more accurate estimations of plasma volume, flow leakage rate, and permeability surface area product than a small molecular weight contrast agent Gd-DTPA-BMA when compared to the prototype macromolecular contrast agent albumin-Gd-DTPA. GDCC was favored for its neutral charge side chain and reasonable uptake rate by the tumors. GDCC with a molecular weight of 40 KDa (GDCC-40, above the renal filtration cutoff size) was used to assess the efficacy of two photothermal therapies (interstitial and indocyanine green enhanced). GDCC-40 provided excellent tumor enhancement shortly after its injection. Acute tumor response (4 hr) after therapies

  12. Magnetically Suspended Linear Pulse Motor for Semiconductor Wafer Transfer in Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moriyama, Shin-Ichi; Hiraki, Naoji; Watanabe, Katsuhide; Kanemitsu, Yoichi

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a magnetically suspended linear pulse motor for a semiconductor wafer transfer robot in a vacuum chamber. The motor can drive a wafer transfer arm horizontally without mechanical contact. In the construction of the magnetic suspension system, four pairs of linear magnetic bearings for the lift control are used for the guidance control as well. This approach allows us to make the whole motor compact in size and light in weight. The tested motor consists of a double-sided stator and a transfer arm with a width of 50 mm and a total length of 700 mm. The arm, like a ladder in shape, is designed as the floating element with a tooth width of 4 mm (a tooth pitch of 8 mm). The mover mass is limited to about 1.6 kg by adopting such an arm structure, and the ratio of thrust to mover mass reaches to 3.2 N/kg under a broad air gap (1 mm) between the stator teeth and the mover teeth. The performance testing was carried out with a transfer distance less than 450 mm and a transfer speed less than 560 mm/s. The attitude of the arm was well controlled by the linear magnetic bearings with a combined use, and consequently the repeatability on the positioning of the arm reached to about 2 micron. In addition, the positioning accuracy was improved up to about 30 micron through a compensation of the 128-step wave current which was used for the micro-step drive with a step increment of 62.5 micron.

  13. Use of gadolinium chloride as a contrast agent for imaging spruce knots by magnetic resonance

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chi-Leung So; Amy H. Herlihy; Po-Wah So

    2006-01-01

    Treatments of knot-containing spruce wood blocks with a paramagnetic salt, gadolinium (III) chloride, in combination with solvent pretreatments, were evaluated as strategies to enhance the visualization of wood features by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Initial experiments with clear wood and excised knot samples showed differences in moisture uptake after...

  14. Ni-Fe2O4 nanoparticles as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Tanveer; Rhee, Ilsu; Hong, Sungwook; Chang, Yongmin; Lee, Jaejun

    2011-07-01

    Reported herein is the synthesis of a dextran coating on nickel ferrite (Ni-Fe2O4) nanoparticles via chemical coprecipitation. The aqueous solution of the synthesized nanoparticles showed good colloidal stability, and no precipitate was observed 20 months after the synthesis. The coated nanoparticles were found to be cylindrical in shape in the TEM images, and showed a uniform size distribution with an average length and diameter of 17 and 4 nm, respectively. The coated particles were evaluated as potential T1 and T2 contrast agents for MRI. The T1 and T2 relaxations of the hydrogen protons in the water molecules in an aqueous solution of dextran-coated Ni-Fe2O4 nanoparticles were studied. It was found that the T1 relaxivity for the aqueous solution of dextran-coated nanoparticles was slightly greater than that of a commercial Gd-DTPA-BMA contrast agent. The T2 relaxivity, however, was almost twice that of the commercial Gd-DTPA-BMA contrast agent. Animal experimentation also demonstrated that the dextran-coated Ni-Fe2O4 nanoparticles are suitable for use as either T1 or T2 contrast agents in MRI.

  15. Review of heat transfer problems associated with magnetically-confined fusion reactor concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.A.; Werner, R.W.; Carlson, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    Conceptual design studies of possible fusion reactor configurations have revealed a host of interesting and sometimes extremely difficult heat transfer problems. The general requirements imposed on the coolant system for heat removal of the thermonuclear power from the reactor are discussed. In particular, the constraints imposed by the fusion plasma, neutronics, structure and magnetic field environment are described with emphasis on those aspects which are unusual or unique to fusion reactors. Then the particular heat transfer characteristics of various possible coolants including lithium, flibe, boiling alkali metals, and helium are discussed in the context of these general fusion reactor requirements.more » Some specific areas where further experimental and/or theoretical work is necessary are listed for each coolant along with references to the pertinent research already accomplished. Specialized heat transfer problems of the plasma injection and removal systems are also described. Finally, the challenging heat transfer problems associated with the superconducting magnets are reviewed, and once again some of the key unsolved heat transfer problems are enumerated.« less

  16. Oscillatory noncollinear magnetism induced by interfacial charge transfer in superlattices composed of metallic oxides

    DOE PAGES

    Hoffman, Jason D.; Kirby, Brian J.; Kwon, Jihwan; ...

    2016-11-22

    Interfaces between correlated complex oxides are promising avenues to realize new forms of magnetism that arise as a result of charge transfer, proximity effects, and locally broken symmetries. We report on the discovery of a noncollinear magnetic structure in superlattices of the ferromagnetic metallic oxide La 2/3Sr 1/3MnO 3 (LSMO) and the correlated metal LaNiO 3 (LNO). The exchange interaction between LSMO layers is mediated by the intervening LNO, such that the angle between the magnetization of neighboring LSMO layers varies in an oscillatory manner with the thickness of the LNO layer. The magnetic field, temperature, and spacer thickness dependencemore » of the noncollinear structure are inconsistent with the bilinear and biquadratic interactions that are used to model the magnetic structure in conventional metallic multilayers. A model that couples the LSMO layers to a helical spin state within the LNO fits the observed behavior. We propose that the spin-helix results from the interaction between a spatially varying spin susceptibility within the LNO and interfacial charge transfer that creates localized Ni 2+ states. In conclusion, our work suggests a new approach to engineering noncollinear spin textures in metallic oxide heterostructures.« less

  17. Nanofluid flow and heat transfer due to a stretching cylinder in the presence of magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashorynejad, H. R.; Sheikholeslami, M.; Pop, I.; Ganji, D. D.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, flow and heat transfer of a nanofluid over a stretching cylinder in the presence of magnetic field has been investigated. The governing partial differential equations with the corresponding boundary conditions are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations with the appropriate boundary conditions using similarity transformation, which is then solved numerically by the fourth order Runge-Kutta integration scheme featuring a shooting technique. Different types of nanoparticles as copper (Cu), silver (Ag), alumina (Al2O3) and titanium oxide (TiO2) with water as their base fluid has been considered. The influence of significant parameters such as nanoparticle volume fraction, nanofluids type, magnetic parameter and Reynolds number on the flow and heat transfer characteristics is discussed. It was found that the Nusselt number increases as each of Reynolds number or nanoparticles volume fraction increase, but it decreases as magnetic parameter increase. Also it can be found that choosing copper (for small of magnetic parameter) and alumina (for large values of magnetic parameter) leads to the highest cooling performance for this problem.

  18. Unsteady Magnetized Flow and Heat Transfer of a Viscoelastic fluid over a Stretching Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sushil Kumar

    2017-12-01

    This paper is to study the flow of heated ferro-fluid over a stretching sheet under the influence of magnetic field. The fluid considered in the present investigation is a mixture of blood as well as fluid-dispersed magnetic nano particles and under this context blood is found to be the appropriate choice of viscoelastic, Walter's B fluid. The objective of the present work is to study the effect of various parameters found in the mathematical analysis. Taking into account the blood has zero electrical conductivity, magnetization effect has been considered in the governing equation of the present study with the use of ferro-fluid dynamics principle. By introducing appropriate non-dimensional variables into the governing equations of unsteady two-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid with heat transfer are converted to a set of ordinary differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions. Newton's linearization technique has been employed for the solution of non-linear ordinary differential equations. Important results found in the present investigation are the substantial influence of ferro-magnetic parameter, Prandlt number and the parameter associated with the thermal conductivity on the flow and heat transfer. It is observed that the presence of magnetic dipole essentially reduces the flow velocity in the vertical direction and that helps to damage the cancer cells in the tumor region.

  19. Severe Acute Cardiopulmonary Failure Related to Gadobutrol Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Reaction: Successful Resuscitation With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Guru, Pramod K; Bohman, J Kyle; Fleming, Chad J; Tan, Hon L; Sanghavi, Devang K; De Moraes, Alice Gallo; Barsness, Gregory W; Wittwer, Erica D; King, Bernard F; Arteaga, Grace M; Flick, Randall; Schears, Gregory J

    2016-03-01

    Nonanaphylactic noncardiogenic pulmonary edema leading to cardiorespiratory arrest related to the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent gadobutrol has rarely been reported in the literature. Rarer is the association of hypokalemia with acidosis. We report 2 patients who had severe pulmonary edema associated with the use of gadobutrol contrast in the absence of other inciting agents or events. These cases were unique not only for their rare and severe presentations but also because they exemplified the increasing role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in resuscitation. Emergency extracorporeal membrane oxygenation resuscitation can be rapidly initiated and successful in the setting of a well-organized workflow, and it is a viable alternative and helps improve patient outcome in cases refractory to conventional resuscitative measures. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Practical use and pitfalls of hepatocyte-specific contrast agents (HSCAs) for pediatric hepatic and biliary magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ayyala, Rama S; Anupindi, Sudha A; Callahan, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is commonly used to evaluate for hepatic and biliary pathology in the pediatric population. Recently, there has been increased use of hepatocyte-specific contrast agents (HSCAs), such as Gadoxetate disodium in children. Traditionally, HSCAs have been used to characterize focal liver lesions. However, these agents can also be used to problem solve specific hepatic or biliary diagnostic dilemmas. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the practical uses of HSCA in children with both hepatic and biliary indications, and review the corresponding imaging findings. We will highlight the diagnostic uses of HSCA in children, as well as pitfalls encountered.

  1. Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Differentiating Between Primary Tumor, Metastatic Node and Normal Tissue in Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liangliang; Ye, Yufeng; Chen, Hanwei; Chen, Shihui; Jiang, Jinzhao; Dan, Guo; Huang, Bingsheng

    2018-06-01

    To study the difference of the Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters among the primary tumor, metastatic node and peripheral normal tissue of head and neck cancer. Consecutive newly-diagnosed head and neck cancer patients with nodal metastasis between December 2010 and July 2013 were recruited, and 25 patients (8 females; 24~63,mean 43±11 years old) were enrolled. DCE-MRI was performed in the primary tumor region including the regional lymph nodes on a 3.0-T MRI system. Three quantitative parameters: Ktrans (volume transfer constant), ve (volume fraction of extravascular extracellular space) and kep (the rate constant of contrast transfer) were calculated for the largest node. A repeated-measure ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction and post hoc tests using the Bonferroni correction were used to evaluate the differences in Ktrans, ve and kep among primary tumors, metastatic nodes and normal tissue. The values of both Ktrans and ve of normal tissue differed significantly from those of nodes (both P < 0.001) and primary tumors (both P < 0.001) respectively, while no significant differences of Ktrans and ve were observed between nodes and primary tumors (P = 0.075 and 0.365 respectively). The kep values of primary tumors were significantly different from those of nodes (P = 0.001) and normal tissue (P = 0.002), while no significant differences between nodes and normal tissue (P > 0.999). The DCE-MRI parameters were different in the tumors, metastatic nodes and normal tissue in head and neck cancer. These findings may be useful in the characterization of head and neck cancer.

  2. Magnetic force microscopy/current contrast imaging: A new technique for internal current probing of ICs

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A.N.; Cole, E.I. Jr.; Dodd, B.A.

    This invited paper describes recently reported work on the application of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) to image currents in IC conductors [1]. A computer model for MFM imaging of IC currents and experimental results demonstrating the ability to determine current direction and magnitude with a resolution of {approximately} 1 mA dc and {approximately} 1 {mu}A ac are presented. The physics of MFM signal generation and applications to current imaging and measurement are described.

  3. A voxel based comparative analysis using magnetization transfer imaging and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in progressive supranuclear palsy

    PubMed Central

    Sandhya, Mangalore; Saini, Jitender; Pasha, Shaik Afsar; Yadav, Ravi; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Aims: In progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) tissue damage occurs in specific cortical and subcortical regions. Voxel based analysis using T1-weighted images depict quantitative gray matter (GM) atrophy changes. Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging depicts qualitative changes in the brain parenchyma. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether MT imaging could indicate abnormalities in PSP. Settings and Design: A total of 10 patients with PSP (9 men and 1 woman) and 8 controls (5 men and 3 women) were studied with T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 3DMT imaging. Voxel based analysis of T1-weighted MRI was performed to investigate brain atrophy while MT was used to study qualitative abnormalities in the brain tissue. We used SPM8 to investigate group differences (with two sample t-test) using the GM and white matter (WM) segmented data. Results: T1-weighted imaging and MT are equally sensitive to detect changes in GM and WM in PSP. Magnetization transfer ratio images and magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition of gradient echo revealed extensive bilateral volume and qualitative changes in the orbitofrontal, prefrontal cortex and limbic lobe and sub cortical GM. The prefrontal structures involved were the rectal gyrus, medial, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG). The anterior cingulate, cingulate gyrus and lingual gyrus of limbic lobe and subcortical structures such as caudate, thalamus, insula and claustrum were also involved. Cerebellar involvement mainly of anterior lobe was also noted. Conclusions: The findings suggest that voxel based MT imaging permits a whole brain unbiased investigation of central nervous system structural integrity in PSP. PMID:25024571

  4. Coherent population transfer in multilevel systems with magnetic sublevels. II. Algebraic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J.; Shore, B. W.; Bergmann, K.

    1995-07-01

    We extend previous theoretical work on coherent population transfer by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage for states involving nonzero angular momentum. The pump and Stokes fields are either copropagating or counterpropagating with the corresponding linearly polarized electric-field vectors lying in a common plane with the magnetic-field direction. Zeeman splitting lifts the magnetic sublevel degeneracy. We present an algebraic analysis of dressed-state properties to explain the behavior noted in numerical studies. In particular, we discuss conditions which are likely to lead to a failure of complete population transfer. The applied strategy, based on simple methods of linear algebra, will also be successful for other types of discrete multilevel systems, provided the rotating-wave and adiabatic approximation are valid.

  5. A contrast and registration template for magnetic resonance image data guided dental implant placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggers, Georg; Cosgarea, Raluca; Rieker, Marcus; Kress, Bodo; Dickhaus, Hartmut; Mühling, Joachim

    2009-02-01

    An oral imaging template was developed to address the shortcomings of MR image data for image guided dental implant planning and placement. The template was conctructed as a gadolinium filled plastic shell to give contrast to the dentition and also to be accurately re-attachable for use in image guided dental implant placement. The result of segmentation and modelling of the dentition from MR Image data with the template was compared to plaster casts of the dentition. In a phantom study dental implant placement was performed based on MR image data. MR imaging with the contrast template allowed complete representation of the existing dentition. In the phantom study, a commercially available system for image guided dental implant placement was used. Transformation of the imaging contrast template into a surgical drill guide based on the MR image data resulted in pilot burr hole placement with an accuracy of 2 mm. MRI based imaging of the existing dentition for proper image guided planning is possible with the proposed template. Using the image data and the template resulted in less accurate pilot burr hole placement in comparison to CT-based image guided implant placement.

  6. Passive shielding effect on space profile of magnetic field emissions for wireless power transfer to vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Batra, T., E-mail: tba@et.aau.dk; Schaltz, E.

    2015-05-07

    Magnetic fields emitted by wireless power transfer systems are of high importance with respect to human safety and health. Aluminum and ferrite are used in the system to reduce the fields and are termed as passive shielding. In this paper, the influence of these materials on the space profile has been investigated with the help of simulations on Comsol for the four possible geometries—no shielding, ferrite, aluminum, and full shielding. As the reflected impedance varies for the four geometries, the primary current is varied accordingly to maintain constant power transfer to the secondary side. Surrounding magnetic field plots in themore » vertical direction show that maxima's of the two coils for the no shielding geometry are centered at the respective coils and for the remaining three are displaced closer to each other. This closeness would lead to more effective addition of the two coil fields and an increase in the resultant field from space point of view. This closeness varies with distance in the horizontal direction and vertical gap between the coils and is explained in the paper. This paper provides a better understanding of effect of the passive shielding materials on the space nature of magnetic fields for wireless power transfer for vehicle applications.« less

  7. Magnetization transfer studies of the fast and slow tissue water diffusion components in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Mulkern, Robert V; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Haker, Steven J; Maier, Stephan E

    2005-05-01

    Magnetization transfer (MT) properties of the fast and slow diffusion components recently observed in the human brain were assessed experimentally. One set of experiments, performed at 1.5 T in healthy volunteers, was designed to determine whether the amplitudes of fast and slow diffusion components, differentiated on the basis of biexponential fits to signal decays over a wide range of b-factors, demonstrated a different or similar magnetization transfer ratio (MTR). Another set of experiments, performed at 3 T in healthy volunteers, was designed to determine whether MTRs differed when measured from high signal-to-noise images acquired with b-factor weightings of 350 vs 3500 s/mm2. The 3 T studies included measurements of MTR as a function of off-resonance frequency for the MT pulse at both low and high b-factors. The primary conclusion drawn from all the studies is that there appears to be no significant difference between the magnetization transfer properties of the fast and slow tissue water diffusion components. The conclusions do not lend support to a direct interpretation of the 'components' of the biexponential diffusion decay in terms of the 'compartments' associated with intra- and extracellular water. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A wireless magnetic resonance energy transfer system for micro implantable medical sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuhan; Zhang, Hanru; Peng, Fei; Li, Yang; Yang, Tianyang; Wang, Bo; Fang, Dongming

    2012-01-01

    Based on the magnetic resonance coupling principle, in this paper a wireless energy transfer system is designed and implemented for the power supply of micro-implantable medical sensors. The entire system is composed of the in vitro part, including the energy transmitting circuit and resonant transmitter coils, and in vivo part, including the micro resonant receiver coils and signal shaping chip which includes the rectifier module and LDO voltage regulator module. Transmitter and receiver coils are wound by Litz wire, and the diameter of the receiver coils is just 1.9 cm. The energy transfer efficiency of the four-coil system is greatly improved compared to the conventional two-coil system. When the distance between the transmitter coils and the receiver coils is 1.5 cm, the transfer efficiency is 85% at the frequency of 742 kHz. The power transfer efficiency can be optimized by adding magnetic enhanced resonators. The receiving voltage signal is converted to a stable output voltage of 3.3 V and a current of 10 mA at the distance of 2 cm. In addition, the output current varies with changes in the distance. The whole implanted part is packaged with PDMS of excellent biocompatibility and the volume of it is about 1 cm(3).

  9. Effects of Topic Familiarity and Training in Generative Learning Activities on Poor Readers' Comprehension of Comparison/Contrast Expository Text Structure: Transfer to Real-World Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Renee; Balajthy, Ernest

    A study investigated transfer effects of training below average high school readers in the use of graphic organizers and summary writing on their recognition of compare/contrast text structure. Subjects, 32 high school students with below-expectancy standardized test scores, were placed in two groups: an experimental group (five males and 11…

  10. On Electromagnetic Modulation of Flow Instabilities, Mixing and Heat Transfer in Conducting and Magnetized Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenjeres, S.

    2016-09-01

    In the present paper we give a concise review of some recent highlights of our research dealing with electromagnetic control of flow, mixing and heat transfer of electrically conductive or magnetized fluids. We apply a combination of state-of-art numerical (DNS and LES) and experimental (PIV and LIF) techniques to provide fundamental insights into the complex phenomena of interactions between imposed (or induced) electromagnetic fields and underlying fluid flow. Our analysis covers an extensive range of working fluids, i.e. weakly- and highly-electrically-conductive, as well as magnetized fluids. These interactions are defined through the presence of different types of body forces acting per volume of fluid. A fully closed system of governing equations containing an extended set of the Navier-Stokes and a simplified set of the Maxwell equations is presented. The four characteristic examples are selected: the electromagnetic control of self-sustained jet oscillations, the electromagnetic enhancement of heat transfer in thermal convection, the wake interactions behind magnetic obstacles and finally, the thermo-magnetic convection in differentially heated cubical enclosure. The comparative assessment between experimental and numerical results is presented. It is concluded that generally good agreement between simulations and experiments is obtained for all cases considered, proving the concept of electromagnetic modulation, which can be used in numerous technological applications.

  11. Synthesis route and three different core-shell impacts on magnetic characterization of gadolinium oxide-based nanoparticles as new contrast agents for molecular magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizian, Gholamreza; Riyahi-Alam, Nader; Haghgoo, Soheila; Moghimi, Hamid Reza; Zohdiaghdam, Reza; Rafiei, Behrooz; Gorji, Ensieh

    2012-10-01

    Despite its good resolution, magnetic resonance imaging intrinsically has low sensitivity. Recently, contrast agent nanoparticles have been used as sensitivity and contrast enhancer. The aim of this study was to investigate a new controlled synthesis method for gadolinium oxide-based nanoparticle preparation. For this purpose, diethyleneglycol coating of gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3-DEG) was performed using new supervised polyol route, and small particulate gadolinium oxide (SPGO) PEGylation was obtained with methoxy-polyethylene-glycol-silane (550 and 2,000 Da) coatings as SPGO-mPEG-silane550 and 2,000, respectively. Physicochemical characterization and magnetic properties of these three contrast agents in comparison with conventional Gd-DTPA were verified by dynamic light scattering transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma, X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, and the signal intensity and relaxivity measurements were performed using 1.5-T MRI scanner. As a result, the nanoparticle sizes of Gd2O3-DEG, SPGO-mPEG-silane550, and SPGO-mPEG-silane2000 could be reached to 5.9, 51.3, 194.2 nm, respectively. The image signal intensity and longitudinal ( r 1) and transverse relaxivity ( r 2) measurements in different concentrations (0.3 to approximately 2.5 mM), revealed the r 2/ r 1 ratios of 1.13, 0.89, 33.34, and 33.72 for Gd-DTPA, Gd2O3-DEG, SPGO-mPEG-silane550, and SPGO-mPEG-silane2000, respectively. The achievement of new synthesis route of Gd2O3-DEG resulted in lower r 2/ r 1 ratio for Gd2O3-DEG than Gd-DTPA and other previous synthesized methods by this and other groups. The smaller r 2/ r 1 ratios of two PEGylated-SPGO contrast agents in our study in comparison with r 2/ r 1 ratio of previous PEGylation ( r 2/ r 1 = 81.9 for mPEG-silane 6,000 MW) showed that these new three introduced contrast agents could potentially be proper contrast enhancers for cellular and molecular MR imaging.

  12. Porphyrin-containing polyaspartamide gadolinium complexes as potential magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Yan, Guo-Ping; Li, Zhen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Cheng-Kai; Yang, Lian; Zhang, Qiao; Li, Liang; Liu, Fan; Han, Lin; Ge, Yuan-Xing; Guo, Jun-Fang

    2011-04-04

    Porphyrin-containing polyaspartamide ligands (APTSPP-PHEA-DTPA) were synthesized by the incorporation of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and 5-(4'-aminophenyl)-10,15,20-tris(4'-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin, trisodium salt (APTSPP) into poly-α,β-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-l-aspartamide] (PHEA). These ligands were further reacted with gadolinium chloride to produce macromolecule-gadolinium complexes (APTSPP-PHEA-DTPA-Gd). Experimental data of (1)H NMR, IR, UV and elemental analysis evidenced the formation of the polyaspartamide ligands and gadolinium complexes. In vitro and in vivo property tests indicated that APTSPP-PHEA-DTPA-Gd possessed noticeably higher relaxation effectiveness, less toxicity to HeLa cells, and significantly higher enhanced signal intensities (SI) of the VX2 carcinoma in rabbits with lower injection dose requirement than that of Gd-DTPA. Moreover, APTSPP-PHEA-DTPA-Gd was found to greatly enhance the contrast of MR images of the VX2 carcinoma, providing prolonged intravascular duration, and distinguished the VX2 carcinoma and normal tissues in rabbits according to MR image signal enhancements. These porphyrin-containing polyaspartamide gadolinium complexes can be used as the candidates of contrast agents for targeted MRI to tumors. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Properties of the smallest solar magnetic elements. I - Facular contrast near sun center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topka, K. P.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements are presented which indicate that the continuum intensity of facular areas in solar active regions, outside sunspots and pores, is less than that of the quiet sun very near disk center. It is shown that the observed continuum intensity of faculae at disk center near 5000 A is nearly 3 percent less than that of the quiet sun. The continuum contrast increases rapidly away from disk center, reaching +2 percent at 45 deg. The zero-crossing point, where the contrast changes sign, occurs at 20-degree heliocentric angle. This is contrary to many earlier observations. The constraint these observations place on the size of flux tubes depends upon the value of the zero-crossing point. It is proposed that most of the flux tubes in solar faculae may be very small, in the range 50-100 km in diameter, and that inclination from local vertical of about 10 deg at the photosphere is common on the sun. Footpoints of opposite polarity tend to tilt toward one another.

  14. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of pulmonary lesions: description of a technique aiming clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel; Optazaite, Elzbieta; Sommer, Gregor; Safi, Seyer; Heussel, Claus Peter; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Puderbach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To propose a technique for evaluation of pulmonary lesions using contrast-enhanced MRI; to assess morphological patterns of enhancement and correlate quantitative analysis with histopathology. Thirty-six patients were prospectively studied. Volumetric-interpolated T1W images were obtained during consecutive breath holds after bolus triggered contrast injection. Volume coverage of first three acquisitions was limited (higher temporal resolution) and last acquisition obtained at 4th min. Two radiologists individually evaluated the patterns of enhancement. Region-of-interest-based signal intensity (SI)-time curves were created to assess quantitative parameters. Readers agreed moderately to substantially concerning lesions' enhancement pattern. SI-time curves could be created for all lesions. In comparison to benign, malignant lesions showed higher values of maximum enhancement, early peak, slope and 4th min enhancement. Early peak >15% showed 100% sensitivity to detect malignancy, maximum enhancement >40% showed 100% specificity. The proposed technique is robust, simple to perform and can be applied in clinical scenario. It allows visual evaluation of enhancement pattern/progression together with creation of SI-time curves and assessment of derived quantitative parameters. Perfusion analysis was highly sensitive to detect malignancy, in accordance to what is recommended by most recent guidelines on imaging evaluation of pulmonary lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanoscale memory elements based on the superconductor-ferromagnet proximity effect and spin-transfer torque magnetization switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Burm

    Superconducting-ferromagnetic hybrid devices have potential for a practical memory technology compatible with superconducting logic circuits and may help realize energy-efficient, high-performance superconducting computers. We have developed Josephson junction devices with pseudo-spin-valve barriers. We observed changes in Josephson critical current depending on the magnetization state of the barrier (parallel or anti-parallel) through the superconductor-ferromagnet proximity effect. This effect persists to nanoscale devices in contrast to the remanent field effect. In nanopillar devices, the magnetization states of the pseudo-spin-valve barriers could also be switched with applied bias currents at 4 K, which is consistent with the spin-transfer torque effect in analogous room-temperature spin valve devices. These results demonstrate devices that combine major superconducting and spintronic effects for scalable read and write of memory states, respectively. Further challenges and proposals towards practical devices will also be discussed.In collaboration with: William Rippard, NIST - Boulder, Matthew Pufall, NIST - Boulder, Stephen Russek, NIST-Boulder, Michael Schneider, NIST - Boulder, Samuel Benz, NIST - Boulder, Horst Rogalla, NIST-Boulder, Paul Dresselhaus, NIST - Boulder

  16. Multiferroicity in an organic charge-transfer salt that is suggestive of electric-dipole-driven magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunkenheimer, Peter; Müller, Jens; Krohns, Stephan; Schrettle, Florian; Loidl, Alois; Hartmann, Benedikt; Rommel, Robert; de Souza, Mariano; Hotta, Chisa; Schlueter, John A.; Lang, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Multiferroics, showing simultaneous ordering of electrical and magnetic degrees of freedom, are remarkable materials as seen from both the academic and technological points of view. A prominent mechanism of multiferroicity is the spin-driven ferroelectricity, often found in frustrated antiferromagnets with helical spin order. There, as for conventional ferroelectrics, the electrical dipoles arise from an off-centre displacement of ions. However, recently a different mechanism, namely purely electronic ferroelectricity, where charge order breaks inversion symmetry, has attracted considerable interest. Here we provide evidence for ferroelectricity, accompanied by antiferromagnetic spin order, in a two-dimensional organic charge-transfer salt, thus representing a new class of multiferroics. We propose a charge-order-driven mechanism leading to electronic ferroelectricity in this material. Quite unexpectedly for electronic ferroelectrics, dipolar and spin order arise nearly simultaneously. This can be ascribed to the loss of spin frustration induced by the ferroelectric ordering. Hence, here the spin order is driven by the ferroelectricity, in marked contrast to the spin-driven ferroelectricity in helical magnets.

  17. Response of current phosphorus mitigation measures across the nutrient transfer continuum in two hydrological contrasting agricultural catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Noeleen; Shore, Mairead; Mellander, Per-Erik; Shortle, Ger; Jordan, Phil

    2015-04-01

    Effective assessment of National Action Programme (NAP) measures introduced under the EU Nitrates Directive (ND), to manage nutrient use and risk of loss to waters from agriculture, is best achieved when examined across the nutrient transfer continuum at catchment scale. The Irish NAP measures are implemented on a whole-territory basis for both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), with P being the key trophic pressure. The aim of this research was to observe the efficacy of P regulation measures and P source management across the transfer continuum and resultant water quality status (i.e. source to impact), in two contrasting agricultural catchments over a four year period. The catchments are ca. 11 km2 and are located in the south-east of Ireland. One is well-drained and arable dominated, while the other is mostly poorly-drained and grassland dominated. In 2009 and 2013 soil surveys for plant-available P were carried out (<2 ha sample areas) in both catchments. Concurrently, high temporal resolution monitoring of water discharge and P concentration was conducted at each catchment outlet across four hydrological years (April to March). Ecological impact surveys were carried out at four sites within each catchment in May and September across the observed four year period (2009-2013). Importantly, the proportion of farmland with excessive soil P concentrations decreased in both the arable (20% to 11.8%) and grassland catchments (5.9 to 3.6%). However, soil P concentrations also declined critically in both catchments, as proportional areas below the national crop agronomic optimum thresholds (grassland; <5 mg P l-1, arable; <6 mg P l-1) increased from 57% to 68% in the arable catchment and 75% to 87% in the grassland catchment. This decline in plant available P strongly indicates a reduced or sustained level of P inputs in both catchments. Indications of responses to soil P change in the surface waters of these catchments appeared to be highly influenced by their

  18. Quantitative contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation of peripheral arterial disease: a comparative study versus standard digital angiography.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Chris; Futamatsu, Hideki; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Guzman, Luis A; Wilke, Norbert; Siragusa, Daniel; Wludyka, Peter; Percy, Robert; Northrup, Martin; Bass, Theodore A; Costa, Marco A

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of semiautomated analysis of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in patients who have undergone standard angiographic evaluation for peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Magnetic resonance angiography is an important tool for evaluating PVD. Although this technique is both safe and noninvasive, the accuracy and reproducibility of quantitative measurements of disease severity using MRA in the clinical setting have not been fully investigated. 43 lesions in 13 patients who underwent both MRA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of iliac and common femoral arteries within 6 months were analyzed using quantitative magnetic resonance angiography (QMRA) and quantitative vascular analysis (QVA). Analysis was repeated by a second operator and by the same operator in approximately 1 month time. QMRA underestimated percent diameter stenosis (%DS) compared to measurements made with QVA by 2.47%. Limits of agreement between the two methods were +/- 9.14%. Interobserver variability in measurements of %DS were +/- 12.58% for QMRA and +/- 10.04% for QVA. Intraobserver variability of %DS for QMRA was +/- 4.6% and for QVA was +/- 8.46%. QMRA displays a high level of agreement to QVA when used to determine stenosis severity in iliac and common femoral arteries. Similar levels of interobserver and intraobserver variability are present with each method. Overall, QMRA represents a useful method to quantify severity of PVD.

  19. Evaluation of left ventricular scar identification from contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for guidance of ventricular catheter ablation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rettmann, M. E.; Lehmann, H. I.; Johnson, S. B.; Packer, D. L.

    2016-03-01

    Patients with ventricular arrhythmias typically exhibit myocardial scarring, which is believed to be an important anatomic substrate for reentrant circuits, thereby making these regions a key target in catheter ablation therapy. In ablation therapy, a catheter is guided into the left ventricle and radiofrequency energy is delivered into the tissue to interrupt arrhythmic electrical pathways. Low bipolar voltage regions are typically localized during the procedure through point-by-point construction of an electroanatomic map by sampling the endocardial surface with the ablation catheter and are used as a surrogate for myocardial scar. This process is time consuming, requires significant skill, and has the potential to miss low voltage sites. This has led to efforts to quantify myocardial scar preoperatively using delayed, contrast-enhanced MRI. In this paper, we evaluate the utility of left ventricular scar identification from delayed contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for guidance of catheter ablation of ventricular arrhythmias. Myocardial infarcts were created in three canines followed by a delayed, contrast enhanced MRI scan and electroanatomic mapping. The left ventricle and myocardial scar is segmented from preoperative MRI images and sampled points from the procedural electroanatomical map are registered to the segmented endocardial surface. Sampled points with low bipolar voltage points visually align with the segmented scar regions. This work demonstrates the potential utility of using preoperative delayed, enhanced MRI to identify myocardial scarring for guidance of ventricular catheter ablation therapy.

  20. Effects of the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent Gd-DTPA on plant growth and root imaging in rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zan; Qian, Junchao; Liu, Binmei; Wang, Qi; Ni, Xiaoyu; Dong, Yaling; Zhong, Kai; Wu, Yuejin

    2014-01-01

    Although paramagnetic contrast agents have a wide range of applications in medical studies involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), these agents are seldom used to enhance MRI images of plant root systems. To extend the application of MRI contrast agents to plant research and to develop related techniques to study root systems, we examined the applicability of the MRI contrast agent Gd-DTPA to the imaging of rice roots. Specifically, we examined the biological effects of various concentrations of Gd-DTPA on rice growth and MRI images. Analysis of electrical conductivity and plant height demonstrated that 5 mmol Gd-DTPA had little impact on rice in the short-term. The results of signal intensity and spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) analysis suggested that 5 mmol Gd-DTPA was the appropriate concentration for enhancing MRI signals. In addition, examination of the long-term effects of Gd-DTPA on plant height showed that levels of this compound up to 5 mmol had little impact on rice growth and (to some extent) increased the biomass of rice.

  1. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reveals Stress-Induced Angiogenesis in MCF7 Human Breast Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman-Haran, Edna; Margalit, Raanan; Grobgeld, Dov; Degani, Hadassa

    1996-06-01

    The mechanism of contrast enhancement of tumors using magnetic resonance imaging was investigated in MCF7 human breast cancer implanted in nude mice. Dynamic contrast-enhanced images recorded at high spatial resolution were analyzed by an image analysis method based on a physiological model, which included the blood circulation, the tumor, the remaining tissues, and clearance via the kidneys. This analysis enabled us to map in rapidly enhancing regions within the tumor, the capillary permeability factor (capillary permeability times surface area per voxel volume) and the fraction of leakage space. Correlation of these maps with T2-weighted spin echo images, with histopathology, and with immunohistochemical staining of endothelial cells demonstrated the presence of dense permeable microcapillaries in the tumor periphery and in intratumoral regions that surrounded necrotic loci. The high leakage from the intratumoral permeable capillaries indicated an induction of a specific angiogenic process associated with stress conditions that cause necrosis. This induction was augmented in tumors responding to tamoxifen treatment. Determination of the distribution and extent of this stress-induced angiogenic activity by contrast-enhanced MRI might be of diagnostic and of prognostic value.

