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Sample records for magneto thermal properties

  1. Magneto-optical properties of cerium substituted yttrium iron garnet films with reduced thermal budget for monolithic photonic integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Goto, Taichi; Onbaşlı, Mehmet C; Ross, C A

    2012-12-17

    Thin films of polycrystalline cerium substituted yttrium iron garnet (CeYIG) were grown on an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) seed layer on Si and Si-on-insulator substrates by pulsed laser deposition, and their optical and magneto-optical properties in the near-IR region were measured. A YIG seed layer of ~30 nm thick processed by rapid thermal anneal at 800°C provided a virtual substrate to promote crystallization of the CeYIG. The effect of the thermal budget of the YIG/CeYIG growth process on the film structure, magnetic and magnetooptical properties was determined.

  2. Impact of ex situ rapid thermal annealing on magneto-optical properties and oscillator strength of In(Ga)As quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, T.; Betzold, S.; Lundt, N.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Schneider, C.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the influence of a rapid thermal annealing step on the magneto-optical emission properties of In(Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots. We map out a strong influence of the growth and annealing parameters on the excitons' effective Landé g factors and in particular on their diamagnetic coefficients, which we directly correlate with the modification of the emitters' shape and material composition. In addition, we study the excitons' spontaneous emission lifetime as a function of the annealing temperature and the dot height and observe a strong increase of the emission rate with the quantum dot volume. The corresponding increase in oscillator strength yields fully consistent results with the analysis of the diamagnetic behavior. Specifically, we demonstrate that a rapid thermal annealing step of 850 ∘C can be employed to increase the oscillator strength of as-grown InAs/GaAs QDs by more than a factor of 2.

  3. Magneto-transport properties of oriented Mn{sub 2}CoAl films sputtered on thermally oxidized Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, G. Z.; Du, Y.; Zhang, X. M.; Liu, E. K.; Wang, W. H. Wu, G. H.; Zhang, H. G.

    2014-06-16

    Spin gapless semiconductors are interesting family of materials by embracing both magnetism and semiconducting due to their unique band structure. Its potential application in future spintronics requires realization in thin film form. In this Letter, we report fabrication and transport properties of spin gapless Mn{sub 2}CoAl films prepared on thermally oxidized Si substrates by magnetron sputtering deposition. The films deposited at 673 K are well oriented to (001) direction and display a uniform-crystalline surface. Magnetotransport measurements on the oriented films reveal a semiconducting-like resistivity, small anomalous Hall conductivity, and linear magnetoresistance representative of the transport signatures of spin gapless semiconductors. The magnetic properties of the films have also been investigated and compared to that of bulk Mn{sub 2}CoAl, showing small discrepancy induced by the composition deviation.

  4. Magneto Themoelectric Generator with Carbon Nanotube Thermal Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Patrick T.; Fisher, Timothy S.; Marinero, Ernesto E.

    2013-03-01

    We report the thermal behavior of Gd foils used in a magneto thermoelectric generator cells. The device exploits the ferromagnetic phase transition of gadolinium to drive the movement of a diaphragm ``shuttle'' whose mechanical energy is converted to electrical form and which enhances heat transfer through both conduction and convection. Efficient heat transfer at mechanical interfaces is critical to increase shuttle speed and the commensurate rate of heat transfer. The synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotube thermal interfaces for the Gd foils are described. The samples generated in this study were consistently measured with total thermal interface resistances in the range of 65-105 mm2 K/W, a reduction of 55-70% compared to bare Gd (Rint ~ 230 mm2 K/W). The addition of carbon nanotube arrays did not alter the magnetic properties of the gadolinium foils and only a slight decrease in the magnetic moment of the gadolinium samples (8-13%) was measured after growth.

  5. Magneto-thermal and dielectric properties of biferroic YCrO{sub 3} prepared by combustion synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, A.; Arevalo-Lopez, A.M.; Castillo-Martinez, E.; Garcia-Guaderrama, M.; Moran, E.; Cruz, M.P.; Fernandez, F.; Alario-Franco, M.A.

    2010-08-15

    Microstructural, magnetothermal and dielectric properties of YCrO{sub 3} powders prepared by combustion and solid state methods have been studied by a combination of XRD, specific heat, magnetization and permittivity measurements. The TEM and XRD characterization confirm that the combustion powders are amorphous plate-like agglomerates of nano-sized crystalline particles. A more uniform grain size along with an increase of the relative density is observed by SEM in the sintered samples prepared by combustion route with respect to those produced by solid state reaction. Similar to the material obtained through solid state synthesis, the material prepared by the combustion method also shows spin canted antiferromagnetic ordering of Cr{sup +3} (S=3/2) at {approx}140 K, which is shown by magnetization as well as {lambda}-type anomaly in the total specific heat. Furthermore, the magnetic contribution to the total specific heat reveals spin fluctuations above T{sub N} and a spin reorientation transition at about 60 K. Both YCrO{sub 3} compounds show a diffuse phase transition at about 450 K, typical of a relaxor ferroelectric, which is characterized by a broad peak in the real part of the dielectric permittivity as a function of temperature, with the peak decreasing in magnitude and shifting to higher temperature as the frequency increases. The relaxor dipoles are due to the local non-centrosymmetric structure. Furthermore, the high loss tangent in a broad range of temperature as well as conductivity analysis indicates a hopping mechanism for the electronic conductivity as we believe it is a consequence of the outer d{sup 3}-shell, which have detrimental effects on the polarization and the pooling process in the YCrO{sub 3} bulk material. The more uniform particle size and higher density material synthesized through the combustion process leads to an improvement in the dielectric Properties. - Graphical abstract: Combustion method: An alternative route for synthesized a

  6. Magneto-transport and thermal properties of Pr2/3Ba1/3(Mn1-xSbx)O3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, S. K.; Panwar, Neeraj; Sen, Vikram; Pandya, D. K.

    2008-05-01

    Magneto-transport and thermal studies on Sb-doped Pr2/3Ba1/3(Mn1-xSbx)O3 (0 <= x <= 0.03) manganites are reported here. Two transitions (at TP1 and TP2) observed in the electrical resistivity behaviour of pristine sample Pr2/3Ba1/3MnO3 shift to lower temperatures with an overall increase in the electrical resistivity. Electrical resistivity upturn observed at low temperatures gets enhanced with increasing Sb content and the minimum resistivity temperature shifts to higher temperatures. Intrinsic magneto-resistance (MR) at TP1 gets suppressed whereas extrinsic MR gets enhanced with Sb-doping. With higher Sb content two MR peaks are observed and MR at the low temperature peak is higher than at the high temperature peak. Thermoelectric power (TEP) of the pristine sample shows a transition from an insulating behaviour at high temperatures to a metallic behaviour at low temperatures. With Sb-doping TEP shows anomalous behaviour as a peak is developed near the phase transition (TP1) due to the weakening of the double-exchange mechanism and increase in magnetic inhomogeneity of the samples. Conduction at high temperatures is due to the hopping of small polarons and the activation energy increases due to the localization of carriers with Sb-doping. Electron-magnon interaction in the metallic region also gets suppressed with Sb-doping. Specific heat measurements exhibit a peak below TP1 and the area under the peak decreases, indicating the increase in magnetic inhomogeneity with Sb-doping. Thermal conductivity κ above TP1 is a result of the local anharmonic distortions associated with small polarons. The anomalous peak in κ around TP1 is attributed to a competition of the reduction in the Jahn-Teller distortion and magnon-phonon scattering enhancement.

  7. Magneto-optical media for thermal sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervonenkis, Andrey Y.; Kirykhin, Nikolay N.; Randoshkin, Vladimir V.

    1990-10-01

    Several types of magnetooptical (MO) media, possessing "memory" effect are discussed for the purpose of thermal sensing. These are high coercive garnet films, trad.itionaly used. for therrnoxnagnetic re- cording, films with configurational phase transitions between dife- rent types of the domain structure produced by local heating and films with artifially formed pixel arrays. It's shown that structures of the latter type are most suitable for thermal sensing.

  8. Magneto-Seebeck effect in spin-valve with in-plane thermal gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, S. Bose, A. Palkar, V. R. Tulapurkar, A. A.; Lam, D. D. Suzuki, Y.; Sharma, H. Tomy, C. V.

    2014-12-15

    We present measurements of magneto-Seebeck effect on a spin valve with in-plane thermal gradient. We measured open circuit voltage and short circuit current by applying a temperature gradient across a spin valve stack, where one of the ferromagnetic layers is pinned. We found a clear hysteresis in these two quantities as a function of magnetic field. From these measurements, the magneto-Seebeck effect was found to be same as magneto-resistance effect.

  9. Magneto-Thermo-Triboelectric Generator (MTTG) for thermal energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Kwang Yeop; Lee, James; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel thermal energy harvesting system using triboelectric effect. Recently, there has been intensive research efforts on energy harvesting using triboelectric effect, which can produce surprising amount of electric power (when compared to piezoelectric materials) by rubbing or touching (i.e, electric charge by contact and separation) two different materials together. Numerous studies have shown the possibility as an attractive alternative with good transparency, flexibility and low cost abilities for its use in wearable device and smart phone applications markets. However, its application has been limited to only vibration source, which can produce sustained oscillation with maintaining contact and separation states repeatedly for triboelectric effect. Thus, there has been no attempt toward thermal energy source. The proposed approach can convert thermal energy into electricity by pairing triboelectric effect and active ferromagnetic materials The objective of the research is to develop a new manufacturing process of design, fabrication, and testing of a Magneto-Thermo-Triboelectric Generator (MTTG). The results obtained from the approach show that MTTG devices have a feasible power energy conversion capability from thermal energy sources. The tunable design of the device is such that it has efficient thermal capture over a wide range of operation temperature in waste heat.

  10. Magneto-Optical Properties of Paramagnetic Superrotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, A. A.; Korobenko, A.; Floß, J.; Averbukh, I. Sh.; Milner, V.

    2015-07-01

    We study the dynamics of paramagnetic molecular superrotors in an external magnetic field. An optical centrifuge is used to create dense ensembles of oxygen molecules in ultrahigh rotational states. In is shown, for the first time, that the gas of rotating molecules becomes optically birefringent in the presence of a magnetic field. The discovered effect of "magneto-rotational birefringence" indicates the preferential alignment of molecular axes along the field direction. We provide an intuitive qualitative model, in which the influence of the applied magnetic field on the molecular orientation is mediated by the spin-rotation coupling. This model is supported by the direct imaging of the distribution of molecular axes, the demonstration of the magnetic reversal of the rotational Raman signal, and by numerical calculations.

  11. Magneto-Optical Properties of Paramagnetic Superrotors.

    PubMed

    Milner, A A; Korobenko, A; Floß, J; Averbukh, I Sh; Milner, V

    2015-07-17

    We study the dynamics of paramagnetic molecular superrotors in an external magnetic field. An optical centrifuge is used to create dense ensembles of oxygen molecules in ultrahigh rotational states. In is shown, for the first time, that the gas of rotating molecules becomes optically birefringent in the presence of a magnetic field. The discovered effect of "magneto-rotational birefringence" indicates the preferential alignment of molecular axes along the field direction. We provide an intuitive qualitative model, in which the influence of the applied magnetic field on the molecular orientation is mediated by the spin-rotation coupling. This model is supported by the direct imaging of the distribution of molecular axes, the demonstration of the magnetic reversal of the rotational Raman signal, and by numerical calculations. PMID:26230789

  12. Magneto-optical transport properties of monolayer WSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M.; Vasilopoulos, P.

    2016-07-01

    The recent experimental realization of a high quality WSe2 leads to the possibility of magneto-optical measurements and the manipulation of the spin and valley degrees of freedom. We study the influence of the very strong spin-orbit coupling and of the anisotropic lifting of the valley pseudospin degeneracy on its magnetotransport properties. The energy spectrum of WSe2 is derived and discussed in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field B . Correspondingly we evaluate the magneto-optical Hall conductivity and the optical longitudinal conductivity as functions of the frequency, magnetic field, and Fermi energy. They are strongly influenced by the field B and the strong spin splitting. The former exhibits valley polarization and the latter beatings of oscillations. The magneto-optical responses can be tuned in two different regimes: the microwave-to-terahertz regime and the visible-frequency one. The absorption peaks involving the n =0 LL appear in between these two regimes and show a magnetic control of the spin and valley splittings. We also evaluate the power absorption spectrum.

  13. Magnetic and Magneto-Optical Properties of Doped Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqahtani, Mohammed

    This thesis describes the growth, structural characterisation, magnetic and magneto-optics properties of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMO), GdMnO3 and transition metal (TM)-doped In2O3 thin films grown under different conditions. The SrTiO3 has been chosen as a substrate because its structure is suitable to grow epitaxial LSMO and GdMnO3 films. However, the absorption of SrTiO3 above its band gap at about 3.26 eV is actually a limitation in this study. The LSMO films with 30% Sr, grown on both SrTiO3 and sapphire substrates, exhibit a high Curie temperature (Tc) of 340 K. The magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) intensity follows the magnetisation for LSMO on sapphire; however, the measurements on SrTiO3 were dominated by the birefringence and magneto-optical properties of the substrate. In the GdMnO3 thin films, there are two well-known features in the optical spectrum; the charge transfer transition between Mn d states at 2 eV and the band edge transition from the oxygen p band to d states at about 3 eV; these are observed in the MCD. This has been measured at remanence as well as in a magnetic field. The optical absorption at 3 eV is much stronger than at 2 eV, however, the MCD is considerably stronger at 2 eV. The MCD at 2 eV correlates well with the Mn spin ordering and it is very notable that the same structure appears in this spectrum, as is seen in LaMnO3. The results of the investigations of Co and Fe-doped In2O3 thin films show that TM ions in the films are TM2+ and substituted for In3+. The room temperature ferromagnetism observed in TM-doped In2O3 is due to the polarised electrons in localised donor states associated with oxygen vacancies. The formation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in some Fe-doped films is due the fact that TM-doped In2O3 thin films are extremely sensitive to the growth method and processing condition. However, the origin of the magnetisation in these films is due to both the Fe-doped host matrix and also to the nanoparticles of Fe3O4.

  14. Optical and magneto-optical properties of one-dimensional magnetized coupled resonator plasma photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Hamidi, S. M.

    2012-01-15

    In this paper, the optical and magneto-optical properties of one-dimensional magnetized coupled resonator plasma photonic crystals have been investigated. We use transfer matrix method to solve our magnetized coupled resonator plasma photonic crystals consist of dielectric and magnetized plasma layers. The results of the change in the optical and magneto-optical properties of structure as a result of the alteration in the structural properties such as thickness, plasma frequency and collision frequency, plasma filling factor, number of resonators and dielectric constant of dielectric layers and external magnetic field have been reported. The main feature of this structure is a good magneto-optical rotation that takes place at the defect modes and the edge of photonic band gap of our proposed optical magnetized plasma waveguide. Our outcomes demonstrate the potential applications of the device for tunable and adjustable filters or reflectors and active magneto-optic in microwave devices under structural parameter and external magnetic field.

  15. Optical and magneto-optical properties of one-dimensional magnetized coupled resonator plasma photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidi, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the optical and magneto-optical properties of one-dimensional magnetized coupled resonator plasma photonic crystals have been investigated. We use transfer matrix method to solve our magnetized coupled resonator plasma photonic crystals consist of dielectric and magnetized plasma layers. The results of the change in the optical and magneto-optical properties of structure as a result of the alteration in the structural properties such as thickness, plasma frequency and collision frequency, plasma filling factor, number of resonators and dielectric constant of dielectric layers and external magnetic field have been reported. The main feature of this structure is a good magneto-optical rotation that takes place at the defect modes and the edge of photonic band gap of our proposed optical magnetized plasma waveguide. Our outcomes demonstrate the potential applications of the device for tunable and adjustable filters or reflectors and active magneto-optic in microwave devices under structural parameter and external magnetic field.

  16. Curie temperature, exchange integrals, and magneto-optical properties in off-stoichiometric bismuth iron garnet epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertruyen, B.; Cloots, R.; Abell, J. S.; Jackson, T. J.; da Silva, R. C.; Popova, E.; Keller, N.

    2008-09-01

    We have studied the influence of the stoichiometry on the structural, magnetic, and magneto-optical properties of bismuth iron garnet (Bi3Fe5O12) thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Films with different stoichiometries have been obtained by varying the Bi/Fe ratio of the target and the oxygen pressure during deposition. Stoichiometry variations influence the Curie temperature TC by tuning the (Fe)-O-[Fe] geometry: TC increases when the lattice parameter decreases, contrary to what happens in the case of stoichiometric rare-earth iron garnets. The thermal variation of the magnetization, the Faraday rotation, and the Faraday ellipticity have been analyzed in the frame of the Néel two-sublattice magnetization model giving energies of -48K (4.1 meV), -29K (2.5 meV), and 84 K (7.3 meV) for the three magnetic exchange integrals jaa , jdd , and jad , respectively. Magneto-optical spectroscopy linked to compositional analysis by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy shows that Bi and/or Fe deficiencies also affect the spectral variation (between 1.77 and 3.1 eV). Our results suggest that bismuth deficiency has an effect on the magneto-optical response of the tetrahedral Fe sublattice, whereas small iron deficiencies affect predominantly the magneto-optical response of the octahedral sublattice.

  17. Landau levels and magneto-transport property of monolayer phosphorene

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, X. Y.; Zhang, R.; Sun, J. P.; Zou, Y. L.; Zhang, D.; Lou, W. K.; Cheng, F.; Zhou, G. H.; Zhai, F.; Chang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the Landau levels (LLs) and magneto-transport properties of phosphorene under a perpendicular magnetic field within the framework of the effective k·p Hamiltonian and tight-binding (TB) model. At low field regime, we find that the LLs linearly depend both on the LL index n and magnetic field B, which is similar with that of conventional semiconductor two-dimensional electron gas. The Landau splittings of conduction and valence band are different and the wavefunctions corresponding to the LLs are strongly anisotropic due to the different anisotropic effective masses. An analytical expression for the LLs in low energy regime is obtained via solving the decoupled Hamiltonian, which agrees well with the numerical calculations. At high magnetic regime, a self-similar Hofstadter butterfly (HB) spectrum is obtained by using the TB model. The HB spectrum is consistent with the LL fan calculated from the effective k·p theory in a wide regime of magnetic fields. We find the LLs of phosphorene nanoribbon depend strongly on the ribbon orientation due to the anisotropic hopping parameters. The Hall and the longitudinal conductances (resistances) clearly reveal the structure of LLs. PMID:26159856

  18. Magneto-thermal Disk Winds from Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Ye, Jiani; Goodman, Jeremy; Yuan, Feng

    2016-02-01

    The global evolution and dispersal of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) are governed by disk angular-momentum transport and mass-loss processes. Recent numerical studies suggest that angular-momentum transport in the inner region of PPDs is largely driven by magnetized disk wind, yet the wind mass-loss rate remains unconstrained. On the other hand, disk mass loss has conventionally been attributed to photoevaporation, where external heating on the disk surface drives a thermal wind. We unify the two scenarios by developing a one-dimensional model of magnetized disk winds with a simple treatment of thermodynamics as a proxy for external heating. The wind properties largely depend on (1) the magnetic field strength at the wind base, characterized by the poloidal Alfvén speed vAp, (2) the sound speed cs near the wind base, and (3) how rapidly poloidal field lines diverge (achieve {R}-2 scaling). When {v}{Ap}\\gg {c}{{s}}, corotation is enforced near the wind base, resulting in centrifugal acceleration. Otherwise, the wind is accelerated mainly by the pressure of the toroidal magnetic field. In both cases, the dominant role played by magnetic forces likely yields wind outflow rates that exceed purely hydrodynamical mechanisms. For typical PPD accretion-rate and wind-launching conditions, we expect vAp to be comparable to cs at the wind base. The resulting wind is heavily loaded, with a total wind mass-loss rate likely reaching a considerable fraction of the wind-driven accretion rate. Implications for modeling global disk evolution and planet formation are also discussed.

  19. Self-organized criticality effect on stability: magneto-thermal oscillations in a granular YBCO superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, L.; Rosenman, I.; Mints, R. G.; Collin, G.; Janod, E.

    1996-05-01

    We show that the self-organized criticality of Bean's state in each of the grains of a granular superconductor results in magneto-thermal oscillations. We find that the frequency of these oscillations is proportional to the external magnetic field sweep rate dot Be and is inversely proportional to the square root of the heat capacity. We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that this dependence is influenced mainly by the granularity of the superconductor.

  20. Tunable optical and magneto-optical properties of ferrofluid in the terahertz regime.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sai; Fan, Fei; Chang, Shengjiang; Miao, Yinping; Chen, Meng; Li, Jining; Wang, Xianghui; Lin, Lie

    2014-03-24

    The dielectric property and magneto-optical effects of ferrofluids have been investigated in the terahertz (THz) regime by using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The experiment results show that the refractive index and absorption coefficient of ferrofluid for THz waves rise up with the increase of nanoparticle concentration in the ferrofluid. Moreover, two different THz magneto-optical effects have been found with different external magnetic fields, of which mechanisms have been theoretically explained well by microscopic structure induced refractive index change in the magnetization process and the transverse magneto-optical effect after the saturation magnetization, respectively. This work suggests that ferrofluid is a promising magneto-optical material in the THz regime which has widely potential applications in THz functional devices for THz sensing, modulation, phase retardation, and polarization control. PMID:24663979

  1. Time-Resolved Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect of Magnetic Thin Films for Ultrafast Thermal Characterization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Yang; Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Delin; Lattery, Dustin M; Li, Mo; Wang, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xiaojia

    2016-07-01

    Thermomagnetic and magneto-optical effects are two fundamental but unique phenomena existing in magnetic materials. In this work, we demonstrate ultrafast time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect (TR-MOKE) as an advanced thermal characterization technique by studying the original factors of the MOKE signal from four magnetic transducers, including TbFe, GdFeCo, Co/Pd, and CoFe/Pt. A figure of merit is proposed to evaluate the performance of the transducer layers, corresponding to the degree of the signal-to-noise ratio in TR-MOKE measurements. We observe improved figure of merit for rare-earth transition-metal-based TbFe and GdFeCo transducers and attribute this improvement to their relatively larger temperature-dependent magnetization and the Kerr rotation angle at the saturated magnetization state. Furthermore, an optimal thickness of TbFe is found to be ∼18.5 nm to give the best performance. Our findings will facilitate the nanoscale thermal characterization and the device design where the thermo-magneto-optical coupling plays an important role. PMID:27269127

  2. Magneto-thermal reconnection of significance to space and astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, B.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic reconnection processes that can be excited in collisionless plasma regimes are of interest to space and astrophysics to the extent that the layers in which reconnection takes place are not rendered unrealistically small by their unfavorable dependence on relevant macroscopic distances. The equations describing new modes producing magnetic reconnection over relatively small but significant distances, unlike tearing types of mode, even when dealing with large macroscopic scale lengths, are given. The considered modes are associated with a finite electron temperature gradient and have a phase velocity in the direction of the electron diamagnetic velocity that can reverse to the opposite direction as relevant parameters are varied over a relatively wide range. The electron temperature perturbation has a primary role in the relevant theory. In particular, when referring to regimes in which the longitudinal (to the magnetic field) electron thermal conductivity is relatively large, the electron temperature perturbation becomes singular if the ratio of the transverse to the longitudinal electron thermal conductivity becomes negligible.

  3. Magneto-transport properties of a random distribution of few-layer graphene patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacovella, Fabrice; Trinsoutrot, Pierre; Mitioglu, Anatolie; Conédéra, Véronique; Pierre, Mathieu; Raquet, Bertrand; Goiran, Michel; Vergnes, Hugues; Caussat, Brigitte; Plochocka, Paulina; Escoffier, Walter

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we address the electronic properties of conducting films constituted of an array of randomly distributed few layer graphene patches and investigate on their most salient galvanometric features in the moderate and extreme disordered limit. We demonstrate that, in annealed devices, the ambipolar behaviour and the onset of Landau level quantization in high magnetic field constitute robust hallmarks of few-layer graphene films. In the strong disorder limit, however, the magneto-transport properties are best described by a variable-range hopping behaviour. A large negative magneto-conductance is observed at the charge neutrality point, in consistency with localized transport regime.

  4. Interplay between the magnetic and magneto-transport properties of 3D interconnected nanowire networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Câmara Santa Clara Gomes, Tristan; De La Torre Medina, Joaquín; Velázquez-Galván, Yenni G.; Martínez-Huerta, Juan Manuel; Encinas, Armando; Piraux, Luc

    2016-07-01

    We have explored the interplay between the magnetic and magneto-transport properties of 3D interconnected nanowire networks made of various magnetic metals by electrodeposition into nanoporous membranes with crossed channels and controlled topology. The close relationship between their magnetic and structural properties has a direct impact on their magneto-transport behavior. In order to accurately and reliably describe the effective magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance, an analytical model inherent to the topology of 3D nanowire networks is proposed and validated. The feasibility to obtain magneto-transport responses in nanowire network films based on interconnected nanowires makes them very attractive for the development of mechanically stable superstructures that are suitable for potential technological applications.

  5. Low-temperature magneto-thermal conductivity of the helimagnet Cu2OSeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasai, Narayan; Huang, Sunxiang; Cohn, Joshua L.; Trump, Benjamin; Marcus, Guy G.; McQueen, Tyrel M.; Chen, Chia Ling

    We report measurements of thermal conductivity (κ) in the range 0 . 6 K <= T <= 200 K for single crystals of the helimagnetic insulator Cu2OSeO3. A maximum in κ near T = 8 K with κmax ~ 300 W/mK implies a very high lattice quality for an oxide. The magneto-thermal conductivity at T <= 10 K and influence of spin-reorientation transitions associated with low- T magnetic phases will be discussed for different orientations of the magnetic field relative to the crystallographic and heat flow directions. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material Sciences and Engineering, under Grants No. DEFG02-12ER46888 (Univ. Miami) and No. DEFG02-08ER46544 (Johns Hopkins Univ.).

  6. Thermal Stability of Giant Magneto-impedance Effect in Glass-covered Amorphous Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. D.; Liu, J. S.; Xing, D. W.; Chen, D. M.; Wang, H.; Sun, J. Fei

    Thermal stability of Giant magneto-impedance (GMI) effect of Co-based amorphous glass-covered wires was investigated. The temperature measurement was conducted in a special calorstat cell between 25 °C and 200 °C, and the GMI effect of the as-cast, glass-removed and DC annealed wires was measured at 100kHz-12 MHz ranging from 0 Oe to 80 Oe. Experimental results show that the ambient temperature has a significant influence on the thermal stability of GMI effect, it is caused by external conditions: driving frequency, magnetic field and sample states. The thermal stability and GMI fluctuating variation at different temperature of three-type wires could be quantificationally characterized by GMImax ratio variation difference Δ[ΔZ/Zmax]Tmax of three-type wires, and drastically improved with the driving frequency increasing to 10 MHz, and the working range of magnetic field for possible sensor applications should be below 10 Oe. While there is different from as-cast and glass-removed wires, DC annealed wire has twin-working-zone range (relatively low field 0 Oe-2 Oe & relatively high field 2Oe-10 Oe) of magnetic field at relatively high frequency (10 MHz) for sensor applications with different detection range of weak magnetic field. So, the improved thermal stability is caused by the co- actions of remarkable skin-effect, magnetic polarization and magneto-crystalline anisotropy energy with the increasing frequency. It therefore is concluded that the optimal driving frequency of 10 MHz and the detection range of weak magnetic field (2Oe-10 Oe) is favorable for the design parameters choices of high-performance GMI sensor.

  7. Thermal radiative properties: Coatings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touloukian, Y. S.; Dewitt, D. P.; Hernicz, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    This volume consists, for the most part, of a presentation of numerical data compiled over the years in a most comprehensive manner on coatings for all applications, in particular, thermal control. After a moderately detailed discussion of the theoretical nature of the thermal radiative properties of coatings, together with an overview of predictive procedures and recognized experimental techniques, extensive numerical data on the thermal radiative properties of pigmented, contact, and conversion coatings are presented. These data cover metallic and nonmetallic pigmented coatings, enamels, metallic and nonmetallic contact coatings, antireflection coatings, resin coatings, metallic black coatings, and anodized and oxidized conversion coatings.

  8. Magneto-optical properties of core-shell magneto-plasmonic Au-Co(x)Fe(3 - x)O4 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Armelles, G; Cebollada, A; García-Martín, A; Montero-Moreno, J M; Waleczek, M; Nielsch, K

    2012-06-19

    The magneto-optical properties of Au-Co(x)Fe(3 - x)O(4) core-shell nanowires embedded in porous alumina membranes are studied. The structures were obtained by depositing Co(x)Fe(3 - x)O(4) on the pore walls of alumina membranes by atomic layer deposition and filling the resulting nanotube with gold by electrodeposition. The effect of plasmon resonance excitation on the magneto-optical activity is clearly observed as a modification of the spectral line shape of the Kerr rotation signal. PMID:22667989

  9. Magneto-optical properties of core-shell magneto-plasmonic Au-Co(x)Fe(3 - x)O4 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Armelles, G; Cebollada, A; García-Martín, A; Montero-Moreno, J M; Waleczek, M; Nielsch, K

    2012-06-19

    The magneto-optical properties of Au-Co(x)Fe(3 - x)O(4) core-shell nanowires embedded in porous alumina membranes are studied. The structures were obtained by depositing Co(x)Fe(3 - x)O(4) on the pore walls of alumina membranes by atomic layer deposition and filling the resulting nanotube with gold by electrodeposition. The effect of plasmon resonance excitation on the magneto-optical activity is clearly observed as a modification of the spectral line shape of the Kerr rotation signal.

  10. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, Jon; Braase, Lori; Papesch, Cynthia; Hurley, David; Tonks, Michael; Zhang, Yongfeng; Gofryk, Krzysztof; Harp, Jason; Fielding, Randy; Knight, Collin; Meyer, Mitch

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  11. Magneto-optical properties of transparent divalent iron phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akamatsu, Hirofumi; Fujita, Koji; Murai, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2008-06-01

    We have prepared glasses having xFeO ṡ(100-x)P2O5 (mol %) (x=50.0,54.0,57.1) compositions by melting under mild reducing condition and found that these glasses exhibit fairly high transmittance in the visible range and large Faraday effect at the wavelength of about 400nm. Fe57 Mössbauer spectra confirm that almost all the iron ions are present as Fe2+ in the glasses. A spin glass transition is observed at low temperatures in the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility. Intense optical absorption in the ultraviolet and infrared wavelength ranges occurs by the charge transfer transition from O2- to Fe2+ and the intra-atomic d-d transition, respectively. The analysis on the wavelength dependence of the Faraday rotation angle using the Van Vleck-Hebb theory has revealed that the charge transfer transition contributes more significantly to the Faraday effect owing to the large effective transition probability, which is comparable to those reported for glasses containing 4f rare-earth ions. The magneto-optical figure of merit shows a maximum at around 380nm.

  12. Optical and magneto-optical properties of plasma-magnetic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdian, H.; Mohammadzahery, Z.; Hasanbeigi, A.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the optical and magneto-optical properties of a tunable left-handed material (LHM) consisting of an array of plasma and ferrite layers. It has been shown that the effective refraction index of a homogeneous composite in certain frequencies is negative. It can also be seen that the magnitude of extremum of the negative effective refraction index changes with frequency, external magnetic field and the electron density of plasma layer. In addition, a theoretical calculation of the faraday optical rotation effect of the proposed metamaterial is presented. From the obtained results, we find that there is a large faraday rotation angle in the frequency range where the system shows the left-handed property. Our outcomes demonstrate the potential applications of the device for tunable perfect lenses and active magneto-optic in micro-wave devices.

  13. The magneto-optical properties of non-uniform graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hsien-Ching; Lin, Ming-Fa

    2015-03-01

    When synthesizing few-layer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), non-uniform GNRs would be made simultaneously. Recently, the non-uniform GNRs, which is a stack of two GNRs with unequal widths, have been fabricated by mechanically exfoliated from bulk graphite. Some theoretical predictions have been reported, such as gap opening and transport properties. Under the influence of magnetic fields, magnetic quantization takes place and drastically changes the electronic properties. By tuning the geometric configuration, four categories of magneto-electronic spectra are exhibited. (1) The spectrum is mostly contributed by quasi-Landau levels (QLLs) of monolayer GNRs. (2) The spectrum displays two groups of QLLs, and the non-uniform GNR behaves like a bilayer one. (3) An intermediate category, the spectrum is composite disordered. (4) The spectrum presents the coexistence of monolayer and bilayer spectra. In this work, the magneto-electronic and optical properties for different geometric configurations are given, such as energy dispersions, density of states, wave functions, and magneto-absorption spectra are presented. Furthermore, the transformation between monolayer and bilayer spectra as well as the coexistence of monolayer and bilayer spectra are discussed in detail. One of us (Hsien-Ching Chung) thanks Ming-Hui Chung and Su-Ming Chen for financial support. This work was supported in part by the National Science Council of Taiwan under Grant Number 98-2112-M-006-013-MY4.

  14. Anisotropic magneto-optical properties of vanadium in Bi4Ge3O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkova, P.

    2016-07-01

    The paper deals with the investigation of the magneto-optical effect and photochromism in vanadium doped Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) single crystals in a wide spectral range. It has been found out that the photosensitivity of doped crystals is significantly shifted to the visible wavelengths. This investigation reports the experimental results of Faraday rotation in the case of vanadium doped Bi4Ge3O12. The rotation angle of the polarization plane of the crystal plate has been investigated in the magnetic field in an illuminated state, obtained by exposure with ultraviolet (UV) light and an annealed state developed after annealing at 400 °C. We have observed the strong appearance of vanadium impurity in the spectral range 380-700 nm. The experimental determination of magneto-optical properties of V4+ ions gives us an opportunity for calculation of the refractive index n of the doped BGO.

  15. Magnetic properties of the α -T3 model: Magneto-optical conductivity and the Hofstadter butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illes, E.; Nicol, E. J.

    2016-09-01

    The α -T3 model interpolates between the pseudospin S =1 /2 honeycomb lattice of graphene and the pseudospin S =1 dice lattice via parameter α . We present calculations of the magnetic properties of this hybrid pseudospin model, namely the absorptive magneto-optical conductivity and the Hofstadter butterfly spectra. In the magneto-optics curves, signatures of the hybrid system include a doublet structure present in the peaks, resulting from differing Landau level energies in the K and K' valleys. In the Hofstadter spectra, we detail the evolution of the Hofstadter butterfly as it changes its periodicity by a factor of three as we vary between the two limiting cases of the α -T3 model.

  16. Morphological evolution, growth mechanism, and magneto-transport properties of silver telluride one-dimensional nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Single crystalline one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of silver telluride (Ag2Te) with well-controlled shapes and sizes were synthesized via the hydrothermal reduction of sodium tellurite (Na2TeO3) in a mixed solution. The morphological evolution of various 1D nanostructures was mainly determined by properly controlling the nucleation and growth process of Ag2Te in different reaction times. Based on the transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy studies, the formation mechanism for these 1D nanostructures was rationally interpreted. In addition, the current–voltage (I-V) characteristics as a function of magnetic field of the highly single crystal Ag2Te nanowires were systematically measured. From the investigation of I-V characteristics, we have observed a rapid change of the current in low magnetic field, which can be used as the magnetic field sensor. The magneto-resistance behavior of the Ag2Te nanowires with monoclinic structure was also investigated. Comparing to the bulk and thin film materials, we found that there is generally a larger change in R (T) as the sample size is reduced, which indicates that the size of the sample has a certain impact on magneto-transport properties. Simultaneously, some possible reasons resulting in the observed large positive magneto-resistance behavior are discussed. PMID:23958372

  17. Magneto-transport properties in layered manganite crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, T.; Tomioka, Y.; Okuda, T.; Kuwahara, H.; Asamitsu, A.; Tokura, Y.

    1998-12-31

    Anisotropic charge transport and magnetic properties have been investigated for single crystals of the layered manganite, La{sub 2{minus}2x}Sr{sub 1+2x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} (0.3 {le} x {le} 0.5). Remarkable variations in the magnetic structure as well as in the charge-transport properties are observed with changing doping-level x. A crystal with x = 0.3 behaves like a 2-dimensional ferromagnetic metal in the temperature region between {approximately} 90 K and {approximately} 270 K, and shows the interplane tunneling magnetoresistance at lower temperatures. These characteristic charge-transport properties are attributed to the interplane magnetic coupling between the adjacent MnO{sub 2} bilayers, and are strongly affected by the application of pressure as well as low magnetic fields through the change in magnetic structure. With increase of the carrier concentration toward x = 0.5, the charge-ordered phase is stabilized and dominates the charge transport and magnetic properties.

  18. Magneto-optical properties of biogenic photonic crystals in algae

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaka, M.; Mizukawa, Y.

    2014-05-07

    In the present study, the effects of strong static magnetic fields on the structural colors of the cell covering crystals on a microalgae, coccolithophore, were investigated. The coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi, generates a precise assembly of calcite crystals called coccoliths by biomineralization. The coccoliths attached to the cells exhibited structural colors under side light illumination, and the colors underwent dynamic transitions when the magnetic fields were changed between 0 T and 5 T, probably due to diamagnetically induced changes of their inclination under the magnetic fields. The specific light-scattering property of individual coccoliths separated from the cells was also observed. Light scattering from a condensed suspension of coccoliths drastically decreased when magnetic fields of more than 4 T were applied parallel to the direction of observation. The magnetically aligned cell-covering crystals of the coccolithophores exhibited the properties of both a photonic crystal and a minimum micromirror.

  19. Measurement of the anisotropic thermal conductivity of molybdenum disulfide by the time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun Choi, Gyung-Min; Cahill, David G.

    2014-12-21

    We use pump-probe metrology based on the magneto-optic Kerr effect to measure the anisotropic thermal conductivity of (001)-oriented MoS{sub 2} crystals. A ≈20 nm thick CoPt multilayer with perpendicular magnetization serves as the heater and thermometer in the experiment. The low thermal conductivity and small thickness of the CoPt transducer improve the sensitivity of the measurement to lateral heat flow in the MoS{sub 2} crystal. The thermal conductivity of MoS{sub 2} is highly anisotropic with basal-plane thermal conductivity varying between 85–110 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1} as a function of laser spot size. The basal-plane thermal conductivity is a factor of ≈50 larger than the c-axis thermal conductivity, 2.0±0.3 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}.

  20. Measurement of the trap properties of a magneto-optical trap by a transient oscillation method

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kihwan; Lee, Ki-Hwan; Heo, Myungseon; Jhe, Wonho; Noh, Heung-Ryoul

    2005-05-15

    We have measured the trap frequency as well as the damping coefficient of a magneto-optical trap by using a transient oscillation method. The dependence of such trap properties on the various experimental parameters such as the cooling laser intensity, detuning, and magnetic field gradient is investigated. We find that the measured trap frequency is in excellent agreement with the simple rate-equation analysis based on the Doppler cooling theory. In contrast, the damping coefficient is about twice as large as the calculated one, which is attributed to the existence of the sub-Doppler trap near the trap center.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of cerium-doped terbium gallium garnet with high magneto-optical properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Hang, Yin; Yang, Lei; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xiangyong; Hong, Jiaqi; Zhang, Peixiong; Shi, Chunjun; Wang, Yaqi

    2015-03-01

    High optical quality (Tb((1-x))Ce(x))₃Ga₅O₁₂ (TCGG) single crystal has been grown by the Czochralski method. The optical and magneto-optical properties of the TCGG are analyzed in detail and the Verdet constant (V) of TCGG is compared with that of undoped terbium gallium garnet (TGG) crystal. TCGG presents a very high transmittance, particularly in the visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR) region, and its V is obviously larger than that of TGG in the VIS-NIR region. The figure of merit and optical features point out the superior characteristics of TCGG with respect to TGG.

  2. Magneto-optical properties of indium antimide based quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaparast, Giti Adham

    2001-08-01

    The goal of this work was to study the band structure and spin properties of the InSb quantum wells experimentally. Many new observations resulted such as spin resolved cyclotron resonance and zero field spin splitting in InSb quantum wells. Our cyclotron resonance experimental results are in good agreement with our theoretical model. The values of the effective mass show the expected nonparabolicity behavior. We observed spin resolved cyclotron resonance in the high mobility samples with a rather unexpected amplitude pattern at 70.6 μm which might be a result of deviation from the Kohn theorem. More experiments using FTIR are required to understand the spin resolved cyclotron resonance in InSb. We observe electron spin resonance using FIR laser spectroscopy in symmetric and asymmetric InSb quantum wells over a wide range of magnetic field and the Landau level index. The behavior of the asymmetric wells at low magnetic fields with g-factors far in excess of the bulk g-factor of InSb is due to spin splitting at zero magnetic field. Asymmetry-induced shifts in the spin resonance at high fields depend on the Landau level index as predicted by the Bychkov-Rashba model. In an extension of this work, we plan to compare samples where the asymmetry in the confinement potential is due to differing Al concentrations in the barriers on either side of the quantum well to samples with asymmetric doping which were studied in this work. The α values measured in this work (1.5 × 10-9 eVcm) are among the largest reported as would be expected for a material like InSb with a large bulk g-factor. Recently, in gated InAs samples [61] α values ranging from 2 × 10-9 to 4 × 10-9 eV cm have been measured which suggest that we can achieve even larger α in InSb quantum wells. We are extending our spin resonance studies to gated samples. These should give us the ability to study the spin resonance in the absence of any applied magnetic field.

  3. Effective-mass model and magneto-optical properties in hybrid perovskites.

    PubMed

    Yu, Z G

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites have proven to be a revolutionary material for low-cost photovoltaic applications. They also exhibit many other interesting properties, including giant Rashba splitting, large-radius Wannier excitons, and novel magneto-optical effects. Understanding these properties as well as the detailed mechanism of photovoltaics requires a reliable and accessible electronic structure, on which models of transport, excitonic, and magneto-optical properties can be efficiently developed. Here we construct an effective-mass model for the hybrid perovskites based on the group theory, experiment, and first-principles calculations. Using this model, we relate the Rashba splitting with the inversion-asymmetry parameter in the tetragonal perovskites, evaluate anisotropic g-factors for both conduction and valence bands, and elucidate the magnetic-field effect on photoluminescence and its dependence on the intensity of photoexcitation. The diamagnetic effect of exciton is calculated for an arbitrarily strong magnetic field. The pronounced excitonic peak emerged at intermediate magnetic fields in cyclotron resonance is assigned to the 3D±2 states, whose splitting can be used to estimate the difference in the effective masses of electron and hole. PMID:27338834

  4. Effective-mass model and magneto-optical properties in hybrid perovskites

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Z. G.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites have proven to be a revolutionary material for low-cost photovoltaic applications. They also exhibit many other interesting properties, including giant Rashba splitting, large-radius Wannier excitons, and novel magneto-optical effects. Understanding these properties as well as the detailed mechanism of photovoltaics requires a reliable and accessible electronic structure, on which models of transport, excitonic, and magneto-optical properties can be efficiently developed. Here we construct an effective-mass model for the hybrid perovskites based on the group theory, experiment, and first-principles calculations. Using this model, we relate the Rashba splitting with the inversion-asymmetry parameter in the tetragonal perovskites, evaluate anisotropic g-factors for both conduction and valence bands, and elucidate the magnetic-field effect on photoluminescence and its dependence on the intensity of photoexcitation. The diamagnetic effect of exciton is calculated for an arbitrarily strong magnetic field. The pronounced excitonic peak emerged at intermediate magnetic fields in cyclotron resonance is assigned to the 3D±2 states, whose splitting can be used to estimate the difference in the effective masses of electron and hole. PMID:27338834

  5. Effective-mass model and magneto-optical properties in hybrid perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z. G.

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid inorganic-organic perovskites have proven to be a revolutionary material for low-cost photovoltaic applications. They also exhibit many other interesting properties, including giant Rashba splitting, large-radius Wannier excitons, and novel magneto-optical effects. Understanding these properties as well as the detailed mechanism of photovoltaics requires a reliable and accessible electronic structure, on which models of transport, excitonic, and magneto-optical properties can be efficiently developed. Here we construct an effective-mass model for the hybrid perovskites based on the group theory, experiment, and first-principles calculations. Using this model, we relate the Rashba splitting with the inversion-asymmetry parameter in the tetragonal perovskites, evaluate anisotropic g-factors for both conduction and valence bands, and elucidate the magnetic-field effect on photoluminescence and its dependence on the intensity of photoexcitation. The diamagnetic effect of exciton is calculated for an arbitrarily strong magnetic field. The pronounced excitonic peak emerged at intermediate magnetic fields in cyclotron resonance is assigned to the 3D±2 states, whose splitting can be used to estimate the difference in the effective masses of electron and hole.

  6. Radiation stability of visible and near-infrared optical and magneto-optical properties of terbium gallium garnet crystals.

    PubMed

    Geist, Brian; Ronningen, Reginald; Stolz, Andreas; Bollen, Georg; Kochergin, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Perspectives of terbium gallium garnet, Tb₃Ga₅O₁₂ (TGG), for the use of radiation-resistant high magnetic field sensing are studied. Long-term radiation stability of the TGG crystals was analyzed by comparing the optical and magneto-optical properties of a radiation-exposed TGG crystal (equivalent neutron dose 6.3×10¹³ n/cm²) to the properties of TGG control samples. Simulations were also performed to predict radiation damage mechanisms in the TGG crystal. Radiation-induced increase in the absorbance at shorter wavelengths was observed as well as a reduction in the Faraday effect while no degradation of magneto-optical effect was observed when at wavelengths above 600 nm. This suggests that TGG crystal would be a good candidate for use in magneto-optical radiation-resistant magnetic field sensors. PMID:25967201

  7. Radiation stability of visible and near-infrared optical and magneto-optical properties of terbium gallium garnet crystals.

    PubMed

    Geist, Brian; Ronningen, Reginald; Stolz, Andreas; Bollen, Georg; Kochergin, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Perspectives of terbium gallium garnet, Tb₃Ga₅O₁₂ (TGG), for the use of radiation-resistant high magnetic field sensing are studied. Long-term radiation stability of the TGG crystals was analyzed by comparing the optical and magneto-optical properties of a radiation-exposed TGG crystal (equivalent neutron dose 6.3×10¹³ n/cm²) to the properties of TGG control samples. Simulations were also performed to predict radiation damage mechanisms in the TGG crystal. Radiation-induced increase in the absorbance at shorter wavelengths was observed as well as a reduction in the Faraday effect while no degradation of magneto-optical effect was observed when at wavelengths above 600 nm. This suggests that TGG crystal would be a good candidate for use in magneto-optical radiation-resistant magnetic field sensors.

  8. Two-dimensional magnetic property measurement for magneto-rheological elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jianbin; Guo, Youguang; Li, Yancheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Li, Jianchun

    2013-05-01

    Magneto-rheological elastomer (MRE) is a new kind of smart material. Its rheological properties can be altered and controlled in a real time manner when it is applied an external magnetic field. For calculating magnetic properties of MRE material, usually Maxwell-Garnet equation is used to acquire an approximately effective permeability. This equation treats the magnetic property of particles as linear. However, when the applied magnetic field is alternating or rotating, the nonlinearity of magnetic property and magnetic hysteresis cannot be neglected. Hence, the measurement and modelling of the magnetic properties under alternating and rotating magnetic fields are essential to explore new applications of the material. This paper presents the investigation on the magnetic hysteresis properties of MRE material under one-dimensional (1-D) alternating and two-dimensional (2-D) rotating magnetic field excitations. A kind of MRE material, consisting of 70% carbonyl iron particles, 10% silicone oil, and 20% silicone rubber, was used to investigate the magnetic properties. The diameter of carbonyl iron particles is 3-5 μm. The measurement results, such as the relations between magnetic field intensity (H) and magnetic flux density (B) under different magnetic field excitations on the MRE sample, have been obtained and analyzed. These data would be useful for design and analysis of MRE smart structures like MR dampers.

  9. Wavelength dependence of magneto-optic properties of terbium gallium garnet ceramics.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Ondrej; Yasuhara, Ryo; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomas

    2015-05-18

    The wavelength dependence of magneto-optic properties of TGG ceramics, including the Verdet constant, has been investigated experimentally. The previously obtained Verdet constant of 36.4 rad/Tm for 1064 nm wavelength and 139.6 rad/Tm for 633 nm are in good agreement with presented white light measurements . The comparison with previously reported Verdet constant and absorption coefficient values for TGG single crystal has shown very similar results. These results lead to the conclusion that TGG ceramics is a very good alternative to TGG single crystal and is a powerful approach for realizing large-aperture optical isolators which are required in high-average-power laser systems.

  10. Enhanced magnetic energy harvesting properties of magneto-mechano-electric generator by tailored geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annapureddy, Venkateswarlu; Lee, Ha Young; Yoon, Woon-Ha; Woo, Hyun-Jae; Lee, Ji-Hye; Palneedi, Haribabu; Kim, Hwee-Jong; Choi, Jong-Jin; Jeong, Dae-Yong; Yi, Sam Nyung; Ryu, Jungho

    2016-08-01

    By tailoring the truncated shape of a cantilever structured magneto-mechano-electric (MME) generator that is composed of a piezoelectric single crystal fiber composite and a magnetostrictive Ni plate, a superior output harvesting power density of over 680% was obtained as compared to a typical rectangular shaped generator. The effect of the MME generator's shape on the strain distribution induced by magnetostriction and vibration characteristics and harvesting properties were simulated by finite element analysis modeling and confirmed experimentally, respectively. The truncated shape was effective for not only utilizing a more uniform in-plane strain distribution in the active piezoelectric area but also magnifying the flexural vibration amplitude, which in turn can make the generator more powerful under tiny magnetic oscillations.

  11. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  12. Synthesis and Magneto-Thermal Actuation of Iron Oxide Core–PNIPAM Shell Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been proposed for many applications in biotechnology and medicine. In this paper, it is demonstrated how the excellent colloidal stability and magnetic properties of monodisperse and individually densely grafted iron oxide nanoparticles can be used to manipulate reversibly the solubility of nanoparticles with a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)nitrodopamine shell. “Grafting-to” and “grafting-from” methods for synthesis of an irreversibly anchored brush shell to monodisperse, oleic acid coated iron oxide cores are compared. Thereafter, it is shown that local heating by magnetic fields as well as global thermal heating can be used to efficiently and reversibly aggregate, magnetically extract nanoparticles from solution and spontaneously redisperse them. The coupling of magnetic and thermally responsive properties points to novel uses as smart materials, for example, in integrated devices for molecular separation and extraction. PMID:26270412

  13. Synthesis and Magneto-Thermal Actuation of Iron Oxide Core-PNIPAM Shell Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kurzhals, Steffen; Zirbs, Ronald; Reimhult, Erik

    2015-09-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been proposed for many applications in biotechnology and medicine. In this paper, it is demonstrated how the excellent colloidal stability and magnetic properties of monodisperse and individually densely grafted iron oxide nanoparticles can be used to manipulate reversibly the solubility of nanoparticles with a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)nitrodopamine shell. "Grafting-to" and "grafting-from" methods for synthesis of an irreversibly anchored brush shell to monodisperse, oleic acid coated iron oxide cores are compared. Thereafter, it is shown that local heating by magnetic fields as well as global thermal heating can be used to efficiently and reversibly aggregate, magnetically extract nanoparticles from solution and spontaneously redisperse them. The coupling of magnetic and thermally responsive properties points to novel uses as smart materials, for example, in integrated devices for molecular separation and extraction.

  14. Synthesis and properties of novel tunable ferroic and magneto-electric meta-materials composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Shashnk

    to measure samples of very small sizes. At 3 GHz, the dielectric loss observed in the BST:MgO composites were ˜ 0.007. The magneto-electric composites were processed using both conventional and single mode microwave heating technique. In a single mode microwave system, the samples were sintered in either electric field (E-field) or magnetic field (H-field). The respective sintering in E-field and H-field resulted in different magneto-electric properties as different connectivity patterns can be achieved with single mode microwave processing. H-field processing resulted in lower sintering temperature by 125°C than used in conventional sintering. The magnetic component in magneto-electric composites couples faster in H-field thus lowering the sintering temperature and providing better sintered composite materials. The composites processed with microwave sintering showed minimum or no chemical reactivity and lower PbO loss compared to conventional sintering process. PMN-PT (31%):NiMn0.1Fe1.9O4 (60:40) composite showed the maximum magneto-electric coefficient of 520 mV/cm Oe for single mode H-field sintering compared to 430 mV/cm Oe for the composite sintered in conventional sintering. Finally, the microwave sintering process has been studied to examine the absorption rate of microwaves with different materials depending on their properties. The different sintering profiles in E-field and H-field have been studied for composite materials and an attempt has been made in the thesis to describe the reasons of different sintering patterns of electronic composite materials with different constituent materials. This research work clearly showed the potential of microwave sintering in the processing of ferroic composite materials with better properties. Also, the initial grain size influences the connectivity pattern and the resulted dielectric/magneto-electric properties of ceramic composite materials, have been demonstrated. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  15. Vesta surface thermal properties map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Capria, Maria Teresa; Tosi, F.; De Santis, Maria Cristina; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Frigeri, A.; Zambon, F; Fonte, S.; Palomba, E.; Turrini, D.; Titus, T.N.; Schroder, S.E.; Toplis, M.J.; Liu, J.Y.; Combe, J.-P.; Raymond, C.A.; Russell, C.T.

    2014-01-01

    The first ever regional thermal properties map of Vesta has been derived from the temperatures retrieved by infrared data by the mission Dawn. The low average value of thermal inertia, 30 ± 10 J m−2 s−0.5 K−1, indicates a surface covered by a fine regolith. A range of thermal inertia values suggesting terrains with different physical properties has been determined. The lower thermal inertia of the regions north of the equator suggests that they are covered by an older, more processed surface. A few specific areas have higher than average thermal inertia values, indicative of a more compact material. The highest thermal inertia value has been determined on the Marcia crater, known for its pitted terrain and the presence of hydroxyl in the ejecta. Our results suggest that this type of terrain can be the result of soil compaction following the degassing of a local subsurface reservoir of volatiles.

  16. Thermal properties of granulated materials.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wechsler, A. E.; Glaser, P. E.; Fountain, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the thermophysical properties of granular materials or silicates believed to simulate the lunar surface layer. Emphasis is placed on thermal conductivity data and the effects of material and environmental variables on the thermal conductivity. There are three basic mechanisms of heat transfer in particulate materials: conduction by the gas contained in the void spaces between the particles; conduction within the solid particles and across the interparticle contacts; and thermal radiation within the particles, across the void spaces between particle surfaces, and between void spaces themselves. Gas and solid conduction, thermal radiation, and the interaction between conduction and radiation are considered.

  17. Magneto-thermally activated spin-state transition in La0.95Ca0.05CoO3: magnetically-tunable dipolar glass and giant magneto-electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Suchita; Kumar, Jitender; Awasthi, A. M.

    Magneto-dielectric spectra of La0.95Ca0.05CoO3 covering the crossover of spin states reveals strong coupling of its spin and dipolar degrees of freedom. Signature of spin-state transition at 30K clearly manifests in magnetization, supported by Co L_3,2-edge XAS data on the doped-specimen as consistent with its suppressed T_SST vs. ~150K for pure LaCoO3. Dispersive activation-step {\\Delta}{\\epsilon}'(T_{\\omega})~O(10^2) and relaxation-peak {\\epsilon}"(T_{\\omega}) reflect the allied influence of coexistent spin-states on the dielectric character. Dipolar relaxation in the LS regime below T_SST is partly segmental (VFT kinetics) featuring magnetic-field tunability, whereas in the LS/IS-spin disordered state above 30K, it is uncorrelated (Arrhenic kinetics) and almost impervious to the H-field. Kinetics-switchover defines the dipolar-glass transition temperature Tg(H), below which the magneto-thermally-activated cooperative relaxations freeze-out by the VFT temperature T_0(H). Applied H-field facilitates thermally-activated SST and accelerates the dipolar relaxations; a critical 5T field collapsing the entire kinetics into a single Arrhenic behavior. Magneto-electricity (ME) spanning sizable thermo-spectral range registers diverse signatures here in the kinetic, spectral, and field behaviors, in contrast to the static/perturbative ME observed close to the spin-ordering in typical multiferroics. Intrinsic magneto-dielectricity (50%) along with vanishing magneto-loss is obtained at (27K/50kHz)_9T. Sub-linear deviant field-hysteretic split seen in {\\epsilon}'(H)|_>4T suggests the emergence of robust dipoles organized into nano-clusters, realized by the internally-generated high magneto-electric field. An elaborate {\\omega}-T multi-dispersions diagram maps the rich variety of phase/response patterns, revealing the highly-interacting magnetic and electric moments in the system.

  18. Magneto-thermally activated spin-state transition in La0.95Ca0.05CoO3: magnetically-tunable dipolar glass and giant magneto-electricity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Suchita; Kumar, Jitender; Awasthi, A M

    2016-03-01

    The magneto-dielectric spectroscopy of La0.95Ca0.05CoO3 covering the crossover of spin states reveals the strong coupling of its spin and dipolar degrees of freedom. The signature of the spin-state transition at 30 K clearly manifests in the magnetization data at a 1 Tesla optimal field. Our Co L3,2-edge X-ray absorption spectrum on the doped specimen is consistent with its suppressed low-to-intermediate spin-state transition temperature at ∼30 K compared to ∼150 K, documented for pure LaCoO3. The dispersive activation step in the dielectric constant with the associated relaxation peak in imaginary permittivity characterize the allied influence of coexistent spin-states on the dielectric character. Dipolar relaxation in the low-spin regime below the transition temperature is partly segmental (Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) kinetics) and features magnetic-field tunability, whereas in the low/intermediate-spin disordered state above ∼30 K, it is uncorrelated (Arrhenic kinetics) and almost impervious to the magnetic field H. Kinetics-switchover defines the dipolar-glass transition temperature Tg(H) (=27 K|0T), below which their magneto-thermally-activated cooperative relaxations freeze out by the VFT temperature T0(H) (=15 K|0T). An applied magnetic field facilitates thermal activation in toggling the low spins up into the intermediate states. Consequently, the downsized dipolar-glass segments in the low-spin state and the independent dipoles in the intermediate state exhibit accelerated dynamics. A critical 5 Tesla field collapses the entire relaxation kinetics into a single Arrhenic behaviour, signaling that the dipolar glass is completely devitrified under all higher fields. The magneto-electricity (ME) spanning sizeable thermo-spectral range registers diverse signatures here in kinetic, spectral, and field behaviors, in contrast to the static/perturbative ME observed close to the spin-ordering in typical multiferroics. Intrinsic magneto-dielectricity (50%) along

  19. Magneto-thermally activated spin-state transition in La0.95Ca0.05CoO3: magnetically-tunable dipolar glass and giant magneto-electricity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Suchita; Kumar, Jitender; Awasthi, A M

    2016-03-01

    The magneto-dielectric spectroscopy of La0.95Ca0.05CoO3 covering the crossover of spin states reveals the strong coupling of its spin and dipolar degrees of freedom. The signature of the spin-state transition at 30 K clearly manifests in the magnetization data at a 1 Tesla optimal field. Our Co L3,2-edge X-ray absorption spectrum on the doped specimen is consistent with its suppressed low-to-intermediate spin-state transition temperature at ∼30 K compared to ∼150 K, documented for pure LaCoO3. The dispersive activation step in the dielectric constant with the associated relaxation peak in imaginary permittivity characterize the allied influence of coexistent spin-states on the dielectric character. Dipolar relaxation in the low-spin regime below the transition temperature is partly segmental (Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) kinetics) and features magnetic-field tunability, whereas in the low/intermediate-spin disordered state above ∼30 K, it is uncorrelated (Arrhenic kinetics) and almost impervious to the magnetic field H. Kinetics-switchover defines the dipolar-glass transition temperature Tg(H) (=27 K|0T), below which their magneto-thermally-activated cooperative relaxations freeze out by the VFT temperature T0(H) (=15 K|0T). An applied magnetic field facilitates thermal activation in toggling the low spins up into the intermediate states. Consequently, the downsized dipolar-glass segments in the low-spin state and the independent dipoles in the intermediate state exhibit accelerated dynamics. A critical 5 Tesla field collapses the entire relaxation kinetics into a single Arrhenic behaviour, signaling that the dipolar glass is completely devitrified under all higher fields. The magneto-electricity (ME) spanning sizeable thermo-spectral range registers diverse signatures here in kinetic, spectral, and field behaviors, in contrast to the static/perturbative ME observed close to the spin-ordering in typical multiferroics. Intrinsic magneto-dielectricity (50%) along

  20. Thermoelectric and Magneto-Thermoelectric Properties of Ga-DOPED ZnO Thin Films by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Fang, L.; Wu, F.; Tian, D. X.; Li, W. J.; Lu, Y.; Kong, C. Y.; Zhang, S. F.

    2014-04-01

    Zn(1-x)GaxO thin films (x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 named as GZO1, GZO2, GZO3, GZO4, respectively) were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The crystal structure, electrical, thermoelectric and magneto-thermoelectric properties of GZO films were investigated. It is found that all the GZO films are polycrystalline and preferentially oriented in the c-axis. The electrical resistivity of GZO films decreased first with increasing Ga doping content before it reached a minimum at x = 0.05, and then increased with further increasing Ga doping content. The magnetic fields (B) ranging from 0 to 1.5 T are perpendicularly applied to the films to study the magneto-thermoelectric properties. It is observed that the absolute values of Seebeck coefficients (|S|) of GZO1, GZO2, GZO3 show marked variation with magnetic field and obtain the maximum value at B = 0.5 T. Whereas the |S| value of GZO4 fluctuates slightly with magnetic field and reaches its peak at B = 1.0 T. The magneto-thermoelectric properties are analyzed and we propose that this behavior is mainly attributed to the effect of magnetic field on the electron transport.

  1. Manipulating Magneto-Optic Properties of a Chiral Polymer by Doping with Stable Organic Biradicals.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chang-Keun; Cho, Min Ju; Singh, Ajay; Li, Qi; Kim, Won Jin; Jee, Hong Sub; Fillman, Kathlyn L; Carpenter, Stephanie H; Neidig, Michael L; Baev, Alexander; Swihart, Mark T; Prasad, Paras N

    2016-09-14

    We report the first example of tuning the large magneto-optic activity of a chiral polymer by addition of stable organic biradicals. The spectral dispersion of Verdet constant, which quantifies magneto-optic response, differs substantially between the base polymer and the nanocomposite. We employed a microscopic model, supported by atomistic calculations, to rationalize the behavior of this nanocomposite system. The suggested mechanism involves magnetic coupling between helical conjugated polymer fibrils, with spatially delocalized helical π-electron density, and the high density of spin states provided by the biradical dopants, which leads to synergistic enhancement of magneto-optic response. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies reveal that the manipulation of magnetic coupling in this new class of magneto-optic materials offers an opportunity to tailor the magnitude, sign, and spectral dispersion of the Verdet constant over a broad range of wavelengths, from the UV to the near-IR. This provides a new strategy for creating conformable materials with extraordinary magneto-optic activity, which can ultimately enable new applications requiring spatially and temporally resolved measurement of extremely weak magnetic fields. In particular, magneto-optic materials, presently employed in technologies like optical isolators and optical circulators, could be used in ultrasensitive optical magnetometers. This, in turn, could open a path toward mapping of brain activity via optical magnetoencephalography. PMID:27518762

  2. Magneto-optical properties of nanocrystals:  Zeeman splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, S. J.; Trallero-Giner, C.; Alcalde, A. M.; López-Richard, V.; Marques, G. E.

    2003-04-01

    We discuss different aspects of the Zeeman splitting in optical properties of II-VI spherical quantum dots in presence of a external magnetic field B. A systematic study of the energy eigenvalues, wave functions, and their dominant symmetries within the 8×8 kṡp Kane-Weiler formalism, allowing the inclusion of the conduction- valence-band coupling, nonparabolicity, and mixing of the electronic and spin states, is presented. The analysis of symmetries inherent in the kṡp Hamiltonian leads to sets of basis functions that can be separated into two independent Hilbert subspaces. The linear and quadratic Zeeman splitting in the quantum dot have been studied in the strong confinement regime. A detailed discussion of the symmetries associated with the electronic levels and the magneto-optical selection rules for interband transitions are derived. We also calculated the optical oscillator strengths and their corresponding magnetoabsorption coefficient for Faraday and Voigt configurations. It shows that the effective Landé g factor, obtained theoretically, and diamagnetic shift can be tested experimentally by complementary optical spectra measured in Faraday and Voigt geometries.

  3. An investigation of the magneto-optical properties of thin-film magnetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsidaeva, N. I.; Abaeva, V. V.; Enaldieva, E. V.; Magkoev, T. T.; Turiev, A. M.; Ramonova, A. G.; Butkhuzi, T. T.; Tvauri, I.

    2013-11-01

    This study reports on the performance of multilayer film structures, which are a very prospective material for thin-film magnetic sensors. The magnetic and magneto-optical properties of iron and cobalt thin films and also ferromagnetic (FM)/non-magnetic layer (NML)/FM trilayers, prepared using a magnetron sputtering system, are presented. The FM layer thickness of tFe and tCo in trilayers varied from 25 to 100 Å and the NML thickness of tNML varied from 5 to 2000 Å. In the NML/FM samples, the NML thickness varied from 0 to 400 Å. The dependences of the hysteresis characteristics of Fe films on the NML thickness were found. The dependence of the transverse Kerr effect (TKE) magnitude on tFe was established. It was shown experimentally that TKE is sensitive to the magnetization up to a certain depth range below the surface of ferromagnetic—the information depth. It was discovered that the in-plane hysteresis characteristic of the trilayers is strongly dependent on tnml. So existence of the exchange coupling between FM layers through NML and its oscillatory behaviour (from antiferromagnetic (AF) to ferromagnetic (F) order) were experimentally established. It was found that the period AF-F-AF oscillations of exchange coupling is equal to 5-10 Å.

