Sample records for magnetochemistry

  1. Reflection spectra and magnetochemistry of iron oxides and natural surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P.


    The magnetic properties and spectral characteristics of iron oxides are distinctive. Diagnostic features in reflectance spectra (0.5 to 2.4 micron) for alpha Fe2O3, gamma Fe2O3, and FeOOH include location of Fe3(+) absorption features, intensity ratios at various wavelengths, and the curve shape between 1.2 micron and 2.4 micron. The reflection spectrum of natural rock surfaces are seldom those of the bulk rock because of weathering effects. Coatings are found to be dominated by iron oxides and clay. A simple macroscopic model of rock spectra (based on concepts of stains and coatings) is considered adequate for interpretation of LANDSAT data. The magnetic properties of materials associated with specific spectral types and systematic changes in both spectra and magnetic properties are considered.

  2. Solid state and magnetochemistry of the SrO-Fe2O3 system IV. Synthesis of SrFe12O19 from coprecipitated precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xueyu; Evans, B. J.


    By means of 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and powder x-ray diffraction techniques, it has been determined that the formation of SrFe12O19 from coprecipitated ferric hydroxide and strontium laurate follows a reaction mechanism different from that when SrCO3 and Fe2O3 are used as starting materials. Upon heating at 300 C in vacuum, strontium laurate decomposes and further heating to 550 C leads to the formation of γ-Fe2O3 from the ferric hydroxide and solid solution of SrO in γ-Fe2O3. This solid solution phase behaves as an intermediate and undergoes further reaction with γ-Fe2O3 to give SrFe12O19. No paramagnetic Sr-Fe oxide intermediate is formed. The low temperature of the reactions and the absence of paramagnetic intermediates offer new possibilities for controlling the textures and magnetic properties SrFe12O19 ceramic bodies.

  3. Heterobridged dinuclear, tetranuclear, dinuclear-based 1-d, and heptanuclear-based 1-D complexes of copper(II) derived from a dinucleating ligand: syntheses, structures, magnetochemistry, spectroscopy, and catecholase activity.


    Majumder, Samit; Sarkar, Sohini; Sasmal, Sujit; Sañudo, E Carolina; Mohanta, Sasankasekhar


    The work in this paper presents syntheses, characterization, crystal structures, variable-temperature/field magnetic properties, catecholase activity, and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopic (ESI-MS positive) study of five copper(II) complexes of composition [Cu(II)(2)L(μ(1,1)-NO(3))(H(2)O)(NO(3))](NO(3)) (1), [{Cu(II)(2)L(μ-OH)(H(2)O)}(μ-ClO(4))](n)(ClO(4))(n) (2), [{Cu(II)(2)L(NCS)(2)}(μ(1,3)-NCS)](n) (3), [{Cu(II)(2)L(μ(1,1)-N(3))(ClO(4))}(2)(μ(1,3)-N(3))(2)] (4), and [{Cu(II)(2)L(μ-OH)}{Cu(II)(2)L(μ(1,1)-N(3))}{Cu(II)(μ(1,1)-N(3))(4)(dmf)}{Cu(II)(2)(μ(1,1)-N(3))(2)(N(3))(4)}](n)·ndmf (5), derived from a new compartmental ligand 2,6-bis[N-(2-pyridylethyl)formidoyl]-4-ethylphenol, which is the 1:2 condensation product of 4-ethyl-2,6-diformylphenol and 2-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine. The title compounds are either of the following nuclearities/topologies: dinuclear (1), dinuclear-based one-dimensional (2 and 3), tetranuclear (4), and heptanuclear-based one-dimensional (5). The bridging moieties in 1-5 are as follows: μ-phenoxo-μ(1,1)-nitrate (1), μ-phenoxo-μ-hydroxo and μ-perchlorate (2), μ-phenoxo and μ(1,3)-thiocyanate (3), μ-phenoxo-μ(1,1)-azide and μ(1,3)-azide (4), μ-phenoxo-μ-hydroxo, μ-phenoxo-μ(1,1)-azide, and μ(1,1)-azide (5). All the five compounds exhibit overall antiferromagnetic interaction. The J values in 1-4 have been determined (-135 cm(-1) for 1, -298 cm(-1) for 2, -105 cm(-1) for 3, -119.5 cm(-1) for 4). The pairwise interactions in 5 have been evaluated qualitatively to result in S(T) = 3/2 spin ground state, which has been verified by magnetization experiment. Utilizing 3,5-di-tert-butyl catechol (3,5-DTBCH(2)) as the substrate, catecholase activity of all the five complexes have been checked. While 1 and 3 are inactive, complexes 2, 4, and 5 show catecholase activity with turn over numbers 39 h(-1) (for 2), 40 h(-1) (for 4), and 48 h(-1) (for 5) in dmf and 167 h(-1) (for 2) and 215 h(-1) (for 4) in acetonitrile. Conductance of the dmf solution of the complexes has been measured, revealing that bridging moieties and nuclearity have been almost retained in solution. Electrospray ionization mass (ESI-MS positive) spectra of complexes 1, 2, and 4 have been recorded in acetonitrile solutions and the positive ions have been well characterized. ESI-MS positive spectrum of complex 2 in presence of 3,5-DTBCH(2) have also been recorded and, interestingly, a positive ion [Cu(II)(2)L(μ-3,5-DTBC(2-))(3,5-DTBCH(-))Na(I)](+) has been identified. PMID:21776948