  2. Noninvasive Classification of Hepatic Fibrosis Based on Texture Parameters From Double Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Images

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Gautam; Cruite, Irene; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony C.; Collins, Julie M.; Chavez, Alyssa D.; Barakat, Fatma; Hassanein, Tarek; Sirlin, Claude B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate a proof of concept that quantitative texture feature analysis of double contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can classify fibrosis noninvasively, using histology as a reference standard. Materials and Methods A Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved retrospective study of 68 patients with diffuse liver disease was performed at a tertiary liver center. All patients underwent double contrast-enhanced MRI, with histopathology-based staging of fibrosis obtained within 12 months of imaging. The MaZda software program was used to compute 279 texture parameters for each image. A statistical regularization technique, generalized linear model (GLM)-path, was used to develop a model based on texture features for dichotomous classification of fibrosis category (F ≤2 vs. F ≥3) of the 68 patients, with histology as the reference standard. The model's performance was assessed and cross-validated. There was no additional validation performed on an independent cohort. Results Cross-validated sensitivity, specificity, and total accuracy of the texture feature model in classifying fibrosis were 91.9%, 83.9%, and 88.2%, respectively. Conclusion This study shows proof of concept that accurate, noninvasive classification of liver fibrosis is possible by applying quantitative texture analysis to double contrast-enhanced MRI. Further studies are needed in independent cohorts of subjects. PMID:22851409

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging Lesion and Contrast Enhancement May Represent Infectious Intracranial Aneurysm in Infective Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Min; Rice, Cory; Marquardt, Robert J; Zhang, Lucy Q; Khoury, Jean; Thatikunta, Prateek; Buletko, Andrew B; Hardman, Julian; Uchino, Ken; Wisco, Dolora

    2017-01-01

    Infectious intracranial aneurysm (IIA) can complicate infective endocarditis (IE). We aimed to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of IIA. We reviewed IIAs among 116 consecutive patients with active IE by conducting a neurological evaluation at a single tertiary referral center from January 2015 to July 2016. MRIs and digital cerebral angiograms (DSA) were reviewed to identify MRI characteristics of IIAs. MRI susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) was performed to collect data on cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and sulcal SWI lesions. Out of 116 persons, 74 (63.8%) underwent DSA. IIAs were identified in 13 (17.6% of DSA, 11.2% of entire cohort) and 10 patients with aneurysms underwent MRI with SWI sequence. Nine (90%) out of 10 persons with IIAs had CMB >5 mm or sulcal lesions in SWI (9 in sulci, 6 in parenchyma, and 5 in both). Five out of 8 persons who underwent MRI brain with contrast had enhancement within the SWI lesions. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, both sulcal SWI lesions (p < 0.001, OR 69, 95% CI 7.8-610) and contrast enhancement (p = 0.007, OR 16.5, 95% CI 2.3-121) were found to be significant predictors of the presence of IIAs. In the individuals with IE who underwent DSA and MRI, we found that neuroimaging characteristics, such as sulcal SWI lesion with or without contrast enhancement, are associated with the presence of IIA. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Preparation and Evaluation of Multiple Nanoemulsions Containing Gadolinium (III) Chelate as a Potential Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Contrast Agent.

    PubMed

    Sigward, Estelle; Corvis, Yohann; Doan, Bich-Thuy; Kindsiko, Kadri; Seguin, Johanne; Scherman, Daniel; Brossard, Denis; Mignet, Nathalie; Espeau, Philippe; Crauste-Manciet, Sylvie

    2015-09-01

    The objective was to develop, characterize and assess the potentiality of W1/O/W2 self-emulsifying multiple nanoemulsions to enhance signal/noise ratio for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). For this purpose, a new formulation, was designed for encapsulation efficiency and stability. Various methods were used to characterize encapsulation efficiency ,in particular calorimetric methods (Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry analysis) and ultrafiltration. MRI in vitro relaxivities were assessed on loaded DTPA-Gd multiple nanoemulsions. Characterization of the formulation, in particular of encapsulation efficiency was a challenge due to interactions found with ultrafiltration method. Thanks to the specifically developed DSC protocol, we were able to confirm the formation of multiple nanoemulsions, differentiate loaded from unloaded nanoemulsions and measure the encapsulation efficiency which was found to be quite high with a 68% of drug loaded. Relaxivity studies showed that the self-emulsifying W/O/W nanoemulsions were positive contrast agents, exhibiting higher relaxivities than those of the DTPA-Gd solution taken as a reference. New self-emulsifying multiple nanoemulsions that were able to load satisfactory amounts of contrasting agent were successfully developed as potential MRI contrasting agents. A specific DSC protocol was needed to be developed to characterize these complex systems as it would be useful to develop these self-formation formulations.

  5. Click chemistry in the Development of Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hapuarachchige, Sudath; Artemov, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    Click chemistry provides fast, convenient, versatile and reliable chemical reactions that take place between pairs of functional groups of small molecules that can be purified without chromatographic methods. Due to the fast kinetics and low or no elimination of byproducts, click chemistry is a promising approach that is rapidly gaining acceptance in drug discovery, radiochemistry, bioconjugation, and nanoscience applications. Increasing use of click chemistry in synthetic procedures or as a bioconjugation technique in diagnostic imaging is occurring because click reactions are fast, provide a quantitative yield, and produce minimal amount of nontoxic byproducts. This review summarizes the recent application of click chemistry in magnetic resonance imaging and discusses the directions for applying novel click reactions and strategies for further improving MRI performance. PMID:27748712

  6. Image-guided thermal therapy with a dual-contrast magnetic nanoparticle formulation: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Attaluri, Anilchandra; Seshadri, Madhav; Mirpour, Sahar; Wabler, Michele; Marinho, Thomas; Furqan, Muhammad; Zhou, Haoming; De Paoli, Silvia; Gruettner, Cordula; Gilson, Wesley; DeWeese, Theodore; Garcia, Monica; Ivkov, Robert; Liapi, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/objective The aim of this study was to develop and investigate the properties of a magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle–ethiodised oil formulation for image-guided thermal therapy of liver cancer. Materials and methods The formulation comprises bionised nano-ferrite (BNF) nanoparticles suspended in ethiodised oil, emulsified with polysorbate 20 (BNF-lip). Nanoparticle size was measured via photon correlation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In vivo thermal therapy capability was tested in two groups of male Foxn1nu mice bearing subcutaneous HepG2 xenograft tumours. Group I (n =12) was used to screen conditions for group II (n =48). In group II, mice received one of BNF-lip (n =18), BNF alone (n =16), or PBS (n =14), followed by alternating magnetic field (AMF) hyperthermia, with either varied duration (15 or 20 min) or amplitude (0, 16, 20, or 24 kA/m). Image-guided fluoroscopic intra-arterial injection of BNF-lip was tested in New Zealand white rabbits (n =10), bearing liver VX2 tumours. The animals were subsequently imaged with CT and 3 T MRI, up to 7 days post-injection. The tumours were histopathologically evaluated for distribution of BNF-lip. Results The BNF showed larger aggregate diameters when suspended in BNF-lip, compared to clear solution. The BNF-lip formulation produced maximum tumour temperatures with AMF >20 kA/m and showed positive X-ray visibility and substantial shortening of T1 and T2 relaxation time, with sustained intratumoural retention up to 7 days post-injection. On pathology, intratumoural BNF-lip distribution correlated well with CT imaging of intratumoural BNF-lip distribution. Conclusion The BNF-lip formulation has favourable thermal and dual imaging capabilities for image-guided thermal therapy of liver cancer, suggesting further exploration for clinical applications. PMID:27151045

  7. Evaluation of optimized magnetic resonance perfusion imaging scanning time window after contrast agent injection for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie; Wang, Dawei; Ma, Zhenshen; Deng, Guodong; Wang, Lanhua; Zhang, Jiandong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was evaluate the 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging scanning time window following contrast injection for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions and to determine the optimum scanning time window for increased scanner usage efficiency and reduced diagnostic adverse risk factors. A total of 52 women with breast abnormalities were selected for conventional MR imaging and T1 dynamic-enhanced imaging. Quantitative parameters [volume transfer constant (Ktrans), rate constant (Kep) and extravascular extracellular volume fraction (Ve)] were calculated at phases 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50, which represented time windows at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min, respectively, following injection of contrast agent. The association of the parameters at different phases with benign and malignant tumor diagnosis was analyzed. MR perfusion imaging was verified as an effective modality in the diagnosis of breast malignancies and the best scanning time window was identified: i) Values of Ktrans and Kep at all phases were statistically significant in differentiating benign and malignant tumors (P<0.05), while the value of Ve had statistical significance only at stage 10, but not at any other stages (P>0.05); ii) values of Ve in benign tumors increased with phase number, but achieved no obvious changes at different phases in malignant tumors; iii) the optimum scanning time window of breast perfusion imaging with 3.0 T MR was between phases 10 and 30 (i.e., between 5 and 15 min after contrast agent injection). The variation trend of Ve values at different phases may serve as a diagnostic reference for differentiating benign and malignant breast abnormalities. The most efficient scanning time window was indicated to be 5 min after contrast injection, based on the observation that the Ve value only had statistical significance in diagnosis at stage 10. However, the optimal scanning time window is from 5 to 15 min following the injection of contrast agent

  8. Evaluation of optimized magnetic resonance perfusion imaging scanning time window after contrast agent injection for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie; Wang, Dawei; Ma, Zhenshen; Deng, Guodong; Wang, Lanhua; Zhang, Jiandong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was evaluate the 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging scanning time window following contrast injection for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions and to determine the optimum scanning time window for increased scanner usage efficiency and reduced diagnostic adverse risk factors. A total of 52 women with breast abnormalities were selected for conventional MR imaging and T1 dynamic-enhanced imaging. Quantitative parameters [volume transfer constant (K trans ), rate constant (K ep ) and extravascular extracellular volume fraction (V e )] were calculated at phases 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50, which represented time windows at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min, respectively, following injection of contrast agent. The association of the parameters at different phases with benign and malignant tumor diagnosis was analyzed. MR perfusion imaging was verified as an effective modality in the diagnosis of breast malignancies and the best scanning time window was identified: i) Values of K trans and K ep at all phases were statistically significant in differentiating benign and malignant tumors (P<0.05), while the value of V e had statistical significance only at stage 10, but not at any other stages (P>0.05); ii) values of V e in benign tumors increased with phase number, but achieved no obvious changes at different phases in malignant tumors; iii) the optimum scanning time window of breast perfusion imaging with 3.0 T MR was between phases 10 and 30 (i.e., between 5 and 15 min after contrast agent injection). The variation trend of V e values at different phases may serve as a diagnostic reference for differentiating benign and malignant breast abnormalities. The most efficient scanning time window was indicated to be 5 min after contrast injection, based on the observation that the V e value only had statistical significance in diagnosis at stage 10. However, the optimal scanning time window is from 5 to 15 min following the injection of

  9. An optimized framework for quantitative magnetization transfer imaging of the cervical spinal cord in vivo.

    PubMed

    Battiston, Marco; Grussu, Francesco; Ianus, Andrada; Schneider, Torben; Prados, Ferran; Fairney, James; Ourselin, Sebastien; Alexander, Daniel C; Cercignani, Mara; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Samson, Rebecca S

    2018-05-01

    To develop a framework to fully characterize quantitative magnetization transfer indices in the human cervical cord in vivo within a clinically feasible time. A dedicated spinal cord imaging protocol for quantitative magnetization transfer was developed using a reduced field-of-view approach with echo planar imaging (EPI) readout. Sequence parameters were optimized based in the Cramer-Rao-lower bound. Quantitative model parameters (i.e., bound pool fraction, free and bound pool transverse relaxation times [ T2F, T2B], and forward exchange rate [k FB ]) were estimated implementing a numerical model capable of dealing with the novelties of the sequence adopted. The framework was tested on five healthy subjects. Cramer-Rao-lower bound minimization produces optimal sampling schemes without requiring the establishment of a steady-state MT effect. The proposed framework allows quantitative voxel-wise estimation of model parameters at the resolution typically used for spinal cord imaging (i.e. 0.75 × 0.75 × 5 mm 3 ), with a protocol duration of ∼35 min. Quantitative magnetization transfer parametric maps agree with literature values. Whole-cord mean values are: bound pool fraction = 0.11(±0.01), T2F = 46.5(±1.6) ms, T2B = 11.0(±0.2) µs, and k FB  = 1.95(±0.06) Hz. Protocol optimization has a beneficial effect on reproducibility, especially for T2B and k FB . The framework developed enables robust characterization of spinal cord microstructure in vivo using qMT. Magn Reson Med 79:2576-2588, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  10. Electro-mechanical energy conversion system having a permanent magnet machine with stator, resonant transfer link and energy converter controls

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2006-01-10

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load comprising an energy converter device including a permanent magnet induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer to control the flow of power or energy through the permanent magnetic induction machine.

  11. Magnetic forces and localized resonances in electron transfer through quantum rings.

    PubMed

    Poniedziałek, M R; Szafran, B

    2010-11-24

    We study the current flow through semiconductor quantum rings. In high magnetic fields the current is usually injected into the arm of the ring preferred by classical magnetic forces. However, for narrow magnetic field intervals that appear periodically on the magnetic field scale the current is injected into the other arm of the ring. We indicate that the appearance of the anomalous-non-classical-current circulation results from Fano interference involving localized resonant states. The identification of the Fano interference is based on the comparison of the solution of the scattering problem with the results of the stabilization method. The latter employs the bound-state type calculations and allows us to extract both the energy of metastable states localized within the ring and the width of resonances by analysis of the energy spectrum of a finite size system as a function of its length. The Fano resonances involving states of anomalous current circulation become extremely narrow on both the magnetic field and energy scales. This is consistent with the orientation of the Lorentz force that tends to keep the electron within the ring and thus increases the lifetime of the electron localization within the ring. Absence of periodic Fano resonances in electron transfer probability through a quantum ring containing an elastic scatterer is also explained.

  12. Prognostic significance of infarct core pathology revealed by quantitative non-contrast in comparison with contrast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction survivors.

    PubMed

    Carrick, David; Haig, Caroline; Rauhalammi, Sam; Ahmed, Nadeem; Mordi, Ify; McEntegart, Margaret; Petrie, Mark C; Eteiba, Hany; Hood, Stuart; Watkins, Stuart; Lindsay, Mitchell; Mahrous, Ahmed; Ford, Ian; Tzemos, Niko; Sattar, Naveed; Welsh, Paul; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Oldroyd, Keith G; Berry, Colin

    2016-04-01

    To assess the prognostic significance of infarct core tissue characteristics using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in survivors of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We performed an observational prospective single centre cohort study in 300 reperfused STEMI patients (mean ± SD age 59 ± 12 years, 74% male) who underwent CMR 2 days and 6 months post-myocardial infarction (n = 267). Native T1 was measured in myocardial regions of interest (n = 288). Adverse remodelling was defined as an increase in left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume ≥20% at 6 months. All-cause death or first heart failure hospitalization was a pre-specified outcome that was assessed during follow-up (median duration 845 days). One hundred and sixty (56%) patients had a hypo-intense infarct core disclosed by native T1. In multivariable regression, infarct core native T1 was inversely associated with adverse remodelling [odds ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)] per 10 ms reduction in native T1: 0.91 (0.82, 0.00); P = 0.061). Thirty (10.4%) of 288 patients died or experienced a heart failure event and 13 of these events occurred post-discharge. Native T1 values (ms) within the hypo-intense infarct core (n = 160 STEMI patients) were inversely associated with the risk of all-cause death or first hospitalization for heart failure post-discharge (for a 10 ms increase in native T1: hazard ratio 0.730, 95% CI 0.617, 0.863; P < 0.001) including after adjustment for left ventricular ejection fraction, infarct core T2 and myocardial haemorrhage. The prognostic results for microvascular obstruction were similar. Infarct core native T1 represents a novel non-contrast CMR biomarker with potential for infarct characterization and prognostication in STEMI survivors. Confirmatory studies are warranted. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02072850. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  13. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography in neoadjuvant chemotherapy monitoring: a comparison with breast magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Iotti, Valentina; Ravaioli, Sara; Vacondio, Rita; Coriani, Chiara; Caffarri, Sabrina; Sghedoni, Roberto; Nitrosi, Andrea; Ragazzi, Moira; Gasparini, Elisa; Masini, Cristina; Bisagni, Giancarlo; Falco, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Guglielmo; Braglia, Luca; Del Prato, Alberto; Malavolti, Ivana; Ginocchi, Vladimiro; Pattacini, Pierpaolo

    2017-09-11

    Neoadjuvant-chemotherapy (NAC) is considered the standard treatment for locally advanced breast carcinomas. Accurate assessment of disease response is fundamental to increase the chances of successful breast-conserving surgery and to avoid local recurrence. The purpose of this study was to compare contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) and contrast-enhanced-MRI (MRI) in the evaluation of tumor response to NAC. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and written informed consent was obtained. Fifty-four consenting women with breast cancer and indication of NAC were consecutively enrolled between October 2012 and December 2014. Patients underwent both CESM and MRI before, during and after NAC. MRI was performed first, followed by CESM within 3 days. Response to therapy was evaluated for each patient, comparing the size of the residual lesion measured on CESM and MRI performed after NAC to the pathological response on surgical specimens (gold standard), independently of and blinded to the results of the other test. The agreement between measurements was evaluated using Lin's coefficient. The agreement between measurements using CESM and MRI was tested at each step of the study, before, during and after NAC. And last of all, the variation in the largest dimension of the tumor on CESM and MRI was assessed according to the parameters set in RECIST 1.1 criteria, focusing on pathological complete response (pCR). A total of 46 patients (85%) completed the study. CESM predicted pCR better than MRI (Lin's coefficient 0.81 and 0.59, respectively). Both methods tend to underestimate the real extent of residual tumor (mean 4.1mm in CESM, 7.5mm in MRI). The agreement between measurements using CESM and MRI was 0.96, 0.94 and 0.76 before, during and after NAC respectively. The distinction between responders and non-responders with CESM and MRI was identical for 45/46 patients. In the assessment of CR, sensitivity and specificity were 100% and

  14. Analysis of pharmacokinetics of Gd-DTPA for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Saeid; Shah, N Jon; Rosenberg, Gary A

    2016-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of the contrast agent Gd-DTPA administered intravenously (i.v.) for contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) is an important factor for quantitative data acquisition. We studied the effect of various initial bolus doses on the PK of Gd-DTPA and analyzed population PK of a lower dose for intra-subject variations in DCE-MRI. First, fifteen subjects (23-85years, M/F) were randomly divided into four groups for DCE-MRI with different Gd-DTPA dose: group-I, 0.1mmol/kg, n=4; group-II, 0.05mmol/kg, n=4; group-III, 0.025mmol/kg, n=4; and group-IV, 0.0125mmol/kg, n=3. Sequential fast T1 mapping sequence, after a bolus i.v. Gd-DTPA administered, and a linear T1-[Gd-DTPA] relationship were used to estimate the PK of Gd-DTPA. Secondly, MR-acquired PKs of Gd-DTPA from 58 subjects (28-80years, M/F) were collected retrospectively, from an ongoing study of the brain using DCE-MRI with Gd-DTPA at 0.025mmol/kg, to statistically analyze population PK of Gd-DTPA. We found that the PK of Gd-DTPA (i.v. 0.025mmol/kg) had a half-life of 37.3±6.6min, and was a better fit into a linear T1-[Gd-DTPA] relationship than higher doses (up to 0.1mmol/kg). The area under the curve (AUC) for 0.025mmol/kg was 3.37±0.46, which was a quarter of AUC of 0.1mmol/kg. In population analysis, a dose of 0.025mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA provided less than 5% subject-dependent variation in the PK of Gd-DTPA. Administration of 0.025mmol/kg Gd-DTPA enabled us to estimate [Gd-DTPA] from T1 by using a linear relationship that has a lower estimation error compared to a non-linear relationship. DCE-MRI with a quarter dose of Gd-DTPA is more sensitive to detect changes in [Gd-DTPA]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Spin polarization transfer mechanisms of SABRE: A magnetic field dependent study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdivtsev, Andrey N.; Ivanov, Konstantin L.; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V.; Petrov, Pavel A.; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich; Kaptein, Robert; Vieth, Hans-Martin

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the magnetic field dependence of Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange (SABRE) arising from binding of para-hydrogen (p-H2) and a substrate to a suitable transition metal complex. The magnetic field dependence of the amplification of the 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) signals of the released substrates and dihydrogen, and the transient transition metal dihydride species shows characteristic patterns, which is explained using the theory presented here. The generation of SABRE is most efficient at low magnetic fields due to coherent spin mixing at nuclear spin Level Anti-Crossings (LACs) in the SABRE complexes. We studied two Ir-complexes and have shown that the presence of a 31P atom in the SABRE complex doubles the number of LACs and, consequently, the number of peaks in the SABRE field dependence. Interestingly, the polarization of SABRE substrates is always accompanied by the para-to-ortho conversion in dihydride species that results in enhancement of the NMR signal of free (H2) and catalyst-bound H2 (Ir-HH). The field dependences of hyperpolarized H2 and Ir-HH by means of SABRE are studied here, for the first time, in detail. The field dependences depend on the chemical shifts and coupling constants of Ir-HH, in which the polarization transfer takes place. A negative coupling constant of -7 Hz between the two chemically equivalent but magnetically inequivalent hydride nuclei is determined, which indicates that Ir-HH is a dihydride with an HH distance larger than 2 Å. Finally, the field dependence of SABRE at high fields as found earlier has been investigated and attributed to polarization transfer to the substrate by cross-relaxation. The present study provides further evidence for the key role of LACs in the formation of SABRE-derived polarization. Understanding the spin dynamics behind the SABRE method opens the way to optimizing its performance and overcoming the main limitation of NMR, its notoriously low sensitivity.

  16. Paramagnetic liposomes as innovative contrast agents for magnetic resonance (MR) molecular imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Terreno, Enzo; Delli Castelli, Daniela; Cabella, Claudia; Dastrù, Walter; Sanino, Alberto; Stancanello, Joseph; Tei, Lorenzo; Aime, Silvio

    2008-10-01

    This article illustrates some innovative applications of liposomes loaded with paramagnetic lanthanide-based complexes in MR molecular imaging field. When a relatively high amount of a Gd(III) chelate is encapsulated in the vesicle, the nanosystem can simultaneously affect both the longitudinal (R(1)) and the transverse (R(2)) relaxation rate of the bulk H2O H-atoms, and this finding can be exploited to design improved thermosensitive liposomes whose MRI response is not longer dependent on the concentration of the probe. The observation that the liposome compartmentalization of a paramagnetic Ln(III) complex induce a significant R(2) enhancement, primarily caused by magnetic susceptibility effects, prompted us to test the potential of such agents in cell-targeting MR experiments. The results obtained indicated that these nanoprobes may have a great potential for the MR visualization of cellular targets (like the glutamine membrane transporters) overexpressing in tumor cells. Liposomes loaded with paramagnetic complexes acting as NMR shift reagents have been recently proposed as highly sensitive CEST MRI agents. The main peculiarity of CEST probes is to allow the MR visualization of different agents present in the same region of interest, and this article provides an illustrative example of the in vivo potential of liposome-based CEST agents.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of stem cell apoptosis in arthritic joints with a caspase activatable contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Nejadnik, Hossein; Ye, Deju; Lenkov, Olga D; Donig, Jessica S; Martin, John E; Castillo, Rostislav; Derugin, Nikita; Sennino, Barbara; Rao, Jianghong; Daldrup-Link, Heike

    2015-02-24

    About 43 million individuals in the U.S. encounter cartilage injuries due to trauma or osteoarthritis, leading to joint pain and functional disability. Matrix-associated stem cell implants (MASI) represent a promising approach for repair of cartilage defects. However, limited survival of MASI creates a significant bottleneck for successful cartilage regeneration outcomes and functional reconstitution. We report an approach for noninvasive detection of stem cell apoptosis with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), based on a caspase-3-sensitive nanoaggregation MRI probe (C-SNAM). C-SNAM self-assembles into nanoparticles after hydrolysis by caspase-3, leading to 90% amplification of (1)H MR signal and prolonged in vivo retention. Following intra-articular injection, C-SNAM causes significant MR signal enhancement in apoptotic MASI compared to viable MASI. Our results indicate that C-SNAM functions as an imaging probe for stem cell apoptosis in MASI. This concept could be applied to a broad range of cell transplants and target sites.

  18. Muscle Velocity and Inertial Force from Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wentland, Andrew L.; McWalter, Emily J.; Pal, Saikat; Delp, Scott L.; Gold, Garry E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate velocity waveforms in muscle and to create a tool and algorithm for computing and analyzing muscle inertial forces derived from 2D phase contrast (PC) MRI. Materials and Methods PC MRI was performed in the forearm of four healthy volunteers during 1 Hz cycles of wrist flexion-extension as well as in the lower leg of six healthy volunteers during 1 Hz cycles of plantarflexion-dorsiflexion. Inertial forces (F) were derived via the equation F = ma. The mass, m, was derived by multiplying voxel volume by voxel-by-voxel estimates of density via fat-water separation techniques. Acceleration, a, was obtained via the derivative of the PC MRI velocity waveform. Results Mean velocities in the flexors of the forearm and lower leg were 1.94 ± 0.97 cm/s and 5.57 ± 2.72 cm/s, respectively, as averaged across all subjects; the inertial forces in the flexors of the forearm and lower leg were 1.9 × 10-3 ± 1.3 × 10-3 N and 1.1 × 10-2 ± 6.1 × 10-3 N, respectively, as averaged across all subjects. Conclusion PC MRI provided a promising means of computing muscle velocities and inertial forces—providing the first method for quantifying inertial forces. PMID:25425185

  19. Value of non-contrast sequences in magnetic resonance angiography of hepatic arterial vasculature.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Vivek B; Gilbert, John W; Krishnamoorthy, Saravanan; Cornfeld, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate value of adding non-contrast MR angiographic sequence (In-Flow Inversion Recovery [IFIR]) to standard fat-suppressed T1-weighted postcontrast sequence (3D spoiled gradient echo [3D-GRE]) for evaluating hepatic arterial anatomy. Retrospective evaluation of 30 consecutive patients undergoing multiphase liver MRI. Individual vessels for IFIR/3D-GRE sequences were evaluated by two blinded readers using a four-point scale. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for vessel conspicuity between IFIR/3D-GRE sequences. IFIR alone diagnostically imaged 8.1% of vessels, 3D-GRE alone 25.8%, 55.8% by both 3D-GRE/IFIR, and 10.3% of vessels by neither. Two patients with variant vascular anatomy were visualized with both sequences. Addition of IFIR to 3D-GRE resulted in statistically significant increase in arterial visualization (p<0.001), 10% relative increase in identified vessels, and 3-5 mi increase in acquisition time for total scan time of 30-35 min. IFIR may be a useful adjunct to 3D-GRE in hepatic angiography without adding considerably to scan time. 10% more hepatic arteries were seen when combining information from IFIR/3D-GRE vs. 3D-GRE alone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimization of magnetization transfer measurements: statistical analysis by stochastic simulation. Application to creatine kinase kinetics.

    PubMed

    Rydzy, M; Deslauriers, R; Smith, I C; Saunders, J K

    1990-08-01

    A systematic study was performed to optimize the accuracy of kinetic parameters derived from magnetization transfer measurements. Three techniques were investigated: time-dependent saturation transfer (TDST), saturation recovery (SRS), and inversion recovery (IRS). In the last two methods, one of the resonances undergoing exchange is saturated throughout the experiment. The three techniques were compared with respect to the accuracy of the kinetic parameters derived from experiments performed in a given, fixed, amount of time. Stochastic simulation of magnetization transfer experiments was performed to optimize experimental design. General formulas for the relative accuracies of the unidirectional rate constant (k) were derived for each of the three experimental methods. It was calculated that for k values between 0.1 and 1.0 s-1, T1 values between 1 and 10 s, and relaxation delays appropriate for the creatine kinase reaction, the SRS method yields more accurate values of k than does the IRS method. The TDST method is more accurate than the SRS method for reactions where T1 is long and k is large, within the range of k and T1 values examined. Experimental verification of the method was carried out on a solution in which the forward (PCr----ATP) rate constant (kf) of the creatine kinase reaction was measured.

  1. Tuning the heat transfer medium and operating conditions in magnetic refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    Ghahremani, Mohammadreza, E-mail: mghahrem@shepherd.edu; Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington DC 20052; Aslani, Amir

    A new experimental test bed has been designed, built, and tested to evaluate the effect of the system’s parameters on a reciprocating Active Magnetic Regenerator (AMR) near room temperature. Bulk gadolinium was used as the refrigerant, silicon oil as the heat transfer medium, and a magnetic field of 1.3 T was cycled. This study focuses on the methodology of single stage AMR operation conditions to get a high temperature span near room temperature. Herein, the main objective is not to report the absolute maximum attainable temperature span seen in an AMR system, but rather to find the system’s optimal operatingmore » conditions to reach that maximum span. The results of this research show that there is a optimal operating frequency, heat transfer fluid flow rate, flow duration, and displaced volume ratio in any AMR system. By optimizing these parameters in our AMR apparatus the temperature span between the hot and cold ends increased by 24%. The optimized values are system dependent and need to be determined and measured for any AMR system by following the procedures that are introduced in this research. It is expected that such optimization will permit the design of a more efficient magnetic refrigeration system.« less

  2. Enhancement in heat transfer of a ferrofluid in a differentially heated square cavity through the use of permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubert, J. C.; Sharifpur, M.; Solomon, A. Brusly; Meyer, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    The natural convection heat transfer of a magnetic nanofluid in a differentially heated cavity is investigated with and without an applied external magnetic field. The effects of volume fraction, magnetic field configuration, and magnetic field strength are investigated. Spherical Fe2O3 nanoparticles with a diameter of 15-20 nm are used in the nanofluids. Volume fractions ranging between 0.05% and 0.3% are tested for the case with no magnetic field, while only a volume fraction of 0.1% was tested in an externally applied magnetic field. The experiments were conducted for a range of Rayleigh numbers in 1.7 × 108 < Ra < 4.2 × 108. The viscosity of the nanofluid was determined experimentally. An empirical correlation for the viscosity was determined, and the stability of various nanofluids was investigated. Using heat transfer data obtained from the cavity, the average heat transfer coefficient and average Nusselt number for the nanofluids are determined. It was found that a volume fraction of 0.1% showed a maximum increase of 5.63% to the Nu at the maximum Ra. For the magnetic field study, it was found that the best-performing magnetic field enhanced the heat transfer behaviour by an additional 2.81% in Nu at Ra = 3.8 × 108.

  3. Magnetization Transfer Magnetic Resonance Imaging Noninvasively Detects Renal Fibrosis in Swine Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis at 3.0 T.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kai; Ferguson, Christopher M; Woollard, John R; Zhu, Xiangyang; Lerman, Lilach O

    2017-11-01

    Renal fibrosis is a useful biomarker for diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic interventions of renal diseases but often requires invasive testing. Magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging (MT-MRI), which evaluates the presence of macromolecules, offers a noninvasive tool to probe renal fibrosis in murine renal artery stenosis (RAS) at 16.4 T. In this study, we aimed to identify appropriate imaging parameters for collagen detection at 3.0 T MRI and to test the utility of MT-MRI in measuring renal fibrosis in a swine model of atherosclerotic RAS (ARAS). To select the appropriate offset frequency, an MT-MRI study was performed on a phantom containing 0% to 40% collagen I and III with offset frequencies from -1600 to +1600 Hz and other MT parameters empirically set as pulse width at 16 milliseconds and flip angle at 800 degrees. Then selected MT parameters were used in vivo on pigs 12 weeks after sham (n = 8) or RAS (n = 10) surgeries. The ARAS pigs were fed with high-cholesterol diet to induce atherosclerosis. The MT ratio (MTR) was compared with ex vivo renal fibrosis measured using Sirius-red staining. Offset frequencies at 600 and 1000 Hz were selected for collagen detection without direct saturation of free water signal, and subsequently applied in vivo. The ARAS kidneys showed mild cortical and medullary fibrosis by Sirius-red staining. The cortical and medullary MTRs at 600 and 1000 Hz were both increased. Renal fibrosis measured ex vivo showed good linear correlations with MTR at 600 (cortex: Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.87, P < 0.001; medulla: r = 0.70, P = 0.001) and 1000 Hz (cortex: r = 0.75, P < 0.001; medulla: r = 0.83, P < 0.001). Magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging can noninvasively detect renal fibrosis in the stenotic swine kidney at 3.0 T. Therefore, MT-MRI may potentially be clinically applicable and useful for detection and monitoring of renal pathology in subjects with RAS.

  4. Novel magnetic graphene quantum dot as dual modality fluorescence/MMOCT contrast agent for tracking epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2017-02-01

    A novel nanoparticle, magnetic graphene quantum dot (MGQD), was synthesized by hydrothermally cutting graphene oxide-iron oxide sheet for contrast agent in magnetomotive optical coherence tomography (MMOCT) and confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM). The MGQD has superparamagnetism, which allows the MGQD to be tracked and imaged using MMOCT. The MMOCT can display paramagnetic nanoparticle in vivo and provide an anatomical information with micron scale resolution and long imaging depth in clinic application. Moreover, the MGQD has excitation-depend fluorescence and emits visible fluorescence under the excitation of 360nm light, which allows the MGQD to be used as tracer in CFM. CFM can offer intracellular details due to higher resolution, while CFM is unsuitable for imaging anatomical structure because of the limited view of field. The use of MGQD for cell or tissue tracking realizes the combination of MMOCT and CFM, and gives a more comprehensive diagnosis.

  5. Influence of Spatial Resolution in Three-dimensional Cine Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging on the Accuracy of Hemodynamic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fukuyama, Atsushi; Isoda, Haruo; Morita, Kento; Mori, Marika; Watanabe, Tomoya; Ishiguro, Kenta; Komori, Yoshiaki; Kosugi, Takafumi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: We aim to elucidate the effect of spatial resolution of three-dimensional cine phase contrast magnetic resonance (3D cine PC MR) imaging on the accuracy of the blood flow analysis, and examine the optimal setting for spatial resolution using flow phantoms. Materials and Methods: The flow phantom has five types of acrylic pipes that represent human blood vessels (inner diameters: 15, 12, 9, 6, and 3 mm). The pipes were fixed with 1% agarose containing 0.025 mol/L gadolinium contrast agent. A blood-mimicking fluid with human blood property values was circulated through the pipes at a steady flow. Magnetic resonance (MR) images (three-directional phase images with speed information and magnitude images for information of shape) were acquired using the 3-Tesla MR system and receiving coil. Temporal changes in spatially-averaged velocity and maximum velocity were calculated using hemodynamic analysis software. We calculated the error rates of the flow velocities based on the volume flow rates measured with a flowmeter and examined measurement accuracy. Results: When the acrylic pipe was the size of the thoracicoabdominal or cervical artery and the ratio of pixel size for the pipe was set at 30% or lower, spatially-averaged velocity measurements were highly accurate. When the pixel size ratio was set at 10% or lower, maximum velocity could be measured with high accuracy. It was difficult to accurately measure maximum velocity of the 3-mm pipe, which was the size of an intracranial major artery, but the error for spatially-averaged velocity was 20% or less. Conclusions: Flow velocity measurement accuracy of 3D cine PC MR imaging for pipes with inner sizes equivalent to vessels in the cervical and thoracicoabdominal arteries is good. The flow velocity accuracy for the pipe with a 3-mm-diameter that is equivalent to major intracranial arteries is poor for maximum velocity, but it is relatively good for spatially-averaged velocity. PMID:28132996

  6. Contrast-enhanced dynamic and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3.0 T to assess early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ni, Liangping; Liu, Ying

    2018-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3.0 T. A total of 44 patients newly diagnosed with NPC were included in the present study. All patients underwent MR examination at 3.0 T using DCE-MRI and DWI. The volume transfer constant ( K trans ), flux rate constant between extravascular extracellular space and plasma ( K ep ), the volume of extravascular extracellular space per unit volume of tissue ( V e ) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of tumours were investigated. Furthermore, the correlation between clinical stages and ADC value and K trans were analysed. The diagnostic accuracy of K trans and ADC were estimated using receiver operating characteristic curves. NPC stage correlated positively with K trans and negatively with ADC values. Additionally, tumour K trans negatively correlated with ADC value. The sensitivity and accuracy of combined K trans and ADC in distinguishing between stage II and stage III and stage III and IV were higher than the values of either measurement used separately. The present study suggested that K trans and ADC derived from DCE-MRI and DWI may be useful to detect stage early NPC accurately. K trans and ADC in combination were superior than either alone.