  4. Thermal properties for vegetation cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksyutina, D.; Motenko, R.

    2011-12-01

    Different samples of undisturbed vegetation cover were studied under laboratory conditions. Samples were collected from New Chara city, north of the Chita region. Vegetation cover in this area is represented by moss, lichen and tussock growth. Thermal properties were investigated by the I-st type regular mode method (a-calorimeter), the freezing temperature was studied by cryoscopic methods. The dry density of sampled specimens varies from 0.04 to 0.24 g/cm3, and humidity varies from 250 to 375 percent. The freezing temperature depends on moisture content and varies from -0.2 to 0 degrees centigrade. The vegetation cover had low thermal conductivities which varies from 0.05 to 0.46 W/(m*K) in unfrozen conditions, and from 0.07 to 1.14 W/(m*K) in frozen conditions, according to density and moisture content. Diffusivity of samples varies from 0.073*10-6 to 0.114*10-6 m2/s in thawed conditions, and from 0.174*10-6 to 0.584*10-6 m2/s in frozen conditions. The sod (bottom of vegetation cover) had relatively high thermal properties. Thermal properties of vegetation cover and peat (turf) were compared. The thermal conductivity of peat was much higher than thermal conductivity of vegetation cover. This data may be used for modeling of the thickness of the seasonally thawed layer and ground temperature variation. The knowledge of thermal properties of these samples allows us to view vegetation cover as a separate layer of geological section.

  5. Effect of substrate on magneto-transport properties of polycrystalline manganite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siwach, P. K.; Singh, D. P.; Singh, H. K.; Khare, N.; Singh, A. K.; Srivastava, O. N.

    2003-06-01

    Polycrystalline films of La0.7Ca0.2Ba0.1MnO3 (LCBMO) were deposited on LaAlO3, SrTiO3 (STO), Al2O3 and YSZ single crystal substrates by spray pyrolysis technique employing an ultrasonic nebulizer. Deposition and annealing conditions for all four films were kept identical. All films have been found to be single phase and have orthorhombic unit cells with only slightly different lattice parameters. The magneto-transport properties (magnetoresistance (MR), TC and TIM) of these polycrystalline LCBMO films are found to depend strongly on the substrate. The lattice mismatch between the film and substrate induces strain of various degrees. The strain is believed to get relaxed and accommodated. This produces disorders dominantly through the increase in the grain boundary density and hence decrease in grain size. The largest strain leads to the creation of highest degree of disorder. The observed MR for the case of YSZ/LCBMO is found to be significantly higher than other case of STO/LCBMO. As for example, for YSZ/LCBMO where the lattice mismatch is -24.280%, MR is ~7%, on the other hand for STO/LCBMO where the lattice mismatch is -0.333%, MR is ~2.3%. The TC and TIM for the film with higher disorder (YSZ/LCBMO) is significantly reduced as compared to the case of the film having lower disorder (STO/LCBMO). The TC for YSZ/LCBMO (higher disorder) is 243 K and for STO/LCBMO (lower disorder), it is 285 K.

  6. Magneto-electronic properties of rhombohedral trilayer graphene: Peierls tight-binding model

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.H.; Ho, Y.H.; Chiu, Y.H.; Chen, Y.N.; Lin, M.F.

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: RHtriangle Three groups of Landau levels of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene are obtained. RHtriangle They are strongly affected by the stacking configuration and interlayer interactions. RHtriangle Based on the wave function characteristics, an effective quantum number is defined. RHtriangle Three sets of effective quantum numbers are used to index the Landau levels. RHtriangle These quantum numbers are useful for defining the optical selection rules. - Abstract: Magneto-electronic properties of rhombohedral (ABC-stacked) trilayer graphene are investigated by the tight-binding (TB) model with all important interlayer interactions taken into account. A numerical strategy, band-like matrix, is applied to solve the huge Hamiltonian matrix and thus the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of Landau levels (LLs) are well defined. Based on the characteristics of the wave functions, the LLs are divided into three groups. These LLs are strongly affected by the stacking configuration and interlayer interactions. The LL spectra do reflect the main features of the zero-field subbands, i.e., the existence of three LL groups, specified onset energies of the three groups, and asymmetric electronic structure. In an ABC-stacked structure, the LL wave functions are each composed of six magnetic TB Bloch functions for six sublattices. Each magnetic TB Bloch function exhibits the spatial symmetry, localization feature, and oscillation modes. Three sets of effective quantum numbers are defined to index the LLs of the three groups based on the oscillation modes in specific sublattices. These effective quantum numbers are useful for defining the optical selection rules of the optical absorption spectra.

  7. Thermal properties of time machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Díaz, Pedro F.

    2012-05-01

    Connections between universes through tunneling space-times could make the multiverse a physical entity able to be observed from our own single universe. In this paper we first study the thermal properties of the static Klein-bottle holes and then consider one of the potentially observable effects from wormholes, ringholes, and nonorientable tunnelings when they are converted into time machines connecting other universes with ours own, that is a randomly varying in space and time thermal radiation which, with an unpredictable cadence, randomly manifested to a far observer as a short, occasional pulse with very high intensity and fluence which would be made of black body phantom or ordinary radiation. We discuss the odds for these bursts of thermal radiation to be eventually observable.

  8. Thermal Properties of FOX-7

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A K; Weese, R K; Wang, R; Kwok, Q M; Jones, D G

    2005-03-30

    Much effort has been devoted to an ongoing search for more powerful, safer and environmentally friendly explosives. Since it was developed in the late 1990s, 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7), with lower sensitivity and comparable performance to RDX, has received increasing interest. Preliminary results on the physical and chemical characterization of FOX-7 have shown that it possesses good thermal and chemical stability. It is expected that FOX-7 will be a new important explosive ingredient in high performance, insensitive munition (IM) explosives. One of the major focuses in research on this novel energetic material is a study of its thermal properties. Oestmark et al have reported that DSC curves exhibit two minor endothermic peaks as well as two major exothermic peaks. Two endothermic peaks at {approx}116 and {approx}158 C suggest the presence of two solid-solid phase transitions. A third phase change below 100 C has also been reported based on a X-ray powder diffraction (XPD) study. The shapes, areas and observed temperatures of the two decomposition peaks at {approx}235 C and {approx}280 C vary with different batches and sources of the sample, and occasionally these two peaks are merged into one. The factors leading to this variation and a more complete investigation are in progress. Our laboratories have been interested in the thermal properties of energetic materials characterized by means of various thermal analysis techniques. This paper will present our results for the thermal behavior of FOX-7 including the phase changes, decomposition, kinetic analysis and the decomposition products using DSC, TG, ARC (Accelerating Rate Calorimetry), HFC (Heat Flow Calorimetry) and simultaneous TGDTA-FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) Spectroscopy-MS (Mass) measurements.

  9. A mechanical-magneto-thermal model for the tunability of band gaps of epoxy/Terfenol-D phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shunzu; Shi, Yang; Gao, Yuanwen

    2015-07-01

    A way based on the temperature effect is investigated to adjust the longitudinal wave band gaps of one-dimensional epoxy/Terfenol-D phononic crystals. For both the cases (with and without consideration of demagnetization effect), the dependences of component materials' effective parameters on temperature are obtained by applying a nonlinear mechanical-magneto-thermal coupling constitutive model and fitting the experimental data, respectively. Further, the influence of temperature on the band structure of wave propagation in phononic crystals consisting of epoxy and Terfenol-D is discussed in detail. Meanwhile, the effects of magnetic field, pre-stress, and filling fraction are studied. Numerical results show that temperature has a significant influence on the band structure of wave propagation in phononic crystals: As temperature rises from - 40 ° C to 40 ° C , the widths of the first, second, and fourth band gaps increase, while that of the third band gap decreases. In addition, the demagnetization effect should not be ignored under a low magnetic field.

  10. Thermal property microscopy with frequency domain thermoreflectance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia; Maragliano, Carlo; Schmidt, Aaron J

    2013-10-01

    A thermal property microscopy technique based on frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR) is presented. In FDTR, a periodically modulated laser locally heats a sample while a second probe beam monitors the surface reflectivity, which is related to the thermal properties of the sample with an analytical model. Here, we extend FDTR into an imaging technique capable of producing micrometer-scale maps of several thermophysical properties simultaneously. Thermal phase images are recorded at multiple frequencies chosen for maximum sensitivity to thermal properties of interest according to a thermal model of the sample. The phase versus frequency curves are then fit point-by-point to obtain quantitative thermal property images of various combinations of thermal properties in multilayer samples, including the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities, heat capacity, thermal interface conductance, and film thickness. An FDTR microscope based on two continuous-wave lasers is described, and a sensitivity analysis of the technique to different thermal properties is carried out. As a demonstration, we image ~3 nm of patterned titanium under 100 nm of gold on a silicon substrate, and simultaneously create maps of the thermal interface conductance and substrate thermal conductivity. Results confirm the potential of our technique for imaging and quantifying thermal properties of buried layers, indicating its utility for mapping thermal properties in integrated circuits.

  11. Thermal property microscopy with frequency domain thermoreflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jia; Maragliano, Carlo; Schmidt, Aaron J.

    2013-10-01

    A thermal property microscopy technique based on frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR) is presented. In FDTR, a periodically modulated laser locally heats a sample while a second probe beam monitors the surface reflectivity, which is related to the thermal properties of the sample with an analytical model. Here, we extend FDTR into an imaging technique capable of producing micrometer-scale maps of several thermophysical properties simultaneously. Thermal phase images are recorded at multiple frequencies chosen for maximum sensitivity to thermal properties of interest according to a thermal model of the sample. The phase versus frequency curves are then fit point-by-point to obtain quantitative thermal property images of various combinations of thermal properties in multilayer samples, including the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities, heat capacity, thermal interface conductance, and film thickness. An FDTR microscope based on two continuous-wave lasers is described, and a sensitivity analysis of the technique to different thermal properties is carried out. As a demonstration, we image ˜3 nm of patterned titanium under 100 nm of gold on a silicon substrate, and simultaneously create maps of the thermal interface conductance and substrate thermal conductivity. Results confirm the potential of our technique for imaging and quantifying thermal properties of buried layers, indicating its utility for mapping thermal properties in integrated circuits.

  12. Phase-space properties of magneto-optical traps utilising micro-fabricated gratings.

    PubMed

    McGilligan, J P; Griffin, P F; Riis, E; Arnold, A S

    2015-04-01

    We have used diffraction gratings to simplify the fabrication, and dramatically increase the atomic collection efficiency, of magneto-optical traps using micro-fabricated optics. The atom number enhancement was mainly due to the increased beam capture volume, afforded by the large area (4cm(2)) shallow etch (~ 200nm) binary grating chips. Here we provide a detailed theoretical and experimental investigation of the on-chip magneto-optical trap temperature and density in four different chip geometries using (87)Rb, whilst studying effects due to MOT radiation pressure imbalance. With optimal initial MOTs on two of the chips we obtain both large atom number (2×10(7)) and sub-Doppler temperatures (50 μK) after optical molasses.

  13. Magneto-transport properties of As-implanted highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesus, R. F.; Camargo, B. C.; da Silva, R. R.; Kopelevich, Y.; Behar, M.; Gusmão, M. A.; Pureur, P.

    2016-11-01

    We report on magneto-transport experiments in a high-quality sample of highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Magneto-resistance and Hall resistivity measurements were carried out in magnetic inductions up to B = 9 T applied parallel to the c-axis at fixed temperatures between T=2 K and T=12 K. The sample was submitted to three subsequent irradiations with As ions. The implanted As contents were 2.5, 5 and 10 at% at the maximum of the distribution profile. Experiments were performed after each implantation stage. Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations were observed in both the magneto-resistance and Hall-effect measurements. Analyses of these results with fast Fourier transform (FFT) lead to fundamental frequencies and effective masses for electrons and holes that are independent of the implantation fluences. The Hall resistivity at low temperatures shows a sign reversal as a function of the field in all implanted states. We interpret the obtained results with basis on a qualitative model that supposes the existence of an extrinsic hole density associated to the defect structure of our sample. We conclude that the As implantation does not produce a semiconductor-type doping in our HOPG sample. Instead, an increase in the extrinsic hole density is likely to occur as a consequence of disorder induced by implantation.

  14. Thermal properties of heterogeneous grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Cometary dust is not spherical nor homogeneous, yet these are the assumptions used to model its thermal, optical, and dynamical properties. To better understand the effects of heterogeneity on the thermal and optical properties of dust grains, the effective dielectric constant for an admixture of magnetite and a silicate were calculated using two different effective medium theories: the Maxwell-Garnett theory and the Bruggeman theory. In concept, the MG theory describes the effective dielectric constant of a matrix material into which is embedded a large number of very small inclusions of a second material. The Bruggeman theory describes the dielectric constant of a well mixed aggregate of two or more types of materials. Both theories assume that the individual particles are much smaller than the wavelength of the incident radiation. The refractivity for a heterogeneous grain using the MG theory is very similar to the refractivity of the matrix material, even for large volume fractions of the inclusion. The equilibrium grain temperature for spherical particles sized from .001 to 100 microns in radius at 1 astronomical unit from the sun was calculated. Further explanation is given.

  15. Size- and dimensionality-dependent optical, magnetic and magneto-optical properties of binary europium-based nanocrystals: EuX (X = O, S, Se, Te)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xingzhi; Zhang, Kelvin HL; Xiong, Jie; Park, Ju-Hyun; Dickerson, James H.; He, Weidong

    2016-05-01

    Europium chalcogenides (EuX, X = O, S, Se, Te), a class of prototypical Heisenberg magnetic semiconductors, exhibit intriguing properties in optics, magnetism, and magneto-optics at the nanoscale, and have broad application potential in optical/magnetic sensors, spintronics, optical isolators, etc. EuX nanocrystals (NCs) exhibit enhanced properties, such as high saturation magnetization, a strong magneto-optic effect (Faraday rotation), and high magneto resistance, which are all unanimously dependent on the NC’s size, shape, and surface information. In this report, we give an overview of the fundamental properties of bulk EuX, and illustrate the quantum confinement effects on the optical, magnetic and magneto-optical properties of EuX nanostructures. We then focus on doping and self-assembly—two efficient methods that enhance magnetic properties by manipulating magnetic coupling in EuX nanostructures. In particular, we look towards future research on Eu2+ NCs, which along with the overview provides an up-to-date platform for evaluating the fundamental properties and application potential of Eu-based semiconductors.

  16. Size- and dimensionality-dependent optical, magnetic and magneto-optical properties of binary europium-based nanocrystals: EuX (X = O, S, Se, Te).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingzhi; Zhang, Kelvin H L; Xiong, Jie; Park, Ju-Hyun; Dickerson, James H; He, Weidong

    2016-05-13

    Europium chalcogenides (EuX, X = O, S, Se, Te), a class of prototypical Heisenberg magnetic semiconductors, exhibit intriguing properties in optics, magnetism, and magneto-optics at the nanoscale, and have broad application potential in optical/magnetic sensors, spintronics, optical isolators, etc. EuX nanocrystals (NCs) exhibit enhanced properties, such as high saturation magnetization, a strong magneto-optic effect (Faraday rotation), and high magneto resistance, which are all unanimously dependent on the NC's size, shape, and surface information. In this report, we give an overview of the fundamental properties of bulk EuX, and illustrate the quantum confinement effects on the optical, magnetic and magneto-optical properties of EuX nanostructures. We then focus on doping and self-assembly-two efficient methods that enhance magnetic properties by manipulating magnetic coupling in EuX nanostructures. In particular, we look towards future research on Eu(2+) NCs, which along with the overview provides an up-to-date platform for evaluating the fundamental properties and application potential of Eu-based semiconductors. PMID:27023644

  17. Structural, magnetic, and Magneto optical properties of Fe3O4/NiO bilayers on MgO(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollschläger, Joachim; Schemme, Tobias; Kuschel, Olga; Witziok, Matthäus; Kuschel, Timo; Kuepper, Karsten

    2016-02-01

    Ultrathin magnetite (Fe3O4) films are attractive for applications in the field of spintronics due to their ferrimagnetic behavior with assumed high degree of spin polarized electrons at the Fermi energy. For these applications, it is necessary to form epitactical bilayer structure combining ferrimagnetic magnetite with an antiferromagnetic layer. Therefore, here we study Fe3O4/NiO bilayers on MgO(001) substrates. Bilayers grown by reactive molecular beam epitaxy are stoichiometric and have well-developed surface and interface structures. The NiO layers are laterally pinned to the structure of the MgO(001) substrate while the magnetite films gradually relax. The interfaces show smooth morphologies and the films have very homogeneous film thickness necessary for spintronical applications. The magnetic and magneto optical properties of the Fe3O4/NiO bilayers were probed by the magneto optical Kerr effect. Compared to single Fe3O4 layers on MgO(001), the bilayers show complicated ferrimagnetic behavior depending on the azimuthal direction of the external applied field. The coercive field of the bilayers, however, is increased with the coercive field of single layer Fe3O4/MgO(001) structures making the Fe3O4/NiO bilayers attractive for spintronic applications.

  18. Magneto-transport and thermoelectric properties of epitaxial FeSb{sub 2} thin film on MgO substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Duong, Anh Tuan; Rhim, S. H. Shin, Yooleemi; Nguyen, Van Quang; Cho, Sunglae

    2015-01-19

    We report magneto-transport and thermoelectric properties of FeSb{sub 2} thin film epitaxially grown on the MgO substrate using molecular beam epitaxy. The film exhibits compressive strain of 1.74% owing to large lattice mismatch, whose physical consequences are nontrivial. Magnetic phase has been changed from diamagnetic in bulk, as evidenced by anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and negative magneto-resistance (MR). The FeSb{sub 2} film is semiconducting without any metallic transition unlike the bulk counterpart. In particular, hysteresis in MR with distinct feature of AHE is evident with coercive field of 500 and 110 Oe for T = 20 and 50 K, respectively. Furthermore, from the Seebeck coefficients and temperature dependence of the resistivity, it is evident that the film is semiconducting with small band gap: 3.76 meV for T < 40 K and 13.48 meV for T > 40 K, respectively, where maximum thermoelectric power factor of 12 μV/cm·K at T = 50 K.

  19. Magneto-transport properties of InAs nanowires laterally-grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (110) masked substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Akabori, M.; Yamada, S.

    2013-12-04

    We prepared InAs nanowires (NWs) by lateral growth on GaAs (110) masked substrates in molecular beam epitaxy. We measured magneto-transport properties of the InAs NWs. In spite of parallel-NW multi-channels, we observed fluctuating magneto-conductance. From the fluctuation, we evaluated phase coherence length as a function of measurement temperature, and found decrease in the length with increase in the temperature. We also evaluate phase coherence length as a function of gate voltage.

  20. Properties of strong-coupling magneto-bipolaron qubit in quantum dot under magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu-Fang, Bai; Ying, Zhang; Wuyunqimuge; Eerdunchaolu

    2016-07-01

    Based on the variational method of Pekar type, we study the energies and the wave-functions of the ground and the first-excited states of magneto-bipolaron, which is strongly coupled to the LO phonon in a parabolic potential quantum dot under an applied magnetic field, thus built up a quantum dot magneto-bipolaron qubit. The results show that the oscillation period of the probability density of the two electrons in the qubit decreases with increasing electron–phonon coupling strength α, resonant frequency of the magnetic field ω c, confinement strength of the quantum dot ω 0, and dielectric constant ratio of the medium η the probability density of the two electrons in the qubit oscillates periodically with increasing time t, angular coordinate φ 2, and dielectric constant ratio of the medium η the probability of electron appearing near the center of the quantum dot is larger, and the probability of electron appearing away from the center of the quantum dot is much smaller. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. E2013407119) and the Items of Institution of Higher Education Scientific Research of Hebei Province and Inner Mongolia, China (Grant Nos. ZD20131008, Z2015149, Z2015219, and NJZY14189).

  1. Magneto-optical properties and recombination dynamics of isoelectronic bound excitons in ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S. L.; Chen, W. M.; Buyanova, I. A.

    2014-02-21

    Magneto-optical and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies are employed to evaluate electronic structure of a bound exciton (BX) responsible for the 3.364 eV line (labeled as I{sub 1}{sup *}) in bulk ZnO. From time-resolved PL spectroscopy, I{sub 1}{sup *} is concluded to originate from the exciton ground state. Based on performed magneto-PL studies, the g-factors of the involved electron and hole are determined as being g{sub e} = 1.98 and g{sub h}{sup ∥}(g{sub h}{sup ⊥}) = 1.2(1.62), respectively. These values are nearly identical to the reported g-factors for the I{sup *} line in ZnO (Phys. Rev. B 86, 235205 (2012)), which proves that I{sub 1}{sup *} should have a similar origin as I{sup *} and should arise from an exciton bound to an isoelectronic center with a hole-attractive potential.

  2. Investigation of the properties of electrostatic IA solitary wave structures in negative ion magneto-plasmas with superthermal electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, S.; Ali Shan, S.; Akhtar, N.; Masud, M. M.

    2014-08-01

    A rigorous theoretical investigation is carried out in analyzing the excitation of electrostatic ion acoustic (IA) solitary wave (SW) structures in two dimensional negative ion magneto-plasmas with superthermal electrons (following κ type distribution). The Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation is derived by employing the well known reductive perturbation method, and the analytical solution of ZK equation assists to find out the SW profiles along with their properties. The consequences of different plasma parameters (regarding our considered plasma system) variation on SW structures has been studied. It is found that magnetic field intensity, superthermal parameter κ and temperature of positive and negative ions as well as their densities significantly modify the basic characteristics (amplitude, width, etc.) of the SW waves. A comparison of the SW structures is also presented when the electrons are Maxwellian to when they are superthermal. The relevance of the findings of this work with astrophysical plasmas is briefly pointed out.

  3. Magneto-electronic and optical properties of transition metal dicalcogenide monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Yen-Hung; Chiu, Chih-Wei; Lin, Ming-Fa; Su, Wu-Pei

    2015-03-01

    A generalized tight-binding model is utilized to study the Landau level spectra of various transition metal dicalcogenide monolayers. The intrinsic spin-orbit coupling effectively gives rise to multiple splitting of Landau levels. With a close inspection of wavefunction characteristics, these levels can be classified into specific groups in terms of their orbital, spin and valley signatures. In the calculation of magneto-absorption spectra, the physical origins of optical selection rules are clearly resolved. Compounds are different from one another in terms of transition energies and appearance of twin peaks. Our numerical results clearly demonstrate the magnetic control of spin and valley charge carriers and provide a basis for future experiments. Robert A. Welch Foundation (E-1070); National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC 101-2112-M-003-005-MY3); NTHU Start-Up Grant (103H11I4).

  4. Magneto-elastic and magnetic domain properties of Fe81Ga19/Si(100) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, S. U.; Liu, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    Fe81Ga19 films were deposited on Si(100) substrates at room temperature by the dc magnetron sputtering method. Each film sample was rectangular: the length (L) and the width (w). From the curvature measurement on the film surface, we found that the principal stresses in the film are compressive and anisotropic. Based on the magneto-elastic theory, the true easy axis of the Fe81Ga19/Si(100) film should be parallel to the minimum stress axis. In addition, we discovered that the Fe81Ga19/Si(100) film is an inverted film (i.e., its HC is larger than HK, where HC is the coercive force and HK is the anisotropy field). The magnetic domain (MD) structures were examined with a magnetic force microscope. After the external field HE (parallel to L) was increased to saturation and then decreased to zero, the MD pattern showed the labyrinth structure.

  5. PROPERTIES OF THE MAGNETO-IONIC MEDIUM IN THE HALO OF M51 REVEALED BY WIDE-BAND POLARIMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, S. A.; Ott, J.; Zweibel, E.; Fletcher, A.; Tabatabaei, F.

    2015-02-20

    We present a study of the magneto-ionic medium in the Whirlpool galaxy (M51) using new wide-band multi-configuration polarization data at L band (1-2 GHz) obtained at the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. By fitting the observed diffuse complex polarization Q+iU as a function of wavelength directly to various depolarization models, we find that polarized emission from M51 at 1-2 GHz originates from the top of the synchrotron disk and then experiences Faraday rotation in the near-side thermal halo of the galaxy. Thus, the scale height of the thermal gas must exceed that of the synchrotron emitting gas at L band. The observed Faraday depth distribution at L band is consistent with a halo field that is comprised of a plane-parallel bisymmetric component and a vertical component that produces a Faraday rotation of ∼–9 rad m{sup –2}. The derived rotation measure (RM) structure functions indicate a characteristic scale of RM fluctuations of less than 560 pc in the disk and approximately 1 kpc in the halo. The outer scale of turbulence of 1 kpc found in the halo of M51 is consistent with superbubbles and the Parker instability being the main energy injection mechanisms in galactic halos.

  6. Properties of the Magneto-ionic Medium in the Halo of M51 Revealed by Wide-band Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, S. A.; Zweibel, E.; Fletcher, A.; Ott, J.; Tabatabaei, F.

    2015-02-01

    We present a study of the magneto-ionic medium in the Whirlpool galaxy (M51) using new wide-band multi-configuration polarization data at L band (1-2 GHz) obtained at the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. By fitting the observed diffuse complex polarization Q+iU as a function of wavelength directly to various depolarization models, we find that polarized emission from M51 at 1-2 GHz originates from the top of the synchrotron disk and then experiences Faraday rotation in the near-side thermal halo of the galaxy. Thus, the scale height of the thermal gas must exceed that of the synchrotron emitting gas at L band. The observed Faraday depth distribution at L band is consistent with a halo field that is comprised of a plane-parallel bisymmetric component and a vertical component that produces a Faraday rotation of ~-9 rad m-2. The derived rotation measure (RM) structure functions indicate a characteristic scale of RM fluctuations of less than 560 pc in the disk and approximately 1 kpc in the halo. The outer scale of turbulence of 1 kpc found in the halo of M51 is consistent with superbubbles and the Parker instability being the main energy injection mechanisms in galactic halos.

  7. Thermal properties of methyltrimethoxysilane aerogel thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaroli, Leandro N.; Newby, Pascal; Santato, Clara; Peter, Yves-Alain

    2016-10-01

    Aerogels are light and porous solids whose properties, largely determined by their nanostructure, are useful in a wide range of applications, e.g., thermal insulation. In this work, as-deposited and thermally treated air-filled silica aerogel thin films synthesized using the sol-gel method were studied for their thermal properties using the 3-omega technique, at ambient conditions. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity were found to increase as the porosity of the aerogel decreased. Thermally treated films show a clear reduction in thermal conductivity compared with that of as-deposited films, likely due to an increase of porosity. The smallest thermal conductivity and diffusivity found for our aerogels were 0.019 W m-1 K-1 and 9.8 × 10-9 m2 s-1. A model was used to identify the components (solid, gaseous and radiative) of the total thermal conductivity of the aerogel.

  8. Thermal Properties of Bazhen fm. Sediments from Thermal Core Logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasennykh, Mikhail; Popov, Evgeny; Popov, Yury; Chekhonin, Evgeny; Romushkevich, Raisa; Zagranovskaya, Dzhuliya; Belenkaya, Irina; Zhukov, Vladislav; Karpov, Igor; Saveliev, Egor; Gabova, Anastasia

    2016-04-01

    The Bazhen formation (B. fm.) is the hugest self-contained source-and-reservoir continuous petroleum system covering by more than 1 mln. km2 (West Siberia, Russia). High lithological differentiation in Bazhen deposits dominated by silicic shales and carbonates accompanied by extremely high total organic carbon values (of up to 35%), pyrite content and brittle mineralogical composition deteriorate standard thermal properties assessment for low permeable rocks. Reliable information of unconventional system thermal characteristics is the necessary part of works such as modelling of different processes in reservoir under thermal EOR for accessing their efficiency, developing and optimizing design of the oil recovery methods, interpretation of the well temperature logging data and for the basin petroleum modelling. A unique set of data including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, volumetric heat capacity, thermal anisotropy for the B.fm. rocks was obtained from thermal core logging (high resolution continuous thermal profiling) on more than 4680 core samples (2000 of B.fm. samples are among) along seven wells for four oil fields. Some systematic peculiarities of the relation between thermal properties of the B.fm. rocks and their mineralogical composition, structural and texture properties were obtained. The high-resolution data are processed jointly with the standard petrophysical logging that allowed us to provide better separation of the formation. The research work was done with financial support of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science (unique identification number RFMEFI58114X0008).

  9. Intensified magneto-resistance by rapid thermal annealing in magnetite (Fe3O4) thin film on SiO2 glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobori, H.; Morii, K.; Yamasaki, A.; Sugimura, A.; Taniguchi, T.; Horie, T.; Naitoh, Y.; Shimizu, T.

    2012-12-01

    We have observed large magneto-resistance (MR) intensified by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) in magnetite (Fe3O4) thin film (MTF) on SiO2 glass (a-SiO2) substrate. The MTF was produced by the RF magnetron sputtering method by using a magnetite target. The electrical resistivity (ER) of as-grown MTF (AG-MTF) showed the Mott's variable range hopping behavior, which implies that the AG-MTF is amorphous-like. Although the magneto-resistance (MR) ratio of bulk single crystal is very small except around the Verwey transition temperature (VTT), that of the AG-MTF showed moderately large below room temperature. Due to RTA of the AG-MTF by use of an IR image furnace, the MR ratio of MTFs was intensified, and especially by the annealing around the Curie temperature (585°C) of magnetite. Furthermore the ER of the rapid thermally annealed MTF (RTA-MTF) showed a slight kink at around the VTT, which indicates that the crystallinity of the RTA-MTF is higher than that of the AG-MTF The MTF produced by the RF magnetron sputtering method are composed of magnetite fine particles (MFPs). We consider that the directions of magnetic moments of MFPs in the MTF were spatially randomized by the RTA and the strong spin scattering of itinerant electrons transferring between adjacent MFPs caused the intensification of the MR ratio.

  10. Electro-optic and magneto-dielectric properties of multifunctional nitride and oxide materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Ambesh

    with a spin polarization of ˜40% +/- 5% , suggesting strong correlation between electron carriers and observed ferromagnetism. Another In-based multifunctional material that has been explored is defect-rich In2O3. This system exhibits numerous interesting properties such as being simultaneously transparent and electrically conducting and above room temperature ferromagnetism together with semiconducting properties. The oxygen stoichiometry in In2O3 plays a crucial role in determining its optical, electronic, and magnetic properties. The effect of oxygen vacancies on different physical properties has been investigated. Our results suggest that as grown, nearly stoichiometric In2O 3 thin films exhibit strong photopersistent current with very long carrier lifetime. Heat treatment under reduced oxygen environment creates oxygen vacancies in these films, producing electron donors. Thus vacuum annealed In2O 3 becomes a highly degenerate n-type conductor. Oxygen deficient In 2O3 can be used as transparent conducting oxide without any further doping, which allows the conductivity to be switched reversibly by thermal annealing in air or vacuum. In addition highly oxygen deficient In 2O3 films exhibit ferromagnetism above room temperature. We have also investigated oxide based magnetoelectric multiferroics which show simultaneous magnetic and ferroelectric properties. This study included detailed investigations of YMnO3, Ni3V2O 8 and FeVO4, where we have investigated FeVO4 a new multiferroic system in the vanadate family. The main focus of this project was to understand the microscopic origin of the magnetoelectric coupling and cross-control of different ferroic order parameters in these system. We have synthesized bulk Ni3V2O8 and FeVO4 ceramics and characterized the thermal, magnetic, dielectric and magnetodielectric response of these samples in bulk form. To understand the cross-control of magnetic and ferroelectric order parameter we deposited thin films of Ni 3V2O8 and Fe

  11. Shale: Measurement of thermal properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, T.M.; Morgan, I.L.

    1987-07-01

    Thermal conductivity and heat capacity measurements were made on samples of Devonian shale, Pierre shale, and oil shale from the Green River Formation. Thermal expansion measurements were made on selected samples of Devonian shale. Measurements were obtained over the temperature range of ambient to 473 K. Average values for thermal conductivity and heat capacity for the samples studied were within two standard deviations of all data over this temperature range. 15 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Thermal Properties, Thermal Shock, and Thermal Cycling Behavior of Lanthanum Zirconate-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xingye; Lu, Zhe; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Li, Li; Knapp, James; Zhang, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7) coatings are newly proposed thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems which exhibit lower thermal conductivity and potentially higher thermal stability compared to other traditional thermal barrier systems. In this work, La2Zr2O7 and 8 wt pct yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) single-layer and double-layer TBC systems were deposited using the air plasma spray technique. Thermal properties of the coatings were measured. Furnace heat treatment and jet engine thermal shock tests were implemented to evaluate coating performance during thermal cycling. The measured average thermal conductivity of porous La2Zr2O7 coating ranged from 0.59 to 0.68 W/m/K in the temperature range of 297 K to 1172 K (24 °C to 899 °C), which was approximately 25 pct lower than that of porous 8YSZ (0.84 to 0.87 W/m/K) in the same temperature range. The coefficients of thermal expansion values of La2Zr2O7 were approximately 9 to 10 × 10-6/K from 400 K to 1600 K (127 °C to 1327 °C), which were about 10 pct lower than those of porous 8YSZ. The double-layer coating system consisting of the porous 8YSZ and La2Zr2O7 layers had better thermal shock resistance and thermal cycling performance than those of single-layer La2Zr2O7 coating and double-layer coating with dense 8YSZ and La2Zr2O7 coatings. This study suggests that porous 8YSZ coating can be employed as a buffer layer in La2Zr2O7-based TBC systems to improve the overall coating durability during service.

  13. Determination of Thermal Properties of Composting Bulking Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal properties of compost bulking materials affect temperature and biodegradation during the composting process. Well determined thermal properties of compost feedstocks will therefore contribute to practical thermodynamic approaches. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric hea...

  14. Determination of Thermal Properties of Composting Bulking Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal properties of compost bulking materials affect temperature and biodegradation during the composting process. Well-determined thermal properties of compost feedstocks will therefore contribute to practical thermodynamic approaches. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric hea...

  15. Thermal property of transparent silver nanowire films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. W.; Shin, D. K.; Ahn, J.; Lee, J. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Through a comparison with transparent polymer composite films, we investigate the thermal property of transparent silver nanowire (AgNW) films that may be employed for heat sink in transparent electronic devices. To fabricate transparent polymer composite films and enhance their thermal property, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solution featuring high transparency (∼90%) and thermal emissivity (0.9) is mixed with thermal conductive fillers such as aluminum nitride (AlN) and silicon carbide (SiC). It is observed that the thermal emissivity of the AgNW films is decreased as the sheet resistance is reduced. However, we have found that the AgNW film shows the most excellent heat dissipation property (53.7 °C) while maintaining relatively higher transparency (77.1% at 520 nm), followed by the PMMA:SiC and then PMMA:AlN films.

  16. Dependence of dynamic magnetization and magneto-transport properties of FeAlSi films with oblique sputtering studied via spin rectification effect

    SciTech Connect

    Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, C. K.; Zhong, Xiaoxi

    2014-09-15

    FeAlSi (Sendust) is known to possess excellent soft magnetic properties comparable to traditional soft magnetic alloys such as NiFe (Permalloy), while having a relatively higher resistance for lower eddy current losses. However, their dynamic magnetic and magneto-transport properties are not well-studied. Via the spin rectification effect, we electrically characterize a series of obliquely sputtered FeAlSi films at ferromagnetic resonance. The variations of the anisotropy fields and damping with oblique angle are extracted and discussed. In particular, two-magnon scattering is found to dominate the damping behavior at high oblique angles. An analysis of the results shows large anomalous Hall effect and anisotropic magneto-resistance across all samples, which decreases sharply with increasing oblique incidence.

  17. Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-04-27

    A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

  18. Thermal properties of 433 Eros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Rieke, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    Radiometric and reflected light observations of 433 Eros at high time resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage are reported. A thermal inertia model is used to estimate the thermal inertia, albedo, and size of Eros. An albedo of 0.125 plus or minus 0.025 with axes of 39.3 plus or minus 2.0 x 16.1 plus or minus 0.8 km is found. The estimate of the albedo is about 30% lower than previous estimates.

  19. A magneto-optical study of the electromagnetic properties of high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhi Wei

    A magneto-optical apparatus has been designed to investigate flux and current distributions in various forms of high-temperature superconductor after the application of external magnetic fields, transport currents, and both in sequence. It is concluded that flux motion depends significantly on the superconductor characteristic flux pinning strength and geometry. The flux profiles at the surface of an isolated thin film strip, and thin films in x-array and shunted-x-array arrangements have been studied in detail. It has been found that the theoretical flux profile, characterised by a logarithmic singularity at its edges and a vertical slope at the flux front, become rounded when the sample thickness is taken into account. Experiment has confirmed that the current density reaches its critical value in the flux-penetrated region while there is a continuous non-zero current density in the central flux-free region. Also magnetic interactions exist between the strips. Band-shaped and dome-shaped flux distributions caused by geometrical barrier at different weak pinning strengths were observed in Bi2Sr 2CaCu2O8+x single crystals between 20 K and 70 K. The geometrical barrier also governs the transport current leading to a square-shaped distribution near the crystal edges at 20 K. Cracks and defects in Bi-2223/Ag tapes were visualised without destruction of the tape. The inhomogeneous flux distribution indicated that defects, including cracks, in superconducting filaments limit the current-carrying capacity of the tape. In addition, at 10 K a fraction of the transport current has been found to flow in the silver sheath. An investigation of the influence of the twin planes on vortex motion in a YBa2Cu3O7-δ single crystal has shown that after a twin barrier is initially overcome, the twin planes, regardless of their directions, act as an easy-flow channel for vortex penetration at low temperatures as the pinning strength in the twin planes is weaker than that in the

  20. Growth and sculpting of Co nano-strings on Si micro-cantilevers: magneto-mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Madurga, V; Favieres, C; Vergara, J

    2010-03-01

    Si micro-cantilevers were coated with Co nano-strings, which were simultaneously grown and sculpted during off-normal pulsed laser deposition. The surface morphology of micro-cantilevers with longitudinal or transverse nano-strings was analysed by scanning tunnelling microscopy. Magnetic anisotropy was detected with a magnetization direction parallel to the nano-strings. The two micro-cantilever types exhibited different mechanical behaviours when placed in a non-uniform magnetic field. By varying the relative position of the micro-cantilever with respect to the gradient direction of this field, a split in the resonant frequency shift of the micro-cantilevers was generated, depending on the direction of magnetic anisotropy. Discrimination was achieved between the micro-cantilevers with transverse nano-strings and the micro-cantilevers with longitudinal nano-strings. The lowest limit of magnetic moment for distinction between these covered micro-cantilevers was 10(-8) emu. The possible benefits of these magneto-mechanical properties for the biological, chemical and physical applications of some nano-mechanical devices are pointed out.

  1. Optical and magneto-optical properties of ferromagnetic La(1-x)Ba(x)MnO3 single crystals.

    PubMed

    Bebenin, N G; Loshkareva, N N; Makhnev, A A; Mostovshchikova, E V; Nomerovannaya, L V; Gan'shina, E A; Vinogradov, A N; Mukovskii, Ya M

    2010-03-10

    The optical and magneto-optical properties of ferromagnetic La(1-x)Ba(x)MnO(3) single crystals with x=0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 are studied. The components of the permittivity tensor are obtained by spectral ellipsometry techniques and transverse Kerr effect measurements. The Kerr effect spectra depend substantially on the Ba content. The plasma frequency is estimated. In the paramagnetic semiconductor state, the small polarons contribute to conductivity in La(0.85)Ba(0.15)MnO(3), in La(0.75)Ba(0.25)MnO(3) no evidence for polarons is found even in the semiconductor state. For La(0.85)Ba(0.15)MnO(3) (T(C)=214 K), the metallic phase is estimated to occupy less than 1% of the total volume at T=190 K. It is shown that in La(0.75)Ba(0.25)MnO(3), the energy gap vanishes and the metal-semiconductor transition occurs somewhat below T(C) rather than at T=T(C). PMID:21389430

  2. Melting phenomenon in magneto hydro-dynamics steady flow and heat transfer over a moving surface in the presence of thermal radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reda, G. Abdel-Rahman; M. Khader, M.; Ahmed, M. Megahed

    2013-03-01

    The Lie group method is applied to present an analysis of the magneto hydro-dynamics (MHD) steady laminar flow and the heat transfer from a warm laminar liquid flow to a melting moving surface in the presence of thermal radiation. By using the Lie group method, we have presented the transformation groups for the problem apart from the scaling group. The application of this method reduces the partial differential equations (PDEs) with their boundary conditions governing the flow and heat transfer to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with appropriate boundary conditions. The resulting nonlinear system of ODEs is solved numerically using the implicit finite difference method (FDM). The local skin-friction coefficients and the local Nusselt numbers for different physical parameters are presented in a table.

  3. Enhanced thermal properties of nanodiamond nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, L. Syam; Singh, Manoj K.; Sousa, Antonio C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) particles dispersed in ethylene glycol/water mixtures have been reported for their thermal properties and potential heat transfer applications. Commercially available ultra-dispersed diamond soot was treated with sulfuric acid-nitric acids to form single ND particles - characterized by various techniques - then prepared ND nanofluids and then measured thermal conductivity and viscosity by experimentally. The enhanced thermal conductivity for 1.0% of ND/20:80, ND/40:60 and ND/60:40 nanofluids is 17.8%, 14.2% and 11.4%; enhanced viscosity is 2.74-times, 1.73-times and 1.92-times at temperature of 60 °C, respectively. The heat transfer benefits of ND nanofluids in laminar to turbulent flow have been analyzed theoretically by using thermal properties.

  4. Thermal expansion properties of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. R.; Kural, M. H.; Mackey, G. B.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal expansion data for several composite materials, including generic epoxy resins, various graphite, boron, and glass fibers, and unidirectional and woven fabric composites in an epoxy matrix, were compiled. A discussion of the design, material, environmental, and fabrication properties affecting thermal expansion behavior is presented. Test methods and their accuracy are discussed. Analytical approaches to predict laminate coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) based on lamination theory and micromechanics are also included. A discussion is included of methods of tuning a laminate to obtain a near-zero CTE for space applications.

  5. Influence of Bi on the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of Co/Bi/Co and Bi/Co thin-film systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalygina, Elena; Svalov, Andrey; Kharlamova, Anna; Ganshina, Elena; Doronin, Dmitriy; Kurlyandskaya, Galina

    2016-07-01

    The magneto-optical and magnetic properties of Co (50 Å)/Bi/Co (50 Å) and Bi/Co (50 Å) samples are investigated. Magneto-optical investigations indicate that the shapes of transverse Kerr effect (TKE) spectra are similar for all studied samples. TKE values decrease for the Co/Bi/Co structures at t Bi > 40 Å and for the Co/Bi samples at t Bi > 5 Å as compared with TKE values of the single-layer Co thin film. The decrease in the volume ratio of the magnetic to nonmagnetic phases causes the reduction in the contribution of the magnetic phase to magneto-optical signals. Magnetic investigations show that the saturation field and coercivity of the studied samples increase with increasing t Bi. The exchange oscillatory coupling between Co layers through the Bi spacer in Co/Bi/Co samples with various periods (short and long) is observed in the t Bi range from 2 to 500 Å. These data are explained by the dependence of Fermi energy on Bi thickness and the changes in the Bi band structure with the decrease in t Bi.

  6. Thermal properties of three Fermi pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilenko, A.; Karpova, A.; Kirichenko, A.; Shibanov, Y.; Shternin, P.; Zharikov, S.; Zyuzin, D.

    2014-07-01

    We analysed thermal properties of the Fermi pulsars J0357+3205, J1741-2054, and J0633+0632 using data from the XMM-Newton and Chandra archives. The X-ray spectra of all three pulsars can be fitted by sum of thermal and power-law components. For J1741-2054, the thermal component is best described by a blackbody model whose normalization suggests that the thermal emission comes from the bulk of the neutron star surface. The effective temperature of 60 eV, which is rather large for a pulsar as old as J1741-2054, makes it similar to the well-studied pulsar B1055-52, one of ``the three musketeers''. The thermal components of PSRs J0357+3205 and J0633+0632 can be equally well described by blackbody or the hydrogen atmosphere models. In the former case the normalizations suggest hot polar cap as thermal emission origin and only upper limits on the neutron stars surface temperatures can be computed. For the hydrogen atmosphere models, the normalizations are in agreement with emission coming from a substantial part of neutron star surface. Thermal properties of the pulsars are confronted with similar data on other isolated neutron stars and predictions of the neutron star cooling theory.

  7. Thermal and thermoelectric properties of graphene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Li, Zuanyi; Duan, Wenhui

    2014-06-12

    The subject of thermal transport at the mesoscopic scale and in low-dimensional systems is interesting for both fundamental research and practical applications. As the first example of truly two-dimensional materials, graphene has exceptionally high thermal conductivity, and thus provides an ideal platform for the research. Here we review recent studies on thermal and thermoelectric properties of graphene, with an emphasis on experimental progresses. A general physical picture based on the Landauer transport formalism is introduced to understand underlying mechanisms. We show that the superior thermal conductivity of graphene is contributed not only by large ballistic thermal conductance but also by very long phonon mean free path (MFP). The long phonon MFP, explained by the low-dimensional nature and high sample purity of graphene, results in important isotope effects and size effects on thermal conduction. In terms of various scattering mechanisms in graphene, several approaches are suggested to control thermal conductivity. Among them, introducing rough boundaries and weakly-coupled interfaces are promising ways to suppress thermal conduction effectively. We also discuss the Seebeck effect of graphene. Graphene itself might not be a good thermoelectric material. However, the concepts developed by graphene research might be applied to improve thermoelectric performance of other materials. PMID:24610791

  8. Study on the characteristics of magneto-sensitive electromagnetic wave-absorbing properties of magnetorheological elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Yang, Pingan; Fu, Jie; Liu, Shuzhi; Qi, Song

    2016-08-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) materials are a class of materials whose mechanical and electrical properties can be reversible controlled by the magnetic field. In this study, we pioneered research on the effect of a uniform magnetic field with different strengths and directions on the microwave-absorbing properties of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs), in which the ferromagnetic particles are flower-like carbonyl iron powders (CIPs) prepared by an in situ reduction method. The electromagnetic (EM) absorbing properties of the composites have been analyzed by vector network analysis with the coaxial reflection/transmission technique. Under the magnetic field, the columnar or chainlike structures were formed, which allows EM waves to penetrate. Meanwhile, stronger Debye dipolar relaxation and attenuation constant have been obtained when changing the direction of the applied magnetic field. Compared with untreated MREs, not only have the minimum reflection loss (RL) and the effective absorption bandwidth (below ‑20 dB) greatly increased, the frequencies of the absorbing peaks shift about 15%. This suggests that MREs are a magnetic-field-sensitive electromagnetic wave-absorbing material and have great potential in applications such as in anti-radar camouflage, due to the fact that radar can continuously conduct detection at many electromagnetic frequencies, while the MR materials can adjust the microwave-absorption peak according to the radar frequency.

  9. Study on the characteristics of magneto-sensitive electromagnetic wave-absorbing properties of magnetorheological elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Yang, Pingan; Fu, Jie; Liu, Shuzhi; Qi, Song

    2016-08-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) materials are a class of materials whose mechanical and electrical properties can be reversible controlled by the magnetic field. In this study, we pioneered research on the effect of a uniform magnetic field with different strengths and directions on the microwave-absorbing properties of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs), in which the ferromagnetic particles are flower-like carbonyl iron powders (CIPs) prepared by an in situ reduction method. The electromagnetic (EM) absorbing properties of the composites have been analyzed by vector network analysis with the coaxial reflection/transmission technique. Under the magnetic field, the columnar or chainlike structures were formed, which allows EM waves to penetrate. Meanwhile, stronger Debye dipolar relaxation and attenuation constant have been obtained when changing the direction of the applied magnetic field. Compared with untreated MREs, not only have the minimum reflection loss (RL) and the effective absorption bandwidth (below -20 dB) greatly increased, the frequencies of the absorbing peaks shift about 15%. This suggests that MREs are a magnetic-field-sensitive electromagnetic wave-absorbing material and have great potential in applications such as in anti-radar camouflage, due to the fact that radar can continuously conduct detection at many electromagnetic frequencies, while the MR materials can adjust the microwave-absorption peak according to the radar frequency.

  10. A nanostructure thermal property measurement platform.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Sullivan, John Patrick; Huang, Jian Yu; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Martinez, Julio Alberto; Harris, Charles Thomas; Swartzentruber, Brian Shoemaker

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of the electrical and thermal transport properties of one-dimensional nanostructures (e.g., nanotubes and nanowires) typically are obtained without detailed knowledge of the specimen's atomic-scale structure or defects. To address this deficiency we have developed a microfabricated, chip-based characterization platform that enables both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of atomic structure and defects as well as measurement of the thermal transport properties of individual nanostructures. The platform features a suspended heater line that contacts the center of a suspended nanostructure/nanowire that was placed using in-situ scanning electron microscope nanomanipulators. One key advantage of this platform is that it is possible to measure the thermal conductivity of both halves of the nanostructure (on each side of the central heater), and this feature permits identification of possible changes in thermal conductance along the wire and measurement of the thermal contact resistance. Suspension of the nanostructure across a through-hole enables TEM characterization of the atomic and defect structure (dislocations, stacking faults, etc.) of the test sample. As a model study, we report the use of this platform to measure the thermal conductivity and defect structure of GaN nanowires. The utilization of this platform for the measurements of other nanostructures will also be discussed.

  11. Sources of noise in magneto-optical readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansuripur, M.

    1991-01-01

    The various sources of noise which are often encountered in magneto-optical readout systems are analyzed. Although the focus is on magneto-optics, most sources of noise are common among the various optical recording systems and one can easily adapt the results to other media and systems. A description of the magneto-optical readout system under consideration is given, and the standard methods and the relevant terminology of signal and noise measurement are described. The characteristics of thermal noise, which originates in the electronic circuitry of the readout system, are described. The most fundamental of all sources of noise, the shot noise, is considered, and a detailed account of its statistical properties is given. Shot noise, which is due to random fluctuations in photon arrival times, is an ever-present noise in optical detection. Since the performance of magneto-optical recording devices in use today is approaching the limit imposed by the shot noise, it is important that the reader have a good grasp of this particular source of noise. A model for the laser noise is described, and measurement results which yield numerical values for the strength of the laser power fluctuations are presented. Spatial variations of the disk reflectivity and random depolarization phenomena also contribute to the overall level of noise in readout; these and related issues are treated. Numerical simulation results describing some of the more frequently encountered sources of noise which accompany the recorded waveform itself, namely, jitter noise and signal-amplitude fluctuation noise are presented.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and studies on magneto-viscous properties of magnetite dispersed water based nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Gayatri; Kumar Das, Prasanta; Manna, Indranil

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic nanofluids, commonly known as ferrofluids, containing surfactant coated magnetite nanoparticles (having mean size ∼11 nm) uniformly dispersed in water are synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. The rheological properties of magnetic nanofluid at different concentrations of nanoparticle loading have been investigated by varying different parameters including the magnetic field strength. Shear thinning is observed in the non-Newtonian magnetic nanofluids under the application of magnetic field. The observed increase in yield stress (calculated by fitting the Herschel and Bulkley model) with the applied magnetic field and concentration of dispersed nanoparticles confirm the formation of large aggregates that restrict or prohibit the flow characteristics of the otherwise Newtonian magnetic nanofluid. The hysteresis observed during the application and withdrawal of magnetic field suggests that the chain or column like structures fail to relax within the allowed measurement time interval.

  13. Novel thermal properties of nanostructured materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, J. A.

    1999-01-13

    A new class of heat transfer fluids, termed nanofluids, has been developed by suspending nanocrystalline particles in liquids. Due to the orders-of-magnitude larger thermal conductivities of solids compared to those of liquids such as water, significantly enhanced thermal properties are obtained with nanofluids. For example, an approximately 20% improvement in effective thermal conductivity is observed when 5 vol.% CuO nanoparticles are added to water. Even more importantly, the heat transfer coefficient of water under dynamic flow conditions is increased more than 15% with the addition of less than 1 vol.% CuO particles. The use of nanofluids could impact many industrial sectors, including transportation, energy supply and production, electronics, textiles, and paper production by, for example, decreasing pumping power needs or reducing heat exchanger sizes. In contrast to the enhancement in effective thermal transport rates that is obtained when nanoparticles are suspended in fluids, nanocrystalline coatings are expected to exhibit reduced thermal conductivities compared to coarse-grained coatings. Reduced thermal conductivities are predicted to arise because of a reduction in the mean free path of phonons due to presence of grain boundaries. This behavior, combined with improved mechanical properties, makes nanostructured zirconia coatings excellent candidates for future applications as thermal barriers. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films are being produced by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques. Preliminary results have indicated that the thermal conductivity is reduced by approximately a factor-of-two at room temperature in 10 nm grain-sized YSZ compared to coarse-grained or single crystal YSZ.

  14. A unique system of Fe/Pd for magneto-optical recording and magnetic switching devices

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chian Q.; Bader, S.D.

    1990-05-22

    This invention is comprised of a high density magneto-optical information storage medium utilizing the properties of an ultrathin iron film on a palladium substrate. The present invention comprises a magneto-optical medium capable of thermal and magnetic stability and capable of possessing a vertical orientation of the magnetization vector for the magnetic material. Data storage relies on the temperature dependence of the coercivity of the ultrathin film. Data retrieval derives from the Kerr effect which describes the direction of rotation of a plane of polarized light traversing the ultrathin magnetic material as a function of the orientation of the magnetization vector.

  15. Thermal properties of food and pharmaceutical powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiad, Mohamad Ghassan

    Foods and pharmaceuticals are complex systems usually exposed to various environmental conditions during processing and thus storage, stability, functionality and quality are key attributes that deserve careful attention. The quality and stability of foods and pharmaceuticals are mainly affected by environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, time, and processing conditions (e.g. shear, pressure) under which they may undergo physical and/or chemical transformations. Glass transition as well as other thermal properties is a key to understand how external conditions affect physical changes of such materials. Development of new materials and understanding the physico-chemical behavior of existing ones require a scientific foundation that translates into safe and high quality foods, improved quality of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals with lower risk to patients and functional efficacy of polymers used in food and medicinal products. This research provides an overview of the glass transition and other thermal properties and introduces novel methods developed to characterize such properties.

  16. FOREWORD: Focus on Magneto-Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Yoshifumi; Beaugnon, Eric; Kimura, Tsunehisa; Ozeki, Sumio

    2008-06-01

    Magnetite, a natural magnetic material, was discovered in China several thousand years ago. Since then, many ancient people have been fascinated by the interesting properties of magnetite. Similarly, many scientists have dreamed of manipulating chemical, physical and biological phenomena using magnetic fields. Despite the long time that has passed since the discovery of magnetite, this dream has only recently been accomplished. Magnetism, an important physical property of materials, is of three types: diamagnetism, paramagnetism and ferromagnetism. The magnetic susceptibilities of diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials are in the order of -10-10, +10-8 and +10-2 m3 mol-1, respectively. Note that most commonly used materials such as water and benzene are diamagnetic; air is paramagnetic. The magnetic energy of diamagnetic and paramagnetic (magnetically weak) materials under a magnetic field of 1 T, which is the maximum field generated by a tabletop electromagnet, is very small compared with the thermal energy at room temperature. Therefore, it is difficult to believe that a magnetic field less than 1 T markedly affects the chemical and physical phenomena of magnetically weak materials. Recently, the progress of superconducting magnet manufacturing technology has enabled us to freely use strong magnetic fields of 10 T or more in our laboratories. Because magnetic energy is proportional to the square of the magnetic flux density, the magnetic energy at 10 T, for example, is 100 times greater than that at 1 T, indicating that the effect of a 10 T magnetic field on magnetically weak materials becomes so great that magnetic phenomena, which cannot be observed in a 1 T field, are very clear in a 10 T field. Consequently, many interesting phenomena have been observed. For example, it was demonstrated that water in a vessel could be separated into two parts by applying strong horizontal magnetic fields to create the so-called Moses effect. Reportedly

  17. Thermal properties of methane gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, William F.

    2007-01-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline solids in which molecules of a “guest” species occupy and stabilize cages formed by water molecules. Similar to ice in appearance (fig. 1), gas hydrates are stable at high pressures and temperatures above freezing (0°C). Methane is the most common naturally occurring hydrate guest species. Methane hydrates, also called simply “gas hydrates,” are extremely concentrated stores of methane and are found in shallow permafrost and continental margin sediments worldwide. Brought to sea-level conditions, methane hydrate breaks down and releases up to 160 times its own volume in methane gas. The methane stored in gas hydrates is of interest and concern to policy makers as a potential alternative energy resource and as a potent greenhouse gas that could be released from sediments to the atmosphere and ocean during global warming. In continental margin settings, methane release from gas hydrates also is a potential geohazard and could cause submarine landslides that endanger offshore infrastructure. Gas hydrate stability is sensitive to temperature changes. To understand methane release from gas hydrate, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a laboratory investigation of pure methane hydrate thermal properties at conditions relevant to accumulations of naturally occurring methane hydrate. Prior to this work, thermal properties for gas hydrates generally were measured on analog systems such as ice and non-methane hydrates or at temperatures below freezing; these conditions limit direct comparisons to methane hydrates in marine and permafrost sediment. Three thermal properties, defined succinctly by Briaud and Chaouch (1997), are estimated from the experiments described here: - Thermal conductivity, λ: if λ is high, heat travels easily through the material. - Thermal diffusivity, κ: if κ is high, it takes little time for the temperature to rise in the material. - Specific heat, cp: if cp is high, it takes a great deal of heat to

  18. Adsorption properties of thermally sputtered calcein film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglenko, I.; Burlachenko, J.; Kravchenko, S.; Savchenko, A.; Slabkovska, M.; Shirshov, Yu.

    2014-05-01

    High humidity environments are often found in such areas as biotechnology, food chemistry, plant physiology etc. The controlling of parameters of such ambiences is vitally important. Thermally deposited calcein films have extremely high adsorptivity at exposure to water vapor of high concentration. This feature makes calcein a promising material for humidity sensing applications. The aim of this work is to explain high sensitivity and selectivity of calcein film to high humidity. Quartz crystal microbalance sensor, AFM and ellipsometry were used for calcein film characterization and adsorption properties investigation. The proposed model takes into account both the molecular properties of calcein (the presence of several functional groups capable of forming hydrogen bonds, and their arrangement) and the features of structure of thermally deposited calcein film (film restructuring due to the switching of bonds "calcein-calcein" to "calcein-water" in the course of water adsorption).

  19. Thermal properties of an erythritol derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trhlikova, Lucie; Prikryl, Radek; Zmeskal, Oldrich

    2016-06-01

    Erythritol (C4H10O4) is a sugar alcohol (or polyol) that is commonly used in the food industry. Its molar mass is 122.12 g.mol-1 and mass density 1450 kg.m-3. Erythritol, an odorless crystalline powder, can also be characterized by other physical parameters like melting temperature (121 °C) and boiling temperature (329 °C). The substance can be used for the accumulation of energy in heat exchangers based on various oils or water. The PlusICE A118 product manufactured by the PCM Products Ltd. company (melting temperature Θ = 118 °C, specific heat capacity cp = 2.70 kJ.K-1.kg-1, mass density 1450 kg.m-3, latent heat capacity 340 kJ.kg-1, volumetric heat capacity 493 MJ.m-3) is based on an erythritol-type medium. Thermal properties of the PlusICE A118 product in both solid and liquid phase were investigated for this purpose in terms of potential applications. Temperature dependences of its thermal parameters (thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat) were determined using a transient (step-wise) method. A fractal model of heat transport was used for determination of the above thermal parameters. This model is independent of geometry and type of sample heating. Moreover, it also considers heat losses. The experiment confirmed the formerly declared value of phase change temperature, about 120 °C.

  20. Computation of Thermally Perfect Compressible Flow Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, David W.; Tatum, Kenneth E.; Williams, S. Blake

    1996-01-01

    A set of compressible flow relations for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas are derived for a value of c(sub p) (specific heat at constant pressure) expressed as a polynomial function of temperature and developed into a computer program, referred to as the Thermally Perfect Gas (TPG) code. The code is available free from the NASA Langley Software Server at URL http://www.larc.nasa.gov/LSS. The code produces tables of compressible flow properties similar to those found in NACA Report 1135. Unlike the NACA Report 1135 tables which are valid only in the calorically perfect temperature regime the TPG code results are also valid in the thermally perfect, calorically imperfect temperature regime, giving the TPG code a considerably larger range of temperature application. Accuracy of the TPG code in the calorically perfect and in the thermally perfect, calorically imperfect temperature regimes are verified by comparisons with the methods of NACA Report 1135. The advantages of the TPG code compared to the thermally perfect, calorically imperfect method of NACA Report 1135 are its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, or polyatomic) or any specified mixture of gases, ease-of-use, and tabulated results.

  1. Analysis of magneto-optical properties for three-dimensional photonic crystals in high-symmetry arrangement doped by metamaterials and uniaxial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bing; Li, Heming; Wang, Shenyun; Wan, Fayu; Ge, Junxiang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method to investigate the properties of photonic band gaps (PBGs) for the extraordinary mode in the three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals (PCs) which are composed of the anisotropic dielectric (the uniaxial materials) spheres immersed in the homogeneous metamaterials (epsilon-negative materials) background with high-symmetry (body-centered-cubic) lattices, as the magneto-optical Voigt effects are considered. The equations for calculating the PBGs in the first irreducible Brillouin zone are theoretically derived. It is numerically illustrated that the anisotropic PBGs and two flattened band regions can be achieved. The influences of the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, filling factor of dielectric spheres, electronic plasma frequency and cyclotron frequency on the magneto-optical properties of such 3D PCs also are studied in detail, respectively, and some corresponding physical explanations are given. The numerical results demonstrate that the anisotropy can open partial band gaps in the proposed PCs, and the complete PBGs can be obtained compared with the conventional PCs only containing the isotropic material with similar structures. The bandwidths of PBGs can be tuned by introducing the epsilon-negative materials into such PCs containing the uniaxial materials. The anisotropic PBGs can be manipulated by the parameters as mentioned above. As the proposed PCs with high-symmetry lattices, the complete PBGs can be obtained by introducing the uniaxial materials.

  2. Cryogenic magneto-caloric effect and magneto-structural correlations in carboxylate-bridged Gd(III) compounds.

    PubMed

    Roubeau, O; Lorusso, G; Teat, S J; Evangelisti, M

    2014-08-14

    Two new infinite coordination chain compounds [Gd(CH3CO2)3(dmf)]∞ (1) and {[Gd(HO(CH2)3CO2)3(H2O)]·H2O}∞ (2) have been obtained attempting to modify a prototype molecular cooler. The structures of both compounds as determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction are reported, together with a detailed study of their magnetic and thermal properties, describing for both compounds a large magneto-caloric effect. The dominant ferromagnetic interaction present in 2 clearly favours this material at low applied magnetic fields, with respect to 1 that exhibits antiferromagnetic interactions. Magneto-structural correlations of the sign and strength of the magnetic interactions are derived for carboxylato-bridged Gd(III) systems.

  3. Sensing fuel properties with thermal microsensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonne, Ulrich

    1996-05-01

    We report on measurements of combustion-relevant fuel properties for on-line, feedforward control with small, rugged and fully compensated microsensor-based systems. Such silicon microstructure sensor systems have been demonstrated to determine gaseous and liquid fuel properties such as stoichiometric oxygen demand, octane number, heating value, density and other properties of interest. The measurement approach consists of a three-step process: (1) Measurement of changes in electrical quantities when the sensing elements come in contact with the fluid, (2) Conversion of these quantities into primary sensor outputs, yi, such as thermal conductivity, specific heat, temperature and pressure, and (3) Correlation between these and the properties of interest, Y(yi). By coupling this property sensor to an equally rugged and small thermal flow microsensor, millisecond-range response time signals of mass or volume flow, or stoichiometric oxygen demand rate are provided for feed-forward control, without exposing any sensor to harsh exhaust gas environments. Having presented results with gaseous fuels elsewhere, we update these here but concentrate on the determination of octane and cetane number of liquid fuels. Analysis results show that the correlations between these combustion performance properties and physical fuel properties are as good as the ones between octane and critical compression ratio or between cetane and ignition delay. However, all those correlations appear to be limited presently by the accuracy or at least consistency of available data, which are needed for calibration of the sensor system. In checking the temperature dependence of one of the correlations for octane, we found the system output to shift by 15% when using hexadecane as a reference fuel, but only by 1% with iso-octane as reference, for a 10 degree(s)C shift in temperature.

  4. Magnetic Recording on Magneto-Optical Media Using Merge Type Giant Magneto-Resistive Head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Ozaki, Kazuyuki; Chekanov, Albert; Tagawa, Ikuya; Shono, Keiji

    2000-11-01

    TbFeCo media for perpendicular magnetic recording were developed by employing a NiP underlayer that controls the magnetic properties of a TbFeCo magnetic layer. Dynamic write-read characteristics were examined using a conventional merge-type giant magneto-resistive (GMR) head originally designed for longitudinal magnetic recording. A clear magnetic transition of 450 kFCI (kilo Flux Change per Inch), a high media signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and acceptable overwrite properties were obtained by optimizing the magnetic properties of TbFeCo films. The thermal stability of a written bit in TbFeCo film is sufficient for practical application.

  5. Experimental methods of determining thermal properties of granite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of thermal properties of granite using the block method is discussed and compared with other methods. Problems that limit the accuracy of contact method in determining thermal properties of porous media are evaluated. Thermal properties of granite is determined in the laboratory with a...

