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Sample records for magnetoencephalography meg system

  1. BabyMEG: A whole-head pediatric magnetoencephalography system for human brain development research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Yoshio; Hämäläinen, Matti; Pratt, Kevin; Mascarenas, Anthony; Miller, Paul; Han, Menglai; Robles, Jose; Cavallini, Anders; Power, Bill; Sieng, Kosal; Sun, Limin; Lew, Seok; Doshi, Chiran; Ahtam, Banu; Dinh, Christoph; Esch, Lorenz; Grant, Ellen; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Paulson, Douglas

    2016-09-01

    We developed a 375-channel, whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system ("BabyMEG") for studying the electrophysiological development of human brain during the first years of life. The helmet accommodates heads up to 95% of 36-month old boys in the USA. The unique two-layer sensor array consists of: (1) 270 magnetometers (10 mm diameter, ˜15 mm coil-to-coil spacing) in the inner layer, (2) thirty-five three-axis magnetometers (20 mm × 20 mm) in the outer layer 4 cm away from the inner layer. Additionally, there are three three-axis reference magnetometers. With the help of a remotely operated position adjustment mechanism, the sensor array can be positioned to provide a uniform short spacing (mean 8.5 mm) between the sensor array and room temperature surface of the dewar. The sensors are connected to superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) operating at 4.2 K with median sensitivity levels of 7.5 fT/√Hz for the inner and 4 fT/√Hz for the outer layer sensors. SQUID outputs are digitized by a 24-bit acquisition system. A closed-cycle helium recycler provides maintenance-free continuous operation, eliminating the need for helium, with no interruption needed during MEG measurements. BabyMEG with the recycler has been fully operational from March, 2015. Ongoing spontaneous brain activity can be monitored in real time without interference from external magnetic noise sources including the recycler, using a combination of a lightly shielded two-layer magnetically shielded room, an external active shielding, a signal-space projection method, and a synthetic gradiometer approach. Evoked responses in the cortex can be clearly detected without averaging. These new design features and capabilities represent several advances in MEG, increasing the utility of this technique in basic neuroscience as well as in clinical research and patient studies.

  2. BabyMEG: A whole-head pediatric magnetoencephalography system for human brain development research.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshio; Hämäläinen, Matti; Pratt, Kevin; Mascarenas, Anthony; Miller, Paul; Han, Menglai; Robles, Jose; Cavallini, Anders; Power, Bill; Sieng, Kosal; Sun, Limin; Lew, Seok; Doshi, Chiran; Ahtam, Banu; Dinh, Christoph; Esch, Lorenz; Grant, Ellen; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Paulson, Douglas

    2016-09-01

    We developed a 375-channel, whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system ("BabyMEG") for studying the electrophysiological development of human brain during the first years of life. The helmet accommodates heads up to 95% of 36-month old boys in the USA. The unique two-layer sensor array consists of: (1) 270 magnetometers (10 mm diameter, ∼15 mm coil-to-coil spacing) in the inner layer, (2) thirty-five three-axis magnetometers (20 mm × 20 mm) in the outer layer 4 cm away from the inner layer. Additionally, there are three three-axis reference magnetometers. With the help of a remotely operated position adjustment mechanism, the sensor array can be positioned to provide a uniform short spacing (mean 8.5 mm) between the sensor array and room temperature surface of the dewar. The sensors are connected to superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) operating at 4.2 K with median sensitivity levels of 7.5 fT/√Hz for the inner and 4 fT/√Hz for the outer layer sensors. SQUID outputs are digitized by a 24-bit acquisition system. A closed-cycle helium recycler provides maintenance-free continuous operation, eliminating the need for helium, with no interruption needed during MEG measurements. BabyMEG with the recycler has been fully operational from March, 2015. Ongoing spontaneous brain activity can be monitored in real time without interference from external magnetic noise sources including the recycler, using a combination of a lightly shielded two-layer magnetically shielded room, an external active shielding, a signal-space projection method, and a synthetic gradiometer approach. Evoked responses in the cortex can be clearly detected without averaging. These new design features and capabilities represent several advances in MEG, increasing the utility of this technique in basic neuroscience as well as in clinical research and patient studies.