  7. Pulse electromagnetic fields enhance extracellular electron transfer in magnetic bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huihui; Liu, Bingfeng; Wang, Qisong; Sun, Jianmin; Xie, Guojun; Ren, Nanqi; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Xing, Defeng

    2017-01-01

    Microbial extracellular electron transfer (EET) is essential in driving the microbial interspecies interaction and redox reactions in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) and magnetic fields (MFs) were recently reported to promote microbial EET, but the mechanisms of MFs stimulation of EET and current generation in BESs are not known. This study investigates the behavior of current generation and EET in a state-of-the-art pulse electromagnetic field (PEMF)-assisted magnetic BES (PEMF-MBES), which was equipped with magnetic carbon particle (Fe 3 O 4 @N-mC)-coated electrodes. Illumina Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was also conducted to reveal the changes of microbial communities and interactions on the anode in response to magnetic field. PEMF had significant influences on current generation. When reactors were operated in microbial fuel cell (MFC) mode with pulse electromagnetic field (PEMF-MMFCs), power densities increased by 25.3-36.0% compared with no PEMF control MFCs (PEMF-OFF-MMFCs). More interestingly, when PEMF was removed, the power density dropped by 25.7%, while when PEMF was reintroduced, the value was restored to the previous level. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicon and principal component analysis (PCA) based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs) indicate that PEMFs led to the shifts in microbial community and changes in species evenness that decreased biofilm microbial diversity. Geobacter spp. were found dominant in all anode biofilms, but the relative abundance in PEMF-MMFCs (86.1-90.0%) was higher than in PEMF-OFF-MMFCs (82.5-82.7%), indicating that the magnetic field enriched Geobacter on the anode. The current generation of Geobacter -inoculated microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) presented the same change regularity, the accordingly increase or decrease corresponding with switch of PEMF, which confirmed the reversible stimulation of PEMFs on microbial electron transfer. The pulse electromagnetic

  8. Self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles as new, smart contrast agents for cancer early detection using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mouffouk, Fouzi; Simão, Teresa; Dornelles, Daniel F; Lopes, André D; Sau, Pablo; Martins, Jorge; Abu-Salah, Khalid M; Alrokayan, Salman A; Rosa da Costa, Ana M; dos Santos, Nuno R

    2015-01-01

    Early cancer detection is a major factor in the reduction of mortality and cancer management cost. Here we developed a smart and targeted micelle-based contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), able to turn on its imaging capability in the presence of acidic cancer tissues. This smart contrast agent consists of pH-sensitive polymeric micelles formed by self-assembly of a diblock copolymer (poly(ethyleneglycol-b-trimethylsilyl methacrylate)), loaded with a gadolinium hydrophobic complex ((t)BuBipyGd) and exploits the acidic pH in cancer tissues. In vitro MRI experiments showed that (t)BuBipyGd-loaded micelles were pH-sensitive, as they turned on their imaging capability only in an acidic microenvironment. The micelle-targeting ability toward cancer cells was enhanced by conjugation with an antibody against the MUC1 protein. The ability of our antibody-decorated micelles to be switched on in acidic microenvironments and to target cancer cells expressing specific antigens, together with its high Gd(III) content and its small size (35-40 nm) reveals their potential use for early cancer detection by MRI.

  9. Evaluation of heart perfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Gitte; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas; Dirks, Christina G; Jensen, Gorm B; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2004-09-01

    To investigate the diagnostic ability of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) heart perfusion in acute heart patients, a fast, multislice dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI sequence was applied to patients with acute myocardial infarction. Seven patients with acute transmural myocardial infarction were studied using a Turbo-fast low angle shot (FLASH) MRI sequence to monitor the first pass of an extravascular contrast agent (CA), gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Quantitation of perfusion, expressed as Ki (mL/100 g/minute), in five slices, each having 60 sectors, provided an estimation of the severity and extent of the perfusion deficiency. Reperfusion was assessed both by noninvasive criteria and by coronary angiography (CAG). The Ki maps clearly delineated the infarction in all patients. Thrombolytic treatment was clearly beneficial in one case, but had no effect in the two other cases. Over the time-course of the study, normal perfusion values were not reestablished following thrombolytic treatment in all cases investigated. This study shows that quantitative MRI perfusion values can be obtained from acutely ill patients following acute myocardial infarction. The technique provides information on both the volume and severity of affected myocardial tissue, enabling the power of treatment regimes to be assessed objectively, and this approach should aid individual patient stratification and prognosis. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Ultrasmall water-soluble metal-iron oxide nanoparticles as T1-weighted contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Leyong; Ren, Wenzhi; Zheng, Jianjun; Cui, Ping; Wu, Aiguo

    2012-02-28

    Using an improved hydrolysis method of inorganic salts assisted with water-bath incubation, ultrasmall water-soluble metal-iron oxide nanoparticles (including Fe(3)O(4), ZnFe(2)O(4) and NiFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles) were synthesized in aqueous solutions, which were used as T(1)-weighted contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The morphology, structure, MRI relaxation properties and cytotoxicity of the as-prepared metal-iron oxide nanoparticles were characterized, respectively. The results showed that the average sizes of nanoparticles were about 4 nm, 4 nm and 5 nm for Fe(3)O(4), ZnFe(2)O(4) and NiFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles, respectively. Moreover, the nanoparticles have good water dispersibility and low cytotoxicity. The MRI test showed the strong T(1)-weighted, but the weak T(2)-weighted MRI performance of metal-iron oxide nanoparticles. The high T(1)-weighted MRI performance can be attributed to the ultrasmall size of metal-iron oxide nanoparticles. Therefore, the as-prepared metal-iron oxide nanoparticles with good water dispersibility and ultrasmall size can have potential applications as T(1)-weighted contrast agent materials for MRI.

  11. Biodegradable human serum albumin nanoparticles as contrast agents for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Watcharin, Waralee; Schmithals, Christian; Pleli, Thomas; Köberle, Verena; Korkusuz, Hüdayi; Huebner, Frank; Zeuzem, Stefan; Korf, Hans W; Vogl, Thomas J; Rittmeyer, Claudia; Terfort, Andreas; Piiper, Albrecht; Gelperina, Svetlana; Kreuter, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Tumor visualization by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nanoparticle-based contrast agents may improve the imaging of solid tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In particular, human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles appear to be a suitable carrier due to their safety and feasibility of functionalization. In the present study HSA nanoparticles were conjugated with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) using carbodiimide chemistry. The nanoparticles had a uniform spherical shape and a diameter of 235±19nm. For better optical visualization in vitro and in vivo, the HSA-Gd nanoparticles were additionally labeled with rhodamine 123. As shown by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis, the fluorescent nanoparticles were readily taken up by Huh-7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. After 24h incubation in blood serum, less than 5% of the Gd(III) was released from the particles, which suggests that this nanoparticulate system may be stable in vivo and, therefore, may serve as potentially safe T1 MRI contrast agent for MRI of hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Spin-transfer-torque efficiency enhanced by edge-damage of perpendicular magnetic random access memories

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Kyungmi; Lee, Kyung-Jin, E-mail: kj-lee@korea.ac.kr; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713

    2015-08-07

    We numerically investigate the effect of magnetic and electrical damages at the edge of a perpendicular magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cell on the spin-transfer-torque (STT) efficiency that is defined by the ratio of thermal stability factor to switching current. We find that the switching mode of an edge-damaged cell is different from that of an undamaged cell, which results in a sizable reduction in the switching current. Together with a marginal reduction of the thermal stability factor of an edge-damaged cell, this feature makes the STT efficiency large. Our results suggest that a precise edge control is viable formore » the optimization of STT-MRAM.« less

  13. Spin transfer driven resonant expulsion of a magnetic vortex core for efficient rf detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menshawy, S.; Jenkins, A. S.; Merazzo, K. J.; Vila, L.; Ferreira, R.; Cyrille, M.-C.; Ebels, U.; Bortolotti, P.; Kermorvant, J.; Cros, V.

    2017-05-01

    Spin transfer magnetization dynamics have led to considerable advances in Spintronics, including opportunities for new nanoscale radiofrequency devices. Among the new functionalities is the radiofrequency (rf) detection using the spin diode rectification effect in spin torque nano-oscillators (STNOs). In this study, we focus on a new phenomenon, the resonant expulsion of a magnetic vortex in STNOs. This effect is observed when the excitation vortex radius, due to spin torques associated to rf currents, becomes larger than the actual radius of the STNO. This vortex expulsion is leading to a sharp variation of the voltage at the resonant frequency. Here we show that the detected frequency can be tuned by different parameters; furthermore, a simultaneous detection of different rf signals can be achieved by real time measurements with several STNOs having different diameters. This result constitutes a first proof-of-principle towards the development of a new kind of nanoscale rf threshold detector.

  14. Magnetization transfer and adiabatic R 1ρ MRI in the brainstem of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tuite, Paul J; Mangia, Silvia; Tyan, Andrew E; Lee, Michael K; Garwood, Michael; Michaeli, Shalom

    2012-06-01

    In addition to classic midbrain pathology, Parkinson's disease (PD) is accompanied by changes in pontine and medullary brainstem structures. These additional abnormalities may underlie non-motor features as well as play a role in motor disability. Using novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods based on rotating frame adiabatic R(1ρ) (i.e., measurements of longitudinal relaxation during adiabatic full passage pulses) and modified magnetization transfer (MT) MRI mapping, we sought to identify brainstem alterations in nine individuals with mild-moderate PD (off medication) and ten age-matched controls at 4 T. We discovered significant differences in MRI parameters between midbrain and medullary brainstem structures in control subjects as compared to PD patients. These findings support the presence of underlying functional/structural brainstem changes in mild-moderate PD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relayed 13C magnetization transfer: Detection of malate dehydrogenase reaction in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jehoon; Shen, Jun

    2007-02-01

    Malate dehydrogenase catalyzes rapid interconversion between dilute metabolites oxaloacetate and malate. Both oxaloacetate and malate are below the detection threshold of in vivo MRS. Oxaloacetate is also in rapid exchange with aspartate catalyzed by aspartate aminotransferase, the latter metabolite is observable in vivo using 13C MRS. We hypothesized that the rapid turnover of oxaloacetate can effectively relay perturbation of magnetization between malate and aspartate. Here, we report indirect observation of the malate dehydrogenase reaction by saturating malate C2 resonance at 71.2 ppm and detecting a reduced aspartate C2 signal at 53.2 ppm due to relayed magnetization transfer via oxaloacetate C2 at 201.3 ppm. Using this strategy the rate of the cerebral malate dehydrogenase reaction was determined to be 9 ± 2 μmol/g wet weight/min (means ± SD, n = 5) at 11.7 Tesla in anesthetized adult rats infused with [1,6- 13C 2]glucose.

  16. Correcting reaction rates measured by saturation-transfer magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabr, Refaat E.; Weiss, Robert G.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2008-04-01

    Off-resonance or spillover irradiation and incomplete saturation can introduce significant errors in the estimates of chemical rate constants measured by saturation-transfer magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Existing methods of correction are effective only over a limited parameter range. Here, a general approach of numerically solving the Bloch-McConnell equations to calculate exchange rates, relaxation times and concentrations for the saturation-transfer experiment is investigated, but found to require more measurements and higher signal-to-noise ratios than in vivo studies can practically afford. As an alternative, correction formulae for the reaction rate are provided which account for the expected parameter ranges and limited measurements available in vivo. The correction term is a quadratic function of experimental measurements. In computer simulations, the new formulae showed negligible bias and reduced the maximum error in the rate constants by about 3-fold compared to traditional formulae, and the error scatter by about 4-fold, over a wide range of parameters for conventional saturation transfer employing progressive saturation, and for the four-angle saturation-transfer method applied to the creatine kinase (CK) reaction in the human heart at 1.5 T. In normal in vivo spectra affected by spillover, the correction increases the mean calculated forward CK reaction rate by 6-16% over traditional and prior correction formulae.

  17. Design of Novel FBG-Based Sensor of Differential Pressure with Magnetic Transfer.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Guohui; Che, Guohang; Li, Junqing; Jiang, Xu; Wang, Keda; Han, Yueqiang; Gao, Laixu

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, a differential pressure sensor with magnetic transfer is proposed, in which the non-electric measurement based on the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with the position limiting mechanism is implemented without the direct contact of the sensing unit with the measuring fluid. The test shows that the designed sensor is effective for measuring differential pressure in the range of 0~10 kPa with a sensitivity of 0.0112 nm/kPa, which can be used in environments with high temperature, strong corrosion and high overload measurements.

  18. In Vivo Magnetization Transfer and Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Detects Thrombus Composition in a Mouse Model of Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Prakash; Modarai, Bijan; Smith, Alberto; Botnar, René M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Deep vein thrombosis remains a major health problem necessitating accurate diagnosis. Thrombolysis is associated with significant morbidity and is effective only for the treatment of unorganized thrombus. We tested the feasibility of in vivo magnetization transfer (MT) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to detect thrombus organization in a murine model of deep vein thrombosis. Methods and Results Deep vein thrombosis was induced in the inferior vena cava of male BALB/C mice. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after thrombus induction using MT, diffusion-weighted, inversion-recovery, and T1-mapping protocols. Delayed enhancement and T1 mapping were repeated 2 hours after injection of a fibrin contrast agent. Finally, excised thrombi were used for histology. We found that MT and diffusion-weighted imaging can detect histological changes associated with thrombus aging. MT rate (MTR) maps and percentage of MT rate (%MTR) allowed visualization and quantification of the thrombus protein content, respectively. The %MTR increased with thrombus organization and was significantly higher at days 14, 21, and 28 after thrombus induction (days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28: %MTR=2483±451, 2079±1210, 7029±2490, 10 295±4356, 32 994±25 449; Panova<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the %MTR and the histological protein content of the thrombus (r=0.70; P<0.05). The apparent diffusion coefficient was lower in erythrocyte-rich and collagen-rich thrombus (0.72±0.10 and 0.69±0.05 [×10−3 mm2/s]). Thrombus at days 7 and 14 had the highest apparent diffusion coefficient values (0.95±0.09 and 1.10±0.18 [×10−3 mm2/s]). Conclusions MT and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences are promising for the staging of thrombus composition and could be useful in guiding medical intervention. PMID:23564561

  19. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: fundamentals and application to the evaluation of the peripheral perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Yaron; Partovi, Sasan; Müller-Eschner, Matthias; Amarteifio, Erick; Bäuerle, Tobias; Weber, Marc-André; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The ability to ascertain information pertaining to peripheral perfusion through the analysis of tissues’ temporal reaction to the inflow of contrast agent (CA) was first recognized in the early 1990’s. Similar to other functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques such as arterial spin labeling (ASL) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) was at first restricted to studies of the brain. Over the last two decades the spectrum of ailments, which have been studied with DCE-MRI, has been extensively broadened and has come to include pathologies of the heart notably infarction, stroke and further cerebral afflictions, a wide range of neoplasms with an emphasis on antiangiogenic treatment and early detection, as well as investigations of the peripheral vascular and musculoskeletal systems. Applications to peripheral perfusion DCE-MRI possesses an unparalleled capacity to quantitatively measure not only perfusion but also other diverse microvascular parameters such as vessel permeability and fluid volume fractions. More over the method is capable of not only assessing blood flowing through an organ, but in contrast to other noninvasive methods, the actual tissue perfusion. These unique features have recently found growing application in the study of the peripheral vascular system and most notably in the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Review outline The first part of this review will elucidate the fundamentals of data acquisition and interpretation of DCE-MRI, two areas that often remain baffling to the clinical and investigating physician because of their complexity. The second part will discuss developments and exciting perspectives of DCE-MRI regarding the assessment of perfusion in the extremities. Emerging clinical applications of DCE-MRI will be reviewed with a special focus on investigation of physiology and pathophysiology of the microvascular and

  20. Diagnostic criteria for hepatocellular carcinoma ⩽3 cm with hepatocyte-specific contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang Hyun; Byun, Jae Ho; Lim, Young-Suk; Yu, Eunsil; Lee, So Jung; Kim, So Yeon; Won, Hyung Jin; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Pyo Nyun

    2016-05-01

    Current diagnostic imaging criteria for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are dedicated to imaging with nonspecific extracellular contrast agents. This study aimed to evaluate diagnostic criteria for HCC ⩽3 cm on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a hepatocyte-specific contrast agent through an inception cohort study. Of 291 patients with chronic liver disease and new nodules of 1-3 cm in diameter at surveillance ultrasonography, 295 solid nodules (194 HCCs, 98 benign nodules, and three other malignancies) in 198 patients with a confirmed final diagnosis or ⩾24 months follow-up were evaluated on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, various diagnostic criteria were developed by combining significant MRI findings for diagnosing HCC. The diagnostic performance of each criterion was compared with that of the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria. Four MRI findings (arterial-phase hyperintensity, transitional-phase hypointensity, hepatobiliary-phase hypointensity, and rim enhancement) were independently significant for diagnosis of HCC ⩽3 cm. For whole nodules, EASL criteria showed the best performance for diagnosing HCC (sensitivity, 83.5%; specificity, 81.2%). For nodules ⩽2 cm in diameter, a new criterion (arterial-phase hyperintensity and hepatobiliary-phase hypointensity) showed a significantly higher sensitivity than that of the EASL criteria (83.0% vs. 74.5%, p=0.008), without a significantly different specificity (76.7% vs. 81.1%, p=0.125). EASL criteria exhibit the best diagnostic performance for HCC ⩽3 cm on hepatocyte-specific contrast-enhanced MRI. A newly identified criterion (arterial-phase hyperintensity and hepatobiliary-phase hypointensity) may increase the diagnostic sensitivity of small (⩽2 cm) HCC. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comptonization in Ultra-Strong Magnetic Fields: Numerical Solution to the Radiative Transfer Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceccobello, C.; Farinelli, R.; Titarchuk, L.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the radiative transfer problem in a plane-parallel slab of thermal electrons in the presence of an ultra-strong magnetic field (B approximately greater than B(sub c) approx. = 4.4 x 10(exp 13) G). Under these conditions, the magnetic field behaves like a birefringent medium for the propagating photons, and the electromagnetic radiation is split into two polarization modes, ordinary and extraordinary, that have different cross-sections. When the optical depth of the slab is large, the ordinary-mode photons are strongly Comptonized and the photon field is dominated by an isotropic component. Aims. The radiative transfer problem in strong magnetic fields presents many mathematical issues and analytical or numerical solutions can be obtained only under some given approximations. We investigate this problem both from the analytical and numerical point of view, provide a test of the previous analytical estimates, and extend these results with numerical techniques. Methods. We consider here the case of low temperature black-body photons propagating in a sub-relativistic temperature plasma, which allows us to deal with a semi-Fokker-Planck approximation of the radiative transfer equation. The problem can then be treated with the variable separation method, and we use a numerical technique to find solutions to the eigenvalue problem in the case of a singular kernel of the space operator. The singularity of the space kernel is the result of the strong angular dependence of the electron cross-section in the presence of a strong magnetic field. Results. We provide the numerical solution obtained for eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the space operator, and the emerging Comptonization spectrum of the ordinary-mode photons for any eigenvalue of the space equation and for energies significantly lesser than the cyclotron energy, which is on the order of MeV for the intensity of the magnetic field here considered. Conclusions. We derived the specific intensity of the

  2. An optimized framework for quantitative magnetization transfer imaging of the cervical spinal cord in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Grussu, Francesco; Ianus, Andrada; Schneider, Torben; Prados, Ferran; Fairney, James; Ourselin, Sebastien; Alexander, Daniel C.; Cercignani, Mara; Gandini Wheeler‐Kingshott, Claudia A.M.; Samson, Rebecca S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop a framework to fully characterize quantitative magnetization transfer indices in the human cervical cord in vivo within a clinically feasible time. Methods A dedicated spinal cord imaging protocol for quantitative magnetization transfer was developed using a reduced field‐of‐view approach with echo planar imaging (EPI) readout. Sequence parameters were optimized based in the Cramer‐Rao‐lower bound. Quantitative model parameters (i.e., bound pool fraction, free and bound pool transverse relaxation times [ T2F, T2B], and forward exchange rate [k FB]) were estimated implementing a numerical model capable of dealing with the novelties of the sequence adopted. The framework was tested on five healthy subjects. Results Cramer‐Rao‐lower bound minimization produces optimal sampling schemes without requiring the establishment of a steady‐state MT effect. The proposed framework allows quantitative voxel‐wise estimation of model parameters at the resolution typically used for spinal cord imaging (i.e. 0.75 × 0.75 × 5 mm3), with a protocol duration of ∼35 min. Quantitative magnetization transfer parametric maps agree with literature values. Whole‐cord mean values are: bound pool fraction = 0.11(±0.01), T2F = 46.5(±1.6) ms, T2B = 11.0(±0.2) µs, and k FB = 1.95(±0.06) Hz. Protocol optimization has a beneficial effect on reproducibility, especially for T2B and k FB. Conclusion The framework developed enables robust characterization of spinal cord microstructure in vivo using qMT. Magn Reson Med 79:2576–2588, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:28921614

  3. High levels of maternally transferred mercury disrupt magnetic responses of snapping turtle hatchlings (Chelydra serpentina).

    PubMed

    Landler, Lukas; Painter, Michael S; Coe, Brittney Hopkins; Youmans, Paul W; Hopkins, William A; Phillips, John B

    2017-09-01

    The Earth's magnetic field is involved in spatial behaviours ranging from long-distance migration to non-goal directed behaviours, such as spontaneous magnetic alignment (SMA). Mercury is a harmful pollutant most often generated from anthropogenic sources that can bio-accumulate in animal tissue over a lifetime. We compared SMA of hatchling snapping turtles from mothers captured at reference (i.e., low mercury) and mercury contaminated sites. Reference turtles showed radio frequency-dependent SMA along the north-south axis, consistent with previous studies of SMA, while turtles with high levels of maternally inherited mercury failed to show consistent magnetic alignment. In contrast, there was no difference between reference and mercury exposed turtles on standard performance measures. The magnetic field plays an important role in animal orientation behaviour and may also help to integrate spatial information from a variety of sensory modalities. As a consequence, mercury may compromise the performance of turtles in a wide variety of spatial tasks. Future research is needed to determine the threshold for mercury effects on snapping turtles, whether mercury exposure compromises spatial behaviour of adult turtles, and whether mercury has a direct effect on the magnetoreception mechanism(s) that mediate SMA or a more general effect on the nervous system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Three-dimensional imaging of the aortic vessel wall using an elastin-specific magnetic resonance contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Marcus R; Preissel, Anne; von Bary, Christian; Warley, Alice; Schachoff, Sylvia; Keithan, Alexandra; Cesati, Richard R; Onthank, David C; Schwaiger, Markus; Robinson, Simon P; Botnar, René M

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of high-resolution 3-dimensional aortic vessel wall imaging using a novel elastin-specific magnetic resonance contrast agent (ESMA) in a large animal model. The thoracic aortic vessel wall of 6 Landrace pigs was imaged using a novel ESMA and a nonspecific control agent. On day 1, imaging was performed before and after the administration of a nonspecific control agent, gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA; Bayer Schering AG, Berlin, Germany). On day 3, identical scans were repeated before and after the administration of a novel ESMA (Lantheus Medical Imaging, North Billerica, Massachusetts). Three-dimensional inversion recovery gradient echo delayed-enhancement imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) angiography of the thoracic aortic vessel wall were performed on a 1.5-T MR scanner (Achieva; Philips Medical Systems, the Netherlands). The signal-to-noise ratio and the contrast-to-noise ratio of arterial wall enhancement, including the time course of enhancement, were assessed for ESMA and Gd-DTPA. After the completion of imaging sessions, histology, electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy were performed to localize and quantify the gadolinium bound to the arterial vessel wall. Administration of ESMA resulted in a strong enhancement of the aortic vessel wall on delayed-enhancement imaging, whereas no significant enhancement could be measured with Gd-DTPA. Ninety to 100 minutes after the administration of ESMA, significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio could be measured compared with the administration of Gd-DTPA (45.7 ± 9.6 vs 13.2 ± 3.5, P < 0.05 and 41.9 ± 9.1 vs 5.2 ± 2.0, P < 0.05). A significant correlation (0.96; P < 0.01) between area measurements derived from ESMA scans and aortic MR angiography scans could be found. Electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy confirmed the colocalization of ESMA with

  5. Assessment of the patellofemoral cartilage: Correlation of knee pain score with magnetic resonance cartilage grading and magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry of glycosaminoglycan chemical exchange saturation transfer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Han; Yang, Jaemoon; Jeong, Ha-Kyu; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2017-01-01

    Biochemical imaging of glycosaminoglycan chemical exchange saturation transfer (gagCEST) could predict the depletion of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in early osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry (MTR asym ) of gagCEST images and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores in the knee joint. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. A phantom study was performed using hyaluronic acid to validate the MTR asym values of gagCEST images. Knee magnetic resonance (MR) images of 22 patients (male, 9; female, 13; mean age, 50.3years; age range; 25-79years) with knee pain were included in this study. The MR imaging (MRI) protocol involved standard knee MRI as well as gagCEST imaging, which allowed region-of-interest analyses of the patellar facet and femoral trochlea. The MTR asym at 1.0ppm was calculated at each region. The cartilages of the patellar facets and femoral trochlea were graded according to the Outerbridge classification system. Data regarding the VAS scores of knee pain were collected from the electronic medical records of the patients. Statistical analysis was performed using Spearman's correlation. The results of the phantom study revealed excellent correlation between the MTR asym values and the concentration of GAGs (r=0.961; p=0.003). The cartilage grades on the MR images showed significant negative correlation with the MTR asym values in the patellar facet and femoral trochlea (r=-0.460; p=0.031 and r=-0.543; p=0.009, respectively). The VAS pain scores showed significant negative correlation with the MTR asym values in the patellar facet and femoral trochlea (r=-0.435; p=0.043 and r=-0.671; p=0.001, respectively). The pain scores were associated with the morphological and biochemical changes in articular cartilages visualized on knee MR images. The biochemical changes, visualized in terms of the MTR asym values of the gagCEST images, exhibited

  6. Image Quality and Stenosis Assessment of Non-Contrast-Enhanced 3-T Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease Compared with Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography and Digital Subtraction Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiayi; Zhang, Nan; Fan, Zhaoyang; Luo, Nan; Zhao, Yike; Bi, Xiaoming; An, Jing; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Dongting; Wen, Zhaoying; Fan, Zhanming; Li, Debiao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of flow-sensitive dephasing (FSD)-prepared steady-state free precession (SSFP) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 3 T for imaging infragenual arteries relative to contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Materials and Methods A series of 16 consecutive patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) underwent a combined peripheral MRA protocol consisting of FSD-MRA for the calves and large field-of-view CE-MRA. DSA was performed on all patients within 1 week of the MR angiographies. Image quality and degree of stenosis was assessed by two readers with rich experience. Inter-observer agreement was determined using kappa statistics. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis determined the diagnostic value of FSD-MRA, CE-MRA, and CE-MRA combined with FSD-MRA (CE+FSD MRA) in predicting vascular stenosis. Results At the calf station, no significantly difference of subjective image quality scores was found between FSD-MRA and CE-MRA. Inter-reader agreement was excellent for both FSD-MRA and CE-MRA. Both of FSD-MRA and CE-MRA carry a stenosis overestimation risk relative to DSA standard. With DSA as the reference standard, ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve was largest for CE+FSD MRA. The greatest sensitivity and specificity were obtained when a cut-off stenosis score of 2 was used. Conclusion In patients with severe PAD,3 T FSD-MRA provides good-quality diagnostic images without a contrast agent and is a good supplement for CE-MRA. CE+FSD MRA can improve the accuracy of vascular stenosis diagnosis. PMID:27861626

  7. Exploration of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy material system for application in spin transfer torque - Random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajarathinam, Anusha

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) materials have unique advantages when used in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) which are the most critical part of spin-torque transfer random access memory devices (STT-RAMs) that are being researched intensively as future non-volatile memory technology. They have high magnetoresistance which improves their sensitivity. The STT-RAM has several advantages over competing technologies, for instance, low power consumption, non-volatility, ultra-fast read and write speed and high endurance. In personal computers, it can replace SRAM for high-speed applications, Flash for non-volatility, and PSRAM and DRAM for high-speed program execution. The main aim of this research is to identify and optimize the best perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) material system for application to STT-RAM technology. Preliminary search for perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) materials for pinned layer for MTJs started with the exploration and optimization of crystalline alloys such as Co50Pd50 alloy, Mn50Al50 and amorphous alloys such as Tb21Fe72Co7 and are first presented in this work. Further optimization includes the study of Co/[Pd/Pt]x multilayers (ML), and the development of perpendicular synthetic antiferromagnets (SAF) utilizing these multilayers. Focused work on capping and seed layers to evaluate interfacial perpendicular anisotropy in free layers for pMTJs is then discussed. Optimization of the full perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (pMTJ) includes the CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB trilayer coupled to a pinned/pinning layer with perpendicular Co/[Pd/Pt]x SAF and a thin Ta seeded CoFeB free layer. Magnetometry, simulations, annealing studies, transport measurements and TEM analysis on these samples will then be presented.

  8. In vitro evaluation of genotoxic effects under magnetic resonant coupling wireless power transfer.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kohei; Shinohara, Naoki; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2015-04-07

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) technology using the resonant coupling phenomenon has been widely studied, but there are very few studies concerning the possible relationship between WPT exposure and human health. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to magnetic resonant coupling WPT has genotoxic effects on WI38VA13 subcloned 2RA human fibroblast cells. WPT exposure was performed using a helical coil-based exposure system designed to transfer power with 85.4% efficiency at a 12.5-MHz resonant frequency. The magnetic field at the positions of the cell culture dishes is approximately twice the reference level for occupational exposure as stated in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The specific absorption rate at the positions of the cell culture dishes matches the respective reference levels stated in the ICNIRP guidelines. For assessment of genotoxicity, we studied cell growth, cell cycle distribution, DNA strand breaks using the comet assay, micronucleus formation, and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene mutation, and did not detect any significant effects between the WPT-exposed cells and control cells. Our results suggest that WPT exposure under the conditions of the ICNIRP guidelines does not cause detectable cellular genotoxicity.

  9. Metamaterial-enhanced coupling between magnetic dipoles for efficient wireless power transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Smith, David R.

    2011-05-01

    Nonradiative coupling between conductive coils is a candidate mechanism for wireless energy transfer applications. In this paper we propose a power relay system based on a near-field metamaterial superlens and present a thorough theoretical analysis of this system. We use time-harmonic circuit formalism to describe all interactions between two coils attached to external circuits and a slab of anisotropic medium with homogeneous permittivity and permeability. The fields of the coils are found in the point-dipole approximation using Sommerfeld integrals which are reduced to standard special functions in the long-wavelength limit. We show that, even with a realistic magnetic loss tangent of order 0.1, the power transfer efficiency with the slab can be an order of magnitude greater than free-space efficiency when the load resistance exceeds a certain threshold value. We also find that the volume occupied by the metamaterial between the coils can be greatly compressed by employing magnetic permeability with a large anisotropy ratio.

  10. Dual-mode T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent based on ultrasmall mixed gadolinium-dysprosium oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and in vivo application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegafaw, Tirusew; Xu, Wenlong; Wasi Ahmad, Md; Baeck, Jong Su; Chang, Yongmin; Bae, Ji Eun; Chae, Kwon Seok; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Gang Ho

    2015-09-01

    A new type of dual-mode T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent based on mixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles was synthesized. Gd3+ (8S7/2) plays an important role in T1 MRI contrast agents because of its large electron spin magnetic moment resulting from its seven unpaired 4f-electrons, and Dy3+ (6H15/2) has the potential to be used in T2 MRI contrast agents because of its very large total electron magnetic moment: among lanthanide oxide nanoparticles, Dy2O3 nanoparticles have the largest magnetic moments at room temperature. Using these properties of Gd3+ and Dy3+ and their oxide nanoparticles, ultrasmall mixed gadolinium-dysprosium oxide (GDO) nanoparticles were synthesized and their potential to act as a dual-mode T1 and T2 MRI contrast agent was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The D-glucuronic acid coated GDO nanoparticles (davg = 1.0 nm) showed large r1 and r2 values (r2/r1 ≈ 6.6) and as a result clear dose-dependent contrast enhancements in R1 and R2 map images. Finally, the dual-mode imaging capability of the nanoparticles was confirmed by obtaining in vivo T1 and T2 MR images.

  11. Spin polarization transfer mechanisms of SABRE: A magnetic field dependent study.

    PubMed

    Pravdivtsev, Andrey N; Ivanov, Konstantin L; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V; Petrov, Pavel A; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich; Kaptein, Robert; Vieth, Hans-Martin

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the magnetic field dependence of Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange (SABRE) arising from binding of para-hydrogen (p-H2) and a substrate to a suitable transition metal complex. The magnetic field dependence of the amplification of the (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) signals of the released substrates and dihydrogen, and the transient transition metal dihydride species shows characteristic patterns, which is explained using the theory presented here. The generation of SABRE is most efficient at low magnetic fields due to coherent spin mixing at nuclear spin Level Anti-Crossings (LACs) in the SABRE complexes. We studied two Ir-complexes and have shown that the presence of a (31)P atom in the SABRE complex doubles the number of LACs and, consequently, the number of peaks in the SABRE field dependence. Interestingly, the polarization of SABRE substrates is always accompanied by the para-to-ortho conversion in dihydride species that results in enhancement of the NMR signal of free (H2) and catalyst-bound H2 (Ir-HH). The field dependences of hyperpolarized H2 and Ir-HH by means of SABRE are studied here, for the first time, in detail. The field dependences depend on the chemical shifts and coupling constants of Ir-HH, in which the polarization transfer takes place. A negative coupling constant of -7Hz between the two chemically equivalent but magnetically inequivalent hydride nuclei is determined, which indicates that Ir-HH is a dihydride with an HH distance larger than 2Å. Finally, the field dependence of SABRE at high fields as found earlier has been investigated and attributed to polarization transfer to the substrate by cross-relaxation. The present study provides further evidence for the key role of LACs in the formation of SABRE-derived polarization. Understanding the spin dynamics behind the SABRE method opens the way to optimizing its performance and overcoming the main limitation of NMR, its notoriously low sensitivity

  12. Clinical utility of time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) magnetic resonance angiography for infrageniculate arterial occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Mell, Matthew; Tefera, Girma; Thornton, Frank; Siepman, David; Turnipseed, William

    2007-03-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the infrapopliteal arterial segment is not well defined. This study evaluated the clinical utility and diagnostic accuracy of time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) MRA compared with digital subtraction contrast angiography (DSA) in planning for percutaneous interventions of popliteal and infrapopliteal arterial occlusive disease. Patients who underwent percutaneous lower extremity interventions for popliteal or tibial occlusive disease were identified for this study. Preprocedural TRICKS MRA was performed with 1.5 Tesla (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wis) magnetic resonance imaging scanners with a flexible peripheral vascular coil, using the TRICKS technique with gadodiamide injection. DSA was performed using standard techniques in angiography suite with a 15-inch image intensifier. DSA was considered the gold standard. The MRA and DSA were then evaluated in a blinded fashion by a radiologist and a vascular surgeon. The popliteal artery and tibioperoneal trunk were evaluated separately, and the tibial arteries were divided into proximal, mid, and distal segments. Each segment was interpreted as normal (0% to 49% stenosis), stenotic (50% to 99% stenosis), or occluded (100%). Lesion morphology was classified according to the TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC). We calculated concordance between the imaging studies and the sensitivity and specificity of MRA. The clinical utility of MRA was also assessed in terms of identifying arterial access site as well as predicting technical success of the percutaneous treatment. Comparisons were done on 150 arterial segments in 30 limbs of 27 patients. When evaluated by TASC classification, TRICKS MRA correlated with DSA in 83% of the popliteal and in 88% of the infrapopliteal segments. MRA correctly identified significant disease of the popliteal artery with a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 92%, and of the tibial arteries with a

  13. Amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging of Alzheimer's disease at 3.0 Tesla: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Li, Sa-Ying; Chen, Min; Zhou, Jin-Yuan; Peng, Dan-Tao; Zhang, Chen; Dai, Yong-Ming

    2015-03-05

    Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging has recently emerged as an important contrast mechanism for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the field of molecular and cellular imaging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of APT imaging to detect cerebral abnormality in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) at 3.0 Tesla. Twenty AD patients (9 men and 11 women; age range, 67-83 years) and 20 age-matched normal controls (11 men and 9 women; age range, 63-82 years) underwent APT and traditional MRI examination on a 3.0 Tesla MRI system. The magnetic resonance ratio asymmetry (MTR asym ) values at 3.5 ppm of bilateral hippocampi (Hc), temporal white matter regions, occipital white matter regions, and cerebral peduncles were measured on oblique axial APT images. MTR asym (3.5 ppm) values of the cerebral structures between AD patients and control subjects were compared with independent samples t-test. Controlling for age, partial correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the various MRI measures among AD patients. Compared with normal controls, MTR asym (3.5 ppm) values of bilateral Hc were significantly increased in AD patients (right 1.24% ± 0.21% vs. 0.83% ± 0.19%, left 1.18% ± 0.18% vs. 0.80%± 0.17%, t = 3.039, 3.328, P = 0.004, 0.002, respectively). MTR asym (3.5 ppm) values of bilateral Hc were significantly negatively correlated with MMSE (right r = -0.559, P = 0.013; left r = -0.461, P = 0.047). Increased MTR asym (3.5 ppm) values of bilateral Hc in AD patients and its strong correlations with MMSE suggest that APT imaging could potentially provide imaging biomarkers for the noninvasive molecular diagnosis of AD.