  6. The thermal properties of beeswaxes: unexpected findings.

    PubMed

    Buchwald, Robert; Breed, Michael D; Greenberg, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    Standard melting point analyses only partially describe the thermal properties of eusocial beeswaxes. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that thermal phase changes in wax are initiated at substantially lower temperatures than visually observed melting points. Instead of a sharp, single endothermic peak at the published melting point of 64 degrees C, DSC analysis of Apis mellifera Linnaeus wax yielded a broad melting curve that showed the initiation of melting at approximately 40 degrees C. Although Apis beeswax retained a solid appearance at these temperatures, heat absorption and initiation of melting could affect the structural characteristics of the wax. Additionally, a more complete characterization of the thermal properties indicated that the onset of melting, melting range and heat of fusion of beeswaxes varied significantly among tribes of social bees (Bombini, Meliponini, Apini). Compared with other waxes examined, the relatively malleable wax of bumblebees (Bombini) had the lowest onset of melting and lowest heat of fusion but an intermediate melting temperature range. Stingless bee (Meliponini) wax was intermediate between bumblebee and honeybee wax (Apini) in heat of fusion, but had the highest onset of melting and the narrowest melting temperature range. The broad melting temperature range and high heat of fusion in the Apini may be associated with the use of wax comb as a free-hanging structural material, while the Bombini and Meliponini support their wax structures with exogenous materials.

  7. Biodegradable compounds: Rheological, mechanical and thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Lucia, G.; Santella, M.; Malinconico, M.; Cerruti, P.; Pantani, R.

    2015-12-01

    Recently great attention from industry has been focused on biodegradable polyesters derived from renewable resources. In particular, PLA has attracted great interest due to its high strength and high modulus and a good biocompatibility, however its brittleness and low heat distortion temperature (HDT) restrict its wide application. On the other hand, Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) is a biodegradable polymer with a low tensile modulus but characterized by a high flexibility, excellent impact strength, good thermal and chemical resistance. In this work the two aliphatic biodegradable polyesters PBS and PLA were selected with the aim to obtain a biodegradable material for the industry of plastic cups and plates. PBS was also blended with a thermoplastic starch. Talc was also added to the compounds because of its low cost and its effectiveness in increasing the modulus and the HDT of polymers. The compounds were obtained by melt compounding in a single screw extruder and the rheological, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. The properties of the two compounds were compared and it was found that the values of the tensile modulus and elongation at break measured for the PBS/PLA/Talc compound make it interesting for the production of disposable plates and cups. In terms of thermal resistance the compounds have HDTs high enough to contain hot food or beverages. The PLA/PBS/Talc compound can be, then, considered as biodegradable substitute for polystyrene for the production of disposable plates and cups for hot food and beverages.

  8. Structure and magneto-optical properties of epitaxial PtMnSb(001) on W(001)/MgO(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Kautzky, M.C.; Clemens, B.M. )

    1995-03-06

    The growth of high-quality, sputter-deposited epitaxial PtMnSb(001) on W(001)/MgO(001) is described. X-ray diffraction results indicate that PtMnSb grows unrotated on the W seed layer with a modest in-plane tensile strain. Polar magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements show a peak rotation of 1.02[degree] at 575 nm. In-plane magnetization is observed, indicating that the level of strain in the film is insufficient to induce perpendicular magnetization.

  9. Preparation and properties of magneto-optical micro-cavities composed of Co thin film and dielectric multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, M.; Matsumoto, K.; Arai, K. I.; Fujii, T.; Abe, M.

    1999-05-01

    Magneto-optical (MO) Kerr effect of micro-cavities composed of a Co thin film and SiO 2/SiN multilayer films was investigated theoretically and experimentally. The micro-cavity structure was found to be very effective for enhancing the MO Kerr effect: the MO Kerr rotation angle exceeding 10° at a designated wavelength of light was obtained, the value of which is more than 100 times larger than that of a Co single-layer film. The large MO Kerr effect is caused by the localization of light originating from the multilayer structure.

  10. A model of magneto-electric multipoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovesey, S. W.; Balcar, E.

    2015-03-01

    A long-known Hamiltonian of electrons with entangled spin and orbital degrees of freedom is re-examined as a model of magneto-electric multipoles (MEs). In the model, a magnetic charge and simple quantum rotator are tightly locked in action, some might say they are enslaved entities. It is shown that MEs almost perfectly accord with those inferred from an analysis of magnetic neutron diffraction data on a ceramic superconductor (YBCO) in the pseudo-gap phase. Nigh on perfection between Stone's model and inferred MEs is achieved by addition to the original model of a crystal-field potential appropriate for the magnetic space group used in the published data analysis. An impression of thermal properties of multipoles is sought from a molecular-field model.

  11. Ba3Tb(PO4)3: Crystal growth, structure, magnetic and magneto-optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Gong, Zhongliang; Wan, Qiping; Wu, Shuting; Guo, Feiyun; Zhuang, Naifeng; Chen, Jianzhong

    2015-06-01

    Ba3Tb(PO4)3 crystals have been grown by the slow-cooling method and the Czochralski technique for the first time for magneto-optical applications. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction confirms that the compound crystallizes in the cubic system I 4 bar 3 d , with eulytite structure with a = 10.4484(12) Å, V = 1140.6(2) Å3 and Z = 4. The hardness of Ba3Tb(PO4)3 crystal is about 5.5 Moh. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility indicated that the Ba3Tb(PO4)3 crystal exhibits paramagnetic behavior over the experimental temperature-range 2-300 K. Transmittance spectra and the Faraday rotation have been investigated, which demonstrate that Ba3Tb(PO4)3 crystal shows a higher visible transparency than Tb3Ga5O12 crystal and yields a Faraday rotation comparable to that of Sr3Tb(BO3)3 crystal. Ba3Tb(PO4)3 is therefore a promising material in particular for new magneto-optical applications in the visible region.

  12. Thermal and rheological properties of breadfruit starch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueyu; Chen, Ling; Li, Xiaoxi; Xie, Fengwei; Liu, Hongshen; Yu, Long

    2011-01-01

    The thermal and rheological properties of breadfruit starch were studied using DSC and 2 different rheometers. It was found that the gelatinization temperature of starch with excess moisture content (>70%) was at approximately 75 °C. A new endotherm was detected at about 173 °C when the moisture content was lower than required for full gelatinization of the starch. A detailed examination revealed that this endotherm represented the melting of amylose-lipid complexes. Breadfruit starch paste exhibited shear-thinning fluid characteristics, and good thermal and pH stability. The setback viscosity of the breadfruit starch was lower than that of potato and corn starches. The rheological properties of the breadfruit starch paste was well described by the Herschel-Bulkley model at a shear rate of 0 to 100 s(-1), where R(2) is greater than 0.95, and it behaved like a yield-pseudoplastic fluid. Both the storage modulus and loss modulus of the paste initially increased sharply, then dropped after reaching the gelatinization peak. Breadfruit starch gel showed both flexibility and viscosity. Suspension with 6% starch content exhibited very weak gel rigidity; however, this increased significantly at starch contents above 20%.

  13. Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. C. (Editor)

    1963-01-01

    The overall objectives of the Symposium were to afford (1) an opportunity for workers in the field to describe the equipment and procedures currently in use for measuring thermal radiation properties of solids, (2) an opportunity for constructive criticism of the material presented, and (3) an open forum for discussion of mutual problems. It was also the hope of the sponsors that the published proceedings of the Symposium would serve as a valuable reference on measurement techniques for evaluating thermal radiation properties of solids, partic.ularly for those with limited experience in the field. Because of the strong dependence of emitted flux upon temperature, the program committee thought it advisable to devote the first session to a discussion of the problems of temperature measurement. All of the papers in Session I were presented at the request of and upon topics suggested by the Committee. Because of time and space limitations, it, was impossible to consider all temperature measurement problems that might arise--the objective was rather to call to the attention of the reader some of the problems that might be encountered, and to provide references that might provide solutions.

  14. Thermal protection materials: Thermophysical property data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. D.; Curry, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    This publication presents a thermophysical property survey on materials that could potentially be used for future spacecraft thermal protection systems (TPS). This includes data that was reported in the 1960's as well as more current information reported through the 1980's. An attempt was made to cite the manufacturers as well as the data source in the bibliography. This volume represents an attempt to provide in a single source a complete set of thermophysical data on a large variety of materials used in spacecraft TPS analysis. The property data is divided into two categories: ablative and reusable. The ablative materials have been compiled into twelve categories that are descriptive of the material composition. An attempt was made to define the Arrhenius equation for each material although this data may not be available for some materials. In a similar manner, char data may not be available for some of the ablative materials. The reusable materials have been divided into three basic categories: thermal protection materials (such as insulators), adhesives, and structural materials.

  15. Thermal properties of hemp fibre non-woven materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freivalde, Liga; Kukle, Silvija; Russell, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    This review considers the thermal properties analysis of hemp fiber non-woven materials made by three different manufacturing technologies - thermal bonding, needle-punching and hydro-entanglement. For non-wovens development two hemp fibers cultivars grown in Latvia were used - Purini and Bialobrzeskie. Thermal resistance, conductivity and the effects of several parameters on thermal performance are revised.

  16. Correlation Between Bands Structure and Magneto-Transport Properties in n-type HgTe/CdTe Superlattice with Relatively Thin CdTe Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Braigue, M.; Nafidi, A.; Chaib, H.; Tirbiyine, A.; Hemine, J.; Idbaha, A.; Boulkassim, A.; El Gouti, T.; Massaq, M.; Talwar, Devki N.; SrinivasaVinod, M.

    2011-12-26

    Theoretical calculations of the electronic properties of n-type HgTe/CdTe superlattices (SLs) in the envelope function formalism have provided a reasonable agreement with the experimental data on the magneto-transport behavior. Numerical results of the band energies E(d{sub 2}), E(k{sub z}) and E(k{sub p}) in the direction of growth and in plane of the SLs predict that the system retains semiconductor characteristics for d{sub 1}/d{sub 2} = 2.69 and d{sub 2}<10 nm. For d{sub 2} = 3.2 nm the calculated effective band gap (E{sub g}({Gamma},4.2 K) = 48 meV) suggests that the material sample is a two-dimensional modulated nanostructure and a potential candidate to be used for the far infrared detection applications.

  17. Oxygen partial pressure dependence of magnetic, optical and magneto-optical properties of epitaxial cobalt-substituted SrTiO₃ films.

    PubMed

    Onbaşlı, Mehmet C; Goto, Taichi; Tang, Astera; Pan, Annia; Battal, Enes; Okyay, Ali K; Dionne, Gerald F; Ross, C A

    2015-05-18

    Cobalt-substituted SrTiO3 films (SrTi0.70Co0.30O(3-δ)) were grown on SrTiO3 substrates using pulsed laser deposition under oxygen pressures ranging from 1 μTorr to 20 mTorr. The effect of oxygen pressure on structural, magnetic, optical, and magneto-optical properties of the films was investigated. The film grown at 3 μTorr has the highest Faraday rotation (FR) and magnetic saturation moment (M(s)). Increasing oxygen pressure during growth reduced M(s), FR and optical absorption in the near-infrared. This trend is attributed to decreasing Co2+ ion concentration and oxygen vacancy concentration with higher oxygen partial pressure during growth. PMID:26074589

  18. The Role of Defect Complexes in the Magneto-Optical Properties of Rare Earth Doped Gallium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Brandon

    been concluded to contain a nitrogen vacancy (V N) in its immediate structure. The nitrogen vacancy can appear in two symmetries, which has a profound impact on the luminescence and magnetic properties of the sample. The structure of the minority site has also been identified. For both sites, we give substantial evidence that the excitation efficiency of the red Eu emission is improved by the presence of donor-acceptor pairs in the vicinity of the Eu. Furthermore, when Mg was co-doped into GaN:Eu, additional incorporation environments were discovered that show high excitation efficiency at room temperature. These have been attributed to the coupling of Mg-H complexes to the majority Eu site. Electron beam irradiation, indirect and resonant (direct) laser excitation were found to modify these complexes, indicating that vibrational energy alone can trigger the migration of the H, while the presence of additional charges and excess energy controls the type of reconfiguration and the activation of non-radiative decay channels. We identify, experimentally, a two-step process in the dissociation of Mg-H complexes and propose, based on density functional theory, that the presence of minority carriers and the resulting charge states of complexes can also influence this process. In GaN:Er, we have given a more thorough overview of the optical and magneto-optical properties by extending to the 800nm excitation range and drastically improving the signal-to-noise ratio in the magnetic measurements, as well as applying a perpendicular magnetic field. This has allowed us to calculate g-factors for the parallel case, but revealed that the Zeeman interaction is not quite linear for perpendicular magnetic fields. We were able to assign crystal field numbers of mu = 3/2 to two crystal field levels. We have also given strong evidence that the strain in the sample, which results from lattice mismatch, enhances its magnetization, as seen through fluorescence line narrowing and asymmetry

  19. Thermal convection of magneto compressible couple-stress fluid saturated in a porous medium with Hall current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, C. B.; Singh, M.; Kumar, S.

    2016-02-01

    An investigation is made on the effect of Hall currents on thermal instability of a compressible couple-stress fluid in the presence of a horizontal magnetic field saturated in a porous medium. The analysis is carried out within the framework of the linear stability theory and normal mode technique. A dispersion relation governing the effects of viscoelasticity, Hall currents, compressibility, magnetic field and porous medium is derived. For the stationary convection a couple-stress fluid behaves like an ordinary Newtonian fluid due to the vanishing of the viscoelastic parameter. Compressibility, the magnetic filed and couple-stress parameter have stabilizing effects on the system whereas Hall currents and medium permeability have a destabilizing effect on the system, but in the absence of Hall current couple-stress has a destabilizing effect on the system. It has been observed that oscillatory modes are introduced due to the presence of viscoelasticity, magnetic field porous medium and Hall currents which were non-existent in their absence.

  20. Magneto-optical properties of trions in non-blinking charged nanocrystals reveal an acoustic phonon bottleneck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernée, Mark J.; Sinito, Chiara; Louyer, Yann; Potzner, Christian; Nguyen, Tich-Lam; Mulvaney, Paul; Tamarat, Philippe; Lounis, Brahim

    2012-12-01

    Charged quantum dots provide an important platform for a range of emerging quantum technologies. Colloidal quantum dots in particular offer unique advantages for such applications (facile synthesis, manipulation and compatibility with a wide range of environments), especially if stable charged states can be harnessed in these materials. Here we engineer the CdSe nanocrystal core and shell structure to efficiently ionize at cryogenic temperatures, resulting in trion emission with a single sharp zero-phonon line and a mono exponential decay. Magneto-optical spectroscopy enables direct determination of electron and hole g-factors. Spin relaxation is observed in high fields, enabling unambiguous identification of the trion charge. Importantly, we show that spin flips are completely inhibited for Zeeman splittings below the low-energy bound for confined acoustic phonons. This reveals a characteristic unique to colloidal quantum dots that will promote the use of these versatile materials in challenging quantum technological applications.

  1. Thermal properties measurements in biodiesel oils using photothermal techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, M. P. P.; Andrade, A. A.; Franco, R. W. A.; Miranda, P. C. M. L.; Sthel, M.; Vargas, H.; Constantino, R.; Baesso, M. L.

    2005-08-01

    In this Letter, thermal lens and open cell photoacoustic techniques are used to measure the thermal properties of biodiesel oils. The absolute values of the thermal effusivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and the temperature coefficient of the refractive index were determined for samples obtained from soy, castor bean, sunflower and turnip. The results suggest that the employed techniques may be useful as complementary methods for biodiesel certification.

  2. [Thermal spectral property of prism in hyper spectral imager].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiu-Sheng; Wu, Qing-Wen; Li, Ze-Xue; Chen, Li-Heng; Guo, Liang

    2010-06-01

    Prism is one of the most key parts in the hyper spectral imager (HSI). Consequently, to set thermal control target and make thermal control design, the thermal spectral property of prism in the HSI was studied. The working principle of the HSI and the definition of its thermal spectral property were introduced. The working environment of prism and its thermal effect were analyzed; also the study contents and technical route of the prism's thermal spectral property were discussed. The effects of different uniform temperature field on deflexion angle and angular dispersion of the prism in the HSI were deduced, and the changes in displacement of the spectra and the spectral bandwidth under different uniform temperature were obtained. For one instance, the thermal spectral property of the K9 prism and the fused silica prism were compared based on FEM and combined experiments, furthermore, its thermal control target was ascertained and a thermal spectral property test was carried out to validate the rationality of the thermal spectral property analysis. The results of analysis indicated that the changes in spectral bandwidth and spectrum resolution brought by thermal distortions can be ignored according to current fixing mode, and the displacement of the spectra is mainly determined by thermal coefficient of material refractive index; because of it's the lower thermal coefficient of material refractive index, the displacement of the spectra of the K9 prism is smaller under the same temperature changes; the material deflexion changes (dn/dlambda) of prism are not sensitive to the temperature, so the changes in spectral bandwidth caused by them are not obvious. And the results of test proved that the studied method of thermal spectral property is reasonable and essential, and the results are authentic and credible. So it can provide some guidance for setting thermal control target and optimizing thermal control design. PMID:20707180

  3. Integration of bulk-quality thin film magneto-optical cerium-doped yttrium iron garnet on silicon nitride photonic substrates.

    PubMed

    Onbasli, Mehmet C; Goto, Taichi; Sun, Xueyin; Huynh, Nathalie; Ross, C A

    2014-10-20

    Cerium substituted yttrium iron garnet (Ce:YIG) films were grown on yttrium iron garnet (YIG) seed layers on silicon nitride films using pulsed laser deposition. Optimal process conditions for forming garnet films on silicon nitride are presented. Bulk or near-bulk magnetic and magneto-optical properties were observed for 160 nm thick Ce:YIG films grown at 640 °C on rapid thermal annealed 40 nm thick YIG grown at 640 °C and 2 Hz pulse rate. The effect of growth temperature and deposition rate on structural, magnetic and magneto-optical properties has been investigated.

  4. Effects of off-stoichiometry and density on the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of yttrium iron garnet films by magnetron sputtering method

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Qinghui; Zhang Huaiwu; Wen Qiye; Liu Yingli

    2010-10-15

    Yttrium iron garnet films were deposited on Si and Si/CeO{sub 2} substrates by magnetron sputtering method followed by postannealing. By varying the fabrication parameters such as sputtering atmosphere, sputtering power, and annealing atmosphere, single phase garnet films were obtained with different off-stoichiometry and film density. The dependence of cation ratio, magnetic and magneto-optical characteristics, and absorption coefficient were systemically investigated. The results reveal that a proper oxygen pressure in both sputtering and annealing process give rise to a small cation ratio of (Fe{sup 2+} or Fe{sup 4+})/Fe{sup 3+}, thus is beneficial to obtain large saturation magnetization, large Faraday rotation, and small optical absorption. The sputtering power can also affect the properties of the film through changing the film density. Our results indicate that the properties of sputtering deposited yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film can be easily tuned and optimized by modifying the off-stoichiometry and density of the film, thus provides flexibility to fabricate YIG film for extensive applications.

  5. The effect of suspended Fe3O4 nanoparticle size on magneto-optical properties of ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brojabasi, Surajit; Muthukumaran, T.; Laskar, J. M.; Philip, John

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the effect of hydrodynamic particle size on the magnetic field induced light transmission and transmitted speckle pattern in water based ferrofluids containing functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of size ranging from 15 to 46 nm. Three water-based magnetic nanofluids, containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles functionalized with poly-acrylic acid (PAA), tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAOH) and phosphate, are used in the present study. In all three cases, the transmitted light intensity starts decreasing above a certain magnetic field (called first critical field) and becomes a minimum at another field (second critical field). These two critical fields signify the onset of linear aggregation process and zippering transitions between fully grown chains, respectively. Both these critical fields shift towards a lower magnetic field with increasing hydrodynamic diameter, due to stronger magnetic dipolar interactions. The first and the second critical fields showed a power law dependence on the hydrodynamic diameters. The dipolar resonances occurring at certain values of the scatterer size, leads to the field induced extinction of light. Both the onset of chaining and zippering transitions were clearly evident in the time dependent transmitted light intensity. Above the first critical field, the lobe part of the transmitted intensity and the lobe speckle contrast values increase with increasing external magnetic field due to reduced Brownian motion of the field induced aggregates. The speckle contrast was highest for nanoparticle with the largest hydrodynamic diameter, due to reduced Brownian motion. These results provide better insight into field dependent light control in magnetic colloids, which may find interesting applications in magneto-optical devices.

  6. Thermal Coatings Seminar Series Training Part 1: Properties of Thermal Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triolo, Jack

    2015-01-01

    This course will present an overview of a variety of thermal coatings-related topics, including: coating types and availability, thermal properties measurements, environmental testing (lab and in-flight), environmental impacts, contamination impacts, contamination liabilities, determination of BOLEOL values, and what does specularity mean to the thermal engineer.

  7. The effects of oxygen pressure on disordering and magneto-transport properties of Ba{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} thin films grown via pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyeong-Won; Mhin, Sungwook; Jones, Jacob L.; Norton, David P.; Ghosh, Siddhartha Buvaev, Sanal; Hebard, Arthur F.

    2015-07-21

    Epitaxial Ba{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} thin films were grown via pulsed laser deposition under low oxygen pressure and their structural, chemical, and magnetic properties were examined, focusing on the effects of oxygen pressure. The chemical disorder, off-stoichiometry in B site cations (Fe and Mo) increased with increasing oxygen pressure and thus magnetic properties were degraded. Interestingly, in contrast, negative magneto-resistance, which is the characteristics of this double perovskite material, was enhanced with increasing oxygen pressure. It is believed that phase segregation of highly disordered thin films is responsible for the increased magneto-resistance of thin films grown at high oxygen pressure. The anomalous Hall effect, which behaves hole-like, was also observed due to spin-polarized itinerant electrons under low magnetic field below 1 T and the ordinary electron-like Hall effect was dominant at higher magnetic fields.

  8. Mechanical properties of thermal protection system materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Robert Douglas; Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul; Hofer, John H.

    2005-06-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the mechanical properties of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials used for the Space Shuttle. Three types of TPS materials (LI-900, LI-2200, and FRCI-12) were tested in 'in-plane' and 'out-of-plane' orientations. Four types of quasi-static mechanical tests (uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, uniaxial strain, and shear) were performed under low (10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3}/s) and intermediate (1 to 10/s) strain rate conditions. In addition, split Hopkinson pressure bar tests were conducted to obtain the strength of the materials under a relatively higher strain rate ({approx}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3}/s) condition. In general, TPS materials have higher strength and higher Young's modulus when tested in 'in-plane' than in 'through-the-thickness' orientation under compressive (unconfined and confined) and tensile stress conditions. In both stress conditions, the strength of the material increases as the strain rate increases. The rate of increase in LI-900 is relatively small compared to those for the other two TPS materials tested in this study. But, the Young's modulus appears to be insensitive to the different strain rates applied. The FRCI-12 material, designed to replace the heavier LI-2200, showed higher strengths under tensile and shear stress conditions. But, under a compressive stress condition, LI-2200 showed higher strength than FRCI-12. As far as the modulus is concerned, LI-2200 has higher Young's modulus both in compression and in tension. The shear modulus of FRCI-12 and LI-2200 fell in the same range.

  9. Method for measuring thermal properties using a long-wavelength infrared thermal image

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Charles L.; Costin, Laurence S.; Smith, Jody L.; Moya, Mary M.; Mercier, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-30

    A method for estimating the thermal properties of surface materials using long-wavelength thermal imagery by exploiting the differential heating histories of ground points in the vicinity of shadows. The use of differential heating histories of different ground points of the same surface material allows the use of a single image acquisition step to provide the necessary variation in measured parameters for calculation of the thermal properties of surface materials.

  10. Thermal properties of nonstoichiometry uranium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavazauri, R.; Pokrovskiy, S. A.; Baranov, V. G.; Tenishev, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, was developed a method of oxidation pure uranium dioxide to a predetermined deviation from the stoichiometry. Oxidation was carried out using the thermogravimetric method on NETZSCH STA 409 CD with a solid electrolyte galvanic cell for controlling the oxygen potential of the environment. 4 samples uranium oxide were obtained with a different ratio of oxygen-to-metal: O / U = 2.002, O / U = 2.005, O / U = 2.015, O / U = 2.033. For the obtained samples were determined basic thermal characteristics of the heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity. The error of heat capacity determination is equal to 5%. Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of the samples decreased with increasing deviation from stoichiometry. For the sample with O / M = 2.033, difference of both values with those of stoichiometric uranium dioxide is close to 50%.

  11. Correlation Between Band Structure and Magneto- Transport Properties in HgTe/CdTe Two-Dimensional Far-Infrared Detector Superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braigue, M.; Nafidi, A.; Idbaha, A.; Chaib, H.; Sahsah, H.; Daoud, M.; Marí Soucase, B.; Mollar García, M.; Chander Singh, K.; Hartiti, B.

    2013-06-01

    Theoretical calculations of the electronic properties of n-type HgTe/CdTe superlattices (SLs) have provided an agreement with the experimental data on the magneto-transport behaviour. We have measured the conductivity, Hall mobility, Seebeck and Shubnikov-de Haas effects and angular dependence of the magneto-resistance. Our sample, grown by MBE, had a period d= d 1+ d 2 (124 layers) of d1=8.6 nm (HgTe) /d2=3.2 nm (CdTe). Calculations of the spectras of energy E( d 2), E( k z ) and E( k p ), respectively, in the direction of growth and in plane of the superlattice; were performed in the envelope function formalism. The energy E( d 2, Γ,4.2 K), shown that when d 2 increase the gap E g decrease to zero at the transition semiconductor to semimetal conductivity behaviour and become negative accusing a semimetallic conduction. At 4.2 K, the sample exhibits n type conductivity, confirmed by Hall and Seebeck effects, with a Hall mobility of 2.5 × 105 cm2/ V s. This allowed us to observe the Shubnikov-de Haas effect with n=3.20×1012 cm-2. Using the calculated effective mass (m^{*}_{E1}(EF) = 0.05 m0) of the degenerated electrons gas, the Fermi energy (2D) was E F =88 meV in agreement with 91 meV of thermoelectric power α. In intrinsic regime, α˜ T -3/2 and R H T 3/2 indicates a gap E g = E 1- HH 1=101 meV in agreement with calculated E g ( Γ,300 K)=105 meV. The formalism used here predicts that the system is semiconductor for d 1/ d 2=2.69 and d 2<100 nm. Here, d 2=3.2 nm and E g ( Γ,4.2 K)=48 meV so this sample is a two-dimensional modulated nano-semiconductor and far-infrared detector (12 μm< λ c <28 μm).

  12. Thickness dependent structural, magnetic and magneto-transport properties of epitaxial Nd0.50Sr0.50MnO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Hari Krishna

    2016-05-01

    We report the thickness-dependent structural, magnetic and magneto-transport properties in epitaxial Nd0.50Sr0.50MnO3 thin films (10 to 300nm) prepared by DC magnetron sputtering technique on single crystalline (001) oriented substrate LaAlO3. X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the epitaxial growth of all the films and the out-of-plane lattice parameter of films were found to increase with thickness. As thickness of the film increases the paramagnetic insulator (PMI) to ferromagnetic metal (FMM) transition temperature (TC), charge ordered transition temperature (TCO) and magnetic moment were found to increase with a strong bifurcation in ZFC-FC magnetization. The asymmetry in the coercivity seen in field dependent magnetization loops (M-H loops) suggests the presence of exchange bias (EB) effect. While temperature dependent resistivity of films show the semiconducting nature for thickness 10-200nm in temperature range from 5-300K, the film of thickness 300nm shows the insulator to metal transition with transition temperature (TIM) at 175K. Temperature dependent low field magnetoresistance (LFMR) measured at 4kOe found to decrease with thickness and for high field magnetoresistance (HFMR) at 40kOe and 60kOe also show similar dependence and a crossover at intermediate temperature range in the magnitude of MR between 10nm and 200nm films at constant field. Colossal increase in magnetoresistance observed for 10nm film at low temperature.

  13. Magneto-transport Properties Using Top-Gated Hall Bars of Epitaxial Heterostructures on Single-Crystal SiGe Nanomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, R. B.; Li, Yize; Foote, Ryan; Cui, Xiaorui; Savage, Donald; Sookchoo, Pornsatit; Eriksson, Mark; Lagally, Max

    2014-03-01

    A high-quality 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is crucial for quantum electronics and spintronics. Grown heterostructures on SiGe nanomembranes (NMs) show promise to create these 2DEG structures because they have reduced strain inhomogeneities and mosaic tilt. We investigate charge transport properties of these SiGe NMs/heterostructures over a range of temperatures and compare them with results from heterostructures grown on compositionally graded SiGe substrates. Measurements are done by creating Hall bars with top gates on the samples. From the magneto-transport data, low-carrier-density mobility values are calculated. Initial results on the grown heterostructures give a typical curve for mobility versus carrier density, but extraction of the zero-carrier-density mobility is dependent on the curve-fitting technique. Sponsored by United States Department of Defense. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressly or implied, of the U.S. Government.

  14. Synthesis and thermal properties of new bionanofluids containing gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; López Gamboa, G.; Gutiérrez Fuentes, R.; Sánchez Ramírez, J. F.; Correa Pacheco, Z. N.; López-y-López, V. E.; Tepech-Carrillo, L.

    2016-10-01

    New bionanofluids containing Au nanoparticles with different concentrations were prepared by chemical reduction method. The nanoparticles were mixed with biodiesel from soybean prepared using alkaline catalysts. Thermal properties of biodiesel containing Au nanoparticles with different volume percentage concentrations were measured by mismatched dual-beam mode thermal lens technique in order to measure the effect of the presence of nanoparticles ( φ = 13.3 nm) on the bionanofluids thermal diffusivity. The characteristic time constant of the transient thermal lens was estimated by fitting the experimental data to the theoretical expression for transient thermal lens. The thermal diffusivity of the bionanofluids (biodiesel containing Au nanoparticles) seems to be strongly dependent on the presence of nanoparticles. It was observed an increase in the thermal diffusivity when volume percentage of nanoparticles increased. A possible explanation for such high thermal diffusivity of the biodiesel with Au nanoparticles is given. UV-Vis spectroscopy and TEM microscopy techniques were used to characterize the bionanofluids.

  15. Measurement of Thermal Properties of Biosourced Building Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Thomas; Colinart, Thibaut; Glouannec, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents both experimental and theoretical works concerning the evaluation of the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of hemp concrete. Experimental measurements of thermal properties are performed using a hot-strip technique for temperatures ranging from 3 to 30 and relative humidities ranging from 0 % to 95 %, thus creating a large database for this material. These experimental thermal conductivities are then compared with the results from the Krischer theoretical predictive model. The comparison shows good agreement, and a predictive analytical relation between the hemp concrete thermal conductivity, temperature, and relative humidity is determined.

  16. Determines the Thermal and Optical Properties of Fenestration Systems

    1995-01-27

    WINDOW4.1 computes the thermal properties of windows and other fenestration elements used in typical residential and commercial buildings. Manufactures, specifiers, architects, consumers, and the energy code specialists all need to know these properties (U-values, Solar Heat Gain Coefficients, optical properties). The use of this program to calculate these properties is typically much more cost effective than laboratory test procedures. Properties of complete window systems are based on libraries (or user input) component data.

  17. Dysprosium magneto-optical traps

    SciTech Connect

    Youn, Seo Ho; Lu Mingwu; Ray, Ushnish; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2010-10-15

    Magneto-optical traps (MOTs) of highly magnetic lanthanides open the door to explorations of novel phases of strongly correlated matter such as lattice supersolids and quantum liquid crystals. We recently reported the first MOTs of the five high-abundance isotopes of the most magnetic atom, dysprosium. Described here are details of the experimental technique employed for repumper-free Dy MOTs containing up to half a billion atoms. Extensive characterization of the MOTs' properties--population, temperature, loading, metastable decay dynamics, and trap dynamics--is provided.

  18. Voigt Airy surface magneto plasmons.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Wang, Qi Jie; Zhang, Ying

    2012-09-10

    We present a basic theory on Airy surface magneto plasmons (SMPs) at the interface between a dielectric layer and a metal layer (or a doped semiconductor layer) under an external static magnetic field in the Voigt configuration. It is shown that, in the paraxial approximation, the Airy SMPs can propagate along the surface without violating the nondiffracting characteristics, while the ballistic trajectory of the Airy SMPs can be tuned by the applied magnetic field. In addition, the self-deflection-tuning property of the Airy SMPs depends on the direction of the external magnetic field applied, owing to the nonreciprocal effect. PMID:23037243

  19. Thermal transport properties of grey cast irons

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, R.L.; Dinwiddie, R.B.; Porter, W.D.; Wang, Hsin

    1996-10-01

    Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of grey cast iron have been measured as a function of graphite flake morphology, chemical composition, and position in a finished brake rotor. Cast iron samples used for this investigation were cut from ``step block`` castings designed to produce iron with different graphite flake morphologies resulting from different cooling rates. Samples were also machined from prototype alloys and from production brake rotors representing a variation in foundry practice. Thermal diffusivity was measured at room and elevated temperatures via the flash technique. Heat capacity of selected samples was measured with differential scanning calorimetry, and these results were used to calculate the thermal conductivity. Microstructure of the various cast iron samples was quantified by standard metallography and image analysis, and the chemical compositions were determined by optical emission spectroscopy.

  20. First-principles study of thermal properties of borophene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongyi; Li, Qingfang; Wan, X G

    2016-06-01

    Very recently, a new single-element two-dimensional (2D) material borophene was successfully grown on a silver surface under pristine ultrahigh vacuum conditions which attracts tremendous interest. In this paper, the lattice thermal conductivity, phonon lifetimes, thermal expansion and temperature dependent elastic moduli of borophene are systematically studied by using first-principles. Our simulations show that borophene possesses unique thermal properties. Strong phonon-phonon scattering is found in borophene, which results in its unexpectedly low lattice thermal conductivity. Thermal expansion coefficients along both the armchair and zigzag directions of borophene show impressive negative values. More strikingly, the elastic moduli are sizably strengthened as temperature increases, and the negative in-plane Poisson's ratios are found along both the armchair and zigzag directions at around 120 K. The mechanisms of these unique thermal properties are also discussed in this paper. PMID:27188523

  1. Novel applications exploiting the thermal properties of nanostructured materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, J. A.

    1998-11-20

    A new class of heat transfer fluids, termed nanofluids, has been developed by suspending nanocrystalline particles in liquids. Due to the orders-of-magnitude larger thermal conductivities of solids compared to those of liquids such as water, significantly enhanced thermal properties are obtained with nanofluids. The use of nanofluids could impact many industrial sectors, including transportation, energy supply and production, electronics, textiles, and paper production by, for example, decreasing pumping power needs or reducing heat exchanger sizes. In contrast to the enhancement in effective thermal transport rates that is obtained when nanoparticles are suspended in fluids, nanocrystalline coatings are expected to exhibit reduced thermal conductivities compared to coarse-grained coatings. Reduced thermal conductivities are predicted to arise because of a reduction in the mean free path of phonons due to presence of grain boundaries. This behavior, combined with improved mechanical properties, makes nanostructured zirconia coatings excellent candidates for future applications as thermal barriers.

  2. Characterizing Asteroid Thermal Properties through the Laboratory Study of Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macke, Robert J.; Consolmagno, Guy J.; Opeil, Cyril P.; Britt, Daniel T.

    2015-11-01

    Asteroid thermal diffusivity is critical to understanding its thermal evolution, and thermal inertia determines its behavior under Yarkovsky effects. These properties are both functions of thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and density. Thermal conductivity and heat capacity both vary with temperature, while thermal conductivity and density are strongly influenced by microporosity. Our survey of low-temperature (175K) heat capacities includes more than 130 meteorites, supplemented by precision temperature-sensitive heat capacities for 6 individual samples. Heat capacities (175K) range from 350 J/kgK for unweathered iron meteorites to 530 J/kgK, with most chondrites between 480 and 520 J/kgK. Heat capacities for unweathered ordinary chondrite falls are within 5% of theoretical models, and as a function of temperature fit a theoretical curve of Cp=A+BT+CT(-2)+DT(-0.5) between 77 and 300 K, and are consistent with mineral data between 20 and 300 K. (Values for A,B,C,D vary by meteorite type.)Thermal conductivities are strong functions of porosity and, below 90 K, strong functions of temperature. Laboratory measurements of several meteorites indicate that between 90 and 300 K, most thermal conductivities vary little with temperature. Below 90 K, thermal conductivity drops off strongly as temperature decreases. Above 2% porosity and 90 K, thermal conductivities correlate linearly with the inverse of porosity. Pore geometry and orientation also affects thermal conductivity; thermal conductivity differs noticeably for the same meteorite sample depending on the direction of heat flow.Given these relations and meteorite data, thermal diffusivity and thermal inertia can be derived over a range of porosities and temperatures for most asteroids. We see that porosity greatly influences both thermal diffusivity and thermal inertia. Even as little as 20% porosity can reduce thermal diffusivity by two orders of magnitude from the nonporous case.

  3. Advances in EXAFS Studies of Thermal Properties of Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Fornasini, Paolo

    2007-02-02

    Thanks to the peculiar sensitivity to correlation of vibrational motion, EXAFS contains original information on thermal properties of crystals. The thermal expansions measured by EXAFS and by Bragg scattering have a different physical meaning. They can be experimentally distinguished by accurate temperature dependent measurements, leading to the evaluation of the perpendicular mean square relative displacement (MSRD). These results, besides giving a deeper insight on the connection between EXAFS and lattice dynamics, open new perspectives for studying the local origin of negative thermal expansion.

  4. Thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visakh, P. M.; Nazarenko, O. B.; Amelkovich, Yu A.; Melnikova, T. V.

    2015-04-01

    The thermal properties of epoxy composites filled with boric acid fine powder at different percentage were studied. Epoxy composites were prepared using epoxy resin ED-20, boric acid as flame-retardant filler, hexamethylenediamine as a curing agent. The prepared samples and starting materials were examined using methods of thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. It was found that the incorporation of boric acid fine powder enhances the thermal stability of epoxy composites.

  5. Degradation of Terfenol-D particle epoxy composites under low frequency cyclic magneto-mechanical loading: comparisons of matrix polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, William D.; Shanmugham, Manikantan

    2005-05-01

    Magnetostrictive Terfenol-D particle actuated epoxy polymer matrix composites were prepared with polyamine and anhydride cured epoxy polymer matrices. The different matrix epoxies exhibited large differences in glass transition and creep behavior. The differences in matrix thermal-mechanical properties resulted in important differences in temperature dependant damage behavior and magneto-elastic strain output in the Terfenol-D particle actuated epoxy polymer matrix composites.

  6. Effect of film thickness on the magneto-structural properties of ion beam sputtered transition metal–metalloid FeCoNbB/Si (100) alloy thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pooja; Tripathi, Yagyanidhi; Kumar, Dileep; Rai, S. K.; Gupta, Mukul; Reddy, V. R.; Svec, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The structure and magnetic properties of ion beam sputtered transition metal–metalloid FeCoNbB/Si(100) alloy thin film have been studied as a function of film thickness using complementary techniques of x-ray reflectivity (XRR), grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and magneto optical Kerr effect. Thicknesses of the films range from ∼200 to 1500 Å. The coercivity of all the films ranges between 4 and 14 Oe, which suggests soft magnetic nature of FeCoNbB/Si thin films. Films with thickness up to 800 Å are amorphous in nature and are found to possess uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the film plane, although no magnetic field was applied during deposition. The presence of the two fold symmetry in such amorphous thin films may be attributed to quenched-in stresses developed during deposition. Upon increasing the film thickness to ∼1200 Å and above, the structure of FeCoNbB films transforms from amorphous to partially nanocrystalline structure and has bcc-FeCo nanocrystalline phase dispersed in remaining amorphous matrix. The crystalline volume fraction (cvf) of the films is found to be proportional to the film thickness. Azimuthal angle dependence of remanence confirms the presence of in-plane four-fold anisotropy (FFA) in the crystalline film with cvf ∼75%. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurement using area detector suggests random orientation of crystallites and thus clearly establishes that FFA is not related to texture/cubic symmetry in such polycrystalline thin films. As supported by asymmetric Bragg diffraction measurements, the origin of FFA in such partially crystalline thin film is ascribed to the additional compressive stresses developed in the film upon crystallization. Results indicate that promising soft magnetic properties in such films can be optimized by controlling the film thickness. The revelation of controllable and tunable anisotropy suggests that FeCoNbB thin films can have potential application in electromagnetic applications.

  7. The influence of the sterilisation process on certain thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Issa, Manal; Abreu, Maria Jose; Schacher, Laurence; Adolphe, Dominique; Cabeco Silva, Maria Elisabete

    2004-09-01

    Surgical clothing and sheets have to meet all the requirements set in the health-care industry regarding body comfort, absorption capacity and general recognition of physiological safety and sterilisation capacity. The disposable surgical gown market is growing and the demand will increase in all product groups and market sectors, where the health care industry is the most dynamic growth area. The aim of this study was to analyse some of the thermal properties of disposable surgical gowns before and after different sterilisation methods, and therefore the influence of the sterilisation process on their thermal comfort. The apparatus used to measure heat transfer properties was the Thermo Labo device (KES FB7) which evaluates the cool/warm sensation, thermal conductivity and insulation properties of the test item. The results obtained highlight the influence of the sterilisation process on the thermal and comfort properties.

  8. Thermal properties of organic and modified inorganic aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Pekala, R.W.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1992-08-01

    Aerogels are open-cell foams that have already been shown to be among the best thermal insulating solid materials known. Improvements in the thermal insulating properties of aerogels are possible by synthesizing new organic varieties, by using additives within existing aerogel matrix, and by optimizing their nanostructures. We discuss these approaches and give some examples of aerogels which demonstrate the improvements.

  9. Phase of thermal emission spectroscopy for properties measurements of delaminating thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Fengling; Bennett, Ted D.

    2005-11-15

    Phase of thermal emission spectroscopy is developed for determining the thermal properties of thermal barrier coating (TBC) in the presence of thermal contact resistance between the coating and the substrate. In this method, a TBC sample is heated using a periodically modulated laser and the thermal emission from the coating is collected using an infrared detector. The phase difference between the heating signal and the emission signal is measured experimentally. A mathematical model is developed to predict the phase difference between the laser and the measured emission, which considers the coating properties and the thermal contact resistance of the interface. An electron-beam physical vapor deposition thermal barrier coating with local regions delaminated by laser shock is characterized using this technique. The measurements are made on two regions of the coating, one where good thermal contact between the coating and substrate exists and the other where the interface has been damaged by laser shock. The results for the thermal properties and thermal contact resistance of the interface are presented and compared.

  10. Insights into Asteroid Thermal Properties from Lunar Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayne, Paul; Lucey, Paul G.; Paige, David A.

    2015-08-01

    Surface temperatures on airless planetary bodies are controlled primarily by insolation and the thermophysical properties of the subsurface layer probed by the diurnal and seasonal thermal waves. Observations of asteroid thermal emission are used to constrain the physical structure of this surface layer. However, the thermal skin depth probed by this technique depends on rotation period, and the derived thermal inertia is a weighted average over a finite depth, which varies from one asteroid to another. If the properties of the surface layer are depth-dependent, then physically identical bodies with different rotation periods will have different apparent thermal inertia values. The Moon provides an opportunity to investigate this phenomenon, using thermal infrared emission curves on both the diurnal and eclipse timescales.We used multi-spectral thermal infrared observations of the Moon from two instruments: The Maui Space Surveillance System’s Longwave-IR (LWIR) imager, and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s Diviner Lunar Radiometer. Diviner’s near-complete characterization of the lunar diurnal temperature cycles are used to constrain the properties of the uppermost √κt ~ 30 cm, where κ is thermal diffusivity and t is the rotation period. Eclipse cooling data from both LWIR and Diviner reveal the properties of the uppermost ~ 1 cm. Here, we focus on results from the October, 2014, and April, 2015 total lunar eclipses.Using a 1-d thermal model with depth-dependent thermal properties, we fit both the diurnal and eclipse brightness temperature data. Results show that the regolith thermal inertia increases exponentially with depth, from ~10 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 at the surface to ~90 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 at > 30 cm depth. This range brackets values derived from thermal light curves of many asteroids. Surface thermal inertia values derived from eclipse data are ~25 - 50% lower than previous models based on diurnal temperatures alone, and are similar to the lower end of

  11. Thermal Properties of Amorphous Al-Ni-Si Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Goegebakan, Musa; Okumus, Mustafa

    2007-04-23

    Thermal properties of the amorphous phases in rapidly solidified Al70Ni13Si17 alloy has been investigated by a combination of differential scanning calorimetry DSC. During continuous heating, three exothermic crystallization peaks were observed. Activation energies for the three crystallization peaks were calculated by the Kissinger and Ozawa methods give good agreement. This study describes the thermal properties of rapidly solidified Al70Ni13Si17 amorphous alloy.

  12. Optical and magneto-optical properties of single crystals of RFe{sub 2} (R = Gd, Tb, Ho, and Lu) and GdCo{sub 2} intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.J.

    1999-02-12

    The author has studied the diagonal and off-diagonal optical conductivity of RFe{sub 2}(R = Gd, Tb, Ho, Lu) and GdCo{sub 2} single crystals grown by the flux method. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry the author has measured the dielectric function from 1.5 to 5.5 eV. The magneto-optical Kerr spectrometer at temperatures between 7 and 295 K and applied magnetic fields between 0.5 to 1.6 T. The apparatus and calibration method are described in detail. Using magneto-optical data and optical constants he derives the experimental value of the off-diagonal conductivity components. Theoretical calculations of optical conductivities and magneto-optical parameters were performed using the tight binding-linear muffin tin orbitals method within the local spin density approximation. He applied this TB-LMTO method to LuFe{sub 2}. The theoretical results obtained agree well with the experimental data. The oxidation effects on the diagonal part of the optical conductivity were considered using a three-phase model. The oxidation effects on the magneto-optical parameters were also considered by treating the oxide layer as a nonmagnetic thin transparent layer. These corrections change not only the magnitude but also the shape of the optical conductivity and the magneto-optical parameters.

  13. Magneto-rheological defects and failures: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahid, SA; Ismail, I.; Aid, S.; Rahim, MSA

    2016-02-01

    Magneto-rheological fluid is the colloidal suspension of micron sized magnetic particles in a carrier fluid where defects and failures occur at many circumstances. This paper presents a review on defects and failures of magneto-rheological fluid in engineering applications. The most significant defect is hard cake which developed due to re-dispersion difficulties of remnant particles magnetization, leaving the magneto-rheological fluid ineffective. Clumping effect on the other hand is a separation of carrier fluid from the magnetic particles when magneto-rheological fluid is being exposed to higher magnetic field for an extended period of time. As clumping occurred, it leads to Fluid Particle Separation (FPS) which is believed altering the strength distribution of magneto-rheological fluid and therefore reducing the squeezing force. Another significant failure is magnetic particles oxidation of the magneto-rheological fluid. This paper also will discuss on stability problems which is the most challenged issue in magneto-rheological fluid technology. With the comprehensive review in this paper, researcher can design materials of magneto-rheological fluid for better properties.

  14. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volume concentrations of steady-state secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were measured in several hydrocarbon/NOx irradiation experiments. These measurements were used to estimate the thermal behavior of the particles that may be formed in the atmosphere. These laborator...

  15. Review of thermal properties of graphite composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    Flammability, thermal, and selected mechanical properties of composites fabricated with epoxy and other thermally stable resin matrices are described. Properties which were measured included limiting-oxygen index, smoke evolution, thermal degradation products, total-heat release, heat-release rates, mass loss, flame spread, ignition resistance, thermogravimetric analysis, and selected mechanical properties. The properties of 8 different graphite composite panels fabricated using four different resin matrices and two types of graphite reinforcement are described. The resin matrices included: XU71775/H795, a blend of vinyl polystyryl pyridine and bismaleimide; H795, a bismaleimide; Cycom 6162, a phenolic; and PSP 6022M, a polystyryl pyridine. The graphite fiber used was AS-4 in the form of either tape or fabric. The properties of these composites were compared with epoxy composites. It was determined that the blend of vinyl polystyryl pyridine and bismaleimide (XU71775/H795) with the graphite tape was the optimum design giving the lowest heat release rate.

  16. Mechanical and thermal properties of planetologically important ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1987-01-01

    Two squences of ice composition were proposed for the icy satellites: a dense nebula model and a solar nebula model. Careful modeling of the structure, composition, and thermal history of satellites composed of these various ices requires quantitative information on the density, compressibility, thermal expansion, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity. Equations of state were fitted to the density data of the molecular ices. The unusual thermal and mechanical properties of the molecular and binary ices suggest a larger range of phenomena than previously anticipated, sufficiently complex perhaps to account for many of the unusual geologic phenomena found on the icy satellites.

  17. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND OTHER PROPERTIES OF CEMENTITIOUS GROUTS

    SciTech Connect

    ALLAN,M.

    1998-05-01

    The thermal conductivity and other properties cementitious grouts have been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. In addition to thermal conductivity, the cementitious grouts were also tested for bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the results for selected grout mixes. Relatively high thermal conductivities were obtained and this leads to reduction in predicted bore length and installation costs. Improvements in shrinkage resistance and bonding were achieved.

  18. Cross-plane thermal properties of transition metal dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Muratore, C.; Varshney, V.; Gengler, J. J.; Hu, J. J.; Bultman, J. E.; Smith, T. M.; Shamberger, P. J.; Roy, A. K.; Voevodin, A. A.; Qiu, B.; Ruan, X.

    2013-02-25

    In this work, we explore the thermal properties of hexagonal transition metal dichalcogenide compounds with different average atomic masses but equivalent microstructures. Thermal conductivity values of sputtered thin films were compared to bulk crystals. The comparison revealed a >10 fold reduction in thin film thermal conductivity. Structural analysis of the films revealed a turbostratic structure with domain sizes on the order of 5-10 nm. Estimates of phonon scattering lengths at domain boundaries based on computationally derived group velocities were consistent with the observed film microstructure, and accounted for the reduction in thermal conductivity compared to values for bulk crystals.

  19. Thermal conductivity and other properties of cementitious grouts

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.

    1998-08-01

    The thermal conductivity and other properties cementitious grouts have been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. In addition to thermal conductivity, the cementitious grouts were also tested for bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the results for selected grout mixes. Relatively high thermal conductivities were obtained and this leads to reduction in predicted bore length and installation costs. Improvements in shrinkage resistance and bonding were achieved.

  20. Magneto-optical imaging technique for hostile environments: The ghost imaging approach

    SciTech Connect

    Meda, A.; Caprile, A.; Avella, A.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Magni, A.; Genovese, M.

    2015-06-29

    In this paper, we develop an approach to magneto optical imaging (MOI), applying a ghost imaging (GI) protocol to perform Faraday microscopy. MOI is of the utmost importance for the investigation of magnetic properties of material samples, through Weiss domains shape, dimension and dynamics analysis. Nevertheless, in some extreme conditions such as cryogenic temperatures or high magnetic field applications, there exists a lack of domain images due to the difficulty in creating an efficient imaging system in such environments. Here, we present an innovative MOI technique that separates the imaging optical path from the one illuminating the object. The technique is based on thermal light GI and exploits correlations between light beams to retrieve the image of magnetic domains. As a proof of principle, the proposed technique is applied to the Faraday magneto-optical observation of the remanence domain structure of an yttrium iron garnet sample.

  1. In situ thermally reduced graphene oxide/epoxy composites: thermal and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olowojoba, Ganiu B.; Eslava, Salvador; Gutierrez, Eduardo S.; Kinloch, Anthony J.; Mattevi, Cecilia; Rocha, Victoria G.; Taylor, Ambrose C.

    2016-10-01

    Graphene has excellent mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties and this has made it a prime target for use as a filler material in the development of multifunctional polymeric composites. However, several challenges need to be overcome to take full advantage of the aforementioned properties of graphene. These include achieving good dispersion and interfacial properties between the graphene filler and the polymeric matrix. In the present work, we report the thermal and mechanical properties of reduced graphene oxide/epoxy composites prepared via a facile, scalable and commercially viable method. Electron micrographs of the composites demonstrate that the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is well dispersed throughout the composite. Although no improvements in glass transition temperature, tensile strength and thermal stability in air of the composites were observed, good improvements in thermal conductivity (about 36 %), tensile and storage moduli (more than 13 %) were recorded with the addition of 2 wt% of rGO.

  2. Thermal properties of graphene and nanostructured carbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balandin, Alexander A.

    2011-08-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid growth of interest by the scientific and engineering communities in the thermal properties of materials. Heat removal has become a crucial issue for continuing progress in the electronic industry, and thermal conduction in low-dimensional structures has revealed truly intriguing features. Carbon allotropes and their derivatives occupy a unique place in terms of their ability to conduct heat. The room-temperature thermal conductivity of carbon materials span an extraordinary large range -- of over five orders of magnitude -- from the lowest in amorphous carbons to the highest in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Here, I review the thermal properties of carbon materials focusing on recent results for graphene, carbon nanotubes and nanostructured carbon materials with different degrees of disorder. Special attention is given to the unusual size dependence of heat conduction in two-dimensional crystals and, specifically, in graphene. I also describe the prospects of applications of graphene and carbon materials for thermal management of electronics.

  3. Thermal characterization and properties of a copper-diamond composite

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Pin; Chavez, Thomas P.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Coker, Eric Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    The thermal properties of a commercial copper-diamond composite were measured from below -50°C to above 200°C. The results of thermal expansion, heat capacity, and thermal diffusivity were reported. These data were used to calculate the thermal conductivity of the composite as a function of temperature in the thickness direction. These results are compared with estimated values based on a simple mixing rule and the temperature dependence of these physical properties is represented by curve fitting equations. These fitting equations can be used for thermal modeling of practical devices/systems at their operation temperatures. The results of the mixing rule showed a consistent correlation between the amount of copper and diamond in the composite, based on density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity measurements. However, there was a disparity between measured and estimated thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. These discrepancies can be caused by many intrinsic material issues such as lattice defects and impurities, but the dominant factor is attributed to the large uncertainty of the interfacial thermal conductance between diamond and copper.

  4. Thermal Properties of Polymethyl Methacrylate Composite Containing Copper Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Xie, Huaqing; Xin, Sha; Yin, Junshan; Jiang, Yitong; Wang, Mingzhu

    2015-04-01

    Thermal functional Materials have wide applications in thermal management fields, and inserting highly thermal conductive materials is effective in enhancing thermal conductivity of matrix. In this paper, copper nanoparticles were selected as the additive to prepare polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) based nanocomposite with enhanced thermal properties. Uniform copper nanoparticles with pure face-centered lattice were prepared by liquid phase reduction method. Then, they were added into PMMA/N, N-Dimethylmethanamide (DMF) solution according to the different mass fraction for uniform dispersion. After DMF was evaporated, Cu-PMMA nanocomposites were gained. The thermal analysis measurement results showed that the decomposition temperature of nanocomposites decreased gradually with the increasing particle loadings. The thermal conductivity of the Cu-PMMA nanocomposites rose with the increasing contents of copper nanoparticles. With a 20 vol.% addition, the thermal conductivity was up to 1.2 W/m · K, a 380.5% increase compared to the pure PMMA. The results demonstrate that copper nanoparticles have great potential in enhancing thermal transport properties of polymer.

  5. The properties of the extraordinary mode and surface plasmon modes in the three-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals based on the magneto-optical Voigt effects

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hai-Feng E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Liu, Shao-Bin E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Tang, Yi-Jun

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, the properties of the extraordinary mode and surface plasmon modes in the three-dimensional (3D) magnetized plasma photonic crystals (MPPCs) with face-centered-cubic lattices that are composed of the core tellurium (Te) spheres with surrounded by the homogeneous magnetized plasma shells inserted in the air, are theoretically investigated in detail by the plane wave expansion method, as the magneto-optical Voigt effects of magnetized plasma are considered (the incidence electromagnetic wave vector is perpendicular to the external magnetic field at any time). The optical switching or wavelength division multiplexer can be realized by the proposed 3D MPPCs. Our analyses demonstrate that the complete photonic band gaps (PBGs) and two flatbands regions for the extraordinary mode can be observed obviously. PBGs can be tuned by the radius of core Te sphere, the plasma density and the external magnetic field. The flatbands regions are determined by the existence of surface plasmon modes. Numerical simulations also show that if the thickness of magnetized plasma shell is larger than a threshold value, the band structures of the extraordinary mode will be similar to those obtained from the same structure containing the pure magnetized plasma spheres. In this case, the band structures also will not be affected by the inserted core spheres. It is also provided that the upper edges of two flatbands regions will not depend on the topology of lattice. However, the frequencies of lower edges of two flatbands regions will be convergent to the different constants for different lattices, as the thickness of magnetized plasma shell is close to zero.

  6. The properties of the extraordinary mode and surface plasmon modes in the three-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals based on the magneto-optical Voigt effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Tang, Yi-Jun

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the properties of the extraordinary mode and surface plasmon modes in the three-dimensional (3D) magnetized plasma photonic crystals (MPPCs) with face-centered-cubic lattices that are composed of the core tellurium (Te) spheres with surrounded by the homogeneous magnetized plasma shells inserted in the air, are theoretically investigated in detail by the plane wave expansion method, as the magneto-optical Voigt effects of magnetized plasma are considered (the incidence electromagnetic wave vector is perpendicular to the external magnetic field at any time). The optical switching or wavelength division multiplexer can be realized by the proposed 3D MPPCs. Our analyses demonstrate that the complete photonic band gaps (PBGs) and two flatbands regions for the extraordinary mode can be observed obviously. PBGs can be tuned by the radius of core Te sphere, the plasma density and the external magnetic field. The flatbands regions are determined by the existence of surface plasmon modes. Numerical simulations also show that if the thickness of magnetized plasma shell is larger than a threshold value, the band structures of the extraordinary mode will be similar to those obtained from the same structure containing the pure magnetized plasma spheres. In this case, the band structures also will not be affected by the inserted core spheres. It is also provided that the upper edges of two flatbands regions will not depend on the topology of lattice. However, the frequencies of lower edges of two flatbands regions will be convergent to the different constants for different lattices, as the thickness of magnetized plasma shell is close to zero.

  7. Pressure dependence of thermal transport properties

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeister, Anne M.

    2007-01-01

    Pressure (P) derivatives of thermal conductivity (k) and thermal diffusivity (D) are important to geophysics but are difficult to measure accurately because minerals, being hard and partially transparent, likely incur systematic errors through thermal losses at interfaces and spurious radiative transfer. To evaluate accuracy, repeat experiments for olivine [(Mg0.9Fe0.1)2SiO4], quartz (SiO2), and NaCl are examined in detail: these and other data on electrical insulators are compared with theory. At ambient conditions, D is underestimated in proportion to the number of contacts. As temperature (T) increases, spurious radiative transfer more than offsets contact loss. Compression of pore space and contact losses affect pressure derivatives, but these seem independent of T. Accurate (±2%) values of D(T) at 1 atm are obtained with the contact-free, laser-flash method. Other optical techniques do not pinpoint D but provide useful pressure derivatives. Published data on ∂(lnk)/∂P at ambient conditions agree roughly with all available models, the simplest of which predicts ∂(lnk)/∂P ∼ ∂(lnKT)/∂P, where KT is the bulk modulus. However, derivatives verified by multiple measurements are reproduced accurately only by the damped harmonic oscillator model. An improved database is needed to refine this model and to confidently extrapolate these difficult measurements to geophysically relevant conditions. PMID:17299046

  8. Thermal properties of composite materials: a complex systems approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, J. L.; Bonilla, Beatriz; Reyes, J. J.; Dossetti, Victor

    We propose an effective media approximation to describe the thermal diffusivity of composite samples made of polyester resin and magnetite inclusions. By means of photoacoustic spectroscopy, the thermal diffusivity of the samples were experimentally measured. The volume fraction of the inclusions was systematically varied in order to study the changes in the effective thermal diffusivity of the composites. For some samples, a static magnetic field was applied during the polymerization process, resulting in anisotropic inclusion distributions. Our results show a significant difference in the thermal properties of the anisotropic samples, compared to the isotropic randomly distributed. We correlate some measures of the complexity of the inclusion structure with the observed thermal response through a multifractal analysis. In this way, we are able to describe, and at some extent predict, the behavior of the thermal diffusivity in terms of the lacunarity and other measures of the complexity of these samples Partial Financial Support by CONACyT México and VIEP-BUAP.

  9. Investigation of magneto-optical effects on properties of surface modes in one dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Shikha; Prasad, Surendra; Singh, Vivek

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the properties of surface modes on one dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals in two configurations: Faraday and Voigt configurations. The results have been demonstrated by using the transfer matrix method and employing boundary conditions for TE and TM modes, respectively. For the Voigt effect, only the TM mode is considered because the TE modes under the influence of external magnetic field have the same properties as un-magnetized plasma. The influence of external magnetic field has been studied for three cases, i.e., TE left circular polarization, TE right circular polarization, and TM surface modes. It is shown that the properties of surface modes can be tuned correspondingly by changing the cap layer thickness, wave vector, and external magnetic field in the desired photonic band gap. The results show that collision frequency has a negligible effect on surface modes. A new type of wave called Fano mode has been reported for the Voigt effect for the TM mode in the first band gap. Proof of its existence has been demonstrated in the present paper.

  10. Micromechanics of intraply hybrid composites: Elastic and thermal properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Composite micromechanics are used to derive equations for predicting the elastic and thermal properties of unidirectional intraply hybrid composites. The results predicted using these equations are compared with those predicted using approximate equations based on the rule of mixtures, linear laminate theory, finite element analysis and limited experimental data. The comparisons for three different intraply hybrids indicate that all four methods predict approximately the same elastic properties and are in good agreement with measured data. The micromechanics equations and linear laminate theory predict about the same values for thermal expansion coefficients. The micromechanics equations predict through-the-thickness properties which are in good agreement with the finite element results.

  11. Local magnetic behavior across the first order phase transition in La(Fe0.9Co0.015Si0.085)13 magneto caloric compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennati, C.; Laviano, F.; Durin, G.; Olivetti, E. S.; Basso, V.; Ghigo, G.; Kuepferling, M.

    2016-02-01

    We visualize, with a magneto optical imaging technique with indicator film, the local magnetic response of the compound La(Fe0.9Co0.015Si0.085)13 during its first order magneto structural transition. The technique allowed us by comparing the stray fields of the main magneto caloric phase and of secondary phases present in the sample to obtain the magnetic behavior of each phase above and below the Curie temperature with respect to the surrounds. Computing the change in the total magnetic flux, when the sample crosses the Curie point, both in cooling and heating, we are able to correlate the average thermal hysteresis of the transition with the local magnetic properties at single sites and analyze the influence of defects on the transition dynamics.

  12. Measurement of Thermal Properties of Saltstone

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.L.; Fowley, M.D.

    1998-05-01

    Radioactive liquid effluent from the In Tank Precipitation Process is mixed with Portland cement, flyash and furnace alag to form Saltstone. The Saltstone is poured into vaults at Z Area for long term disposal. A transient heat transfer model of the Saltstone pouring process was previously written to determine whether the Saltstone temperature would exceed the Technical Specification Limit of 95 degrees C. The present work was performed to provide Saltstone density, heat capacity, heat of hydration and thermal conductivity for inclusion in the model.

  13. Anisotropic thermal property of magnetically oriented carbon nanotube polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Dong, Shuai; Wang, Caiping; Wang, Xiaojie; Fang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes a method for preparing multi-walled carbon nanotubea/polydimethylsiloxane (MWCNTs/PDMS) composites with enhanced thermal properties by using a high magnetic field (up to 10T). The MWCNT are oriented magnetically inside a silicone by in-situ polymerization method. The anisotropic structure would be expected to produce directional thermal conductivity. This study will provide a new approach to the development of anisotropic thermal-conductive polymer composites. Systematic studies with the preparation of silicone/graphene composites corresponding to their thermal and mechanical properties are carried out under various conditions: intensity of magnetic field, time, temperature, fillings. The effect of MWCNT/graphene content and preparation procedures on thermal conductivity of composites is investigated. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is used to reveal the mechanical properties of the composites in terms of the filling contents and magnetic field strength. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to observe the micro-structure of the MWCNT composites. The alignment of MWCNTs in PDMS matrix is also studied by Raman spectroscopy. The thermal conductivity measurements show that the magnetically aligned CNT-composites feature high anisotropy in thermal conductivity.

  14. Surface magneto plasmons and their applications in the infrared frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bin; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Qi Jie

    2015-11-01

    Due to their promising properties, surface magneto plasmons have attracted great interests in the field of plasmonics recently. Apart from flexible modulation of the plasmonic properties by an external magnetic field, surface magneto plasmons also promise nonreciprocal effect and multi-bands of propagation, which can be applied into the design of integrated plasmonic devices for biosensing and telecommunication applications. In the visible frequencies, because it demands extremely strong magnetic fields for the manipulation of metallic plasmonic materials, nano-devices consisting of metals and magnetic materials based on surface magneto plasmon are difficult to be realized due to the challenges in device fabrication and high losses. In the infrared frequencies, highly-doped semiconductors can replace metals, owning to the lower incident wave frequencies and lower plasma frequencies. The required magnetic field is also low, which makes the tunable devices based on surface magneto plasmons more practically to be realized. Furthermore, a promising 2D material-graphene shows great potential in infrared magnetic plasmonics. In this paper, we review the magneto plasmonics in the infrared frequencies with a focus on device designs and applications. We investigate surface magneto plasmons propagating in different structures, including plane surface structures and slot waveguides. Based on the fundamental investigation and theoretical studies, we illustrate various magneto plasmonic micro/nano devices in the infrared, such as tunable waveguides, filters, and beam-splitters. Novel plasmonic devices such as one-way waveguides and broad-band waveguides are also introduced.