  4. Combined analysis of chemical bonding in a Cu(II) dimer using QTAIM, Voronoi tessellation and Hirshfeld surface approaches.


    Vologzhanina, Anna V; Kats, Svitlana V; Penkova, Larisa V; Pavlenko, Vadim A; Efimov, Nikolay N; Minin, Vadim V; Eremenko, Igor L


    Interaction of 1-(1H-pyrazol-5-yl)ethanone oxime (H2PzOx) with copper(II) chloride in the presence of pyridine afforded a binuclear discrete [Cu2(HPzOx)2Cl2py2] complex, which was characterized by Fourier transform-IR and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, magnetochemistry and high-resolution X-ray diffraction experiments. Multipole refinement of X-ray diffraction data and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations of an isolated molecule allowed charge and spin distributions to be obtained for this compound. Magnetochemistry data, EPR spectra and DFT calculations of an isolated molecule show antiferromagnetic coupling between copper(II) ions. The spin distribution suggests an exchange pathway via the bridging pyrazole ring in the equatorial plane of the CuN4Cl coordination polyhedron, thus providing support for the classical superexchange mechanism; the calculated value of the magnetic coupling constant -2J is equal to 220 cm(-1), which compares well with the experimental value of 203 ± 2 cm(-1). Chemical connectivity was derived by Bader's 'quantum theory of atoms in molecules' and compared with Voronoi tessellation and Hirshfeld surface representations of crystal space. All methodologies gave a similar qualitative and semi-quantitative description of intra- and intermolecular connectivity. PMID:26428404

  5. Oxidative Addition of Carbon–Carbon Bonds with a Redox-Active Bis(imino)pyridine Iron Complex

    PubMed Central

    Darmon, Jonathan M.; Stieber, S. Chantal E.; Sylvester, Kevin T.; Fernández, Ignacio; Lobkovsky, Emil; Semproni, Scott P.; Bill, Eckhard; Wieghardt, Karl; DeBeer, Serena; Chirik, Paul J.


    Addition of biphenylene to the bis(imino)pyridine iron dinitrogen complexes, (iPrPDI)Fe(N2)2 and [(MePDI)Fe(N2)]2(μ2-N2) (RPDI = 2,6-(2,6-R2—C6H3— N=CMe)2C5H3N; R = Me, iPr), resulted in oxidative addition of a C—C bond at ambient temperature to yield the corresponding iron biphenyl compounds, (RPDI)Fe-(biphenyl). The molecular structures of the resulting bis-(imino)pyridine iron metallacycles were established by X-ray diffraction and revealed idealized square pyramidal geometries. The electronic structures of the compounds were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, magnetochemistry, and X-ray absorption and X-ray emission spectroscopies. The experimental data, in combination with broken-symmetry density functional theory calculations, established spin crossover (low to intermediate spin) ferric compounds antiferromagnetically coupled to bis(imino)pyridine radical anions. Thus, the overall oxidation reaction involves cooperative electron loss from both the iron center and the redox-active bis(imino)pyridine ligand. PMID:23043331