  14. Accuracy of Phase-Contrast Velocity Mapping Proximal and Distal to Stent Artifact During Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Avitabile, Catherine M; Harris, Matthew A; Doddasomayajula, Ravi S; Chopski, Steven G; Gillespie, Matthew J; Dori, Yoav; Glatz, Andrew C; Fogel, Mark A; Whitehead, Kevin K

    2018-06-15

    Little data are available on the accuracy of phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) velocity mapping in the vicinity of intravascular metal stents other than nitinol stents. Therefore, we sought to determine this accuracy using in vitro experiments. An in vitro flow phantom was used with 3 stent types: (1) 316L stainless steel, (2) nitinol self-expanding, and (3) platinum-iridium. Steady and pulsatile flow was delivered with a magnetic resonance imaging-compatible pump (CardioFlow 5000, Shelley Medical, London, Ontario, Canada). Flows were measured using a transit time flow meter (ME13PXN, Transonic, Inc, Ithaca, New York). Mean flows ranged from 0.5 to 7 L/min. For each condition, 5 PC-MRI acquisitions were made: within the stent, immediately adjacent to both edges of the stent artifact, and 1 cm upstream and downstream of the artifact. Mean PC-MRI flows were calculated by segmenting the tube lumen using clinical software (ARGUS, Siemens, Inc, Erlangen, Germany). PC-MRI and flow meter flows were compared by location and stent type using linear regression, Bland-Altman, and intraclass correlation (ICC). PC-MRI flows within the stent artifact were inaccurate for all stents studied, generally underestimating flow meter-measured flow. Agreement between PC-MRI and flow meter-measured flows was excellent for all stent types, both immediately adjacent to and 1 cm away from the edge of the stent artifact. Agreement was highest for the platinum-iridium stent (R = 0.999, ICC = 0.999) and lowest for the nitinol stent (R = 0.993, ICC = 0.987). In conclusion, PC-MRI flows are highly accurate just upstream and downstream of a variety of clinically used stents, supporting its use to directly measure flows in stented vessels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Head flying characteristics in heat assisted magnetic recording considering various nanoscale heat transfer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yueqiang; Wu, Haoyu; Meng, Yonggang; Wang, Yu; Bogy, David

    2018-01-01

    The thermal issues in heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) technology have drawn much attention in the recent literature. In this paper, the head flying characteristics and thermal performance of a HAMR system during the touch-down process considering different nanoscale heat transfer models across the head-disk interface are numerically studied. An optical-thermal-mechanical coupled model is first described. The coupling efficiency of the near field transducer is found to be dependent on the head disk clearance. The shortcomings of a constant disk-temperature model are investigated, which reveals the importance of considering the disk temperature as a variable. A study of the head flying on the disk is carried out using an air conduction model and additional near-field heat transfer models. It is shown that when the head disk interface is filled with a solid material caused by the laser-induced accumulation, the heat transfer coefficient can become unexpectedly large and the head's temperature can rise beyond desirable levels. Finally, the additional head protrusion due to the laser heating is investigated.

  16. Improvement of vascular function by magnetic nanoparticle-assisted circumferential gene transfer into the native endothelium.

    PubMed

    Vosen, Sarah; Rieck, Sarah; Heidsieck, Alexandra; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Zimmermann, Katrin; Plank, Christian; Gleich, Bernhard; Pfeifer, Alexander; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Wenzel, Daniela

    2016-11-10

    Gene therapy is a promising approach for chronic disorders that require continuous treatment such as cardiovascular disease. Overexpression of vasoprotective genes has generated encouraging results in animal models, but not in clinical trials. One major problem in humans is the delivery of sufficient amounts of genetic vectors to the endothelium which is impeded by blood flow, whereas prolonged stop-flow conditions impose the risk of ischemia. In the current study we have therefore developed a strategy for the efficient circumferential lentiviral gene transfer in the native endothelium under constant flow conditions. For that purpose we perfused vessels that were exposed to specially designed magnetic fields with complexes of lentivirus and magnetic nanoparticles thereby enabling overexpression of therapeutic genes such as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This treatment enhanced NO and VEGF production in the transduced endothelium and resulted in a reduction of vascular tone and increased angiogenesis. Thus, the combination of MNPs with magnetic fields is an innovative strategy for site-specific and efficient vascular gene therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Iridium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes as Efficient Catalysts for Magnetization Transfer from para-Hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    While the characterization of materials by NMR is hugely important in the physical and biological sciences, it also plays a vital role in medical imaging. This success is all the more impressive because of the inherently low sensitivity of the method. We establish here that [Ir(H)2(IMes)(py)3]Cl undergoes both pyridine (py) loss as well as the reductive elimination of H2. These reversible processes bring para-H2 and py into contact in a magnetically coupled environment, delivering an 8100-fold increase in 1H NMR signal strength relative to non-hyperpolarized py at 3 T. An apparatus that facilitates signal averaging has been built to demonstrate that the efficiency of this process is controlled by the strength of the magnetic field experienced by the complex during the magnetization transfer step. Thermodynamic and kinetic data combined with DFT calculations reveal the involvement of [Ir(H)2(η2-H2)(IMes)(py)2]+, an unlikely yet key intermediate in the reaction. Deuterium labeling yields an additional 60% improvement in signal, an observation that offers insight into strategies for optimizing this approach. PMID:21469642

  18. Iridium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes as efficient catalysts for magnetization transfer from para-hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Michael J; Adams, Ralph W; Atkinson, Kevin D; Cockett, Martin C R; Duckett, Simon B; Green, Gary G R; Lohman, Joost A B; Kerssebaum, Rainer; Kilgour, David; Mewis, Ryan E

    2011-04-27

    While the characterization of materials by NMR is hugely important in the physical and biological sciences, it also plays a vital role in medical imaging. This success is all the more impressive because of the inherently low sensitivity of the method. We establish here that [Ir(H)(2)(IMes)(py)(3)]Cl undergoes both pyridine (py) loss as well as the reductive elimination of H(2). These reversible processes bring para-H(2) and py into contact in a magnetically coupled environment, delivering an 8100-fold increase in (1)H NMR signal strength relative to non-hyperpolarized py at 3 T. An apparatus that facilitates signal averaging has been built to demonstrate that the efficiency of this process is controlled by the strength of the magnetic field experienced by the complex during the magnetization transfer step. Thermodynamic and kinetic data combined with DFT calculations reveal the involvement of [Ir(H)(2)(η(2)-H(2))(IMes)(py)(2)](+), an unlikely yet key intermediate in the reaction. Deuterium labeling yields an additional 60% improvement in signal, an observation that offers insight into strategies for optimizing this approach.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of Magnetic Resonance Imaging with a New Contrast Agent for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Biasutti, Maria; Dufour, Natacha; Ferroud, Clotilde; Dab, William; Temime, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Background Used as contrast agents for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), markers for beta-amyloid deposits might allow early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of such a diagnostic test, MRI+CLP (contrastophore-linker-pharmacophore), should it become clinically available. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the cost-effectiveness of MRI+CLP to that of standard diagnosis using currently available cognition tests and of standard MRI, and investigated the impact of a hypothetical treatment efficient in early AD. The primary analysis was based on the current French context for 70-year-old patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). In alternative “screen and treat” scenarios, we analyzed the consequences of systematic screenings of over-60 individuals (either population-wide or restricted to the ApoE4 genotype population). We used a Markov model of AD progression; model parameters, as well as incurred costs and quality-of-life weights in France were taken from the literature. We performed univariate and probabilistic multivariate sensitivity analyses. The base-case preferred strategy was the standard MRI diagnosis strategy. In the primary analysis however, MRI+CLP could become the preferred strategy under a wide array of scenarios involving lower cost and/or higher sensitivity or specificity. By contrast, in the “screen and treat” analyses, the probability of MRI+CLP becoming the preferred strategy remained lower than 5%. Conclusions/Significance It is thought that anti-beta-amyloid compounds might halt the development of dementia in early stage patients. This study suggests that, even should such treatments become available, systematically screening the over-60 population for AD would only become cost-effective with highly specific tests able to diagnose early stages of the disease. However, offering a new diagnostic test based on beta-amyloid markers to elderly patients with MCI might prove cost

  20. Cost-effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging with a new contrast agent for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Biasutti, Maria; Dufour, Natacha; Ferroud, Clotilde; Dab, William; Temime, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Used as contrast agents for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), markers for beta-amyloid deposits might allow early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of such a diagnostic test, MRI+CLP (contrastophore-linker-pharmacophore), should it become clinically available. We compared the cost-effectiveness of MRI+CLP to that of standard diagnosis using currently available cognition tests and of standard MRI, and investigated the impact of a hypothetical treatment efficient in early AD. The primary analysis was based on the current French context for 70-year-old patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). In alternative "screen and treat" scenarios, we analyzed the consequences of systematic screenings of over-60 individuals (either population-wide or restricted to the ApoE4 genotype population). We used a Markov model of AD progression; model parameters, as well as incurred costs and quality-of-life weights in France were taken from the literature. We performed univariate and probabilistic multivariate sensitivity analyses. The base-case preferred strategy was the standard MRI diagnosis strategy. In the primary analysis however, MRI+CLP could become the preferred strategy under a wide array of scenarios involving lower cost and/or higher sensitivity or specificity. By contrast, in the "screen and treat" analyses, the probability of MRI+CLP becoming the preferred strategy remained lower than 5%. It is thought that anti-beta-amyloid compounds might halt the development of dementia in early stage patients. This study suggests that, even should such treatments become available, systematically screening the over-60 population for AD would only become cost-effective with highly specific tests able to diagnose early stages of the disease. However, offering a new diagnostic test based on beta-amyloid markers to elderly patients with MCI might prove cost-effective.

  1. Stability and trapping of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents during high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy.

    PubMed

    Hijnen, Nicole M; Elevelt, Aaldert; Grüll, Holger

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of Gd-DTPA shortly before magnetic resonance guided high-intensity focused ultrasound MR-HIFU thermal ablation therapy with respect to dissociation, trapping, and long-term deposition of gadolinium (Gd) in the body. Magnetic resonance-HIFU ablation treatment was conducted in vivo on both rat muscle and subcutaneous tumor (9L glioma) using a clinical 3T MR-HIFU system equipped with a small-animal coil setup. A human equivalent dose of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) (0.6 mmol/kg of body weight) was injected via a tail vein catheter just before ablation (≤5 minutes). Potential trapping of the contrast agent in the ablated area was visualized through the acquisition of R1 maps of the target location before and after therapy. The animals were sacrificed 2 hours or 14 days after the injection (n = 4 per group, a total of 40 animals). Subsequently, the Gd content in the tissue and carcass was determined using inductively coupled plasma techniques to investigate the biodistribution. Temporal trapping of Gd-DTPA in the coagulated tissue was observed on the R1 maps acquired within 2 hours after the ablation, an effect confirmed by the inductively coupled plasma analysis (3 times more Gd was found in the treated muscle volume than in the control muscle tissue). Two weeks after the therapy, the absolute amount of Gd present in the coagulated tissue was low compared with the amount present in the kidneys 14 days after the injection (ablated muscle, 0.009% ± 0.002% ID/g; kidney, 0.144% ± 0.165% ID/g). There was no significant increase in Gd content in the principal target organs for translocated Gdions (liver, spleen, and bone) or in the entire carcasses between the HIFU- and sham-treated animals. Finally, an in vivo relaxivity of 4.6 mmols was found in the HIFU-ablated volume, indicating intact Gd-DTPA. Magnetic resonance-HIFU treatment does not induce the dissociation of Gd-DTPA. In small-tissue volumes, no

  2. Investigating spin-transfer torques induced by thermal gradients in magnetic tunnel junctions by using micro-cavity ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cansever, H.; Narkowicz, R.; Lenz, K.; Fowley, C.; Ramasubramanian, L.; Yildirim, O.; Niesen, A.; Huebner, T.; Reiss, G.; Lindner, J.; Fassbender, J.; Deac, A. M.

    2018-06-01

    Similar to electrical currents flowing through magnetic multilayers, thermal gradients applied across the barrier of a magnetic tunnel junction may induce pure spin-currents and generate ‘thermal’ spin-transfer torques large enough to induce magnetization dynamics in the free layer. In this study, we describe a novel experimental approach to observe spin-transfer torques induced by thermal gradients in magnetic multilayers by studying their ferromagnetic resonance response in microwave cavities. Utilizing this approach allows for measuring the magnetization dynamics on micron/nano-sized samples in open-circuit conditions, i.e. without the need of electrical contacts. We performed first experiments on magnetic tunnel junctions patterned into 6  ×  9 µm2 ellipses from Co2FeAl/MgO/CoFeB stacks. We conducted microresonator ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) under focused laser illumination to induce thermal gradients in the layer stack and compared them to measurements in which the sample was globally heated from the backside of the substrate. Moreover, we carried out broadband FMR measurements under global heating conditions on the same extended films the microstructures were later on prepared from. The results clearly demonstrate the effect of thermal spin-torque on the FMR response and thus show that the microresonator approach is well suited to investigate thermal spin-transfer-driven processes for small temperatures gradients, far below the gradients required for magnetic switching.

  3. Mathematical Model of the Processes of Heat and Mass Transfer and Diffusion of the Magnetic Field in an Induction Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perminov, A. V.; Nikulin, I. L.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a mathematical model describing the motion of a metal melt in a variable inhomogeneous magnetic field of a short solenoid. In formulating the problem, we made estimates and showed the possibility of splitting the complete magnetohydrodynamical problem into two subproblems: a magnetic field diffusion problem where the distributions of the external and induced magnetic fields and currents are determined, and a heat and mass transfer problem with known distributions of volume sources of heat and forces. The dimensionless form of the heat and mass transfer equation was obtained with the use of averaging and multiscale methods, which permitted writing and solving separately the equations for averaged flows and temperature fields and their oscillations. For the heat and mass transfer problem, the boundary conditions for a real technological facility are discussed. The dimensionless form of the magnetic field diffusion equation is presented, and the experimental computational procedure and results of the numerical simulation of the magnetic field structure in the melt for various magnetic Reynolds numbers are described. The extreme dependence of heat release on the magnetic Reynolds number has been interpreted.

  4. Analysis of self-heating of thermally assisted spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory

    DOE PAGES

    Deschenes, Austin; Muneer, Sadid; Akbulut, Mustafa; ...

    2016-11-11

    Thermal assistance has been shown to significantly reduce the required operation power for spin torque transfer magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM). Proposed heating methods include modified material stack compositions that result in increased self-heating or external heat sources. Here, we analyze the self-heating process of a standard perpendicular magnetic anisotropy STT-MRAM device through numerical simulations in order to understand the relative contributions of Joule, thermoelectric Peltier and Thomson, and tunneling junction heating. A 2D rotationally symmetric numerical model is used to solve the coupled electro-thermal equations including thermoelectric effects and heat absorbed or released at the tunneling junction. We comparemore » self-heating for different common passivation materials, positive and negative electrical current polarity, and different device thermal anchoring and boundaries resistance configurations. The variations considered are found to result in significant differences in maximum temperatures reached. Average increases of 3 K, 10 K, and 100 K for different passivation materials, positive and negative polarity, and different thermal anchoring configurations, respectively, are observed. Furthermore, the highest temperatures, up to 424 K, are obtained for silicon dioxide as the passivation material, positive polarity, and low thermal anchoring with thermal boundary resistance configurations. Interestingly it is also found that due to the tunneling heat, Peltier effect, device geometry, and numerous interfacial layers around the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), most of the heat is dissipated on the lower potential side of the magnetic junction. We have observed this asymmetry in heating and is important as thermally assisted switching requires heating of the free layer specifically and this will be significantly different for the two polarity operations, set and reset.« less

  5. Characterization of a custom-built RF coil for a high-resolution phase-contrast magnetic resonance velocimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Byungkuen; Cho, Jee-Hyun; Song, Simon

    2016-11-01

    For the use of clinical purpose magnetic resonance velocimeter (MRV) is a versatile flow visualization technique in that it allows opaque flow, complex geometry, no use of tracer particles and facile fast non-invasive measurements of 3 dimensional and 3 component velocity vectors. However, the spatial resolution of a commercial MR machine is lower than optics-based techniques like PIV. On the other hand, the use of MRV for clinical purposes like cardiovascular flow visualization requires accurate measurements or estimations on wall shear stress (WSS) with a high spatial resolution. We developed a custom-built solenoid RF coil for phase-contrast (PC) MRV to improve its resolution. We compared signal-to-noise ratio, WSS estimations, partial volume effects near wall between the custom RF coil and a commercial coil. Also, a Hagen-Poiseuille flow was analyzed with the custom RF coil. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2016R1A2B3009541).

  6. Glenohumeral articular cartilage lesions: prospective comparison of non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and findings at arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Brian A; Dolinskas, Carol A; Seymour, Peter A; Thomas, Stephen J; Abboud, Joseph A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV), and test-retest reliability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting cartilage abnormalities of the glenohumeral joint in comparison with the gold standard of diagnostic arthroscopy. Forty-four patients with a preoperative non-contrast MRI study of their affected shoulder underwent arthroscopy by one surgeon for rotator cuff tendinopathy from 2009 to 2010. Articular cartilage defects were prospectively recorded and graded according to the International Cartilage Repair Society classification system at the time of arthroscopy. One year after surgery, the preoperative MRI were reviewed by a board-certified radiologist and the treating surgeon for articular cartilage defects of both the humeral head and the glenoid. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and test-retest reliability were calculated. At arthroscopy, 43% of the shoulders were found to have articular cartilage defects. When the readers' findings were combined, the sensitivity of detecting humeral lesions on MRI was 32%; specificity, 80%; accuracy, 63%; PPV, 57%; and NPV, 66%. The sensitivity of detecting glenoid lesions was 31%; specificity, 86%; accuracy, 76%; PPV, 33%; and NPV, 85%. This study finds that the overall accuracy of MRI in detecting articular cartilage damage in patients with the clinical diagnosis of subacromial pathology is moderate. Level II, development of diagnostic criteria based on consecutive patients with universally applied reference "gold" standard. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Toward the Prediction of Water Exchange Rates in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents: A Density Functional Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Regueiro-Figueroa, Martín; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos

    2015-06-18

    We present a theoretical investigation of Gd-Owater bonds in different complexes relevant as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The analysis of the Ln-Owater distances, electron density (ρBCP), and electron localization function (ELF) at the bond critical points of [Ln(DOTA)(H2O)](-) and [Ln(DTPA-BMA)(H2O)] indicates that the strength of the Ln-Owater bonds follows the order DTPA-BMA > DOTA (M isomer) > DOTA (m isomer). The ELF values decrease along the 4f period as the Ln-Owater bonds get shorter, in line with the labile capping bond phenomenon. Extension of these calculations to other Gd(3+) complexes allowed us to correlate the experimentally observed water exchange rates and the calculated ρBCP and ELF values. The water exchange reaction becomes faster as the Gd-Owater bonds are weakened, which is reflected in longer bond distances and lower values of ρBCP and ELF. DKH2 calculations show that the two coordinated water molecules may also have significantly different (17)O hyperfine coupling constants (HFCCs).

  8. 1,2-Hydroxypyridonates as Contrast Agents for Magnetic ResonanceImaging: TREN-1,2-HOPO

    SciTech Connect

    Jocher, Christoph J.; Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide

    2007-05-08

    1,2-Hydroxypyridinones (1,2-HOPO) form very stable lanthanide complexes that may be useful as contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). X-ray diffraction of single crystals established that the solid state structures of the Eu(III) and the previously reported [Inorg. Chem. 2004, 43, 5452] Gd(III) complex are identical. The recently discovered sensitizing properties of 1,2-HOPO chelates for Eu(III) luminescence allow direct measurement of the number if water molecules in the metal complex. Fluorescence measurements of the Eu(III) complex corroborate that in solution two water molecules coordinate the lanthanide (q = 2) as proposed from the analysis of NMRD profiles. In addition, fluorescencemore » measurements have verified the anion binding interactions of lanthanide TREN-1,2-HOPO complexes in solution, studied by relaxivity, revealing only very weak oxalate binding (K{sub A} = 82.7 {+-} 6.5 M{sup -1}). Solution thermodynamic studies of the metal complex and free ligand have been carried out using potentiometry, spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectroscopy. The metal ion selectivity of TREN-1,2-HOPO supports the feasibility of using 1,2-HOPO ligands for selective lanthanide binding [pGd = 19.3 (2); pZn = 15.2 (2), pCa = 8.8 (3)].« less

  9. Hepatic Phospholipidosis Is Associated with Altered Hepatobiliary Function as Assessed by Gadoxetate Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lenhard, Stephen C; Lev, Mally; Webster, Lindsey O; Peterson, Richard A; Goulbourne, Christopher N; Miller, Richard T; Jucker, Beat M

    2016-01-01

    To determine if amiodarone induces hepatic phospholipidosis (PLD) sufficient to detect changes in hepatobiliary transporter function as assessed by gadoxetate dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), rats were orally dosed with vehicle (1% methyl cellulose) or amiodarone (300 mg/kg/day) for 7 consecutive days. Gadoxetate DCE-MRI occurred at baseline, day 7, and following a 2-week washout of amiodarone. At day 7, the gadoxetate washout rate was significantly decreased compared to the vehicle group. Blood chemistry analysis revealed no significant changes in liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT]/aspartate aminotransferase [AST]/alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), bilirubin, or bile acids between vehicle or amiodarone groups. Hepatic PLD was confirmed in all rats treated with amiodarone at day 7 by transmission electron microscopy. Following the 2-week washout, there was no ultrastructural evidence of hepatic PLD in rats and the gadoxetate washout rate returned to baseline levels. This is the first study to show the application of gadoxetate DCE-MRI to detect hepatobiliary functional changes associated with PLD and offer a potential new technique with clinical utility in patients suspected of having PLD. These results also suggest PLD itself has functional consequences on hepatobiliary function in the absence of biomarkers of toxicity, given the cause/effect relationship between PLD and function has not been fully established. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. GADOLINIUM(Gd)-BASED and Ion Oxide Nanoparticle Contrast Agents for Pre-Clinical and Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mri) Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Thian C.

    2012-06-01

    It is known that one strength of MRI is its excellent soft tissue discrimination. It naturally provides sufficient contrast between the structural differences of normal and pathological tissues, their spatial extent and progression. However, to further extend its applications and enhance even more contrast for clinical studies, various Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents have been developed for different organs (brain strokes, cancer, cardio-MRI, etc). These Gd-based contrast agents are paramagnetic compounds that have strong T1-effect for enhancing the contrast between tissue types. Gd-contrast can also enhance magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) for studying stenosis and for measuring perfusion, vascular susceptibility, interstitial space, etc. Another class of contrast agents makes use of ferrite iron oxide nanoparticles (including Superparamagnetic Ion Oxide (SPIO) and Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (USPIO)). These nanoparticles have superior magnetic susceptibility effect and produce a drop in signal, namely in T2*-weighted images, useful for the determination of lymph nodes metastases, angiogenesis and arteriosclerosis plaques.

  11. A Pictorial Review of Hepatobiliary Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Hepatocyte-Specific Contrast Agents: Uses, Findings, and Pitfalls of Gadoxetate Disodium and Gadobenate Dimeglumine.

    PubMed

    Scali, Elena P; Walshe, Triona; Tiwari, Hina Arif; Harris, Alison C; Chang, Silvia D

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a well-established role as a highly specific and accurate modality for characterizing benign and malignant focal liver lesions. In particular, contrast-enhanced MRI using hepatocyte-specific contrast agents (HSCAs) improves lesion detection and characterization compared to other imaging modalities and MRI techniques. In this pictorial review, the mechanism of action of gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents, with a focus on HSCAs, is described. The clinical indications, protocols, and emerging uses of the 2 commercially available combined contrast agents available in the United States, gadoxetate disodium and gadobenate dimeglumine, are discussed. The MRI features of these agents are compared with examples of focal hepatic masses, many of which have been obtained within the same patient therefore allowing direct lesion comparison. Finally, the pitfalls in the use of combined contrast agents in liver MRI are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Heat Transfer to Anode of Arc as Function of Transverse Magnetic Field and Lateral Gas Flow Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zama, Yoshiyuki; Shiino, Toru; Ishii, Yoko; Maeda, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru

    2016-10-01

    Gas tungsten arc welding has useful joining technology because of high-energy and high-current characteristics. It can be flexible from the transverse magnetic field and lateral gas flow velocity. In this case, the weld defect occurs. In this research, the heat transfer to the anode of the arc as a function of the transverse magnetic field and lateral gas flow velocity is elucidated. That magnetic flux density and lateral gas velocity were varied from 0 to 3 mT and 0 to 50?m?s -1, respectively. The axial plasma gas argon flow rates were 3?slm. A transverse magnetic field is applied to the arc using Helmholtz coil. The anode is used by a water-cooled copper plate, and the heat transfer is measured by temperature of cooled water. As a result, the arc is deflected by the Lorentz force and lateral gas convection. Thus, the heat transfer to the anode of the arc decreases with increasing the transverse magnetic field and lateral gas flow velocity. In addition, the heat transfer to the anode changes with different attachments modes. The lateral gas flow causes a convective heat loss from the arc to the chamber walls.

  13. 7T Magnetization Transfer and Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer MRI of Cortical Gray Matter: Can We Detect Neurochemical and Macromolecular Abnormalities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    with fMRI , and CEST acquisitions. Analysis hurdles were noted in the qMT, which we discuss here. Recruitment continues in the MS cohort (all healthy...Saturation Transfer (CEST) • Magnetization Transfer (MT) • Brain • Cortical Gray Matter (cGM) • Multiple Sclerosis (MS) • Functional MRI ( fMRI ) • Pool Size...MPRAGE Anatomical – 2:12 • fMRI Resting State – 8:34 • fMRI N-Back task – 8:30 • fMRI Trailmaking task – 4:14 The current scan time for all scans is

  14. Evaluation of different magnetic resonance imaging contrast materials to be used as dummy markers in image-guided brachytherapy for gynecologic malignancies*

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Camila Pessoa; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Taverna, Khallil Chaim; Pastorello, Bruno Fraccini; Rubo, Rodrigo Augusto; Borgonovi, Arthur Felipe; Stuart, Silvia Radwanski; Rodrigues, Laura Natal

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify a contrast material that could be used as a dummy marker for magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and Methods Magnetic resonance images were acquired with six different catheter-filling materials-water, glucose 50%, saline, olive oil, glycerin, and copper sulfate (CuSO4) water solution (2.08 g/L)-inserted into compatible computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging ring applicators placed in a phantom made of gelatin and CuSO4. The best contrast media were tested in four patients with the applicators in place. Results In T2-weighted sequences, the best contrast was achieved with the CuSO4-filled catheters, followed by saline- and glycerin-filled catheters, which presented poor visualization. In addition (also in T2-weighted sequences), CuSO4 presented better contrast when tested in the phantom than when tested in the patients, in which it provided some contrast but with poor identification of the first dwell position, mainly in the ring. Conclusion We found CuSO4 to be the best solution for visualization of the applicator channels, mainly in T2-weighted images in vitro, although the materials tested presented low signal intensity in the images obtained in vivo, as well as poor precision in determining the first dwell position. PMID:27403016

  15. One-pot synthesis of pegylated ultrasmall iron-oxide nanoparticles and their in vivo evaluation as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Jean-François; Stiller, Sabrina; Hoth, Ann; Kaufner, Lutz; Pison, Ulrich; Cartier, Régis

    2006-11-01

    A well-defined copolymer poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) P(OEGMA-co-MAA) was studied as a novel water-soluble biocompatible coating for superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. This copolymer was prepared via a two-step procedure: a well-defined precursor poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate-co-tert-butyl methacrylate), P(OEGMA-co-tBMA) (M(n) = 17300 g mol(-1); M(w)/M(n) = 1.22), was first synthesized by atom-transfer radical polymerization in the presence of the catalyst system copper(I) chloride/2,2'-bipyridyl and subsequently selectively hydrolyzed in acidic conditions. The resulting P(OEGMA-co-MAA) was directly utilized as a polymeric stabilizer in the nanoparticle synthesis. Four batches of ultrasmall PEGylated magnetite nanoparticles (i.e., with an average diameter below 30 nm) were prepared via aqueous coprecipitation of iron salts in the presence of variable amounts of P(OEGMA-co-MAA). The diameter of the nanoparticles could be easily tuned in the range 10-25 nm by varying the initial copolymer concentration. Moreover, the formed PEGylated ferrofluids exhibited a long-term colloidal stability in physiological buffer and could therefore be studied in vivo by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Intravenous injection into rats showed no detectable signal in the liver within the first 2 h. Maximum liver accumulation was found after 6 h, suggesting a prolongated circulation of the nanoparticles in the bloodstream as compared to conventional MR imaging contrast agents.

  16. Inter-reader reproducibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with bevacizumab and erlotinib.

    PubMed

    van den Boogaart, Vivian E M; de Lussanet, Quido G; Houben, Ruud M A; de Ruysscher, Dirk; Groen, Harry J M; Marcus, J Tim; Smit, Egbert F; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C; Backes, Walter H

    2016-03-01

    Objectives When evaluating anti-tumor treatment response by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) it is necessary to assure its validity and reproducibility. This has not been well addressed in lung tumors. Therefore we have evaluated the inter-reader reproducibility of response classification by DCE-MRI in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with bevacizumab and erlotinib enrolled in a multicenter trial. Twenty-one patients were scanned before and 3 weeks after start of treatment with DCE-MRI in a multicenter trial. The scans were evaluated by two independent readers. The primary lung tumor was used for response assessment. Responses were assessed in terms of relative changes in tumor mean trans endothelial transfer rate (K(trans)) and its heterogeneity in terms of the spatial standard deviation. Reproducibility was expressed by the inter-reader variability, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and dichotomous response classification. The inter-reader variability and ICC for the relative K(trans) were 5.8% and 0.930, respectively. For tumor heterogeneity the inter-reader variability and ICC were 0.017 and 0.656, respectively. For the two readers the response classification for relative K(trans) was concordant in 20 of 21 patients (k=0.90, p<0.0001) and for tumor heterogeneity in 19 of 21 patients (k=0.80, p<0.0001). Strong agreement was seen with regard to the inter-reader variability and reproducibility of response classification by the two readers of lung cancer DCE-MRI scans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of spin-transfer torques on synchronization and resonance phenomena in stochastic magnetic oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Accioly, Artur; Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay; Locatelli, Nicolas

    2016-09-07

    A theoretical study on how synchronization and resonance-like phenomena in superparamagnetic tunnel junctions can be driven by spin-transfer torques is presented. We examine the magnetization of a superparamagnetic free layer that reverses randomly between two well-defined orientations due to thermal fluctuations, acting as a stochastic oscillator. When subject to an external ac forcing, this system can present stochastic resonance and noise-enhanced synchronization. We focus on the roles of the mutually perpendicular damping-like and field-like torques, showing that the response of the system is very different at low and high frequencies. We also demonstrate that the field-like torque can increase themore » efficiency of the current-driven forcing, especially at sub-threshold electric currents. These results can be useful for possible low-power, more energy efficient applications.« less

  18. Multi-orbit tight binding calculations for spin transfer torque in magnetic tunneling junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Chun-Yeol; Han, Jae-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Woo

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the spin transfer torque (STT) with multi-orbit tight binding model in the magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJs). So far, most of the theoretical works based on the non-equilibrium Keldysh Green's function method employ a single band model for the simplicity, except a few first principle studies. Even though the single band model captures main physics of STT in MTJ, multi-band calculation reveals new features of the STT that depend on band parameters, such as insulator bandgap, inter-band hopping energy of the ferromagnetic layer. We find that the sign change of perpendicular torkance with bandgap of the insulator layer, and when we allow the inter-band hopping, the bias dependences of perpendicular STT are dramatically changed, while no noticeable changes in parallel STT are found.

  19. Influence of MgO Barrier Quality on Spin-Transfer Torque in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Dhananjay; Sharma, Raghav; Heinonen, O. G.

    Here, we studied the bias dependence of spin transfer torque in the MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction using a field-modulated spin torque ferromagnetic resonance measurement technique for three devices with tunneling magnetoresistances (MRs) of 60%, 67%, and 73%, respectively. The devices with a lower MR ratio showed the presence of multiple modes, while the device with higher MR (73%) showed a single resonance mode. We found a lower out-of-plane torkance in our devices compared to the in-plane torkance. The out-of-plane torque is linear with applied bias, while the bias dependence of in-plane torque shows a strong dependence on the MR ratiomore » and hence the barrier quality.« less

  20. Influence of MgO Barrier Quality on Spin-Transfer Torque in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    DOE PAGES

    Tiwari, Dhananjay; Sharma, Raghav; Heinonen, O. G.; ...

    2018-01-08

    Here, we studied the bias dependence of spin transfer torque in the MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction using a field-modulated spin torque ferromagnetic resonance measurement technique for three devices with tunneling magnetoresistances (MRs) of 60%, 67%, and 73%, respectively. The devices with a lower MR ratio showed the presence of multiple modes, while the device with higher MR (73%) showed a single resonance mode. We found a lower out-of-plane torkance in our devices compared to the in-plane torkance. The out-of-plane torque is linear with applied bias, while the bias dependence of in-plane torque shows a strong dependence on the MR ratiomore » and hence the barrier quality.« less

  1. Optimization of output power and transmission efficiency of magnetically coupled resonance wireless power transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Rongge; Guo, Xiaoting; Cao, Shaoqing; Zhang, Changgeng

    2018-05-01

    Magnetically coupled resonance (MCR) wireless power transfer (WPT) system is a promising technology in electric energy transmission. But, if its system parameters are designed unreasonably, output power and transmission efficiency will be low. Therefore, optimized parameters design of MCR WPT has important research value. In the MCR WPT system with designated coil structure, the main parameters affecting output power and transmission efficiency are the distance between the coils, the resonance frequency and the resistance of the load. Based on the established mathematical model and the differential evolution algorithm, the change of output power and transmission efficiency with parameters can be simulated. From the simulation results, it can be seen that output power and transmission efficiency of the two-coil MCR WPT system and four-coil one with designated coil structure are improved. The simulation results confirm the validity of the optimization method for MCR WPT system with designated coil structure.

  2. Magnetic resonant wireless power transfer for propulsion of implantable micro-robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Kim, M.; Yoo, J.; Park, H.-H.; Ahn, S.