  15. Improved magnetic induction heating of nanoferrites for hyperthermia applications: Correlation with colloidal stability and magneto-structural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khot, V. M.; Salunkhe, A. B.; Ruso, J. M.; Pawar, S. H.

    2015-06-01

    Nanoferrites with compositions Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4, Co0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4, Ni0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 (MZF, CZF and NZF respectively) coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) were prepared in a single step. These nanoparticles are highly water dispersible with zeta potential values between 14 and 21 mV. Magnetic induction heating characteristics of these NPs have been studied as a function of magnetic field amplitude from 6.7 to 26.7 kA m-1 (at fixed frequency 265 kHz) and concentration of nanoparticles. Notable enhancement in specific absorption rate (334.5 W g-1) by CZF nanoparticles has been observed. This enhanced induction heating properties have been studied and correlated with colloidal stability and magnetostructural properties such as tuned magnetic anisotropy arising from zinc substitution. Cytotoxicity of synthesized mixed ferrites has been evaluated in vitro on HeLa cell lines using MTT assay to explore their use as heating agents in magnetic hyperthermia.

  16. Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wurden, G. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Intrator, T. P.; Grabowski, T. C.; Degnan, J. H.; Domonkos, M.; Turchi, P. J.; Campbell, E. M.; Sinars, D. B.; Herrmann, M. C.; et al

    2015-11-17

    In this community white paper, we describe an approach to achieving fusion which employs a hybrid of elements from the traditional magnetic and inertial fusion concepts, called magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). The status of MIF research in North America at multiple institutions is summarized including recent progress, research opportunities, and future plans.

  17. Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and Other Properties of Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A

    2006-02-01

    This report is part of a series of documents that provide a background to those involved in the construction of beryllium components and their applications. This report is divided into five sub-sections: Atomic/Crystal Structure, Elastic Properties, Thermal Properties, Nuclear Properties, and Miscellaneous Properties. In searching through different sources for the various properties to be included in this report, inconsistencies were at times observed between these sources. In such cases, the values reported by the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics was usually used. In equations, except where indicated otherwise, temperature (T) is in degrees Kelvin.

  18. Tensile-property characterization of thermally aged cast stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, W.F.; Toben, P.T.; Soppet, W.K.; Chopra, O.K.

    1994-02-01

    The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties of cast stainless steels during service in light water reactors has been evaluated. Tensile data for several experimental and commercial heats of cast stainless steels are presented. Thermal aging increases the tensile strength of these steels. The high-C Mo-bearing CF-8M steels are more susceptible to thermal aging than the Mo-free CF-3 or CF-8 steels. A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting the change in tensile flow and yield stresses and engineering stress-vs.-strain curve of cast stainless steel as a function of time and temperature of service. The tensile properties of aged cast stainless steel are estimated from known material information, i.e., chemical composition and the initial tensile strength of the steel. The correlations described in this report may be used for assessing thermal embrittlement of cast stainless steel components.

  19. Thermal properties of dielectric solids below 4 K. I - Polycarbonate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cieloszyk, G. S.; Cruz, M. T.; Salinger, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    Polymers and other dielectric materials are frequently used for many purposes in the construction of cryogenic apparatus. Yet very few values of the thermal properties of these materials below 4 K have been reported. It is, however, known that one can not use the Debye theory to extrapolate to lower temperatures the measurements of the specific heat capacity above 1 K. The thermal conductivity also follows no theoretically predictable temperature dependence. As a by-product of our studies of the thermal properties of amorphous and partly crystalline materials below 4 K, we wish to report values for the thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, and velocity of sound below 4 K in materials useful for the construction of cryogenic apparatus. In this article we will describe our measurement techniques and report values for polycarbonate (Lexan). In subsequent notes we will give values for other materials of interest.

  20. Pressure measurement using thermal properties of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Pessoa, José Dalton; Calbo, Adonai Gimenes

    2004-06-01

    This work presents a design and two methods, one isothermal and one isovolumetric, for pressure measurements based on the compressibility coefficient (κ) and thermal expansibility (α) of the fluid under test. The setup and relevant construction details are described. To demonstrate the applicability of the isovolumetric measurement method, the setup was calibrated with respect to a Bourdon-type manometer; the other isothermic method was analyzed to determine construction details that could realize resolution requirements. The authors determined the effect of ambient temperature on device operation and the time response of the isovolumetric method. The device can be used to estimate the compressibility of a fluid and, in addition, could become an alternative for direct plant cell turgor measurement.

  1. The role of structural and magnetic inhomogeneities in the formation of magneto-transport properties of the La0.6-xSmxSr0.3Mn1.1O3-δ ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashchenko, A. V.; Pashchenko, V. P.; Prokopenko, V. K.; Revenko, Yu. F.; Mazur, A. S.; Burchovetskii, V. V.; Turchenko, V. A.; Liedienov, N. A.; Pitsyuga, V. G.; Levchenko, G. G.; Dyakonov, V. P.; Szymczak, H.

    2016-10-01

    X-ray diffraction, magnetic, transport and SEM measurements were used to investigate the role of structural and magnetic inhomogeneities in the formation of magneto-transport properties of the La0.6-xSmxSr0.3Mn1.1O3-δ (x=0-0.6) ceramics. Reduction of the a parameter of perovskite structure and change of its symmetry are shown to be due to both replacement of La3+ by Sm3+ and an increase concentration of anion and cation vacancies. Broad asymmetric 55Mn NMR spectra are indicative of the high frequency electron double exchange Mn3+↔Mn4+ and demonstrate the heterogeneity of magnetic and valence Mn-states. An excess manganese is dissolved in perovskite structure statistically without formation of planar antiferromagnetic clusters of Mn2+ ions in the deformed A positions. Constructing phase diagram of "composition-structure-properties" describes a strong correlation between structural, resistive and magnetic properties as well as reflects a special role of structural defects in the formation of magneto-transport properties of the rare-earth manganites.

  2. The nondestructive evaluation of thermal barrier coatings: Measurements of thermal properties and associated defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fengling

    2005-11-01

    Phase of thermal emission spectroscopy is developed to nondestructively determine the thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings (TBC). Harmonic heating of the coating is established using a CO2 laser. The phase of thermal emission is measured from the front surface as a function of laser frequency. A mathematical model is developed to describe the heat transport in the measurement and establish all important dependencies of the emission phase. Least square fitting of the experimental measurement using the model permits determination of the unknown properties of the TBC. Besides the thermal diffusivity of the coating, both the thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of the coating can be determined simultaneously. A UCSB TBC deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) is measured and used to illustrate the measurement and analysis. Various TBC samples deposited by different deposition techniques with varying process parameters and materials are measured with phase of thermal emission spectroscopy. A set of TBC specimens deposited by EB-PVD with varying process parameters are measured. The influences of coating thickness, rotation rate, and deposition tilt on the thermal properties of coatings are studied. Another set of TBC samples deposited by directed vapor deposition (EB-DVD) with various processing parameters and different coating materials are also measured. The effects of rotation rate of the substrate and the substrate temperature for deposition are investigated. The thermal properties of two kinds of coating materials, 7wt% yittria, partially stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) and samarium zirconate (Sm2Zr2O7) are compared. Based on the phase of thermal emission spectroscopy, a surface area mapping method is developed for inspecting defects in TBCs non-destructively, which is desirable for monitoring the performance and predicting the failures of TBCs in service. Mapping the phase shift over a region of interest can be used to

  3. Thermal property of insulation material for HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yeon Suk; Kim, D. L.; Shin, D. W.; Hwang, S. D.

    2012-06-01

    The thermal property of insulation material is essential in developing a high temperature superconductor (HTS) power cable operating at around liquid nitrogen temperature. The accurate estimate of the heat flux is difficult in the nonmetallic materials because nonmetallic materials have a high thermal resistance and low temperature gradient along the specimen. The objective of the present work is to develop a precise instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of insulating materials over a temperature range of 30 K to approximately the room temperature by using a cryocooler. The thermal conductivity of Teflon is measured and the accuracy confirmation is carried out by comparing published data. In addition, the experimental results of apparent thermal conductivity of polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) are presented and the temperature dependency is also discussed

  4. "TPSX: Thermal Protection System Expert and Material Property Database"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Thomas H.; Milos, Frank S.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a computer program for storing, organizing, and accessing information about thermal protection materials. The program, called Thermal Protection Systems Expert and Material Property Database, or TPSX, is available for the Microsoft Windows operating system. An "on-line" version is also accessible on the World Wide Web. TPSX is designed to be a high-quality source for TPS material properties presented in a convenient, easily accessible form for use by engineers and researchers in the field of high-speed vehicle design. Data can be displayed and printed in several formats. An information window displays a brief description of the material with properties at standard pressure and temperature. A spread sheet window displays complete, detailed property information. Properties which are a function of temperature and/or pressure can be displayed as graphs. In any display the data can be converted from English to SI units with the click of a button. Two material databases included with TPSX are: 1) materials used and/or developed by the Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center, and 2) a database compiled by NASA Johnson Space Center 9JSC). The Ames database contains over 60 advanced TPS materials including flexible blankets, rigid ceramic tiles, and ultra-high temperature ceramics. The JSC database contains over 130 insulative and structural materials. The Ames database is periodically updated and expanded as required to include newly developed materials and material property refinements.

  5. Thermal Properties of Structural Materials Used in LWR Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. Daw; J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson

    2011-01-01

    High temperature material property data for structural materials used in existing Light Water Reactors (LWRs) are limited. Often, extrapolated values recommended in the literature differ significantly. To reduce uncertainties in predictions relying upon extrapolated data for LWR vessel and penetration materials, high temperature tests were completed on SA533 Grade B, Class 1 (SA533B1) low alloy steel, Stainless Steel 304 (SS304), and Inconel 600 using material property measurement systems available in the High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Properties measured include thermal expansion, specific heat capacity, and thermal diffusivity for temperatures up to 1200 °C. From these results, thermal conductivity and density were calculated. Results show that, in some cases, previously recommended values for these materials differ significantly from measured values at high temperatures.

  6. Fabrication and investigation on field-dependent properties of natural rubber based magneto-rheological elastomer isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ain Abd Wahab, Nurul; Amri Mazlan, Saiful; Ubaidillah; Kamaruddin, Shamsul; Intan Nik Ismail, Nik; Choi, Seung-Bok; Haziq Rostam Sharif, Amirul

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a laminated magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolator which applies to vibration control in practice. The proposed isolator is fabricated with multilayer MRE sheets associated with the natural rubber (NR) as a matrix, and steel plates. The fabricated MRE isolator is then magnetically analysed to achieve high magnetic field intensity which can produce high damping force required for effective vibration control. Subsequently, the NR-based MRE specimen is tested to identify the field-dependent rheological properties such as storage modulus with 60 weight percentage of carbonyl iron particles. It is shown from this test that the MR effect of MRE specimen is quantified to reach up to 120% at 0.8 T. Following the design stage, the electromagnetic simulation using the finite element method magnetic (FEMM) software is carried out for analysing the magnetic flux distribution in the laminated MRE isolator. The laminated MRE isolator is then examined to a series of compression for static and dynamic test under various applied currents using the dynamic fatigue machine and biaxial dynamic testing machine. It is shown that the static compression force is increased by 14.5% under strong magnetic field compared to its off-state. Meanwhile, the dynamic compression test results show that the force increase of the laminated MRE isolator is up to 16% and 7% for low and high frequency respectively. From the results presented in this work, it is demonstrated that the full-scale concept of the MRE isolator can be one of the potential candidates for vibration control applications by tunability of the dynamic stiffness.

  7. Thermal properties for the thermal-hydraulics analyses of the BR2 maximum nominal heat flux.

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.; Kim, Y. S.; Hofman, G. L.

    2011-05-23

    This memo describes the assumptions and references used in determining the thermal properties for the various materials used in the BR2 HEU (93% enriched in {sup 235}U) to LEU (19.75% enriched in {sup 235}U) conversion feasibility analysis. More specifically, this memo focuses on the materials contained within the pressure vessel (PV), i.e., the materials that are most relevant to the study of impact of the change of fuel from HEU to LEU. This section is regrouping all of the thermal property tables. Section 2 provides a summary of the thermal properties in form of tables while the following sections present the justification of these values. Section 3 presents a brief background on the approach used to evaluate the thermal properties of the dispersion fuel meat and specific heat capacity. Sections 4 to 7 discuss the material properties for the following materials: (i) aluminum, (ii) dispersion fuel meat (UAlx-Al and U-7Mo-Al), (iii) beryllium, and (iv) stainless steel. Section 8 discusses the impact of irradiation on material properties. Section 9 summarizes the material properties for typical operating temperatures. Appendix A elaborates on how to calculate dispersed phase's volume fraction. Appendix B shows the evolution of the BR2 maximum heat flux with burnup.

  8. Thermal conductivity and combustion properties of wheat gluten foams.

    PubMed

    Blomfeldt, Thomas O J; Nilsson, Fritjof; Holgate, Tim; Xu, Jianxiao; Johansson, Eva; Hedenqvist, Mikael S

    2012-03-01

    Freeze-dried wheat gluten foams were evaluated with respect to their thermal and fire-retardant properties, which are important for insulation applications. The thermal properties were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry, the laser flash method and a hot plate method. The unplasticised foam showed a similar specific heat capacity, a lower thermal diffusivity and a slightly higher thermal conductivity than conventional rigid polystyrene and polyurethane insulation foams. Interestingly, the thermal conductivity was similar to that of closed cell polyethylene and glass-wool insulation materials. Cone calorimetry showed that, compared to a polyurethane foam, both unplasticised and glycerol-plasticised foams had a significantly longer time to ignition, a lower effective heat of combustion and a higher char content. Overall, the unplasticised foam showed better fire-proof properties than the plasticized foam. The UL 94 test revealed that the unplasticised foam did not drip (form droplets of low viscous material) and, although the burning times varied, self-extinguished after flame removal. To conclude both the insulation and fire-retardant properties were very promising for the wheat gluten foam.

  9. Mesoporous polyurethane aerogels for thermal superinsulation: Textural properties and thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diascorn, N.; Sallee, H.; Calas, S.; Rigacci, A.; Achard, P.

    2015-07-01

    Organic aerogels based on polyurethane were elaborated via sol-gel synthesis and dried with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). The influence of the catalyst concentration was investigated, first in order to decrease the reaction kinetics, then to study its impact on the obtained materials properties. It was shown that this parameter also influences the global shrinkage and the bulk density of the resulting materials. Its effect on the dry materials was studied in terms of morphological, textural and thermal properties in order to determine the main correlations thanks to scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption, non-intrusive mercury porosimetry and thermal conductivity measurements. Results allowed us to demonstrate a correlation between the bulk density, the texture and the thermal conductivity of this family of polyurethane aerogels and to determine an optimal density range for thermal performance associated with a fine internal mesoporous texture.

  10. Anisotropic Thermal and Electrical Properties of Thin Thermal Interface Layers of Graphite Nanoplatelet-Based Composites

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaojuan; Itkis, Mikhail E.; Bekyarova, Elena B.; Haddon, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are crucial components of high density electronics and the high thermal conductivity of graphite makes this material an attractive candidate for such applications. We report an investigation of the in-plane and through-plane electrical and thermal conductivities of thin thermal interface layers of graphite nanoplatelet (GNP) based composites. The in-plane electrical conductivity exceeds its through-plane counterpart by three orders of magnitude, whereas the ratio of the thermal conductivities is about 5. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that the anisotropy in the transport properties is due to the in-plane alignment of the GNPs which occurs during the formation of the thermal interface layer. Because the alignment in the thermal interface layer suppresses the through-plane component of the thermal conductivity, the anisotropy strongly degrades the performance of GNP-based composites in the geometry required for typical thermal management applications and must be taken into account in the development of GNP-based TIMs.

  11. Thermal Properties of Lunar Regolith Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Ray, Chandra; Rickman, Doug; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Various high temperature chemical processes have been developed to extract oxygen and metals from lunar regolith. These processes are tested using terrestrial analogues of the regolith. But all practical terrestrial analogs contain H2O and/or OH-, the presence of which has substantial impact on important system behaviors. We have undertaken studies of lunar regolith simulants to determine the limits of the simulants to validate key components for human survivability during sustained presence on the Moon. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) yields information on phase transitions and melting temperatures. Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis provides information on evolved gas species and their evolution temperature profiles. The DTA and TGA studies included JSC-1A fine (Johnson Space Center Mare Type 1A simulant), NU-LHT-2M (National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-- United States Geological Survey (USGS)--Lunar Highlands Type 2M simulant) and its proposed feedstocks: anorthosite; dunite; high quality (HQ) glass and the norite from which HQ glass is produced. As an example, the DTA and TGA profiles for anorthosite follow. The DTA indicates exothermic transitions at 355 and 490 C and endothermic transitions at 970 and 1235 C. Below the 355 C transition, water is lost accounting for approximately 0.1 percent mass loss. Just above 490 C a second type of water is lost, presumably bound in lattices of secondary minerals along with other volatile oxides. Limited TGA-FTIR data is available at the time of this writing. For JSC-1A fine, the TGA-FTIR indicates at least two kinds of water are evolved in the 100 to 500 and the 700 to 900 C ranges. Evolution of carbon dioxide types occurs in the 250 to 545, 545 to 705, and 705 to 985 C ranges. Geologically, the results are consistent with the evolution of "water" in its several forms, CO2 from break down of secondary carbonates and magmatic, dissolved gas and glass

  12. Sensor Applications of Soft Magnetic Materials Based on Magneto-Impedance, Magneto-Elastic Resonance and Magneto-Electricity

    PubMed Central

    García-Arribas, Alfredo; Gutiérrez, Jon; Kurlyandskaya, Galina V.; Barandiarán, José M.; Svalov, Andrey; Fernández, Eduardo; Lasheras, Andoni; de Cos, David; Bravo-Imaz, Iñaki

    2014-01-01

    The outstanding properties of selected soft magnetic materials make them successful candidates for building high performance sensors. In this paper we present our recent work regarding different sensing technologies based on the coupling of the magnetic properties of soft magnetic materials with their electric or elastic properties. In first place we report the influence on the magneto-impedance response of the thickness of Permalloy films in multilayer-sandwiched structures. An impedance change of 270% was found in the best conditions upon the application of magnetic field, with a low field sensitivity of 140%/Oe. Second, the magneto-elastic resonance of amorphous ribbons is used to demonstrate the possibility of sensitively measuring the viscosity of fluids, aimed to develop an on-line and real-time sensor capable of assessing the state of degradation of lubricant oils in machinery. A novel analysis method is shown to sensitively reveal the changes of the damping parameter of the magnetoelastic oscillations at the resonance as a function of the oil viscosity. Finally, the properties and performance of magneto-electric laminated composites of amorphous magnetic ribbons and piezoelectric polymer films are investigated, demonstrating magnetic field detection capabilities below 2.7 nT. PMID:24776934

  13. Sensor applications of soft magnetic materials based on magneto-impedance, magneto-elastic resonance and magneto-electricity.

    PubMed

    García-Arribas, Alfredo; Gutiérrez, Jon; Kurlyandskaya, Galina V; Barandiarán, José M; Svalov, Andrey; Fernández, Eduardo; Lasheras, Andoni; de Cos, David; Bravo-Imaz, Iñaki

    2014-04-25

    The outstanding properties of selected soft magnetic materials make them successful candidates for building high performance sensors. In this paper we present our recent work regarding different sensing technologies based on the coupling of the magnetic properties of soft magnetic materials with their electric or elastic properties. In first place we report the influence on the magneto-impedance response of the thickness of Permalloy films in multilayer-sandwiched structures. An impedance change of 270% was found in the best conditions upon the application of magnetic field, with a low field sensitivity of 140%/Oe. Second, the magneto-elastic resonance of amorphous ribbons is used to demonstrate the possibility of sensitively measuring the viscosity of fluids, aimed to develop an on-line and real-time sensor capable of assessing the state of degradation of lubricant oils in machinery. A novel analysis method is shown to sensitively reveal the changes of the damping parameter of the magnetoelastic oscillations at the resonance as a function of the oil viscosity. Finally, the properties and performance of magneto-electric laminated composites of amorphous magnetic ribbons and piezoelectric polymer films are investigated, demonstrating magnetic field detection capabilities below 2.7 nT.

  14. Variable thermal properties and thermal relaxation time in hyperbolic heat conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, David E.; Mcrae, D. Scott

    1989-01-01

    Numerical solutions were obtained for a finite slab with an applied surface heat flux at one boundary using both the hyperbolic (MacCormack's method) and parabolic (Crank-Nicolson method) heat conduction equations. The effects on the temperature distributions of varying density, specific heat, and thermal relaxation time were calculated. Each of these properties had an effect on the thermal front velocity (in the hyperbolic solution) as well as the temperatures in the medium. In the hyperbolic solutions, as the density or specific heat decreased with temperature, both the temperatures within the medium and the thermal front velocity increased. The value taken for the thermal relaxation time was found to determine the 'hyperbolicity' of the heat conduction model. The use of a time dependent relaxation time allowed for solutions where the thermal energy propagated as a high temperature wave initially, but approached a diffusion process more rapidly than was possible with a constant large relaxation time.

  15. Thermal properties of soils: effect of biochar application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Lukowski, Mateusz; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2014-05-01

    Thermal properties (thermal conductivity, heat capacity and thermal diffusivity) have a significant effect on the soil surface energy partitioning and resulting in the temperature distribution. Thermal properties of soil depend on water content, bulk density and organic matter content. An important source of organic matter is biochar. Biochar as a material is defined as: "charcoal for application as a soil conditioner". Biochar is generally associated with co-produced end products of pyrolysis. Many different materials are used as biomass feedstock for biochar, including wood, crop residues and manures. Additional predictions were done for terra preta soil (also known as "Amazonian dark earth"), high in charcoal content, due to adding a mixture of charcoal, bone, and manure for thousands of years i.e. approximately 10-1,000 times longer than residence times of most soil organic matter. The effect of biochar obtained from the wood biomass and other organic amendments (peat, compost) on soil thermal properties is presented in this paper. The results were compared with wetland soils of different organic matter content. The measurements of the thermal properties at various water contents were performed after incubation, under laboratory conditions using KD2Pro, Decagon Devices. The measured data were compared with predictions made using Usowicz statistical-physical model (Usowicz et al., 2006) for biochar, mineral soil and soil with addition of biochar at various water contents and bulk densities. The model operates statistically by probability of occurrence of contacts between particular fractional compounds. It combines physical properties, specific to particular compounds, into one apparent conductance specific to the mixture. The results revealed that addition of the biochar and other organic amendments into the soil caused considerable reduction of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The mineral soil showed the highest thermal conductivity and diffusivity

  16. Thermal Properties of Lunar Regolith Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Kenneth; Ray, Chandra; Rickman, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Various high temperature chemical processes have been developed to extract oxygen and metals from lunar regolith. These processes are tested using terrestrial analogues of the regolith. But all practical terrestrial analogs contain H2O and/or OH(-), the presence of which has substantial impact on important system behaviors. We have undertaken studies of lunar regolith simulants to determine the limits of the simulants to validate key components for human survivability during sustained presence on the moon. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) yields information on phase transitions and melting temperatures. Themo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) with mass spectrometric (MS) determination of evolved gas species yields chemical information on various oxygenated volatiles (water, carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and phosphorus oxides) and their evolution temperature profiles. The DTA and TGAMS studies included JSC-1A fine, NU-LHT-2M and its proposed feed stocks: anorthosite; dunite; HQ (high quality) glass and the norite from which HQ glass is produced. Fig 1 is a data profile for anorthosite. The DTA (Fig 1a) indicates exothermic transitions at 355 and 490 C and endothermic transitions at 970 and 1235 C. Below the 355 C transition, water (Molecular Weight, MW, 18 in Fig 1c) is lost accounting for approximately 0.1% mass loss due to water removal (Fig 1b). Just above 490 C a second type of water is lost, presumably bound in lattices of secondary minerals. Between 490 and the 970 transition other volatile oxides are lost including those of hydrogen (third water type), carbon (MW = 44), sulfur (MW = 64 and 80), nitrogen (MW 30 and 46) and possibly phosphorus (MW = 79, 95 or 142). Peaks at MW = 35 and 19 may be attributable to loss of chlorine and fluorine respectively. Negative peaks in the NO (MW = 30) and oxygen (MW = 32) MS profiles may indicate the production of NO2 (MW = 46). Because so many compounds are volatilized in this temperature range quantification

  17. Thermal Properties of Lunar Regolith Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Kenneth; Ray, Chandra; Rickman, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Various high temperature chemical processes have been developed to extract oxygen and metals from lunar regolith. These processes are tested using terrestrial analogues of the regolith. But all practical terrestrial analogs contain H2O and/or OH-, the presence of which has substantial impact on important system behaviors. We have undertaken studies of lunar regolith simulants to determine the limits of the simulants to validate key components for human survivability during sustained presence on the moon. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) yields information on phase transitions and melting temperatures. Themo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) with mass spectrometric (MS) determination of evolved gas species yields chemical information on various oxygenated volatiles (water, carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and phosphorus oxides) and their evolution temperature profiles. The DTA and TGAMS studies included JSC-1A fine, NU-LHT-2M and its proposed feed stocks: anorthosite; dunite; HQ (high quality) glass and the norite from which HQ glass is produced. Fig 1 is a data profile for anorthosite. The DTA (Fig 1a) indicates exothermic transitions at 355 and 490 C and endothermic transitions at 970 and 1235 C. Below the 355 C transition, water (Molecular Weight, MW, 18 in Fig 1c) is lost accounting for approximately 0.1% mass loss due to water removal (Fig 1b). Just above 490 C a second type of water is lost, presumably bound in lattices of secondary minerals. Between 490 and the 970 transition other volatile oxides are lost including those of hydrogen (third water type), carbon (MW = 44), sulfur (MW = 64 and 80), nitrogen (MW 30 and 46) and possibly phosphorus (MW = 79, 95 or 142). Peaks at MW = 35 and 19 may be attributable to loss of chlorine and fluorine respectively. Negative peaks in the NO (MW = 30) and oxygen (MW = 32) MS profiles may indicate the production of NO2 (MW = 46). Because so many compounds are volatilized in this temperature range quantification of

  18. Thermal and thermomechanical properties of poly(butylene succinate) nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Makhatha, Mamookho E; Ray, Suprakas Sinha; Hato, Joseph; Luyt, Adriaan S

    2008-04-01

    This article describes the thermal and thermomechanical properties of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and its nanocomposites. PBS nanocomposites with three different weight ratios of organically modified synthetic fluorine mica (OMSFM) have been prepared by melt-mixing in a batch mixer at 140 degrees C. The structure and morphology of the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations that reveal the homogeneous dispersion of the intercalated silicate layers into the PBS matrix. The thermal properties of pure PBS and the nanocomposite samples were studied by both conventional and temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses, which show multiple melting behavior of the PBS matrix. The investigation of the thermomechanical properties was performed by dynamic mechanical analysis. Results reveal significant improvement in the storage modulus of neat PBS upon addition of OMSFM. The tensile modulus of neat PBS is also increased substantially with the addition of OMSFM, however, the strength at yield and elongation at break of neat PBS systematically decreases with the loading of OMSFM. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites compared to that of the pure polymer sample was examined under both pyrolytic and thermo-oxidative environments. It is shown that the thermal stability of PBS is increased moderately in the presence of 3 wt% of OMSFM, but there is no significant effect on further silicate loading in the oxidative environment. In the nitrogen environment, however, the thermal stability systematically decreases with increasing clay loading.

  19. Investigation of thermal conductivity and tribological properties of nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gara, Luan

    Nanofluids are engineered by dispersing and stably suspending nanoparticles with typical length on the order of 1--50 nm in traditional fluids. In the past decade, scientists and engineers have made great progresses in finding that a very small amount (< 1 vol %) of dispersed nanoparticles can provide dramatic improvement in the thermal properties of the base fluids. Therefore, numerous mechanisms and models have been proposed to account for the thermal enhancement of nanofluids. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has become an important tool in the study of dynamic properties of liquids, molecular solutions, and macromolecules. Therefore, MD simulation is a very helpful tool to model the enhanced thermal conduction and predict thermal conductivities of nanofluids. In recent years, investigations on the tribological properties of nanofluids have also been carried out. Some papers have reported that nanofluids are effective in reducing wear and friction. The mechanisms of friction reduction and anti-wear of nanoparticles in lubricants have been reported as colloidal effect, rolling effect, protective film, and third body. The objective of this research is to study the thermal conductivity and tribological properties of nanofluids. The thermal conductivity of nanofluids was investigated theoretically through MD simulation. Nanodiamond was selected as the nanoparticle and octane as the base oil. The Large-scale Atomic-Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) was used. The effects of the particle size, shape and concentration on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids was investigated. The thermal conductivity of oil based nanofluids with nanodiamond particles was also measured experimentally using transient hot-wire method. The tribological properties of nanofluids were studied through experimental investigation using commercially available nanopowders and nanofluids. Both water based and oil based nanofluids were investigated. A Universal Micro

  20. Experimental determination of thermal properties of alluvial soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, N. G.; Bhandarkar, U. V.; Puranik, B. P.; Rao, A. B.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, thermal conductivity and specific heat of a particular type of alluvial soil used in brick making in a certain region of India (Karad, Maharashtra State) are experimentally determined for later use in the estimation of ground heat loss in clamp type kilns. These properties are determined simultaneously using the steady-state and the transient temperature data measured in the setup constructed for this purpose. Additionally, physical properties of the soil are experimentally determined for use with six models for the prediction of the thermal conductivity of soil. The predictions from the models are compared with the experimental data. A separate data fitting exercise revealed a small temperature dependence of the soil thermal conductivity on the soil mean temperature.

  1. Thermal properties of supernova matter: The bulk homogeneous phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinou, Constantinos; Muccioli, Brian; Prakash, Madappa; Lattimer, James M.

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the thermal properties of the potential model equation of state of Akmal, Pandharipande, and Ravenhall. This equation of state approximates the microscopic model calculations of Akmal and Pandharipande, which feature a neutral pion condensate. We treat the bulk homogeneous phase for isospin asymmetries ranging from symmetric nuclear matter to pure neutron matter and for temperatures and densities relevant for simulations of core-collapse supernovae, protoneutron stars, and neutron star mergers. Numerical results of the state variables are compared with those of a typical Skyrme energy density functional with similar properties at nuclear densities but which differ substantially at supranuclear densities. Analytical formulas, which are applicable to nonrelativistic potential models such as the equations of state we are considering, are derived for all state variables and their thermodynamic derivatives. A highlight of our work is its focus on thermal response functions in the degenerate and nondegenerate situations, which allow checks of the numerical calculations for arbitrary degeneracy. These functions are sensitive to the density-dependent effective masses of neutrons and protons, which determine the thermal properties in all regimes of degeneracy. We develop the "thermal asymmetry free energy" and establish its relation to the more commonly used nuclear symmetry energy. We also explore the role of the pion condensate at supranuclear densities and temperatures. Tables of matter properties as functions of baryon density, composition (i.e., proton fraction), and temperature are being produced which are suitable for use in astrophysical simulations of supernovae and neutron stars.

  2. Processing, characterization, and properties of some novel thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, Amol D.

    The efficacy of ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) used to protect and to insulate metal components in engines increases with the thickness of the TBCs. However, the durabilities of thick TBCs deposited using conventional ceramic-coating deposition methods have not been adequate. Here the feasibility of depositing highly durable thick TBCs (1.5 to 4 mm thickness) of ZrO 2-7 wt.% Y2O3 (7YSZ) on bond-coated superalloy substrates using the solution-precursor plasma spray (SPPS) method has been demonstrated. Thermal cyclic durabilities of the thick SPPS TBCs have been shown to be much superior compared to TBCs deposited using the conventional air-plasma-spray (APS) process. To evaluate the performance of thick APS and SPPS TBCs, mechanical properties of free-standing coatings and coating/substrate interfaces have been determined experimentally. Additional evaluation of TBC performance has been obtained from studies of damage and development of thermally grown oxide (TGO) at the interface as a result of thermal cycling. The later results are used to suggest mechanisms of chemical failure of TGO in thick plasma-sprayed TBCs. Based on the experimental results and numerical analysis of the TBC residual stresses, the dramatic improvement in the thermal cycling life in the SPPS TBCs is attributed to superior mechanical properties of SPPS coatings. The presence of the strain tolerant vertical cracks in SPPS TBCs reduces the driving force for TBC spallation under mode-II loading. Additionally, high in-plane fracture toughness in the SPPS TBCs under mode-I loading delays the TBC spallation significantly. Finally, thermal conductivity of the SPPS TBCs has been reduced by microstructural tailoring. Analytical and object-oriented finite element (OOF) models have been used to analyze the experimental thermal conductivity data, and to predict thermal conductivities of engineered TBCs.

  3. Thermal and Electrical Properties of Electrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeggenborg, Kevin James

    1990-01-01

    A method to determine the stability and decomposition kinetics of electrides was developed. The method uses DSC and was applied to two electrides. A sample of Li ^+(PMPCY)e^- underwent a first-order decomposition reaction with a half life of 110 hrs at 23^circC while a sample of K^+(C222)e ^- decomposed autocatalytically in under 2 days at -57^circ C. The results point to two different mechanisms of decomposition in electrides. The electrical properties of several electrides were investigated through Impedance Spectroscopy and a.c. and d.c. conductivity methods. D.C. conductivity studies of K^+(C222)e^- indicated a low band gap but high apparent resistivity and marked non-Ohmic behavior for the compound. The high resistivity and non-Ohmic behavior were found to be due to a Schottky barrier at the sample-electrode interface. Four probe a.c. conductivity experiments on a cylindrical sample pellet revealed a band gap of 0.086 eV for the compound and placed an upper limit of 0.189 Omega cm at 130 K on its resistivity. The band gap of the compound may be due to the activated transfer of electrons across grain boundaries in the polycrystalline samples. The electrides Cs^+(15C5) _2e^- and Cs^+(18C6)_2e ^- were shown to exhibit the first ionic conductivity ever seen in electrides. Cs ^+(15C5)_2e ^- undergoes a transition from defect electronic conductivity to ionic conductivity, the latter having an activation energy of 0.7 eV. Cs^+(18C6) _2e^- also exhibited ionic conduction with an activation energy of 1.0 eV. Both compounds exhibited electrochemical cell behavior when placed between one cesium and one stainless steel electrode. The mechanism of the ionic conductivity may involve the release of the cesium cation from its crown ether cage and its reduction by an electron anion of the compound followed by Cs^+ transfer between anionic sites in the crystal lattice. The semiconductor behavior previously seen in Cs^+(18C6) _2e^- was shown to be due to the doping of the

  4. Thermal properties of carbon black aqueous nanofluids for solar absorption

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this article, carbon black nanofluids were prepared by dispersing the pretreated carbon black powder into distilled water. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles were explored. The photothermal properties, optical properties, rheological behaviors, and thermal conductivities of the nanofluids were also investigated. The results showed that the nanofluids of high-volume fraction had better photothermal properties. Both carbon black powder and nanofluids had good absorption in the whole wavelength ranging from 200 to 2,500 nm. The nanofluids exhibited a shear thinning behavior. The shear viscosity increased with the increasing volume fraction and decreased with the increasing temperature at the same shear rate. The thermal conductivity of carbon black nanofluids increased with the increase of volume fraction and temperature. Carbon black nanofluids had good absorption ability of solar energy and can effectively enhance the solar absorption efficiency. PMID:21767359

  5. Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene and Carbon Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Gilmore; Khatun, Mahfuza

    2011-10-01

    We will present the general properties of carbon structures. The research involves the study of carbon structures: Graphene, Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), and Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs). A review of electrical and thermal conduction phenomena of the structures will be discussed. Particularly carbon nanoribbons and CNTs have many interesting physical properties, and have the potential for device applications. Our research interests include the study of electronic structures, electrical and thermal transport properties of the carbon structures. Results are produced analytically as well as by simulation. The numerical simulations are conducted using various tools such as Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD), Large Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS), NanoHub at Purdue University and the Beowulf Cluster at Ball State University.

  6. Mechanical and thermal properties of the Czech marbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čáchová, Monika; Koňáková, Dana; Vejmelková, Eva; Keppert, Martin; Černý, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The paper is dealing with selected parameters of four marbles with respect to their utilization as building materials. Stones from four function quarries in the Czech Republic were chosen and scopes of physical properties were determined. Basic physical, mechanical and thermal properties belong among studied characteristics. Bulk density of studied marbles is in average 2750 kg/m3, matrix density 2770 kg/m3, open porosity 0.7%. Pore structure show similar distributions. Mechanical properties show more differences; however minimal value of compressive strength was 66.5 MPa, while maximum was 174 MPa. Thermal conductivity of studied marbles was about 2.955 W/mK. Last measured characteristic was specific heat capacity; its average value was 609 J/kgK.

  7. Thermophysical and Thermomechanical Properties of Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, the issue of coating durability under high temperature cyclic conditions is still of major concern. The coating failure is closely related to thermal stresses and oxidation in the coating systems. Coating shrinkage cracking resulting from ceramic sintering and creep at high temperatures can further accelerate the coating failure process. The purpose of this paper is to address critical issues such as ceramic sintering and creep, thermal fatigue and their relevance to coating life prediction. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. Emphasis is placed on the dynamic changes of the coating thermal conductivity and elastic modulus, fatigue and creep interactions, and resulting failure mechanisms during the simulated engine tests. Detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the thermal barrier coating systems provide a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  8. Computer code for determination of thermally perfect gas properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, David W.; Tatum, Kenneth E.

    1994-01-01

    A set of one-dimensional compressible flow relations for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas is derived for the specific heat c(sub p), expressed as a polynomial function of temperature, and developed into the thermally perfect gas (TPG) computer code. The code produces tables of compressible flow properties similar to those of NACA Rep. 1135. Unlike the tables of NACA Rep. 1135 which are valid only in the calorically perfect temperature regime, the TPG code results are also valid in the thermally perfect calorically imperfect temperature regime which considerably extends the range of temperature application. Accuracy of the TPG code in the calorically perfect temperature regime is verified by comparisons with the tables of NACA Rep. 1135. In the thermally perfect, calorically imperfect temperature regime, the TPG code is validated by comparisons with results obtained from the method of NACA Rep. 1135 for calculating the thermally perfect calorically imperfect compressible flow properties. The temperature limits for application of the TPG code are also examined. The advantage of the TPG code is its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, or polyatomic) or any specified mixture thereof, whereas the method of NACA Rep. 1135 is restricted to only diatomic gases.

  9. Characterization of thermal properties of municipal solid waste landfills.

    PubMed

    Faitli, József; Magyar, Tamás; Erdélyi, Attila; Murányi, Attila

    2015-02-01

    Municipal waste landfills represent not only a source of landfill gases, but a source of thermal energy as well. The heat in landfills is generated by physical, chemical and microbiological processes. The goal of our study was to characterize the thermal properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) samples of the given landfill. A new apparatus was designed and constructed to measure heat flow. A systematic test series of 17 discrete measurements was carried out with municipal waste samples of 1.0-1.7 m(3). The thermal conductivity, heat diffusivity and specific heat capacity of the samples were determined. Analysing the results of the sampling and our experiments it was realized that the theoretical fundaments should be clarified. Two theories were developed for the serial and for the parallel heat flow in three phase disperse systems. The serial and parallel models resulted in different theoretical estimations. The measured thermal conductivity and heat diffusivity were better characterized by the parallel heat flow estimations. The results show that heat can flow parallel in solid, liquid and gas phases. Characterization of thermal properties serves to establish the fundament of heat extraction from municipal waste landfills.

  10. Elastic, electronic and thermal properties of YSZ from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Lei; Yu, Qinghe; Rauf, Abdul; Zhou, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    First principles calculations were performed to investigate the elastic, electronic and thermal properties of 14% cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) using the pseudo potential plane-wave method within the gradient generalized approximation (GGA) for the exchange and correlation potential. Computed lattice constant parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental results. The three independent elastic constants were computed by means of the stress-strain method, indicating that 14% cubic YSZ is a mechanically stable structure. From the knowledge of the elastic constants, a set of related properties, namely bulk, shear modulus, Young's modulus, sound velocity, Debye temperature, thermal capacity and minimum thermal conductivity are numerically estimated in the frame work of the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation for YSZ polycrystalline. The calculated bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, sound velocity, Debye temperature, thermal capacity and minimum thermal conductivity are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental and theory data. Density of states, charge density and Mulliken population analysis show that the 14% cubic YSZ is covalent and possess ionic character.

  11. Thermal Properties of Oxides With Magnetoplumbite Structure for Advanced Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Zhu, Dongming; Eslamloo-Grami, Maryam

    2007-01-01

    Oxides having magnetoplumbite structure are promising candidate materials for applications as high temperature thermal barrier coatings because of their high thermal stability, high thermal expansion, and low thermal conductivity. In this study, powders of LaMgAl11O19, GdMgAl11O19, SmMgAl11O19, and Gd0.7Yb0.3MgAl11O19 magnetoplumbite oxides were synthesized by citric acid sol-gel method and hot pressed into disk specimens. The thermal expansion coefficients (CTE) of these oxide materials were measured from room temperature to 1500 C. The average CTE value was found to be approx.9.6x10(exp -6)/C. Thermal conductivity of these magnetoplumbite-based oxide materials was also evaluated using steady-state laser heat flux test method. The effects of doping on thermal properties were also examined. Thermal conductivity of the doped Gd0.7Yb0.3MgAl11O19 composition was found to be lower than that of the undoped GdMgAl11O19. In contrast, thermal expansion coefficient was found to be independent of the oxide composition and appears to be controlled by the magnetoplumbite crystal structure. Thermal conductivity testing of LaMgAl11O19 and LaMnAl11O19 magnetoplumbite oxide coatings plasma sprayed on NiCrAlY/Rene N5 superalloy substrates indicated resistance of these coatings to sintering even at temperatures as high as 1600 C.

  12. Thermal and electrical transport properties of M_2AlC (M=Ti, V, Cr, Nb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrell, Keith; Finkel, Peter; Lofland, Sam; Hettinger, Jeffrey; Barsoum, Michel

    2004-03-01

    We report on the role of the transition metal element, M, in M_2AlC. We present electrical and thermal transport, thermopower, and magneto-transport properties in the 4-300 K temperature range. Electrical transport results suggests that the conductivity in these materials is metallic with values greater that those of pure Ti-metal. The magnetic susceptibility of each is temperature independent, indicating a temperature independent carrier concentration. The temperature dependent Hall effect is very small in these materials, indicating that the system is highly compensated. Using a two-band model and assuming that the carrier concentration is a constant, we extract temperature dependent charge mobilities. The temperature dependence of the mobilities can also be estimated from the magnetoresistance. This estimate is consistent with the overall temperature dependent conductivity and the mobilities extracted from the Hall number. Wiedemann-Franz analysis indicates that the large thermal conductivities in these systems are results of both the entropy carried by charge and phonons. This work was supported by the NJ Commision on Higher Education and by NSF( DMR0114073).

  13. Thermal, epithermal and thermalized neutron attenuation properties of ilmenite-serpentine heat resistant concrete shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kany, A. M. I.; El-Gohary, M. I.; Kamal, S. M.

    1994-07-01

    Experimental measurements were carried out to study the attenuation properties of low-energy neutrons transmitted through unheated and preheated barries of heavy-weight, highly hydrated and heat-resistant concrete shields. The concrete shields under investigation have been prepared from naturally occurring ilmenite and serpentine Egyptian ores. A collimated beam obtained from an Am-Be source was used as a source of neutrons, while the measurements of total thermal, epithermal, and thermalized neutron fluxes were performed using a BF-3 detector, multichannel analyzer and Cd filter. Results show that the ilmenite-serpentine concrete proved to be a better thermal, epithermal and thermalized neutron attenuator than the ordinary concrete especially at a high temperature of concrete exposure.

  14. Fabrication, characterization, and thermal property evaluation of silver nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noroozi, Monir; Radiman, Shahidan; Zakaria, Azmi; Soltaninejad, Sepideh

    2014-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles were successfully prepared in two different solvents using a microwave heating technique, with various irradiation times. The silver nanoparticles were dispersed in polar liquids (distilled water and ethylene glycol) without any other reducing agent, in the presence of the stabilizer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The optical properties, thermal properties, and morphology of the synthesized silver particles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, photopyroelectric technique, and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that for the both solvents, the effect of microwave irradiation was mainly on the particles distribution, rather than the size, which enabled to make stable and homogeneous silver nanofluids. The individual spherical nanostructure of self-assembled nanoparticles has been formed during microwave irradiation. Ethylene glycol solution, due to its special properties, such as high dielectric loss, high molecular weight, and high boiling point, can serve as a good solvent for microwave heating and is found to be a more suitable medium than the distilled water. A photopyroelectric technique was carried out to measure thermal diffusivity of the samples. The precision and accuracy of this technique was established by comparing the measured thermal diffusivity of the distilled water and ethylene glycol with values reported in the literature. The thermal diffusivity ratio of the silver nanofluids increased up to 1.15 and 1.25 for distilled water and ethylene glycol, respectively.

  15. Physical Origins of Thermal Properties of Cement Paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolhosseini Qomi, Mohammad Javad; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Pellenq, Roland J.-M.

    2015-06-01

    Despite the ever-increasing interest in multiscale porous materials, the chemophysical origin of their thermal properties at the nanoscale and its connection to the macroscale properties still remain rather obscure. In this paper, we link the atomic- and macroscopic-level thermal properties by combining tools of statistical physics and mean-field homogenization theory. We begin with analyzing the vibrational density of states of several calcium-silicate materials in the cement paste. Unlike crystalline phases, we indicate that calcium silicate hydrates (CSH) exhibit extra vibrational states at low frequencies (<2 THz ) compared to the vibrational states predicted by the Debye model. This anomaly is commonly referred to as the boson peak in glass physics. In addition, the specific-heat capacity of CSH in both dry and saturated states scales linearly with the calcium-to-silicon ratio. We show that the nanoscale-confining environment of CSH decreases the apparent heat capacity of water by a factor of 4. Furthermore, full thermal conductivity tensors for all phases are calculated via the Green-Kubo formalism. We estimate the mean free path of phonons in calcium silicates to be on the order of interatomic bonds. This satisfies the scale separability condition and justifies the use of mean-field homogenization theories for upscaling purposes. Upscaling schemes yield a good estimate of the macroscopic specific-heat capacity and thermal conductivity of cement paste during the hydration process, independent of fitting parameters.

  16. Mechanisms of Laser-Tissue Interaction: II. Tissue Thermal Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mohammad Ali; Erfanzadeh, Mohsen; Mohajerani, Ezeddin

    2013-01-01

    Laser-tissue interaction is of great interest due to its significant application in biomedical optics in both diagnostic and treatment purposes. Major aspects of the laser-tissue interaction which has to be considered in biomedical studies are the thermal properties of the tissue and the thermal changes caused by the interaction of light and tissue. In this review paper the effects of light on the tissue at different temperatures are discussed. Then, due to the noticeable importance of studying the heat transfer quantitatively, the equations governing this phenomenon are presented. Finally a method of medical diagnosis called thermography and some of its applications are explained. PMID:25606316

  17. Oxyfluorotellurite glasses doped by dysprosium ions. Thermal and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimesz, Barbara; Ryba-Romanowski, Witold; Lisiecki, Radosław

    2015-04-01

    The paper shows results of investigation of thermal and optical properties of oxyfluorotellurite (65 - x)TeO2-20ZnF2-12Pb2O5-3Nb2O5-xDy2O3 (x = 0.5, 2 and 5) glass systems. Thermal stability and the onset of crystallization of the materials were monitored by differential thermal analysis (DTA). It was found that characteristic parameters, namely glass transition temperatures (Tg), onset of crystallization temperatures (Tc) and thermal stability criteria ΔT and H' increased with increasing Dy2O3 content indicating that the incorporation of dysprosium ions improves substantially thermal stability of glass system under study. Optical absorption and emission spectra of Dy3+ ions in oxyfluorotellurite glass were investigated at room temperature in the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) region. Oscillator strengths, phenomenological Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters Ω2,4,6, radiative transition probabilities, branching ratios and radiative lifetimes of luminescent levels were determined. Decay curves of the 4F9/2 luminescence of incorporated Dy3+ ions were recorded and analysed. Lifetimes and the luminescence dynamics were studied as a function of the Dy2O3 concentration. It was concluded that good thermal stability combined with desirable spectroscopic parameters of investigated dysprosium-doped oxyfluorotellurite glass point at the suitability of this material for the design of UV-excited visible phosphors.

  18. Thermal and Thermoelectric Properties of Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hao-Hsiang

    Many modern technologies are enabled by the use of thin films and/or nanostructured composite materials. For example, many thermoelectric devices, solar cells, power electronics, thermal barrier coatings, and hard disk drives contain nanostructured materials where the thermal conductivity of the material is a critical parameter for the device performance. At the nanoscale, the mean free path and wavelength of heat carriers may become comparable to or smaller than the size of a nanostructured material and/or device. For nanostructured materials made from semiconductors and insulators, the additional phonon scattering mechanisms associated with the high density of interfaces and boundaries introduces additional resistances that can significantly change the thermal conductivity of the material as compared to a macroscale counterpart. Thus, better understanding and control of nanoscale heat conduction in solids is important scientifically and for the engineering applications mentioned above. In this dissertation, I discuss my work in two areas dealing with nanoscale thermal transport: (1) I describe my development and advancement of important thermal characterization tools for measurements of thermal and thermoelectric properties of a variety of materials from thin films to nanostructured bulk systems, and (2) I discuss my measurements on several materials systems done with these characterization tools. First, I describe the development, assembly, and modification of a time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) system that we use to measure the thermal conductivity and the interface thermal conductance of a variety of samples including nanocrystalline alloys of Ni-Fe and Co-P, bulk metallic glasses, and other thin films. Next, a unique thermoelectric measurement system was designed and assembled for measurements of electrical resistivity and thermopower of thermoelectric materials in the temperature range of 20 to 350 °C. Finally, a commercial Anter Flashline 3000 thermal

  19. Computation of Thermally Perfect Properties of Oblique Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatum, Kenneth E.

    1996-01-01

    A set of compressible flow relations describing flow properties across oblique shock waves, derived for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas, is applied within the existing thermally perfect gas (TPG) computer code. The relations are based upon a value of cp expressed as a polynomial function of temperature. The updated code produces tables of compressible flow properties of oblique shock waves, as well as the original properties of normal shock waves and basic isentropic flow, in a format similar to the tables for normal shock waves found in NACA Rep. 1135. The code results are validated in both the calorically perfect and the calorically imperfect, thermally perfect temperature regimes through comparisons with the theoretical methods of NACA Rep. 1135, and with a state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics code. The advantages of the TPG code for oblique shock wave calculations, as well as for the properties of isentropic flow and normal shock waves, are its ease of use, and its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, polyatomic, or any specified mixture thereof).

  20. Thermal properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/vegetable fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitorino, Maria B. C.; Reul, Lízzia T. A.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Canedo, Eduardo L.

    2015-05-01

    The present work studies the thermal properties of composites of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) - a fully biodegradable semi-crystalline thermo-plastic obtained from renewable resources through low-impact biotechno-logical process, biocompatible and non-toxic - and vegetable fiber from the fruit (coconut) of babassu palm tree. PHB is a highly crystalline resin and this characteristic leads to suboptimal properties in some cases. Consequently, thermal properties, in particular those associated with the crystallization of the matrix, are important to judge the suitability of the compounds for specific applications. PHB/babassu composites with 0-50% load were prepared in an internal mixer. Two different types of babassu fibers with two different particle size ranges were compounded with PHB and test specimens molded by compression. Melting and crystallization behavior were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at heating/cooling rates between 2 and 30°C/min. Several parameters, including melting point, crystallization temperature, crystallinity, and rate of crystallization, were estimated as functions of load and heating/cooling rates. Results indicate that fibers do not affect the melting process, but facilitate crystallization from the melt. Crystallization temperatures are 30 to 40°C higher for the compounds compared with the neat resin. However, the amount of fiber added has little effect on crystallinity and the degree of crystallinity is hardly affected by the load. Fiber type and initial particle size do not have a significant effect on thermal properties.

  1. Computation of Thermally Perfect Oblique Shock Wave Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatum, Kenneth E.

    1997-01-01

    A set of compressible flow relations describing flow properties across oblique shock waves, derived for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas, is applied within the existing thermally perfect gas (TPG) computer code. The relations are based upon the specific heat expressed as a polynomial function of temperature. The updated code produces tables of compressible flow properties of oblique shock waves, as well as the original properties of normal shock waves and basic isentropic flow, in a format similar to the tables for normal shock waves found in NACA Rep. 1135. The code results are validated in both the calorically perfect and the calorically imperfect, thermally perfect temperature regimes through comparisons with the theoretical methods of NACA Rep. 1135. The advantages of the TPG code for oblique shock wave calculations, as well as for the properties of isentropic flow and normal shock waves, are its ease of use and its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, polyatomic, or any specified mixture thereof).

  2. Characterizing Thermal Properties of Melting Te Semiconductor: Thermal Diffusivity Measurements and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Li, C.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lin, B.; Ben, H.; Scripa, R. N.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Tellurium is an element for many II-VI and I-III-VI(sub 2) compounds that are useful materials for fabricating many devices. In the melt growth techniques, the thermal properties of the molten phase are important parameter for controlling growth process to improve semiconducting crystal quality. In this study, thermal diffusivity of molten tellurium has been measured by a laser flash method in the temperature range from 500 C to 900 C. A pulsed laser with 1064 nm wavelength is focused on one side of the measured sample. The thermal diffusivity can be estimated from the temperature transient at the other side of the sample. A numerical simulation based on the thermal transport process has been also performed. By numerically fitting the experimental results, both the thermal conductivity and heat capacity can be derived. A relaxation phenomenon, which shows a slow drift of the measured thermal conductivity toward the equilibrium value after cooling of the sample, was observed for the first time. The error analysis and the comparison of the results to published data measured by other techniques will be discussed.

  3. Characterizing Thermal Properties of Melting Te Semiconductor: Thermal Diffusivity Measurements and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Li, C.; Lin, B.; Ben, H.; Scripa, R. N.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Tellurium is an element for many II-VI and I-III-VI(sub 2) compounds that are useful materials for fabricating many devises. In the melt growth techniques, the thermal properties of the molten phase are important parameter for controlling growth process to improve semiconducting crystal quality. In this study, thermal diffusivity of molten tellurium has been measured by a laser flash method in the temperature range from 500 C to 900 C. A pulsed laser with 1064 nm wavelength is focused on one side of the measured sample. The thermal diffusivity can be estimated from the temperature transient at the other side of the sample. A numerical simulation based on the thermal transport process has been also performed. By numerically fitting the experimental results, both the thermal conductivity and heat capacity can be derived. A relaxation phenomenon, which shows a slow drift of the measured thermal conductivity toward the equilibrium value after cooling of the sample, was observed for the first time. The error analysis and the comparison of the results to published data measured by other techniques will be discussed in the presentation.

  4. Rheological and thermal properties of PP-based WPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzanti, V.; Mollica, F.; El Kissi, N.

    2014-05-01

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) has attracted great interest in outdoor building products for the reduced cost and the possibility of using recycled materials. Nevertheless the material shows two problems: the large viscosity due to the presence of high concentrations of filler and the degradation of cellulose during processing The aim of this work was to investigate the rheological and thermal properties of WPC. The material used for the experiments was a commercial PP-based WPC compound, with different concentrations of natural fibers (30, 50, 70% wt.). The thermal properties were studied to check for degradation of natural fibers during the subsequent rheological tests. Analyzing the storage and loss moduli and the complex viscosity curves obtained using a parallel plate rheometer it was possible to observe some features related to the viscoelastic nature of the composite.

  5. Transport properties and microstructural characteristics of a thermally cracked mylonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Ravalec, M.; Darot, M.; Reuschlé, T.; Guéguen, Y.

    1996-03-01

    An experimental study was carried out on a granitic mylonite (La Bresse, France) to analyze the influence of pore microstructure on transport properties. Different crack networks were obtained by a controlled thermal treatment. Microstructures were analyzed by means of gas adsorption and mercury porosimetry. Transport properties have been investigated by measuring gas permeability and electrical conductivity. The dependence of permeability on confining pressure shows an exponential decrease, characteristic of a porosity made of cracks. Correlations between measured parameters have been analyzed by comparing them with relations deduced from theoretical models. Linking the formation factor to the porosity leads to a rather low tortuosity value (about 2.4), characterizing a medium with a well connected porosity. Correlation between permeability k and formation factor F leads to a power-law relation k ∝ F -n where n≈2.9, which is consistent with a crack model describing the behavior of the thermally treated rock.

  6. Effect of thermal modification on rheological properties of polyethylene blends

    SciTech Connect

    Siriprumpoonthum, Monchai; Nobukawa, Shogo; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Satoh, Yasuo; Sasaki, Hiroko

    2014-03-15

    We examined the effects of thermal modification under flow field on the rheological properties of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) with high molecular weight, low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and their blends, without thermal stabilizer. Although structural changes during processing are not detected by size extrusion chromatography or nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, linear viscoelastic properties changed greatly, especially for the LLDPE. A cross-linking reaction took place, leading to, presumably, star-shaped long-chain branches. Consequently, the modified LLDPE, having high zero-shear viscosity, became a thermorheologically complex melt. Moreover, it should be noted that the drawdown force, defined as the uniaxial elongational force at a constant draw ratio, was significantly enhanced for the blends. Enhancement of elongational viscosity was also detected. The drawdown force and elongational viscosity are marked for the thermally modified blend as compared with those for the blend of thermally modified pure components. Intermolecular cross-linking reactions between LDPE and LLDPE, yielding polymers with more than two branch points per chain, result in marked strain-hardening in the elongational viscosity behavior even at small strain. The recovery curve of the oscillatory modulus after the shear modification is further evidence of a branched structure.

  7. Effect of cryogenic treatment on thermal conductivity properties of copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadig, D. S.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Sampathkumaran, P.; Prashanth, C. S.

    2012-06-01

    Copper exhibits high thermal conductivity properties and hence it is extensively used in cryogenic applications like cold fingers, heat exchangers, etc. During the realization of such components, copper undergoes various machining operations from the raw material stage to the final component. During these machining processes, stresses are induced within the metal resulting in internal stresses, strains and dislocations. These effects build up resistance paths for the heat carriers which transfer heat from one location to the other. This in turn, results in reduction of thermal conductivity of the conducting metal and as a result the developed component will not perform as per expectations. In the process of cryogenic treatment, the metal samples are exposed to cryogenic temperature for extended duration of time for 24 hours and later tempered. During this process, the internal stresses and strains are reduced with refinement of the atomic structure. These effects are expected to favourably improve thermal conductivity properties of the metal. In this experimental work, OFHC copper samples were cryotreated for 24 hours at 98 K and part of them were tempered at 423K for one hour. Significant enhancement of thermal conductivity values were observed after cryotreating and tempering the copper samples.

  8. Detonation Properties and Thermal Behavior of FOX-7-Based Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzciński, W. A.; Cudziło, S.; Chyłek, Z.; Szymańczyk, L.

    2013-01-01

    Phlegmatized FOX-7 (1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene, DADNE) and mixtures with cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX) were prepared and their detonation properties (the detonation velocity, detonation pressure, acceleration ability, and detonation energy) were investigated. The sensitivity of these compositions to mechanical stimuli (friction, impact, and shock wave) were determined, and the thermal stability and compatibility of the components were tested. This work furthers the investigation into new compositions for low vulnerability ammunition.

  9. Thermal properties of degraded lowland peat-moorsh soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnatowski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Soil thermal properties, i.e.: specific heat capacity (c), thermal conductivity (K), volumetric heat capacity (C) govern the thermal environment and heat transport through the soil. Hence the precise knowledge and accurate predictions of these properties for peaty soils with high amount of organic matter are especially important for the proper forecasting of soil temperature and thus it may lead to a better assessment of the greenhouse gas emissions created by microbiological activity of the peatlands. The objective of the study was to develop the predictive models of the selected thermal parameters of peat-moorsh soils in terms of their potential applicability for forecasting changes of soil temperature in degraded ecosystems of the Middle Biebrza River Valley area. Evaluation of the soil thermal properties was conducted for the parameters: specific heat capacity (c), volumetric heat capacities of the dry and saturated soil (Cdry, Csat) and thermal conductivities of the dry and saturated soil (Kdry, Ksat). The thermal parameters were measured using the dual-needle probe (KD2-Pro) on soil samples collected from seven peaty soils, representing total 24 horizons. The surface layers were characterized by different degrees of advancement of soil degradation dependent on intensiveness of the cultivation practises (peaty and humic moorsh). The underlying soil layers contain peat deposits of different botanical composition (peat-moss, sedge-reed, reed and alder) and varying degrees of decomposition of the organic matter, from H1 to H7 (von Post scale). Based on the research results it has been shown that the specific heat capacity of the soils differs depending on the type of soil (type of moorsh and type of peat). The range of changes varied from 1276 J.kg-1.K-1 in the humic moorsh soil to 1944 J.kg-1.K-1 in the low decomposed sedge-moss peat. It has also been stated that in degraded peat soils with the increasing of the ash content in the soil the value of specific heat

  10. Thermal properties of degraded lowland peat-moorsh soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnatowski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Soil thermal properties, i.e.: specific heat capacity (c), thermal conductivity (K), volumetric heat capacity (C) govern the thermal environment and heat transport through the soil. Hence the precise knowledge and accurate predictions of these properties for peaty soils with high amount of organic matter are especially important for the proper forecasting of soil temperature and thus it may lead to a better assessment of the greenhouse gas emissions created by microbiological activity of the peatlands. The objective of the study was to develop the predictive models of the selected thermal parameters of peat-moorsh soils in terms of their potential applicability for forecasting changes of soil temperature in degraded ecosystems of the Middle Biebrza River Valley area. Evaluation of the soil thermal properties was conducted for the parameters: specific heat capacity (c), volumetric heat capacities of the dry and saturated soil (Cdry, Csat) and thermal conductivities of the dry and saturated soil (Kdry, Ksat). The thermal parameters were measured using the dual-needle probe (KD2-Pro) on soil samples collected from seven peaty soils, representing total 24 horizons. The surface layers were characterized by different degrees of advancement of soil degradation dependent on intensiveness of the cultivation practises (peaty and humic moorsh). The underlying soil layers contain peat deposits of different botanical composition (peat-moss, sedge-reed, reed and alder) and varying degrees of decomposition of the organic matter, from H1 to H7 (von Post scale). Based on the research results it has been shown that the specific heat capacity of the soils differs depending on the type of soil (type of moorsh and type of peat). The range of changes varied from 1276 J.kg‑1.K‑1 in the humic moorsh soil to 1944 J.kg‑1.K‑1 in the low decomposed sedge-moss peat. It has also been stated that in degraded peat soils with the increasing of the ash content in the soil the value of

  11. Electrical, thermal, catalytic and magnetic properties of nano-structured materials and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zuwei

    Nanotechnology is a subject that studies the fabrication, properties, and applications of materials on the nanometer-scale. Top-down and bottom-up approaches are commonly used in nano-structure fabrication. The top-down approach is used to fabricate nano-structures from bulk materials by lithography, etching, and polishing etc. It is commonly used in mechanical, electronic, and photonic devices. Bottom-up approaches fabricate nano-structures from atoms or molecules by chemical synthesis, self-assembly, and deposition, such as sol-gel processing, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), focused ion beam (FIB) milling/deposition, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and electro-deposition etc. Nano-structures can have several different dimensionalities, including zero-dimensional nano-structures, such as fullerenes, nano-particles, quantum dots, nano-sized clusters; one-dimensional nano-structures, such as carbon nanotubes, metallic and semiconducting nanowires; two-dimensional nano-structures, such as graphene, super lattice, thin films; and three-dimensional nano-structures, such as photonic structures, anodic aluminum oxide, and molecular sieves. These nano-structured materials exhibit unique electrical, thermal, optical, mechanical, chemical, and magnetic properties in the quantum mechanical regime. Various techniques can be used to study these properties, such as scanning probe microscopy (SPM), scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM), micro Raman spectroscopy, etc. These unique properties have important applications in modern technologies, such as random access memories, display, solar energy conversion, chemical sensing, and bio-medical devices. This thesis includes four main topics in the broad area of nanoscience: magnetic properties of ferro-magnetic cobalt nanowires, plasmonic properties of metallic nano-particles, photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide nanotubes, and electro-thermal-optical properties of carbon nanotubes. These materials and their

  12. Mechanical and thermal properties of bulk ZrB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamori, Fumihiro; Ohishi, Yuji; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Fukumoto, Ken-ichi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2015-12-01

    ZrB2 appears to have formed in the fuel debris at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster site, through the reaction between Zircaloy cladding materials and the control rod material B4C. Since ZrB2 has a high melting point of 3518 K, the ceramic has been widely studied as a heat-resistant material. Although various studies on the thermochemical and thermophysical properties have been performed for ZrB2, significant differences exist in the data, possibly due to impurities or the porosity within the studied samples. In the present study, we have prepared a ZrB2 bulk sample with 93.1% theoretical density by sintering ZrB2 powder. On this sample, we have comprehensively examined the thermal and mechanical properties of ZrB2 by the measurement of specific heat, ultrasonic sound velocities, thermal diffusivity, and thermal expansion. Vickers hardness and fracture toughness were also measured and found to be 13-23 GPa and 1.8-2.8 MPa m0.5, respectively. The relationships between these properties were carefully examined in the present study.