  3. IFCN-endorsed practical guidelines for clinical magnetoencephalography (MEG).

    PubMed

    Hari, Riitta; Baillet, Sylvain; Barnes, Gareth; Burgess, Richard; Forss, Nina; Gross, Joachim; Hämäläinen, Matti; Jensen, Ole; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Mauguière, François; Nakasato, Nobukatzu; Puce, Aina; Romani, Gian-Luca; Schnitzler, Alfons; Taulu, Samu

    2018-04-17

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) records weak magnetic fields outside the human head and thereby provides millisecond-accurate information about neuronal currents supporting human brain function. MEG and electroencephalography (EEG) are closely related complementary methods and should be interpreted together whenever possible. This manuscript covers the basic physical and physiological principles of MEG and discusses the main aspects of state-of-the-art MEG data analysis. We provide guidelines for best practices of patient preparation, stimulus presentation, MEG data collection and analysis, as well as for MEG interpretation in routine clinical examinations. In 2017, about 200 whole-scalp MEG devices were in operation worldwide, many of them located in clinical environments. Yet, the established clinical indications for MEG examinations remain few, mainly restricted to the diagnostics of epilepsy and to preoperative functional evaluation of neurosurgical patients. We are confident that the extensive ongoing basic MEG research indicates potential for the evaluation of neurological and psychiatric syndromes, developmental disorders, and the integrity of cortical brain networks after stroke. Basic and clinical research is, thus, paving way for new clinical applications to be identified by an increasing number of practitioners of MEG. Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High-resolution EEG (HR-EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG).

    PubMed

    Gavaret, M; Maillard, L; Jung, J

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution EEG (HR-EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) allow the recording of spontaneous or evoked electromagnetic brain activity with excellent temporal resolution. Data must be recorded with high temporal resolution (sampling rate) and high spatial resolution (number of channels). Data analyses are based on several steps with selection of electromagnetic signals, elaboration of a head model and use of algorithms in order to solve the inverse problem. Due to considerable technical advances in spatial resolution, these tools now represent real methods of ElectroMagnetic Source Imaging. HR-EEG and MEG constitute non-invasive and complementary examinations, characterized by distinct sensitivities according to the location and orientation of intracerebral generators. In the presurgical assessment of drug-resistant partial epilepsies, HR-EEG and MEG can characterize and localize interictal activities and thus the irritative zone. HR-EEG and MEG often yield significant additional data that are complementary to other presurgical investigations and particularly relevant in MRI-negative cases. Currently, the determination of the epileptogenic zone and functional brain mapping remain rather less well-validated indications. In France, in 2014, HR-EEG is now part of standard clinical investigation of epilepsy, while MEG remains a research technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The Influence of Semantic Processing on Phonological Decisions in Children and Adults: A Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehner, Daniel T.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Mody, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the behavioral effects and neural activation patterns associated with implicit semantic processing influences on phonological judgments during reading in children and adults. Method: Whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were obtained from 2 groups, children (9-13 years) and adults, performing a homophone judgment…

  6. Semantic and Phonological Task-Set Priming and Stimulus Processing Investigated Using Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, F.; Rippon, G.; Hillebrand, A.; Singh, K. D.; Swithenby, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study the neural substrates of semantic and phonological task priming and task performance were investigated using single word task-primes. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were analysed using Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry (SAM) to determine the spatiotemporal and spectral characteristics of cortical responses. Comparisons were made…

  7. A 20-channel magnetoencephalography system based on optically pumped magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borna, Amir; Carter, Tony R.; Goldberg, Josh D.; Colombo, Anthony P.; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Berry, Christopher; McKay, Jim; Stephen, Julia; Weisend, Michael; Schwindt, Peter D. D.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) system that uses optically pumped magnetometers (OPMs) to sense the magnetic fields of the human brain. The system consists of an array of 20 OPM channels conforming to the human subject’s head, a person-sized magnetic shield containing the array and the human subject, a laser system to drive the OPM array, and various control and data acquisition systems. We conducted two MEG experiments: auditory evoked magnetic field and somatosensory evoked magnetic field, on three healthy male subjects, using both our OPM array and a 306-channel Elekta-Neuromag superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) MEG system. The described OPM array measures the tangential components of the magnetic field as opposed to the radial component measured by most SQUID-based MEG systems. Herein, we compare the results of the OPM- and SQUID-based MEG systems on the auditory and somatosensory data recorded in the same individuals on both systems.

  8. MEG-BIDS, the brain imaging data structure extended to magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Niso, Guiomar; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Bock, Elizabeth; Brooks, Teon L.; Flandin, Guillaume; Gramfort, Alexandre; Henson, Richard N.; Jas, Mainak; Litvak, Vladimir; T. Moreau, Jeremy; Oostenveld, Robert; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Tadel, Francois; Wexler, Joseph; Baillet, Sylvain

    2018-01-01

    We present a significant extension of the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS) to support the specific aspects of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. MEG measures brain activity with millisecond temporal resolution and unique source imaging capabilities. So far, BIDS was a solution to organise magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The nature and acquisition parameters of MRI and MEG data are strongly dissimilar. Although there is no standard data format for MEG, we propose MEG-BIDS as a principled solution to store, organise, process and share the multidimensional data volumes produced by the modality. The standard also includes well-defined metadata, to facilitate future data harmonisation and sharing efforts. This responds to unmet needs from the multimodal neuroimaging community and paves the way to further integration of other techniques in electrophysiology. MEG-BIDS builds on MRI-BIDS, extending BIDS to a multimodal data structure. We feature several data-analytics software that have adopted MEG-BIDS, and a diverse sample of open MEG-BIDS data resources available to everyone. PMID:29917016