    2015-05-01

    Recently, various types of mobile micro-robots have been proposed for medical and industrial applications. Especially in medical applications, a motor system for propulsion cannot easily be used in a micro-robot due to their small size. Therefore, micro-robots are usually actuated by controlling the magnitude and direction of an external magnetic field. However, for micro-robots, these methods in general are only applicable for moving and drilling operations, but not for the undertaking of various missions. In this paper, we propose a new micro-robot concept, which uses wireless power transfer to deliver the propulsion force and electric power simultaneously. The mechanism of Lorentz force generation and the coil design methodologies are explained, and validation of the proposed propulsion system for a micro-robot is discussed thorough a simulation and with actual measurements with up-scaled test vehicles.

  3. Reconnection at the earth's magnetopause - Magnetic field observations and flux transfer events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical models of plasma acceleration by magnetic-field-line reconnection at the earth magnetopause and the high-resolution three-dimensional plasma measurements obtained with the ISEE satellites are compared and illustrated with diagrams, graphs, drawings, and histograms. The history of reconnection theory and the results of early satellite observations are summarized; the thickness of the magnetopause current layer is discussed; problems in analyzing the polarization of current-layer rotation are considered; and the flux-transfer events responsible for periods of patchy reconnection are characterized in detail. The need for further observations and refinements of the theory to explain the initiation of reconnection and identify the mechanism determining whether it is patchy or steady-state is indicated.

  4. Influence of MgO barrier quality on spin-transfer torque in magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Dhananjay; Sharma, Raghav; Heinonen, O. G.; Åkerman, Johan; Muduli, P. K.

    2018-01-01

    We studied the bias dependence of spin transfer torque in the MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction using a field-modulated spin torque ferromagnetic resonance measurement technique for three devices with tunneling magnetoresistances (MRs) of 60%, 67%, and 73%, respectively. The devices with a lower MR ratio showed the presence of multiple modes, while the device with higher MR (73%) showed a single resonance mode. We found a lower out-of-plane torkance in our devices compared to the in-plane torkance. The out-of-plane torque is linear with applied bias, while the bias dependence of in-plane torque shows a strong dependence on the MR ratio and hence the barrier quality.

  5. Kalman Filtered Bio Heat Transfer Model Based Self-adaptive Hybrid Magnetic Resonance Thermometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxin; Chen, Shuo; Deng, Kexin; Chen, Bingyao; Wei, Xing; Yang, Jiafei; Wang, Shi; Ying, Kui

    2017-01-01

    To develop a self-adaptive and fast thermometry method by combining the original hybrid magnetic resonance thermometry method and the bio heat transfer equation (BHTE) model. The proposed Kalman filtered Bio Heat Transfer Model Based Self-adaptive Hybrid Magnetic Resonance Thermometry, abbreviated as KalBHT hybrid method, introduced the BHTE model to synthesize a window on the regularization term of the hybrid algorithm, which leads to a self-adaptive regularization both spatially and temporally with change of temperature. Further, to decrease the sensitivity to accuracy of the BHTE model, Kalman filter is utilized to update the window at each iteration time. To investigate the effect of the proposed model, computer heating simulation, phantom microwave heating experiment and dynamic in-vivo model validation of liver and thoracic tumor were conducted in this study. The heating simulation indicates that the KalBHT hybrid algorithm achieves more accurate results without adjusting λ to a proper value in comparison to the hybrid algorithm. The results of the phantom heating experiment illustrate that the proposed model is able to follow temperature changes in the presence of motion and the temperature estimated also shows less noise in the background and surrounding the hot spot. The dynamic in-vivo model validation with heating simulation demonstrates that the proposed model has a higher convergence rate, more robustness to susceptibility problem surrounding the hot spot and more accuracy of temperature estimation. In the healthy liver experiment with heating simulation, the RMSE of the hot spot of the proposed model is reduced to about 50% compared to the RMSE of the original hybrid model and the convergence time becomes only about one fifth of the hybrid model. The proposed model is able to improve the accuracy of the original hybrid algorithm and accelerate the convergence rate of MR temperature estimation.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of small renal masses in real practice: sensitivity and specificity according to subjective radiologic interpretation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Heon; Sun, Hwa Yeon; Hwang, Jiyoung; Hong, Seong Sook; Cho, Yong Jin; Doo, Seung Whan; Yang, Won Jae; Song, Yun Seob

    2016-10-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of small renal masses in real practice. Contrast-enhanced CT and MRI were performed between February 2008 and February 2013 on 68 patients who had suspected small (≤4 cm) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) based on ultrasonographic measurements. CT and MRI radiographs were reviewed, and the findings of small renal masses were re-categorized into five dichotomized scales by the same two radiologists who had interpreted the original images. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was performed, and sensitivity and specificity were determined. Among the 68 patients, 60 (88.2 %) had RCC and eight had benign disease. The diagnostic accuracy rates of contrast-enhanced CT and MRI were 79.41 and 88.23 %, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy was greater when using contrast-enhanced MRI because too many masses (67.6 %) were characterized as "4 (probably solid cancer) or 5 (definitely solid cancer)." The sensitivity of contrast-enhanced CT and MRI for predicting RCC were 79.7 and 88.1 %, respectively. The specificities of contrast-enhanced CT and MRI for predicting RCC were 44.4 and 33.3 %, respectively. Fourteen diagnoses (20.5 %) were missed or inconsistent compared with the final pathological diagnoses. One appropriate nephroureterectomy and five unnecessary percutaneous biopsies were performed for RCC. Seven unnecessary partial nephrectomies were performed for benign disease. Although contrast-enhanced CT and MRI showed high sensitivity for detecting small renal masses, specificity remained low.

  7. Aortic Volumetry at Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Feasibility as a Sensitive Method for Monitoring Bicuspid Aortic Valve Aortopathy.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Brian; Dubin, Iram; Rahman, Ozair; Ferreira Botelho, Marcos P; Naro, Nicholas; Carr, James C; Collins, Jeremy D; Barker, Alex J

    2017-04-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve patients can develop thoracic aortic aneurysms and therefore require serial imaging to monitor aortic growth. This study investigates the reliability of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) volumetry compared with 2-dimensional diameter measurements to identify thoracic aortic aneurysm growth. A retrospective, institutional review board-approved, and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study was conducted on 20 bicuspid aortic valve patients (45 ± 8.9 years, 20% women) who underwent serial CEMRA with a minimum imaging follow-up of 11 months. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 1.5 T with electrocardiogram-gated, time-resolved CEMRA. Independent observers measured the diameter at the sinuses of Valsalva (SOVs) and mid ascending aorta (MAA) as well as ascending aorta volume between the aortic valve annulus and innominate branch. Intraobserver/interobserver coefficient of variation (COV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were computed to assess reliability. Growth rates were calculated and assessed by Student t test (P < 0.05, significant). The diameter of maximal growth (DMG), defined as the diameter at SOV or MAA with the faster growth rate, was recorded. The mean time of follow-up was 2.6 ± 0.82 years. The intraobserver COV was 0.01 for SOV, 0.02 for MAA, and 0.02 for volume (interobserver COV: 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, respectively). The ICC was 0.83 for SOV, 0.86 for MAA, 0.90 for DMG, and 0.95 for volume. Average aortic measurements at baseline and (follow-up) were 42 ± 3 mm (42 ± 3 mm, P = 0.11) at SOV, 46 ± 4 mm (47 ± 4 mm, P < 0.05) at MAA, and 130 ± 23 mL (144 ± 24 mL, P < 0.05). Average size changes were 0.2 ± 0.6 mm/y (1% ± 2%) at SOV, 0.5 ± 0.8 mm/y (1% ± 2%) at MAA, 0.7 ± 0.7 mm/y (2% ± 2%) at DMG, and 6 ± 3 mL/y (4% ± 3%) with volumetry. Three-dimensional CEMRA volumetry exhibited a larger effect when examining percentage growth, a better ICC, and a marginally

  8. Bond-order potential for magnetic body-centered-cubic iron and its transferability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Shen; Mrovec, M.; Vitek, V.

    2016-06-01

    We derived and thoroughly tested a bond-order potential (BOP) for body-centered-cubic (bcc) magnetic iron that can be employed in atomistic calculations of a broad variety of crystal defects that control structural, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of this technologically important metal. The constructed BOP reflects correctly the mixed nearly free electron and covalent bonding arising from the partially filled d band as well as the ferromagnetism that is actually responsible for the stability of the bcc structure of iron at low temperatures. The covalent part of the cohesive energy is determined within the tight-binding bond model with the Green's function of the Schrödinger equation determined using the method of continued fractions terminated at a sufficient level of the moments of the density of states. This makes the BOP an O (N ) method usable for very large numbers of particles. Only d d bonds are included explicitly, but the effect of s electrons on the covalent energy is included via their screening of the corresponding d d bonds. The magnetic part of the cohesive energy is included using the Stoner model of itinerant magnetism. The repulsive part of the cohesive energy is represented, as in any tight-binding scheme, by an empirical formula. Its functional form is physically justified by studies of the repulsion in face-centered-cubic (fcc) solid argon under very high pressure where the repulsion originates from overlapping s and p closed-shell electrons just as it does from closed-shell s electrons in transition metals squeezed into the ion core under the influence of the large covalent d bonding. Testing of the transferability of the developed BOP to environments significantly different from those of the ideal bcc lattice was carried out by studying crystal structures and magnetic states alternative to the ferromagnetic bcc lattice, vacancies, divacancies, self-interstitial atoms (SIAs), paths continuously transforming the bcc structure to

  9. Improving contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging using 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX for high-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junkoh; Kakeda, Shingo; Yoneda, Tetsuya; Ogura, Shun-Ichiro; Shimajiri, Shohei; Tanaka, Tohru; Korogi, Yukunori; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a gadolinium-based contrast agent is the gold standard for high-grade gliomas (HGGs). The compound 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) undergoes a high rate of cellular uptake, particularly in cancer cells. In addition, fluorescence-guided resection with 5-ALA is widely used for imaging HGGs. 5-ALA is water soluble, while protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is water insoluble. It was speculated whether converting from 5-ALA to PpIX may relatively increase intracellular water content, and consequently, might enhance the T2 signal intensity in HGG. The aim of the present study was to assess whether 5-ALA-induced PpIX enhances the T2 signal intensity in patients with HGGs. A total of 4 patients who were candidates for HGG surgical treatment were prospectively analyzed with preoperative MRI. Patients received oral doses of 5-ALA (20 mg/kg) 3 h prior to anesthesia. At 2.5 h post-5-ALA administration, T2-weighted images (T2WIs) were obtained from all patients. Subsequently, tumors were evaluated via fluorescence using a modified operating microscope. Fluorescent tumor tissues were obtained to analyze the accumulation of 5-ALA-induced PpIX within the tumors, which was confirmed quantitatively by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The MRI T2 signal intensity within the tumors was evaluated prior to and following 5-ALA administration. Three glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs) and 1 anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) were included in the analysis. Intraoperatively, all GBMs exhibited strong fluorescence of 5-ALA-induced PpIX, whilst no fluorescence was observed in the AO sample. HPLC analysis indicated a higher accumulation of 5-ALA-induced PpIX in the GBM samples compared with the AO sample. In total, 48 regions of interest were identified within the tumors from T2-WIs. In the GBM group, the relative T2 signal intensity value within the tumors following 5-ALA administration was significantly increased compared with the T2 signal

  10. Pretreatment Evaluation of Microcirculation by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Survival in Primary Rectal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, Alexander Friedrich; Piringer, Gudrun, E-mail: gudrun.piringer@hotmail.com; Kremser, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of the perfusion index (PI), a microcirculatory parameter estimated from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), which integrates information on both flow and permeability, to predict overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with primary rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 83 patients with stage cT3 rectal cancer requiring neoadjuvant chemoradiation were investigated with DCE-MRI before start of therapy. Contrast-enhanced dynamic T{sub 1} mapping was obtained, and a simple data analysis strategy based on the calculation of the maximum slope of the tissue concentration–time curve divided by the maximum of the arterial inputmore » function was used as a measure of tumor microcirculation (PI), which integrates information on both flow and permeability. Results: In 39 patients (47.0%), T downstaging (ypT0-2) was observed. During a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 71 ± 29 months, 58 patients (69.9%) survived, and disease-free survival was achieved in 45 patients (54.2%). The mean PI (PImean) averaged over the group of nonresponders was significantly higher than for responders. Additionally, higher PImean in age- and gender-adjusted analyses was strongly predictive of therapy nonresponse. Most importantly, PImean strongly and significantly predicted disease-free survival (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.85 [ 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.54; P<.001)]; HR adjusted for age and sex, 1.81 [1.30-2.51]; P<.001) as well as overall survival (unadjusted HR 1.42 [1.02-1.99], P=.040; HR adjusted for age and sex, 1.43 [1.03-1.98]; P=.034). Conclusions: This analysis identifies PImean as a novel biomarker that is predictive for therapy response, disease-free survival, and overall survival in patients with primary locally advanced rectal cancer.« less

  11. Bilateral transfer phenomenon: A functional magnetic resonance imaging pilot study of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Uggetti, Carla; Ausenda, Carlo D; Squarza, Silvia; Cadioli, Marcello; Grimoldi, Ludovico; Cerri, Cesare; Cariati, Maurizio

    2016-08-01

    The bilateral transfer of a motor skill is a physiological phenomenon: the development of a motor skill with one hand can trigger the development of the same ability of the other hand. The purpose of this study was to verify whether bilateral transfer is associated with a specific brain activation pattern using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The motor task was implemented as the execution of the Nine Hole Peg Test. Fifteen healthy subjects (10 right-handers and five left-handers) underwent two identical fMRI runs performing the motor task with the non-dominant hand. Between the first and the second run, each subject was intensively trained for five minutes to perform the same motor task with the dominant hand. Comparing the two functional scans across the pool of subjects, a change of the motor activation pattern was observed. In particular, we observed, in the second run, a change in the activation pattern both in the cerebellum and in the cerebral cortex. We found activations in cortical areas involved in somatosensory integration, areas involved in procedural memory. Our study shows, in a small group of healthy subjects, the modification of the fMRI activation pathway of a motor task performed by the non-dominant hand after intensive exercise performing the same task with the dominant hand. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Accelerating two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance correlation spectroscopy via selective coherence transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qimiao; Chen, Lin; Qiu, Wenqi; Lin, Liangjie; Sun, Huijun; Cai, Shuhui; Wei, Zhiliang; Chen, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy serves as an important tool for both qualitative and quantitative analyses of various systems in chemistry, biology, and medicine. However, applications of one-dimensional 1H NMR are often restrained by the presence of severe overlap among different resonances. The advent of two-dimensional (2D) 1H NMR constitutes a promising alternative by extending the crowded resonances into a plane and thereby alleviating the spectral congestions. However, the enhanced ability in discriminating resonances is achieved at the cost of extended experimental duration due to necessity of various scans with progressive delays to construct the indirect dimension. Therefore, in this study, we propose a selective coherence transfer (SECOT) method to accelerate acquisitions of 2D correlation spectroscopy by converting chemical shifts into spatial positions within the effective sample length and then performing an echo planar spectroscopic imaging module to record the spatial and spectral information, which generates 2D correlation spectrum after 2D Fourier transformation. The feasibility and effectiveness of SECOT have been verified by a set of experiments under both homogeneous and inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Moreover, evaluations of SECOT for quantitative analyses are carried out on samples with a series of different concentrations. Based on these experimental results, the SECOT may open important perspectives for fast, accurate, and stable investigations of various chemical systems both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  13. Detecting functional magnetic resonance imaging activation in white matter: Interhemispheric transfer across the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Erin L; D'Arcy, Ryan CN; Beyea, Steven D

    2008-01-01

    Background It is generally believed that activation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is restricted to gray matter. Despite this, a number of studies have reported white matter activation, particularly when the corpus callosum is targeted using interhemispheric transfer tasks. These findings suggest that fMRI signals may not be neatly confined to gray matter tissue. In the current experiment, 4 T fMRI was employed to evaluate whether it is possible to detect white matter activation. We used an interhemispheric transfer task modelled after neurological studies of callosal disconnection. It was hypothesized that white matter activation could be detected using fMRI. Results Both group and individual data were considered. At liberal statistical thresholds (p < 0.005, uncorrected), group level activation was detected in the isthmus of the corpus callosum. This region connects the superior parietal cortices, which have been implicated previously in interhemispheric transfer. At the individual level, five of the 24 subjects (21%) had activation clusters that were located primarily within the corpus callosum. Consistent with the group results, the clusters of all five subjects were located in posterior callosal regions. The signal time courses for these clusters were comparable to those observed for task related gray matter activation. Conclusion The findings support the idea that, despite the inherent challenges, fMRI activation can be detected in the corpus callosum at the individual level. Future work is needed to determine whether the detection of this activation can be improved by utilizing higher spatial resolution, optimizing acquisition parameters, and analyzing the data with tissue specific models of the hemodynamic response. The ability to detect white matter fMRI activation expands the scope of basic and clinical brain mapping research, and provides a new approach for understanding brain connectivity. PMID:18789154

  14. Biodistribution of newly synthesized PHEA-based polymer-coated SPION in Sprague Dawley rats as magnetic resonance contrast agent

    PubMed Central

    Park, Junsung; Cho, Wonkyung; Park, Hee Jun; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Ha, Dae-Chul; Choi, Youn-Woong; Lee, Ha-Young; Cho, Sun-Hang; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to observe the pharmacokinetic behavior of newly synthesized biocompatible polymers based on polyhydroxyethylaspartamide (PHEA) to be used to coat an iron oxide core to make superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). Materials and methods The isotopes [14C] and [59Fe] were used to label the polymer backbone (CLS) and iron oxide core (FLS), respectively. In addition, unradiolabeled cold superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION/ULS) were synthesized to characterize particle size by dynamic light scattering, morphology by transmission electron microscopy, and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CLS and FLS were used separately to investigate the behavior of both the synthesized polymer and [Fe] in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, respectively. Because radioactivity of the isotopes was different by β for CLS and γ for FLS, synthesis of the samples had to be separately prepared. Results The mean particle size of the ULS was 66.1 nm, and the biodistribution of CLS concentrations in various organs, in rank order of magnitude, was liver > kidney > small intestine > other. The biodistribution of FLS concentrations was liver > spleen > lung > other. These rank orders show that synthesized SPION mainly accumulates in the liver. The differences in the distribution were caused by the SPION metabolism. Radiolabeled polymer was metabolized by the kidney and excreted mainly in the urine; [59Fe] was recycled for erythrocyte production in the spleen and excreted mainly in the feces. The MR image of the liver after intravenous injection demonstrated that [Fe] effectively accumulated in the liver and exhibited high-contrast enhancement on T2-weighted images. Conclusion This newly synthesized, polymer-coated SPION appears to be a promising candidate for use as a liver-targeted, biocompatible iron oxide MR imaging agent. PMID:24204138

  15. Chronologic Evaluation of Cerebral Hemodynamics by Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging After Indirect Bypass Surgery for Moyamoya Disease.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yoji; Momose, Toshiya; Yamashina, Motoshige; Sato, Akihito; Wakabayashi, Shinichi; Maehara, Taketoshi; Nariai, Tadashi

    2017-12-01

    Although indirect bypass surgery is an effective treatment option for patients with ischemic-onset moyamoya disease (MMD), the time point after surgery at which the patient's hemodynamic status starts to improve and the time point at which the improvement reaches a maximum have not been known. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the hemodynamic status time course after indirect bypass surgery for MMD, using dynamic susceptibility contrast-magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI). We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 25 patients with MMD (37 sides; mean age, 14.7 years; range, 3-36 years) who underwent indirect bypass surgery and repeated DSC-MRI measurement within 6 months after the operation. The difference in the mean transit time (MTT) between the target regions and the control region (cerebellum) was termed the MTT delay, and we measured the MTT delay's chronologic changes after surgery. The postoperative MTT delay was 1.81 ± 1.16 seconds within 1 week after surgery, 1.57 ± 1.01 at weeks 1-2, 1.55 ± 0.68 at weeks 2-4, 1.32 ± 0.68 at months 1-2, 0.95 ± 0.32 at months 2-3, and 0.77 ± 0.33 at months 3-6. Compared with the preoperative value (2.11 ± 0.98 seconds), the MTT delay decreased significantly from 2 to 4 weeks after surgery (P < 0.05). The amelioration of cerebral hemodynamics by indirect bypass surgery began soon after surgery and gradually reached a maximum at 3 months after surgery. DSC-MRI detected small changes in hemodynamic improvement, which are suspected to be caused by the initiation of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in the early postoperative period. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Pharmacodynamic Biomarker for Pazopanib in Metastatic Renal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sweis, Randy F; Medved, Milica; Towey, Shannon; Karczmar, Gregory S; Oto, Aytekin; Szmulewitz, Russell Z; O'Donnell, Peter H; Fishkin, Paul; Karrison, Theodore; Stadler, Walter M

    2017-04-01

    Traditional imaging assessment criteria might not correlate well with clinical benefit from vascular endothelial growth factor pathway-directed therapy in metastatic renal cancer. Preclinical data suggest tumor growth is preceded by a rise in K trans level, a parameter derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that reflects vascular permeability. We thus hypothesized that K trans might be a predictive biomarker for pazopanib. Patients with metastatic renal cancer were treated with pazopanib at 800 mg oral daily until disease progression. MRI of the abdomen and pelvis with a DCE-MRI sequence was obtained at baseline and every 8 weeks. Seventy-three DCE-MRI scans were completed and 66 were technically assessable. Of the 17 patients with at least 1 DCE-MRI scan after the baseline scan, 16 (94%) had a decline in K trans level. Changes in K trans compared with baseline after 1, 8, 16, and 24 weeks were -49%, -65%, -63%, and -53%, respectively (P = .0052, repeated measures analysis of variance). The median K trans nadir occurred at 8 weeks. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 32.1 weeks. PFS was longer in patients with higher baseline K trans values (P = .036, log rank). Baseline K trans did not reach significance in a Cox proportional hazard model including clinical prognostic index and previous treatments (P = .083). We show that K trans is a pharmacodynamic biomarker for pazopanib therapy in metastatic renal cancer. Because of the small sample size, the predictive capacity of K trans recovery could not be assessed, but baseline K trans correlated with PFS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the evaluation of unclear solid renal lesions.

    PubMed

    Rübenthaler, J; Paprottka, K; Marcon, J; Hameister, E; Hoffmann, K; Joiko, N; Reiser, M; Clevert, D A

    2016-01-01

    To compare the sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of unclear renal lesions to the histopathological outcome. A total of 36 patients with a single unclear solid renal lesion with initial imaging studies between 2005 and 2015 were included. CEUS and MRI were used for determining malignancy or benignancy and initial findings were correlated with the histopathological outcome. Out of the 36 renal masses a total of 28 lesions were malignant (77.8%) and 8 were found to be benign (22.2%). Diagnostic accuracy was testes by using the histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard. CEUS showed a sensitivity of 96.4%, a specificity of 100.0%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100.0% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 88,9%. MRI showed a sensitivity of 96.4%, a specificity of 75.0%, a PPV of 93.1% and a NPV of 85.7%. Out of the 28 malignant lesions a total of 18 clear cell renal carcinomas, 6 papillary renal cell carcinomas and 4 other malignant lesions, e.g. metastases, were diagnosed. Out of the 8 benign lesions a total 3 angiomyolipomas, 2 oncocytomas, 1 benign renal cyst and 2 other benign lesions, e.g. renal adenomas were diagnosed. Using CEUS, 1 lesion was falsely identified as benign. Using MRI, 2 lesions were falsely identified as benign and 1 lesion was falsely identified as malignant. CEUS is an useful method which can be additionally used to clinically differentiate between malignant and benign renal lesions. CEUS shows a comparable sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV to MRI. In daily clinical routine, patients with contraindications for other imaging modalities can particularly benefit using this method.

  18. Three-Dimensional Constructive Interference in Steady State Sequences and Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Arrested Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Elkafrawy, Fatma; Reda, Ihab; Elsirafy, Mohamed; Gawad, Mohamed Saied Abdel; Elnaggar, Alaa; Khalek Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the role of three-dimensional constructive interference in steady state (3D-CISS) sequences and phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) in patients with arrested hydrocephalus. A prospective study of 20 patients with arrested hydrocephalus was carried out. All patients underwent PC-MRI and 3D-CISS for assessment of the aqueduct. Axial (through-plane), sagittal (in-plane) PC-MRI, and sagittal 3D-CISS were applied to assess the cerebral aqueduct and the spontaneous third ventriculostomy if present. Aqueductal patency was graded using 3D-CISS and PC-MRI. Quantitative analysis of flow through the aqueduct was performed using PC-MRI. The causes of obstruction were aqueductal obstruction in 75% (n = 15), third ventricular obstruction in 5% (n = 1), and fourth ventricular obstruction in 20% (n = 4). The cause of arrest of hydrocephalus was spontaneous third ventriculostomy in 65% (n = 13), endoscopic third ventriculostomy in 10% (n = 2), and ventriculoperitoneal shunt in 5% (n = 1), and no cause could be detected in 20% of patients (n = 4). There is a positive correlation (r = 0.80) and moderate agreement (κ = 0.509) of grading with PC-MRI and 3D-CISS sequences. The mean peak systolic velocity of cerebrospinal fluid was 1.86 ± 2.48 cm/second, the stroke volume was 6.43 ± 13.81 μL/cycle, and the mean flow was 0.21 ± 0.32 mL/minute. We concluded that 3D-CISS and PC-MRI are noninvasive sequences for diagnosis of the level and cause of arrested hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Phase Error Correction in Time-Averaged 3D Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Cerebral Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, M. Ethan; Forkert, Nils D.; Pike, G. Bruce; Frayne, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Volume flow rate (VFR) measurements based on phase contrast (PC)-magnetic resonance (MR) imaging datasets have spatially varying bias due to eddy current induced phase errors. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of phase errors in time averaged PC-MR imaging of the cerebral vasculature and explore the effects of three common correction schemes (local bias correction (LBC), local polynomial correction (LPC), and whole brain polynomial correction (WBPC)). Methods Measurements of the eddy current induced phase error from a static phantom were first obtained. In thirty healthy human subjects, the methods were then assessed in background tissue to determine if local phase offsets could be removed. Finally, the techniques were used to correct VFR measurements in cerebral vessels and compared statistically. Results In the phantom, phase error was measured to be <2.1 ml/s per pixel and the bias was reduced with the correction schemes. In background tissue, the bias was significantly reduced, by 65.6% (LBC), 58.4% (LPC) and 47.7% (WBPC) (p < 0.001 across all schemes). Correction did not lead to significantly different VFR measurements in the vessels (p = 0.997). In the vessel measurements, the three correction schemes led to flow measurement differences of -0.04 ± 0.05 ml/s, 0.09 ± 0.16 ml/s, and -0.02 ± 0.06 ml/s. Although there was an improvement in background measurements with correction, there was no statistical difference between the three correction schemes (p = 0.242 in background and p = 0.738 in vessels). Conclusions While eddy current induced phase errors can vary between hardware and sequence configurations, our results showed that the impact is small in a typical brain PC-MR protocol and does not have a significant effect on VFR measurements in cerebral vessels. PMID:26910600

  20. Rapid and quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging with magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF).

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ouri; Huang, Shuning; McMahon, Michael T; Rosen, Matthew S; Farrar, Christian T

    2018-05-13

    To develop a fast magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) method for quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging. We implemented a CEST-MRF method to quantify the chemical exchange rate and volume fraction of the N α -amine protons of L-arginine (L-Arg) phantoms and the amide and semi-solid exchangeable protons of in vivo rat brain tissue. L-Arg phantoms were made with different concentrations (25-100 mM) and pH (pH 4-6). The MRF acquisition schedule varied the saturation power randomly for 30 iterations (phantom: 0-6 μT; in vivo: 0-4 μT) with a total acquisition time of ≤2 min. The signal trajectories were pattern-matched to a large dictionary of signal trajectories simulated using the Bloch-McConnell equations for different combinations of exchange rate, exchangeable proton volume fraction, and water T 1 and T 2 relaxation times. The chemical exchange rates of the N α -amine protons of L-Arg were significantly (P < 0.0001) correlated with the rates measured with the quantitation of exchange using saturation power method. Similarly, the L-Arg concentrations determined using MRF were significantly (P < 0.0001) correlated with the known concentrations. The pH dependence of the exchange rate was well fit (R 2  = 0.9186) by a base catalyzed exchange model. The amide proton exchange rate measured in rat brain cortex (34.8 ± 11.7 Hz) was in good agreement with that measured previously with the water exchange spectroscopy method (28.6 ± 7.4 Hz). The semi-solid proton volume fraction was elevated in white (12.2 ± 1.7%) compared to gray (8.1 ± 1.1%) matter brain regions in agreement with previous magnetization transfer studies. CEST-MRF provides a method for fast, quantitative CEST imaging. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Mass Transfer Process by Magneto-convection at a Solid-liquid Interface in a Heterogeneous Vertical Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Atsushi; Morisaki, Shigeyoshi; Aogaki, Ryoichi

    2003-08-01

    When an external magnetic field is vertically imposed on a solid-liquid interface, the mass transfer process of a solute dissolving from or depositing on the interface was theoretically examined. In a heterogeneous vertical magnetic field, a material receives a magnetic force in proportion to the product of the magnetic susceptibility, the magnetic flux density B and its gradient (dB/dz). As the reaction proceeds, a diffusion layer of the solute with changing susceptibility is formed at the interface because of the difference of the the magnetic susceptibility on the concentration of the solute. In the case of an unstable condition where the dimensionless number of magneto-convection S takes a positive value, the magnetic force is applied to the layer and induces numerous minute convection cells. The mass transfer of the solute is thus accelerated, so that it is predicted that the mass flux increases with the 1/3rd order of B(dB/dz) and the 4/3rd order of the concentration. The experiment was then performed by measuring the rate of the dissolution of copper sulfate pentahydrate crystal in water.

  2. Physical effect of a variable magnetic field on the heat transfer of a nanofluid-based concentrating parabolic solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahari, M.; Ghorbanian, A.; Hatami, M.; Jing, D.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the physical effect of a variable magnetic field on a nanofluid-based concentrating parabolic solar collector (NCPSC) is demonstrated. A section of reservoir is modeled as a semi-circular cavity under the solar radiation with the magnetic source located in the center or out of the cavity and the governing equations were solved by the FlexPDE numerical software. The effect of four physical parameters, i.e., Hartmann Number (Ha), nanoparticles volume fraction ( φ, magnetic field strength ( γ and magnetic source location ( b, on the Nusselt number is discussed. To find the interaction of these parameters and its effect on the heat transfer, a central composite design (CCD) is used and analysis is performed on the 25 experiments proposed by CCD. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results reveals that increasing the Hartmann number decreases the Nusselt number due to the Lorentz force resulting from the presence of stronger magnetic field.

  3. Ruthenium supported on magnetic nanoparticles: An efficient and recoverable catalyst for hydrogenation of alkynes and transfer hydrogenation of carbonyl compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ruthenium supported on surface modified magnetic nanoparticles (NiFe2O4) has been successfully synthesized and applied for hydrogenation of alkynes at room temperature as well as transfer hydrogenation of a number of carbonyl compounds under microwave irradiation conditions. The ...

  4. Synthesis of Natural Electric and Magnetic Time Series Using Impulse Responses of Inter-station Transfer Functions and a Reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Cheng, J.

    2017-12-01

    A method to Synthesis natural electric and magnetic Time series is proposed whereby the time series of local site are derived using an Impulse Response and a reference (STIR). The method is based on the assumption that the external source of magnetic fields are uniform, and the electric and magnetic fields acquired at the surface satisfy a time-independent linear relation in frequency domain.According to the convolution theorem, we can synthesize natural electric and magnetic time series using the impulse responses of inter-station transfer functions with a reference. Applying this method, two impulse responses need to be estimated: the quasi-MT impulse response tensor and the horizontal magnetic impulse response tensor. These impulse response tensors relate the local horizontal electric and magnetic components with the horizontal magnetic components at a reference site, respectively. Some clean segments of times series are selected to estimate impulse responses by using least-square (LS) method. STIR is similar with STIN (Wang, 2017), but STIR does not need to estimate the inter-station transfer functions, and the synthesized data are more accurate in high frequency, where STIN fails when the inter-station transfer functions are contaminated severely. A test with good quality of MT data shows that synthetic time-series are similar to natural electric and magnetic time series. For contaminated AMT example, when this method is used to remove noise present at the local site, the scatter of MT sounding curves are clear reduced, and the data quality are improved. *This work is funded by National Key R&D Program of China(2017YFC0804105),National Natural Science Foundation of China (41604064, 51574250), State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining ,China University of Mining & Technology,(SKLCRSM16DC09)

  5. Iopamidol as a responsive MRI-chemical exchange saturation transfer contrast agent for pH mapping of kidneys: In vivo studies in mice at 7 T.

    PubMed

    Longo, Dario Livio; Dastrù, Walter; Digilio, Giuseppe; Keupp, Jochen; Langereis, Sander; Lanzardo, Stefania; Prestigio, Simone; Steinbach, Oliver; Terreno, Enzo; Uggeri, Fulvio; Aime, Silvio

    2011-01-01

    Iopamidol (Isovue®-Bracco Diagnostic Inc.) is a clinically approved X-Ray contrast agent used in the last 30 years for a wide variety of diagnostic applications with a very good clinical acceptance. Iopamidol contains two types of amide functionalities that can be exploited for the generation of chemical exchange saturation transfer effect. The exchange rate of the two amide proton pools is markedly pH-dependent. Thus, a ratiometric method for pH assessment has been set-up based on the comparison of the saturation transfer effects induced by selective irradiation of the two resonances. This ratiometric approach allows to rule out the concentration effect of the contrast agent and provides accurate pH measurements in the 5.5-7.4 range. Upon injection of Iopamidol into healthy mice, it has been possible to acquire pH maps of kidney regions. Furthermore, it has been also shown that the proposed method is able to report about pH-changes induced in control mice fed with acidified or basified water for a period of a week before image acquisition. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Application of radiative image transfer theory to the assessment of the overall OTF and contrast degradation of an image in an inhomogeneous turbulent and turbid atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    A perturbation-theoretic approximation of the radiative transfer equation which neglects photon dispersion is used as a modeling basis for the propagation of the image of a self-luminous target through a turbulent atmosphere which also possesses inhomogeneously distributed turbidity along the propagation path. A contrast ratio is then introduced which provides an indicator of the relative contribution of the unscattered or coherent image component to that of the scattered or incoherent image component. Analytical expressions are then derived for the contrast ratio from the approximate form of the radiative transfer equation in the case of an inhomogeneously dispersed Joss thunderstorm rain distribution in the presence of turbulence. The case is clearly demonstrated for the need to consider a measure of the points of demarcation at which the dominant roles of the scattering processes due to turbidity and turbulence are exchanged. Such a measure can provide a performance parameter for the application of adaptive optics methods that are specific to the particular dominant scattering mechanism given the prevailing target size, total propagation length and overall propagation parameters.