  13. Low-rank coal thermal properties and diffusivity: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, W.F.

    1987-06-01

    This project developed techniques for measuring thermal properties and mass diffusivities of low-rank coals and coal powders. Using the concept of volume averaging, predictive models have been developed for these porous media properties. The Hot Wire Method was used for simultaneously measuring the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of both consolidated and unconsolidated low-rank coals. A new computer-interfaced experiment is presented and sample container designs developed for both coal powders and consolidated coals. A new mathematical model, based upon volume averaging, is presented for the prediction of these porous media properties. Velocity and temperature effects on liquid-phase dispersion through unconsolidated coal were determined. Radioactive tracer data were used to determine mass diffusivities. A new predictive mathematical model is presented based upon volume averaging. Vapor-phase diffusivity measurements of organic solvents in consolidated lignite coal are reported. An unsteady-state pressure response experiment with microcomputed-based data acquisition was developed to estimate dispersion coefficients through consolidated lignite coals. The mathematical analysis of the pressure response data provides the dispersion coefficient and the adsorption coefficient. 48 refs., 59 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Electrical and thermal properties of graphite/polyaniline composites

    SciTech Connect

    Bourdo, Shawn E.; Warford, Brock A.; Viswanathan, Tito

    2012-12-15

    A composite of a carbon allotrope (graphite) and an inherently conducting polymer, polyaniline (PANI), has been prepared that exhibits an electrical conductivity greater than either of the two components. An almost 2-fold increase in the bulk conductivity occurs when only a small mass fraction of polyaniline exists in the composite (91% graphite/ 9% polyaniline, by mass). This increase in dc electrical conductivity is curious since in most cases a composite material will exhibit a conductivity somewhere between the two individual components, unless a modification to the electronic nature of the material occurs. In order to elucidate the fundamental electrical properties of the composite we have performed variable temperature conductivity measurements to better understand the nature of conduction in these materials. The results from these studies suggest a change in the mechanism of conduction as the amount of polyaniline is increased in the composite. Along with superior electrical properties, the composites exhibit an increase in thermal stability as compared to the graphite. - Graphical abstract: (Left) Room temperature electrical conductivity of G-PANI composites at different mass ratios. (Right) Electrical conductivity of G-PANI composites at temperatures from 5 K to 300 K. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composites of graphite and polyaniline have been synthesized with unique electrical and thermal properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Certain G-PANI composites are more conductive and more thermally stable than graphite alone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G-PANI composites exhibit a larger conductivity ratio with respect to temperature than graphite alone.

  15. Magneto-convection.

    PubMed

    Stein, Robert F

    2012-07-13

    Convection is the transport of energy by bulk mass motions. Magnetic fields alter convection via the Lorentz force, while convection moves the fields via the curl(v×B) term in the induction equation. Recent ground-based and satellite telescopes have increased our knowledge of the solar magnetic fields on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Magneto-convection modelling has also greatly improved recently as computers become more powerful. Three-dimensional simulations with radiative transfer and non-ideal equations of state are being performed. Flux emergence from the convection zone through the visible surface (and into the chromosphere and corona) has been modelled. Local, convectively driven dynamo action has been studied. The alteration in the appearance of granules and the formation of pores and sunspots has been investigated. Magneto-convection calculations have improved our ability to interpret solar observations, especially the inversion of Stokes spectra to obtain the magnetic field and the use of helioseismology to determine the subsurface structure of the Sun. PMID:22665893

  16. Composition, structure and properties of sediment thermal springs of Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanina, Violetta; Smolyakov, Pavel; Parfenov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the physical and mechanical properties sediment thermal fields Mutnovsky, Lower Koshelevo and Bannyh (Kamchatka). This multi-component soils, mineral and chemical composition of which depends on the formation factors (pH, temperature, salinity of water, composition and structure of the host volcanic rocks). Samples Lower Koshelevo sediment thermal sources differ in the following composition: smectite, kaolinite, kaolinite-smectite mixed-mineral. Samples of sediment thermal springs Mutnovsky volcano in accordance with the X-ray analysis has the following composition: volcanic glass, crystalline sulfur, plagioclase, smectite, illite-smectite mixed, illite, chlorite, quartz, cristobalite, pyrite, melanterite, kaolinite. Natural moisture content samples of sediment thermal springs from 45 to 121%, hygroscopic moisture content of 1.3 to 3.7%. A large amount of native sulfur (up to 92%) and the presence of amorphous material gives low values of density of solid particles (up to 2.1 g/cm3) samples Mutnovskii thermal field. The values of the density of solids sediment Koshelevo and Bannyh hot springs close to those of the main components of mineral densities (up to 2.6-3.0 g/cm3). The results of the particle size distribution and microaggregate analysis of sediment thermal springs Lower Koshelevo field shows that the predominance observed of particles with a diameter from 0.05 mm to 0.25 mm, the coefficient of soil heterogeneity heterogeneous. In the bottom sediments of the thermal springs of the volcano Mutnovsky poorly traced predominance of one faction. Most prevalent fraction with particle size 0.01 - 0.05 mm. When analyzing the content in the soil microaggregates their content is shifted towards particles with a diameter of 0.25 mm. The contents of a large number of large (1-10 mm), porous rock fragments, due to the deposition of pyroclastic material from the eruptions of the last century. Present in large amounts rounded crystals of native sulfur

  17. Effect of Thermal Aging on Microstructure and Functional Properties of Zirconia-Base Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markocsan, N.; Nylén, P.; Wigren, J.; Li, X.-H.; Tricoire, A.

    2009-06-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBCs) systems made of plasma sprayed zirconia are commonly used in gas turbine engines to lower metal components surface temperature and allow higher combustion temperature that results in higher fuel efficiency and environmentally cleaner emissions. Low thermal conductivity and long service life are the most important properties of these coatings. The objective of this work was to study the influence of a long-term heat treatment (i.e., 1200 °C/2000 h) on different characteristics of atmospheric plasma sprayed TBCs. Two zirconia feedstock materials were evaluated, namely, yttria partially stabilized zirconia and dysprosia partially stabilized zirconia. Several spray conditions were designed and employed to achieve different coating morphologies. Microstructure analyses revealed that the coating microstructure was significantly dependent on both operating conditions and heat treatment conditions. Significant changes in coatings porosity occurred during heat treatment. The lowest thermal conductivity was reached with the dysprosia partially stabilized zirconia material. Heat treatment affected TBCs adhesion strength as well.

  18. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: First-Principles Calculations of Elastic and Thermal Properties of Molybdenum Disilicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zun-Lue; Fu, Hong-Zhi; Sun, Jin-Feng; Liu, Yu-Fang; Shi, De-Heng; Xu, Guo-Liang

    2009-08-01

    The first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential method using the generalized gradient approximation within the framework of density functional theory is applied to anaylse the equilibrium lattice parameters, six independent elastic constants, bulk moduli, thermal expansions and heat capacities of MoSi2. The quasi-harmonic Debye model, using a set of total energy versus cell volume obtained with the plane-wave pseudopotential method, is applied to the study of the elastic properties, thermodynamic properties and vibrational effects. The calculated zero pressure elastic constants are in overall good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated heat capacities and the thermal expansions agree well with the observed values under ambient conditions and those calculated by others. The results show that the temperature has hardly any effect under high pressure.

  19. Thermal property measurement of thin fibers by complementary methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, Troy Robert

    To improve measurement reliability and repeatability and resolve the orders of magnitude discrepancy between the two different measurements (via reduced model transient electrothermal and lock-in IR thermography), this dissertation details the development of three complementary methods to accurately measure the thermal properties of the natural and synthetic Nephila (N.) clavipes spider dragline fibers. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the dragline silk of the (N.) clavipes spider has been characterized by one research group to be 151-416 W m-1 K-1 and 6.4-12.3 x 10-5 m2 s -1, respectively, for samples with low to high strains (zero to 19.7%). Thermal diffusivity of the dragline silk of a different spider species, Araneus diadematus, has been determined by another research group as 2 x 10-7 m2 s-1 for un-stretched silk. This dissertation seeks to resolve this discrepancy by three complementary methods. The methods detailed are the transient electrothermal technique (in both reduced and full model versions), the 3o method (for both current and voltage sources), and the non-contact, photothermal, quantum-dot spectral shape-based fluorescence thermometry method. These methods were also validated with electrically conductive and non-conductive fibers. The resulting thermal conductivity of the dragline silk is 1.2 W m-1 K-1, the thermal diffusivity is 6 x 10-7 m2 s -1 and the volumetric heat capacity is 2000 kJ m-3 K-1, with an uncertainty of about 12% for each property.

  20. Thermal Properties Capability Development Workshop Summary to Support the Implementation Plan for PIE Thermal Conductivity Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Braase, Lori; Papesch, Cynthia; Hurley, David

    2015-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE)-Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and associated nuclear fuels programs have invested heavily over the years in infrastructure and capability development. With the current domestic and international need to develop Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF), increasing importance is being placed on understanding fuel performance in irradiated conditions and on the need to model and validate that performance to reduce uncertainty and licensing timeframes. INL’s Thermal Properties Capability Development Workshop was organized to identify the capability needed by the various nuclear programs and list the opportunities to meet those needs. In addition, by the end of fiscal year 2015, the decision will be made on the initial thermal properties instruments to populate the shielded cell in the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  1. Thermal, Morphological and Rheological Properties of Rigid Polyurethane Foams as Thermal Insulating Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Mun; Han, Mi Sun; Kim, Youn Hee; Kim, Woo Nyon

    2008-07-01

    The polyurethane foams (PUFs) were prepared by polyether polyols, polymeric 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI), silicone surfactants, amine catalysts and cyclopentane as a blowing agent. Solid and liquid type fillers were used as a nucleating agent to decrease a cell size of the PUFs as well as improve the thermal insulating properties of the PUFs. The PUFs were prepared by adding solid and liquid type fillers in the range of 1 to 3 wt%. For the liquid type fillers, the cell size of the PUFs showed minimum and found to decrease compared the PUF without adding fillers. Also, thermal conductivity of the PUFs with adding fillers showed minimum. For the solid type fillers, cell size and thermal conductivity of the PUFs were observed to decrease with the filler content up to 3 wt%. From these results, it is suggested that the thermal insulating property of the PUFs can be improved by adding fillers as a nucleating agent. Also, storage and loss modulus of the PUFs will be presented to study gelling points of the PUFs.

  2. Thermal, Morphological and Rheological Properties of Rigid Polyurethane Foams as Thermal Insulating Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji Mun; Han, Mi Sun; Kim, Youn Hee; Kim, Woo Nyon

    2008-07-07

    The polyurethane foams (PUFs) were prepared by polyether polyols, polymeric 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI), silicone surfactants, amine catalysts and cyclopentane as a blowing agent. Solid and liquid type fillers were used as a nucleating agent to decrease a cell size of the PUFs as well as improve the thermal insulating properties of the PUFs. The PUFs were prepared by adding solid and liquid type fillers in the range of 1 to 3 wt%. For the liquid type fillers, the cell size of the PUFs showed minimum and found to decrease compared the PUF without adding fillers. Also, thermal conductivity of the PUFs with adding fillers showed minimum. For the solid type fillers, cell size and thermal conductivity of the PUFs were observed to decrease with the filler content up to 3 wt%. From these results, it is suggested that the thermal insulating property of the PUFs can be improved by adding fillers as a nucleating agent. Also, storage and loss modulus of the PUFs will be presented to study gelling points of the PUFs.

  3. Acousto-mechanical and thermal properties of clotted blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahirnyak, Volodymyr M.; Yoon, S. Wang; Holland, Christy K.

    2005-04-01

    The efficacy of ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis as an adjunct treatment of ischemic stroke is being widely investigated. In order to determine the role of ultrasound hyperthermia in the process of blood clot disruption, the thermal and acousto-mechanical properties of clotted blood were measured in vitro. Whole blood clots were prepared from either fresh porcine or human blood by aliquoting 1.5 or 2.0 ml into 10 ml glass tubes (BD VacutainerTM, Franklin Lakes, NJ), immersing the tubes in a 37°C water bath for three hours and storing the clots at 5°C for at least three days prior to assessment of the properties, which ensured complete clot retraction. Direct calorimetric measurements using calibrated E-type thermocouples (Omega Engineering, Inc., Stanford, CT) were performed to determine the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the human and porcine thrombi against a standard fluid, saline [0.9%]. The amplitude coefficient of attenuation of the clots was determined from 120 kHz to 3.5 MHz with a calibrated hydrophone (TC4038, RESON, Inc., Goleta, CA) in a 20+/-2°C water bath using the substitution method. The experimentally measured values of heat capacity, density, and thermal conductivity of porcine clotted blood are 3.23+/-0.46 J/g.K, 1.058+/-0.014 g/cm3, and 0.52+/-0.14 W/m.K. The attenuation coefficient ranged from 0.10 to 0.30 Nepers/cm over 120 kHz to 3.5 MHz. Measurements of the acousto-mechanical and thermal properties of clotted blood can be helpful in theoretical modeling of ultrasound hyperthermia in ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis.

  4. On thermal properties of hard rocks as a host environment of an underground thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakova, L.; Hladky, R.; Broz, M.; Novak, P.; Lachman, V.; Sosna, K.; Zaruba, J.; Metelkova, Z.; Najser, J.

    2013-12-01

    With increasing focus on environmentally friendly technologies waste heat recycling became an important issue. Under certain circumstances subsurface environment could be utilized to accommodate relatively large quantity of heat. Industrial waste heat produced during warm months can be stored in an underground thermal energy storage (UTES) and used when needed. It is however a complex task to set up a sustainable UTES for industrial scale. Number of parameters has to be studied and evaluated by means of thermohydromechanical and chemical coupling (THMC) before any UTES construction. Thermal characteristics of various rocks and its stability under thermal loading are amongst the most essential. In the Czech Republic study two complementary projects THMC processes during an UTES operation. The RESEN project (www.resen.cz) employs laboratory tests and experiments to characterise thermal properties of hard rocks in the Bohemian Massif. Aim of the project is to point out the most suitable rock environment in the Bohemian Massif for moderate to ultra-high temperature UTES construction (Sanyal, 2005). The VITA project (www.geology.cz/mokrsko) studies THM coupling in non-electrical temperature UTES using long term in-situ experiment. In both projects thermal properties of rocks were studied. Thermal conductivity and capacity were measured on rock samples. In addition an influence of increasing temperature and moisture content was considered. Ten hard rocks were investigated. The set included two sandstones, two ignibrites, a melaphyr, a syenite, two granites, a gneiss and a serpentinite. For each rock there were measured thermal conductivity and capacity of at least 54 dried samples. Subsequently, the samples were heated up to 380°C in 8 hours and left to cool down. Thermal characteristics were measured during the heating period and after the sample reached room temperature. Heating and cooling cycle was repeated 7 to 10 times to evaluate possible UTES-like degradation of

  5. Crystal dynamics and thermal properties of neptunium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, P.; Paolasini, L.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Forrest, T. R.; Prodi, A.; Magnani, N.; Bosak, A.; Lander, G. H.; Caciuffo, R.

    2016-04-01

    We report an experimental and theoretical investigation of the lattice dynamics and thermal properties of the actinide dioxide NpO2. The energy-wave-vector dispersion relation for normal modes of vibration propagating along the [001 ] , [110 ] , and [111 ] high-symmetry lines in NpO2 at room temperature has been determined by measuring the coherent one-phonon scattering of x rays from an ˜1.2 -mg single-crystal specimen, the largest available single crystal for this compound. The results are compared against ab initio phonon dispersions computed within the first-principles density functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation plus Hubbard U correlation (GGA+U ) approach, taking into account third-order anharmonicity effects in the quasiharmonic approximation. Good agreement with the experiment is obtained for calculations with an on-site Coulomb parameter U =4 eV and Hund's exchange J =0.6 eV in line with previous electronic structure calculations. We further compute the thermal expansion, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, phonon linewidth, and thermal phonon softening, and compare with available experiments. The theoretical and measured heat capacities are in close agreement with another. About 27% of the calculated thermal conductivity is due to phonons with energy higher than 25 meV (˜6 THz ), suggesting an important role of high-energy optical phonons in the heat transport. The simulated thermal expansion reproduces well the experimental data up to about 1000 K, indicating a failure of the quasiharmonic approximation above this limit.

  6. Towards the nonlinear acousto-magneto-plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temnov, Vasily V.; Razdolski, Ilya; Pezeril, Thomas; Makarov, Denys; Seletskiy, Denis; Melnikov, Alexey; Nelson, Keith A.

    2016-09-01

    We review the recent progress in experimental and theoretical research of interactions between the acoustic, magnetic and plasmonic transients in hybrid metal-ferromagnet multilayer structures excited by ultrashort laser pulses. The main focus is on understanding the nonlinear aspects of the acoustic dynamics in materials as well as the peculiarities in the nonlinear optical and magneto-optical response. For example, the nonlinear optical detection is illustrated in detail by probing the static magneto-optical second harmonic generation in gold–cobalt–silver trilayer structures in Kretschmann geometry. Furthermore, we show experimentally how the nonlinear reshaping of giant ultrashort acoustic pulses propagating in gold can be quantified by time-resolved plasmonic interferometry and how these ultrashort optical pulses dynamically modulate the optical nonlinearities. An effective medium approximation for the optical properties of hybrid multilayers enables the understanding of novel optical detection techniques. In the discussion we also highlight recent works on the nonlinear magneto-elastic interactions, and strain-induced effects in semiconductor quantum dots.

  7. Synthesis of Immunotargeted Magneto-plasmonic Nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chun-Hsien; Sokolov, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic and plasmonic properties combined in a single nanoparticle provide a synergy that is advantageous in a number of biomedical applications including contrast enhancement in novel magnetomotive imaging modalities, simultaneous capture and detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and multimodal molecular imaging combined with photothermal therapy of cancer cells. These applications have stimulated significant interest in development of protocols for synthesis of magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles with optical absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) region and a strong magnetic moment. Here, we present a novel protocol for synthesis of such hybrid nanoparticles that is based on an oil-in-water microemulsion method. The unique feature of the protocol described herein is synthesis of magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles of various sizes from primary blocks which also have magneto-plasmonic characteristics. This approach yields nanoparticles with a high density of magnetic and plasmonic functionalities which are uniformly distributed throughout the nanoparticle volume. The hybrid nanoparticles can be easily functionalized by attaching antibodies through the Fc moiety leaving the Fab portion that is responsible for antigen binding available for targeting. PMID:25177973

  8. Synthesis of immunotargeted magneto-plasmonic nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Hsien; Sokolov, Konstantin

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic and plasmonic properties combined in a single nanoparticle provide a synergy that is advantageous in a number of biomedical applications including contrast enhancement in novel magnetomotive imaging modalities, simultaneous capture and detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and multimodal molecular imaging combined with photothermal therapy of cancer cells. These applications have stimulated significant interest in development of protocols for synthesis of magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles with optical absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) region and a strong magnetic moment. Here, we present a novel protocol for synthesis of such hybrid nanoparticles that is based on an oil-in-water microemulsion method. The unique feature of the protocol described herein is synthesis of magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles of various sizes from primary blocks which also have magneto-plasmonic characteristics. This approach yields nanoparticles with a high density of magnetic and plasmonic functionalities which are uniformly distributed throughout the nanoparticle volume. The hybrid nanoparticles can be easily functionalized by attaching antibodies through the Fc moiety leaving the Fab portion that is responsible for antigen binding available for targeting. PMID:25177973

  9. Towards the nonlinear acousto-magneto-plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temnov, Vasily V.; Razdolski, Ilya; Pezeril, Thomas; Makarov, Denys; Seletskiy, Denis; Melnikov, Alexey; Nelson, Keith A.

    2016-09-01

    We review the recent progress in experimental and theoretical research of interactions between the acoustic, magnetic and plasmonic transients in hybrid metal-ferromagnet multilayer structures excited by ultrashort laser pulses. The main focus is on understanding the nonlinear aspects of the acoustic dynamics in materials as well as the peculiarities in the nonlinear optical and magneto-optical response. For example, the nonlinear optical detection is illustrated in detail by probing the static magneto-optical second harmonic generation in gold-cobalt-silver trilayer structures in Kretschmann geometry. Furthermore, we show experimentally how the nonlinear reshaping of giant ultrashort acoustic pulses propagating in gold can be quantified by time-resolved plasmonic interferometry and how these ultrashort optical pulses dynamically modulate the optical nonlinearities. An effective medium approximation for the optical properties of hybrid multilayers enables the understanding of novel optical detection techniques. In the discussion we also highlight recent works on the nonlinear magneto-elastic interactions, and strain-induced effects in semiconductor quantum dots.

  10. Estimation of Phonon and Carrier Thermal Conductivities for Bulk Thermoelectric Materials Using Transport Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Mioko; Homma, Ryoei; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2016-09-01

    The phonon and carrier thermal conductivities of thermoelectric materials were calculated using the Wiedemann-Franz law, Boltzmann equation, and a method we propose in this study called the Debye specific heat method. We prepared polycrystalline n-type doped bismuth telluride (BiTe) and bismuth antimony (BiSb) bulk alloy samples and measured six parameters (Seebeck coefficient, resistivity, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, magneto-resistivity, and Hall coefficient). The carrier density and mobility were estimated for calculating the carrier thermal conductivity by using the Boltzmann equation. In the Debye specific heat method, the phonon thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity were calculated from the temperature dependence of the effective specific heat by using not only the measured thermal conductivity and Debye model, but also the measured thermal diffusivity. The carrier thermal conductivity was also evaluated from the phonon thermal conductivity by using the specific heat. The ratio of carrier thermal conductivity to thermal conductivity was evaluated for the BiTe and BiSb samples, and the values obtained using the Debye specific heat method at 300 K were 52% for BiTe and <5.5% for BiSb. These values are either considerably larger or smaller than those obtained using other methods. The Dulong-Petit law was applied to validate the Debye specific heat method at 300 K, which is significantly greater than the Debye temperature of the BiTe and BiSb samples, and it was confirmed that the phonon specific heat at 300 K has been accurately reproduced using our proposed method.

  11. Study on Thermal and Mechanical Properties of EPDM Insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhong-Shui; Xu, Jin-Sheng; Chen, Xiong; Jiang, Jing

    As the most common insulation material of solid rocket motors, thermal and mechanical properties of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) composite are inspected in the study. Referring to the results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), composition and morphology of EPDM composite in different thermal degradation degree are investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to inspect the mechanism of thermal insulation. Mechanical properties of EPDM composite in the state of pyrolysis are investigated by uniaxial tensile tests. At the state of initial pyrolysis, composite belongs to the category of hyperelastic-viscoelastic material. The tendency of tensile strength increased and elongation decreased with increasing of heating temperature. Composite behaves as the linear rule at the state of late pyrolysis, which belongs to the category of bittle. The elasticity modulus of curves are almost the same while the heating temperature ranges from 200°C to 300°C, and then gradually go down. The tensile strength of pyrolytic material reach the highest at the heating temperature of 300°C, and the virgin material has the largest elongation.

  12. Thermal properties of polyolefin composites with copper silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klozinski, Arkadiusz; Jakubowska, Paulina; Ambrozewicz, Damian; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to specify thermal properties of polyolefin composites with copper silicate. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) composites with 2, 4 and 8 wt % of the filler (CuO.SiO2) were analyzed. Characteristic temperatures of the polymer compositions, i.e. the melting (Tm) and crystallization temperatures (Tc), obtained by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), were determined. The impact of the applied additives on composites thermal stability was established using thermogravimetry measurements (TGA). Afterwards, the flammability test was performed. The measurement was complemented with the establishment of the maximum combustion temperature using infrared recording techniques and image analysis (infrared camera). One of the most important parameter of thermoplastics is the softening point which was also determined. The measurement was carried out using a Vicat apparatus. Thermal characteristic was also supplemented with an assessment of the thermal diffusivity (the parameter determining the cooling time in an injection mold). The tests were conducted using the modified Angstrom method and an infrared camera.

  13. Thermal Properties of Hybrid Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber Polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Cano, Roberto J.; Luong, Hoa; Ratcliffe, James G.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites possess many advantages for aircraft structures over conventional aluminum alloys: light weight, higher strength- and stiffness-to-weight ratio, and low life-cycle maintenance costs. However, the relatively low thermal and electrical conductivities of CFRP composites are deficient in providing structural safety under certain operational conditions such as lightning strikes. One possible solution to these issues is to interleave carbon nanotube (CNT) sheets between conventional carbon fiber (CF) composite layers. However, the thermal and electrical properties of the orthotropic hybrid CNT/CF composites have not been fully understood. In this study, hybrid CNT/CF polymer composites were fabricated by interleaving layers of CNT sheets with Hexcel (Registered Trademark) IM7/8852 prepreg. The CNT sheets were infused with a 5% solution of a compatible epoxy resin prior to composite fabrication. Orthotropic thermal and electrical conductivities of the hybrid polymer composites were evaluated. The interleaved CNT sheets improved the in-plane thermal conductivity of the hybrid composite laminates by about 400% and the electrical conductivity by about 3 orders of magnitude.

  14. Luminescent Magneto-Optical Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishin, A. M.; Khartsev, S. I.

    2012-03-01

    We compare luminescent properties of several Er-doped garnet films as building blocks in all-garnet heteroepitaxial magneto-optical photonic crystals: La3Ga5O12, Gd3Ga5O12, Y3Fe5O12, Bi3Fe5O12, and Bi2.97Er0.03Fe4Al0.5Ga0.5O12. Er substituents on the dodecahedral lattice sites do not decrease giant Faraday rotation in Bi3Fe5O12 garnet; meanwhile providing intense room temperature C-band photoluminescence (PL). Fe3+ ion works as a sensitizer for Er resulting in fivefold PL enhancement in iron garnets compared to gallium ones. PL lifetime in gallium garnets is in millisecond range reaching 6 ms in Gd2.9Er0.1Ga5O12. The first luminescent one-dimensional heteroepitaxial all-garnet magneto-optical (MO) photonic crystal was composed from diamagnetic Sm3Ga5O12 and MO-active Bi2.97Er0.03Al0.5Ga0.5O12 garnet layers by rf-magnetron sputtering on Gd3Ga5O12(111) substrate. Substitution of ferric ions by aluminum and gallium improved transparency and induced perpendicular anisotropy in pure Bi3Fe5O12. Photonic crystals owned a record high magneto-optical quality and a latching type (magnetic remnant) Faraday rotation (FR). At the resonance wavelength 775 nm, specific FR θF = - 14.1 deg/μm and MO-quality factor Q = 99.3 deg represent the highest MO performance achieved so far. Long-lived near-IR luminescence in Er substituted gallium and iron garnet layers used both as Bragg mirrors and microcavities promises magneto-optical photonic crystals to become an active lasing medium.

  15. ``Super''alloys GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT THERMAL Wigner's-Disease/.../Overageing-Embrittlement/ ``Sensitization'' SEVERE SHOCKS-INstability; Siegel FIRST ORIGINAL EXPERIMENTAL Giant-Magneto-resistance(GMR) Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphahani, Aziz; Tatro, Clement; Williams, Wendell; Lewis, Thomas; Hoffman, Ace; Fart, Albart; Gruntbug, Peter; Siegel, Edward

    2011-06-01

    Carbides solid-state chemistry[ES & WW: PSS (72); Semis. & Insuls.(79)-3-papers!!!] domination of old/new nuclear-reactors/spent-fuel-casks/refineries/jet/ missile/rocket-engines in austenitic/FCC Ni/Fe/Co-based (so mis-called) ''super''alloys(182/82Hastelloy-X,600,304/304L-Stainless-Steels,...690!!!) GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT detrimental(synonyms!!!): THERMAL: Wigner's-disease(WDphysics)[J.Appl.Phys.17,857(46)]/ Ostwald-ripening (OR;chemistry)/spinodal-decomposition(SD;physics)/overageing-

  16. Mechanical properties testing and results for thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, Thomas A.; Johnsen, B. P.; Nagy, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    The paper reports on several years of mechanical testing of thermal barrier coatings. The test results were generated to support the development of durability models for the coatings in heat engine applications. The test data that are reviewed include modulus, static strength, and fatigue strength data. The test methods and results are discussed, along with the significant difficulties inherent in mechanical testing of thermal barrier coating materials. The materials include 7 percent wt. and 8 percent wt. yttria, partially stabilized zirconia as well as a cermet material. Both low pressure plasma spray and electron-beam physical vapor deposited coatings were tested. The data indicate the basic trends in the mechanical properties of the coatings over a wide range of isothermal conditions. Some of the trends are correlated with material density.

  17. Changes in optical properties of rat skin during thermal coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Sharon L.; Vijverberg, Helene; Huang, Robert; Schwartz, Jon A.

    1993-07-01

    Thermal coagulation of albino rat skin heated in vitro results in prominent changes of light scattering but relatively little in light absorption based on measurements using an integrating sphere spectrometer. The reduced scattering coefficients, (mu) s(1-g), gradually increase as temperatures increase from room temperature to 55 degree(s)C then rapidly decrease to plateau after 70 degree(s)C is reached. The differences among the (mu) s(1-g) values for the different wavelengths were greater at the lower temperatures than at higher temperatures. The absorption coefficient, (mu) a, changed very little over the test temperature range (room temperature to 90 degree(s)C) and then only at higher temperatures and for longer wavelengths. The optical property changes were associated with thermally induced light microscopic and ultrastructural changes in the dermal collagen, a major tissue component of skin.

  18. Mechanical properties testing and results for thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Cruse, T.A.; Johnsen, B.P.; Nagy, A.

    1995-10-01

    The paper reports on several years of mechanical testing of thermal barrier coatings. The test results were generated to support the development of durability models for the coatings in heat engine applications. The test data that are reviewed include modulus, static strength, and fatigue strength data. The test methods and results are discussed, along with the significant difficulties inherent in mechanical testing of thermal barrier coating materials. The materials include 7 percent wt. and 8 percent wt. yttria, partially stabilized zirconia as well as a cermet material. Both low pressure plasma spray and electron-beam physical vapor deposited coatings were tested. The data indicate the basic trends in the mechanical properties of the coatings over a wide range of isothermal conditions. Some of the trends are correlated with material density.

  19. Optical Property Evaluation of Next Generation Thermal Control Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Deshpande, Mukund S.; Pierson, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    Next generation white thermal control coatings were developed via the Small Business Innovative Research program utilizing lithium silicate chemistry as a binder. Doping of the binder with additives yielded a powder that was plasma spray capable and that could be applied to light weight polymers and carbon-carbon composite surfaces. The plasma sprayed coating had acceptable beginning-of-life and end-of-live optical properties, as indicated by a successful 1.5 year exposure to the space environment in low Earth orbit. Recent studies also showed the coating to be durable to simulated space environments consisting of 1 keV and 10 keV electrons, 4.5 MeV electrons, and thermal cycling. Large scale deposition was demonstrated on a polymer matrix composite radiator panel, leading to the selection of the coating for use on the Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission.

  20. Structure, microstructure, and magneto-optical properties of laser deposited Bi3Fe5O12/Gd3Ga5O12)(111 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, S.; Khartsev, S. I.; Grishin, A. M.; Kawano, K.; Kong, G.; Chakalov, R. A.; Abell, J. S.

    2002-06-01

    Bi3Fe5O12 films were deposited onto single crystal Gd3Ga5O12)(111 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction patterns and cross sectional transmission electron micrographs show epitaxial film growth and a flat interface between the film and substrate. However, there are small inclusions at the interface and a network of cracks is observed by optical microscope. The refractive index is 3.4 at 800 nm wavelength. The optical transmission is low below 540 nm but increases to 90% for a 1.8 mum thick film at 850 nm. The magneto-optical Faraday rotation is high, with a peak value of -24 deg/mum at 560 nm. The angle of Faraday ellipticity reaches a maximum value of 15 deg/mum at 545 nm.

  1. Size effects on mechanical and thermal properties of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md Tarekul

    Materials, from electronic to structural, exhibit properties that are sensitive to their composition and internal microstructures such as grain and precipitate sizes, crystalline phases, defects and dopants. Therefore, the research trend has been to obtain fundamental understanding in processing-structure-properties to develop new materials or new functionalities for engineering applications. The advent of nanotechnology has opened a new dimension to this research area because when material size is reduced to nanoscale, properties change significantly from the bulk values. This phenomenon expands the problem to 'size-processing-structure-propertiesfunctionalities'. The reinvigorated research for the last few decades has established size dependency of the material properties such as thermal conductivity, Young's modulus and yield strength, electrical resistivity, photo-conductance etc. It is generally accepted that classical physical laws can be used to scale down the properties up to 25-50 nm length-scale, below which their significant deviation or even breakdown occur. This dissertation probes the size effect from a different perspective by asking the question, if nanoscale size influences one physical domain, why it would not influence the coupling between two or more domains? Or in other words, if both mechanical and thermal properties are different at the nanoscale, can mechanical strain influence thermal conductivity? The hypothesis of size induced multi-domain coupling is therefore the foundation of this dissertation. It is catalyzed by the only few computational studies available in the literature while experimental validations have been non-existent owing to experimental challenges. The objective of this research is to validate this hypothesis, which will open a novel avenue to tune properties and functionalities of materials with the size induced multi-domain coupling. Single domain characterization itself is difficult at the nanoscale due to specimen

  2. Magneto-optic current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lanagan, Michael T.; Valsko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Fisher, Brandon L.; Welp, Ulrich

    2003-10-07

    An optical current transducer configured to sense current in the conductor is disclosed. The optical current transducer includes a light source and a polarizer that generates linearly polarized light received from a the light source. The light is communicated to a magneto-optic garnet that includes, among other elements, bismuth, iron and oxygen and is coupled to the conductor. The magneto-optic garnet is configured to rotate the polarization of the linearly polarized light received from the polarizer. The optical current transducer also includes an analyzer in optical communication with the magneto-optic garnet. The analyzer detects the rotation of the linearly polarized light caused by the magneto-optic garnet.

  3. Thermal properties of typical chernozems in Kursk Oblast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhangel'skaya, T. A.; Velichenko, M. V.; Tikhonravova, P. I.

    2016-10-01

    Thermal diffusivity and heat capacity of virgin and plowed heavy loamy typical chernozems of Kursk oblast were studied. Thermal diffusivity was determined in the course of step-by-step drying of the initially capillary-saturated samples to the air-dry state. Specific heat capacity was determined for absolutely dry samples. Volumetric heat capacity was calculated according to the de Vries equation. Thermal diffusivity varied within the ranges of (1.15-3.46) × 10-7 m2/s in the Ap horizon, (1.14-3.35) × 10-7 m2/s in the A1 horizon, (1.49-3.70) × 10-7 m2/s in the AB horizon, (1.49-3.91) × 10-7 m2/s in the B1 horizon, and (1.60-3.80) × 10-7 m2/s in the Bca horizon. The thermal diffusivity vs. water content dependencies had distinct maximums and were flattened in the range of low water contents. The maximums were most pronounced for the mineral B1 and Bca horizons; for the A1 and Ap horizons, the curves were rather S-shaped. Volumetric heat capacity of the air-dry soils varied from 0.96 J/(cm3 K) in the A1 horizon to 1.31 J/(cm3 K) in the Bca horizon; in the state of capillary saturation, it varied from 2.79 J/(cm3 K) in the A1 horizon to 3.28 J/(cm3 K) in the Bca horizon. Thermal properties of topsoil horizons were higher in the plowed chernozem compared with the virgin chernozem, which is explained by an increase in the bulk density and a decrease in the organic matter content in the plowed soil.

  4. The thermal infrared radiance properties of dust aerosol over ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zengzhou; Pan, Delu; Tu, Qianguang; Gong, Fang; Chen, Jianyu

    2015-10-01

    Asian dust storms, which can long-range transport to ocean, often occur on spring. The present of Asian dust aerosols over ocean makes some difficult for other studies, such as cloud detection, and also take some advantage for ocean, such as take nutrition into the ocean by dry or wet deposition. Therefore, it is important to study the dust aerosol and retrieve the properties of dust from satellite observations that is mainly from the thermal infrared radiance. In this paper, the thermal infrared radiance properties of dust aerosol over ocean are analyzed from MODIS and MTSAT2 observations and Streamer model simulations. By analyzing some line samples and a series of dust aerosol region, it shows that the dust aerosol brightness temperature at 12μm (BT12) is always greater than BT11 and BT8.5, and BT8.5 is general greater than BT11. The brightness temperature different between 11μm and 12μm (BTD11-12) increases with the dust intensity. And the BTD11-12 will become positive when the atmospheric relative humidity is greater than 70%. The BTD11-12 increases gradually with the surface temperature while the effect on BTD11-12 of dust layer temperature is not evident. Those are caused by the transmission of the dust aerosol is different at the two thermal infrared channels. During daytime, dust infrared brightness temperature at mid-infrared bands should reduce the visual radiance, which takes about 25K or less. In general, BT3.7 is greater than BT11 for dust aerosol. Those results are helpful to monitor or retrieve dust aerosol physical properties over ocean from satellite.

  5. Rheological and thermal properties of polylactide/silicate nanocomposites films.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Jasim; Varshney, Sunil K; Auras, Rafeal

    2010-03-01

    Polylactide (DL)/polyethylene glycol/silicate nanocomposite blended biodegradable films have been prepared by solvent casting method. Rheological and thermal properties were investigated for both neat amorphous polylactide (PLA-DL form) and blend of montmorillonite (clay) and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG). Melt rheology of the PLA individually and blends (PLA/clay; PLA/PEG; PLA/PEG/clay) were performed by small amplitude oscillation shear (SAOS) measurement. Individually, PLA showed an improvement in the viscoelastic properties in the temperature range from 180 to 190 degrees C. Incorporation of nanoclay (3% to 9% wt) was attributed by significant improvements in the elastic modulus (G') of PLA/clay blend due to intercalation at higher temperature. Both dynamic modulii of PLA/PEG blend were significantly reduced with addition of 10% PEG. Rheometric measurement could not be conducted while PLA/PEG blends containing 25% PEG. A blend of PLA/PEG/clay (68/23/9) showed liquid-like properties with excellent flexibility. Thermal analysis of different clay loading films indicated that the glass transition temperatures (T(g)) remained unaffected irrespective of clay concentration due to immobilization of polymer chain in the clay nanocomposite. PEG incorporation reduced the T(g) of the blend (PLA/PEG and PLA/PEG/clay) significantly. Both rheological and thermal analysis data supported plasticization and flexibility of the blended films. It is also interesting to study competition between PLA and PEG for the intercalation into the interlayer spacing of the clay. This study indicates that PLA/montmorillonite blend could serve as effective nano-composite for packaging and other applications. PMID:20492249

  6. Mechanical properties testing and results for thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruse, T. A.; Johnsen, B. P.; Nagy, A.

    1997-03-01

    Mechanical test data for thermal barrier coatings, including modulus, static strength, and fatigue strength data, are reviewed in support of the development of durability models for heat engine applica-tions. The materials include 7 and 8 wt % yttria partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) as well as a cermet ma-terial (PSZ +10 wt % NiCoCrAlY). Both air plasma sprayed and electron beam physical vapor deposited coatings were tested. The data indicate the basic trends in the mechanical properties of the coatings over a wide range of isothermal conditions. Some of the trends are correlated with material density.

  7. Hemp Thermal Insulation Concrete with Alternative Binders, Analysis of their Thermal and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinka, M.; Sahmenko, G.; Korjakins, A.; Radina, L.; Bajare, D.

    2015-11-01

    One of the main challenges that construction industry faces today is how to address the demands for more sustainable, environmentally friendly and carbon neutral construction materials and building upkeep processes. One of the answers to these demands is lime-hemp concrete (LHC) building materials - carbon negative materials that have sufficient thermal insulation capabilities to be used as thermal insulation materials for new as well as for existing buildings. But one problem needs to be overcome before these materials can be used on a large scale - current manufacturing technology allows these materials to be used only as self-bearing thermal insulation material with large labour intensity in the manufacturing process. In order to lower the labour intensity and allow the material to be used in wider applications, a LHC block and board production is necessary, which in turn calls for the binders different from the classically used ones, as they show insufficient mechanical strength for this new use. The particular study focuses on alternative binders produced using gypsum-cement compositions ensuring they are usable in outdoor applications together with hemp shives. Physical, mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of hemp concrete with various binders are addressed in the current study.

  8. Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic Waves In The Collisionless Space Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhalilov, N. S.; Kuznetsov, V. D.; Staude, J.

    2007-12-01

    The instability of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) waves in an anisotropic, collisionless, rarefied hot plasma is studied. Anisotropy properties of such a plasma are caused by a strong magnetic field, when the thermal gas pressures across and along the field become unequal. Moreover, there appears an anisotropy of the thermal fluxes. The study of the anisotropy features of the plasma are motivated by observed solar coronal data. The 16 moments equations derived from the Boltzmann-Vlasov kinetic equation are used. These equations strongly differ from the usual isotropic MHD case. For linear disturbances the wave equations in homogenous anisotropic plasma are deduced. The general dispersion relation for the incompressible wave modes is derived, solved and analyzed. It is shown that a wide wave spectrum with stable and unstable behavior is possible, in contrast to the usual isotropic MHD case. The dependence of the instability on magnetic field, pressure anisotropy, and heat fluxes is investigated. The general instability condition is obtained. The results can be applied to the theory of solar and stellar coronal heating, to wind models and in other modeling, where the collisionless approximation is valid.

  9. Thermal Properties of Unusual Local-Scale Features on Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capria, M.; DeSanctis, M.; Palomba, E.; Grassi, D.; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Combe, J.; Sunshine, J. M.; Titus, T. N.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Li, J.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    On Vesta, the thermal behavior of areas of unusual albedo seen at the local scale can be related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. We used Dawn s Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) hyperspectral cubes to retrieve surface temperatures and emissivities, with high accuracy as long as temperatures are greater than 180 K. Data acquired in the Survey phase (23 July through 29 August 2011) show several unusual surface features: 1) high-albedo (bright) and low-albedo (dark) material deposits, 2) spectrally distinct ejecta and pitted materials, 3) regions suggesting finer-grained materials. Some of the unusual dark and bright features were reobserved by VIR in the subsequent High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and Low- Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) phases at increased pixel resolution. In this work we present temperature maps and emissivities of several local-scale features that were observed by Dawn under different illumination conditions and different local solar times. Data from VIR's IR channel show that bright regions generally correspond to regions with lower thermal emission, i.e. lower temperature, while dark regions correspond to areas with higher thermal emission, i.e. higher temperature. This behavior confirms that many of the dark appearances in the VIS mainly reflect albedo variations, and not, for example, shadowing. During maximum daily insolation, dark features in the equatorial region may rise to temperatures greater than 270 K, while brightest features stop at roughly 258 K, local solar time being similar. However, pitted materials, showing relatively low reflectance, have significantly lower temperatures, as a result of differences in composition and/or structure (e.g, average grain size of the surface regolith, porosity, etc.). To complement this work, we provide preliminary values of thermal inertia for some bright and dark features.

  10. Ultrathin GaN nanowires: Electronic, thermal, and thermoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoody, A. H.; Ramayya, E. B.; Maurer, L. N.; Knezevic, I.

    2014-03-01

    We present a comprehensive computational study of the electronic, thermal, and thermoelectric (TE) properties of gallium nitride nanowires (NWs) over a wide range of thicknesses (3-9 nm), doping densities (1018-1020 cm-3), and temperatures (300-1000 K). We calculate the low-field electron mobility based on ensemble Monte Carlo transport simulation coupled with a self-consistent solution of the Poisson and Schrödinger equations. We use the relaxation-time approximation and a Poisson-Schrödinger solver to calculate the electron Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity. Lattice thermal conductivity is calculated using a phonon ensemble Monte Carlo simulation, with a real-space rough surface described by a Gaussian autocorrelation function. Throughout the temperature range, the Seebeck coefficient increases while the lattice thermal conductivity decreases with decreasing wire cross section, both boding well for TE applications of thin GaN NWs. However, at room temperature these benefits are eventually overcome by the detrimental effect of surface roughness scattering on the electron mobility in very thin NWs. The highest room-temperature ZT of 0.2 is achieved for 4-nm-thick NWs, while further downscaling degrades it. In contrast, at 1000 K, the electron mobility varies weakly with the NW thickness owing to the dominance of polar optical phonon scattering and multiple subbands contributing to transport, so ZT increases with increasing confinement, and reaches 0.8 for optimally doped 3-nm-thick NWs. The ZT of GaN NWs increases with increasing temperature beyond 1000 K, which further emphasizes their suitability for high-temperature TE applications.

  11. PROPERTIES OF FIBERBOARD OVERPACK MATERIAL IN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE FOLLOWING THERMAL AGING

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W

    2007-01-10

    Many radioactive material shipping packages incorporate cane fiberboard overpacks for thermal insulation and impact resistance. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties have been measured on cane fiberboard following thermal aging in several temperature/humidity environments. Several of the measured properties change significantly over time in the more severe environments, while other properties are relatively constant. These properties continue to be tracked, with the goal of developing a model for predicting a service life under long-term storage conditions.

  12. Thermal properties and dynamic mechanical properties of ceramic fillers filled epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidina, D. S.; Mariatti, M.; Juliewatty, J.

    2015-07-01

    This present study is aimed to enhance the thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of ceramic fillers such as Calcium Copper Titanate, CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) and Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) filled epoxy thin film composites. As can be seen from the results, 20 vol% BaTiO3/epoxy thin film composite showed the lowest coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) value, the highest decomposition temperature (T5 and Tonset) and weight of residue among the composites as the filler has low CTE value, distributed homogeneously throughout the composite and less voids can be seen between epoxy resin and BaTiO3 filler.

  13. Determination of magnetic and structural properties in solids containing antiferromagnetically coupled metal centers using NMR methods. Magneto-structural correlations in anhydrous copper(II) n-butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, G.C.; Haw, J.F.

    1988-10-19

    A new approach to the investigation of magneto-structural correlations in solids containing antiferromagnetically coupled transition-metal centers is described that illustrates the potential of NMR spectroscopy in such work. The results of a variable-temperature (VT) /sup 13/C cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning (CP/MAS) NMR investigation of anhydrous copper(II) n-butyrate, (Cu(C/sub 3/H/sub 7/COO)/sub 2/)/sub 2/ are reported. Isotropic shifts are found to be primarily contact in origin, and a statistical analysis of their temperature dependence allows the calculation of singlet-triplet energy level separations (-2J), diamagnetic shifts (delta/sub dia/), and electron-nucleus hyperfine coupling constants (A), which are shown to give insight into the mechanisms of electron delocalization along the superexchange pathway. Signal multiplicity can be related to compound structure, which was determined by using x-ray crystallography. The title compound is triclinic and has a space group of P/anti 1/ with a = 9.035 (2) /angstrom/, b = 5.192 (2) /angstrom/, c = 11.695 (3) /angstrom/, ..cap alpha.. = 85.88 (2)/degrees/, ..gamma.. = 109.32 (2)/degrees/, Z = 1, and V = 515.2 (3) /angstrom//sup 3/; the final weighted R value for 2169 reflections was 0.048. 21 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  14. Comparison of magneto-optical properties of various excitonic complexes in CdTe and CdSe self-assembled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobak, J.; Smoleński, T.; Goryca, M.; Rousset, J.-G.; Pacuski, W.; Bogucki, A.; Oreszczuk, K.; Kossacki, P.; Nawrocki, M.; Golnik, A.; Płachta, J.; Wojnar, P.; Kruse, C.; Hommel, D.; Potemski, M.; Kazimierczuk, T.

    2016-07-01

    We present a comparative study of two self-assembled quantum dot (QD) systems based on II-VI compounds: CdTe/ZnTe and CdSe/ZnSe. Using magneto-optical techniques we investigated a large population of individual QDs. The systematic photoluminescence studies of emission lines related to the recombination of neutral exciton X, biexciton XX, and singly charged excitons (X+, X-) allowed us to determine average parameters describing CdTe QDs (CdSe QDs): X-XX transition energy difference 12 meV (24 meV); fine-structure splitting δ1=0.14 meV (δ1=0.47 meV); g-factor g  =  2.12 (g  =  1.71) diamagnetic shift γ=2.5 μeV T-2 (γ =1.3 μeV T-2). We find also statistically significant correlations between various parameters describing internal structure of excitonic complexes.

  15. Thermal, dielectric and structural properties of Enceladus' leading face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, Alice; Bonnefoy, Léa; Leyrat, Cedric; Janssen, Michael A.

    2016-10-01

    The Cassini RADAR was initially designed to examine the surface of Titan through the veil of its optically-opaque atmosphere. However, it is occasionally used to observe airless Saturn's moons from long range and, less frequently, during targeted flybys. In particular, the 16th targeted encounter of Enceladus (Nov. 6, 2011, flyby E16) was dedicated to the RADAR instrument which then acquired data for over 4 hours. This paper focuses on the mid-resolution (0.1-0.6REnceladus) and low-resolution polarized data (0.6-1.0REnceladus) collected during the E16 flyby in the radiometry mode of the RADAR, mainly on the leading side of the moon.In its passive mode, the RADAR records the thermal emission at 2-cm wavelength from, likely, the first meters of an icy surface. Ries and Janssen (2015) first analyzed the E16 mid-resolution radiometry observation and reported on a large-scale emissivity anomaly, possibly associated with the seemingly young tectonized Leading Hemisphere Terrain mapped by Crow-Willard and Pappalardo (2015). With the goal of further investigating the extension of the anomaly region and providing constrains on the thermal, dielectric and structural properties of Enceladus' near surface, we have re-examined this dataset as well as observations acquired in two orthogonal polarizations with the help of a thermal model. This thermal model accounts for both diurnal and seasonal variations of the incident flux, including eclipses which is of importance for the E16 observations partially occurred during a solar eclipse by Saturn.Preliminary results suggest that the average thermal inertia of the near surface of Enceladus' leading face is relatively low, as low as 40 Jm-2K-1s-1/2 . This value does not depart much from the one inferred from measurements in the IR suggesting that the surface of Enceladus is covered by a very porous regolith, at least a few meters thick. In agreement, with this interpretation, the degree of volume scattering (i.e., high

  16. Optical and mechanical properties of thermally evaporated fluoride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, K.; Fahey, R.; Jasinski, D.; Scarpino, C.; Dziendziel, R.; Burger, S.; DePoy, D.

    1998-06-08

    As a result of health and safety issues surrounding the use of radioactive materials on coated optical components, there has been renewed interest in coating materials whose optical and mechanical properties approach those offered by their radioactive counterparts. Due to the radioactive nature of ThF{sub 4} and its widespread use in optical coatings, the coating industry is examining other low index and non-radioactive fluorides as possible alternatives. In this paper, the authors present the results of an experimental study on the optical and mechanical properties of thermally evaporated ThF{sub 4}, DyF{sub 3}, CeF{sub 3}, LiF, HfF{sub 4}, IRX, and IRB thin films, where the materials were deposited at different substrate temperatures. The objective is to examine this series of fluorides under comparable deposition conditions and with respect to such material properties as: n and k, film stress, and environmental stability. The optical constants of these fluorides were evaluated over the wavelength region from 1.0 {micro}m to 12.5 {micro}m.

  17. Non-destructive thermal wave method applied to study thermal properties of fast setting time endodontic cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picolloto, A. M.; Mariucci, V. V. G.; Szpak, W.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.; Astrath, N. G. C.; Astrath, F. B. G.; Santos, A. D.; Moraes, J. C. S.; Bento, A. C.

    2013-11-01

    The thermal wave method is applied for thermal properties measurement in fast endodontic cement (CER). This new formula is developed upon using Portland cement in gel and it was successfully tested in mice with good biocompatibility and stimulated mineralization. Recently, thermal expansion and setting time were measured, conferring to this material twice faster hardening than the well known Angelus Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) the feature of fast hardening (˜7 min) and with similar thermal expansion (˜12 μstrain/ °C). Therefore, it is important the knowledge of thermal properties like thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity in order to match thermally the tissue environment upon its application in filling cavities of teeth. Photothermal radiometry technique based on Xe illumination was applied in CER disks 600 μm thick for heating, with prepared in four particle sizes (25, 38, 45, and 53) μm, which were added microemulsion gel with variation volumes (140, 150, 160, and 170) μl. The behavior of the thermal diffusivity CER disks shows linear decay for increase emulsion volume, and in contrast, thermal diffusivity increases with particles sizes. Aiming to compare to MTA, thermal properties of CER were averaged to get the figure of merit for thermal diffusivity as (44.2 ± 3.6) × 10-3 cm2/s, for thermal conductivity (228 ± 32) mW/cm K, the thermal effusivity (1.09 ± 0.06) W s0.5/cm2 K and volume heat capacity (5.2 ± 0.7) J/cm3 K, which are in excellent agreement with results of a disk prepared from commercial MTA-Angelus (grain size < 10 μm using 57 μl of distilled water).

  18. Non-destructive thermal wave method applied to study thermal properties of fast setting time endodontic cement

    SciTech Connect

    Picolloto, A. M.; Mariucci, V. V. G.; Szpak, W.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.; Astrath, N. G. C.; Astrath, F. B. G.; Bento, A. C.; Santos, A. D.; Moraes, J. C. S.

    2013-11-21

    The thermal wave method is applied for thermal properties measurement in fast endodontic cement (CER). This new formula is developed upon using Portland cement in gel and it was successfully tested in mice with good biocompatibility and stimulated mineralization. Recently, thermal expansion and setting time were measured, conferring to this material twice faster hardening than the well known Angelus Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) the feature of fast hardening (∼7 min) and with similar thermal expansion (∼12 μstrain/ °C). Therefore, it is important the knowledge of thermal properties like thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity in order to match thermally the tissue environment upon its application in filling cavities of teeth. Photothermal radiometry technique based on Xe illumination was applied in CER disks 600 μm thick for heating, with prepared in four particle sizes (25, 38, 45, and 53) μm, which were added microemulsion gel with variation volumes (140, 150, 160, and 170) μl. The behavior of the thermal diffusivity CER disks shows linear decay for increase emulsion volume, and in contrast, thermal diffusivity increases with particles sizes. Aiming to compare to MTA, thermal properties of CER were averaged to get the figure of merit for thermal diffusivity as (44.2 ± 3.6) × 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/s, for thermal conductivity (228 ± 32) mW/cm K, the thermal effusivity (1.09 ± 0.06) W s{sup 0.5}/cm{sup 2} K and volume heat capacity (5.2 ± 0.7) J/cm{sup 3} K, which are in excellent agreement with results of a disk prepared from commercial MTA-Angelus (grain size < 10 μm using 57 μl of distilled water)

  19. Water retention curves and thermal insulating properties of Thermosand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibniz, Otto; Winkler, Gerfried; Birk, Steffen

    2010-05-01

    The heat loss and the efficiency of isolating material surrounding heat supply pipes are essential issues for the energy budget of heat supply pipe lines. Until now heat loss from the pipe is minimized by enlarging the polyurethane (PU) - insulation thickness around the pipe. As a new approach to minimize the heat loss a thermally insulating bedding material was developed and investigated. Conventional bedding sands cover all necessary soil mechanical properties, but have a high thermal conductivity from λ =1,5 to 1,7 W/(m K). A newly developed embedding material 'Thermosand' shows thermal properties from λ=0,18 W/(m K) (dry) up to 0,88 W/(m K) (wet). The raw material originates from the waste rock stockpiles of a coal mine near Fohnsdorf, Austria. With high temperatures up to nearly 1000 ° C and a special mineral mixture, a natural burned reddish material resembling clinker arises. The soilmechanical properties of Thermosand has been thoroughly investigated with laboratory testing and in situ investigations to determine compaction-, permeability- and shear-behaviour, stiffness and corresponding physical parameters. Test trenches along operational heat pipes with temperature-measurement along several cross-sections were constructed to compare conventional embedding materials with 'Thermosand'. To investigate the influence of varying moisture content on thermal conductivity a 1:1 large scale model test in the laboratory to simulate real insitu-conditions was established. Based on this model it is planned to develop numerical simulations concerning varying moisture contents and unsaturated soil mechanics with heat propagation, including the drying out of the soil during heat input. These simulations require the knowledge about the water retention properties of the material. Thus, water retention curves were measured using both steady-state tension and pressure techniques and the simplified evaporation method. The steady-state method employs a tension table (sand

  20. Structural, optical and thermal properties of silver colloidal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderi, S.; Ghaderi, A.; Solaymani, S.; Golzan, M. M.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, colloidal silver nanoparticles were prepared by chemical reduction of AgNO3 and pure Sn in a new and simple method. The type of crystallite lattice and the size of nanopowders were estimated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. The geometric, heterogeneous and mixing structure of synthesized nanopowders were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Optical properties such as plasmon absorption and frequency of soluble colloidal nanopowders in two solutions of distilled water and oil were investigated by UV-Visible spectroscopy, which was developed to calculate the absorbance spectra of nanoparticles solution containing a size distribution of particles using the Mie theory. Dipole and quadrupole plasmons related to molecular structure of water and oil were found by absorbance spectra. Also, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis was used for determining the thermal behavior, endothermic and exothermic peaks of Ag nanopowder.

  1. Determination of Viral Capsid Elastic Properties from Equilibrium Thermal Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Eric R.; Brooks, Charles L., III

    2011-05-01

    We apply two-dimensional elasticity theory to viral capsids to develop a framework for calculating elastic properties of viruses from equilibrium thermal fluctuations of the capsid surface in molecular dynamics and elastic network model trajectories. We show that the magnitudes of the long wavelength modes of motion available in a simulation with all atomic degrees of freedom are recapitulated by an elastic network model. For the mode spectra to match, the elastic network model must be scaled appropriately by a factor which can be determined from an icosahedrally constrained all-atom simulation. With this method we calculate the two-dimensional Young’s modulus Y, bending modulus κ, and Föppl-von Kármán number γ, for the T=1 mutant of the Sesbania mosaic virus. The values determined are in the range of previous theoretical estimates.

  2. Surface and Electrical Properties of Electro-Coagulated Thermal Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesilkaya, S. S.; Okutan, M.; Içelli, O.; Yalçın, Z.

    2015-05-01

    The Electro-Coagulated Thermal Waste (ECTW) sample of the impedance spectroscopy investigation for electrical modulus and conductivity are presented. Electrical properties via temperature and frequency dependent impedance spectroscopy were investigated. Real and imaginary parts of electrical modulus were measured at various frequencies and a related Cole-Cole plot was acquired as well. The surface resistivity of the ECTW was measured by the four-point probe measurement technique, yielding a relatively high surface resistivity. As a result of this study, an effective building shielding material, which is a cost effective alternative, is proposed. The activation energy values were calculated from the Arrhenius plots at different frequencies. The transition region in this plot may be attributed to activation of ionic conductivity at lower temperatures.

  3. Low-temperature thermal properties of a hyperaged geological glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Castañeda, Tomás; Jiménez Riobóo, Rafael J.; Ramos, Miguel A.

    2013-07-01

    We have measured the specific heat of amber from the Dominican Republic, an ancient geological glass about 20 million years old, in the low-temperature range 0.6 K ≤ T ≤ 26 K, in order to assess the effects of its natural stabilization (hyperageing) process on the low-temperature glassy properties, i.e. boson peak and two-level systems. We have also conducted modulated differential scanning calorimetry experiments to characterize the thermodynamic state of our samples. We found that calorimetric curves exhibit a huge ageing signal ΔH ≈ 5 J g-1 in the first upscan at the glass transition Tg = 389 K, that completely disappears after heating up (rejuvenating) the sample to T = 395 K for 3 h. To independently evaluate the phonon contribution to the specific heat, Brillouin spectroscopy was performed in the temperature range 80 K ≤ T ≤ 300 K. An expected increase in the Debye level was observed after rejuvenating the Dominican amber. However, no significant change was observed in the low-temperature specific heat of glassy amber after erasing its thermal history: both its boson peak (i.e., the maximum in the Cp/T3 representation) and the density of tunnelling two-level systems (i.e., the Cp ˜ T contribution at the lowest temperatures) remained essentially the same. Also, a consistent analysis using the soft-potential model of our Cp data and earlier thermal-conductivity data found in the literature further supports our main conclusion, namely, that these glassy ‘anomalous’ properties at low temperatures remain essentially invariant after strong relaxational processes such as hyperageing.

  4. Magneto-optical and magneto-transport studies of hexagonal artificial spin ice nano-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivari, Simon; Esien, Kane; Read, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Artificial spin ice structures have attracted a great deal of attention recently and may prove to be useful analogues for frustrated magnetic systems, such as bulk spin ice materials. We will present the results of studying these structures by utilising magneto optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and magneto-transport measurements. We have fabricated hexagonal (also sometimes known as honeycomb) ASI structures from metallic ferromagnetic islands having dimensions close to 1 μm long, 100nm wide and 10nm thick. We have made electrical transport measurements of two types of structure both having similar geometry and electrically connected islands, however the first samples have magnetically connected elements forming the honeycomb networks whereas the second set of samples are formed from magnetically isolated islands. Comparing these structures allows an assessment of the relative contributions from magnetic domain wall (DW) motion and from magnetostatic interactions. The magneto-optical measurements have been made as a function of angle between the field direction and the lattice. The properties observed with NiFe and Co fabricated nanostructures are discussed in relation to the geometries described above.

  5. Microfabricated thermal conductivity sensor: a high resolution tool for quantitative thermal property measurement of biomaterials and solutions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xin M; Ding, Weiping; Chen, Hsiu-hung; Shu, Zhiquan; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Hai-feng; Gao, Dayong

    2011-10-01

    Obtaining accurate thermal properties of biomaterials plays an important role in the field of cryobiology. Currently, thermal needle, which is constructed by enclosing a manually winded thin metal wire with an insulation coating in a metallic sheath, is the only available device that is capable of measuring thermal conductivity of biomaterials. Major drawbacks, such as macroscale sensor size, lack of versatile format to accommodate samples with various shapes and sizes, neglected effects of heat transfer inside the probe and thermal contact resistance between the sensing element and the probe body, difficult to mass produce, poor data repeatability and reliability and labor-intense sensor calibration, have significantly reduced their potential to be an essential measurement tool to provide key thermal property information of biological specimens. In this study, we describe the development of an approach to measure thermal conductivity of liquids and soft bio-tissues using a proof-of-concept MEMS based thermal probe. By employing a microfabricated closely-packed gold wire to function as the heater and the thermistor, the presented thermal sensor can be used to measure thermal conductivities of fluids and natural soft biomaterials (particularly, the sensor may be directly inserted into soft tissues in living animal/plant bodies or into tissues isolated from the animal/plant bodies), where other more standard approaches cannot be used. Thermal standard materials have been used to calibrate two randomly selected thermal probes at room temperature. Variation between the obtained system calibration constants is less than 10%. By incorporating the previously obtained system calibration constant, three randomly selected thermal probes have been successfully utilized to measure the thermal conductivities of various solutions and tissue samples under different temperatures. Overall, the measurements are in agreement with the recommended values (percentage error less than 5

  6. Thermally induced changes in dynamic mechanical properties of native silks.

    PubMed

    Guan, Juan; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2013-03-11

    Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) on individual native silk fibers demonstrates changes in the dynamic mechanical properties of storage modulus and loss tangent as a function of temperature and temperature history ranging from -100 to 250 °C. These property changes are linked quantitatively to two main types of change in the silk structure. First, the evaporation of water with increasing temperature up to 100 °C increases the storage modulus and removes two characteristic loss tangent peaks at -60 and +60 °C. Second, various discrete loss tangent peaks in the range 150-220 °C are associated with specific disordered silk structures that are removed or converted to a limiting high-temperature relaxed structure by the combination of increasing temperature and static load in the DMTA tests. The results identify important origins of silk filament quality based on the analysis of measurements that can be traced back to differences in production and processing history. PMID:23405856

  7. Thermal and magnetic properties of chitosan-iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Soares, Paula I P; Machado, Diana; Laia, César; Pereira, Laura C J; Coutinho, Joana T; Ferreira, Isabel M M; Novo, Carlos M M; Borges, João Paulo

    2016-09-20

    Chitosan is a biopolymer widely used for biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems, wound healing, and tissue engineering. Chitosan can be used as coating for other types of materials such as iron oxide nanoparticles, improving its biocompatibility while extending its range of applications. In this work iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) produced by chemical precipitation and thermal decomposition and coated with chitosan with different molecular weights were studied. Basic characterization on bare and chitosan-Fe3O4 NPs was performed demonstrating that chitosan does not affect the crystallinity, chemical composition, and superparamagnetic properties of the Fe3O4 NPs, and also the incorporation of Fe3O4 NPs into chitosan nanoparticles increases the later hydrodynamic diameter without compromising its physical and chemical properties. The nano-composite was tested for magnetic hyperthermia by applying an alternating current magnetic field to the samples demonstrating that the heating ability of the Fe3O4 NPs was not significantly affected by chitosan.