  6. Organometallic complexes of graphene: toward atomic spintronics using a graphene web.


    Avdoshenko, Stas M; Ioffe, Ilya N; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Dunsch, Lothar; Popov, Alexey A


    Graphene|metal|ligand systems open a new realm in surface magnetochemistry. We show that by trapping metal atoms in the two-dimensional potential lattice of a graphene-ligand interface it is possible to build a chemical analogue of an optical lattice, a key setup in quantum information and strongly correlated systems. Employing sophisticated first-principles calculations, we studied electronic and dynamic properties of graphene|metal|ligand assemblies and showed that there is a general principle--spin-charge separation in π-d systems--that underlies the possibility of synthesizing and controlling such systems. We find that ligands can work as a local gate to control the properties of trapped metal atoms and can impose bosonic or fermionic character on such atomic nets, depending on the ligand's nature. Remarkably, the magnetization energy in such systems reaches record-high values of ca. 400 meV, which makes the respective magnetic phenomena utilizable at room temperature. Accompanied by spin polarization of the graphene π-conjugated system it leads to spin-valve materials and brings the realization of quantum computing one step closer.

  7. New Wine in an old Bottle? A Model for Magnetism-Climate (tele)Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, S. K.; Penn, R.; Berquo, T. S.; Rustad, J.; Gilbert, B.; Guyodo, Y.; Lagroix, F.


    Inversion of modern topsoil or paleosol magnetism to environmental change parameters require that we understand correctly the physical, chemical and biogeochemical controls on soil formation per se, and loessic soil formation in particular. Accumulating field evidence from loess deposits worldwide point decisively to the formation of both magnetically enhanced and depleted soils compared to parent loess. Only in some cases magnetic enhancement in parent loess may be explained by detrital windblown magnetite. In general however, neoformed ultrafine (less than a few micrometers in size) 'iron oxide' ("sensu lato"), particles include strongly magnetic ferrimagnets and weakly magnetic antiferromagnets. A knowledge of the balance between the two may lead to a more correct and comprehensive understanding of multiple environmental parameters of the past, rather than simply the past rainfall, as has been done in the past. An approach based on the fundamental magnetochemistry of alteration is not only desirable but feasible. Thus, the formation and stability of ferrous ions on nanoparticles of ferric oxides and hydroxides may be the most fundamental step for neoformation of magnetite and maghemite. The ferrous ion may, however, be unstable in the Earth's surface environment and invert back to ferric, generating weakly magnetic hematite and goethite. In both cases, information about past environmental parameters (temperature, precipitation minus evaporation, soil acidity, microbial presence) may be embedded in soil magnetic (and other) parameters. To test the validity of the above heuristic model, we review recent experimental evidence (low temperature magnetism, Mössbauer spectra, surface chemical reactivity, and conventional and synchrotron X-ray diffraction and absorption, etc). We then advance model environments which would lead to the magnetic observables. In addition, we inspect computational models of a reactive 'iron oxide' surface to investigate their compatibility