  7. A Feasibility Study to Determine Whether Clinical Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging can Detect Increased Bladder Permeability in Patients with Interstitial Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Towner, Rheal A; Wisniewski, Amy B; Wu, Dee H; Van Gordon, Samuel B; Smith, Nataliya; North, Justin C; McElhaney, Rayburt; Aston, Christopher E; Shobeiri, S Abbas; Kropp, Bradley P; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Hurst, Robert E

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome is a bladder pain disorder associated with voiding symptomatology and other systemic chronic pain disorders. Currently diagnosing interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome is complicated as patients present with a wide range of symptoms, physical examination findings and clinical test responses. One hypothesis is that interstitial cystitis symptoms arise from increased bladder permeability to urine solutes. This study establishes the feasibility of using contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to quantify bladder permeability in patients with interstitial cystitis. Permeability alterations in bladder urothelium were assessed by intravesical administration of the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent Gd-DTPA (Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) in a small cohort of patients. Magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity in patient and control bladders was compared regionally and for entire bladders. Quantitative assessment of magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity indicated a significant increase in signal intensity in anterior bladder regions compared to posterior regions in patients with interstitial cystitis (p <0.01) and significant increases in signal intensity in anterior bladder regions (p <0.001). Kurtosis (shape of probability distribution) and skewness (measure of probability distribution asymmetry) were associated with contrast enhancement in total bladders in patients with interstitial cystitis vs controls (p <0.05). Regarding symptomatology interstitial cystitis cases differed significantly from controls on the SF-36®, PUF (Pelvic Pain and Urgency/Frequency) and ICPI (Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index) questionnaires with no overlap in the score range in each group. ICSI (Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index) differed significantly but with a slight overlap in the range of scores. Data suggest that contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging provides an objective, quantifiable measurement

  8. Extended phase graph formalism for systems with magnetization transfer and exchange

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Rui Pedro A.G.; Hajnal, Joseph V.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose An extended phase graph framework (EPG‐X) for modeling systems with exchange or magnetization transfer (MT) is proposed. Theory EPG‐X models coupled two‐compartment systems by describing each compartment with separate phase graphs that exchange during evolution periods. There are two variants: EPG‐X(BM) for systems governed by the Bloch‐McConnell equations, and EPG‐X(MT) for the pulsed MT formalism. For the MT case, the “bound” protons have no transverse components, so their phase graph consists of only longitudinal states. Methods The EPG‐X model was validated against steady‐state solutions and isochromat‐based simulation of gradient‐echo sequences. Three additional test cases were investigated: (i) MT effects in multislice turbo spin‐echo; (ii) variable flip angle gradient‐echo imaging of the type used for MR fingerprinting; and (iii) water exchange in multi‐echo spin‐echo T2 relaxometry. Results EPG‐X was validated successfully against isochromat based transient simulations and known steady‐state solutions. EPG‐X(MT) simulations matched in‐vivo measurements of signal attenuation in white matter in multislice turbo spin‐echo images. Magnetic resonance fingerprinting–style experiments with a bovine serum albumin (MT) phantom showed that the data were not consistent with a single‐pool model, but EPG‐X(MT) could be used to fit the data well. The EPG‐X(BM) simulations of multi‐echo spin‐echo T2 relaxometry suggest that exchange could lead to an underestimation of the myelin‐water fraction. Conclusions The EPG‐X framework can be used for modeling both steady‐state and transient signal response of systems exhibiting exchange or MT. This may be particularly beneficial for relaxometry approaches that rely on characterizing transient rather than steady‐state sequences. Magn Reson Med 80:767–779, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  9. Integrating Horizontal Gene Transfer and Common Descent to Depict Evolution and Contrast It with “Common Design”1

    PubMed Central

    GUILLERMO PAZ-Y-MIÑO-C; ESPINOSA, AVELINA

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and common descent interact in space and time. Because events of HGT co-occur with phylogenetic evolution, it is difficult to depict evolutionary patterns graphically. Tree-like representations of life’s diversification are useful, but they ignore the significance of HGT in evolutionary history, particularly of unicellular organisms, ancestors of multicellular life. Here we integrate the reticulated-tree model, ring of life, symbiogenesis whole-organism model, and eliminative pattern pluralism to represent evolution. Using Entamoeba histolytica alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (EhADH2), a bifunctional enzyme in the glycolytic pathway of amoeba, we illustrate how EhADH2 could be the product of both horizontally acquired features from ancestral prokaryotes (i.e. aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH] and alcohol dehydrogenase [ADH]), and subsequent functional integration of these enzymes into EhADH2, which is now inherited by amoeba via common descent. Natural selection has driven the evolution of EhADH2 active sites, which require specific amino acids (cysteine 252 in the ALDH domain; histidine 754 in the ADH domain), iron- and NAD+ as cofactors, and the substrates acetyl-CoA for ALDH and acetaldehyde for ADH. Alternative views invoking “common design” (i.e. the non-naturalistic emergence of major taxa independent from ancestry) to explain the interaction between horizontal and vertical evolution are unfounded. PMID:20021546

  10. MR imaging of a novel NOE-mediated magnetization transfer with water in rat brain at 9.4 T.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Feng; Jin, Tao; Xu, Junzhong; Xie, Jingping; Gochberg, Daniel F; Gore, John C; Zu, Zhongliang

    2017-08-01

    To detect, map, and quantify a novel nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE)-mediated magnetization transfer (MT) with water at approximately -1.6 ppm [NOE(-1.6)] in rat brain using MRI. Continuous wave MT sequences with a variety of radiofrequency irradiation powers were optimized to achieve the maximum contrast of this NOE(-1.6) effect at 9.4 T. The distribution of effect magnitudes, resonance frequency offsets, and line widths in healthy rat brains and the differences of the effect between tumors and contralateral normal brains were imaged and quantified using a multi-Lorentzian fitting method. MR measurements on reconstituted model phospholipids as well as two cell lines (HEK293 and 9L) were also performed to investigate the possible molecular origin of this NOE. Our results suggest that the NOE(-1.6) effect can be detected reliably in rat brain. Pixel-wise fittings demonstrated the regional variations of the effect. Measurements in a rodent tumor model showed that the amplitude of NOE(-1.6) in brain tumor was significantly diminished compared with that in normal brain tissue. Measurements of reconstituted phospholipids suggest that this effect may originate from choline phospholipids. NOE(-1.6) could be used as a new biomarker for the detection of brain tumor. Magn Reson Med 78:588-597, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) versus breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): A retrospective comparison in 66 breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Roth, R; Germaine, P; Ren, S; Lee, M; Hunter, K; Tinney, E; Liao, L

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively compare the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) with that of breast magnetic resonance imaging (BMRI) in breast cancer detection using parameters, including sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), lesion size, morphology, lesion and background enhancement, and examination time. A total of 48 women (mean age, 56years±10.6 [SD]) with breast lesions detected between October 2012 and March 2014 were included. Both CESM and BMRI were performed for each patient within 30 days. The enhancement intensity of lesions and breast background parenchyma was subjectively assessed for both modalities and was quantified for comparison. Statistical significance was analyzed using paired t-test for mean size of index lesions in all malignant breasts (an index lesion defined as the largest lesion in each breast), and a mean score of enhancement intensity for index lesions and breast background. PPV, sensitivity, and accuracy were calculated for both CESM and BMRI. The average duration time of CESM and MRI examinations was also compared. A total of 66 lesions were identified, including 62 malignant and 4 benign lesions. Both CESM and BMRI demonstrated a sensitivity of 100% for detection of breast cancer. There was no statistically significant difference between the mean size of index lesions (P=0.108). The enhancement intensity of breast background was significantly lower for CESM than for BMRI (P<0.01). The mean score of enhancement intensity of index lesions on CESM was significantly less than that for BMRI (P<0.01). The smallest lesion that was detected by both modalities measured 4mm. CESM had a higher PPV than BMRI (P>0.05). The average examination time for CESM was significantly shorter than that of BMRI (P<0.01). CESM has similar sensitivity than BMRI in breast cancer detection, with higher PPV and less background enhancement. CESM is associate with significantly shorter exam time thus a

  12. Magnetic bead-sensing-platform-based chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer and its immunoassay application.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guoxin; Zhao, Shulin; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Jing; Ye, Fanggui

    2012-03-20

    A competitive immunoassay based on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) on the magnetic beads (MBs) is developed for the detection of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). In this protocol, carboxyl-modified MBs were conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled goat antihuman IgG (HRP-anti-IgG) and incubated with a limited amount of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled human IgG to immobilize the antibody-antigen immune complex on the surface of the MBs, which was further incubated with the target analyte (human IgG) for competitive immunoreaction and separated magnetically to remove the supernatant. The chemiluminescence (CL) buffer (containing luminol and H(2)O(2)) was then added, and the CRET from donor luminol to acceptor FITC in the immunocomplex on the surface of MBs occured immediately. The present protocol was evaluated for the competitive immunoassay of human IgG, and a linear relationship between CL intensity ratio (R = I(425)/I(525)) and human IgG concentration in the range of 0.2-4.0 nM was obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.9965. The regression equation was expressed as R = 1.9871C + 2.4616, and a detection limit of 2.9 × 10(-11) M was obtained. The present method was successfully applied for the detection of IgG in human serum. The results indicate that the present protocol is quite promising for the application of CRET in immunoassays. It could also be developed for detection of other antigen-antibody immune complexes by using the corresponding antigens and respective antibodies.

  13. 31P magnetization transfer measurements of Pi→ATP flux in exercising human muscle

    PubMed Central

    Savage, David B.; Williams, Guy B.; Porter, David; Carpenter, T. Adrian; Brindle, Kevin M.; Kemp, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental criticisms have been made over the use of 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) magnetization transfer estimates of inorganic phosphate (Pi)→ATP flux (VPi-ATP) in human resting skeletal muscle for assessing mitochondrial function. Although the discrepancy in the magnitude of VPi-ATP is now acknowledged, little is known about its metabolic determinants. Here we use a novel protocol to measure VPi-ATP in human exercising muscle for the first time. Steady-state VPi-ATP was measured at rest and over a range of exercise intensities and compared with suprabasal oxidative ATP synthesis rates estimated from the initial rates of postexercise phosphocreatine resynthesis (VATP). We define a surplus Pi→ATP flux as the difference between VPi-ATP and VATP. The coupled reactions catalyzed by the glycolytic enzymes GAPDH and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) have been shown to catalyze measurable exchange between ATP and Pi in some systems and have been suggested to be responsible for this surplus flux. Surplus VPi-ATP did not change between rest and exercise, even though the concentrations of Pi and ADP, which are substrates for GAPDH and PGK, respectively, increased as expected. However, involvement of these enzymes is suggested by correlations between absolute and surplus Pi→ATP flux, both at rest and during exercise, and the intensity of the phosphomonoester peak in the 31P NMR spectrum. This peak includes contributions from sugar phosphates in the glycolytic pathway, and changes in its intensity may indicate changes in downstream glycolytic intermediates, including 3-phosphoglycerate, which has been shown to influence the exchange between ATP and Pi catalyzed by GAPDH and PGK. PMID:26744504

  14. 31P magnetization transfer measurements of Pi→ATP flux in exercising human muscle.

    PubMed

    Sleigh, Alison; Savage, David B; Williams, Guy B; Porter, David; Carpenter, T Adrian; Brindle, Kevin M; Kemp, Graham J

    2016-03-15

    Fundamental criticisms have been made over the use of (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) magnetization transfer estimates of inorganic phosphate (Pi)→ATP flux (VPi-ATP) in human resting skeletal muscle for assessing mitochondrial function. Although the discrepancy in the magnitude of VPi-ATP is now acknowledged, little is known about its metabolic determinants. Here we use a novel protocol to measure VPi-ATP in human exercising muscle for the first time. Steady-state VPi-ATP was measured at rest and over a range of exercise intensities and compared with suprabasal oxidative ATP synthesis rates estimated from the initial rates of postexercise phosphocreatine resynthesis (VATP). We define a surplus Pi→ATP flux as the difference between VPi-ATP and VATP. The coupled reactions catalyzed by the glycolytic enzymes GAPDH and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) have been shown to catalyze measurable exchange between ATP and Pi in some systems and have been suggested to be responsible for this surplus flux. Surplus VPi-ATP did not change between rest and exercise, even though the concentrations of Pi and ADP, which are substrates for GAPDH and PGK, respectively, increased as expected. However, involvement of these enzymes is suggested by correlations between absolute and surplus Pi→ATP flux, both at rest and during exercise, and the intensity of the phosphomonoester peak in the (31)P NMR spectrum. This peak includes contributions from sugar phosphates in the glycolytic pathway, and changes in its intensity may indicate changes in downstream glycolytic intermediates, including 3-phosphoglycerate, which has been shown to influence the exchange between ATP and Pi catalyzed by GAPDH and PGK. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Seven-Tesla Magnetization Transfer Imaging to Detect Multiple Sclerosis White Matter Lesions.

    PubMed

    Chou, I-Jun; Lim, Su-Yin; Tanasescu, Radu; Al-Radaideh, Ali; Mougin, Olivier E; Tench, Christopher R; Whitehouse, William P; Gowland, Penny A; Constantinescu, Cris S

    2018-03-01

    Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging at 3 Tesla (T) field strength is the most sensitive modality for detecting white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis. While 7T FLAIR is effective in detecting cortical lesions, it has not been fully optimized for visualization of white matter lesions and thus has not been used for delineating lesions in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of 7T magnetization-transfer-weighted (MT w ) images in the detection of white matter lesions compared with 3T-FLAIR. Fifteen patients with clinically isolated syndrome, 6 with multiple sclerosis, and 10 healthy participants were scanned with 7T 3-dimensional (D) MT w and 3T-2D-FLAIR sequences on the same day. White matter lesions visible on either sequence were delineated. Of 662 lesions identified on 3T-2D-FLAIR images, 652 were detected on 7T-3D-MT w images (sensitivity, 98%; 95% confidence interval, 97% to 99%). The Spearman correlation coefficient between lesion loads estimated by the two sequences was .910. The intrarater and interrater reliability for 7T-3D-MT w images was good with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 98.4% and 81.8%, which is similar to that for 3T-2D-FLAIR images (ICC 96.1% and 96.7%). Seven-Tesla MT w sequences detected most of the white matter lesions identified by FLAIR at 3T. This suggests that 7T-MT w imaging is a robust alternative for detecting demyelinating lesions in addition to 3T-FLAIR. Future studies need to compare the roles of optimized 7T-FLAIR and of 7T-MT w imaging. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Neuroimaging published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Neuroimaging.

  16. Dynamic blocked transfer stiffness method of characterizing the magnetic field and frequency dependent dynamic viscoelastic properties of MRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poojary, Umanath R.; Hegde, Sriharsha; Gangadharan, K. V.

    2016-11-01

    Magneto rheological elastomer (MRE) is a potential resilient element for the semi active vibration isolator. MRE based isolators adapt to different frequency of vibrations arising from the source to isolate the structure over wider frequency range. The performance of MRE isolator depends on the magnetic field and frequency dependent characteristics of MRE. Present study is focused on experimentally evaluating the dynamic stiffness and loss factor of MRE through dynamic blocked transfer stiffness method. The dynamic stiffness variations of MRE exhibit strong magnetic field and mild frequency dependency. Enhancements in dynamic stiffness saturate with the increase in magnetic field and the frequency. The inconsistent variations of loss factor with the magnetic field substantiate the inability of MRE to have independent control over its damping characteristics.

  17. Evaluation of aortic valve stenosis using cardiovascular magnetic resonance: comparison of an original semiautomated analysis of phase-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance with Doppler echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Defrance, Carine; Bollache, Emilie; Kachenoura, Nadjia; Perdrix, Ludivine; Hrynchyshyn, Nataliya; Bruguière, Eric; Redheuil, Alban; Diebold, Benoit; Mousseaux, Elie

    2012-09-01

    Accurate quantification of aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is needed for relevant management decisions. However, transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTE) remains inconclusive in a significant number of patients. Previous studies demonstrated the usefulness of phase-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (PC-CMR) in noninvasive AVS evaluation. We hypothesized that semiautomated analysis of aortic hemodynamics from PC-CMR might provide reproducible and accurate evaluation of aortic valve area (AVA), aortic velocities, and gradients in agreement with TTE. We studied 53 AVS patients (AVA(TTE)=0.87±0.44 cm(2)) and 21 controls (AVA(TTE)=2.96±0.59 cm(2)) who had TTE and PC-CMR of aortic valve and left ventricular outflow tract on the same day. PC-CMR data analysis included left ventricular outflow tract and aortic valve segmentation, and extraction of velocities, gradients, and flow rates. Three AVA measures were performed: AVA(CMR1) based on Hakki formula, AVA(CMR2) based on continuity equation, AVA(CMR3) simplified continuity equation=left ventricular outflow tract peak flow rate/aortic peak velocity. Our analysis was reproducible, as reflected by low interoperator variability (<4.56±4.40%). Comparison of PC-CMR and TTE aortic peak velocities and mean gradients resulted in good agreement (r=0.92 with mean bias=-29±62 cm/s and r=0.86 with mean bias=-12±15 mm Hg, respectively). Although good agreement was found between TTE and continuity equation-based CMR-AVA (r>0.94 and mean bias=-0.01±0.38 cm(2) for AVA(CMR2), -0.09±0.28 cm(2) for AVA(CMR3)), AVA(CMR1) values were lower than AVA(TTE) especially for higher AVA (mean bias=-0.45±0.52 cm(2)). Besides, ability of PC-CMR to detect severe AVS, defined by TTE, provided the best results for continuity equation-based methods (accuracy >94%). Our PC-CMR semiautomated AVS evaluation provided reproducible measurements that accurately detected severe AVS and were in good agreement with TTE.

  18. Continuous flow Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization of water in the fringe field of a clinical magnetic resonance imaging system for authentic image contrast

    PubMed Central

    Lingwood, Mark D.; Siaw, Ting Ann; Sailasuta, Napapon; Ross, Brian D.; Bhattacharya, Pratip; Han, Songi

    2016-01-01

    We describe and demonstrate a system to generate hyperpolarized water in the 0.35 T fringe field of a clinical 1.5 T whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnet. Once generated, the hyperpolarized water is quickly and continuously transferred from the 0.35 T fringe to the 1.5 T center field of the same magnet for image acquisition using standard MRI equipment. The hyperpolarization is based on Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), which effectively and quickly transfers the higher spin polarization of free radicals to nuclear spins at ambient temperatures. We visualize the dispersion of hyperpolarized water as it flows through water-saturated systems by utilizing an observed −15 fold DNP signal enhancement with respect to the unenhanced 1H MRI signal of water at 1.5 T. The experimental DNP apparatus presented here is readily portable and can be brought to and used with any conventional unshielded MRI system. A new method of immobilizing radicals to gel beads via polyelectrolyte linker arms is described, which led to superior flow Overhauser DNP performance compared to previously presented gels. We discuss the general applicability of Overhauser DNP hyperpolarization of water and aqueous solutions in the fringe field of commercially available magnets with central fields up to 4.7 Tesla. PMID:20541445

  19. First-Principles Calculations of Current-Induced Spin-Transfer Torques in Magnetic Domain Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ling; Xu, Zhijun; Yang, Zejin

    2013-05-01

    Current-induced spin-transfer torques (STTs) have been studied in Fe, Co and Ni domain walls (DWs) by the method based on the first-principles noncollinear calculations of scattering wavefunctions expanded in the tight-binding linearized muffin-tin orbital (TB-LMTO) basis. The results show that the out-of-plane component of nonadiabatic STT in Fe DW has localized form, which is in contrast to the typical nonlocal oscillating nonadiabatic torques obtained in Co and Ni DWs. Meanwhile, the degree of nonadiabaticity in STT is also much greater for Fe DW. Further, our results demonstrate that compared to the well-known first-order nonadiabatic STT, the torque in the third-order spatial derivative of local spin can better describe the distribution of localized nonadiabatic STT in Fe DW. The dynamics of local spin driven by this third-order torques in Fe DW have been investigated by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. The calculated results show that with the same amplitude of STTs the DW velocity induced by this third-order term is about half of the wall speed for the case of the first-order nonadiabatic STT.

  20. Poly(acrylic acid) Bridged Gadolinium Metal-Organic Framework-Gold Nanoparticle Composites as Contrast Agents for Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Bimodal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chixia; Zhu, Liping; Lin, Feng; Boyes, Stephen G

    2015-08-19

    Imaging contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) have received significant attention in the development of techniques for early stage cancer diagnosis. Gadolinium (Gd)(III), which has seven unpaired electrons and a large magnetic moment, can dramatically influence the water proton relaxation and hence exhibits excellent MRI contrast. On the other hand, gold (Au), which has a high atomic number and high X-ray attenuation coefficient, is an ideal contrast agent candidate for X-ray-based CT imaging. Gd metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles with tunable size, high Gd(III) loading and multivalency can potentially overcome the limitations of clinically utilized Gd chelate contrast agents. In this work, we report for the first time the integration of GdMOF nanoparticles with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for the preparation of a MRI/CT bimodal imaging agent. Highly stable hybrid GdMOF/AuNPs composites have been prepared by using poly(acrylic acid) as a bridge between the GdMOF nanoparticles and AuNPs. The hybrid nanocomposites were then evaluated in MRI and CT imaging. The results revealed high longitudinal relaxivity in MRI and excellent CT imaging performance. Therefore, these GdMOF/AuNPs hybrid nanocomposites potentially provide a new platform for the development of multimodal imaging probes.

  1. Poly(acrylic acid) Bridged Gadolinium Metal-Organic Framework-Gold Nanoparticle Composites as Contrast Agents for Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Bimodal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chixia; Zhu, Liping; Lin, Feng; Boyes, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    Imaging contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) have received significant attention in the development of techniques for early-stage cancer diagnosis. Gadolinium (Gd) (III), which has seven unpaired electrons and a large magnetic moment, can dramatically influence the water proton relaxation and hence exhibits excellent MRI contrast. On the other hand, gold (Au), which has a high atomic number and high x-ray attenuation coefficient, is an ideal contrast agent candidate for x-ray based CT imaging. Gd metal organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles with tunable size, high Gd (III) loading and multivalency can potentially overcome the limitations of clinically utilized Gd chelate contrast agents. In this work, we report for the first time the integration of GdMOF nanoparticles with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for the preparation of a MRI/CT bimodal imaging agent. Highly stable hybrid GdMOF/AuNPs composites have been prepared by using poly(acrylic acid) as a bridge between the GdMOF nanoparticles and AuNPs. The hybrid nanocomposites were then evaluated in MRI and CT imaging. The results revealed high longitudinal relaxivity in MRI and excellent CT imaging performance. Therefore, these GdMOF/AuNPs hybrid nanocomposites potentially provide a new platform for the development of multi-modal imaging probes. PMID:26147906

  2. "Smart" theranostic lanthanide nanoprobes with simultaneous up-conversion fluorescence and tunable T1-T2 magnetic resonance imaging contrast and near-infrared activated photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Das, Gautom Kumar; Vijayaragavan, Vimalan; Xu, Qing Chi; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Bhakoo, Kishore K; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2014-11-07

    The current work reports a type of "smart" lanthanide-based theranostic nanoprobe, NaDyF4:Yb(3+)/NaGdF4:Yb(3+),Er(3+), which is able to circumvent the up-converting poisoning effect of Dy(3+) ions to give efficient near infrared (980 nm) triggered up-conversion fluorescence, and offers not only excellent dark T2-weighted MR contrast but also tunable bright and T1-weighted MR contrast properties. Due to the efficient up-converted energy transfer from the nanocrystals to chlorin e6 (Ce6) photosensitizers loaded onto the nanocrystals, cytotoxic singlet oxygen was generated and photodynamic therapy was demonstrated. Therefore, the current multifunctional nanocrystals could be potentially useful in various image-guided diagnoses where bright or dark MRI contrast could be selectively tuned to optimize image quality, but also as an efficient and more penetrative near-infrared activated photodynamic therapy agent.

  3. Functional imaging of the angiogenic switch in a transgenic mouse model of human breast cancer by dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Consolino, Lorena; Longo, Dario Livio; Dastrù, Walter; Cutrin, Juan Carlos; Dettori, Daniela; Lanzardo, Stefania; Oliviero, Salvatore; Cavallo, Federica; Aime, Silvio

    2016-07-15

    Tumour progression depends on several sequential events that include the microenvironment remodelling processes and the switch to the angiogenic phenotype, leading to new blood vessels recruitment. Non-invasive imaging techniques allow the monitoring of functional alterations in tumour vascularity and cellularity. The aim of this work was to detect functional changes in vascularisation and cellularity through Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) and Diffusion Weighted (DW) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) modalities during breast cancer initiation and progression of a transgenic mouse model (BALB-neuT mice). Histological examination showed that BALB-neuT mammary glands undergo a slow neoplastic progression from simple hyperplasia to invasive carcinoma, still preserving normal parts of mammary glands. DCE-MRI results highlighted marked functional changes in terms of vessel permeability (K(trans) , volume transfer constant) and vascularisation (vp , vascular volume fraction) in BALB-neuT hyperplastic mammary glands if compared to BALB/c ones. When breast tissue progressed from simple to atypical hyperplasia, a strong increase in DCE-MRI biomarkers was observed in BALB-neuT in comparison to BALB/c mice (K(trans)  = 5.3 ± 0.7E-4 and 3.1 ± 0.5E-4; vp  = 7.4 ± 0.8E-2 and 4.7 ± 0.6E-2 for BALB-neuT and BALB/c, respectively) that remained constant during the successive steps of the neoplastic transformation. Consistent with DCE-MRI observations, microvessel counting revealed a significant increase in tumour vessels. Our study showed that DCE-MRI estimates can accurately detect the angiogenic switch at early step of breast cancer carcinogenesis. These results support the view that this imaging approach is an excellent tool to characterize microvasculature changes, despite only small portions of the mammary glands developed neoplastic lesions in a transgenic mouse model. © 2016 UICC.

  4. Graphene Derivative in Magnetically Recoverable Catalyst Determines Catalytic Properties in Transfer Hydrogenation of Nitroarenes to Anilines with 2-Propanol.

    PubMed

    Das, Vijay Kumar; Mazhar, Sumaira; Gregor, Lennon; Stein, Barry D; Morgan, David Gene; Maciulis, Nicholas A; Pink, Maren; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Bronstein, Lyudmila M

    2018-06-14

    Here, we report transfer hydrogenation of nitroarenes to aminoarenes using 2-propanol as a hydrogen source and Ag-containing magnetically recoverable catalysts based on partially reduced graphene oxide (pRGO) sheets. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data demonstrated that, during the one-pot catalyst synthesis, formation of magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) is accompanied by the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to pRGO. The formation of Ag 0 NPs on top of magnetite nanoparticles does not change the pRGO structure. At the same time, the catalyst structure is further modified during the transfer hydrogenation, leading to a noticeable increase of sp 2 carbons. These carbons are responsible for the adsorption of substrate and intermediates, facilitating a hydrogen transfer from Ag NPs and creating synergy between the components of the catalyst. The nitroarenes with electron withdrawing and electron donating substituents allow for excellent yields of aniline derivatives with high regio and chemoselectivity, indicating that the reaction is not disfavored by these functionalities. The versatility of the catalyst synthetic protocol was demonstrated by a synthesis of an Ru-containing graphene derivative based catalyst, also allowing for efficient transfer hydrogenation. Easy magnetic separation and stable catalyst performance in the transfer hydrogenation make this catalyst promising for future applications.

  5. Characterizing the magnetic memory signals on the surface of plasma transferred arc cladding coating under fatigue loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haihong; Han, Gang; Qian, Zhengchun; Liu, Zhifeng

    2017-12-01

    The metal magnetic memory signals were measured during dynamic tension tests on the surfaces of the cladding coatings by plasma transferred arc (PTA) welding and the 0.45% C steel. Results showed that the slope of the normal component Hp(y) of magnetic signal and the average value of the tangential component Hp(x) reflect the magnetization of the specimens. The signals increased sharply in the few initial cycles; and then fluctuated around a constant value during fatigue process until fracture. For the PTA cladding coating, the slope of Hp(y) was steeper and the average of Hp(x) was smaller, compared with the 0.45% C steel. The hysteresis curves of cladding layer, bonding layer and substrate were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer testing, and then saturation magnetization, initial susceptibility and coercivity were further calculated. The stress-magnetization curves were also plotted based on the J-A model, which showed that the PTA cladding coating has smaller remanence and coercivity compared with the 0.45% C steel. The microstructures of cladding coating confirmed that the dendritic structure and second-phase of alloy hinder the magnetic domain motion, which was the main factor influencing the variation of magnetic signal during the fatigue tests.

  6. ``Smart'' theranostic lanthanide nanoprobes with simultaneous up-conversion fluorescence and tunable T1-T2 magnetic resonance imaging contrast and near-infrared activated photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Das, Gautom Kumar; Vijayaragavan, Vimalan; Xu, Qing Chi; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Bhakoo, Kishore K.; Tamil Selvan, Subramanian; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2014-10-01

    The current work reports a type of ``smart'' lanthanide-based theranostic nanoprobe, NaDyF4:Yb3+/NaGdF4:Yb3+,Er3+, which is able to circumvent the up-converting poisoning effect of Dy3+ ions to give efficient near infrared (980 nm) triggered up-conversion fluorescence, and offers not only excellent dark T2-weighted MR contrast but also tunable bright and T1-weighted MR contrast properties. Due to the efficient up-converted energy transfer from the nanocrystals to chlorin e6 (Ce6) photosensitizers loaded onto the nanocrystals, cytotoxic singlet oxygen was generated and photodynamic therapy was demonstrated. Therefore, the current multifunctional nanocrystals could be potentially useful in various image-guided diagnoses where bright or dark MRI contrast could be selectively tuned to optimize image quality, but also as an efficient and more penetrative near-infrared activated photodynamic therapy agent.The current work reports a type of ``smart'' lanthanide-based theranostic nanoprobe, NaDyF4:Yb3+/NaGdF4:Yb3+,Er3+, which is able to circumvent the up-converting poisoning effect of Dy3+ ions to give efficient near infrared (980 nm) triggered up-conversion fluorescence, and offers not only excellent dark T2-weighted MR contrast but also tunable bright and T1-weighted MR contrast properties. Due to the efficient up-converted energy transfer from the nanocrystals to chlorin e6 (Ce6) photosensitizers loaded onto the nanocrystals, cytotoxic singlet oxygen was generated and photodynamic therapy was demonstrated. Therefore, the current multifunctional nanocrystals could be potentially useful in various image-guided diagnoses where bright or dark MRI contrast could be selectively tuned to optimize image quality, but also as an efficient and more penetrative near-infrared activated photodynamic therapy agent. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01717j

  7. A trench study to assess transfer of pesticides in subsurface lateral flow for a soil with contrasting texture on a sloping vineyard in Beaujolais.

    PubMed

    Peyrard, X; Liger, L; Guillemain, C; Gouy, V

    2016-01-01

    Subsurface lateral flow in both texture-contrast soils and catchments with shallow bedrock is suspected to be a non-point source of contamination of watercourses by pesticides used in agriculture. As a case study, the north of the Beaujolais region (eastern France) provides a favorable environment for such contamination due to its agro-pedo-climatic conditions. Environments seen in the Beaujolais region include intense viticulture, permeable and shallow soils, steep hillslopes, and storms that occur during the periods of pesticide application. Watercourse contamination by pesticides has been widely observed in this region, and offsite pesticide transport by subsurface lateral flow is suspected to be involved in diffuse and chronic presence of pesticides in surface water. In order to confirm and quantify the potential role of such processes in pesticide transfer, an automated trench system has been designed. The trench was set up on a steep farmed hillslope in a texture-contrast soil. It was equipped with a tipping bucket flow meter and an automatic sampler to monitor pesticide concentrations in lateral flow at fine resolution, by means of a flow-dependent sampling strategy. Four pesticides currently used in vine growing were studied to provide a range of mobility properties: one insecticide (chlorpyrifos-methyl) and three fungicides (spiroxamine, tebuconazole, and dimethomorph). With this system, it was possible to study pesticide concentration dynamics in the subsurface lateral flow, generated by substantial rainfall events following pesticide applications. The experimental design ascertained to be a suitable method in which to monitor subsurface lateral flow and related transfer of pesticides.

  8. Magnetization transfer from laser-polarized xenon to protons located in the hydrophobic cavity of the wheat nonspecific lipid transfer protein

    PubMed Central

    Landon, Céline; Berthault, Patrick; Vovelle, Françoise; Desvaux, Hervé

    2001-01-01

    Nonspecific lipid transfer protein from wheat is studied by liquid-state NMR in the presence of xenon. The gas–protein interaction is indicated by the dependence of the protein proton chemical shifts on the xenon pressure and formally confirmed by the first observation of magnetization transfer from laser-polarized xenon to the protein protons. Twenty-six heteronuclear nOes have allowed the characterization of four interaction sites inside the wheat ns-LTP cavity. Their locations are in agreement with the variations of the chemical shifts under xenon pressure and with solvation simulations. The richness of the information obtained by the noble gas with a nuclear polarization multiplied by ∼12,000 makes this approach based on dipolar cross-relaxation with laser-polarized xenon promising for probing protein hydrophobic pockets at ambient pressure. PMID:11274467

  9. Spectral embedding based active contour (SEAC) for lesion segmentation on breast dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Agner, Shannon C; Xu, Jun; Madabhushi, Anant

    2013-03-01

    Segmentation of breast lesions on dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the first step in lesion diagnosis in a computer-aided diagnosis framework. Because manual segmentation of such lesions is both time consuming and highly susceptible to human error and issues of reproducibility, an automated lesion segmentation method is highly desirable. Traditional automated image segmentation methods such as boundary-based active contour (AC) models require a strong gradient at the lesion boundary. Even when region-based terms are introduced to an AC model, grayscale image intensities often do not allow for clear definition of foreground and background region statistics. Thus, there is a need to find alternative image representations that might provide (1) strong gradients at the margin of the object of interest (OOI); and (2) larger separation between intensity distributions and region statistics for the foreground and background, which are necessary to halt evolution of the AC model upon reaching the border of the OOI. In this paper, the authors introduce a spectral embedding (SE) based AC (SEAC) for lesion segmentation on breast DCE-MRI. SE, a nonlinear dimensionality reduction scheme, is applied to the DCE time series in a voxelwise fashion to reduce several time point images to a single parametric image where every voxel is characterized by the three dominant eigenvectors. This parametric eigenvector image (PrEIm) representation allows for better capture of image region statistics and stronger gradients for use with a hybrid AC model, which is driven by both boundary and region information. They compare SEAC to ACs that employ fuzzy c-means (FCM) and principal component analysis (PCA) as alternative image representations. Segmentation performance was evaluated by boundary and region metrics as well as comparing lesion classification using morphological features from SEAC, PCA+AC, and FCM+AC. On a cohort of 50 breast DCE-MRI studies, Pr

  10. Characterization of spatiotemporal changes for the classification of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic-resonance breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Milenković, Jana; Hertl, Kristijana; Košir, Andrej; Zibert, Janez; Tasič, Jurij Franc

    2013-06-01

    The early detection of breast cancer is one of the most important predictors in determining the prognosis for women with malignant tumours. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic-resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is an important imaging modality for detecting and interpreting the different breast lesions from a time sequence of images and has proved to be a very sensitive modality for breast-cancer diagnosis. However, DCE-MRI exhibits only a moderate specificity, thus leading to a high rate of false positives, resulting in unnecessary biopsies that are stressful and physically painful for the patient and lead to an increase in the cost of treatment. There is a strong medical need for a DCE-MRI computer-aided diagnosis tool that would offer a reliable support to the physician's decision providing a high level of sensitivity and specificity. In our study we investigated the possibility of increasing differentiation between the malignant and the benign lesions with respect to the spatial variation of the temporal enhancements of three parametric maps, i.e., the initial enhancement (IE) map, the post-initial enhancement (PIE) map and the signal enhancement ratio (SER) map, by introducing additional methods along with the grey-level co-occurrence matrix, i.e., a second-order statistical method already applied for quantifying the spatiotemporal variations. We introduced the grey-level run-length matrix and the grey-level difference matrix, representing two additional, second-order statistical methods, and the circular Gabor as a frequency-domain-based method. Each of the additional methods is for the first time applied to the DCE-MRI data to differentiate between the malignant and the benign breast lesions. We applied the least-square minimum-distance classifier (LSMD), logistic regression and least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) classifiers on a total of 115 (78 malignant and 37 benign) breast DCE-MRI cases. The performances were evaluated using ten experiments of a ten

  11. A smart magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent responsive to adenosine based on a DNA aptamer-conjugated gadolinium complex.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weichen; Lu, Yi

    2011-05-07

    We report a general strategy for developing a smart MRI contrast agent for the sensing of small molecules such as adenosine based on a DNA aptamer that is conjugated to a Gd compound and a protein streptavidin. The binding of adenosine to its aptamer results in the dissociation of the Gd compound from the large protein, leading to decreases in the rotational correlation time and thus change of MRI contrast. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  12. Interfacial spin-filter assisted spin transfer torque effect in Co/BeO/Co magnetic tunnel junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.-H.; Chu, F.-C.