  8. Montmorillonite-levan nanocomposites with improved thermal and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoming; Gao, Hongsheng; Ploehn, Harry J

    2014-01-30

    This work reports on the structure and properties of novel nanocomposites composed of exfoliated montmorillonite clay blended with levan, a polysaccharide produced by Bacillus sp. Dry levan is very brittle, making it difficult to obtain stand-alone films. MMT-levan composites were prepared by solution blending in water, coating on plastic surfaces, partial drying at 50°C, and conditioning in air at 50-60% relative humidity. This process results in freestanding, transparent, and flexible films of pure levan and MMT-levan composites plasticized by 10-15 wt% water. XRD patterns from levan-MMT composites indicate an MMT interlayer spacing 0.62 nm greater than that of the starting MMT, suggesting re-stacking of MMT platelets coated by adsorbed, uncoiled levan molecules. FTIR results suggest that levan adheres to MMT via water-mediated hydrogen bonding between the levan's hydroxyl groups and MMT surface oxygens. MMT-levan composites have improved thermal stability and a well-defined glass transition temperature that increases with MMT loading. The tensile moduli of levan-MMT composites increase by as much as 480% relative to pure levan. The XRD and mechanical property results suggest that MMT reinforces levan through a filler network structure composed of MMT platelets bridged by adsorbed levan molecules, enhanced when the MMT loading becomes high enough (5-10wt% MMT) to induce an isotropic-nematic transition in MMT platelet orientation. PMID:24299812

  9. Magnetic colloid by PLA: Optical, magnetic and thermal transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, B. K.; Shahi, A. K.; Gopal, Ram

    2015-08-01

    Ferrofluids of cobalt and cobalt oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully synthesized using liquid phase-pulse laser ablation (LP-PLA) in ethanol and double distilled water, respectively. The mechanism of laser ablation in liquid media and formation process for Co target in double distilled water (DDW) and ethanol are speculated based on the reactions between laser generated highly nascent cobalt species and vaporized solvent media in a confined high temperature and pressure at the plume-surrounding liquid interface region. Optical absorption, emission, vibrational and rotational properties have been investigated using UV-vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform-infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. In this study optical band gap of cobalt oxide ferrofluids has been engineered using different pulse energy of Nd:YAG laser in the range of (2.80-3.60 eV). Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) is employed to determine the magnetic properties of ferrofluids of cobalt and cobalt oxide NPs while their thermal conductivities are examined using rotating disc method. Ferrofluids have gained enormous curiosity due to many technological applications, i.e. drug delivery, coolant and heating purposes.

  10. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Pseudo-potential investigations of structural, elastic and thermal properties of tungsten disilicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guo-Liang; Chen, Jing-Dong; Xia, Yao-Zheng; Liu, Xue-Feng

    2009-08-01

    The plane-wave pseudopotential method using the generalized gradient approximation within the density functional theory is used to investigate the structure and bulk modulus of WSi2. The quasi-harmonic Debye model, using a set of total energy versus cell volume obtained with the plane-wave pseudopotential method, is applied to the study of the elastic properties and vibrational effects. We have analysed the bulk modulus of WSi2 up to 1600 K. The major trend shows that the WSi2 crystal becomes more compressible when the temperature rises and the increase of compressibility leads to the decrease of Debye temperature. The predicted temperature and pressure effects on the thermal expansion, heat capacity and Debye temperatures are determined from the non-equilibrium Gibbs functions and compared with the data available.

  11. The EXTASE thermal probe: Laboratory investigation and modelling of thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, E.; Knollenberg, J.; Kargl, G.; Koemle, N. I.

    2011-10-01

    In recent years space missions including landing devices are getting more important. These missions allow in-situ measurements and lead therefore to information on the structure and behavior of extraterrestrial surface and subsurface layers. Sensors used for this kind of missions have to be adapted to the non-terrestrial environment conditions. The better the properties of the single elements of each sensor are known, the more precise are the results from the data evaluation of in-situ measurements. We present the results of thermal conductivity measurements and simulations done for the fiber compound tube used as structural element for the heating segments of the MUPUS-PEN and EXTASE - a spin-off project of Rosetta/MUPUS.

  12. Study of Thermal properties of VO2 and multilayer VO2 thin films for application in Thermal Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Gaohua

    Ultrafast nature of the phase transition near room temperature in VO2 makes it attractive material for applications in electronics and optical devices however utilization of corresponding drastic change in thermo-physical properties are rarely reported. In this study we investigate thermal and electronic properties of VO2 thin films on various substrates across the transition temperature to seek possibility of utilizing VO2 based thermal switches for applications in thermal devices. In addition, the interfacial heat transfer in VO2/metal multilayer thin film is mediated by phonons at low temperature, and when temperature is elevated beyond phase transition temperature, the interface thermal conductance is mediated mainly by both phons and electrons. VO2-multilayers approach is studied to utilize the switching interface thermal conductance in order to obtain higher thermal conductivity switch ratio than what can be achieved in intrinsic VO2. Thermal conductivities and interface thermal conductance of VO2 and VO2 multilayer thin films are measured using the time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) method. We will discuss interplay of phononic and electronic component to thermal conductivity in the light of Wiedemann-Franz law across the metal to insulator state of VO2 films.

  13. A frequency-domain thermoreflectance method for the characterization of thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Aaron J; Cheaito, Ramez; Chiesa, Matteo

    2009-09-01

    A frequency-domain thermoreflectance method for measuring the thermal properties of homogenous materials and submicron thin films is described. The method can simultaneously determine the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of a sample, provided the thermal diffusivity is greater, similar3x10(-6) m(2)/s, and can also simultaneously measure in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities, as well the thermal boundary conductance between material layers. Two implementations are discussed, one based on an ultrafast pulsed laser system and one based on continuous-wave lasers. The theory of the method and an analysis of its sensitivity to various thermal properties are given, along with results from measurements of several standard materials over a wide range of thermal diffusivities. We obtain specific heats and thermal conductivities in good agreement with literature values, and also obtain the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities for crystalline quartz.

  14. Physicochemical, thermal, and pasting properties of starches separated from different potato cultivars grown at different locations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The starch separated from 21 different Indian potato cultivars from four locations was evaluated for physicochemical, thermal, and pasting properties. The relationships between the different properties of starches were determined using Pearson’s correlation analysis. Amylose content was positively...

  15. Multiscale Modeling of Carbon/Phenolic Composite Thermal Protection Materials: Atomistic to Effective Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Murthy, Pappu L.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Lawson, John W.; Monk, Joshua D.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Next generation ablative thermal protection systems are expected to consist of 3D woven composite architectures. It is well known that composites can be tailored to achieve desired mechanical and thermal properties in various directions and thus can be made fit-for-purpose if the proper combination of constituent materials and microstructures can be realized. In the present work, the first, multiscale, atomistically-informed, computational analysis of mechanical and thermal properties of a present day - Carbon/Phenolic composite Thermal Protection System (TPS) material is conducted. Model results are compared to measured in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical and thermal properties to validate the computational approach. Results indicate that given sufficient microstructural fidelity, along with lowerscale, constituent properties derived from molecular dynamics simulations, accurate composite level (effective) thermo-elastic properties can be obtained. This suggests that next generation TPS properties can be accurately estimated via atomistically informed multiscale analysis.

  16. Basic knowledge on radiative and transport properties to begin in thermal plasmas modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Cressault, Y.

    2015-05-15

    This paper has for objectives to present the radiative and the transport properties for people beginning in thermal plasmas. The first section will briefly recall the equations defined in numerical models applied to thermal plasmas; the second section will particularly deal with the estimation of radiative losses; the third part will quickly present the thermodynamics properties; and the last part will concern the transport coefficients (thermal conductivity, viscosity and electrical conductivity of the gas or mixtures of gases). We shall conclude the paper with a discussion about the validity of these results the lack of data for some specific applications, and some perspectives concerning these properties for non-equilibrium thermal plasmas.

  17. La/Sm/Er Cation Doping Induced Thermal Properties of SrTiO3 Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Rittiruam, Meena; Seetawan, Tosawat; Yokhasing, Sirakan; Matarat, Korakot; Bach Thang, Phan; Kumar, Manish; Han, Jeon Geon

    2016-09-01

    The La/Sm/Er cations with different radii doping SrTiO3 (STO) as model Sr0.9R0.1TiO3 (R = La, Sm, Er) were designed to investigate structural characteristics and thermal properties by the molecular dynamics simulation with the Green-Kubo relation at 300-2000 K. The structural characteristics were composed of lattice constant, atoms excursion, and pair correlation function (PCF). The thermal properties consisted of heat capacity and thermal conductivity. The lattice constant of R-doped exhibited less than the STO at 300-1100 K and more than STO at 1500-2000 K, which was encouraged by atom excursion and PCF. The thermal properties was compared with literature data at 300-1100 K. In addition, the thermal properties at 1100-2000 K were predicted. It highlights that thermal conductivity tends to decrease at high temperature, due to perturbation of La, Sm, and Er, respectively.

  18. Thermal Properties of Trogamid by Conventional and Fast Scanning Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebe, Peggy; Merfeld, John; Mao, Bin; Wurm, Andreas; Zhuravlev, Evgeny; Schick, Christoph

    We use conventional slow scan rate differential scanning calorimetry, and fast scanning chip-based calorimetry (FSC), to investigate the crystallization and melting behavior of Trogamid, a chemical relative of nylon. Fundamental thermal properties of Trogamid were studied, including the melt crystallization kinetics, heat of fusion, and the solid and liquid state heat capacities. Using slow scan DSC (at 5 K/min), Trogamid displays a glass transition relaxation process at ~133 C, melting endotherm peak at 250 C, and is stable upon repeated heating to 310 C. When using slow scan DSC, the isothermal melt crystallization temperatures were restricted to 225 C or above. Trogamid crystallizes rapidly from the melt and conventional calorimetry is unable to cool sufficiently fast to prevent nucleation and crystal growth prior to stabilization at lower crystallization temperatures. Using FSC we were able to cool nano-gram sizes samples at 2000 K/s to investigate a much lower range of melt crystallization temperatures, from 205-225 C. The experimental protocol for performing FSC on semicrystalline polymers to obtain liquid state heat capacity data will be presented. National Science Foundation, Polymers Program DMR-1206010; DAAD; Tufts Faculty Supported Leave.

  19. A Study of the Magnetic and Thermal Properties of Ln

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Daijitsu; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2001-05-01

    Crystal structures, and magnetic, electric, and thermal properties of fluorite related compounds Ln{sub 3}RuO{sub 7} (Ln=Sm, Eu) have been investigated. For Eu{sub 3}RuO{sub 7}, a magnetic transition due to Ru{sup 5+} ions is found at T{sub N}=22.5 K on the susceptibility-temperature curve. Specific heat measurements also exhibit a {lambda}-type anomaly at the same temperature. The Moessbauer spectrum measured at 10 K shows broadening of the line corresponding to magnetic splitting. For Sm{sub 3}RuO{sub 7}, two magnetic anomalies have been observed at 10.5 and 22.5 K from its magnetic susceptibility measurements. Below 22.5 K Ru{sup 5+} ions are antiferromagnetically coupled, and when the temperature is decreased through 10.5 K the ordering of Sm{sup 3+} ions occurs rapidly. Specific heat measurements show first-order transition peaks at T=280 and 190 K for Eu{sub 3}RuO{sub 7} and Sm{sub 3}RuO{sub 7}, respectively. T he results of magnetic susceptibility and electric resistivity measurements indicate that these transitions are structural phase transitions.

  20. Optical properties of rubrene thin film prepared by thermal evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Deng, Jin-Xiang; Kong, Le; Cui, Min; Chen, Ren-Gang; Zhang, Zi-Jia

    2015-04-01

    Rubrene thin films are deposited on quartz substrates and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) films by the thermal evaporation technique. The optical properties of rubrene thin film are investigated in a spectral range of 190 nm-1600 nm. The analysis of the absorption coefficient (α) reveals direct allowed transition with a corresponding energy of 2.24 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) peak of the rubrene thin film is observed to be at 563 nm (2.21 eV). With the use of Ag NPs which are fabricated by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on the quartz, the PL intensity is 8.5 times that of as-deposited rubrene thin film. It is attributed to the fact that the surface plasmon enhances the photoluminescence. Project supported by the Funding for the Development Project of Beijing Municipal Education Commission of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. KZ201410005008), the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing City, China (Grant No. 4102014), and the Graduate Science Fund of the Beijing University of Technology, China (Grant No. ykj-2013-9835).

  1. Comparison on thermal transport properties of graphene and phosphorene nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiao-Fang; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate ballistic thermal transport at low temperatures in graphene and phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRS) modulated with a double-cavity quantum structure. A comparative analysis for thermal transport in these two kinds of nanomaterials is made. The results show that the thermal conductance in PNRS is greater than that in graphene nanoribbons (GNRS). The ratio kG/kP (kG is the thermal conductivity in GNRS and kP is the thermal conductivity in PNRS) decreases with lower temperature or for narrower nanoribbons, and increases with higher temperature or for wider nanoribbons. The greater thermal conductance and thermal conductivity in PNRS originate from the lower cutoff frequencies of the acoustic modes. PMID:26577958

  2. Simultaneous Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity and Thermal Conductivity by Means of Inverse Solution for One-Dimensional Heat Conduction (Anisotropic Thermal Properties of CFRP for FCEV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, Masataka; Monde, Masanori

    2015-11-01

    For safe and fast fueling of hydrogen in a fuel cell electric vehicle at hydrogen fueling stations, an understanding of the heat transferred from the gas into the tank wall (carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) material) during hydrogen fueling is necessary. Its thermal properties are needed in estimating heat loss accurately during hydrogen fueling. The CFRP has anisotropic thermal properties, because it consists of an adhesive agent and layers of the CFRP which is wound with a carbon fiber. In this paper, the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of the tank wall material were measured by an inverse solution for one-dimensional unsteady heat conduction. As a result, the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity were 2.09 × 10^{-6}{ m}2{\\cdot }{s}^{-1} and 3.06{ W}{\\cdot }{m}{\\cdot }^{-1}{K}^{-1} for the axial direction, while they were 6.03 × 10^{-7} {m}2{\\cdot }{s}^{-1} and 0.93 {W}{\\cdot }{m}^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1} for the radial direction. The thermal conductivity for the axial direction was about three times higher than that for the radial direction. The thermal diffusivity shows the same trend in both directions because the thermal capacity, ρ c, is independent of direction, where ρ is the density and c is the heat capacity.

  3. Thermal capacitator design rationale. Part 1: Thermal and mechanical property data for selected materials potentially useful in thermal capacitor design and construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. A.; Liao, C. K.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal properties of paraffin hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon mixtures which may be used as the phase change material (PCM) in thermal capacitors are discussed. The paraffin hydrocarbons selected for consideration are those in the range from C11H24 (n-Undecane) to C20H42 (n-Eicosane). A limited amount of data is included concerning other properties of paraffin hydrocarbons and the thermal and mechanical properties of several aluminum alloys which may find application as constructional materials. Data concerning the melting temperature, transition temperature, latent heat of fusion, heat of transition, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of pure and commercial grades of paraffin hydrocarbons are given. An index of companies capable of producing paraffin hydrocarbons and information concerning the availability of various grades (purity levels) is provided.

  4. Transport properties of multicomponent thermal plasmas: Grad method versus Chapman-Enskog method

    SciTech Connect

    Porytsky, P.; Krivtsun, I.; Demchenko, V.; Reisgen, U.; Mokrov, O.; Zabirov, A.; Gorchakov, S.; Timofeev, A.; Uhrlandt, D.

    2013-02-15

    Transport properties (thermal conductivity, viscosity, and electrical conductivity) for multicomponent Ar-Fe thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure have been determined by means of two different methods. The transport coefficients set based on Grad's method is compared with the data obtained when using the Chapman-Enskog's method. Results from both applied methods are in good agreement. It is shown that the Grad method is suitable for the determination of transport properties of the thermal plasmas.

  5. The effects of thermally reversible agents on PVC stability properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Yao, J.; Xiong, X. H.; Jia, C. X.; Ren, R.; Chen, P.; Liu, X. M.

    2016-07-01

    One kind of thermally reversible cross-linking agents for improving PVC thermally stability was synthesized. The chemical structure and thermally reversible characteristics of cross-linking agents were investigated by FTIR and DSC analysis, respectively. FTIR results confirmed that the cyclopentadienyl barium mercaptides ((CPD-C2H4S)2Ba) were successfully synthesized. DSC results showed it has thermally reversible characteristics and the depolymerization temperature was between 170 °C and 205 °C. The effects of cross-linking reaction time on gel content of Poly(vinyl chloride) compounds was evaluated. The gel content value arrived at 42% after being cross-linked for 25 min at 180 C. The static thermally stability measurement proved that the thermally stability of PVC compounds was improved.

  6. Method of remotely characterizing thermal properties of a sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor); Heath, D. Michele (Inventor); Welch, Christopher (Inventor); Winfree, William P. (Inventor); Miller, William E. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A sample in a wind tunnel is radiated from a thermal energy source outside of the wind tunnel. A thermal imager system, also located outside of the wind tunnel, reads surface radiations from the sample as a function of time. The produced thermal images are characteristic of the heat transferred from the sample to the flow across the sample. In turn, the measured rates of heat loss of the sample are characteristic of the flow and the sample.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and magneto optical properties of BaBixLaxYxFe12-3xO19 (0.0≤x≤0.33) hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güner, S.; Auwal, I. A.; Baykal, A.; Sözeri, H.

    2016-10-01

    BaBixLaxYxFe12-3xO19 (0.0≤x≤0.33) hexaferrites were synthesized by sol-gel autocombustion method and the effects of Bi, La, Y substitutions on structural, magneto-optical properties of barium hexaferrite were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and Percent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DR %), were used to study the physical properties. XRD peaks showed pure single phase of hexagonal ferrites and the average crystallite size varies in a range of 42.35-49.90 nm. Room temperature (RT) specific magnetization (σ-H) data revealed the strong ferromagnetic nature of hexaferrite with remanant specific magnetization (σr) in the range of 29.9-34.6 Am2/kg and extrapolated specific saturation magnetization (σs) in the range 53.69-67.42 Am2/kg. The maximum coercive field (Hc) of 3.812×105 A/m (belongs to BaFe12O19) decreases to minimum 2.177×105 A/m with increasing ion substitution. Magnetic anisotropy was confirmed as uniaxial and effective anisotropy constant (Keff) takes values between 2.532×105 J/m3 and 3.105×105 J/m3. The anisotropy field (Ha) around 1.6 T revealed that all samples are magnetically hard materials. The Tauc graphs were plotted to estimate the direct optical energy band gap (Eg) of hexaferrite. The Eg values decreased from 1.88 eV to 1.69 eV with increasing Bi, La, Y compositions.

  8. Magneto-thermo-mechanical characterization of magnetostrictive composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nersessian, Nersesse; Carman, Gregory P.

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes magneto-thermo-mechanical characterization of magnetostrictive composites. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the behavior of magnetostrictive composites under combined magnetic, thermal and mechanical loading, and to determine fundamental properties used for design of actuator and sensor systems that incorporate these materials. Currently the composites are being used in sonar transducers. The magnetostrictive composite contains Terfenol-D (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2) particulate embedded into an epoxy binder. Composite form is used due to the relative brittleness and limited operational frequencies of monolithic Terfenol-D. Two different tests were performed both at room temperature and under thermal loading: 1) constant magnetic field with cyclically varying load around a bias load and 2) constant pre-load with varying magnetic field. Testing was performed on five different volume fraction composites, namely, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%. Parameters that were evaluated include strain output, magnetic field, magnetization and elastic modulus. Results for the constant magnetic field tests indicate that modulus generally increases with increasing volume fraction and increasing magnetic field. However, for low fields, an initial dip is noticed in modulus (i.e. (Delta) E effect) attributed to domains becoming more mobile at lower magnetic field levels. Results also indicate an increase in modulus with decrease in temperature. Results for the constant load test indicate a strong dependence of strain output on applied pre-stress. Results indicate that max strain peaks at a certain value of the pre-stress and then decreases for increasing pre-stress. Results also indicate that strain output peaks between 0 degree(s)C and +10 degree(s)C and that strain generally increases with increasing volume fraction.

  9. Review of temperature dependence of thermal properties, dielectric properties, and perfusion of biological tissues at hyperthermic and ablation temperatures.

    PubMed

    Rossmanna, Christian; Haemmerich, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    The application of supraphysiological temperatures (>40°C) to biological tissues causes changes at the molecular, cellular, and structural level, with corresponding changes in tissue function and in thermal, mechanical and dielectric tissue properties. This is particularly relevant for image-guided thermal treatments (e.g. hyperthermia and thermal ablation) delivering heat via focused ultrasound (FUS), radiofrequency (RF), microwave (MW), or laser energy; temperature induced changes in tissue properties are of relevance in relation to predicting tissue temperature profile, monitoring during treatment, and evaluation of treatment results. This paper presents a literature survey of temperature dependence of electrical (electrical conductivity, resistivity, permittivity) and thermal tissue properties (thermal conductivity, specific heat, diffusivity). Data of soft tissues (liver, prostate, muscle, kidney, uterus, collagen, myocardium and spleen) for temperatures between 5 to 90°C, and dielectric properties in the frequency range between 460 kHz and 3 GHz are reported. Furthermore, perfusion changes in tumors including carcinomas, sarcomas, rhabdomyosarcoma, adenocarcinoma and ependymoblastoma in response to hyperthmic temperatures up to 46°C are presented. Where appropriate, mathematical models to describe temperature dependence of properties are presented. The presented data is valuable for mathematical models that predict tissue temperature during thermal therapies (e.g. hyperthermia or thermal ablation), as well as for applications related to prediction and monitoring of temperature induced tissue changes. PMID:25955712

  10. Review of temperature dependence of thermal properties, dielectric properties, and perfusion of biological tissues at hyperthermic and ablation temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Rossmann, Christian; Haemmerich, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The application of supraphysiological temperatures (>40°C) to biological tissues causes changes at the molecular, cellular, and structural level, with corresponding changes in tissue function and in thermal, mechanical and dielectric tissue properties. This is particularly relevant for image-guided thermal treatments (e.g. hyperthermia and thermal ablation) delivering heat via focused ultrasound (FUS), radiofrequency (RF), microwave (MW), or laser energy; temperature induced changes in tissue properties are of relevance in relation to predicting tissue temperature profile, monitoring during treatment, and evaluation of treatment results. This paper presents a literature survey of temperature dependence of electrical (electrical conductivity, resistivity, permittivity) and thermal tissue properties (thermal conductivity, specific heat, diffusivity). Data of soft tissues (liver, prostate, muscle, kidney, uterus, collagen, myocardium and spleen) for temperatures between 5 to 90°C, and dielectric properties in the frequency range between 460 kHz and 3 GHz are reported. Furthermore, perfusion changes in tumors including carcinomas, sarcomas, rhabdomyosarcoma, adenocarcinoma and ependymoblastoma in response to hyperthmic temperatures up to 46°C are presented. Where appropriate, mathematical models to describe temperature dependence of properties are presented. The presented data is valuable for mathematical models that predict tissue temperature during thermal therapies (e.g. hyperthermia or thermal ablation), as well as for applications related to prediction and monitoring of temperature induced tissue changes. PMID:25955712

  11. Enhanced mechanical and thermal properties of regenerated cellulose/graphene composite fibers.

    PubMed

    Tian, Mingwei; Qu, Lijun; Zhang, Xiansheng; Zhang, Kun; Zhu, Shifeng; Guo, Xiaoqing; Han, Guangting; Tang, Xiaoning; Sun, Yaning

    2014-10-13

    In this study, a wet spinning method was applied to fabricate regenerated cellulose fibers filled with low graphene loading which was systematically characterized by SEM, TEM, FTIR and XRD techniques. Subsequently, the mechanical and thermal properties of the resulting fibers were investigated. With only 0.2 wt% loading of graphene, a ∼ 50% improvement of tensile strength and 25% enhancement of Young's modulus were obtained and the modified Halpin-Tsai model was built to predict the mechanical properties of composite fibers. Thermal analysis of the composite fibers showed remarkably enhanced thermal stability and dynamic heat transfer performance of graphene-filled cellulose composite fiber, also, the presence of graphene oxide can significantly enhance the thermal conductivity of the composite fiber. This work provided a facile way to improve mechanical and thermal properties of regenerated cellulose fibers. The resultant composite fibers have potential application in thermal insulation and reinforced fibrous materials.

  12. Study of mechanical and thermal properties of soy flour elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Kendra Alicia

    Bio-based plastics are becoming viable alternatives to petroleum-based plastics because they decrease dependence on petroleum derivatives and are more environmentally friendly. Raw materials such as soy flour are widely available, low cost, lightweight, stiffness and have high strength characteristics, but weak interfacial adhesion between the soy flour and the polymer poses a challenge. In this study, soy flour was utilized as a filler in thermoplastic elastomer composites. A surface modification called acetylation was investigated at soy flour concentrations of 10 wt%, 15 wt% and 20 wt%. The mechanical properties of the composites were then compared to that of elastomers without a filler. Chemical characterization of the acetylated soy flour was attempted in order to understand what occurs during the reaction and after completion. In the range of tests, soy flour loadings were observed to be inversely proportional to tensile strength for both the untreated and treated soy flour. However, the acetylated soy flour at 10 wt% concentration performed comparable to that of the neat rubber and resulted in an increase in tensile strength. Unexpectedly, the acetylation reaction increased elongation, which reduced stress within the composite and is believed to increase the adhesion of the soy flour to that of the elastomer. In the nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR), the intensity for the treated soy flour was larger than that of the untreated soy flour for the acetyl groups that were attached to the soy flour, particularly, the carbonyl function group next to the deprotonated oxygen and the methyl group next to the carbonyl. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the acetylated soy flour is slightly more thermally stable than the untreated soy flour. The treated soy flour also increased the decomposition temperature of the composite.

  13. Thermal properties of {sup 4}He surfaces and interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, B.E.; Krotscheck, E. |; Tymczak, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    A first-principle quantum statistical mechanical theory is used to study the properties of thick liquid {sup 4}He films absorbed to the weakly binding substrates: Li, Na, and Cs. Values for the liquid-gas and solid-liquid surface energies are determined. By fitting, at long wavelengths, the film`s lowest energy mode with the standard expression for the ripplon energy, which depends on the liquid-gas surface energy, the authors obtain excellent agreement with the liquid-vacuum surface energy from recent experiments and also the one previously extracted from quantum liquid droplet calculations. The full spectrum of excitations for wave vectors less than 0.50 {Angstrom}{sup {minus}1} is calculated using a dynamical correlated basis function theory developed in earlier work, which includes multi-phonon scattering processes. Particle currents and transition densities are used to elucidate the nature of the excitations. At a coverage of 0.40 {Angstrom}{sup {minus}2}, the lowest mode shows no significant substrate dependence, and is recognized as being a ripplon propagating in the liquid film at the liquid-gas surface. A new effect is observed for the Cs substrate; the second lowest mode is qualitatively different than found on the other substrates and is identified as interfacial ripplon. In the other substrates the second mode is a volume mode altered somewhat by the high density inner liquid layers. The linewidths of these modes are also calculated. The dynamic excitations provide the input for the thermodynamic theory and the effects on the free energy, heat capacity, and thermal surface broadening of these films are studied as function of the nature of the excitations, the number of modes, and variations in the substrate potentials.

  14. Fundamental properties of a planar type of inductively coupled thermal plasma with current modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tial, Mai Kai Suan; Tanaka, Yasunori; Akao, Mika; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Ishijima, Tatsuo

    2016-09-01

    A novel planar type of induction thermal plasma system with current modulation has been developed using a rectangular quartz vessel instead of a conventional cylindrical tube for thermal plasma processing for large-area material surface. To expand the generated thermal plasma laterally, the rectangular coil is used around the planar torch. Electrical properties including effective electrical impedance and instantaneous effective power of the thermal plasma at a pressure of 30 Torr at an input power about 10 kW were studied for the developed Ar planar type of induction thermal plasma. The spatial distribution of Ar excitation temperature in a planar torch was measured to elucidate fundamental aspects of a planar thermal plasma. Furthermore, the effect of coil current modulation was studied for changes in electrical properties and temperature, and their controllability in a planar thermal plasma.

  15. Thermal properties of carbon nanowall layers measured by a pulsed photothermal technique

    SciTech Connect

    Achour, A.; Belkerk, B. E.; Ait Aissa, K.; Gautron, E.; Carette, M.; Jouan, P.-Y.; Brizoual, L. Le; Scudeller, Y.; Djouadi, M.-A.; Vizireanu, S.; Dinescu, G.

    2013-02-11

    We report the thermal properties of carbon nanowall layers produced by expanding beam radio-frequency plasma. The thermal properties of carbon nanowalls, grown at 600 Degree-Sign C on aluminium nitride thin-film sputtered on fused silica, were measured with a pulsed photo-thermal technique. The apparent thermal conductivity of the carbon at room temperature was found to increase from 20 to 80 Wm{sup -1} K{sup -1} while the thickness varied from 700 to 4300 nm, respectively. The intrinsic thermal conductivity of the carbon nanowalls attained 300 Wm{sup -1} K{sup -1} while the boundary thermal resistance with the aluminium nitride was 3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} Km{sup 2} W{sup -1}. These results identify carbon nanowalls as promising material for thermal management applications.

  16. Nonlinear least squares - An aid to thermal property determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, D. M.; Williams, S. D.

    1972-01-01

    Nonlinear least squares techniques can be used to determine effective thermal conductivity values from experimental data. Comparisons between measured and predicted conductivity values indicate that the analytically determined values can be used with confidence in performing thermal protection system analyses. A study was performed to compare the relative efficiencies of different minimizing techniques; techniques; the method of Peckham was the most efficient.

  17. Another Demo of the Unusual Thermal Properties of Rubber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liff, Mark I.

    2010-01-01

    The unusual thermal behavior of rubbers, though discovered a long time ago, can still be mind-boggling for students and teachers who encounter this class of polymeric systems. Unlike other solids, stretched elastic polymers shrink upon heating. This is a manifestation of the Gough-Joule (G-J) effect. Joule in the 1850s studied the thermal behavior…

  18. Optimal experimental designs for the estimation of thermal properties of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Elaine P.; Moncman, Deborah A.

    1994-01-01

    Reliable estimation of thermal properties is extremely important in the utilization of new advanced materials, such as composite materials. The accuracy of these estimates can be increased if the experiments are designed carefully. The objectives of this study are to design optimal experiments to be used in the prediction of these thermal properties and to then utilize these designs in the development of an estimation procedure to determine the effective thermal properties (thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity). The experiments were optimized by choosing experimental parameters that maximize the temperature derivatives with respect to all of the unknown thermal properties. This procedure has the effect of minimizing the confidence intervals of the resulting thermal property estimates. Both one-dimensional and two-dimensional experimental designs were optimized. A heat flux boundary condition is required in both analyses for the simultaneous estimation of the thermal properties. For the one-dimensional experiment, the parameters optimized were the heating time of the applied heat flux, the temperature sensor location, and the experimental time. In addition to these parameters, the optimal location of the heat flux was also determined for the two-dimensional experiments. Utilizing the optimal one-dimensional experiment, the effective thermal conductivity perpendicular to the fibers and the effective volumetric heat capacity were then estimated for an IM7-Bismaleimide composite material. The estimation procedure used is based on the minimization of a least squares function which incorporates both calculated and measured temperatures and allows for the parameters to be estimated simultaneously.

  19. Quantitative magneto-optical analysis of the role of finite temperatures on the critical state in YBCO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Joachim; Brück, Sebastian; Stahl, Claudia; Ruoß, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    We use quantitative magneto-optical microscopy to investigate the influence of finite temperatures on the critical state of thin YBCO films. In particular, temperature and time dependence of supercurrents in inhomogeneous and anisotropic films are analyzed to extract the role of temperature on the supercurrents themselves and the influence of thermally activated relaxation. We find that inhomogeneities and anisotropies of the current density distribution correspond to a different temperature dependence of local supercurrents. In addition, the thermally activated decay of supercurrents can be used to extract local vortex pinning energies. With these results the modification of vortex pinning introduced by substrate structures is studied. In summary the local investigation of supercurrent densities allows the full description of the vortex pinning landscape with respect to pinning forces and energies in superconducting films with complex properties under the influence of finite temperatures.

  20. Magneto Transport in Three Dimensional Carbon Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Timir; Wang, Lei; Jaroszynski, Jan; Yin, Ming; Alameri, Dheyaa

    Electrical properties of self-assembled three dimensional nanostructures are interesting topic. Here we report temperature dependence of magneto transport in such carbon nanostructures with periodic spherical voids. Specimens with different void diameters in the temperature range from 200 mK to 20 K were studied. Above 2 K, magnetoresistance, MR = [R(B) - R(0)] / R(0), crosses over from quadratic to a linear dependence with the increase of magnetic field [Wang et al., APL 2015; DOI:10.1063/1.4926606]. We observe MR to be non-saturating even up to 18 Tesla. Furthermore, MR demonstrates universality because all experimental data can be collapsed on to a single curve, as a universal function of B/T. Below 2 K, magnetoresistance saturates with increasing field. Quantum Hall like steps are also observed in this low temperature regime. Remarkably, MR of our sample displays orientation independence, an attractive feature for technological applications.

  1. Some thermophysical properties of paraffin wax as a thermal storage medium

    SciTech Connect

    Haji-Sheikh, A.; Eftekhar, J.; Lou, D.Y.S.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted to determine the suitability of paraffin wax SUNTECH P116 as a phase change material for storage of thermal energy. Certain temperature dependent thermophysical properties in the neighborhood of the melting point useful for this study, but not adequately available in the literature, are measured. They include thermal conductivity, density, thermal expansion coefficient, and viscosity. It is observed that the thermal conductivity of paraffin wax, in solid phase, is not a monotonic function of temperature as reported in the literature. Other thermophysical properties of the liquid phase measured vary monotonically with temperature.

  2. The influence of variations of elemental composition on the thermal properties of interstellar gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, E. O.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2016-10-01

    The mixing of metals and redistribution of the relative abundances of chemical elements in the interstellar medium often takes place on a timescale that exceeds the characteristic timescales for many other processes, such as ionization and the establishment of thermal equilibrium. Under these conditions, different regions of interstellar gas can have different thermal, chemical, and spectral properties. The paper considers the ionization kinetics and thermal regime of interstellar gas with variations in the relative elemental abundances. The thermal properties and observational (spectral) characteristics are most sensitive to variations of the relative abundance of carbon, oxygen, neon, and iron. The dynamic consequences of such variations are considered.

  3. Thermal properties of rocks of the borehole Yaxcopoil-1 (Impact Crater Chicxulub, Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Yu.; Romushkevich, R.; Korobkov, D.; Mayr, S.; Bayuk, I.; Burkhardt, H.; Wilhelm, H.

    2011-02-01

    The results of thermal property measurements on cores from the scientific well Yaxcopoil-1 (1511 m in depth) drilled in the Chicxulub impact structure (Mexico) are described. The thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, volumetric heat capacity, thermal anisotropy coefficient, thermal heterogeneity factor, and, in addition, porosity and density were measured on 451 dry and water-saturated cores from the depth interval of 404-1511 m. The acoustic velocities were determined on a subgroup of representative samples. Significant vertical short- and long-scale variations of physical properties related to the grade of shock-thermal metamorphism and correlations between thermal and other physical properties are established. Rocks of the post-impact and impact complexes differ significantly in heterogeneity demonstrating that the impact complex has larger micro- heterogeneity on sample scale. The pre-impact rocks differ essentially from the impact and post-impact rocks in the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, density and porosity. The thermal anisotropy of rocks of all structural-lithological complexes is very low (K = 1.02 … 1.08), which is similar to the situation in the Puchezh-Katunk and Ries impact structures. Correlations are established between the thermal conductivity and elastic wave velocities measured in laboratory. For limestone-calcarenites, the thermal conductivity (λ) can be calculated from the compressional wave velocity (Vp) using the formula λ= 0.346 Vp + 0.844, and for dolomite-anhydrites this relation has the form λ= 0.998 Vp + 1.163 [for λ in W (m K)-1 and Vp in km s-1]. These correlations are used for downscaling of the sonic velocities to the decimetre scale. The effective medium theory is applied to invert the matrix thermal conductivity and pore/crack geometry from the thermal conductivity measured on the studied samples. Representative experimental data on the thermal properties for all lithological groups encountered by the

  4. Temperature-dependent thermal properties of supported MoS2 monolayers.

    PubMed

    Taube, Andrzej; Judek, Jarosław; Łapińska, Anna; Zdrojek, Mariusz

    2015-03-11

    Thermal properties can substantially affect the operation of various electronics and optoelectronics devices based on two-dimensional materials. In this work, we describe our investigation of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and interfacial thermal conductance of molybdenum disulfide monolayers supported on SiO2/Si substrates, using Raman spectroscopy. We observed that the calculated thermal conductivity (κ) and interfacial thermal conductance (g) decreased with increasing temperature from 62.2 W m(-1) K(-1) and 1.94 MW m(-2) K(-1) at 300 K to 7.45 W m(-1) K(-1) and 1.25 MW m(-2) K(-1) at 450 K, respectively.

  5. Fabrication of TiC/Ni functionally gradient materials and their mechanical and thermal properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xiangfeng; Tanihata, Kimiaki; Miyamoto, Yoshinari; Kumakawa, Akinaga; Nagata, Satoshi; Yamada, Tomohiko; Hirano, Tohru

    1992-08-01

    A TiC/Ni functionally gradient material (FGM) fabricated via gas-pressure combustion sintering is presently investigated to establish its mechanical and thermal properties. Attention is given to the FGM's specific thermal conductivities with different thermal cycling conditions; these are found to decrease with thermal cycling in all samples tested, implying that the lateral cracks are generated in the FGM and then propagated by the thermal cycle. High compressive stresses are induced at the TiC surface when this is constrained by a Cu block. 6 refs.

  6. The contribution of lysophospholipids to pasting and thermal properties of nonwaxy rice starch.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chuan; Liu, Lei; Waters, Daniel L E; Huang, Yan; Bao, Jinsong

    2015-11-20

    It is known that lysophospholipids (LPLs) may affect rice starch pasting and thermal properties possibly through the formation of an amylose-lipid complex. However, whether these effects of rice LPLs are independent of amylose are still not understood. Here, the diversity of rice flour pasting and thermal properties and their relationship with individual LPL components in native rice endosperm were studied. Several significant correlations between LPLs and pasting properties, such as cool paste viscosity (CPV), breakdown (BD) and consistency (CS) were clearly evident. Thermal properties generally had no relationship with LPLs except for gelatinization enthalpy. Using partial correlation analysis we found that, irrespective of apparent amylose content, CPV and individual LPLs were positively correlated, while BD, CS and other individual LPLs were negatively correlated. This study suggests naturally occurring individual LPLs can contribute to rice flour pasting and thermal properties, either independently or in combination with amylose. PMID:26344271

  7. Analysis of Dielectric and Thermal Properties of Polyamide Enamel Filled with Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraj, D. Edison; Sugumaran, C. Pugazhendhi; Ganesan, Lieutenant J.; Ramathilagam, J.

    2013-06-01

    In recent days, there was a significant development in the area of nanoparticles and nanoscale fillers on dielectric, thermal and mechanical properties of polymeric materials. The dielectric and thermal properties of standard polyamide and nanoscale-filled samples were detailed and analyzed. Carbon nanotubes were used as nanofillers. Carbon nanotubes were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The basic properties such as dielectric loss tangent (tan δ), dielectric constant (ɛ), dielectric strength, partial discharge inception voltage, surface resistivity, quality factor, phase angle, dielectric conductivity, dielectric power loss and thermal withstand strength of the polyamide enamel filled with carbon nanotubes were analyzed and compared with the properties of the standard enamel. The experimental results show that carbon nanotubes mixed with polyamide enamel had better thermal properties when compared to that of standard enamel.

  8. Characterization of the heat transfer properties of thermal interface materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullem, Travis Z.

    Physicists have studied the thermal conductivity of solids for decades. As a result of these efforts, thermal conduction in crystalline solids is well understood; there are detailed theories describing thermal conduction due to electrons and phonons. Phonon scattering and transmission at solid/solid interfaces, particularly above cryogenic temperatures, is not well understood and more work is needed in this area. The desire to solve engineering problems which require good thermal contact between mating surfaces has provided enhanced motivation for furthering the state of the art on this topic. Effective thermal management is an important design consideration in microelectronic systems. A common technique for removing excess heat from an electronic device is to attach a heatsink to the device; it is desirable to minimize the thermal resistance between the device and the heatsink. This can be accomplished by placing a thermal interface material (TIM) between the two surfaces. Due to the ever-increasing power densities found in electronic components, there is a desire to design better TIMs, which necessitates the ability to characterize TIM bondlines and to better understand the physics of heat conduction through TIM bondlines. A micro Fourier apparatus which employs Pt thin film thermometers of our design has been built and is capable of precisely quantifying the thermal resistance of thermal interface materials. In the present work several types of commercially available TIMs have been studied using this apparatus, including: greases, filled epoxies, and thermally conductive pads. In the case of filled epoxies, bondlines of various thicknesses, ranging from thirty microns to several hundred microns, have been measured. The microstructure of these bondlines has been investigated using optical microscopy and acoustic microscopy. Measured values of thermal conductivity are considered in terms of microstructural features such as percolation networks and filler particle

  9. Thermal Properties of Double-Aluminized Kapton at Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, J.; DiPirro, M.; Canavan, E.; Hait, T.

    2008-03-01

    Double-aluminized kapton (DAK) is commonly used in multi-layer insulation blankets in cryogenic systems. NASA plans to use individual DAK sheets in lightweight deployable shields for satellites carrying instruments. A set of these shields will reflect away thermal radiation from the sun, the earth, and the instrument's warm side and allow the instrument's cold side to radiate its own heat to deep space. In order to optimally design such a shield system, it is important to understand the thermal characteristics of DAK down to low temperatures. We describe experiments which measured the thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity down to 4 Kelvin and the emissivity down to 10 Kelvin.

  10. Thermal Properties of Double-Aluminized Kapton at Low Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, J.; DiPirro, M.; Canavan, E.; Hait, T.

    2007-01-01

    Double-aluminized kapton (DAK) is commonly used in multi-layer insulation blankets in cryogenic systems. NASA plans to use individual DAK sheets in lightweight deployable shields for satellites carrying instruments. A set of these shields will reflect away thermal radiation from the sun, the earth, and the instrument's warm side and allow the instrument's cold side to radiate its own heat to deep space. In order to optimally design such a shield system, it is important to understand the thermal characteristics of DAK down to low temperatures. We describe experiments which measured the thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity down to 4 Kelvin and the emissivity down to 10 Kelvin.

  11. Thermal Properties of epoxy composites with silicon carbide and/or graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Kim, Yang Do; Nam, Dae Geun; Bae, Jong-Seong; Yeum, Jeong Hyun; Oh, Weontae

    2016-02-01

    Epoxy composites were fabricated with a filler of silicon carbide (SiC) and/or graphite to improve the thermal conductivity and thereby enhance the transfer of the heat from the light-emitting diode (LED) to the heat sink. The two fillers (SiC and graphite) were each added either separately, within a content range of 10 - 50 wt.%, or together to give a combined total content of 40 - 60 wt.%. The effect of the filler addition on the thermal and the mechanical properties of the epoxy composites was examined. The filler-induced change on the structural properties was investigated by using a morphological analysis of the epoxy composites, and the thermal conductivity was analyzed by measuring the thermal diffusivity, heat specific, and density. To confirm the adhesive property with aluminum, which is mostly used as the heat sink material were tested, the mechanical properties by using a bonding test with a modified tensile test. The thermal and the mechanical properties were improved with increasing filler content in the epoxy composites. In the case of combined filler addition, graphite was more effective than SiC in increasing the thermal properties. However, excessive filler addition reduced the epoxy's natural adhesive property and hence degraded the mechanical properties.

  12. In-Cell Thermal Property Determination for Irradiated Fuels at the INL

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Burkes; D. M. Wachs; Matthew K. Fig; J. R. Kennedy

    2008-09-01

    The thermal properties of irradiated nuclear fuels are extremely difficult to evaluate experimentally and thus have rarely been measured successfully, in spite of the vital role these properties play in fuel performance. A technique based on a commercially available ‘hot disk’ instrument is being developed to support thermal property investigations for plate-type nuclear fuels. Theoretical analysis was performed in order to evaluate the instruments response to a multi-layered test piece and to support calibration. In addition, a scanning thermal diffusivity microscope is currently under implementation that will permit point-to-point determination of irradiated nuclear fuels.

  13. Thermal properties of PZT95/5(1.8Nb) and PSZT ceramics.

    SciTech Connect

    DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Rae, David F.; Corelis, David J.; Yang, Pin; Burns, George Robert

    2006-11-01

    Thermal properties of niobium-modified PZT95/5(1.8Nb) and PSZT ceramics used for the ferroelectric power supply have been studied from -100 C to 375 C. Within this temperature range, these materials exhibit ferroelectric-ferroelectric and ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transformations. The thermal expansion coefficient, heat capacity, and thermal diffusivity of different phases were measured. Thermal conductivity and Grueneisen constant were calculated at several selected temperatures between -60 C and 100 C. Results show that thermal properties of these two solid solutions are very similar. Phase transformations in these ceramics possess first order transformation characteristics including thermal hysteresis, transformational strain, and enthalpy change. The thermal strain in the high temperature rhombohedral phase region is extremely anisotropic. The heat capacity for both materials approaches to 3R (or 5.938 cal/(g-mole*K)) near room temperature. The thermal diffusivity and the thermal conductivity are quite low in comparison to common oxide ceramics, and are comparable to amorphous silicate glass. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity of these materials between -60 C and 100 C becomes independent of temperature and is sensitive to the structural phase transformation. These phenomena suggest that the phonon mean free path governing the thermal conductivity in this temperature range is limited by the lattice dimensions, which is in good agreement with calculated values. Effects of small compositional changes and density/porosity variations in these ceramics on their thermal properties are also discussed. The implications of these transformation characteristics and unusual thermal properties are important in guiding processing and handling procedures for these materials.

  14. Structure-thermal property correlation of aligned silicon dioxide nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jie; Zhu, Yu; Wu, Xuewang; Song, Helun; Zhang, Yaohui; Wang, Xiaojia

    2016-06-01

    Quantitative characterization of thermal properties of nanorod (NR) arrays appears to be challenging due to the complex combination of high volume of air voids, anisotropy, and structural non-uniformity. This work investigates the structure-thermal property correlation of arrays consisting of either vertically aligned or slanted silicon dioxide (SiO2) NRs, fabricated by the dynamic shadowing growth technique. We apply the frequency-dependent time-domain thermoreflectance method to quantify the thermal properties of SiO2 NR arrays that may possess inhomogeneity along the depth direction. The effective thermal conductivities of four SiO2 NR array films and one reference capping layer for the SiO2 NR array are obtained. The impact of the structure on the effective thermal conductivities of the SiO2 NR array is discussed. The lowest effective thermal conductivity among all samples in this work is found to be 0.13 W m-1 K-1 for the slanted NR array. We attribute the reduction in the effective thermal conductivity of the NR array to the discontinuous nature of SiO2 NRs, which reduces the density of the thermal transport channels and thus prevents heat flux from propagating downwards along the through-plane direction. The results from this work facilitate the potential applications of NR-array-based thermal insulators for micro-thermal devices.

  15. Molecular dynamics studies of material property effects on thermal boundary conductance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X W; Jones, R E; Duda, J C; Hopkins, P E

    2013-07-14

    Thermal boundary resistance (inverse of conductance) between different material layers can dominate the overall thermal resistance in nanostructures and therefore impact the performance of the thermal property limiting nano devices. Because relationships between material properties and thermal boundary conductance have not been fully understood, optimum devices cannot be developed through a rational selection of materials. Here we develop generic interatomic potentials to enable material properties to be continuously varied in extremely large molecular dynamics simulations to explore the dependence of thermal boundary conductance on the characteristic properties of materials such as atomic mass, stiffness, and interfacial crystallography. To ensure that our study is not biased to a particular model, we employ different types of interatomic potentials. In particular, both a Stillinger-Weber potential and a hybrid embedded-atom-method + Stillinger-Weber potential are used to study metal-on-semiconductor compound interfaces, and the results are analyzed considering previous work based upon a Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. These studies, therefore, reliably provide new understanding of interfacial transport phenomena particularly in terms of effects of material properties on thermal boundary conductance. Our most important finding is that thermal boundary conductance increases with the overlap of the vibrational spectra between metal modes and the acoustic modes of the semiconductor compound, and increasing the metal stiffness causes a continuous shift of the metal modes. As a result, the maximum thermal boundary conductance occurs at an intermediate metal stiffness (best matched to the semiconductor stiffness) that maximizes the overlap of the vibrational modes.

  16. Development of Thermal Barrier Coating System with Superior Thermal Cyclic Properties with an Intermediate Layer Containing MoSi2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonoya, Keiji; Tobe, Shogo

    The authors have developed a method of improving the thermal cyclic resistance of the thermal barrier coating system that is deposited on gas turbine components. A conventional thermal barrier coating consists of a duplex system: a top coating and a bond coating. The developed system has a protective intermediate layer of MoSi2 which prevents oxidation of the bond coating. The conventional duplex plasma -sprayed coating was delaminated after 20 thermal cycles. On the other hand, the developed triple-layered coating system was not delaminated after 60 cycles. The reason for the enhanced resistance to thermal cycles of the developed triple-layered coating system is that the MoSi2 layer between the top coating and the bond coating has a self-repairing property. MoSi2 oxidizes to form SiO2, which seals the cracks and pores formed between the top coating and the bond coating. Thus, the formation of a thermally grown oxide(TGO), which causes the delamination of the coating, is prevented and the thermal cyclic resistance is improved.

  17. Thermal properties of composite materials with a complex fractal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Álvarez, F.; Reyes-Salgado, J. J.; Dossetti, V.; Carrillo, J. L.

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we report the thermal characterization of platelike composite samples made of polyester resin and magnetite inclusions. By means of photoacoustic spectroscopy and thermal relaxation, the thermal diffusivity, conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of the samples were experimentally measured. The volume fraction of the inclusions was systematically varied in order to study the changes in the effective thermal conductivity of the composites. For some samples, a static magnetic field was applied during the polymerization process, resulting in anisotropic inclusion distributions. Our results show a decrease in the thermal conductivity of some of the anisotropic samples, compared to the isotropic randomly distributed ones. Our analysis indicates that the development of elongated inclusion structures leads to the formation of magnetite and resin domains, causing this effect. We correlate the complexity of the inclusion structure with the observed thermal response through a multifractal and lacunarity analysis. All the experimental data are contrasted with the well known Maxwell-Garnett effective media approximation for composite materials.

  18. Photometric Properties of Thermally Anomalous Terrain on Icy Saturnian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annex, Andrew; Verbiscer, A. J.; Helfenstein, P.; Howett, C.; Schenk, P.

    2013-10-01

    Spectral maps of thermal emission from Mimas obtained by Cassini’s Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) show that a V-shaped boundary, centered at 0° N and 180° W, divides relatively warm daytime temperatures from an anomalously cooler region at low to mid-latitudes on the leading hemisphere (Howett et al. 2011 Icarus 216, 211). This cooler region is also warmer at night, indicating that it has high thermal inertia, and also coincides in shape and location with that of high-energy electron deposition from Saturn’s magnetosphere (Roussos et al. 2007 JGR 112, A06214; Schenk et al. 2011 Icarus 211, 740). Global IR/UV color ratio maps assembled from Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) images revealed a lens-shaped region of relatively blue terrain centered on the leading hemisphere (Schenk et al. 2011, Icarus). The area with low IR/UV ratio also coincides in shape and location with the region of high thermal inertia. A preliminary photometric analysis of Cassini ISS CL1 CL2 filter (centered at 611 nm) images using the Hapke (2008) model suggests that the high thermal inertia region on Mimas is rougher and more strongly backscattering than terrain with lower thermal inertia. Particles on the surface of the thermally anomalous terrain may have a more complex microtexture due to the high-energy electron bombardment. This work is supported by the NASA Cassini Data Analysis Program.

  19. Low temperature thermal properties of composite insulation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, P. E.; Bauer-McDaniel, T. S.; Reed, R. P.

    The thermal contraction and thermal conductivity of candidate composite insulation systems for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor toroidal field coils were measured from 295 to 4 K. Matrix materials consisted of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy suitable for vacuum impregnation, a tetrafunctional epoxy suitable for pre-impregnation, a polyimide system produced by a high-pressure laminating process, and a bismaleimide system. These matrix materials were combined with S-2 glass fabric and various barrier systems, such as ceramic and organic coatings, polyimide film and mica/glass. Thermal contraction was measured by the strain gauge method in which strain gauges are attached directly to the specimen. The thermal contraction in the through-thickness direction was different at 4 K for each resin system and changed slightly with the addition of electrical barriers. The thermal conductivity of the materials, with and without the electrical barriers, was similar at 4 K, but more distinctive at higher temperatures. The systems with the ceramic coatings exhibited the highest thermal conductivities at all temperatures.

  20. Effect of tuber skin on the thermal properties of whole tubers of potato and sweet potato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluwo, A. A.; Khan, R. M.; Salami, M. J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Temperature-dependent thermal coefficients of mathematical models of the postharvest storage process play an important role in determining the models accuracy. Thermal properties of tubers under storage available in literature are generally of those in semi processed form (skinless) such as those having undergone peeling, dicing and cutting actions. This study investigates the effect of tuber skin on the thermal properties of whole tubers of potato and sweet potato. A direct approach was used to measure the tubers' density and thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity by the transient heat transfer method. Indirect approach was used to measure the tubers' specific heat. Experimental data were used to develop empirical models of the thermal coefficients as a function of temperature. Results of the study should find great use in the modeling of potato and sweet potato storage process.

  1. Martian particle size based on thermal inertia corrected for elevation-dependent atmospheric properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, N. T.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal inertia is commonly used to derive physical properties of the Martian surface. If the surface is composed of loosely consolidated grains, then the thermal conductivity derived from the inertia can theoretically be used to compute the particle size. However, one persistent difficulty associated with the interpretation of thermal inertia and the derivation of particle size from it has been the degree to which atmospheric properties affect both the radiation balance at the surface and the gas conductivity. These factors vary with atmospheric pressure so that derived thermal inertias and particle sizes are a function of elevation. By utilizing currently available thermal models and laboratory information, a fine component thermal inertia map was convolved with digital topography to produce particle size maps of the Martian surface corrected for these elevation-dependent effects. Such an approach is especially applicable for the highest elevations on Mars, where atmospheric back radiation and gas conductivity are low.

  2. A study on thermal properties of biodegradable polymers using photothermal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, A. P. L.; Poley, L. H.; Sanchez, R.; da Silva, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    In this work is reported the use of photothermal techniques applied to the thermal characterization of biodegradable polymers of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) family. This is a family of polymer produced by bacteria using renewable resources. It exhibits thermoplastic properties and therefore it can be an alternative product for engineering plastics, being also applied as packages for food industry and fruits. Thermal diffusivities were determined using the open photoacoustic cell (OPC) configuration. Specific heat capacity measurements were performed monitoring temperature of the samples under white light illumination against time. Typical values obtained for the thermal properties are in good agreement with those found in the literature for other polymers. Due to the incorporation of hydroxyvalerate in the monomer structure, the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity increase reaching a saturation value, otherwise the specific thermal capacity decreases as the concentration of the hydroxyvalerate (HV) increases. These results can be explained by polymers internal structure and are allowing new applications of these materials.

  3. Soil thermal resistivity and thermal stability measuring instrument. Volume 2: Manual for operation and use of the thermal property analyzer and statistical weather analysis program to determine thermal design parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, S. A.; Radhakrishna, H. S.; Chu, F. Y.; Ford, G. L.; Griffin, J. D. A.; Steinmanis, J.

    1981-11-01

    Numerous considerations influence the thermal design of an underground power cable, including the soil thermal resistivity, thermal diffusivity and thermal stability. Each of these properties is a function of soil moisture which is in turn a function of past weather, soil composition, and biological burden. The Neher-McGrath formalism has been widely used for thermal cable design. However, this formalism assumes knowledge of soil thermal properties (resistivity and diffusivity). For design purposes, these parameters should be treated statistically, since weather varies greatly from year to year. As well, soil thermal property surveys are normally required along the route to assess the thermal quality of the native soil. This project is intended to fill the gap between the need to carry out thermal design and the use of the Neher-McGrath formalism which is normally employed. This goal has been addressed through: development of instrumentation and methods of measuring soil thermal properties in situ and in the laboratory; recommendation of methods for conducting soil surveys along a proposed cable route and of assessing the thermal quality of soils; and development of a computerized method to treat soil thermal design parameters on a statistical basis using computerized weather records as supplied by the US Environmental Data Service. The use of the methods and instrumentation developed as a result of this contract should permit less conservative thermal design thereby improving the economics of underground transmission. As well, these techniques and instrumentation facilitate weather-dependent prediction of cable ampacity for installed cables, monitoring of backfill thermal stability, and many other new practices.

  4. Magneto-optical properties BaBixLaxFe12-2xO19 (0.0≤x≤0.5) hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auwal, I. A.; Baykal, A.; Güner, S.; Sertkol, M.; Sözeri, H.

    2016-07-01

    BaBixLaxFe(12-2x)O19 (0.0≤x≤0.5) hexaferrites were synthesized by solid state synthesis route and the effects of Bi, La substitutions on structural, magnetic and optical properties were investigated. X-ray powder diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy, Vibrating sample magnetometer, and Percent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were used to study the physical properties. Room temperature specific magnetization (M-H) curves revealed the ferromagnetic nature of all products. The increasing Bi, La compositions increased the magnetic properties at different magnitudes with respect to undoped BaFe12O19 sample. The maximum values of remnant specific magnetization (Mr=30.3 emu/g), extrapolated specific saturation magnetization (Ms=62.12 emu/g), and magneton number (nB=16.27) were recorded from BaBi0.2La0.2Fe11.4O19 hexaferrite. The average crystallite size varies in a range of (37.35-51.36) nm. The coercive field (Hc) of undoped hexaferrites is 1180 Oe and increased to maximum 2320 Oe belonging to BaBi0.4La0.4Fe11.2O19. Magnetic anisotropy was confirmed as uniaxial and calculated effective anisotropy constants (Keff) are between 4.27×105 Ergs/g and 5.05×105 Ergs/g. The high magnitudes of magnetocrystalline anisotropy (Ha) above than 16,200 Oe revealed that all samples are magnetically hard materials. The Tauc plots were drawn to extrapolate the direct optical energy band gap (Eg) of hexaferrites. The Eg values decreased from 1.76 eV to 1.47 eV with increasing Bi, La compositions.

  5. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF FIBERBOARD OVERPACK MATERIALS IN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    VORMELKER, PHILLIP; DAUGHERTY, W. L.

    2005-06-10

    The 9975 shipping package incorporates a cane fiberboard overpack for thermal insulation and impact resistance. Thermal properties (thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity) have been measured on cane fiberboard and a similar wood fiber-based product at several temperatures representing potential storage conditions. While the two products exhibit similar behavior, the measured specific heat capacity varies significantly from prior data. The current data are being developed as the basis to verify that this material remains acceptable over the extended storage time period.

  6. Mars Polar Thermal Inertia and Albedo Properties Using TES Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherbenski, J. M.; Paige, D. A.

    2002-12-01

    We present north and south polar thermal inertia and albedo maps derived from MGS TES observations. The maps were derived using the same robust approach developed to make polar thermal and inertia and albedo maps using IRTM observationsby Paige, Bachman, and Keegan (1994) and Paige and Keegan (1994). The data processing approach involved reading TES reduced data records in PDS format using the Vanilla software tool, and sending the data down a processing pipeline that constrains and bins the data, and compares it to the results of a diurnal and seasonal thermal model to obtain the best fit thermal inertia and apparent albedo. To facilitate comparison, the TES maps were created at the same Ls ranges as the published IRTM maps using TES spectral surface temperature results. The north polar maps used TES nadir observations obtained during a 50-day period from Ls 98.39 to Ls 121.25. The south polar maps used TES nadir observations obtained during a 30-day period from Ls 321.58 to 338.07. The creation of these maps employ a basic thermal model that does not include the effects of the atmosphere, as well as a one-dimensional radiative-convective model that does include the effects of the atmosphere. The spatial resolution of the north polar maps is 0.1 degrees of latitude and 1.0 degrees of longitude. The spatial resolution of the south polar maps is 2 degrees of latitude and 2 degrees of longitude. The TES north polar maps show the residual cap area in significantly greater detail than has been available previously. The IRTM maps showed that the north polar sand sea that surrounds the cap has unusually low thermal inertia. The TES maps confirm this conclusion, but also show that the dark renetrant features in chama boreal and elsewhere on the cap also have low thermal inertias. This strongly supports the proposal that these dark rentrants are the sources of the dune material. The TES maps also show that the darker layered deposits which are found at the periphery of the

  7. A comparison of field-dependent rheological properties between spherical and plate-like carbonyl iron particles-based magneto-rheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan Shilan, Salihah; Amri Mazlan, Saiful; Ido, Yasushi; Hajalilou, Abdollah; Jeyadevan, Balachandran; Choi, Seung-Bok; Azhani Yunus, Nurul

    2016-09-01

    This work proposes different sizes of the plate-like particles from conventional spherical carbonyl iron (CI) particles by adjusting milling time in the ball mill process. The ball mill process to make the plate-like particles is called a solid-state powder processing technique which involves repeated welding, fracturing and re-welding of powder particles in a high-energy ball mill. The effect of ball milling process on the magnetic behavior of CI particles is firstly investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found form this investigation that the plate-like particles have higher saturation magnetization (about 8%) than that of the spherical particles. Subsequently, for the investigation on the sedimentation behavior the cylindrical measurement technique is used. It is observed from this measurement that the plate-like particles show slower sedimentation rate compared to the spherical particles indicating higher stability of the MR fluid. The field-dependent rheological properties of MR fluids based on the plate-like particles are then investigated with respect to the milling time which is directly connected to the size of the plate-like particles. In addition, the field-dependent rheological properties such as the yield stress are evaluated and compared between the plate-like particles based MR fluids and the spherical particles based MR fluid. It is found that the yield shear stress of the plate-like particles based MR fluid is increased up to 270% compared to the spherical particles based MR fluid.

  8. Prediction of Geomechanical Properties from Thermal Conductivity of Low-Permeable Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekhonin, Evgeny; Popov, Evgeny; Popov, Yury; Spasennykh, Mikhail; Ovcharenko, Yury; Zhukov, Vladislav; Martemyanov, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    A key to assessing a sedimentary basin's hydrocarbon prospect is correct reconstruction of thermal and structural evolution. It is impossible without adequate theory and reliable input data including among other factors thermal and geomechanical rock properties. Both these factors are also important in geothermal reservoirs evaluation and carbon sequestration problem. Geomechanical parameters are usually estimated from sonic logging and rare laboratory measurements, but sometimes it is not possible technically (low quality of the acoustic signal, inappropriate borehole and mud conditions, low core quality). No wonder that there are attempts to correlate the thermal and geomechanical properties of rock, but no one before did it with large amount of high quality thermal conductivity data. Coupling results of sonic logging and non-destructive non-contact thermal core logging opens wide perspectives for studying a relationship between the thermal and geomechanical properties. More than 150 m of full size cores have been measured at core storage with optical scanning technique. Along with results of sonic logging performed with Sonic Scanner in different wells drilled in low permeable formations in West Siberia (Russia) it provided us with unique data set. It was established a strong correlation between components of thermal conductivity (measured perpendicular and parallel to bedding) and compressional and shear acoustic velocities in Bazhen formation. As a result, prediction of geomechanical properties via thermal conductivity data becomes possible, corresponding results was demonstrated. The work was supported by the Russian Ministry of Education and Science, project No. RFMEFI58114X0008.

  9. Thermal, Thermophysical, and Compositional Properties of the Moon Revealed by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer is the first multispectral thermal instrument to globally map the surface of the Moon. After over three years in operation, this unprecedented dataset has revealed the extreme nature of the Moon's thermal environment, thermophysical properties, and surface composition.

  10. The effects of thermal cycling on the physical and mechanical properties of [NZP] ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, T.B.; Limaye, S.Y.; Porter, W.D.

    1994-12-31

    The [NZP] ceramics, sodium zirconium phosphate and its crystal structure analogs, are noted for their very low thermal expansion characteristics. What has not been widely studied is the effect of thermal cycling on physical and mechanical properties. Two [NZP] compositional series were selected (Ba{sub 1+x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6{minus}2x}Si{sub 2x}O{sub 24} and Ca{sub 1{minus}x}Sr{sub x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}) that exhibit varying bulk thermal expansion from positive to negative and varying degrees of thermal expansion anisotropy. The effect of thermal cycling, to 1,250 C, on the bulk thermal expansion and flexural strength of these ceramics is discussed in relationship to changes in density, thermal expansion anisotropy and microstructure.

  11. Molecular structure-property correlations from optical nonlinearity and thermal-relaxation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Indrajit; Priyadarshi, Shekhar; Goswami, Debabrata

    2009-02-01

    We apply ultrafast single beam Z-scan technique to measure saturation absorption coefficients and nonlinear-refraction coefficients of primary alcohols at 1560 nm. The nonlinear effects result from vibronic transitions and cubic nonlinear-refraction. To measure the pure total third-order nonlinear susceptibility, we removed thermal effects with a frequency optimized optical-chopper. Our measurements of thermal-relaxation dynamics of alcohols, from 1560 nm thermal lens pump and 780 nm probe experiments revealed faster and slower thermal-relaxation timescales, respectively, from conduction and convection. The faster timescale accurately predicts thermal-diffusivity, which decreases linearly with alcohol chain-lengths since thermal-relaxation is slower in heavier molecules. The relation between thermal-diffusivity and alcohol chain-length confirms structure-property relationship.

  12. Algorithm to optimize transient hot-wire thermal property measurement.

    PubMed

    Bran-Anleu, Gabriela; Lavine, Adrienne S; Wirz, Richard E; Kavehpour, H Pirouz

    2014-04-01

    The transient hot-wire method has been widely used to measure the thermal conductivity of fluids. The ideal working equation is based on the solution of the transient heat conduction equation for an infinite linear heat source assuming no natural convection or thermal end effects. In practice, the assumptions inherent in the model are only valid for a portion of the measurement time. In this study, an algorithm was developed to automatically select the proper data range from a transient hot-wire experiment. Numerical simulations of the experiment were used in order to validate the algorithm. The experimental results show that the developed algorithm can be used to improve the accuracy of thermal conductivity measurements.