  8. Corroborative models of the cobalt(II) inhibited Fe/Mn superoxide dismutases.


    Scarpellini, Marciela; Wu, Amy J; Kampf, Jeff W; Pecoraro, Vincent L


    Attempting to model superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes, we designed two new N3O-donor ligands to provide the same set of donor atoms observed in the active site of these enzymes: K(i)Pr2TCMA (potassium 1,4-diisopropyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N-acetate) and KBPZG (potassium N,N-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolylmethyl) glycinate). Five new Co(II) complexes (1-5) were obtained and characterized by X-ray crystallography, mass spectrometry, electrochemistry, magnetochemistry, UV-vis, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. The crystal structures of 1 and 3-5 revealed five-coordinate complexes, whereas complex 2 is six-coordinate. The EPR data of complexes 3 and 4 agree with those of the Co(II)-substituted SOD, which strongly support the proposition that the active site of the enzyme structurally resembles these models. The redox behavior of complexes 1-5 clearly demonstrates the stabilization of the Co(II) state in the ligand field provided by these ligands. The irreversibility displayed by all of the complexes is probably related to an electron-transfer process followed by a rearrangement of the geometry around the metal center for complexes 1 and 3-5 that probably changes from a trigonal bipyramidal (high spin, d7) to octahedral (low spin, d6) as Co(II) is oxidized to Co(III), which is also expected to be accompanied by a spin-state conversion. As the redox potentials to convert the Co(II) to Co(III) are high, it can be inferred that the redox potential of the Co(II)-substituted SOD may be outside the range required to convert the superoxide radical (O2*-) to hydrogen peroxide, and this is sufficient to explain the inactivity of the enzyme. Finally, the complexes reported here are the first corroborative structural models of the Co(II)-substituted SOD.

  9. Structural diversity in iron(II) complexes of 2,6-di(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine and 2,6-di(3-methylpyrazol-1-yl)pyridine.


    Elhaïk, Jérôme; Kilner, Colin A; Halcrow, Malcolm A


    The syntheses, magnetochemistry and crystallography of [Fe(L1)2]I0.5[I3]1.5 (1), [Fe(L1)2][Co(C2B9H11)2]2 (2) and [Fe(L2)2][SbF6]2 (3) (L1 = 2,6-di(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine; L2 = 2,6-di(3-methylpyrazol-1-yl)pyridine) are described. Compounds 1 and 3 are high-spin between 5-300 K. For 1, this reflects a novel variation of an angular Jahn-Teller distortion at the iron centre, which traps the molecule in its high-spin state. No such distortion is present in 3; rather, the high-spin nature of this compound may reflect ligand conformational strain caused by an intermolecular steric contact in the crystal lattice. Compound 2 exhibits a gradual high --> low spin transition upon cooling with T(1/2) = 318 +/- 3 K, that is only 50% complete. This reflects the presence of two distinct, equally populated iron environments in the solid. One of these unique iron centres adopts the same angular structural distortion shown by 1 and so is trapped in its high-spin state, while the other, which undergoes the spin-crossover, has a more regular coordination geometry. In contrast with 3, the solvated salts [Fe(L2)2][BF4]2 x 4 CH3CN and [Fe(L2)2][ClO4]2 x (CH3)2CO both undergo gradual thermal spin-transitions centred at 175 +/- 3 K. PMID:16437177

  10. Dicopper(II) metallacyclophanes as multifunctional magnetic devices: a joint experimental and computational study.


    Castellano, María; Ruiz-García, Rafael; Cano, Joan; Ferrando-Soria, Jesús; Pardo, Emilio; Fortea-Pérez, Francisco R; Stiriba, Salah-Eddine; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc


    Metallosupramolecular complexes constitute an important advance in the emerging fields of molecular spintronics and quantum computation and a useful platform in the development of active components of spintronic circuits and quantum computers for applications in information processing and storage. The external control of chemical reactivity (electro- and photochemical) and physical properties (electronic and magnetic) in metallosupramolecular complexes is a current challenge in supramolecular coordination chemistry, which lies at the interface of several other supramolecular disciplines, including electro-, photo-, and magnetochemistry. The specific control of current flow or spin delocalization through a molecular assembly in response to one or many input signals leads to the concept of developing a molecule-based spintronics that can be viewed as a potential alternative to the classical molecule-based electronics. A great variety of factors can influence over these electronically or magnetically coupled, metallosupramolecular complexes in a reversible manner, electronic or photonic external stimuli being the most promising ones. The response ability of the metal centers and/or the organic bridging ligands to the application of an electric field or light irradiation, together with the geometrical features that allow the precise positioning in space of substituent groups, make these metal-organic systems particularly suitable to build highly integrated molecular spintronic circuits. In this Account, we describe the chemistry and physics of dinuclear copper(II) metallacyclophanes with oxamato-containing dinucleating ligands featuring redox- and photoactive aromatic spacers. Our recent works on dicopper(II) metallacyclophanes and earlier ones on related organic cyclophanes are now compared in a critical manner. Special focus is placed on the ligand design as well as in the combination of experimental and computational methods to demonstrate the multifunctionality