    2015-03-01

    The first-principles calculation is employed to demonstrate the spin-selective transport properties and the non-collinear spin-transfer torque (STT) effect in the newly proposed Co/BeO/Co magnetic tunnel junction. The subtle spin-polarized charge transfer solely at O/Co interface gives rise to the interfacial spin-filter (ISF) effect, which can be simulated within the tight binding model to verify the general expression of STT. This allows us to predict the asymmetric bias behavior of non-collinear STT directly via the interplay between the first-principles calculated spin current densities in collinear magnetic configurations. We believe that the ISF effect, introduced by the combination between wurtzite-BeO barrier and the fcc-Co electrode, may open a new and promising route in semiconductor-based spintronics applications.

  13. Experimental study on heat transfer enhancement of laminar ferrofluid flow in horizontal tube partially filled porous media under fixed parallel magnet bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikhnejad, Yahya; Hosseini, Reza; Saffar Avval, Majid

    2017-02-01

    In this study, steady state laminar ferroconvection through circular horizontal tube partially filled with porous media under constant heat flux is experimentally investigated. Transverse magnetic fields were applied on ferrofluid flow by two fixed parallel magnet bar positioned on a certain distance from beginning of the test section. The results show promising notable enhancement in heat transfer as a consequence of partially filled porous media and magnetic field, up to 2.2 and 1.4 fold enhancement were observed in heat transfer coefficient respectively. It was found that presence of both porous media and magnetic field simultaneously can highly improve heat transfer up to 2.4 fold. Porous media of course plays a major role in this configuration. Virtually, application of Magnetic field and porous media also insert higher pressure loss along the pipe which again porous media contribution is higher that magnetic field.

  14. Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize Lecture: Transfer of spin momentum between magnets: its genesis and prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slonczewski, John

    2013-03-01

    Consider two nanoscopic monodomain magnets connected by a spacer that is composed of a non-magnetic metal or a tunnel barrier. Any externally applied electric current flowing through these three layers contributes tiny pseudo-torques to both magnetic moments (J . S . 1989). Such a weak spin-transfer torque (STT) may counteract and overcome a comparably small torque caused by viscous dissipation (L. Berger1996; J . S . 1996). Any initial motion (e. g. excited by ambient temperature) of one moment (or both), may grow in amplitude and culminate in steady precession or a transient switch to a new direction of static equilibrium. In a memory element, the STT effect writes 0 or 1 in a magnetic-tunnel junction. Indeed, world-wide developments of memory arrays and radio-frequency oscillators utilizing current-driven STT today enjoy a nine-digit dollar commitment. But the fact that transfer of each half-unit of spin momentum h/4 π through a barrier requires the transfer of at least one unit of electric charge limits its efficiency. Arguably, STT should also arise from the flow of external heat, in either direction, between an insulating magnet, of ferrite or garnet (e. g. YIG) composition, and a metallic spacer (J . S . 2010). Whenever s-d exchange annihilates a hot magnon at the insulator/metal-spacer interface, it transfers one unit h/2 π of spin momentum to the spacer. Conduction electrons within the spacer will transport this spin momentum to the second magnet without requiring an electric current. Such a thermagnonicmethod, modestly powered by a Joule-effect heater, can substantially increase the efficiency of STT. Support for this prediction comes from (1) an estimate of the sd-exchange coefficient from data on spin relaxation in magnetically dilute (Cu,Ag,Au):Mn alloys; (2) a DFT computation (J. Xiao et al 2010); and (3) most persuasively, data from spin pumping driven across a YIG/Au interface by ferromagnetic resonance (B. Heinrich et al 2011; C. Burrowes et al

  15. Gadolinium-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as a Tumor-Absorbable Contrast Agent for Early Diagnosis of Colorectal Tumors Using Magnetic Resonance Colonography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jihong; Zhang, Shizheng; Jiang, Shaojie; Bai, Weixian; Liu, Fei; Yuan, Hong; Ji, Jiansong; Luo, Jingfeng; Han, Guocan; Chen, Lumin; Jin, Yin; Hu, Peng; Yu, Lei; Yang, Xiaoming

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents focusing on special functions are required to improve cancer diagnosis, particularly in the early stages. Here, we designed multifunctional solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) with simultaneous loading of gadolinium (Gd) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and octadecylamine fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to obtain Gd-FITC-SLNs as a tumor-absorbable nanoparticle contrast agent for the histological confirmation of MR imaging (MRI) findings. Colorectal tumors were evaluated in vitro and in vivo via direct uptake of this contrast agent, which displayed reasonable T1 relaxivity and no significant cytotoxicity at the experimental concentrations in human colon carcinoma cells (HT29) and mouse colon carcinoma cells (CT26). In vitro cell uptake experiments demonstrated that contrast agent absorption by the two types of cancer cells was concentration-dependent in the safe concentration range. During in vivo MRI, transrectal infusion of Gd-FITC-SLNs showed more significant enhancement at the tumor site compared with the infusion of Gd-DTPA in female C57/BL mice with azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colorectal highgrade intraepithelial neoplasia. Subsequent confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated Gd-FITC-SLNs as highly concentrated green fluorescent spots distributed from the tumor capsule into the tumor. This study establishes the "proof-of-principle" of a new MRI technique wherein colorectal tumors are enhanced via direct absorption or uptake of the nanoparticle contrast agent.

  16. Significance of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) as an improving factor in contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enterography in evaluation of patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Imširović, Bilal; Zerem, Enver; Efendić, Alma; Mekić Abazović, Alma; Zerem, Omar; Djedović, Muhamed

    2018-08-01

    Aim To determine capabilities and potential of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enterography in order to establish the diagnosis and to evaluate severity and activity of intestinal inflammation. Methods Fifty-five patients with suspicion for presence of Crohn's disease were evaluated. All patients underwent contrast enhanced MRI enterography and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and subsequently endoscopic examination or surgical treatment. Four parameters were analysed: thickening of the bowel wall, and presence of abscess, fistula and lymphadenopathy. Results Comparing results of DWI and contrast enhanced MRI enterography a significant difference between results given through diffusion and histopathological test was found, e.g. a significant difference between results obtained through diffusion and MRI enterography was found. MRI enterography sensitiveness for bowel wall thickening was 97.7% and specificity 70%, whilst DWI sensitivity for bowel wall thickening was 84% and specificity 100%. The diagnostics of abscess and fistula showed no significant difference between DWI and MRI, while in lymphadenopathy significant difference between contrast enhanced MRI enterography and DWI was found. Conclusion Contrast enhanced MRI enterography in combination with DWI allows for excellent evaluation of disease activity, but also problems or complications following it. The examination can be repeated, controlled, and it can contribute to monitoring of patients with this disease. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  17. Modeling magnetization transfer effects of Q2TIPS bolus saturation in multi-TI pulsed arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Petr, Jan; Schramm, Georg; Hofheinz, Frank; Langner, Jens; van den Hoff, Jörg

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the relaxation time changes during Q2TIPS bolus saturation caused by magnetization transfer effects and to propose and evaluate an extended model for perfusion quantification which takes this into account. Three multi inversion-time pulsed arterial spin labeling sequences with different bolus saturation duration were acquired for five healthy volunteers. Magnetization transfer exchange rates in tissue and blood were obtained from control image saturation recovery. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) obtained using the extended model and the standard model was compared. A decrease of obtained CBF of 6% (10%) was observed in grey matter when the duration of bolus saturation increased from 600 to 900 ms (1200 ms). This decrease was reduced to 1.6% (2.8%) when the extended quantification model was used. Compared with the extended model, the standard model underestimated CBF in grey matter by 9.7, 15.0, and 18.7% for saturation durations 600, 900, and 1200 ms, respectively. Results for simulated single inversion-time data showed 5-16% CBF underestimation depending on blood arrival time and bolus saturation duration. Magnetization transfer effects caused by bolus saturation pulses should not be ignored when performing quantification as they can cause appreciable underestimation of the CBF. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Estimating nanoparticle optical absorption with magnetic resonance temperature imaging and bioheat transfer simulation.

    PubMed

    MacLellan, Christopher J; Fuentes, David; Elliott, Andrew M; Schwartz, Jon; Hazle, John D; Stafford, R Jason

    2014-02-01

    Optically activated nanoparticle-mediated heating for thermal therapy applications is an area of intense research. The ability to characterise the spatio-temporal heating potential of these particles for use in modelling under various exposure conditions can aid in the exploration of new approaches for therapy as well as more quantitative prospective approaches to treatment planning. The purpose of this research was to investigate an inverse solution to the heat equation using magnetic resonance temperature imaging (MRTI) feedback, for providing optical characterisation of two types of nanoparticles (gold-silica nanoshells and gold nanorods). The optical absorption of homogeneous nanoparticle-agar mixtures was measured during exposure to an 808 nm laser using real-time MRTI. A coupled finite element solution of heat transfer was registered with the data and used to solve the inverse problem. The L2 norm of the difference between the temperature increase in the model and MRTI was minimised using a pattern search algorithm by varying the absorption coefficient of the mixture. Absorption fractions were within 10% of literature values for similar nanoparticles. Comparison of temporal and spatial profiles demonstrated good qualitative agreement between the model and the MRTI. The weighted root mean square error was <1.5 σMRTI and the average Dice similarity coefficient for ΔT = 5 °C isotherms was >0.9 over the measured time interval. This research demonstrates the feasibility of using an indirect method for making minimally invasive estimates of nanoparticle absorption that might be expanded to analyse a variety of geometries and particles of interest.

  19. Ultrashort echo time magnetization transfer (UTE-MT) imaging of cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eric Y; Bae, Won C; Shao, Hongda; Biswas, Reni; Li, Shihong; Chen, Jun; Patil, Shantanu; Healey, Robert; D'Lima, Darryl D; Chung, Christine B; Du, Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging is one way to indirectly assess pools of protons with fast transverse relaxation. However, conventional MT imaging sequences are not applicable to short T2 tissues such as cortical bone. Ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences with TE values as low as 8 µs can detect signals from different water components in cortical bone. In this study we aim to evaluate two-dimensional UTE-MT imaging of cortical bone and its application in assessing cortical bone porosity as measured by micro-computed tomography (μCT) and biomechanical properties. In total, 38 human cadaveric distal femur and proximal tibia bones were sectioned to produce 122 rectangular pieces of cortical bone for quantitative UTE-MT MR imaging, μCT, and biomechanical testing. Off-resonance saturation ratios (OSRs) with a series of MT pulse frequency offsets (Δf) were calculated and compared with porosity assessed with μCT, as well as elastic (modulus, yield stress, and strain) and failure (ultimate stress, failure strain, and energy) properties, using Pearson correlation and linear regression. A moderately strong negative correlation was observed between OSR and μCT porosity (R(2)  = 0.46-0.51), while a moderate positive correlation was observed between OSR and yield stress (R(2)  = 0.25-0.30) and failure stress (R(2)  = 0.31-0.35), and a weak positive correlation (R(2)  = 0.09-0.12) between OSR and Young's modulus at all off-resonance saturation frequencies. OSR determined with the UTE-MT sequence provides quantitative information on cortical bone and is sensitive to μCT porosity and biomechanical function. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Preparation of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers by atom transfer radical polymerization for the rapid extraction of avermectin from fish samples.

    PubMed

    You, Xiaoxiao; Gao, Lei; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Ligang

    2017-01-01

    A novel and highly efficient approach to obtain magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers is described to detect avermectin in fish samples. The magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized by surface imprinting polymerization using magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes as the support materials, atom transfer radical polymerization as the polymerization method, avermectin as template, acrylamide as functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker. The characteristics of the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were assessed by using transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The binding characteristics of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were researched through isothermal adsorption experiment, kinetics adsorption experiment, and the selectivity experiment. Coupled with ultra high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, the extraction conditions of the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers as adsorbents for avermectin were investigated in detail. The recovery of avermectin was 84.2-97.0%, and the limit of detection was 0.075 μg/kg. Relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precisions were in the range of 1.7-2.9% and 3.4-5.6%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the extraction method not only has high selectivity and accuracy, but also is convenient for the determination of avermectin in fish samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. 3D magneto-convective heat transfer in CNT-nanofluid filled cavity under partially active magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rashed, Abdullah A. A. A.; Kolsi, Lioua; Oztop, Hakan F.; Aydi, Abdelkarim; Malekshah, Emad Hasani; Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal; Borjini, Mohamed Naceur

    2018-05-01

    A computational study has been performed to investigate the effects of partially active magnetic field on natural convection heat transfer in CNT-nanofluid filled and three-dimensional differentially heated closed space. Two cases are considered to see this effect as magnetic field is applied to upper half (Case I) and lower half (Case II) while remaining walls are insulated. The finite volume method is used to solve governing equations and results are obtained for different governing parameters as Hartmann number (0 ≤ Ha ≤ 100), nanoparticle volume fraction (0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.05) and height of the active zone (0 ≤ LB ≤ 1). It is found that location of magnetic field plays an important role even at the same Hartmann number. Thus, it can be a good parameter to control heat and fluid flow inside the closed space.

  2. Ultrasound guidance to perform intra-articular injection of gadolinium-based contrast material for magnetic resonance arthrography as an alternative to fluoroscopy: the time is now.

    PubMed

    Messina, Carmelo; Banfi, Giuseppe; Aliprandi, Alberto; Mauri, Giovanni; Secchi, Francesco; Sardanelli, Francesco; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been definitively established as the reference standard in the evaluation of joints in the body. Similarly, magnetic resonance arthrography has emerged as a technique that has been proven to increase significantly the diagnostic performance if compared with conventional MR imaging, especially when dealing with fibrocartilage and articular cartilage abnormalities. Diluted gadolinium can be injected in the joint space using different approaches: under palpation using anatomic landmarks or using an imaging guidance, such as fluoroscopy, computed tomography, or ultrasound. Fluoroscopy has been traditionally used, but the involvement of ionizing radiation should represent a remarkable limitation of this modality. Conversely, ultrasound has emerged as a feasible, cheap, quick, and radiation-free modality that can be used to inject joints, with comparable accuracy of fluoroscopy. In the present paper, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using fluoroscopy or ultrasound in injecting gadolinium-based contrast agents in joints to perform magnetic resonance arthrography, also in view of the new EuroSAFE Imaging initiative promoted by the European Society of Radiology and the recent updates to the European Atomic Energy Community 2013/59 directive on the medical use of ionizing radiation. • Intra-articular contrast agent injection can be performed using different imaging modalities • Fluoroscopy is widely used, but uses ionizing radiation • Ultrasound is an accurate, quick, and radiation-free modality for joint injection • X-rays should be avoided when other radiation-free modalities can be used.

  3. Synthesis of DTPA analogues derived from piperidine and azepane: potential contrast enhancement agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chong, H S; Garmestani, K; Bryant, L H; Brechbiel, M W

    2001-11-16

    Two DTPA derivatives (PIP-DTPA and AZEP-DTPA) as potential contrast enhancement agents in MRI are synthesized. The T1 and T2 relaxivities of their corresponding Gd(III) complexes are reported. At clinically relevant field strengths, the relaxivities of the complexes are comparable to that of the contrast agent, Gd(DTPA) which is in clinical use. The serum stability of the (153)Gd-labeled complexes is assessed by measuring the release of (153)Gd from the ligands. The radiolabeled Gd chelates are found to be kinetically stable in human serum for up to at least 14 days without any measurable loss of radioactivity.

  4. On-bead combinatorial synthesis and imaging of chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging agents to identify factors that influence water exchange.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Roberta; Soesbe, Todd C; De León-Rodríguez, Luis M; Sherry, A Dean; Udugamasooriya, D Gomika

    2011-08-24

    The sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents is highly dependent on the rate of water exchange between the inner sphere of a paramagnetic ion and bulk water. Normally, identifying a paramagnetic complex that has optimal water exchange kinetics is done by synthesizing and testing one compound at a time. We report here a rapid, economical on-bead combinatorial synthesis of a library of imaging agents. Eighty different 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecan-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-tetraamide peptoid derivatives were prepared on beads using a variety of charged, uncharged but polar, hydrophobic, and variably sized primary amines. A single chemical exchange saturation transfer image of the on-bead library easily distinguished those compounds having the most favorable water exchange kinetics. This combinatorial approach will allow rapid screening of libraries of imaging agents to identify the chemical characteristics of a ligand that yield the most sensitive imaging agents. This technique could be automated and readily adapted to other types of MRI or magnetic resonance/positron emission tomography agents as well.

  5. Assessing tumor vascularization as a potential biomarker of imatinib resistance in gastrointestinal stromal tumors by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Consolino, Lorena; Longo, Dario Livio; Sciortino, Marianna; Dastrù, Walter; Cabodi, Sara; Giovenzana, Giovanni Battista; Aime, Silvio

    2017-07-01

    Most metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) develop resistance to the first-line imatinib treatment. Recently, increased vessel density and angiogenic markers were reported in GISTs with a poor prognosis, suggesting that angiogenesis is implicated in GIST tumor progression and resistance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between tumor vasculature and imatinib resistance in different GIST mouse models using a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) functional approach. Immunodeficient mice (n = 8 for each cell line) were grafted with imatinib-sensitive (GIST882 and GIST-T1) and imatinib-resistant (GIST430) human cell lines. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) was performed on GIST xenografts to quantify tumor vessel permeability (K trans ) and vascular volume fraction (v p ). Microvessel density (MVD), permeability (mean dextran density, MDD), and angiogenic markers were evaluated by immunofluorescence and western blot assays. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed significantly increased vessel density (P < 0.0001) and permeability (P = 0.0002) in imatinib-resistant tumors compared to imatinib-sensitive ones. Strong positive correlations were observed between MRI estimates, K trans and v p , and their related ex vivo values, MVD (r = 0.78 for K trans and r = 0.82 for v p ) and MDD (r = 0.77 for K trans and r = 0.94 for v p ). In addition, higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR2 and VEFGR3) was seen in GIST430. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging highlighted marked differences in tumor vasculature and microenvironment properties between imatinib-resistant and imatinib-sensitive GISTs, as also confirmed by ex vivo assays. These results provide new insights into the role that DCE-MRI could play in GIST characterization and response to GIST treatment. Validation studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  6. One-step synthesis of water-dispersible ultra-small Fe3O4 nanoparticles as contrast agents for T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guannan; Zhang, Xuanjun; Skallberg, Andreas; Liu, Yaxu; Hu, Zhangjun; Mei, Xifan; Uvdal, Kajsa

    2014-02-01

    Uniform, highly water-dispersible and ultra-small Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized via a modified one-step coprecipitation approach. The prepared Fe3O4 nanoparticles not only show good magnetic properties, long-term stability in a biological environment, but also exhibit good biocompatibility in cell viability and hemolysis assay. Due to the ultra-small sized and highly water-dispersibility, they exhibit excellent relaxivity properties, the 1.7 nm sized Fe3O4 nanoparticles reveal a low r2/r1 ratio of 2.03 (r1 = 8.20 mM-1 s-1, r2 = 16.67 mM-1 s-1) and the 2.2 nm sized Fe3O4 nanoparticles also appear to have a low r2/r1 ratio of 4.65 (r1 = 6.15 mM-1 s-1, r2 = 28.62 mM-1 s-1). This demonstrates that the proposed ultra-small Fe3O4 nanoparticles have great potential as a new type of T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. Especially, the 2.2 nm sized Fe3O4 nanoparticles, have a competitive r1 value and r2 value compared to commercial contrasting agents such as Gd-DTPA (r1 = 4.8 mM-1 s -1), and SHU-555C (r2 = 69 mM-1 s-1). In vitro and in vivo imaging experiments, show that the 2.2 nm sized Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibit great contrast enhancement, long-term circulation, and low toxicity, which enable these ultra-small sized Fe3O4 nanoparticles to be promising as T1 and T2 dual contrast agents in clinical settings.Uniform, highly water-dispersible and ultra-small Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized via a modified one-step coprecipitation approach. The prepared Fe3O4 nanoparticles not only show good magnetic properties, long-term stability in a biological environment, but also exhibit good biocompatibility in cell viability and hemolysis assay. Due to the ultra-small sized and highly water-dispersibility, they exhibit excellent relaxivity properties, the 1.7 nm sized Fe3O4 nanoparticles reveal a low r2/r1 ratio of 2.03 (r1 = 8.20 mM-1 s-1, r2 = 16.67 mM-1 s-1) and the 2.2 nm sized Fe3O4 nanoparticles also appear to have a low r2/r1 ratio of 4.65 (r1 = 6.15 mM-1 s

  7. Self-assembled dual-modality contrast agents for non-invasive stem cell tracking via near-infrared fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Tan, Yan; Xie, Lisi; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Jing; Bai, Jingxuan; Huang, Ping; Zhan, Wugen; Wan, Qian; Zou, Chao; Han, Yali; Wang, Zhiyong

    2016-09-15

    Stem cells hold great promise for treating various diseases. However, one of the main drawbacks of stem cell therapy is the lack of non-invasive image-tracking technologies. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging have been employed to analyse cellular and subcellular events via the assistance of contrast agents, the sensitivity and temporal resolution of MRI and the spatial resolution of NIRF are still shortcomings. In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals and IR-780 dyes were co-encapsulated in stearic acid-modified polyethylenimine to form a dual-modality contrast agent with nano-size and positive charge. These resulting agents efficiently labelled stem cells and did not influence the cellular viability and differentiation. Moreover, the labelled cells showed the advantages of dual-modality imaging in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Simple Fabrication of Gd(III)-DTPA-Nanodiamond Particles by Chemical Modification for Use as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Contrast Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takako; Ohana, Tsuguyori; Yabuno, Hajime; Kasai, Rumiko; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Hasebe, Terumitsu

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a simple and useful process for fabricating nanodiamond (ND) particles modified with an organogadolinium moiety by chemical modification for their use as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. The introduction of the organogadolinium moiety on the surface of the ND particles was performed by the condensation of ND and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) followed by treatment with GdCl3. The modified surfaces were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analyses. MRI experiments on the Gd-DTPA-ND particles indicated their high signal intensity on T1-weighted images.

  9. Diagnostic efficacy of contrast-enhanced sonography by combined qualitative and quantitative analysis in breast lesions: a comparative study with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Du, Jing; Li, Feng-Hua; Fang, Hua; Hua, Jia; Wan, Cai-Feng

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of contrast-enhanced sonography for differentiation of breast lesions by combined qualitative and quantitative analyses in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifty-six patients with American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category 3 to 5 breast lesions on conventional sonography were evaluated by contrast-enhanced sonography and MRI. A comparative analysis of diagnostic results between contrast-enhanced sonography and MRI was conducted in light of the pathologic findings. Pathologic analysis showed 26 benign and 30 malignant lesions. The predominant enhancement patterns of the benign lesions on contrast-enhanced sonography were homogeneous, centrifugal, and isoenhancement or hypoenhancement, whereas the patterns of the malignant lesions were mainly heterogeneous, centripetal, and hyperenhancement. The detection rates for perfusion defects and peripheral radial vessels in the malignant group were much higher than those in the benign group (P < .05). As to quantitative analysis, statistically significant differences were found in peak and time-to-peak values between the groups (P < .05). With pathologic findings as the reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of contrast-enhanced sonography and MRI were 90.0%, 92.3%, 91.1% and 96.7%, 88.5%, and 92.9%, respectively. The two methods had a concordant rate of 87.5% (49 of 56), and the concordance test gave a value of κ = 0.75, indicating that there was high concordance in breast lesion assessment between the two diagnostic modalities. Contrast-enhanced sonography provided typical enhancement patterns and valuable quantitative parameters, which showed good agreement with MRI in diagnostic efficacy and may potentially improve characterization of breast lesions.

  10. Design of a novel class of protein-based magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents for the molecular imaging of cancer biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Shenghui; Qiao, Jingjuan; Pu, Fan; Cameron, Mathew; Yang, Jenny J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of disease biomarkers, especially cancer biomarkers, could potentially improve our understanding of the disease and drug activity during preclinical and clinical drug treatment and patient stratification. MRI contrast agents with high relaxivity and targeting capability to tumor biomarkers are highly required. Extensive work has been done to develop MRI contrast agents. However, only a few limited literatures report that protein residues can function as ligands to bind Gd3+ with high binding affinity, selectivity, and relaxivity. In this paper, we focus on reporting our current progress on designing a novel class of protein-based Gd3+ MRI contrast agents (ProCAs) equipped with several desirable capabilities for in vivo application of MRI of tumor biomarkers. We will first discuss our strategy for improving the relaxivity by a novel protein-based design. We then discuss the effect of increased relaxivity of ProCAs on improving the detection limits for MRI contrast agent, especially for in vivo application. We will further report our efforts to improve in vivo imaging capability and our achievement in molecular imaging of cancer biomarkers with potential preclinical and clinical applications. PMID:23335551

  11. Field-cycling NMR experiments in an ultra-wide magnetic field range: relaxation and coherent polarization transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhukov, Ivan V; Kiryutin, Alexey S; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V; Grishin, Yuri A; Vieth, Hans-Martin; Ivanov, Konstantin L

    2018-05-09

    An experimental method is described allowing fast field-cycling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments over a wide range of magnetic fields from 5 nT to 10 T. The method makes use of a hybrid technique: the high field range is covered by positioning the sample in the inhomogeneous stray field of the NMR spectrometer magnet. For fields below 2 mT a magnetic shield is mounted on top of the spectrometer; inside the shield the magnetic field is controlled by a specially designed coil system. This combination allows us to measure T1-relaxation times and nuclear Overhauser effect parameters over the full range in a routine way. For coupled proton-carbon spin systems relaxation with a common T1 is found at low fields, where the spins are "strongly coupled". In some cases, experiments at ultralow fields provide access to heteronuclear long-lived spin states. Efficient coherent polarization transfer is seen for proton-carbon spin systems at ultralow fields as follows from the observation of quantum oscillations in the polarization evolution. Applications to analysis and the manipulation of heteronuclear spin systems are discussed.

  12. Probing the Magnetic Field Structure in Sgr A* on Black Hole Horizon Scales with Polarized Radiative Transfer Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Roman; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Johnson, Michael D.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic fields are believed to drive accretion and relativistic jets in black hole accretion systems, but the magnetic field structure that controls these phenomena remains uncertain. We perform general relativistic (GR) polarized radiative transfer of time-dependent three-dimensional GR magnetohydrodynamical simulations to model thermal synchrotron emission from the Galactic Center source Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). We compare our results to new polarimetry measurements by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) and show how polarization in the visibility (Fourier) domain distinguishes and constrains accretion flow models with different magnetic field structures. These include models with small-scale fields in disks driven by the magnetorotational instability as well as models with large-scale ordered fields in magnetically arrested disks. We also consider different electron temperature and jet mass-loading prescriptions that control the brightness of the disk, funnel-wall jet, and Blandford-Znajek-driven funnel jet. Our comparisons between the simulations and observations favor models with ordered magnetic fields near the black hole event horizon in Sgr A*, though both disk- and jet-dominated emission can satisfactorily explain most of the current EHT data. We also discuss how the black hole shadow can be filled-in by jet emission or mimicked by the absence of funnel jet emission. We show that stronger model constraints should be possible with upcoming circular polarization and higher frequency (349 GHz) measurements.

  13. Probing the Magnetic Field Structure in Sgr A* on Black Hole Horizon Scales with Polarized Radiative Transfer Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, Roman; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Johnson, Michael D.

    Magnetic fields are believed to drive accretion and relativistic jets in black hole accretion systems, but the magnetic field structure that controls these phenomena remains uncertain. We perform general relativistic (GR) polarized radiative transfer of time-dependent three-dimensional GR magnetohydrodynamical simulations to model thermal synchrotron emission from the Galactic Center source Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). We compare our results to new polarimetry measurements by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) and show how polarization in the visibility (Fourier) domain distinguishes and constrains accretion flow models with different magnetic field structures. These include models with small-scale fields in disks driven by the magnetorotationalmore » instability as well as models with large-scale ordered fields in magnetically arrested disks. We also consider different electron temperature and jet mass-loading prescriptions that control the brightness of the disk, funnel-wall jet, and Blandford–Znajek-driven funnel jet. Our comparisons between the simulations and observations favor models with ordered magnetic fields near the black hole event horizon in Sgr A*, though both disk- and jet-dominated emission can satisfactorily explain most of the current EHT data. We also discuss how the black hole shadow can be filled-in by jet emission or mimicked by the absence of funnel jet emission. We show that stronger model constraints should be possible with upcoming circular polarization and higher frequency (349 GHz) measurements.« less

  14. Contrasting O/X-mode Heater Effects on O-Mode Sounding echo and the Generation of Magnetic Pulsations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-06

    Micropulsation [10] The induced magnetic field variation was monitored by the fluxgate magnetometer located at Gakona, AK. The 1 sec resolution data...minutes on and 1 minute off, were explored. The experiments were monitored using the digisonde and magnetometer located at the HAARP facility. The...were explored. The experiments were monitored using the digisonde and magnetometer located at the HAARP facility. The results show that the

  15. Convective Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Alternating Magnetic Fields and Particle Laden Fluid Applied to the Microscale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-11

    convective heat transfer , researchers have been drawn to the high heat flux potentials of microfluidic devices. Microchannel flows, with hydraulic...novel heat transfer enhancement technique proven on the conventional scale to the mini and microchannel scales. 1.3 Background: Conventional...S.G., 2004, “Single-Phase Heat Transfer Enhancement Techniques in Microchannel and Minichannel Flows,” International Conference on Microchannels

  16. A fast iterative convolution weighting approach for gridding-based direct Fourier three-dimensional reconstruction with correction for the contrast transfer function.

    PubMed

    Abrishami, V; Bilbao-Castro, J R; Vargas, J; Marabini, R; Carazo, J M; Sorzano, C O S

    2015-10-01

    We describe a fast and accurate method for the reconstruction of macromolecular complexes from a set of projections. Direct Fourier inversion (in which the Fourier Slice Theorem plays a central role) is a solution for dealing with this inverse problem. Unfortunately, the set of projections provides a non-equidistantly sampled version of the macromolecule Fourier transform in the single particle field (and, therefore, a direct Fourier inversion) may not be an optimal solution. In this paper, we introduce a gridding-based direct Fourier method for the three-dimensional reconstruction approach that uses a weighting technique to compute a uniform sampled Fourier transform. Moreover, the contrast transfer function of the microscope, which is a limiting factor in pursuing a high resolution reconstruction, is corrected by the algorithm. Parallelization of this algorithm, both on threads and on multiple CPU's, makes the process of three-dimensional reconstruction even faster. The experimental results show that our proposed gridding-based direct Fourier reconstruction is slightly more accurate than similar existing methods and presents a lower computational complexity both in terms of time and memory, thereby allowing its use on larger volumes. The algorithm is fully implemented in the open-source Xmipp package and is downloadable from http://xmipp.cnb.csic.es. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of the effect of distance and misalignment between magnetically coupled coils for wireless power transfer in intraocular pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Rendon-Nava, Adrian E; Díaz-Méndez, J Alejandro; Nino-de-Rivera, Luis; Calleja-Arriaga, Wilfrido; Gil-Carrasco, Felix; Díaz-Alonso, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the effect of distance and alignment between two magnetically coupled coils for wireless power transfer in intraocular pressure measurement is presented. For measurement purposes, a system was fabricated consisting of an external device, which is a Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit variation, in charge of transferring energy to a biomedical implant and reading data from it. The biomedical implant is an RLC tank circuit, encapsulated by a polyimide coating. Power transfer was done by magnetic induction coupling method, by placing one of the inductors of the Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit and the inductor of the implant in close proximity. The Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit was biased with a 10 MHz sinusoidal signal. The analysis presented in this paper proves that wireless transmission of power for intraocular pressure measurement is feasible with the measurement system proposed. In order to have a proper inductive coupling link, special care must be taken when placing the two coils in proximity to avoid misalignment between them.

  18. A novel contrast agent with rare earth-doped up-conversion luminescence and Gd-DTPA magnetic resonance properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Qing; Wei Daixu; Cheng Jiejun

    2012-08-15

    The magnetic-luminescent multifunctional nanoparticles based on Gd-DTPA and NaYF{sub 4}:Yb, Er were successfully synthesized by the conjugation of activated DTPA and silica-coated/surface-aminolated NaYF{sub 4}:Yb, Er nanoparticles through EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. The as-prepared products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The room-temperature upconversion luminescent spectra and T{sub 1}-weighted maps of the obtained nanoparticles were carried out by 980 nm NIR light excitation and a 3T MR imaging scanner, respectively. The results indicated that the as-synthesized multifunctional nanoparticles with small size, highly solubility in water, and bothmore » high MR relaxivities and upconversion luminescence may have potential usage for MR imaging in future. - Graphical abstract: We have synthesized magnetic-luminescent multifunctional nanoparticles based on Gd-DTPA and NaYF4:Yb, Er by the conjugation of activated DTPA and silica-coated/surface-aminolated NaYF4:Yb, Er nanoparticles through EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel magnetic-luminescent multifunctional nanoparticles are synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanoparticles are highly efficient for luminescence and T{sub 1}-weighted MR imaging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanoparticles are small in size and highly solubility in water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanoparticles hold great potential usage for future biomedical engineering.« less

  19. Lower cerebral blood flow in subjects with Alzheimer's dementia, mild cognitive impairment, and subjective cognitive decline using two-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Leijenaar, Jolien F; van Maurik, Ingrid S; Kuijer, Joost P A; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Prins, Niels D

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to detect differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) between subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and subjective cognitive decline (SCD), using two-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. We included 74 AD patients (67 years, 51% female), 36 MCI patients (66 years, 33% female), and 62 patients with SCD (60 years, 32% female) from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort. Patients with SCD are those who visited the memory clinic with subjective cognitive complaints without objective cognitive impairment. Whole-brain CBF (mL/100 g/min) was calculated using total volume flow measured with two-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and normalized for brain volume. Mean CBF values (SD) were lower in AD compared to SCD (age and sex adjusted 70 ± 26 vs. 82 ± 24 mL/100 g/min, P  < .05). Mean CBF values of MCI were comparable to AD. Across clinical groups, lower CBF was associated with lower scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (age and sex adjusted stβ = 0.19 per mL/100 g/min; P  = .02). Lower whole-brain CBF is seen in AD patients compared to SCD patients and is associated with worse cognitive function.

  20. In Vitro Evaluation of Gd(3+)-Anionic Linear Globular Dendrimer-Monoclonal Antibody: Potential Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Prostate Cancer Cell Imaging.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Mehdi; Mehravi, Bita; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Ziaee, Seyed Amir Mohsen; Pourghasem, Peyman

    2015-12-01

    Early stage prostate cancer diagnosis is of high global interest. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive modality for early cancer diagnosis, in particular for prostate cancer detection. The research aim is to synthesize a nanodendrimer and its conjugate with C595 monoclonal antibody (mAb C595), against prostate cancer, followed by its chelating with Gd(3+). Anti-MUC-1 mAb C595 was conjugated to an anionic linear globular dendrimer (ALGDG2). The polyethylene glycol core and citric acid shell were synthesized followed by loading with Gd(3+) to make novel contrast agents for functional MRI. The in vitro behavior and MRI parameters of the nanoconjugate were investigated performing several studies such as cell toxicity and TNF-alpha evaluations. The investigation of magnetic resonance imaging parameters indicated how well nanoconjugate performs in (1)H-NMR and (17)O-NMR in vitro. Results showed a potential specific MRI activity by improving the swelling responses cell binding. The MTT (2-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-3,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay demonstrated that this contrast agent had significant cytotoxicity on prostate cancer cells. These results showed that Gd(3+)-ALGDG2-C595 is a potential prostate molecular imaging agent and could be considered as an ideal functional nanoprobe. Additionally, further investigations by clinical trials are in the pipeline.

  1. Advantages of T2 Weighted Three Dimensional and T1 Weighted Three Dimensional Contrast Medium Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Urography in Examination of the Child Population.