  13. Effects of thermal cycling on magnetic properties of lunar analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barron, A. M.; Shive, P. N.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental study has been performed to determine whether stresses associated with thermal cycling cracks can affect the coercivity of remanence carried by iron in lunar samples. Initially, samples were cycled up to 100 times in a refrigerator over a period of about 30 min per cycle. In a second set of experiments, samples were dipped directly into liquid nitrogen up to 100 times at about 1 min per cycle. Comparison of AF demagnetization curves of weak field anhysteretic remanent magnetization before and after cycling revealed no systematic differences. Calculations based on a model of spherical iron grains within olivine or troilite indicate that it is unlikely that the iron will crack under thermal stress. Thus, thermal cycling does not appear to provide an explanation for increasing the stability of remanence in samples from the lunar surface.

  14. Nanoporous Carbon Monoliths with Tunable Thermal Insulation and Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Chen, Fenghua; Luo, Zhenhua; Li, Hao; Zhao, Tong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, nanoscale porous carbon monoliths, with excellent compressive strength and thermal insulation, were obtained with a simple method of carbonizing cured phenol-formaldehyde resin/poly(methyl methacrylate) blends. Apparent density, pore size and morphology of the carbon monoliths were tailored by changing the composition, curing process and carbonization temperature. The continuous nanopores played a key role in enhancing mechanical and thermal performance of the carbon materials. When PMMA concentration was 25%, apparent density and thermal conductivity of the nanoporous carbonaceous monoliths were obtained as low as 1.07 g · cm⁻³ and 0.42 W/(m · K), decreasing by 29.4% and 35.4% than that of carbonaceous monoliths obtained from pure PF; while compressive strength of the nanoporous carbonaceous monoliths was as high as 34 MPa, which was improved over five times than that of pure PF carbon monoliths. PMID:27398592

  15. Nanoporous Carbon Monoliths with Tunable Thermal Insulation and Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Chen, Fenghua; Luo, Zhenhua; Li, Hao; Zhao, Tong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, nanoscale porous carbon monoliths, with excellent compressive strength and thermal insulation, were obtained with a simple method of carbonizing cured phenol-formaldehyde resin/poly(methyl methacrylate) blends. Apparent density, pore size and morphology of the carbon monoliths were tailored by changing the composition, curing process and carbonization temperature. The continuous nanopores played a key role in enhancing mechanical and thermal performance of the carbon materials. When PMMA concentration was 25%, apparent density and thermal conductivity of the nanoporous carbonaceous monoliths were obtained as low as 1.07 g · cm⁻³ and 0.42 W/(m · K), decreasing by 29.4% and 35.4% than that of carbonaceous monoliths obtained from pure PF; while compressive strength of the nanoporous carbonaceous monoliths was as high as 34 MPa, which was improved over five times than that of pure PF carbon monoliths.

  16. Thermal Cycling Effects on the Thermoelectric Properties of n-Type In, Ce based Skutterudite Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Krishnendu; Subramanian, Mas A.; Good, Morris S.; Roberts, Kamandi C.; Hendricks, Terry J.

    2012-06-14

    N-type In-filled CoSb3 are known skutterudite compounds that have shown promising thermoelectric (TE) properties resulting in high dimensionless figure of merit values at elevated temperatures. Their use in various waste heat recovery applications will require that they survive and operate after exposure to harsh thermal cycling environments. This research focused on uncovering the thermal cycling effects on thermoelectric properties of n-type In0.2Co4Sb12 and In0.2Ce0.15Co4Sb12 skutterudite compositions as well as quantifying their temperature-dependent structural properties (elastic modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio). It was observed that the Seebeck coefficient and resistivity increased only slightly in the double-filled In,Ce skutterudite materials upon thermal cycling. In the In-filled skutterudites the Seebeck coefficient remained approximately the same on thermal cycling, while electrical resistivity increased significantly after thermal cycling. Results also show that thermal conductivity marginally decreases in the case of In-filled skutterudites, whereas the reduction is more pronounced in In, Ce-based skutterudite compounds. The possible reason for this kind of reduction can be attributed to grain pinning effects due to formation of nano inclusions. High temperature structural property measurements (i.e., Young's modulus and shear modulus) are also reported and the results show that these structural properties decrease slowly as temperature increases and the compounds are structurally stable after numerous thermal cycles.

  17. Absorption measurement of thin films by using photothermal techniques: The influence of thermal properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Z.L.; Kuo, P.K.; Thomas, R.L.; Fan, Z.X.

    1995-12-31

    Photothermal techniques are widely used for measuring optical absorption of thin film coatings. In these applications the calibration of photothermal signal is typically based on the assumption that the thermal properties of the thin film make very little contribution. In this paper we take mirage technique as an example and present a detailed analysis of the influence of thin film thermal properties on absorption measurements. The results show that the traditional calibration method is not valid on surprisingly many situations.

  18. Thermal optical surface properties and high-temperature solar energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, L.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of thermal surface properties on the performance of representative point focusing solar power plants are assessed in this paper. The tradeoff relationships are presented in terms of normalized system performance as a function of thermal optical design parameters. Crucial surface properties include solar reflectance, specular spreading due to microscopic roughness, surface error due to manufacturing slope tolerance or waviness and concentrator pointing accuracy. Two representative power conversion systems, a Rankine steam cycle and an open air Brayton cycle, are considered.

  19. Results of a comprehensive program for analysis of thermal radiative properties.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, D. P.; Hernicz, R. S.; Gates, D. W.; Carroll, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    An extensive program has been developed to identify, collect, extract, analyze, and disseminate thermal radiative property data on materials of use to the aerospace endeavors under conditions likely to exist in their application. The properties examined include thermal emittance, reflectance, absorptance, and transmittance. Reference is made to the coverage of the results which is organized in three major volumes, representing the most comprehensive treatment on this subject matter.

  20. Experimental measurements of thermal properties of high-temperature refractory materials used for thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Leathy, Abdelrahman; Jeter, Sheldon; Al-Ansary, Hany; Abdel-Khalik, Said; Golob, Matthew; Danish, Syed Noman; Saeed, Rageh; Djajadiwinata, Eldwin; Al-Suhaibani, Zeyad

    2016-05-01

    This paper builds on studies conducted on thermal energy storage (TES) systems that were built as a part of the work performed for a DOE-funded SunShot project titled "High Temperature Falling Particle Receiver". In previous studies, two small-scale TES systems were constructed for measuring heat loss at high temperatures that are compatible with the falling particle receiver concept, both of which had shown very limited heat loss. Through the course of those studies, it became evident that there was a lack of information about the thermal performance of some of the insulating refractory materials used in the experiments at high temperatures, especially insulating firebrick and perlite concrete. This work focuses on determining the thermal conductivities of those materials at high temperatures. The apparatus consists of a prototype cylindrical TES bin built with the same wall construction used in previous studies. An electric heater is placed along the centerline of the bin, and thermocouples are used to measure temperature at the interfaces between all layers. Heat loss is measured across one of the layers whose thermal conductivity had already been well established using laboratory experiments. This value is used to deduce the thermal conductivity of other layers. Three interior temperature levels were considered; namely, 300°C, 500°C, and 700°C. Results show that the thermal conductivity of insulating firebrick remains low (approximately 0.22 W/m.K) at an average layer temperature as high as 640°C, but it was evident that the addition of mortar had an impact on its effective thermal conductivity. Results also show that the thermal conductivity of perlite concrete is very low, approximately 0.15 W/m.K at an average layer temperature of 360°C. This is evident by the large temperature drop that occurs across the perlite concrete layer. These results should be useful for future studies, especially those that focus on numerical modeling of TES bins.

  1. Spectral, coordination and thermal properties of 5-arylidene thiobarbituric acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoud, Mamdouh S.; El-Marghany, Adel; Orabi, Adel; Ali, Alaa E.; Sayed, Reham

    2013-04-01

    Synthesis of 5-arylidine thiobarbituric acids containing different functional groups with variable electronic characters were described and their Co2+, Ni2+ and Cu2+ complexes. The stereochemistry and mode of bonding of 5-(substituted benzylidine)-2-TBA complexes were achieved based on elemental analysis, spectral (UV-VIS, IR, 1H NMR, MS), magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. The ligands were of bidentate and tridentate bonding through S, N and O of pyrimidine nucleolus. All complexes were of octahedral configuration. The thermal data of the complexes pointed to their stability. The mechanism of the thermal decomposition is discussed. The thermodynamic parameters of the dissociation steps were evaluated and discussed.

  2. Tabulated In-Drift Geometric and Thermal Properties Used In Drift-Scale Models for TSPA-SR

    SciTech Connect

    N.D. Francis

    2000-06-16

    The objective of this calculation is to provide in-drift physical properties required by the drift-scale models (both two- and three-dimensional) used in total system performance assessments (TSPA). The physical properties include waste package geometry, waste package thermal properties, emplacement drift geometry including backfill and invert geometry and properties (both thermal and hydrologic), drip shield geometry and thermal properties, all tabulated in a single source.

  3. Enhanced functional properties of tannic acid after thermal hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal hydrolysis processing of fresh tannic acid was carried out in a closed reactor at four different temperatures (65, 100, 150 and 200°C). Pressures reached in the system were 1.3 and 4.8 MPa at 150 and 200°C, respectively. Hydrolysis products (gallic acid and pyrogallol) were separated and qua...

  4. Thermal and transport properties of a single nickel nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Min-Nan; Chen, Yang-Yuan; Wu, Maw-Kuen; Yang, Tzong-Jer; Lee, P. C.; Harutyunyan, S. R.; Chen, C. D.; Lai, S. J.

    2008-03-01

    Starting with a 100 nm nickel film grown on a Si3N4/Si substrate by thermal evaporator, a suspended nickel nanowire (Ni-NW) was fabricated through e-beam lithography and etching processes. The Ni-NW was a part of 4-probes circuit which is designed for electrical, thermal and thermopower measurements. The resistivity (ρ) and thermal conductivity (κ) of a single nickel nanowire have been measured in the temperature range from 4 to 300 K by 4-probes method and the self-heating-3φ technique. At 300 K the thermal conductivity of nanowire is ˜ 20% of the bulk, it diminishes to lower value as temperature decreases, the consequence is opposite to that in the bulk in which it decreases with temperature increase. The result might be explained by the restriction of mean free paths of electron/phonon--phonon interactions due to the grain boundaries. The small relative resistivity ratio (RRR ˜ 2) confirms the polycrystalline characteristic of the nanowire. The thermopower (Seedbeck coefficient S) was also investigated by temperature gradient built up between two ends of the nanowire. The figure of merit ZT=S^2σ/κ in the one-dimension specimen will be discussed.

  5. Magnetic, dielectric, and magneto-dielectric properties of rare-earth-substituted Aurivillius phase Bi₆Fe₁.₄Co₀.₆Ti₃O₁₈

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, X. Z.; Yang, J. Yuan, B.; Tang, X. W.; Zhang, K. J.; Zhu, X. B.; Song, W. H.; Dai, J. M.; Song, D. P.; Sun, Y. P.

    2014-10-21

    We investigate the magnetic, dielectric, and magnetodielectric properties of rare-earth-substituted Aurivillius phase Bi₆Fe₁.₄Co₀.₆Ti₃O₁₈. The room-temperature ferromagnetic behavior is observed in all samples, and the rare-earth-substituted samples exhibit an enhanced magnetization. The weak ferromagnetism can be ascribed to the spin canting of the antiferromagnetic coupling of the Fe-based and Co-based sublattices via Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. The dielectric loss of all samples exhibits two dielectric relaxation peaks corresponding to two different relaxation mechanisms. One relaxation process with E{sub a}=0.5 eV is related to the hoping process of oxygen vacancies and the other one with E{sub a}=1.6 eV can be ascribed to the intrinsic conduction. The Gd-doped sample exhibits a remarkable magnetodielectric effect (9.4%) at RT implying this Aurivillius phase may be the potential candidate for magnetodielectric applications.

  6. Effect of Mn2+ doping and SiO2 coating on magneto-optical properties of CoFe2O4 nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Kamal R.; Wahsh, M. M. S.; Othman, A. G. M.; Girgis, E.; Mabrouk, M. R.; Morsy, Fatma A.

    2015-11-01

    Co1-xMnxFe2O4 (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) magnetic nanoparticles were prepared using a modified citrate gel method and fired at 500 °C for 2 h. The modified Stöber method was used for coating the magnetic nanoparticles with a silica shell. The effects of Mn2+ substitution and the method of preparation on the formation of crystalline phases, particle size, morphology and the optical and magnetic properties of the synthesized materials were investigated by XRD, SAED, HR-TEM, EDX, UV/VIS double-beam spectrophotometry and vibrating sample magnetometry. The average crystallite size of the synthesized nanoparticles was 18.6-43.9 nm. The maximum value of saturation magnetization (Ms) achieved was 65.668 emu/g for Mn0.2Co0.8Fe2O4 nanoparticles. Diffuse reflectance increased with an increase of Mn2+content and SiO2 shell. These coated magnetic nanoparticles are promising materials for application to magnetic sensors and biomedical nanodevices.

  7. Effect of thermal processing practices on the properties of superplastic Al-Li alloys. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, S.J.; Lippard, H.E.

    1993-09-01

    The effect of thermal processing on the mechanical properties of superplastically formed structural components fabricated from three aluminum-lithium alloys was evaluated. The starting materials consisted of 8090, 2090, and X2095 (Weldalite(TM) 049), in the form of commercial-grade superplastic sheet. The experimental test matrix was designed to assess the impact on mechanical properties of eliminating solution heat treatment and/or cold water quenching from post-forming thermal processing. The extensive hardness and tensile property data compiled are presented as a function of aging temperature, superplastic strain and temper/quench rate for each alloy. The tensile properties of the materials following superplastic forming in two T5-type tempers are compared with the baseline T6 temper. The implications for simplifying thermal processing without degradation in properties are discussed on the basis of the results.

  8. Thermal properties of solid oxide fuel cell perovskite LaCrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parey, Vanshree; Shukla, Aarti; Parveen, Atahar; Bano, Amreen; Khare, Preeti; Gaur, N. K.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of temperature on elastic, cohesive and thermal properties of LaCrO3 in orthorhombic, rhombohedral and cubic phases has been investigated using Modified Rigid Ion Model (MRIM). We present the elastic constants (C11, C12, C44) and other elastic properties like bulk modulus (BT), Young's modulus (E) and shear modulus (G). We have computed the specific heat and volume thermal expansion coefficient as a function of temperature (0K ≤ T ≤ 2000K). The specific heat results are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. A check on thermal stability of this compound is made by computing other properties like Debye temperature (θD), cohesive energy (ϕ), Reststrahlen frequency (υ) and Gruneisen parameter (γ). The computed properties reproduce well with the available experimental results. To our knowledge some of the properties are reported for the first time.

  9. Effect of thermal processing practices on the properties of superplastic Al-Li alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J.; Lippard, Henry E.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of thermal processing on the mechanical properties of superplastically formed structural components fabricated from three aluminum-lithium alloys was evaluated. The starting materials consisted of 8090, 2090, and X2095 (Weldalite(TM) 049), in the form of commercial-grade superplastic sheet. The experimental test matrix was designed to assess the impact on mechanical properties of eliminating solution heat treatment and/or cold water quenching from post-forming thermal processing. The extensive hardness and tensile property data compiled are presented as a function of aging temperature, superplastic strain and temper/quench rate for each alloy. The tensile properties of the materials following superplastic forming in two T5-type tempers are compared with the baseline T6 temper. The implications for simplifying thermal processing without degradation in properties are discussed on the basis of the results.

  10. The Thermal Expansion, Elastic and Fracture Properties of Porous Cordierite at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Pandey, Amit; Watkins, Thomas R; More, Karren

    2012-01-01

    The properties that determine the thermal shock resistance in materials are reported for porous cordierite, a leading candidate material for the fabrication of diesel particulate filters. Fracture toughness and slow crack growth tests were performed on test specimens obtained from the walls of diesel particulate filter monolithic substrates using the double-torsion test method at temperatures between 20 C and 900 C. The thermal expansion and elastic properties were characterized between 20 C and 1000 C. The role of the microstructure of porous cordierite in determining its unusual thermal expansion and elevated temperature Young's modulus and fracture toughness are discussed.

  11. Application of Structure-Based Models of Mechanical and Thermal Properties on Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilémová, Monika; Matějíček, Jiří; Mušálek, Radek; Nohava, Jiří

    2012-06-01

    Mechanical and thermal properties of thermal sprayed coatings, especially ceramics, are strongly influenced by cracks and pores that are present in the coating microstructure. In the recent past, there have been efforts to find an analytical model describing the coating properties based on the microstructural characteristics. Various analytical models were developed and published in the literature. In this study, several major models were applied to ceramic and metal coatings to describe their elastic modulus and thermal conductivity. The sensitivity of the models to the variations in the microstructure and relevancy of their use in specific cases were examined. The results were compared with those obtained by FEM modeling and experimentally measured values.

  12. Controlling thermal and electrical properties of graphene by strain-engineering its flexural phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Hiram; Nicholl, Ryan; Bolotin, Kirill

    2014-03-01

    We explore the effects of flexural phonons on the thermal and electrical properties of graphene. To control the amplitude of flexural phonons, we developed a technique to engineer uniform mechanical strain between 0 and 1% in suspended graphene. We determine the level of strain, thermal conductivity and carrier mobility of graphene through a combination of mechanical resonance and electrical transport measurements. Depending on strain, we find significant changes in the thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and carrier mobility of suspended graphene. These changes are consistent with the expected contribution of flexural phonons.

  13. Multi-scale numerical simulations of thermal expansion properties of CNT-reinforced nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the thermal expansion properties of carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced nanocomposites with CNT content ranging from 1 to 15 wt% were evaluated using a multi-scale numerical approach, in which the effects of two parameters, i.e., temperature and CNT content, were investigated extensively. For all CNT contents, the obtained results clearly revealed that within a wide low-temperature range (30°C ~ 62°C), thermal contraction is observed, while thermal expansion occurs in a high-temperature range (62°C ~ 120°C). It was found that at any specified CNT content, the thermal expansion properties vary with temperature - as temperature increases, the thermal expansion rate increases linearly. However, at a specified temperature, the absolute value of the thermal expansion rate decreases nonlinearly as the CNT content increases. Moreover, the results provided by the present multi-scale numerical model were in good agreement with those obtained from the corresponding theoretical analyses and experimental measurements in this work, which indicates that this multi-scale numerical approach provides a powerful tool to evaluate the thermal expansion properties of any type of CNT/polymer nanocomposites and therefore promotes the understanding on the thermal behaviors of CNT/polymer nanocomposites for their applications in temperature sensors, nanoelectronics devices, etc. PMID:23294669

  14. Development of Methodologies for the Estimation of Thermal Properties Associated with Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Elaine P.

    1996-01-01

    A thermal stress analysis is an important aspect in the design of aerospace structures and vehicles such as the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC). These structures are complex and are often composed of numerous components fabricated from a variety of different materials. The thermal loads on these structures induce temperature variations within the structure, which in turn result in the development of thermal stresses. Therefore, a thermal stress analysis requires knowledge of the temperature distributions within the structures which consequently necessitates the need for accurate knowledge of the thermal properties, boundary conditions and thermal interface conditions associated with the structural materials. The goal of this proposed multi-year research effort was to develop estimation methodologies for the determination of the thermal properties and interface conditions associated with aerospace vehicles. Specific objectives focused on the development and implementation of optimal experimental design strategies and methodologies for the estimation of thermal properties associated with simple composite and honeycomb structures. The strategy used in this multi-year research effort was to first develop methodologies for relatively simple systems and then systematically modify these methodologies to analyze complex structures. This can be thought of as a building block approach. This strategy was intended to promote maximum usability of the resulting estimation procedure by NASA-LARC researchers through the design of in-house experimentation procedures and through the use of an existing general purpose finite element software.

  15. Materials thermal and thermoradiative properties/characterization technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, D. P.; Ho, C. Y.

    1989-01-01

    Reliable properties data on well characterized materials are necessary for design of experiments and interpretation of experimental results. The activities of CINDAS to provide data bases and predict properties are discussed. An understanding of emissivity behavior is important in order to select appropriate methods for non-contact temperature determination. Related technical issues are identified and recommendations are offered.

  16. Ablation and Thermal Response Property Model Validation for Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, F. S.; Chen, Y.-K.

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator was the heatshield material for the Stardust probe and is also a candidate heatshield material for the Orion Crew Module. As part of the heatshield qualification for Orion, physical and thermal properties were measured for newly manufactured material, included emissivity, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, elemental composition, and thermal decomposition rates. Based on these properties, an ablation and thermal-response model was developed for temperatures up to 3500 K and pressures up to 100 kPa. The model includes orthotropic and pressure-dependent thermal conductivity. In this work, model validation is accomplished by comparison of predictions with data from many arcjet tests conducted over a range of stagnation heat flux and pressure from 107 Watts per square centimeter at 2.3 kPa to 1100 Watts per square centimeter at 84 kPa. Over the entire range of test conditions, model predictions compare well with measured recession, maximum surface temperatures, and in depth temperatures.

  17. Thermal properties of Er:LuxGd1-xVO4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhenghuo; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Han, Xuekun; Ma, Changqin; Wang, Jiyang

    2014-06-01

    A new series Er:LuxGd1-xVO4 (x=0.1,0.24,0.48,0.57,0.79 and 0.9)mixed laser crystals have been successfully grown by the Czochralski method with 1% Er3+ concentration.The thermal properties of Er:LuxGd1-xVO4crystals series crystals were investigated systematically, including the thermal expansion, specific heat, thermal diffusion coefficients, and thermal conductivities. The anisotropy and variation of the thermal properties with the component x were also achieved and discussed based on their structure. All the results showed that this mixed crystals should have promising applications in the moderate-power lasers.

  18. Thermal property measurements in a fresh pumice flow at Mt. St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1981-03-01

    A thermal penetrator that was air dropped into a freshly emplaced pumice flow at Mt. St. Helens yielded information on the in-situ thermal properties of the pumice. The in-situ conductivity-density-specific heat product at a depth of 60 cm was found to be 7.24 x 10/sup -5/ cal/sup 2/cm//sup 4/ s- /sup 0/C/sup 2/ at an average pumice temperature of 200 /sup 0/C. Using this data, values for the average in-situ thermal conductivity (2.9 x 10/sup -4/ cal/cm-s-/sup 0/C) and thermal diffusivity (1.2 x 10/sup -3/ cm/sup 2//s) were estimated. These thermal properties are of use in studies of pumice cooling and in the interpretation of infrared remote sensing data.

  19. Light Localization and Magneto-Optic Enhancement in Ni Antidot Arrays.

    PubMed

    Rollinger, Markus; Thielen, Philip; Melander, Emil; Östman, Erik; Kapaklis, Vassilios; Obry, Björn; Cinchetti, Mirko; García-Martín, Antonio; Aeschlimann, Martin; Papaioannou, Evangelos Th

    2016-04-13

    We reveal an explicit strategy to design the magneto-optic response of a magneto-plasmonic crystal by correlating near- and far-fields effects. We use photoemission electron microscopy to map the spatial distribution of the electric near-field on a nanopatterned magnetic surface that supports plasmon polaritons. By using different photon energies and polarization states of the incident light we reveal that the electric near-field is either concentrated in spots forming a hexagonal lattice with the same symmetry as the Ni nanopattern or in stripes oriented along the Γ-K direction of the lattice and perpendicular to the polarization direction. We show that the polarization-dependent near-field enhancement on the patterned surface is directly correlated to both the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on the patterned surface as well as the enhancement of the polar magneto-optical Kerr effect. We obtain a relationship between the size of the enhanced magneto-optical behavior and the polarization and wavelength of optical excitation. The engineering of the magneto-optic response based on the plasmon-induced modification of the optical properties introduces the concept of a magneto-plasmonic meta-structure.

  20. Light Localization and Magneto-Optic Enhancement in Ni Antidot Arrays.

    PubMed

    Rollinger, Markus; Thielen, Philip; Melander, Emil; Östman, Erik; Kapaklis, Vassilios; Obry, Björn; Cinchetti, Mirko; García-Martín, Antonio; Aeschlimann, Martin; Papaioannou, Evangelos Th

    2016-04-13

    We reveal an explicit strategy to design the magneto-optic response of a magneto-plasmonic crystal by correlating near- and far-fields effects. We use photoemission electron microscopy to map the spatial distribution of the electric near-field on a nanopatterned magnetic surface that supports plasmon polaritons. By using different photon energies and polarization states of the incident light we reveal that the electric near-field is either concentrated in spots forming a hexagonal lattice with the same symmetry as the Ni nanopattern or in stripes oriented along the Γ-K direction of the lattice and perpendicular to the polarization direction. We show that the polarization-dependent near-field enhancement on the patterned surface is directly correlated to both the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on the patterned surface as well as the enhancement of the polar magneto-optical Kerr effect. We obtain a relationship between the size of the enhanced magneto-optical behavior and the polarization and wavelength of optical excitation. The engineering of the magneto-optic response based on the plasmon-induced modification of the optical properties introduces the concept of a magneto-plasmonic meta-structure. PMID:27018661

  1. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES: Thermal stability of silicon nanowires: atomistic simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Liang; Zhang, Kai-Wang; Zhong, Jian-Xin

    2009-07-01

    Using the Stillinger-Weber (SW) potential model, we investigate the thermal stability of pristine silicon nanowires based on classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We explore the structural evolutions and the Lindemann indices of silicon nanowires at different temperatures in order to unveil atomic-level melting behaviour of silicon nanowires. The simulation results show that silicon nanowires with surface reconstructions have higher thermal stability than those without surface reconstructions, and that silicon nanowires with perpendicular dimmer rows on the two (100) surfaces have somewhat higher thermal stability than nanowires with parallel dimmer rows on the two (100) surfaces. Furthermore, the melting temperature of silicon nanowires increases as their diameter increases and reaches a saturation value close to the melting temperature of bulk silicon. The value of the Lindemann index for melting silicon nanowires is 0.037.

  2. Thermal conduction properties of Mo/Si multilayers for extreme ultraviolet optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozorg-Grayeli, Elah; Li, Zijian; Asheghi, Mehdi; Delgado, Gil; Pokrovsky, Alexander; Panzer, Matthew; Wack, Daniel; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2012-10-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography requires nanostructured optical components, whose reliability can be influenced by radiation absorption and thermal conduction. Thermal conduction analysis is complicated by sub-continuum electron and phonon transport and the lack of thermal property data. This paper measures and interprets thermal property data, and their evolution due to heating exposure, for Mo/Si EUV mirrors with 6.9 nm period and Mo/Si thickness ratios of 0.4/0.6 and 0.6/0.4. We use time-domain thermoreflectance and the 3ω method to estimate the thermal resistance between the Ru capping layer and the Mo/Si multilayers (RRu-Mo/Si = 1.5 m2 K GW-1), as well as the out-of-plane thermal conductivity (kMo/Si 1.1 W m-1 K-1) and thermal anisotropy (η = 13). This work also reports the impact of annealing on thermal conduction in a co-deposited MoSi2 layer, increasing the thermal conductivity from 1.7 W m-1 K-1 in the amorphous phase to 2.8 W m-1 K-1 in the crystalline phase.

  3. The effect of CNTs reinforcement on thermal and electrical properties of cement-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exarchos, D. A.; Dalla, P. T.; Tragazikis, I. K.; Matikas, T. E.

    2015-03-01

    This research aims to investigate the influence of the nano-reinforcement on the thermal properties of cement mortar. Nano-modified cement mortar with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) leading to the development of innovative materials possessing multi-functionality and smartness. Such multifunctional properties include enhanced mechanical behavior, electrical and thermal conductivity, and piezo-electric characteristics. The assessment of the thermal behavior was evaluated using IR Thermography. Two different thermographic techniques are used to monitor the influence of the nano-reinforcement. To eliminate any extrinsic effects (e.g. humidity) the specimens were dried in an oven before testing. The electrical resistivity was measured with a contact test method using a custom made apparatus and applying a known D.C. voltage. This study indicate that the CNTs nano-reinforcement enhance the thermal and electrical properties and demonstrate them useful as sensors in a wide variety of applications.

  4. Spectral Properties of Dy-Doped Thermal Barrier Sensor Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Stephen W; Moore, Danielle; Heyes, Andrew; Nichols, John R.

    2009-01-01

    We have obtained the excitation (484, 497 and 585 nm) and emission (355, 367 and 385 nm) spectra and measured the fluorescence decay lifetimes for partially Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 thermal barrier coatings doped with 2mol% Dy2O3, as a function of coating depth for thicknesses ranging from 30 to 200 μm. In principle, these coatings can function not only as thermal protection barriers for turbomachinery blades and vanes, but also as remotely interrogated self-sensors for use in determining in situ wear rates during operation. This is done by varying the excitation wavelength and observing the fluorescence decay times and related parameters.

  5. Thermal and electrical properties of a solid through Fibonacci oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinho, André A.; Brito, Francisco A.; Chesman, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of a crystalline solid applying q-deformed algebra of Fibonacci oscillators through the generalized Fibonacci sequence of two real and independent deformation parameters q1 and q2. We based part of our study on both Einstein and Debye models, exploring primarily (q1, q2) -deformed thermal and electric conductivities as a function of Debye specific heat. The results revealed that q-deformation acts as a factor of disorder or impurity, modifying the characteristics of a crystalline structure. Specially, one may find the possibility of adjusting the Fibonacci oscillators to describe the change of thermal and electrical conductivities of a given element as one inserts impurities. Each parameter can be associated to different types of deformations such as disorders and impurities.

  6. Thermal properties of epoxy resins at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakane, H.; Nishijima, S.; Fujishiro, H.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yoshizawa, S.; Yamazaki, S.

    2002-05-01

    In order to establish the design technique of epoxy resin at cryogenic temperature, its thermal contraction coefficients and dynamic Young's modulus were measured from room to cryogenic temperatures when plasticizer was both present and absent. The disappearance of the effects of the plasticizer were confirmed by measuring its thermal expansion coefficient. The process in which the addition of plasticizer reduces the glass transition temperature was clarified by measuring its dynamic Young's modulus. It was also discovered that blunt peak is caused by addition of plasticizer. The data obtained by measuring the dynamic Young's modulus clearly indicate that this peak disappears at cryogenic temperature resulting in the disappearance of the effects of the plastizer. The conclusion is that when epoxy resin is to be used at cryogenic temperature it is desirable that the addition of plastizer is kept at the minimum level.

  7. Micromechanical Prediction of the Effective Behavior of Fully Coupled Electro-Magneto-Thermo-Elastic Multiphase Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    The micromechanical generalized method of cells model is employed for the prediction of the effective moduli of electro-magneto-thermo-elastic composites. These include the effective elastic, piezoelectric, piezomagnetic, dielectric, magnetic permeability, electromagnetic coupling moduli, as well as the effective thermal expansion coefficients and the associated pyroelectric and pyromagnetic constants. Results are given for fibrous and periodically bilaminated composites.

  8. Thermal Optical Properties of Lunar Dust Simulants and Their Constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Ellis, Shaneise; Hanks, Nichole

    2011-01-01

    The total reflectance spectra of lunar simulant dusts (less than 20 micrometer particles) were measured in order to determine their integrated solar absorptance (alpha) and their thermal emittance (e) for the purpose of analyzing the effect of dust on the performance of thermal control surfaces. All of the simulants except one had a wavelength-dependant reflectivity (p(lambda)) near 0.10 over the wavelength range of 8 to 25 micrometers, and so are highly emitting at room temperature and lower. The 300 K emittance (epsilon) of all the lunar simulants except one ranged from 0.78 to 0.92. The exception was Minnesota Lunar Simulant 1 (MLS-1), which has little or no glassy component. In all cases the epsilon was lower for the less 20 micrometer particles than for larger particles reported earlier. There was considerably more variation in the lunar simulant reflectance in the solar spectral range (250 to 2500 nanometers) than in the thermal infrared. As expected, the lunar highlands simulants were more reflective in this wavelength range than the lunar mare simulants. The integrated solar absorptance (alpha) of the simulants ranged from 0.39 to 0.75. This is lower than values reported earlier for larger particles of the same simulants (0.41 to 0.82), and for representative mare and highlands lunar soils (0.74 to 0.91). Since the alpha of some mare simulants more closely matched that of highlands lunar soils, it is recommended that and values be the criteria for choosing a simulant for assessing the effects of dust on thermal control surfaces, rather than whether a simulant has been formulated as a highlands or a mare simulant.

  9. Thermal Optical Properties of Lunar Dust Simulants and Their Constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Ellis, Shaneise; Hanks, Nichole

    2011-01-01

    The total reflectance spectra of lunar simulant dusts (< 20 mm particles) were measured in order to determine their integrated solar absorptance (alpha) and their thermal emittance (epsilon) for the purpose of analyzing the effect of dust on the performance of thermal control surfaces. All of the simulants except one had a wavelength-dependent reflectivity (p (lambda)) near 0.10 over the wavelength range of 8 to 25 microns and so are highly emitting at room temperature and lower. The 300 K emittance (epsilon) of all the lunar simulants except one ranged from 0.78 to 0.92. The exception was Minnesota Lunar Simulant 1 (MLS-1), which has little or no glassy component. In all cases the epsilon was lower for the < 20 micron particles than for larger particles reported earlier. There was considerably more variation in the lunar simulant reflectance in the solar spectral range (250 to 2500 nm) than in the thermal infrared. As expected, the lunar highlands simulants were more reflective in this wavelength range than the lunar mare simulants. The integrated solar absorptance (alpha) of the simulants ranged from 0.39 to 0.75. This is lower than values reported earlier for larger particles of the same simulants (0.41 to 0.82), and for representative mare and highlands lunar soils (0.74 to 0.91). Since the of some mare simulants more closely matched that of highlands lunar soils, it is recommended that and values be the criteria for choosing a simulant for assessing the effects of dust on thermal control surfaces, rather than whether a simulant has been formulated as a highlands or a mare simulant.

  10. Dielectric, thermal and mechanical properties of ADP doped PVA composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Jagadish; Bhajantri, R. F.; Ravindrachary, V.; Rathod, Sunil G.; Sheela, T.; Naik, Ishwar

    2015-06-01

    Polymer composites of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), doped with different concentrations of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) has been prepared by solution casting. The formation of complexation between ADP and PVA was confirmed with the help of Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows thermal stability of the prepared composites. Impedance analyzer study revealed the increase in dielectric constant and loss with increase the ADP concentration and the strain rate of the prepared composites decreases with ADP concentration.

  11. Measurement of Thermal Dependencies of PBG Fiber Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Laouar, Rachik

    2011-07-06

    Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) represent a class of optical fibers which have a wide spectrum of applications in the telecom and sensing industries. Currently, the Advanced Accelerator Research Department at SLAC is developing photonic bandgap particle accelerators, which are photonic crystal structures with a central defect used to accelerate electrons and achieve high longitudinal electric fields. Extremely compact and less costly than the traditional accelerators, these structures can support higher accelerating gradients and will open a new era in high energy physics as well as other fields of science. Based on direct laser acceleration in dielectric materials, the so called photonic band gap accelerators will benefit from mature laser and semiconductor industries. One of the key elements to direct laser acceleration in hollow core PCFs, is maintaining thermal and structural stability. Previous simulations demonstrate that accelerating modes are sensitive to the geometry of the defect region and the variations in the effective index. Unlike the telecom modes (for which over 95% of the energy propagates in the hollow core) most of the power of these modes is located in the glass at the periphery of the central hole which has a higher thermal constant than air ({gamma}{sub SiO{sub 2}} = 1.19 x 10{sup -6} 1/K, {gamma}{sub air} = -9 x 10{sup -7} 1/K with {gamma} = dn/dT). To fully control laser driven acceleration, we need to evaluate the thermal and structural consequences of such modes on the PCFs. We are conducting series of interferometric tests to quantify the dependencies of the HC-633-02 (NKT Photonics) propagation constant (k{sub z}) on temperature, vibration amplitude, stress and electric field strength. In this paper we will present the theoretical principles characterizing the thermal behavior of a PCF, the measurements realized for the fundamental telecom mode (TE{sub 00}), and the experimental demonstration of TM-like mode propagation in the HC-633

  12. Biological properties of a thermally crosslinked gelatin film as a novel anti-adhesive material: Relationship between the biological properties and the extent of thermal crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki; Tanzawa, Ayumi; Miyamoto, Hiroe; Horii, Tsunehito; Tsuji, Misaki; Kawasumi, Akari; Tamura, Atsushi; Wang, Zhen; Abe, Rie; Tanaka, Shota; Yamanaka, Kouki; Matoba, Mari; Torii, Hiroko; Ozamoto, Yuki; Takamori, Hideki; Suzuki, Shuko; Morita, Shinichiro; Ikada, Yoshito; Hagiwara, Akeo

    2015-10-01

    In order to prevent postoperative adhesion and the related complications, a thermally crosslinked gelatin (TCG) film was developed and the basic biological properties were examined, paying special attention to the relationship between these properties and the extent of crosslinking of the film. The gelatin films crosslinked thermally for five different time periods (0, 1, 3, 8, and 14 hours) were developed and the following tests were performed. Regarding the material characterization of the films, the water content, the water solubility, and the enzymatic degradation for collagenase were found to be closely related to the duration of thermal crosslinking. In an in vitro study conducted to examine the cell growth of fibroblasts cultured on the films, the degree of cell growth, except no crosslinked film, was less than that observed in the control group, thus suggesting that such effects of the films on fibroblast cell growth may be related with their anti-adhesive effects. In in vivo tests, the films crosslinked for longer time periods (3, 8, and 14 hours) were retained for longer after being implanted into the abdominal cavity in rats and showed a significant anti-adhesive effect in the rat cecum adhesion models, indicating that the biodegradability and anti-adhesive effects of the TCG films depend on the duration of thermal crosslinking. In order to develop useful and effective anti-adhesive gelatin film, it is very important to optimize duration of the thermal crosslinking.

  13. Thermal properties of nanotubes and nanowires with acoustically stiffened surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bifano, Michael F. P.; Prakash, Vikas

    2012-02-01

    A multilayer elasticity model is developed to investigate the effects of acoustically stiffened surfaces (increased surface moduli) on the specific heat and thermal conductivity of typical nanowire and nanotubes as a function of temperature. Changes in phonon dispersion are analyzed using approximated phonon dispersion relations that result from the solutions to the frequency equation of a vibrating elastic tube or rod. The results of the investigation indicate a 10% reduction in specific heat and a 2% decrease in lattice thermal conductivity at 50 K for a 10 nm outer diameter crystalline nanotube with an inner diameter of 5 nm when the average Young's modulus of the first three atomic layers on both the inner and outer free surfaces are increased by a factor of 1.87. In contrast, a 10 nm outer diameter nanowire composed of the same material and with an acoustically stiffened outer shell shows an approximate 30% increase in thermal conductivity and specific heat near 50 K. Our simplified model can potentially be extended to investigate the acoustic tuning of nanowires and nanotubes by inducing surface stiffening or softening via appropriate surface chemical functionalization protocols or coatings.

  14. Thermal Properties of Phase Change Composites Containing Ferric Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jifen; Xie, Huaqing; Li, Yang

    2015-04-01

    We prepared a series of homogeneous nanocomposites by suspending Fe2O3 nanoparticles into paraffin wax (PW) matrix. Fe2O3/PW nanocomposites have reduced both solid-solid phase change latent heat capacity (Ls-s) and solid-liquid phase change latent heat capacity (Ls-l) with an increase in the mass fraction of Fe2O3 nanoparticles. There is almost equable solid-solid phase change temperature (Ts-s) between PW and Fe2O3/PW composites, as well as melting temperature (Ts-l). Fe2O3 nanoparticle addition leads to substantial enhancement in the thermal conductivity of Fe2O3/PW and the enhancement ratio increases with the nanoparticle loading. Thermal conductivity of Fe2O3/PW composite with 3.0 wt% nanoparticles is about 0.27 W/(m · K) at 15 °C, which close to that of γ-Al2O3/PW with 5.0 wt% nanoparticles but higher than that of ZnO/PW containing 5.0 wt% nanoparticles. At 60 °C, Fe2O3/PW has higher thermal conductivity than γ-A12O3/PW and ZnO/PW contained with same fraction of nanoparticles. PMID:26353577

  15. Effect of Annealing on Thermal & Optical Properties of Polypyrrole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Rashmi; Dixit, Manasvi; Sharma, Kananbala; Saxena, Narendra S.; Sharma, Thaneshwar P.

    2008-04-01

    Pure polypyrrole sample (S1) was synthesized by chemical oxidation method using NaOH as reducing agent in aqueous HCl medium. The polypyrrole pellet sample (S2) was then annealed at 200 °C for 4 hrs. The amorphous nature of both annealed and as- prepared polypyrrole samples was confirmed by XRD. FTIR spectra of both samples were taken, which indicate the significant change in annealed sample (S2) compared to as prepared sample. Temperature dependence of effective thermal conductivity of both samples (S1, S2) was studied by Transient plane source (TPS) technique. The effective thermal conductivity (λe) obtained for S1 & S2 exhibits a variation with temperature and a peak was observed for the two samples at 150 °C & 120 °C with a value 0.17 W/mK & 0.18 W/mK respectively. The shift of thermal conductivity peak of annealed sample towards the lower temperature side is explained on the basis of removal of voids and defects on annealing. The absorption spectra of these samples were recorded by USB-2000 spectrophotometer at room temperature in the wavelength range 300-800 nm. From the analysis of absorption spectra, optical band gap of S1 & S2 were determined. It was found that the values of optical band gap for sample S1 & S2 are 2.39 eV&2.24 eV respectively.

  16. Correlation of Predicted and Observed Optical Properties of Multilayer Thermal Control Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal control coatings on spacecraft will be increasingly important, as spacecraft grow smaller and more compact. New thermal control coatings will be needed to meet the demanding requirements of next generation spacecraft. Computer programs are now available to design optical coatings and one such program was used to design several thermal control coatings consisting of alternating layers of WO3 and SiO2. The coatings were subsequently manufactured with electron beam evaporation and characterized with both optical and thermal techniques. Optical data were collected in both the visible region of the spectrum and the infrared. Predictions of solar absorptance and infrared emittance were successfully correlated to the observed thermal control properties. Functional performance of the coatings was verified in a bench top thermal vacuum chamber.

  17. Integrated thermal-microstructure model to predict the property gradients in resistance spot steel welds

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, S.S.; Riemer, B.W.; Santella, M.L.; Feng, Z.

    1998-11-01

    An integrated model approach was proposed for relating resistance welding parameters to weldment properties. An existing microstructure model was used to determine the microstructural and property gradients in resistance spot welds of plain carbon steel. The effect of these gradients on the weld integrity was evaluated with finite element analysis. Further modifications to this integrated thermal-microstructure model are discussed.

  18. The influence of phonon anharmonicity on thermal and elastic properties of neptunium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filanovich, A.; Povzner, A.

    2013-06-01

    A self-consistent thermodynamic model describing the thermal and elastic properties of α- and β-phases of neptunium was developed. The presence of strong phonon anharmonicity of Np is established. The obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental data and enable to predict the Np properties in wide temperature range.

  19. Physical properties (particle size, rock abundance) from thermal infrared remote observations: Implications for Mars landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, P. R.; Edgett, Kenneth S.

    1994-01-01

    Critical to the assessment of potential sites for the 1997 Pathfinder landing is estimation of general physical properties of the martian surface. Surface properties have been studied using a variety of spacecraft and earth-based remote sensing observations, plus in situ studies at the Viking lander sites. Because of their value in identifying landing hazards and defining scientific objectives, we focus this discussion on thermal inertia and rock abundance derived from middle-infrared (6 to 30 microns) observations. Used in conjunction with other datasets, particularly albedo and Viking orbiter images, thermal inertia and rock abundance provide clues about the properties of potential Mars landing sites.

  20. Quantitative relationships between the parameters of thermal degradation of polyvinyl chloride and the loss of properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Susheel Ramesh

    Thermal degradation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has been extensively studied by a host of eminent researchers, both in terms of its mechanism, and effects. Arrhenius-type relationships have been proposed to correlate the loss of hydrogen chloride (HCl) with temperature and duration of thermal degradation. However, the rate of dehydrochlorination, does not always correlate with the loss of polymer properties. The purpose of this research was to obtain quantitative relationships between the parameters of thermal degradation of PVC, and the loss of mechanical, thermal, and optical properties of the polymer. The parameters of thermal degradation considered in this study were temperature, and heating time. The affected properties considered in this study were color, tensile strength, Izod impact strength, flexural modulus, and heat deflection temperature at 264 psi. Test specimens of PVC containing 1, 3, and 5 phr of dibutyltin bis (isooctyl thioglycolate) and barium-cadmium stearate were prepared. The rigid specimens for mechanical, and thermal testing were prepared by dry blending, extrusion and injection molding, whereas the specimens for optical testing were formulated as plastisols. These test specimens were subjected to five gradually increasing temperatures; 350, 360, 370, 375, and 380sp°F for five different heating times; 30, 60, 120, 240, and 480 minutes. The selected test properties were determined in appropriate tests before and after degradation. 'Percentage property retention' was defined as the ratio of the value of the test property after a given heating time (post-degradation) to the original value of the test property (pre-degradation). The lowest percentage retention value of the test property acceptable for service purposes was assumed as 66% for mechanical properties. The lowest heat deflection temperature acceptable for service purposes was assumed to be 120sp°F. The highest Gardner color number acceptable for service purposes was assumed to be 12

  1. Measurement of FePt thermal properties relevant to heat-assisted magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshov, Alex; Treves, David; Le, Thanh; Zong, Fenghua; Ajan, Antony; Acharya, Ramamurthy

    2014-05-01

    Heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) is the likely successor of the conventional perpendicular magnetic recording. Due to its high anisotropy, graded L10 ordered FePt is widely used as a HAMR recording layer. Electrically insulating MgO under-layer is essential for growing FePt in HAMR media. Experimentally, we observe very low thermal conductivity of FePt and significant thermal boundary resistance between FePt and MgO, whose magnitudes affect the HAMR thermal gradient. Realistic granular FePt media has >30% segregation, and, experimentally, we observe that FePt thermal properties are affected by segregation. We utilized time domain thermo-reflectance (TDTR) technique for studying FePt thermal conductivity and boundary resistance in realistic HAMR media stack. 1D finite element heat transport model was used for fitting experimental TDTR data and extracting thermal conductivities and related thermal boundary resistances. We found best fit thermal conductivity value for non-segregated FePt is as low as 13 W/mK. When reasonable amount of segregation (30%) is added, thermal conductivity reduces from 13 W/mK to 6 W/mK, and thermal boundary resistance to MgO reduces from 3.5 × 10-9 m2K/W to 0.7 × 10-9 m2K/W.

  2. Tribological and thermal properties of blends of melamineformaldehyde resins with low density polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bernard; Brostow, Witold; Datashvili, Tea

    2006-10-01

    Melamine + formaldehyde resin (MFR) was synthesized and blended with a low density polyethylene (LDPE). Tribological, thermal and morphological properties of LDPE + MFR blends containing 1, 5, 10, 20, 25 wt. % MFR were investigated. After preparing the blends with a Brabender preparation station and a compression molding machine, the following properties were determined: wear rate and friction, sliding wear and microhardness. Thermal properties had been analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). A detailed study on the miscibility behaviour of the blends has been made by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The morphological observations are correlated with the properties. Thermal analysis, AFM and ESEM support the presence of a partial compatibilization.

  3. Barium borohydride chlorides: synthesis, crystal structures and thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Grube, Elisabeth; Olesen, Cathrine H; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B; Jensen, Torben R

    2016-05-10

    Here we report the synthesis, mechanism of formation, characterization and thermal decomposition of new barium borohydride chlorides prepared by mechanochemistry and thermal treatment of MBH4-BaCl2, M = Li, Na or K in ratios 1 : 1 and 1 : 2. Initially, orthorhombic barium chloride, o-BaCl2 transforms into o-Ba(BH4)xCl2-x, x ∼ 0.15. Excess LiBH4 leads to continued anion substitution and a phase transformation into hexagonal barium borohydride chloride h-Ba(BH4)xCl2-x, which accommodates higher amounts of borohydride, possibly x ∼ 0.85 and resembles h-BaCl2. Thus, two solid solutions are in equilibrium during mechano-chemical treatment of LiBH4-BaCl2 (1 : 1) whereas LiBH4-BaCl2 (2 : 1) converts to h-Ba(BH4)0.85Cl1.15. Upon thermal treatment at T > ∼200 °C, h-Ba(BH4)0.85Cl1.15 transforms into another orthorhombic barium borohydride chloride compound, o-Ba(BH4)0.85Cl1.15, which is structurally similar to o-BaBr2. The samples with M = Na and K have lower reactivity and form o-Ba(BH4)xCl2-x, x ∼ 0.1 and a solid solution of sodium chloride dissolved in solid sodium borohydride, Na(BH4)1-xClx, x = 0.07. The new compounds and reaction mechanisms are investigated by in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), mass spectroscopy (MS) and temperature programmed photographic analysis (TPPA).

  4. Effect of Rapid Thermal Cooling on Mechanical Rock Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangmin; Kemeny, John; Nickerson, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Laboratory tests have been conducted to investigate the effects of rapid thermal cooling on various rock specimens including igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. At first, various types of thermal loading were conducted: heating up to 100, 200, and 300 °C, followed by rapid cooling with a fan. In addition, multiple cyclic thermal cooling (10, 15 and 20 cycles) with a maximum temperature of only 100 °C was conducted. Experiments included edge notched disc (END) tests to determine the Mode I fracture toughness, Brazilian disc tests to determine tensile strength, seismic tests to determine P-wave velocity, and porosity tests leading to meaningful results. Even though only small changes of temperature (rapid cooling from 100 °C to room temperature) were applied, the results showed that crack growth occurred in some rock types (granite, diabase with ore veins, and KVS) while crack healing occurred in other rock types (diabase without ore veins, quartzite, and skarn). To better understand the results, 3D transient thermo-mechanical analysis was conducted using the ANSYS program. The results indicated that there was a thin region near the outside of the specimen where large tensile stresses occur and microcracking would be expected, and that there was a large area in the middle of the specimen where lower magnitude compressive stresses occur and crack closure would be expected. It was found that the more heterogeneous and more coarse-grained rock types are more likely to exhibit crack growth, while less heterogeneous and more fine-grained rocks are more likely to exhibit crack healing.

  5. Thermal properties of ruthenium alkylidene-polymerized dicyclopentadiene.

    PubMed

    Vidavsky, Yuval; Navon, Yotam; Ginzburg, Yakov; Gottlieb, Moshe; Lemcoff, N Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of ring opening methatesis polymerization (ROMP) derived polydicyclopentadiene (PDCPD) revealed an unexpected thermal behavior. A recurring exothermic signal can be observed in the DSC analysis after an elapsed time period. This exothermic signal was found to be proportional to the resting period and was accompanied by a constant increase in the glass-transition temperature. We hypothesize that a relaxation mechanism within the cross-linked scaffold, together with a long-lived stable ruthenium alkylidene species are responsible for the observed phenomenon. PMID:26425203

  6. Thermal properties of systems containing cholesteryl esters and triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, B

    1976-01-01

    Binary and ternary systems of the three cholesteryl esters, linoleate, oleate, and stearate and the two triglycerides, triolein and tristearin were studied in order to determine the phase transitions and the conditions for the cholesteric and smectic mesophases. Phase transitions were determined using differential thermal analysis, melting point determination, and polarizing microscopy. Of the cholesterol esters the linoleate-oleate system showed complete miscibility in both the liquid and solid phases. The linoleate-stearate and oleate-stearate systems are of the eutectic type with limited solid solubility. The mesophases are monotropic as to the crystalline state and exist over the entire composition interval in all cholesteryl ester systems studied.

  7. Analytical analysis of borehole experiments for the estimation of subsurface thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscoso Lembcke, Luis G.; Roubinet, Delphine; Gidel, Floriane; Irving, James; Pehme, Peeter; Parker, Beth L.

    2016-05-01

    Estimating subsurface thermal properties is required in many research fields and applications. To this end, borehole experiments such as the thermal response test (TRT) and active-line-source (ALS) method are of significant interest because they allow us to determine thermal property estimates in situ. With these methods, the subsurface thermal conductivity and diffusivity are typically estimated using asymptotic analytical expressions, whose simplifying assumptions have an impact on the accuracy of the values obtained. In this paper, we develop new analytical tools for interpreting borehole thermal experiments, and we use these tools to assess the impact of such assumptions on thermal property estimates. Quite importantly, our results show that the simplifying assumptions of currently used analytical models can result in errors in the estimated thermal conductivity and diffusivity of up to 60% and 40%, respectively. We also show that these errors are more important for short-term analysis and can be reduced with an appropriate choice of experimental duration. Our results demonstrate the need for cautious interpretation of the data collected during TRT and ALS experiments as well as for improvement of the existing in-situ experimental methods.

  8. Heterostructure of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials with magneto-optic and electro-optic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zou, Yingyin Kevin (Inventor); Jiang, Hua (Inventor); Li, Kewen Kevin (Inventor); Guo, Xiaomei (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A heterostructure of multiferroics or magnetoelectrics (ME) was disclosed. The film has both ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties, as well as magneto-optic (MO) and electro-optic (EO) properties. Oxide buffer layers were employed to allow grown a cracking-free heterostructure a solution coating method.

  9. Novel Radiofrequency-Assisted Thermal Processing Improves the Gelling Properties of Standard Egg White Powder.

    PubMed

    Boreddy, Sreenivasula Reddy; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Froning, Glenn; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan

    2016-03-01

    Effect of radiofrequency (RF)-assisted thermal processing on quality and functional properties of high-foaming standard egg white powder (std. EWP, pH approximately 7.0) was investigated and compared with traditional processing (heat treatment in a hot room at 58 °C for at least 14 d). The RF-assisted thermal treatments were selected to meet the pasteurization requirements and to improve the functional properties of the std. EWP. The treatment conditions were: RF heating to 60, 70, 80, and 90 °C followed by holding in a hot air oven at those temperatures for different periods ranging from 4 h at 90 °C to 72 h at 60 °C. The quality (color and solubility) and functional properties (foaming properties: foaming capacity and foam stability; and gelling properties: water holding capacity and gel-firmness) of the std. EWP were investigated. RF-assisted thermal processing did not affect the color and solubility of std. EWP at any of the treatment conditions. In general, the foaming and gelling properties of RF-assisted thermally processed std. EWP increased with an increase in temperature and treatment duration. The optimal RF-assisted treatment conditions to produce std. EWP with similar functional properties as the traditionally processed (hot room processed) std. EWP were 90 °C for ≥8 h. These optimal conditions were similar to those for high gel egg white powder (HG-EWP, pH approximately 9.5). The RF-assisted thermal pasteurization improved the gelling properties of std. EWP to the levels of HG-EWP, leading to newer applications of this functionally improved safe product. The RF-assisted thermal processing allows the processor to produce a HG-EWP from std. EWP subsequent to processing while simultaneously pasteurizing the product, thus assuring the product safety. PMID:26869145

  10. Novel Radiofrequency-Assisted Thermal Processing Improves the Gelling Properties of Standard Egg White Powder.

    PubMed

    Boreddy, Sreenivasula Reddy; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Froning, Glenn; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan

    2016-03-01

    Effect of radiofrequency (RF)-assisted thermal processing on quality and functional properties of high-foaming standard egg white powder (std. EWP, pH approximately 7.0) was investigated and compared with traditional processing (heat treatment in a hot room at 58 °C for at least 14 d). The RF-assisted thermal treatments were selected to meet the pasteurization requirements and to improve the functional properties of the std. EWP. The treatment conditions were: RF heating to 60, 70, 80, and 90 °C followed by holding in a hot air oven at those temperatures for different periods ranging from 4 h at 90 °C to 72 h at 60 °C. The quality (color and solubility) and functional properties (foaming properties: foaming capacity and foam stability; and gelling properties: water holding capacity and gel-firmness) of the std. EWP were investigated. RF-assisted thermal processing did not affect the color and solubility of std. EWP at any of the treatment conditions. In general, the foaming and gelling properties of RF-assisted thermally processed std. EWP increased with an increase in temperature and treatment duration. The optimal RF-assisted treatment conditions to produce std. EWP with similar functional properties as the traditionally processed (hot room processed) std. EWP were 90 °C for ≥8 h. These optimal conditions were similar to those for high gel egg white powder (HG-EWP, pH approximately 9.5). The RF-assisted thermal pasteurization improved the gelling properties of std. EWP to the levels of HG-EWP, leading to newer applications of this functionally improved safe product. The RF-assisted thermal processing allows the processor to produce a HG-EWP from std. EWP subsequent to processing while simultaneously pasteurizing the product, thus assuring the product safety.

  11. Assessment of the thermal and physical properties of masonry block products

    SciTech Connect

    Valore, R. Jr.; Tuluca, A.; Caputo, A.

    1988-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the current knowledge on the thermal and physical properties of concrete masonry units and fired clay bricks, and to outline directions for further research. In particular, the authors attempted to uncover the areas where thermal properties data are missing or are questionable, to define the type of testing required to fill in the gaps, and to characterize representative masonry blocks on which the testing should be undertaken. US building codes and standards were examined with respect to the thermal properties of masonry block products. It was concluded that the majority of these codes and standards contain insufficient and/or outdated information regarding concrete masonry units and fired clay bricks, thereby distorting the requirements for walls built with masonry units. A comprehensive bibliography search was performed and the thermal properties data obtained were listed and analyzed. Relationships were derived between oven dry density and thermal conductivity for various concretes, clays, and loose fills. The relationship between moisture content and thermal conductivity was also examined. Areas with incomplete and/or contradictory information were identified. Based on these data gaps and on data quality problems, new testing programs were recommended and improvements to current testing procedures were proposed. The study also suggest low-cost test procedures which could be applied to large numbers of masonry blocks. 228 refs., 26 figs., 31 tabs.

  12. La/Sm/Er Cation Doping Induced Thermal Properties of SrTiO3 Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Rittiruam, Meena; Seetawan, Tosawat; Yokhasing, Sirakan; Matarat, Korakot; Bach Thang, Phan; Kumar, Manish; Han, Jeon Geon

    2016-09-01

    The La/Sm/Er cations with different radii doping SrTiO3 (STO) as model Sr0.9R0.1TiO3 (R = La, Sm, Er) were designed to investigate structural characteristics and thermal properties by the molecular dynamics simulation with the Green-Kubo relation at 300-2000 K. The structural characteristics were composed of lattice constant, atoms excursion, and pair correlation function (PCF). The thermal properties consisted of heat capacity and thermal conductivity. The lattice constant of R-doped exhibited less than the STO at 300-1100 K and more than STO at 1500-2000 K, which was encouraged by atom excursion and PCF. The thermal properties was compared with literature data at 300-1100 K. In addition, the thermal properties at 1100-2000 K were predicted. It highlights that thermal conductivity tends to decrease at high temperature, due to perturbation of La, Sm, and Er, respectively. PMID:27494425

  13. Effect of grain size on thermal shock property of alumina ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xianghong; Sheng, Shilong; Yuan, Wenjun; Lin, Zhongkang

    2016-04-01

    Ceramic has a great broad application in high-temperature environment due to its favorable mechanical, antioxidant and corrosion resistance properties. However, it tends to exhibit severe crack or fail under thermal shock resulting from its inherent brittleness. Microstructure property is a vital factor and plays a critical role in influencing thermal shock property of ceramic. The present study experimentally tested and characterized thermal-shock crack and residual strength of ceramic under different quench temperature, while two kinds of alumina ceramics with different grain size are employed. A two-dimensional (2D) numerical model based on statistical mesoscopic damage mechanics is introduced to depict the micro-crack propagation of ceramic sheet under water quenching. The effects of grain size on critical thermal shock temperature, crack characteristics and residual strength are studied. And the microscopic mechanism of the influence of grain size on thermal shock resistance of ceramic is discussed based on the crack propagation path obtained from experimental and simulation results. The qualitative effect and evolution change of grain size on thermal shock property of alumina ceramic will be summarized.

  14. Thermal conductive and radiative properties of solid foams: Traditional and recent advanced modelling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randrianalisoa, Jaona; Baillis, Dominique

    2014-10-01

    The current paper presents an overview of traditional and recent models for predicting the thermal properties of solid foams with open- and closed-cells. Their effective thermal conductivity has been determined analytically by empirical or thermal-resistance-network-based models. Radiative properties crucial to obtain the radiative conductivity have been determined analytically by models based on the independent scattering theory. Powerful models combine three-dimensional (3D) foam modelling (by X-ray tomography, Voronoi tessellation method, etc.) and numerical solution of transport equations. The finite-element method (FEM) has been used to compute thermal conductivity due to solid network for which the computation cost remains reasonable. The effective conductivity can be determined from FEM results combined with the conductivity due to the fluid, which can be accurately evaluated by a simple formula for air or weakly conducting gas. The finite volume method seems well appropriate for solving the thermal problem in both the solid and fluid phases. The ray-tracing Monte Carlo method constitutes the powerful model for radiative properties. Finally, 3D image analysis of foams is useful to determine topological information needed to feed analytical thermal and radiative properties models. xml:lang="fr"

  15. Thermal transport in bismuth telluride quintuple layer: mode-resolved phonon properties and substrate effects

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Cheng; Bao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The successful exfoliation of atomically-thin bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) quintuple layer (QL) attracts tremendous research interest in this strongly anharmonic quasi-two-dimensional material. The thermal transport properties of this material are not well understood, especially the mode-wise properties and when it is coupled with a substrate. In this work, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations and normal mode analysis to study the mode-resolved thermal transport in freestanding and supported Bi2Te3 QL. The detailed mode-wise phonon properties are calculated and the accumulated thermal conductivities with respect to phonon mean free path (MFP) are constructed. It is shown that 60% of the thermal transport is contributed by phonons with MFP longer than 20 nm. Coupling with a-SiO2 substrate leads to about 60% reduction of thermal conductivity. Through varying the interfacial coupling strength and the atomic mass of substrate, we also find that phonon in Bi2Te3 QL is more strongly scattered by interfacial potential and its transport process is less affected by the dynamics of substrate. Our study provides an in-depth understanding of heat transport in Bi2Te3 QL and is helpful in further tailoring its thermal property through nanostructuring. PMID:27263656

  16. A new method for characterization of thermal properties of human enamel and dentine: Influence of microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.; Liu, Q. D.; Kim, T.; Xu, F.; Bai, B. F.; Lu, T. J.

    2010-11-01

    For better selection of "tooth-like" dental restorative materials, it is of great importance to evaluate the thermal properties of the human tooth. A simple method capable of non-destructively characterizing the thermal properties of the individual layers (dentine and enamel) of human tooth is presented. The traditional method of monotonic heating regime was combined with infrared thermography to measure the thermal diffusivities of enamel and dentine layers without physically separating them, with 4.08 (±0.178) × 10 7 m 2/s measured for enamel and 2.01 (±0.050) × 10 7 m 2/s for dentine. Correspondingly, the thermal conductivity was calculated to be 0.81 W/mK (enamel) and 0.48 W/mK (dentine). To examine the dependence of thermal conductivity on the configuration of dentine microstructure (microtubules), the Maxwell-Eucken and Parallel models of effective thermal conductivity are employed. The effective thermal conductivity of dentine in the direction parallel to tubules was found to be about 1.1 times higher than that perpendicular to the tubules, indicating weak anisotropy. By adopting the Series model, the bulk thermal conductivity of enamel and dentine layers is estimated to be 0.57 W/mK.

  17. Assessing the thermoelectric properties of single InSb nanowires: the role of thermal contact resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazji, S.; Swinkels, M. Y.; De Luca, M.; Hoffmann, E. A.; Ercolani, D.; Roddaro, S.; Abstreiter, G.; Sorba, L.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Zardo, I.

    2016-06-01

    The peculiar shape and dimensions of nanowires (NWs) have opened the way to their exploitation in thermoelectric applications. In general, the parameters entering into the thermoelectric figure of merit are strongly interdependent, which makes it difficult to realize an optimal thermoelectric material. In NWs, instead, the power factor can be increased and the thermal conductivity reduced, thus boosting the thermoelectric efficiency compared to bulk materials. However, the assessment of all the thermoelectric properties of a NW is experimentally very challenging. Here, we focus on InSb NWs, which have proved to be promising thermoelectric materials. The figure of merit is accurately determined by using a novel method based on a combination of Raman spectroscopy and electrical measurements. Remarkably, this type of experiment provides a powerful approach allowing us to neglect the role played by thermal contact resistance. Furthermore, we compare the thermal conductivity determined by this novel method to the one determined on the same sample by the thermal bridge method. In this latter approach, the thermal contact resistance is a non-negligible parameter, especially in NWs with large diameters. We provide experimental evidence of the crucial role played by thermal contact resistance in the assessment of the thermal properties of nanostructures, using two different measurement methods of the thermal conductivity.

  18. Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on the Thermal Properties of Sodium Acetate Trihydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay-Ramírez, B.; Cruz-Orea, A.; San Martín-Martínez, E.

    2015-06-01

    Sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) is used as a phase change material (PCM) because of its high latent heat of fusion. Mixtures were prepared with SAT, a blend of the polymer sodium carboxymethil cellulose (CMC) and silica gel, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and anhydrous sodium sulfate to form a composite-PCM (c-PCM) based on SAT; the relative proportions of CMC/silica gel in the blend and AgNP content were varied according to a central composite experimental design. The thermal properties were determined for raw SAT, CMC, , and c-PCM samples. The thermal effusivity of samples was evaluated by the inverse photopyroelectric technique. The thermal diffusivity was obtained for samples by the open photoacoustic cell technique. The thermal conductivity was calculated from the obtained and values. To assess the thermal performance of the c-PCM compared to raw SAT, samples were studied through differential scanning calorimetry which served to determine the latent heat recovery ( LHR). Properties , and LHR were analyzed by response surface methodology and compared. The SAT-based c-PCM was found to be more thermally conductive than raw SAT. The best LHR with good thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity was identified in the region of the central composite experimental design with medium-low AgNPs and higher proportions of CMC in the polymer blend.