    PubMed

    Sehic, Adnan; Julardzija, Fuad; Vegar-Zubovic, Sandra; Sefic-Pasic, Irmina

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to prove the advantages of combined use of T2 weighted three dimensional (T2 W 3D) and T1 weighted three dimensional contrast medium enhanced (T1 W 3D CE) magnetic resonance (MR) urography in displaying urinary tract in child population. Total of 120 patients were included in the study, 71 (59%) male patients and 49 (41%) female patients. The study was conducted on the Radiology clinic, University of Sarajevo Clinical Center, during the period from February to November 2016. Patients were examined on the 1.5T and 3T MRI, with standard protocol which includes T2 W 3D and T1 W 3D contrast medium enhanced MR urography. In the post procesing quantitative measurement of signal intensity and evaluation of the display quality in the area of renal pelvis, middle of ureter and the mouth of the ureter were done. Measurement was concluded on Syngo software B13. Analyzing the acquired data and statistically processing them we got results which have shown higher signal intensity of measured structures on T1 W 3D contrast medium enhanced MR urography on the level p<0.01 and p<0.05 compared to T2 W 3D MR urography in patients that had normal dynamics of contrast medium secretion. However, in kidneys with decreased function, T2 W 3D MR urography provided higher signal intensity and better display compared to T1 W 3D contrast medium enhanced MR urography on the level p<0.05 and p<0.01. T2 W3D MR urography is useful in imaging nonfunctional kidney as well as in patients prone to allergic reactions, where as T1 W3D CE MR urography is at an advantage over T2 W 3D MR urography in imaging the kidney functionality, kidney dynamics measurement, it provides higher MRI signal intensity required for clear 3D reconstructions.

  2. Polyethylene glycol-covered ultra-small Gd2O3 nanoparticles for positive contrast at 1.5 T magnetic resonance clinical scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Marc-André; Petoral, Rodrigo M., Jr.; Söderlind, Fredrik; Klasson, A.; Engström, Maria; Veres, Teodor; Käll, Per-Olof; Uvdal, Kajsa

    2007-10-01

    The size distribution and magnetic properties of ultra-small gadolinium oxide crystals (US-Gd2O3) were studied, and the impact of polyethylene glycol capping on the relaxivity constants (r1, r2) and signal intensity with this contrast agent was investigated. Size distribution and magnetic properties of US-Gd2O3 nanocrystals were measured with a TEM and PPMS magnetometer. For relaxation studies, diethylene glycol (DEG)-capped US-Gd2O3 nanocrystals were reacted with PEG-silane (MW 5000). Suspensions were adequately dialyzed in water to eliminate traces of Gd3+ and surfactants. The particle hydrodynamic radius was measured with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and the proton relaxation times were measured with a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Parallel studies were performed with DEG-Gd2O3 and PEG-silane-SPGO (Gd2O3,< 40 nm diameter). The small and narrow size distribution of US-Gd2O3 was confirmed with TEM (~3 nm) and DLS. PEG-silane-US-Gd2O3 relaxation parameters were twice as high as for Gd-DTPA and the r2/r1 ratio was 1.4. PEG-silane-SPGO gave low r1 relaxivities and high r2/r1 ratios, less compatible with positive contrast agent requirements. Higher r1 were obtained with PEG-silane in comparison to DEG-Gd2O3. Treatment of DEG-US-Gd2O3 with PEG-silane provides enhanced relaxivity while preventing aggregation of the oxide cores. This study confirms that PEG-covered Gd2O3 nanoparticles can be used for positively contrasted MR applications requiring stability, biocompatible coatings and nanocrystal functionalization.

  3. Probing the magnetic field structure in Sgr A* on Black Hole Horizon Scales with Polarized Radiative Transfer Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Roman; McKinney, Jonathan; Johnson, Michael; Doeleman, Sheperd; Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Accreting black holes (BHs) are at the core of relativistic astrophysics as messengers of the strong-field regime of General Relativity and prime targets of several observational campaigns, including imaging the black hole shadow in SagA* and M87 with the Event Horizon Telescope. I will present results from general-relativistic, polarized radiatiative transfer models for the inner accretion flow in Sgr A*. The models use time dependent, global GRMHD simulations of hot accretion flows including standard-and-normal-evolution (SANE) and magnetically arrested disks (MAD). I present comparisons of these synthetic data sets to the most recent observations with the Event Horizon Telescope and show how the data distinguishes the models and probes the magnetic field structure.

  4. The distribution of reconnection geometry in flux transfer events using energetic ion, plasma and magnetic data. [on dayside magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daly, P. W.; Rijnbeek, R. P.; Sckopke, N.; Russell, C. T.; Saunders, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of energetic ion anisotropies in flux transfer events (FTEs) about the dayside magnetopause has been determined for ISEE 2 crossings of the boundary in 1977 and 1978. When the events are sorted according to the sign of the east-west component of the magnetic field in the magnetosphere, a clear correlation is observed on the northern morningside. When the field is eastward, particles flow antiparallel to the field, implying field line connection to the Northern Hemisphere; when the field is westward, the opposite is true. On the afternoonside, the particle anisotropies are correlated with latitude. Explanations for this pattern are discussed which involve FTE formation at low latitudes with subsequent motion at a velocity given by the vector superposition of the Alfven velocity from the release of magnetic tension and the magnetosheath bulk flow velocity. Evidence that the geomagnetic and not the geocentric solar magnetospheric equator is the source of FTEs is considered.

  5. Interaction of proflavin with aromatic amines in homogeneous and micellar media: Photoinduced electron transfer probed by magnetic field effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Brotati; Basu, Samita

    2010-02-01

    Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between proflavin (PF +) and two aromatic amines viz., dimethylaniline (DMA) and 4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)diphenylmethane (DMDPM) is studied in homogeneous and heterogeneous media using steady-state as well as time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and laser flash photolysis with an associated magnetic field. Ionic micelles have been used to study the effect of charge of proflavin on PET with amines. Magnetic field effect on PET reactions reveals that the parent spin-state of precursors of PET for DMA-PF + system is singlet while for DMDPM-PF + system is triplet, implying that the dynamics of PET is influenced by the structure of the donor.

  6. Numerical analysis of the shifting slabs applied in a wireless power transfer system to enhance magnetic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yayun; Yang, Xijun; Jin, Nan; Li, Wenwen; Yao, Chen; Tang, Houjun

    2017-05-01

    Shifting medium is a kind of metamaterial, which can optically shift a space or an object a certain distance away from its original position. Based on the shifting medium, we propose a concise pair of shifting slabs covering the transmitting or receiving coil in a two-coil wireless power transfer system to decrease the equivalent distance between the coils. The electromagnetic parameters of the shifting slabs are calculated by transformation optics. Numerical simulations validate that the shifting slabs can approximately shift the electromagnetic fields generated by the covered coil; thus, the magnetic coupling and the efficiency of the system are enhanced while remaining the physical transmission distance unchanged. We also verify the advantages of the shifting slabs over the magnetic superlens. Finally, we provide two methods to fabricate shifting slabs based on split-ring resonators.

  7. Metal-Free Photoinduced Electron Transfer-Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization Integrated with Bioinspired Polydopamine Chemistry as a Green Strategy for Surface Engineering of Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Xuegang; Ye, Gang; Zhu, Shan; Wang, Zhe; Huo, Xiaomei; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Lu, Yuexiang; Chen, Jing

    2017-04-19

    Developing green and efficient technologies for surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is of crucial importance for their biomedical and environmental applications. This study reports, for the first time, a novel strategy by integrating metal-free photoinduced electron transfer-atom transfer radical polymerization (PET-ATRP) with the bioinspired polydopamine (PDA) chemistry for controlled architecture of functional polymer brushes from MNPs. Conformal PDA encapsulation layers were initially generated on the surfaces of MNPs, which served as the protective shells while providing an ideal platform for tethering 2-bromo-2-phenylacetic acid (BPA), a highly efficient initiator. Metal-free PET-ATRP technique was then employed for controlled architecture of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) brushes from the core-shell MNPs by using diverse organic dyes as photoredox catalysts. Impacts of light sources (including UV and visible lights), photoredox catalysts, and polymerization time on the composition and morphology of the PGMA brushes were investigated. Moreover, the versatility of the PGMA-functionalized core-shell MNPs was demonstrated by covalent attachment of ethylenediamine (EDA), a model functional molecule, which afforded the MNPs with improved hydrophilicity, dispersibility, and superior binding ability to uranyl ions. The green methodology by integrating metal-free PET-ATRP with facile PDA chemistry would provide better opportunities for surface modification of MNPs and miscellaneous nanomaterials for biomedical and electronic applications.

  8. The diagnostic performance of non-contrast 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3-T MRI) versus 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance arthrography (1.5-T MRA) in femoro-acetabular impingement.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Rodríguez, Ana M; De Lucas-Villarrubia, Jose C; Pastrana-Ledesma, Miguel; Hualde-Juvera, Ana; Méndez-Alonso, Santiago; Padron, Mario

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 3-T non-contrast MRI versus 1.5-T MRA for assessing labrum and articular cartilage lesions in patients with clinical suspicion of femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI). Fifty patients (thirty men and twenty women, mean age 42.5 years) underwent 1.5-T MRA, 3-T MRI and arthroscopy on the same hip. An optimized high-resolution proton density spin echo pulse sequence was included in the 3-T non-contrast MRI protocol. The 3-T non-contrast MRI identified forty-two of the forty-three arthroscopically proven tears at the labral-chondral transitional zone (sensitivity, 97.7%; specificity, 100%; positive predictive value (PPV), 100%; negative predictive value (NPV), 87.5%; accuracy 98%). With 1.5-T MRA, forty-four tears were diagnosed. However, there was one false positive (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 85.7%; PPV, 97.7%; NPV, 100%; accuracy 98%). Agreement between arthroscopy and MRI, whether 3-T non-contrast MRI or 1.5-T MRA, as to the degree of chondral lesion in the acetabulum was reached in half of the patients and in the femur in 76% of patients. Non-invasive assessment of the hip is possible with 3-T MR magnet. 3-T non-contrast MRI could replace MRA as the workhorse technique for assessing hip internal damage. MRA would then be reserved for young adults with a strong clinical suspicion of FAI but normal findings on 3-T non-contrast MRI. When compared with 1.5-T MRA, optimized sequences with 3-T non-contrast MRI help in detecting normal variants and in diagnosing articular cartilage lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Couette flow through a porous medium with heat and mass transfer in the presence of tranverse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawanya, T.; Vidhya, M.; Govindarajan, A.

    2018-04-01

    This present paper deals with the investigation of couette flow of a viscous electrically conducting incompressible fluid three dimensionally through a porous medium in presence of transverse magnetic field. Approximate Solution of equations of motion and energy equations are derived using series solution method. Hartmann number, Schmidt number and Grashoff number (or) modified Grashoff number for mass transfer on the velocity and temperature distribution are numerically discussed and shown graphically. The Nusselt number and skin friction coefficients atthe plate are derived and their numerical values are shown graphically. It is seen that in the main flow direction the velocity profiles decreases due to either an increase in Schmidt number (Or) Hartmann number.

  10. Effect of radial magnetic field on peristaltic transport of Jeffrey fluid in curved channel with heat / mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulhadi, Ahmed M.; Ahmed, Tamara S.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we deals with the impact of radialiy magnetic field on the peristaltic transport of Jeffrey fluid through a curved channel with two dimensional. The effect of slip condition on velocity, the non-slip condition on temperature and conversation is performed. The heat and mass transfer are considered under the influence of various parameters. The flow is investigated under the assumption of long wave length and low Reynolds number approximations. The distribution of temperature and concentration are discussed for various parameters governing the flow with the simultaneous effects of Brinkman number, Soret number and Schmidt number.

  11. A Combined Pharmacokinetic and Radiologic Assessment of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Response to Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Semple, Scott; Harry, Vanessa N. MRCOG.; Parkin, David E.

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the combination of pharmacokinetic and radiologic assessment of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an early response indicator in women receiving chemoradiation for advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty women with locally advanced cervical cancer were included in a prospective cohort study. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was carried out before chemoradiation, after 2 weeks of therapy, and at the conclusion of therapy using a 1.5-T MRI scanner. Radiologic assessment of uptake parameters was obtained from resultant intensity curves. Pharmacokinetic analysis using a multicompartment model was also performed. General linear modeling was used to combine radiologic andmore » pharmacokinetic parameters and correlated with eventual response as determined by change in MRI tumor size and conventional clinical response. A subgroup of 11 women underwent repeat pretherapy MRI to test pharmacokinetic reproducibility. Results: Pretherapy radiologic parameters and pharmacokinetic K{sup trans} correlated with response (p < 0.01). General linear modeling demonstrated that a combination of radiologic and pharmacokinetic assessments before therapy was able to predict more than 88% of variance of response. Reproducibility of pharmacokinetic modeling was confirmed. Conclusions: A combination of radiologic assessment with pharmacokinetic modeling applied to dynamic MRI before the start of chemoradiation improves the predictive power of either by more than 20%. The potential improvements in therapy response prediction using this type of combined analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI may aid in the development of more individualized, effective therapy regimens for this patient group.« less

  12. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic lesions with a newly developed Evans blue-DTPA-gadolinium contrast medium in apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Ikuta, Kenjiro; Uwatoku, Toyokazu; Oi, Keiji; Abe, Kohtaro; Hyodo, Fuminori; Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Sugimura, Kohtaro; Utsumi, Hideo; Katayama, Yoshiki; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents that specifically detect atherosclerotic plaque may be useful for the noninvasive detection of the plaque. We have recently developed a new contrast agent, Evans blue-DTPA-gadolinium (EB-DTPA-Gd), which selectively accumulates vascular lesions with endothelial removal. In this study, we examined whether EB-DTPA-Gd is also useful for in vivo imaging of atherosclerotic plaques. We used male apolipoprotein-E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice of different ages (3, 6 and 12 months old) and age-matched male wild-type mice. After a single intravenous administration of EB-DTPA-Gd (160 microM/kg body weight), MRI T(1) signal was obtained in vivo. Increased signal intensity in the aortic wall was noted within 10-20 min after intravenous injection of EB-DTPA-Gd and was maintained for 30 min. The MRI enhancement in the aorta of ApoE-/- mice was increased in accordance with age, whereas no such enhancement was noted in wild-type mice. Histological examination demonstrated that there was a topological correlation between the site of MRI enhancement and that of atherosclerotic plaque. These results indicate that EB-DTPA-Gd is a useful MRI contrast medium for the in vivo detection of atherosclerotic plaques. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides (USPIOs): a future alternative magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent for patients at risk for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF)?

    PubMed Central

    Neuwelt, Edward A.; Hamilton, Bronwyn E.; Varallyay, Csanad G.; Rooney, William R.; Edelman, Robert D.; Jacobs, Paula M.; Watnick, Suzanne G.

    2008-01-01

    Gadolinium (Gd) based contrast agents (GBCAs) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used in daily clinical practice and appear safe in most patients; however, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a recently recognized severe complication associated with GBCAs. It affects primarily patients with renal disease, such as stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD; glomerular filtration rate <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2), acute kidney injury, or kidney and liver transplant recipients with kidney dysfunction. Contrast-enhanced MRI and computed tomography (CT) scans provide important clinical information and influence patient management. An alternative contrast agent is needed to obtain adequate imaging results while avoiding the risk of NSF in this vulnerable patient group. One potential alternative is ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles, which provide enhancement characteristics similar to GBCAs. We review our experience in approximately 150 patients on the potential benefits of the USPIOs ferumoxtran-10 and ferumoxytol. We focus on central nervous system (CNS) MRI but also review imaging of other vascular beds. Safety studies, including USPIO administration (ferumoxytol) as iron supplement therapy in CKD patients on and not on dialysis, suggest that decreased kidney function does not alter the safety profile. We conclude that for both CNS MR imaging and MR angiography, USPIO agents like ferumoxytol are a viable option for patients at risk for NSF. PMID:18843256

  14. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prediction of breast cancer chemotherapy response: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lan; Weatherall, Paul T; McColl, Roderick W; Tripathy, Debu; Mason, Ralph P

    2013-05-01

    To determine whether a simple noninvasive method of assessing tumor oxygenation is feasible in the clinical setting and can provide useful, potentially predictive information. Tumor microcirculation and oxygenation play critical roles in tumor growth and responsiveness to cytotoxic treatment and may provide prognostic indicators for cancer therapy. Deoxyhemoglobin is paramagnetic and can serve as an endogenous contrast agent causing signal loss in echo planar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (blood oxygenation level-dependent [BOLD]-MRI). We used BOLD-MRI to provide early evaluation of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. MRI was performed on 11 patients with biopsy-proven malignancy. MRI exams were scheduled before, during, and after chemotherapy. The BOLD study applied a 6-minute oxygen breathing challenge. Seven patients successfully completed the exams. Before chemotherapy, BOLD contrast enhancement was observed in all tumors, but the patients, who ultimately had complete pathological response, exhibited a significantly higher BOLD response to oxygen breathing. We have successfully implemented an oxygen-breathing challenge BOLD contrast technique as part of the standard breast MRI exam in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. The preliminary observation that a large BOLD response correlated with better treatment response suggests a predictive capability for BOLD MRI. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A novel contrast agent with rare earth-doped up-conversion luminescence and Gd-DTPA magnetic resonance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qing; Wei, Daixu; Cheng, Jiejun; Xu, Jianrong; Zhu, Jun

    2012-08-01

    The magnetic-luminescent multifunctional nanoparticles based on Gd-DTPA and NaYF4:Yb, Er were successfully synthesized by the conjugation of activated DTPA and silica-coated/surface-aminolated NaYF4:Yb, Er nanoparticles through EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. The as-prepared products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The room-temperature upconversion luminescent spectra and T1-weighted maps of the obtained nanoparticles were carried out by 980 nm NIR light excitation and a 3T MR imaging scanner, respectively. The results indicated that the as-synthesized multifunctional nanoparticles with small size, highly solubility in water, and both high MR relaxivities and upconversion luminescence may have potential usage for MR imaging in future.

  16. In vitro evaluation of the L-peptide modified magnetic lipid nanoparticles as targeted magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent for the nasopharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Chu; Min, Chia-Na; Wu, Han-Chung; Lin, Chin-Tarng; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the encapsulation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) by the lipid nanoparticle conjugated with the 12-mer peptides (RLLDTNRPLLPY, L-peptide), and the delivery of this complex into living cells. The lipid nanoparticles employed in this work were highly hydrophilic, stable, and contained poly(ethylene-glycol) for conjugation to the bioactive L-peptide. The particle sizes of two different magnetic lipid nanoparticles, L-peptide modified (LML) and non-L-peptide modified (ML), were both around 170 nm with a narrow range of size disparity. The transversal relaxivity, r2, for both LML and ML nanoparticles were found to be significantly higher than the longitudinal relaxivity r1 (r2/r1 > 20). The in vitro tumor cell targeting efficacy of the LML nanoparticles were evaluated and compared to the ML nanoparticles, upon observing cellular uptake of magnetic lipid nanoparticles by the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, which express cell surface specific protein for the L-peptide binding revealed. In the Prussian blue staining experiment, cells incubated with LML nanoparticles indicated much higher intracellular iron density than cells incubated with only the ML and SPION nanoparticles. In addition, the MTT assay showed the negligible cell cytotoxicity for LML, ML and SPION nanoparticles. The MR imaging studies demonstrate the better T2-weighted images for the LML-nanoparticle-loaded nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells than the ML- and SPION-loaded cells.

  17. Effects of Transfer to Real-World Subject Area Materials from Training in Graphic Organizers and Summarizing on Developmental College Readers' Comprehension of the Compare/Contrast Text Structure in Science Expository Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balajthy, Ernest; Weisberg, Renee

    To determine whether less able readers could use the strategies they had been taught, a study investigated the transfer effects of training in the use of graphic organizers and summary writing on readers' recognition of the compare/contrast text structure. Subjects, 70 freshmen at a western New York state college of liberal arts and sciences in a…

  18. Modifications in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Parameters After α-Particle-Emitting {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab Therapy of HER2-Expressing Ovarian Cancer Xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Heyerdahl, Helen, E-mail: Helen.Heyerdahl@rr-research.no; Røe, Kathrine; Brevik, Ellen Mengshoel

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of α-particle-emitting {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab radioimmunotherapy on tumor vasculature to increase the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab. Methods and Materials: Human HER2-expressing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts were grown bilaterally in athymic nude mice. Mice with tumor volumes 253 ± 36 mm{sup 3} (mean ± SEM) were treated with a single injection of either {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab at a dose of 1000 kBq/kg body weight (treated group, n=14 tumors) or 0.9% NaCl (control group, n=10 tumors). Dynamic T1-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) was used to study themore » effect of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab on tumor vasculature. DCEMRI was performed before treatment and 1, 2, and 3 weeks after therapy. Tumor contrast-enhancement curves were extracted voxel by voxel and fitted to the Brix pharmacokinetic model. Pharmacokinetic parameters for the tumors that underwent radioimmunotherapy were compared with the corresponding parameters of control tumors. Results: Significant increases of k{sub ep}, the rate constant of diffusion from the extravascular extracellular space to the plasma (P<.05), and k{sub el,} the rate of clearance of contrast agent from the plasma (P<.01), were seen in the radioimmunotherapy group 2 and 3 weeks after injection, compared with the control group. The product of k{sub ep} and the amplitude parameter A, associated with increased vessel permeability and perfusion, was also significantly increased in the radioimmunotherapy group 2 and 3 weeks after injection (P<.01). Conclusions: Pharmacokinetic modeling of MRI contrast-enhancement curves evidenced significant alterations in parameters associated with increased tumor vessel permeability and tumor perfusion after {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab treatment of HER2-expressing ovarian cancer xenografts.« less

  19. Potential for differentiation of pseudoprogression from true tumor progression with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using ferumoxytol versus gadoteridol: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Gahramanov, Seymur; Raslan, Ahmed; Muldoon, Leslie L.; Hamilton, Bronwyn E.; Rooney, William D.; Varallyay, Csanad G.; Njus, Jeffrey M.; Haluska, Marianne; Neuwelt, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) using gadoteridol in comparison to the iron oxide nanoparticle blood pool agent, ferumoxytol in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) who received standard radiochemotherapy (RCT). Methods and Materials Fourteen patients with GBM received standard RCT and underwent 19 MRI sessions that included DSC-MRI acquisitions with gadoteridol on day 1 and ferumoxytol on day 2. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) values were calculated from DSC data obtained from each contrast agent. T1-weighted acquisition post-gadoteridol administration was used to identify enhancing regions. Results In 7 MRI sessions of clinically presumptive active tumor, gadoteridol-DSC showed low rCBV in 3 and high rCBV in 4, while ferumoxytol-DSC showed high rCBV in all 7 sessions (p=0.002). After RCT, 7 MRI sessions showed increased gadoteridol contrast enhancement on T1-weighted scans coupled with low rCBV without significant differences between contrast agents (p=0.9). Based on post-gadoteridol T1-weighted scans, DSC-MRI, and clinical presentation four patterns of response to RCT were observed: 1) regression, 2) pseudoprogression, 3) true progression, and 4) mixed response. Conclusion We conclude that DSC-MRI with a blood-pool agent such as ferumoxytol may provide a better monitor of tumor rCBV than DSC-MRI with gadoteridol. Lesions demonstrating increased enhancement on T1-weighted MRI coupled with low ferumoxytol rCBV, are likely exhibiting pseudoprogression, while high rCBV with ferumoxytol is a better marker than gadoteridol for determining active tumor. These interesting pilot observations suggest that ferumoxytol may differentiate tumor progression from pseudoprogression, and warrant further investigation. PMID:20395065

  20. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) using new negative per-oral contrast agent based on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for extrahepatic biliary duct visualization in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Polakova, Katerina; Mocikova, Ingrid; Purova, Dana; Tucek, Pavel; Novak, Pavel; Novotna, Katerina; Izak, Niko; Bielik, Radoslav; Zboril, Radek; Miroslav, Herman

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is often used for imaging of the biliary tree and is required by surgeons before liver transplantation. Advanced liver cirrhosis and ascites in patients however present diagnostic problems for MRCP. The aim of this study was to find out if the use of our negative per-oral contrast agent containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) in MRCP is helpful for imaging of hepatobiliary tree in patients with liver cirrhosis. Forty patients with liver cirrhosis were examined on a 1.5 T MR unit using standard MRCP protocol. Twenty patients (group A) underwent MRCP after administration of per-oral SPIO contrast agent 30 min before examination. In group B, twenty patients were examined without per-oral bowel preparation. Ascites was present in eleven patients from group A and in thirteen patients in group B. Four radiologists analyzed MR images for visibility and delineation of the biliary tree. χ 2 tests were used for comparison of the visibility of intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ducts in patients with and without ascites. Better extrahepatic biliary duct visualization and visibility of extraluminal pathologies in patients with ascites was proved after administration of SPIO contrast agent. No statistically significant difference between group A and B was found for visualization of extrahepatic biliary ducts in patients without ascites. Delineation of intrahepatic biliary ducts was independent on bowel preparation. Application of our negative per-oral SPIO contrast agent before MRCP improves the visualization of extrahepatic biliary ducts in patients with ascites which is helpful during the liver surgery, mainly in liver transplantation.

  1. Cardiac-gated, phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography is a reliable and reproducible technique for quantifying blood flow in canine major cranial abdominal vessels.

    PubMed

    Del Chicca, Francesca; Schwarz, Andrea; Grest, Paula; Willmitzer, Florian; Dennler, Matthias; Kircher, Patrick R

    2018-04-17

    Blood flow changes in cranial abdominal vessels are important contributing factors for canine hepatic disease. This prospective, experimental, pilot study aimed to evaluate cardiac-gated, phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PCMRA) as a method for characterizing blood flow in canine major cranial abdominal vessels. Eleven, healthy, adult beagle dogs were sampled. Cardiac-gated, phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography of the cranial abdomen was performed in each dog and blood flow was independently measured in each of the major cranial abdominal vessels by three observers, with two observers recording blood flow values once and one observer recording blood flow values three times. Each dog then underwent ultrasonographic examination of the liver with fine needle aspirations and biopsies submitted to cytologic and histologic examination. The mean absolute stroke volume and velocity were respectively 9.6 ± 1.9 ml and -11.1 ± 1.1 cm/s for the cranial abdominal aorta, 2.1 ± 0.6 ml and -6.6 ± 1.9 cm/s for the celiac artery, and 2.3 ± 1.0 ml and -7.9 ± 3.1 cm/s for the cranial mesenteric artery. The mean absolute stroke volume and velocity were respectively 6.7 ± 1.3 ml and 3.9 ± 0.9 cm/s for the caudal vena cava and 2.6 ± 0.9 ml and 3.2 ± 1.2 cm/s for the portal vein. Intraobserver reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.9). Interobserver reproducibility was also excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.89-0.99). Results of liver ultrasonography, cytology, and histopathology were unremarkable. Findings indicated that cardiac-gated, phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography is a feasible technique for quantifying blood blow in canine major cranial abdominal vessels. Blood flow values from this sample of healthy beagles can be used as background for future studies on canine hepatic disease. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. Caspase-responsive smart gadolinium-based contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging of drug-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Deju; Shuhendler, Adam J; Pandit, Prachi; Brewer, Kimberly D; Tee, Sui Seng; Cui, Lina; Tikhomirov, Grigory; Rutt, Brian; Rao, Jianghong

    2014-10-01

    Non-invasive detection of caspase-3/7 activity in vivo has provided invaluable predictive information regarding tumor therapeutic efficacy and anti-tumor drug selection. Although a number of caspase-3/7 targeted fluorescence and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging probes have been developed, there is still a lack of gadolinium (Gd)-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes that enable high spatial resolution detection of caspase-3/7 activity in vivo . Here we employ a self-assembly approach and develop a caspase-3/7 activatable Gd-based MRI probe for monitoring tumor apoptosis in mice. Upon reduction and caspase-3/7 activation, the caspase-sensitive nano-aggregation MR probe (C-SNAM: 1 ) undergoes biocompatible intramolecular cyclization and subsequent self-assembly into Gd-nanoparticles (GdNPs). This results in enhanced r 1 relaxivity-19.0 (post-activation) vs. 10.2 mM -1 s -1 (pre-activation) at 1 T in solution-and prolonged accumulation in chemotherapy-induced apoptotic cells and tumors that express active caspase-3/7. We demonstrate that C-SNAM reports caspase-3/7 activity by generating a significantly brighter T 1 -weighted MR signal compared to non-treated tumors following intravenous administration of C-SNAM, providing great potential for high-resolution imaging of tumor apoptosis in vivo .

  3. Identifying the arterial input function from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images using an apex-seeking technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Anne L.

    2004-04-01

    In order to extract quantitative information from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images (DCE-MRI) it is usually necessary to identify an arterial input function. This is not a trivial problem if there are no major vessels present in the field of view. Most existing techniques rely on operator intervention or use various curve parameters to identify suitable pixels but these are often specific to the anatomical region or the acquisition method used. They also require the signal from several pixels to be averaged in order to improve the signal to noise ratio, however this introduces errors due to partial volume effects. We have described previously how factor analysis can be used to automatically separate arterial and venous components from DCE-MRI studies of the brain but although that method works well for single slice images through the brain when the blood brain barrier technique is intact, it runs into problems for multi-slice images with more complex dynamics. This paper will describe a factor analysis method that is more robust in such situations and is relatively insensitive to the number of physiological components present in the data set. The technique is very similar to that used to identify spectral end-members from multispectral remote sensing images.

  4. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for the prediction of non-union consolidation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Christian; Nissen, Mareike; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Bruckner, Thomas; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weber, Marc-André

    2017-02-01

    Non-union perfusion can be visualized with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. This study evaluated DCE-MRI to predict non-union consolidation after surgery and detect factors that affect bone healing. Between 2010 and 2015 non-union perfusion was prospectively quantified in 205 patients (mean age, 51.5 years, 129 men, 76 women) before intervention and at 6, 12, 26, 52 and more weeks follow-up. DCE-MRI results were related to the osseous consolidation, the ability to predict successful outcome was estimated by ROC analysis. The relevance of the body mass index (BMI) and the non-union severity score (NUSS) to the healing process was assessed. Tibial (n=99) and femoral (n=76) non-unions were most common. Consolidation could be assessed in 169 patients, of these 103 (61%) showed eventual healing and demonstrated higher perfusion than in failed consolidation at 6 (p=0.0226), 12 (p=0.0252) and 26 (p=0.0088) weeks follow-up. DCE-MRI at 26 weeks follow-up predicted non-union consolidation with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 87% (false classification rate 19%). Higher BMI (p=0.041) and NUSS (p<0.0001) were associated with treatment failure. DCE-MRI perfusion analysis after non-union surgery predicts successful outcome and could facilitate the decision of early intervention. NUSS and BMI are important prognostic factors concerning consolidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Influence of Static and Rotating Magnetic Fields on Heat and Mass Transfer in Silicon Floating Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croll, A.; Dold, P.; Kaiser, Th.; Szofran, F. R.; Benz, K. W.

    1999-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer in float-zone processing are strongly influenced by convective flows in the zone. They are caused by buoyancy convection, thermocapillary (Marangoni) convection, or artificial sources such as rotation and radio-frequency heating. Flows in conducting melts can be controlled by the use of magnetic fields, either by damping fluid motion with static fields or by generating a defined flow with rotating fields. The possibilities of using static and rotating magnetic fields in silicon floating-zone growth have been investigated by experiments in axial static fields up to 5 T and in transverse rotating magnetic fields up to 7.5 mT. Static fields of a few 100 mT already suppress most striations but are detrimental to the radial segregation by introducing a coring effect. A complete suppression of dopant striations caused by time-dependent thermocapillary convection and a reduction of the coring to insignificant values, combined with a shift of the axial segregation profile toward a more diffusion-limited case, is possible with static fields greater than or equal to 1 T. However, under certain conditions the use of high axial magnetic fields can lead to the appearance of a new type of pronounced dopant striations, caused by thermoelectromagnetic convection. The use of a transverse rotating magnetic field influences the microscopic segregation at quite low inductions, of the order of a few millitesla. The field shifts time- dependent flows and the resulting striation patterns from a broad range of low frequencies at high amplitudes to a few high frequencies at low amplitudes.

  6. The Influence of Static and Rotating Magnetic Fields on Heat and Mass Transfer in Silicon Floating Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croell, Arne; Dold, P.; Kaiser, Th.; Szofran, Frank; Benz, K. W.

    1999-01-01

    Hear and mass transfer in float-zone processing are strongly influenced by convective flows in the zone. They are caused by buoyancy convection, thermocapillary (Marangoni) convection, or artificial sources such as rotation and radio frequency heating. Flows in conducting melts can be controlled by the use of magnetic fields, either by damping fluid motion with static fields or by generating a def@ned flow with rotating fields. The possibilities of using static and rotating magnetic fields in silicon floating-zone growth have been investigated by experiments in axial static fields up to ST and in transverse rotating magnetic fields up to 7.S mT. Static fields of a few 100 MT already suppress most striations but are detrimental to the radial segregation by introducing a coring effect. A complete suppression of dopant striations caused by time-dependent thermocapillary convection and a reduction of the coring to insignificant values, combined with a shift of the axial segregation profile towards a more diffusion-limited case, is possible with static fields ? 1T. However, under certain conditions the use of high axial magnetic fields can lead to the appearance of a new type of pronounced dopant striations, caused by thermoelec:romagnetic convection. The use of a transverse rotating magnetic field influences the microscopic segregation at quite low inductions, of the order of a few mT. The field shifts time-dependent flows and the resulting striation patterns from a broad range of low frequencies at high amplitudes to a few high frequencies at low amplitudes

  7. Heat Transfer of Thermocapillary Convection in a Two-Layered Fluid System Under the Influence of Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Ludovisis, D.; Cha, S. S.

    2006-01-01

    Heat transfer of a two-layer fluid system has been of great importance in a variety of industrial applications. For example, the phenomena of immiscible fluids can be found in materials processing and heat exchangers. Typically in solidification from a melt, the convective motion is the dominant factor that affects the uniformity of material properties. In the layered flow, thermocapillary forces can come into an important play, which was first emphasized by a previous investigator in 1958. Under extraterrestrial environments without gravity, thermocapillary effects can be a more dominant factor, which alters material properties in processing. Control and optimization of heat transfer in an immiscible fluid system need complete understanding of the flow phenomena that can be induced by surface tension at a fluid interface. The present work is focused on understanding of the magnetic field effects on thermocapillary convection, in order to optimize material processing. That is, it involves the study of the complicated phenomena to alter the flow motion in crystal growth. In this effort, the Marangoni convection in a cavity with differentially heated sidewalls is investigated with and without the influence of a magnetic field. As a first step, numerical analyses are performed, by thoroughly investigating influences of all pertinent physical parameters. Experiments are then conducted, with preliminary results, for comparison with the numerical analyses.

  8. On the Origin of Sub-subgiant Stars. II. Binary Mass Transfer, Envelope Stripping, and Magnetic Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Leiner, Emily; Mathieu, Robert D.; Geller, Aaron M., E-mail: leiner@astro.wisc.edu

    Sub-subgiant stars (SSGs) lie to the red of the main sequence and fainter than the red giant branch in cluster color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs), a region not easily populated by standard stellar evolution pathways. While there has been speculation on what mechanisms may create these unusual stars, no well-developed theory exists to explain their origins. Here we discuss three hypotheses of SSG formation: (1) mass transfer in a binary system, (2) stripping of a subgiant’s envelope, perhaps during a dynamical encounter, and (3) reduced luminosity due to magnetic fields that lower convective efficiency and produce large starspots. Using the stellar evolutionmore » code MESA, we develop evolutionary tracks for each of these hypotheses, and compare the expected stellar and orbital properties of these models with six known SSGs in the two open clusters M67 and NGC 6791. All three of these mechanisms can create stars or binary systems in the SSG CMD domain. We also calculate the frequency with which each of these mechanisms may create SSG systems, and find that the magnetic field hypothesis is expected to create SSGs with the highest frequency in open clusters. Mass transfer and envelope stripping have lower expected formation frequencies, but may nevertheless create occasional SSGs in open clusters. They may also be important mechanisms to create SSGs in higher mass globular clusters.« less

  9. Radial Angular Momentum Transfer and Magnetic Barrier for Short-type Gamma-Ray-burst Central Engine Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tong; Liang, En-Wei; Gu, Wei-Min; Hou, Shu-Jin; Lei, Wei-Hua; Lin, Lin; Dai, Zi-Gao; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2012-11-01

    Soft extended emission (EE) following initial hard spikes up to 100 s was observed with Swift/BAT for about half of known short-type gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). This challenges the conversional central engine models of SGRBs, i.e., compact star merger models. In the framework of black-hole-neutron-star merger