  19. Vibrational, mechanical, and thermal properties of III-V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, John D.

    1989-02-01

    Theories of the mechanical, vibrational, and electronic properties of 3 to 5 semiconductors were developed and applied to: (1) help determine the feasibility of InN-based visible and ultraviolet lasers and light detectors, (2) develop a theory of phonons in semiconductor alloys, (3) understand surface reconstruction of semiconductors, (4) predict the effects of atomic correlations on the light-scattering (Raman) properties of semiconductive alloys, (5) develop a new first principles pseudo-function implementation of local-density theory, (6) study the oxidation of GaAs, (7) develop a theory of scanning tunneling microscope images, and (8) understand the electronic and optical properties of highly strained artificial semiconductors and small semiconductor particles.

  20. Thermal properties photonic crystal fiber transducers with ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybysz, N.; Marć, P.; Kisielewska, A.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    The main aim of the research is to design new types of fiber optic transducers based on filled photonic crystal fibers for sensor applications. In our research we propose to use as a filling material nanoparticles' ferrofluids (Fe3O4 NPs). Optical properties of such transducers are studied by measurements of spectral characteristics' changes when transducers are exposed to temperature and magnetic field changes. From synthesized ferrofluid several mixtures with different NPs' concentrations were prepared. Partially filled commercially available photonic crystal fiber LMA 10 (NKT Photonics) was used to design PCF transducers. Their thermo-optic properties were tested in a temperature chamber. Taking into account magnetic properties of synthetized NPs the patch cords based on a partially filled PM 1550 PCF were measured.

  1. Thermal and rheological properties of nixtamalized maize starch.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Montealvo, G; Sánchez-Rivera, M M; Paredes-López, O; Bello-Pérez, L A

    2006-12-15

    The effect of nixtamalization process on thermal and rheological characteristics of corn starch was studied. Starch of raw sample had higher gelatinization temperature than its raw counterpart, because, the Ca(2+) ions stabilize starch structure of nixtamalized sample; however, the enthalpy values were not different in both samples. The temperature of the phase transition of the retrograded starches (raw and nixtamalized) were not different at the storage times assessed, but the enthalpy values of the above mentioned transition was different, indicating a lower reorganization of the starch structure in the nixtamalized sample. The viscoamylographic profile showed differences between both starches, since raw starch had higher peak viscosity than the nixtamalized sample due to partial gelatinization of some granules during this heat treatment. Rheological test showed that at low temperature (25 degrees C) the raw and nixtamalized starches presented different behaviour; however, the elastic characteristic was more important in the starch gel structure. The nixtamalization process produced changes in thermal and rheological characteristics becoming important in those products elaborated from nixtamalized maize.

  2. Thermal Properties of Silk Fibroin Using Fast Scanning Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebe, Peggy; Partlow, Benjamin; Kaplan, David; Wurm, Andreas; Zhuravlev, Evgeny; Schick, Christoph

    We performed fast scanning chip-based calorimetry of silk protein using the Mettler Flash DSC1. We suggest the methodology by which to obtain quantitative information on the very first scan to high temperature, including the melting endotherm of the beta pleated sheets. For proteins, this first scan is the most important one, because the crystalline secondary structural features, the beta pleated sheets, melt after the first heating and cannot be thermally reintroduced. To obtain high quality data, the samples must be treated to drying and enthalpy relaxation sequences. The heat flow rates in heating and cooling must be corrected for asymmetric heat loses. We evaluate methods to obtain an estimate of the sample mass, finally choosing internal calibration using the known heat capacity increment at the glass transition. We report that even heating at rates of 2000 K/s, thermal degradation of silk cannot be totally avoided, though it can be minimized. Using a set of nineteen samples, we successfully determine the liquid state heat capacity of silk as: Cpliquid (T) = (1.98 +0.06) J/gK + T (6.82 +1.4) x10-4 J/gK2. Methods for estimation of the sample mass will be presented and compared. National Science Foundation, Polymers Program DMR-1206010; DAAD; Tufts Faculty Supported Leave.

  3. Empirical Correlations for Thermal Flowmeters Covering a Wide Range of Thermal-Physical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.E.; Hylton, J.O.; McKnight, T.E.

    1999-07-19

    Thermal flowmeters can provide direct mass flow measurement of gases and vapors over a wide range of process conditions without the need for density corrections based on pressure and temperature. They are widely used in industrial processes that contain toxic, corrosive, or highly reactive gases. It is often not possible to calibrate the flowmeter on the process gas in which it will be used. In this case a non-hazardous �surrogate� gas is used for calibration, and a theoretical model used to predict the meter�s response in the process gas. This can lead to large measurement errors because there are no accurate and straightforward methods for predicting the performance on one kind of gas based on the calibration on another gas because of the complexity of the thermal processes within the flow sensor. This paper describes some of the commonly used models and conversion methods and presents work done at ORNL to develop and experimentally verify better thermal models for predicting flowmeter performance.

  4. An Experimental Study of Microstructure-Property Relationships in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, M.; Dwivedi, G.; Nylén, P.; Vackel, A.; Sampath, S.

    2013-06-01

    The thermal-mechanical properties of thermal barrier coatings are highly influenced by the defects present in coating microstructure. The aim of this study was to meet the future needs of the gas turbine industry by further development of zirconia coatings through the assessment of microstructure-property relationships. A design of experiments was conducted for this purpose with current, spray distance, and powder feed rate as the varied parameters. Microstructure was assessed with SEM and image analysis was used to characterize porosity content. Evaluations were carried out using laser flash technique to measure thermal properties. A bi-layer beam curvature technique in conjunction with controlled thermal cycling was used to assess the mechanical properties, in particular their nonlinear elastic response. Coating lifetime was evaluated by thermo-cyclic fatigue testing. Relationships between microstructure and coating properties are discussed. Dense vertically cracked microstructure and highly porous microstructure with large globular pores were also fabricated. Correlations between parameters obtained from nonlinear measurements and lifetime based on a priori established microstructural analysis were attempted in an effort to develop and identify a simplified strategy to assess coating durability following sustained long-term exposure to high temperature thermal cycling.

  5. Experimental nonlinear dynamical studies in cesium magneto-optical trap using time-series analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anwar, M. Islam, R.; Faisal, M.; Sikandar, M.; Ahmed, M.

    2015-03-30

    A magneto-optical trap of neutral atoms is essentially a dissipative quantum system. The fast thermal atoms continuously dissipate their energy to the environment via spontaneous emissions during the cooling. The atoms are, therefore, strongly coupled with the vacuum reservoir and the laser field. The vacuum fluctuations as well as the field fluctuations are imparted to the atoms as random photon recoils. Consequently, the external and internal dynamics of atoms becomes stochastic. In this paper, we have investigated the stochastic dynamics of the atoms in a magneto-optical trap during the loading process. The time series analysis of the fluorescence signal shows that the dynamics of the atoms evolves, like all dissipative systems, from deterministic to the chaotic regime. The subsequent disappearance and revival of chaos was attributed to chaos synchronization between spatially different atoms in the magneto-optical trap.

  6. Remote magneto-elastic analyte, viscosity and temperature sensing apparatus and associated methods of sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, Craig A. (Inventor); Stoyanov, Plamen G. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An analyte, viscosity, or temperature sensing apparatus for operative arrangement within a time-varying magnetic field, including a sensor with an outer surface that is chemically, frictionally, or thermally responsive and adhered to a base magnetostrictive element, and a receiver to measure a first and second value for magneto-elastic emission intensity of the sensor taken at, respectively, a first and second interrogation frequency. A change in mass or a change in material stiffness of the sensor due to the responsiveness, the viscosity and mass density of a fluid therearound, or the temperature, can be identified. The receiver, alternatively, measures a plurality of successive values for magneto-elastic emission intensity of the sensor taken over an operating range of successive interrogation frequencies to identify a value for the sensor's magneto-elastic resonant frequency (a fundamental frequency or harmonic thereof). Several sensors in an ordered array will provide a package of information.

  7. A novel test method for measuring the thermal properties of clothing ensembles under dynamic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, X.; Fan, J.

    2008-06-01

    The dynamic thermal properties of clothing ensembles are important to thermal transient comfort, but have so far not been properly quantified. In this paper, a novel test procedure and new index based on measurements on the sweating fabric manikin-Walter are proposed to quantify and measure the dynamic thermal properties of clothing ensembles. Experiments showed that the new index is correlated to the changing rate of the body temperature of the wearer, which is an important indicator of thermal transient comfort. Clothing ensembles having higher values of the index means the wearer will have a faster changing rate of body temperature and shorter duration before approaching a dangerous thermo-physiological state, when he changes from 'resting' to 'exercising' mode. Clothing should therefore be designed to reduce the value of the index.

  8. Correlation of chemical, structural and thermal properties of natural fibres for their sustainable exploitation.

    PubMed

    Moriana, Rosana; Vilaplana, Francisco; Karlsson, Sigbritt; Ribes, Amparo

    2014-11-01

    The potential of lignocellulosic natural fibres as renewable resources for thermal conversion and material reinforcement is largely dependent on the correlation between their chemical composition, crystalline structure and thermal decomposition properties. Significant differences were observed in the chemical composition of cotton, flax, hemp, kenaf and jute natural fibres in terms of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content, which influence their morphology, thermal properties and pyrolysis product distribution. A suitable methodology to study the kinetics of the thermal decomposition process of lignocellulosic fibres is proposed combining different models (Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Criado and Coats-Redfern). Cellulose pyrolysis can be modelled with similar kinetic parameters for all the natural fibres whereas the kinetic parameters for hemicellulose pyrolysis show intrinsic differences that can be assigned to the heterogeneous hemicellulose sugar composition in each natural fibre. This study provides the ground to critically select the most promising fibres to be used either for biofuel or material applications. PMID:25129763

  9. Thermal properties and two-dimensional photonic band gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, Hussein A.; El-Naggar, Sahar A.; Aly, Arafa H.

    2014-03-01

    The effect of temperature on a two-dimensional square lattice photonic crystal composed of Si rods arranged in an air background was investigated theoretically using the plane-wave expansion method. Both the thermal expansion effect and thermo-optical effect are considered simultaneously. We have discussed the role of temperature in creating the complete photonic band gap as a function of temperature. Two different shapes of rods, i.e. square and circular, are considered in the presence of the two polarization states, i.e. TE and TM waves. The numerical results show that the photonic band gap can be significantly enlarged compared to the photonic band gap at room temperature. The effect of temperature on the complete photonic band width in the cylindrical rods case is more significant. Cylindrical and square Si rods may work as a temperature sensor or filter, among many other potential applications.

  10. Phonon excitations and related thermal properties of aluminum nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Nipko, J.C.; Loong, C.

    1998-05-01

    The phonon density of states of aluminum nitride was determined by time-of-flight neutron spectroscopy using a polycrystalline sample. The observed phonon excitation spectrum consists of a broadband centered at about 35 meV, a small gap in the 75{endash}80 meV region, and two sharp bands at approximately 85 and 92 meV. A rigid-ion model was applied to the interpretation of the data. After optimization, the model provided a satisfactory description of the neutron results as well as the Raman and IR data, sound-velocity measurements, and the lattice specific heat reported in the literature. The partial and total DOS and the phonon-dispersion curves along major symmetry directions of the Brillouin zone were calculated, and the contribution of phonons to the Debye behavior of the low-temperature thermal conductivity was discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Thermal and statistical properties of nuclei and nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1989-07-01

    The term statistical decay, statistical or thermodynamic equilibrium, thermalization, temperature, etc., have been used in nuclear physics since the introduction of the compound nucleus (CN) concept, and they are still used, perhaps even more frequently, in the context of intermediate- and high-energy heavy-ion reactions. Unfortunately, the increased popularity of these terms has not made them any clearer, and more often than not one encounters sweeping statements about the alleged statisticity of a nuclear process where the statistical'' connotation is a more apt description of the state of the speaker's mind than of the nuclear reaction. It is our goal, in this short set of lectures, to set at least some ideas straight on this broad and beautiful subject, on the one hand by clarifying some fundamental concepts, on the other by presenting some interesting applications to actual physical cases. 74 refs., 38 figs.

  12. Thermal and structural properties of low-fluence irradiated graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lexa, Dusan; Dauke, Michael

    2009-02-01

    The release of Wigner energy from graphite irradiated by fast neutrons at a TRIGA Mark II research reactor has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry and simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry / synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction between 25 and 725 °C at a heating rate of 10 °C min -1. The graphite, having been subject to a fast-neutron fluence from 5.67 × 10 20 to 1.13 × 10 22 n m -2 at a fast-neutron flux ( E > 0.1 MeV) of 7.88 × 10 16 n m -2 s -1 and at temperatures not exceeding 100 °C, exhibits Wigner energies ranging from 1.2 to 21.8 J g -1 and a Wigner energy accumulation rate of 1.9 × 10 -21 J g -1 n -1 m 2. The differential-scanning-calorimeter curves exhibit, in addition to the well known peak at ˜200 °C, a pronounced fine structure consisting of additional peaks at ˜150, ˜230, and ˜280 °C. These peaks correspond to activation energies of 1.31, 1.47, 1.57, and 1.72 eV, respectively. Crystal structure of the samples is intact. The dependence of the c lattice parameter on temperature between 25 and 725 °C as determined by Rietveld refinement leads to the expected microscopic thermal expansion coefficient along the c axis of ˜26 × 10 -6 °C -1. At 200 °C, coinciding with the maximum in the differential-scanning-calorimeter curves, no measurable changes in the rate of thermal expansion have been detected - unlike its decrease previously seen in more highly irradiated graphite.

  13. Thermal Properties of West Siberian Sediments in Application to Basin and Petroleum Systems Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romushkevich, Raisa; Popov, Evgeny; Popov, Yury; Chekhonin, Evgeny; Myasnikov, Artem; Kazak, Andrey; Belenkaya, Irina; Zagranovskaya, Dzhuliya

    2016-04-01

    Quality of heat flow and rock thermal property data is the crucial question in basin and petroleum system modeling. A number of significant deviations in thermal conductivity values were observed during our integral geothermal study of West Siberian platform reporting that the corrections should be carried out in basin models. The experimental data including thermal anisotropy and heterogeneity measurements were obtained along of more than 15 000 core samples and about 4 500 core plugs. The measurements were performed in 1993-2015 with the optical scanning technique within the Continental Super-Deep Drilling Program (Russia) for scientific super-deep well Tyumenskaya SG-6, parametric super-deep well Yen-Yakhinskaya, and deep well Yarudeyskaya-38 as well as for 13 oil and gas fields in the West Siberia. Variations of the thermal conductivity tensor components in parallel and perpendicular direction to the layer stratification (assessed for 2D anisotropy model of the rock studied), volumetric heat capacity and thermal anisotropy coefficient values and average values of the thermal properties were the subject of statistical analysis for the uppermost deposits aged by: T3-J2 (200-165 Ma); J2-J3 (165-150 Ma); J3 (150-145 Ma); K1 (145-136 Ma); K1 (136-125 Ma); K1-K2 (125-94 Ma); K2-Pg+Ng+Q (94-0 Ma). Uncertainties caused by deviations of thermal conductivity data from its average values were found to be as high as 45 % leading to unexpected errors in the basin heat flow determinations. Also, the essential spatial-temporal variations in the thermal rock properties in the study area is proposed to be taken into account in thermo-hydrodynamic modeling of hydrocarbon recovery with thermal methods. The research work was done with financial support of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science (unique identification number RFMEFI58114X0008).

  14. Simulation of thermal ablation by high-intensity focused ultrasound with temperature-dependent properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, C W; Sun, M K; Chen, B T; Shieh, J; Chen, C S; Chen, W S

    2015-11-01

    An integrated computational framework was developed in this study for modeling high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) thermal ablation. The temperature field was obtained by solving the bioheat transfer equation (BHTE) through the finite element method; while, the thermal lesion was considered as a denatured material experiencing phase transformation and modeled with the latent heat. An equivalent attenuation coefficient, which considers the temperature-dependent properties of the target material and the ultrasound diffraction due to bubbles, was proposed in the nonlinear thermal transient analysis. Finally, a modified thermal dose formulation was proposed to predict the lesion size, shape and location. In-vitro thermal ablation experiments on transparent tissue phantoms at different energy levels were carried out to validate this computational framework. The temperature histories and lesion areas from the proposed model show good correlation with those from the in-vitro experiments. PMID:26186867

  15. Discrimination of soil hydraulic properties by combined thermal infrared and microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Oneill, P. E.

    1986-01-01

    Using the De Vries models for thermal conductivity and heat capacity, thermal inertia was determined as a function of soil moisture for 12 classes of soil types ranging from sand to clay. A coupled heat and moisture balance model was used to describe the thermal behavior of the top soil, while microwave remote sensing was used to estimate the soil moisture content of the same top soil. Soil hydraulic parameters are found to be very highly correlated with the combination of soil moisture content and thermal inertia at the same moisture content. Therefore, a remotely sensed estimate of the thermal behavior of the soil from diurnal soil temperature observations and an independent remotely sensed estimate of soil moisture content gives the possibility of estimating soil hydraulic properties by remote sensing.

  16. Simulation of thermal ablation by high-intensity focused ultrasound with temperature-dependent properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, C W; Sun, M K; Chen, B T; Shieh, J; Chen, C S; Chen, W S

    2015-11-01

    An integrated computational framework was developed in this study for modeling high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) thermal ablation. The temperature field was obtained by solving the bioheat transfer equation (BHTE) through the finite element method; while, the thermal lesion was considered as a denatured material experiencing phase transformation and modeled with the latent heat. An equivalent attenuation coefficient, which considers the temperature-dependent properties of the target material and the ultrasound diffraction due to bubbles, was proposed in the nonlinear thermal transient analysis. Finally, a modified thermal dose formulation was proposed to predict the lesion size, shape and location. In-vitro thermal ablation experiments on transparent tissue phantoms at different energy levels were carried out to validate this computational framework. The temperature histories and lesion areas from the proposed model show good correlation with those from the in-vitro experiments.

  17. Thermal properties of U–Mo alloys irradiated to moderate burnup and power

    SciTech Connect

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Pool, Karl N.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Smith, Frances N.

    2015-09-01

    A variety of physical and thermal property measurements as a function of temperature and fission density were performed on irradiated U-Mo alloy monolithic fuel samples with a Zr diffusion barrier and clad in aluminum alloy 6061. The U-Mo alloy density, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity are strongly influenced by increasing burnup, mainly as the result of irradiation induced recrystallization and fission gas bubble formation and coalescence. U-Mo chemistry, specifically Mo content, and specific heat capacity was not as sensitive to increasing burnup. Measurements indicated that thermal conductivity of the U-Mo alloy decreased approximately 30% for a fission density of 2.88 × 1021 fissions cm-3 and approximately 45% for a fission density of 4.08 × 1021 fissions cm-3 from unirradiated values at 200 oC. An empirical thermal conductivity degradation model developed previously and summarized here agrees well with the experimental measurements.

  18. Influence of microstructures on thermal fatigue property of a nickel-base superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Feng-Wen; Xie, Kun; Qiao, Ling; Yu, Jin-Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Effect of microstructures such as the distribution and shape of carbide and γ' phase on thermal fatigue property of a superalloy was investigated experimentally. The resistance of thermal fatigue of the studied alloy decreases with the rising upper temperature. For the as-cast alloy, the thermal fatigue crack mostly origins from carbide at low upper temperature and results from oxidation at high upper temperature. The thermal fatigue crack of the heat treated alloy is mainly initiated by the oxidized cavity and then propagates through the join of the oxidized cavity. The orientation of crack propagation and direction of dendrite growth of alloy have the angle of 45°. There is γ' denuded region near the thermal fatigue crack because of oxidation.

  19. Electrical, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Single Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Nongjian

    2014-08-20

    The specific aims of the prior DOE grant are to determine the stability of a single molecule bound to two electrodes, study local heating in single molecule junctions due to electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions, measure electron-phonon interactions in single molecule wires; and explore piezoelectric properties of single molecules. We have completed all the major tasks, and also expanded naturally the scope of the project to address several other critical issues in single molecule properties, developed new experimental capabilities, and observed a number of unexpected phenomena. We summarized here some of the findings that are most relevant to the present renewal proposal. More details can be found in the publications resulted from this grant and annual progress reports.

  20. Antifriction properties of gas thermal coatings of clad carbide powders

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, Y.S.; Geleyshvili, T.P.; Gorbatov, L.N.; Molyar, A.G.; Kulgavyy, E.A.; Polishchuk, I.Y.

    1984-12-01

    A study is made of the antifriction properties of atomized coatings on VI-22 titanium alloy. Atomization was performed with carbides of titanium and chromium clad with cobalt, copper or nickel. Cladding was performed by the autoclave method by reducing copper, cobalt, and nickel from a solution of their salts with hydrogen under pressure. The clad coating thickness was 3 to 5 micro m. Electrolytically chrome plated titanium alloy and coatings of oxides were also tested for comparison. The structure of the coatings after atomization consisted of carbide particles uniformly distributed in a metal matrix. In friction the coatings worked in well, at relatively low coefficient of friction and slight wear. The most effective antifriction properties, minimum wear, and minimum coefficient of friction were achieved in coatings of composite TiC-Co and TiC-Cu powders.

  1. Determination of physical properties of fibrous thermal insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilioua, A.; Libessart, L.; Joulin, A.; Lassue, S.; Monod, B.; Jeandel, G.

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize both experimentally and theoretically, conductive and radiative heat transfer within polyester batting. This material is derived from recycled bottles (PET) with fibres of constant diameters. Two other mineral and plant fibrous insulation materials, (glass wool and hemp wool) are also characterized for comparative purposes. To determine the overall thermophysical properties of the tested materials, heat flux measurement are carried out using a device developed in house. The radiative properties of the material are determined by an inverse method based on measurements of transmittance and reflectance using a FTIR spectrometer and by solving the equation of radiative heat transfer. These measures are compared to results of numerical simulations.

  2. Effect of equilibrium moisture content on barrier, mechanical and thermal properties of chitosan films.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Loredo, Rocío Yaneli; Rodríguez-Hernández, Adriana Inés; Morales-Sánchez, Eduardo; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos Alberto; Velazquez, Gonzalo

    2016-04-01

    Water molecules modify the properties of biodegradable films obtained from hydrophilic materials. Most studies dealing with thermal, mechanical and barrier properties of hydrophilic films are carried out under one relative humidity (RH) condition. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the moisture content on the thermal, mechanical and barrier properties of chitosan films under several RH conditions. Microclimates, obtained with saturated salt solutions were used for conditioning samples and the properties of the films were evaluated under each RH condition. Chitosan films absorbed up to 40% of moisture at the higher RH studied. The percentage of elongation and the water vapour permeability increased while tensile strength, Young's modulus and glass transition temperature decreased, when the moisture content increased. The results suggest that the water molecules plasticized the polymer matrix, changing the properties when the films were in contact with high RH environments.

  3. Prediction of threshold pain skin temperature from thermal properties of materials in contact.

    PubMed

    Stoll, A M; Chianta, M A; Piergallini, J R

    1982-12-01

    Aerospace design engineers have long sought concrete data with respect to the thermal safety of materials in contact with human skin. A series of studies on this subject has been completed and some of the results have been reported earlier. In these studies over 2,000 observations were made of pain threshold during contact with materials at elevated temperatures. Six materials were used representing the full range of thermal properties from good conductors to good insulators. Previous reports gave methods for determining the maximum permissible temperatures for any material in safe contact with bare skin for 1-5 s solely from a knowledge of its thermal properties. This report presents the comparison of the theoretical and experimental contact temperatures at pain threshold and provides a method for deriving the skin temperature productive of threshold pain from the thermal properties of any material within the range of those studies. Ratios reflecting the heat transfer coefficient associated with the materials in contact are related to their thermal properties so that the skin temperature at pain threshold may be determined from that calculated from heat transfer theory. Tabular and graphical representation of these data permits interpolation within the range of properties so that any material of known thermal conductivity, density and specific heat may be assessed with respect to its effect on the skin temperature during contact to the end point of pain. These data, in conjunction with those already reported, constitute a system for the complete assessment of the thermal aspects of practically any material suitable for construction and manufacturing applications with respect to safe contact with human skin. PMID:7159344

  4. Growth and thermal properties of doped monocrystalline titanium-silicide based quantum dot superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelli, G.; Silveira Stein, S.; Bernard-Granger, G.; Faucherand, P.; Montès, L.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the growth mechanism of a monocrystalline silicide quantum dot superlattices (QDSL) grown by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition (RPCVD). QDSL are made of TiSi2-based nanodots scattered in a p-doped Si90Ge10 matrix. It is the first time that the growth of a p-type monocrystalline QDSL is presented. We focus here on the growth mechanisms of QDSL and the influence of nanostructuration on their thermal properties. Thus, the dots surface deposition, the dots embedding mechanisms and the final QDSL growths are studied. The crystallographic structures and chemical properties are presented, as well as the thermal properties. It will be shown that some specific mechanisms occur such as the formation of self-formed quantum well superlattices and the dopant accumulation near the quantum dots. Finally, a slight decrease of the QDSL thermal conductivity has been measured compared to the reference sample.

  5. On the importance of organization of glucan chains on thermal properties of starch.

    PubMed

    Vamadevan, Varatharajan; Bertoft, Eric; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2013-02-15

    The relationship between the internal structure of amylopectin from diverse plants and thermal properties of the starch granules has been investigated. Correlations were found between structural parameters, such as number of building blocks in clusters, interblock chain length and length of external chains, and gelatinization parameters. Onset gelatinization temperature negatively correlated with number of building blocks (r=-0.952, p<0.01) and positively correlated with inter-block chain length (r=0.905, p<0.01). Enthalpy of gelatinization positively correlated with external chain length (r=0.854, p<0.01). These data showed that the internal structure is predictive of trends in thermal properties. A model is proposed based on the backbone concept of amylopectin structure that explains how the organization of chains in the semicrystalline lamellae of starch granules relates to the thermal properties.

  6. Dielectric and Thermal Properties of Transformer Oil Modified by Semiconductive CdS Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Elhady, Amr M.; Ibrahim, Mohamed E.; Taha, T. A.; Izzularab, Mohamed A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, modified transformer oil semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are presented. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots of radius 4.5 nm with a hexagonal crystal structure are added to transformer oil to improve its dielectric and thermal properties. CdS QDs modified oil is prepared considering different filler loading levels. Alternating current breakdown voltages of the transformer oil samples before and after the modification are measured based on American Society for Testing and Materials D1816 standard. The relative permittivity and dissipation factor are measured for all samples. Also, thermal properties of the oil samples are experimentally evaluated according to the temperature change measurement considering heating and cooling processes. The results show significant improvements in dielectric and thermal properties of the modified transformer oil, as well as an increase in the breakdown strength by about 81% in comparison to the base transformer oil.

  7. Dielectric and Thermal Properties of Transformer Oil Modified by Semiconductive CdS Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Elhady, Amr M.; Ibrahim, Mohamed E.; Taha, T. A.; Izzularab, Mohamed A.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, modified transformer oil semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are presented. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots of radius 4.5 nm with a hexagonal crystal structure are added to transformer oil to improve its dielectric and thermal properties. CdS QDs modified oil is prepared considering different filler loading levels. Alternating current breakdown voltages of the transformer oil samples before and after the modification are measured based on American Society for Testing and Materials D1816 standard. The relative permittivity and dissipation factor are measured for all samples. Also, thermal properties of the oil samples are experimentally evaluated according to the temperature change measurement considering heating and cooling processes. The results show significant improvements in dielectric and thermal properties of the modified transformer oil, as well as an increase in the breakdown strength by about 81% in comparison to the base transformer oil.

  8. In Vitro Degradation of an Aromatic Polyanhydride with Enhanced Thermal Properties

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Sabrina S.; Anastasiou, Theodore J.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Polyanhydrides have been studied as a drug delivery vehicles due to their surface-eroding behavior which results in zero-order release. However, many polyanhyrides have thermal and solubility properties that make them difficult to formulate for these applications. Poly[α,α′-bis(ortho-carboxyphenoxy)-para-xylene] (oCPX) is an aromatic polyanhydride that has thermal and solubility properties enabling facile processing. The polymer's in vitro degradation profile exhibited an induction period up to 10 days in which degradation product concentration in the media was minimal, followed by a period of stable release of the biocompatible degradation product. Scanning electron microscope images and molecular weight changes of the polymer matrices confirm that this polymer is primarily surface-eroding. The combination of thermal properties, solubility, polymer degradation time, and erosion mechanism indicate that poly(oCPX) is be a suitable matrix candidate for extended, controlled drug delivery. PMID:25870460

  9. Thermal properties of wood-derived silicon carbide and copper-silicon carbide composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappecena, Kristen E.

    Wood-derived ceramics and composites have been of interest in recent years due to their unique microstructures, which lead to tailorable properties. The porosity and pore size distribution of each wood type is different, which yields variations in properties in the resultant materials. The thermal properties of silicon carbide ceramics and copper-silicon carbide composites derived from wood were studied as a function of their pore structures. Wood was pyrolyzed at temperatures ranging from 300-2400°C to yield porous carbon. The progression toward long-range order was studied as a function of pyrolyzation temperature. Biomorphic silicon carbide (bioSiC) is a porous ceramic material resulting from silicon melt infiltration of these porous carbon materials. BioSiC has potential applicability in many high temperature environments, particularly those in which rapid temperature changes occur. To understand the behavior of bioSiC at elevated temperatures, the thermal and thermo-mechanical properties were studied. The thermal conductivity of bioSiC from five precursors was determined using flash diffusivity at temperatures up to 1100°C. Thermal conductivity results varied with porosity, temperature and orientation, and decreased from 42-13 W/mK for porosities of 43-69%, respectively, at room temperature. The results were compared with to object-oriented finite-element analysis (OOF). OOF was also used to model and understand the heat-flow paths through the complex bioSiC microstructures. The thermal shock resistance of bioSiC was also studied, and no bioSiC sample was found to fail catastrophically after up to five thermal shock cycles from 1400°C to room temperature oil. Copper-silicon carbide composites have potential uses in thermal management applications due to the high thermal conductivity of each phase. Cu-bioSiC composites were created by electrodeposition of copper into bioSiC pores. The detrimental Cu-SiC reaction was avoided by using this room temperature

  10. Fast preparation and thermal transport property of TiCoSb-based half-Heusler compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wen-Jie; Tang, Xin-Feng; Zhang, Qing-Jie

    2007-11-01

    TiCoSb-based half-Heusler compounds with the substitution of Zr for Ti have been prepared quickly by combining high-energy ball milling method with spark plasma sintering technique, and their thermal transport properties have been investigated. With the increase of the concentration of Zr, the thermal conductivity of Ti1-xZrxCoSb compounds decreases significantly. Compared with the thermal conductivity of TiCoSb compound, that of Ti0.5Zr0.5CoSb decreases by 200% at 1000 K.

  11. Magneto-optical spectroscopy of ferromagnetic shape-memory Ni-Mn-Ga alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Veis, M. Beran, L.; Zahradnik, M.; Antos, R.; Straka, L.; Kopecek, J.; Fekete, L.; Heczko, O.

    2014-05-07

    Magneto-optical properties of single crystal of Ni{sub 50.1}Mn{sub 28.4}Ga{sub 21.5} magnetic shape memory alloy in martensite and austenite phase were systematically studied. Crystal orientation was approximately along (100) planes of parent cubic austenite. At room temperature, the sample was in modulated 10M martensite phase and transformed to cubic austenite at 323 K. Spectral dependence of polar magneto-optical Kerr effect was obtained by generalized magneto-optical ellipsometry with rotating analyzer in the photon energy range from 1.2 to 4 eV, and from room temperature to temperature above the Curie point. The Kerr rotation spectra exhibit prominent features typical for complexes containing Mn atoms. Significant spectral changes during transformation to austenite can be explained by different optical properties caused by changes in density of states near the Fermi energy.

  12. Characterization of Microstructure and Thermal Properties of YSZ Coatings Obtained by Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying (ASPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganvir, Ashish; Curry, Nicholas; Björklund, Stefan; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Nylén, Per

    2015-10-01

    The paper aims at demonstrating various microstructures which can be obtained using the suspension spraying technique and their respective significance in enhancing the thermal insulation property of a thermal barrier coating. Three different types of coating microstructures are discussed which were produced by the Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying. Detailed characterization of coatings was then performed. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were utilized for microstructure evaluations; x-ray diffraction for phase analysis; water impregnation, image analysis, and mercury intrusion porosimetry for porosity analysis, and laser flash analysis for thermal diffusivity measurements were used. The results showed that Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying can generate vertically cracked, porous, and feathery columnar-type microstructures. Pore size distribution was found in micron, submicron, and nanometer range. Higher overall porosity, the lower density of vertical cracks or inter-column spacing, and higher inter-pass porosity favored thermal insulation property of the coating. Significant increase in thermal diffusivity and conductivity was found at higher temperature, which is believed to be due to the pore rearrangement (sintering and pore coarsening). Thermal conductivity values for these coatings were also compared with electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) thermal barrier coatings from the literature and found to be much lower.

  13. Mapping of thermal properties of comet 67P/C-G and temporal variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyrat, Cedric; Tosi, Federico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Érard, Stéphane; Rousseau, Batiste; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capria, Maria Teresa; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Kührt, Ekkehard; Schmitt, Bernard; Migliorini, Alessandra; Kappel, David; VIRTIS/Rosetta Team

    2016-10-01

    The long-term evolution of the surfaces of comets depends mainly on the erosion rate that is driven by the thermal properties of the regolith and the sub-surface material. Following the diurnal and the seasonal thermal cycles, dust and gas are released progressively, increasing the erosion process. The amount of dust released depends on the surface and subsurface temperatures and thus on thermal inertia and bulk composition.The ESA's Rosetta spacecraft has followed the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko over several months from 4 AU to 1.28 AU heliocentric distance, and the VIRTIS/Rosetta imaging infrared spectrometer was capable of detecting the thermal emission of the surface longward of 3 microns.The surface temperature was mapped over a large fraction of the nucleus and was previously used to derive thermal inertia of the main geomorphological units.In this presentation, we now focus on two different aspects: (1) We aim to present a complete detailed map of the thermal inertia by combining measurements of similar areas obtained at different viewing angles ; and (2) we track the evolution of the local thermal properties derived over months when the comet was moving towards perihelion. We then discuss and compare our results with the textural features observed at the surface.

  14. Effects of anisotropic thermal conduction on wind properties in hot accretion flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, De-Fu; Wu, Mao-Chun; Yuan, Ye-Fei

    2016-06-01

    Previous works have clearly shown the existence of winds from black hole hot accretion flow and investigated their detailed properties. In extremely low accretion rate systems, the collisional mean-free path of electrons is large compared with the length-scale of the system, thus thermal conduction is dynamically important. When the magnetic field is present, the thermal conduction is anisotropic and energy transport is along magnetic field lines. In this paper, we study the effects of anisotropic thermal conduction on the wind production in hot accretion flows by performing two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We find that thermal conduction has only moderate effects on the mass flux of wind. But the energy flux of wind can be increased by a factor of ˜10 due to the increase of wind velocity when thermal conduction is included. The increase of wind velocity is because of the increase of driving forces (e.g. gas pressure gradient force and centrifugal force) when thermal conduction is included. This result demonstrates that thermal conduction plays an important role in determining the properties of wind.

  15. Measurement of Thermal Properties of Triticale Starch Films Using Photothermal Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Solorzano-Ojeda, S. C.; Tramón-Pregnan, C. L.

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays, several commercially biodegradable materials have been developed with mechanical properties similar to those of conventional petrochemical-based polymers. These materials are made from renewable sources such as starch, cellulose, corn, and molasses, being very attractive for numerous applications in the plastics, food, and paper industries, among others. Starches from maize, rice, wheat, and potato are used in the food industry. However, other types of starches are not used due to their low protein content, such as triticale. In this study, starch films, processed using a single screw extruder with different compositions, were thermally and structurally characterized. The thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity, and thermal conductivity of the biodegradable films were determined using photothermal techniques. The thermal diffusivity was measured using the open photoacoustic cell technique, and the thermal effusivity was obtained by the photopyroelectric technique in an inverse configuration. The results showed differences in thermal properties for the films. Also, the films microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and the crystalline structure determined by X-ray diffraction.

  16. Thermal, chemical, and optical properties of Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, G.L.; Hoffman, R.L.; McIntire, D.C.; Buktenica, M.W.; Girdner, S.F.

    2007-01-01

    Crater Lake covers the floor of the Mount Mazama caldera that formed 7700 years ago. The lake has a surface area of 53 km2 and a maximum depth of 594 m. There is no outlet stream and surface inflow is limited to small streams and springs. Owing to its great volume and heat, the lake is not covered by snow and ice in winter unlike other lakes in the Cascade Range. The lake is isothermal in winter except for a slight increase in temperature in the deep lake from hyperadiabatic processes and inflow of hydrothermal fluids. During winter and spring the water column mixes to a depth of about 200-250 m from wind energy and convection. Circulation of the deep lake occurs periodically in winter and spring when cold, near-surface waters sink to the lake bottom; a process that results in the upwelling of nutrients, especially nitrate-N, into the upper strata of the lake. Thermal stratification occurs in late summer and fall. The maximum thickness of the epilimnion is about 20 m and the metalimnion extends to a depth of about 100 m. Thus, most of the lake volume is a cold hypolimnion. The year-round near-bottom temperature is about 3.5??C. Overall, hydrothermal fluids define and temporally maintain the basic water quality characteristics of the lake (e.g., pH, alkalinity and conductivity). Total phosphorus and orthophosphate-P concentrations are fairly uniform throughout the water column, where as total Kjeldahl-N and ammonia-N are highest in concentration in the upper lake. Concentrations of nitrate-N increase with depth below 200 m. No long-term changes in water quality have been detected. Secchi disk (20-cm) clarity varied seasonally and annually, but was typically highest in June and lowest in August. During the current study, August Secchi disk clarity readings averaged about 30 m. The maximum individual clarity reading was 41.5 m in June 1997. The lowest reading was 18.1 m in July 1995. From 1896 (white-dinner plate) to 2003, the average August Secchi disk reading was

  17. Thermal transitions and barrier properties of olefinic nanocomposites.

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D. J.; Leyva, A. A.; Chemical Engineering

    2005-01-11

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the thermal transitions of smectite organoclays and their dispersions in olefinic systems, which included paraffinic waxes and polyethylene. The organoclays, with treatment on both the basal and edge surfaces, produced nanocscale dispersions without the aid of external coupling agents or compatibilizers. In addition to DSC measurements, the nanocomposites were further characterized using X-ray diffraction and oxygen transmission. The DSC measurements indicated that a clay/wax nanocomposite phase was generated with melt/freeze transition temperatures that were different from those of the individual components, while X-ray data indicated that the nanocomposite phase was in equilibrium with an intercalate phase. Barrier improvement of over 300x was observed and ascribed to a tortuosity effect resulting from dispersed clay platelets having a high aspect ratio and strong cohesion between the wax and the organoclay surface. Available data indicate that the barrier enhancement decreases as the difference between the freezing points of the organoclay and the wax widens. The cause of poor barrier performance in polyolefin systems is traced to the large difference in recrystallization temperatures, such that when the polymer begins to crystallize the surface of the organoclay is still in a liquid state, which leads to phase separation.

  18. Synthesis and thermal properties of strontium and calcium peroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H.; Kraft, Patricia A.

    1989-01-01

    A practical synthesis and a discussion of some chemical properties of pure strontium peroxide and calcium peroxide are presented. The general synthesis of these peroxides involves precipitation of their octahydrates by addition of H2O2 to aqueous ammoniacal Sr(NO3)2 or CaCl2. The octahydrates are converted to the anhydrous peroxides by various dehydration techniques. A new x-ray diffraction powder pattern for CaO2 x 8H2O is given from which lattice parameters a=6.212830 and c=11.0090 were calculated on the basis of the tetragonal crystal system.

  19. Electrical and Thermal Properties of Polyvinyl Acetal Based Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; Tuncer, Enis; Polyzos, Georgios; Pace, Marshall O

    2009-10-01

    A water chemistry procedure is used to synthesize titanium dioxide nanoparticles which can later be blended with a polymer to form a nanodielectric. The synthesized nanoparticles are dispersed in two grades of polyvinyl acetal (commercially available under the trade names BX-L and KS-10, manufactured by SEKISUI Chemicals). Nanocomposite materials were prepared with 15 and 33 wt% titanium dioxide. The variation of the glass transition temperature with increasing filler weight fraction is presented. The dielectric breakdown strengths of the nanodielectric samples are reported. The presented results can be employed to optimize the dielectric properties of the studied nanocomposites for potential use in cryogenic high voltage applications.

  20. Thermal properties of size-selective nanoparticles: Effect of the particle size on Einstein temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Anderson, R. M.; Duan, Z.; Chill, S.; Crooks, R. M.; Henkelman, G.; Frenkel, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    Characterizing size related thermal properties of nanoclusters is challenging due to the requirement to accurately control both their average sizes and the size distributions. In this work, temperature-dependent Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy and the phenomenological bond-order-length-strength (BOLS) model were employed to investigate the size-dependent Einstein temperature of Au nanoclusters. Theoretical calculations of Einstein temperature and average bond distance for clusters with different sizes agree quantitatively with experiment. The BOLS model is thus useful for predictive understanding of structure and thermal properties in well-defined metal clusters.

  1. Structural and thermal properties of γ – irradiated Bombyx mori silk fibroin films

    SciTech Connect

    Madhukumar, R.; Asha, S.; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Shivananda, C. S.; Harish, K. V.; Sangappa; Sarojini, B. K.; Somashekar, R.

    2015-06-24

    The gamma radiation-induced change in structural and thermal properties of Bombyx mori silk fibroin films were investigated and have been correlated with the applied radiation doses. Irradiation of samples were carried out in dry air at room temperature using Co-60 source, and radiation doses are in the range of 0 - 300 kGy. Structural and thermal properties of the irradiated silk films were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and compared with unirradiated sample. Interesting results are discussed in this report.

  2. Thermal nociceptive properties of trigeminal afferent neurons in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although nociceptive afferents innervating the body have been heavily studied form many years, much less attention has been paid to trigeminal afferent biology. In particular, very little is known concerning trigeminal nociceptor responses to heat, and almost nothing in the rat. This study uses a highly controlled and reproducible diode laser stimulator to investigate the activation of trigeminal afferents to noxious skin heating. Results The results of this experiment demonstrate that trigeminal thermonociceptors are distinct from themonociceptors innervating the limbs. Trigeminal nociceptors have considerably slower action potential conduction velocities and lower temperature thresholds than somatic afferent neurons. On the other hand, nociceptors innervating both tissue areas separate into those that respond to short pulse, high rate skin heating and those that respond to long pulse, low rate skin heating. Conclusions This paper provides the first description in the literature of the in vivo properties of thermonociceptors in rats. These finding of two separate populations aligns with the separation between C and A-delta thermonociceptors innervating the paw, but have significant differences in terms of temperature threshold and average conduction velocities. An understanding of the temperature response properties of afferent neurons innervating the paw skin have been critical in many mechanistic discoveries, some leading to new pain therapies. A clear understanding of trigeminal nociceptors may be similarly useful in the investigation of trigeminal pain mechanisms and potential therapies. PMID:20609212

  3. Thermal Property Measurement of Semiconductor Melt using Modified Laser Flash Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Bochuan; Zhu, Shen; Ban, Heng; Li, Chao; Scripa, Rosalla N.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    2003-01-01

    This study further developed standard laser flash method to measure multiple thermal properties of semiconductor melts. The modified method can determine thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat capacity of the melt simultaneously. The transient heat transfer process in the melt and its quartz container was numerically studied in detail. A fitting procedure based on numerical simulation results and the least root-mean-square error fitting to the experimental data was used to extract the values of specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. This modified method is a step forward from the standard laser flash method, which is usually used to measure thermal diffusivity of solids. The result for tellurium (Te) at 873 K: specific heat capacity 300.2 Joules per kilogram K, thermal conductivity 3.50 Watts per meter K, thermal diffusivity 2.04 x 10(exp -6) square meters per second, are within the range reported in literature. The uncertainty analysis showed the quantitative effect of sample geometry, transient temperature measured, and the energy of the laser pulse.

  4. Impact of isotopic disorders on thermal transport properties of nanotubes and nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Tao; Kang, Wei; Wang, Jianxiang

    2015-01-21

    We present a one-dimensional lattice model to describe thermal transport in isotopically doped nanotubes and nanowires. The thermal conductivities thus predicted, as a function of isotopic concentration, agree well with recent experiments and other simulations. Our results display that for any given concentration of isotopic atoms in a lattice without sharp atomic interfaces, the maximum thermal conductivity is attained when isotopic atoms are placed regularly with an equal space, whereas the minimum is achieved when they are randomly inserted with a uniform distribution. Non-uniformity of disorder can further tune the thermal conductivity between the two values. Moreover, the dependence of the thermal conductivity on the nanoscale feature size becomes weak at low temperature when disorder exists. In addition, when self-consistent thermal reservoirs are included to describe diffusive nanomaterials, the thermal conductivities predicted by our model are in line with the results of macroscopic theories with an interfacial effect. Our results suggest that the disorder provides an additional freedom to tune the thermal properties of nanomaterials in many technological applications including nanoelectronics, solid-state lighting, energy conservation, and conversion.

  5. Report on thermal aging effects on tensile properties of ferritic-martensitic steels.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Soppet, W.K.; Rink, D.L.; Listwan, J.T.; Natesan, K.

    2012-05-10

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of thermal-aging induced degradation of tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic steels. The report is the first deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030103), under the Work Package A-11AN040301, 'Advanced Alloy Testing' performed by Argonne National Laboratory, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing tensile data on aged alloys and a mechanistic model, validated by experiments, with a predictive capability on long-term performance. The scope of work is to evaluate the effect of thermal aging on the tensile properties of advanced alloys such as ferritic-martensitic steels, mod.9Cr-1Mo, NF616, and advanced austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS. The aging experiments have been conducted over a temperature of 550-750 C for various time periods to simulate the microstructural changes in the alloys as a function of time at temperature. In addition, a mechanistic model based on thermodynamics and kinetics has been used to address the changes in microstructure of the alloys as a function of time and temperature, which is developed in the companion work package at ANL. The focus of this project is advanced alloy testing and understanding the effects of long-term thermal aging on the tensile properties. Advanced materials examined in this project include ferritic-martensitic steels mod.9Cr-1Mo and NF616, and austenitic steel, HT-UPS. The report summarizes the tensile testing results of thermally-aged mod.9Cr-1Mo, NF616 H1 and NF616 H2 ferritic-martensitic steels. NF616 H1 and NF616 H2 experienced different thermal-mechanical treatments before thermal aging experiments. NF616 H1 was normalized and tempered, and NF616 H2 was normalized and tempered and cold-rolled. By examining these two heats, we evaluated the effects of thermal-mechanical treatments on material microstructures and

  6. Chemical and optical properties of thermally evaporated manganese oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kuhaili, M. F.

    2006-09-15

    Manganese oxide thin films were deposited using thermal evaporation from a tungsten boat. Films were deposited under an oxygen atmosphere, and the effects of thickness, substrate temperature, and deposition rate on their properties were investigated. The chemical properties of the films were studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence. The optical properties were determined from normal-incidence transmittance and reflectance. Based on the chemical and optical characterizations, the optimum conditions for the deposition of the films were investigated. Subsequently, the optical properties (refractive index, extinction coefficient, and band gap) of these films were determined.

  7. Mechanical and thermal properties of carbon-nanotube-reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadek, Martin; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Barron, Valerie; Hedicke, Katrin; Blau, Werner J.

    2003-03-01

    In this research study carbon nanotubes were investigated as possible reinforcement agents to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of two different polymer matrix systems. The polymer matrices systems examined were polyvinyl alcohol and poly(9-vinyl cabazole). It was found by adding a range of mass fractions of carbon nanotubes that both Young's modulus and hardness as measured by nano-indentation increased dramatically for both matrices. Thermal properties were examined using differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetric analysis. An increase of 82% in Young's modulus and 63% in hardness was observed for polyvinyl alcohol while adding approximately 1% by weight of multi walled carbon nanotubes. In the case of poly(9-vinyl cabazole) an increase of 200% in Young's modulus and 100% in hardness was achieved, by adding only 8% by weight of nanotubes. As far as the authors are aware this is the highest increase of mechanical properties observed when using carbon nanotube as a reinforcing agent. In addition the thermal properties varied significatly on introduction of the nanotubes. An increase of crystallinity was found for the semi-crystalline matrix, while a second phase appeared for the amorphous polymer when increasing the amount of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Mechanical and thermal properties of the used polymer matrices could be significantly increased.

  8. Influence of Thermal and Radiation Effects on Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Nb-1Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Keith J; Busby, Jeremy T; Zinkle, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    Refractory metals and alloys offer attractive high-temperature properties, most of which are suitable for applications in nuclear environments including high temperature strength, good thermal conductivity, and compatibility with most liquid metal coolants. One of only two commercially produced Nb-alloys, Nb-1Zr has long been considered for various compact reactor designs. Nb-1Zr has also recently been considered for high-performance Gen IV gas reactor concepts. However, there are significant gaps in the irradiated materials database, especially at temperatures above 800 K. Recent work has shown that irradiated properties of Nb-1Zr are strongly controlled by phase-related transformations in the microstructure. Changes in the microstructure (obtained via scanning and transmission electron microscopy) and corresponding mechanical properties of Nb-1Zr were examined following fission reactor irradiation experiments at temperatures of 1073, 1223 and 1373 K to 1.9 dpa (displacements per atom) and compared with material thermally aged for similar exposure times of ~1100 h. Thermally driven changes in the development of precipitate phases showed a greater influence on mechanical properties compared to irradiation-induced defects for these irradiation conditions. The changes in material density, electrical resistivity and mechanical properties of the irradiated and thermally aged materials in association with microstructural developments are discussed.

  9. Electrical and thermal transport properties of layered Bi2YO4Cu2Se2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yu; Pei, Yanling; Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Xiao; Tan, Xing; Ye, Xinxin; Gong, Shengkai; Lin, Yuanhua; He, Jiaqing; Zhao, Li-Dong

    2016-07-01

    Bi2YO4Cu2Se2 possesses a low thermal conductivity and high electrical conductivity at room temperature, which was considered as a potential thermoelectric material. In this work, we have investigated the electrical and thermal transport properties of Bi2YO4Cu2Se2 system in the temperature range from 300 K to 873 K. We found that the total thermal conductivity decreases from ~1.8 W m-1 K-1 to ~0.9 W m-1 K-1, and the electrical conductivity decreases from ~850 S/cm to ~163 S/cm in the measured temperature range. To investigate how potential of Bi2YO4Cu2Se2 system, we prepared the heavily Iodine doped samples to counter-dope intrinsically high carrier concentration and improve the electrical transport properties. Interestingly, the Seebeck coefficient could be enhanced to ~+80 μV/K at 873 K, meanwhile, we found that a low thermal conductivity of ~0.7 W m-1 K-1 could be achieved. The intrinsically low thermal conductivity in this system is related to the low elastic properties, such as Young's modulus of 70-72 GPa, and Grüneisen parameters of 1.55-1.71. The low thermal conductivity makes Bi2YO4Cu2Se2 system to be a potential thermoelectric material, the ZT value ~0.06 at 873 K was obtained, a higher performance is expected by optimizing electrical transport properties through selecting suitable dopants, modifying band structures or by further reducing thermal conductivity through nanostructuring etc.

  10. Thermal property characterization of single crystal diamond with varying isotopic composition

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, L.

    1993-01-01

    The mirage-effect/thermal wave technique as a modern technique for thermal property characterization is described. The thermal diffusivity of a material is determined by measuring the time and space varying temperature distribution (thermal wave) in the material generated by an intensity modulated heating laser beam. These thermal waves are detected through the deflection of a probe laser beam due to modulation of gradient of the index of refraction (mirage effect) either in the air above the specimens (the in-air technique) or in the specimen itself (the in-solid technique). Three-dimensional theories, for both in-air and in-solid mirage techniques, are represented. In order to extract the material parameters by comparing the theory with experimental data, an extensive data analysis procedure based on multiparameter-least-squares has been developed. The experimental and data analysis details are discussed. Topics concerns with the quality and reliability of the measurements are addressed. This technique has been successfully applied to the thermal property characterization of single crystal diamond with varying isotope contents. The results showed a 50% enhancement in the thermal conductivity by removal of C[sup 13] content from 1.1% to 0.1% in diamond at room temperature. The technique has also been adapted to function in cryogenic temperatures. The temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in the temperature range 80-378K for natural IIA specimen and 187-375K for isotopically enriched specimen are obtained, the former results agree with previous works and the latter results demonstrate the isotope effect on the thermal conductivity of single crystal diamond consistently in a large temperature range. The physical source of this enhancement in diffusivity due to the isotope effect in diamond is discussed. The discussion is based on the full Callaway's theory with emphasizing the role of N-processes in the phonon scattering mechanism.

  11. Effects of substrate properties on the hydraulic and thermal behavior of a green roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, V. P.; Suarez, F. I.; Victorero, F.; Bonilla, C.; Gironas, J. A.; Vera, S.; Bustamante, W.; Rojas, V.; Pasten, P.

    2014-12-01

    Green roofs are a sustainable urban development solution that incorporates a growing media (also known as substrate) and vegetation into infrastructures to reach additional benefits such as the reduction of: rooftop runoff peak flows, roof surface temperatures, energy utilized for cooling/heating buildings, and the heat island effect. The substrate is a key component of the green roof that allows achieving these benefits. It is an artificial soil that has an improved behavior compared to natural soils, facilitating vegetation growth, water storage and typically with smaller densities to reduce the loads over the structures. Therefore, it is important to study the effects of substrate properties on green roof performance. The objective of this study is to investigate the physical properties of four substrates designed to improve the behavior of a green roof, and to study their impact on the efficiency of a green roof. The substrates that were investigated are: organic soil; crushed bricks; a mixture of mineral soil with perlite; and a mixture of crushed bricks and organic soil. The thermal properties (thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity and thermal diffusivity) were measured using a dual needle probe (Decagon Devices, Inc.) at different saturation levels, and the hydraulic properties were measured with a constant head permeameter (hydraulic conductivity) and a pressure plate extractor (water retention curve). This characterization, combined with numerical models, allows understanding the effect of these properties on the hydraulic and thermal behavior of a green roof. Results show that substrates composed by crushed bricks improve the thermal insulation of infrastructures and at the same time, retain more water in their pores. Simulation results also show that the hydraulic and thermal behavior of a green roof strongly depends on the moisture content prior to a rainstorm.

  12. Associated with aerospace vehicles development of methodologies for the estimation of thermal properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Elaine P.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal stress analyses are an important aspect in the development of aerospace vehicles at NASA-LaRC. These analyses require knowledge of the temperature distributions within the vehicle structures which consequently necessitates the need for accurate thermal property data. The overall goal of this ongoing research effort is to develop methodologies for the estimation of the thermal property data needed to describe the temperature responses of these complex structures. The research strategy undertaken utilizes a building block approach. The idea here is to first focus on the development of property estimation methodologies for relatively simple conditions, such as isotropic materials at constant temperatures, and then systematically modify the technique for the analysis of more and more complex systems, such as anisotropic multi-component systems. The estimation methodology utilized is a statistically based method which incorporates experimental data and a mathematical model of the system. Several aspects of this overall research effort were investigated during the time of the ASEE summer program. One important aspect involved the calibration of the estimation procedure for the estimation of the thermal properties through the thickness of a standard material. Transient experiments were conducted using a Pyrex standard at various temperatures, and then the thermal properties (thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity) were estimated at each temperature. Confidence regions for the estimated values were also determined. These results were then compared to documented values. Another set of experimental tests were conducted on carbon composite samples at different temperatures. Again, the thermal properties were estimated for each temperature, and the results were compared with values obtained using another technique. In both sets of experiments, a 10-15 percent off-set between the estimated values and the previously determined values was found. Another effort

  13. Buckwheat and Millet Affect Thermal, Rheological, and Gelling Properties of Wheat Flour.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kao; Gan, Renyou; Dai, Shuhong; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Corke, Harold; Zhu, Fan

    2016-03-01

    Buckwheat (BF) and millet (MF) are recommended as healthy foods due to their unique chemical composition and health benefits. This study investigated the thermal and rheological properties of BF-WF (wheat flour) and MF-WF flour blends at various ratios (0:100 to 100:0). Increasing BF or MF concentration led to higher cold paste viscosity and setback viscosity of pasting properties gel adhesiveness, storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of dynamic oscillatory rheology, and yield stress (σ0 ) of flow curve of WF. BF and MF addition decreased peak viscosity and breakdown of pasting, gel hardness, swelling volume, and consistency coefficient (K) of flow curve of WF. Thermal properties of the blends appeared additive of that of individual flour. Nonadditive effects were observed for some property changes in the mixtures, and indicated interactions between flour components. This may provide a physicochemical basis for using BF and MF in formulating novel healthy products.

  14. Mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabato, S. F.; Nakamurakare, N.; Sobral, P. J. A.

    2007-11-01

    Proteins are considered potential material in natural films as alternative to traditional packaging. When gamma radiation is applied to protein film forming solution it resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties of whey protein films. The objective of this work was the characterization of mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated films based on muscle proteins from Nile Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). The films were prepared according to a casting technique with two levels of plasticizer: 25% and 45% glycerol and irradiated in electron accelerator type Radiation Dynamics, 0.550 MeV at dose range from 0 to 200 kGy. Thermal properties and mechanical properties were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter and a texture analyzer, respectively. Radiation from electron beam caused a slightly increase on its tensile strength characteristic at 100 kGy, while elongation value at this dose had no reduction.

  15. Magnetic and thermal properties of high Tc superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Wonchoon.

    1990-09-21

    Measurements of the normal state magnetic susceptibility {chi}(T) of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, Bi{sub 1.8}Pb{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}, and Bi{sub 2{minus}x}Pb{sub x}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10+{delta}} (x = 0.2 and 0.25) were carried out. All {chi}(T) data show negative curvature below {approximately}2{Tc}. The data for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} are in excellent agreement with a new calculation of the superconducting fluctuation diamagnetism. From the analysis, we infer s-wave pairing and microscopic parameters are obtained. For {chi}(T) of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, part of the negative curvature is inferred to arise from the normal state background. We find a strong temperature dependent anisotropy {delta}{chi} {equivalent to} {chi}{sub c} {minus} {chi}{sub ab} and estimate the normal state spin contributions to {chi}(T). The heat capacity C(T) of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} is reported for 0.4 K < T < 400 K in zero and 70 kG magnetic fields. In addition to the feature associated with the onset of the superconductivity at {Tc}, two anomalies in C(T) were observed near 74 K and 330 K, with another possible anomaly near 102 K; the temperatures at which they occur correlate with anomalies in {chi}(T) and ultransonic measurements. The occurrence of the anomaly at {approx equal} 330 K is found to be sample-dependent. The influences of a magnetic field and the thermal and/or magnetic field treatment history dependence of a pellet sample on C(T), the entropy and the influence of superconducting fluctuations on C(T) near {Tc}, and the possible source of the observed intrinsic nonzero {gamma}(0) at low T are discussed.

  16. Electronic, Optical, and Thermal Properties of Reduced-Dimensional Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shouting

    Reduced-dimensional materials have attracted tremendous attention because of their new physics and exotic properties, which are of great interests for fundamental science. More importantly, the manipulation and engineering of matter on an atomic scale yield promising applications for many fields including nanoelectronics, nanobiotechnology, environments, and renewable energy. Because of the unusual quantum confinement and enhanced surface effect of reduced-dimensional materials, traditional empirical models suffer from necessary but unreliable parameters extracted from previously-studied bulk materials. In this sense, quantitative, parameter-free approaches are highly useful for understanding properties of reduced-dimensional materials and, furthermore, predicting their novel applications. The first-principles density functional theory (DFT) is proven to be a reliable and convenient tool. In particular, recent progress in many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) makes it possible to calculate excited-state properties, e.g., quasiparticle (QP) band gap and optical excitations, by the first-principles approach based on DFT. Therefore, during my PhD study, I employed first-principles calculations based on DFT and MBPT to systematically study fundamental properties of typical reduced-dimensional semiconductors, i.e., the electronic structure, phonons, and optical excitations of core-shell nanowires (NWs) and graphene-like two-dimensional (2D) structures of current interests. First, I present first-principles studies on how to engineer band alignments of nano-sized radial heterojunctions, Si/Ge core-shell NWs. Our calculation reveals that band offsets in these one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures can be tailored by applying axial strain or varying core-shell sizes. In particular, the valence band offset can be efficiently tuned across a wide range and even be diminished via applied strain. Two mechanisms contribute to this tuning of band offsets. Furthermore, varying the

  17. Thermal transport properties of halide solid solutions: Experiments vs equilibrium molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Gheribi, Aïmen E. Chartrand, Patrice; Salanne, Mathieu

    2015-03-28

    The composition dependence of thermal transport properties of the (Na,K)Cl rocksalt solid solution is investigated through equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations in the entire range of composition and the results are compared with experiments published in recent work [Gheribi et al., J. Chem. phys. 141, 104508 (2014)]. The thermal diffusivity of the (Na,K)Cl solid solution has been measured from 473 K to 823 K using the laser flash technique, and the thermal conductivity was deduced from critically assessed data of heat capacity and density. The thermal conductivity was also predicted at 900 K in the entire range of composition by a series of EMD simulations in both NPT and NVT statistical ensembles using the Green-Kubo theory. The aim of the present paper is to provide an objective analysis of the capability of EMD simulations in predicting the composition dependence of the thermal transport properties of halide solid solutions. According to the Klemens-Callaway [P. G. Klemens, Phys. Rev. 119, 507 (1960) and J. Callaway and H. C. von Bayer, Phys. Rev. 120, 1149 (1960)] theory, the thermal conductivity degradation of the solid solution is explained by mass and strain field fluctuations upon the phonon scattering cross section. A rigorous analysis of the consistency between the theoretical approach and the EMD simulations is discussed in detail.

  18. Thermal properties measurement of dry bulk materials with a cylindrical three layers device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannot, Y.; Degiovanni, A.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a new method dedicated to thermal properties (conductivity and diffusivity) measurement of dry bulk materials including powders. The cylindrical three layers experimental device (brass/bulk material/stainless steel) and the principle of the measurement method based on a crenel thermal excitation are presented. The one-dimensional modeling of the system is used for a sensitivity analysis and to calculate the standard deviation of the estimation error. Experimental measurements are carried out on three bulk materials: glass beads, cork granules, and expanded polystyrene beads. The estimated thermal properties are compared with the values obtained by other measurement methods. Results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions: both thermal conductivity and diffusivity can be estimated with a good accuracy for low density material like cork granules or expanded polystyrene beads since only thermal diffusivity can be estimated for heavier materials like glass beads. It is finally shown that this method like all transient methods is not suited to the thermal characterization of wet bulk materials.

  19. Thermal physical property-based fusion of geostationary meteorological satellite visible and infrared channel images.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Shi, Lu; Yang, Yiling; Song, Dalei

    2014-06-10

    Geostationary meteorological satellite infrared (IR) channel data contain important spectral information for meteorological research and applications, but their spatial resolution is relatively low. The objective of this study is to obtain higher-resolution IR images. One common method of increasing resolution fuses the IR data with high-resolution visible (VIS) channel data. However, most existing image fusion methods focus only on visual performance, and often fail to take into account the thermal physical properties of the IR images. As a result, spectral distortion occurs frequently. To tackle this problem, we propose a thermal physical properties-based correction method for fusing geostationary meteorological satellite IR and VIS images. In our two-step process, the high-resolution structural features of the VIS image are first extracted and incorporated into the IR image using regular multi-resolution fusion approach, such as the multiwavelet analysis. This step significantly increases the visual details in the IR image, but fake thermal information may be included. Next, the Stefan-Boltzmann Law is applied to correct the distortion, to retain or recover the thermal infrared nature of the fused image. The results of both the qualitative and quantitative evaluation demonstrate that the proposed physical correction method both improves the spatial resolution and preserves the infrared thermal properties.

  20. Thermal Insulation Properties Research of the Composite Material "Water Glass - Graphite Microparticles"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gostev, V. A.; Pitukhin, E. A.; Ustinov, A. S.; Shelestov, A. S.

    2016-04-01

    Research results for the composite material (CM) "water glass - graphite microparticles" with high thermal stability and thermal insulation properties are given. A composition is proposed consisting of graphite (42 % by weight), water glass Na2O(SiO2)n (50% by weight) and the hardener - sodium silicofluoride Na2SiF6 (8% by weight). Processing technology of such composition is suggested. Experimental samples of the CM with filler particles (graphite) of a few microns in size were obtained. This is confirmed by a study of samples using X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy. The qualitative and quantitative phase analysis of the CM structure was done. Values of limit load causing destruction of the CM were identified. The character of the rupture surface was detected. Numerical values of the specific heat and thermal conductivity were defined. Dependence of the specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity on temperature during monotonic heating was obtained experimentally. Studies have confirmed the increased thermal insulation properties of the proposed composition. The CM with such properties can be recommended as a coating designed to reduce heat losses and resistant to high temperatures. Due to accessibility and low cost of its components the proposed material can be produced on an industrial scale.