  9. MEG-BIDS, the brain imaging data structure extended to magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Niso, Guiomar; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Bock, Elizabeth; Brooks, Teon L; Flandin, Guillaume; Gramfort, Alexandre; Henson, Richard N; Jas, Mainak; Litvak, Vladimir; T Moreau, Jeremy; Oostenveld, Robert; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Tadel, Francois; Wexler, Joseph; Baillet, Sylvain

    2018-06-19

    We present a significant extension of the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS) to support the specific aspects of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. MEG measures brain activity with millisecond temporal resolution and unique source imaging capabilities. So far, BIDS was a solution to organise magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The nature and acquisition parameters of MRI and MEG data are strongly dissimilar. Although there is no standard data format for MEG, we propose MEG-BIDS as a principled solution to store, organise, process and share the multidimensional data volumes produced by the modality. The standard also includes well-defined metadata, to facilitate future data harmonisation and sharing efforts. This responds to unmet needs from the multimodal neuroimaging community and paves the way to further integration of other techniques in electrophysiology. MEG-BIDS builds on MRI-BIDS, extending BIDS to a multimodal data structure. We feature several data-analytics software that have adopted MEG-BIDS, and a diverse sample of open MEG-BIDS data resources available to everyone.

  10. Note: Unshielded bilateral magnetoencephalography system using two-dimensional gradiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Yusuke; Kandori, Akihiko; Ogata, Kuniomi; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Kumagai, Yukio; Ohnuma, Mitsuru; Konaka, Kuni; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2010-09-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) noninvasively measures neuronal activity with high temporal resolution. The aim of this study was to develop a new type of MEG system that can measure bilateral MEG waveforms without a magnetically shielded room, which is an obstacle to reducing both the cost and size of an MEG system. An unshielded bilateral MEG system was developed using four two-dimensional (2D) gradiometers and two symmetric cryostats. The 2D gradiometer, which is based on a low-Tc superconducting quantum interference device and wire-wound pickup coil detects a magnetic-field gradient in two orthogonal directions, or ∂/∂x(∂2Bz/∂z2), and reduces environmental magnetic-field noise by more than 50 dB. The cryostats can be symmetrically positioned in three directions: vertical, horizontal, and rotational. This makes it possible to detect bilateral neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex simultaneously. Bilateral auditory-evoked fields (AEF) of 18 elderly subjects were measured in an unshielded hospital environment using the MEG system. As a result, both the ipsilateral and the contralateral AEF component N100m, which is the magnetic counterpart of electric N100 in electroencephalography and appears about 100 ms after the onset of an auditory stimulus, were successfully detected for all the subjects. Moreover, the ipsilateral P50m and the contralateral P50m were also detected for 12 (67%) and 16 (89%) subjects, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the unshielded bilateral MEG system can detect MEG waveforms, which are associated with brain dysfunction such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and Down syndrome.

  11. A 20-channel magnetoencephalography system based on optically pumped magnetometers

    SciTech Connect

    Borna, Amir; Carter, Tony R.; Goldberg, Josh D.

    In this paper, we describe a multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) system that uses optically pumped magnetometers (OPMs) to sense the magnetic fields of the human brain. The system consists of an array of 20 OPM channels conforming to the human subject's head, a person-sized magnetic shield containing the array and the human subject, a laser system to drive the OPM array, and various control and data acquisition systems. We conducted two MEG experiments: auditory evoked magnetic field and somatosensory evoked magnetic field, on three healthy male subjects, using both our OPM array and a 306-channel Elekta-Neuromag superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID)more » MEG system. The described OPM array measures the tangential components of the magnetic field as opposed to the radial component measured by most SQUID-based MEG systems. Finally, herein, we compare the results of the OPM- and SQUID-based MEG systems on the auditory and somatosensory data recorded in the same individuals on both systems.« less

  12. A 20-channel magnetoencephalography system based on optically pumped magnetometers

    DOE PAGES

    Borna, Amir; Carter, Tony R.; Goldberg, Josh D.; ...

    2017-10-16

    In this paper, we describe a multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) system that uses optically pumped magnetometers (OPMs) to sense the magnetic fields of the human brain. The system consists of an array of 20 OPM channels conforming to the human subject's head, a person-sized magnetic shield containing the array and the human subject, a laser system to drive the OPM array, and various control and data acquisition systems. We conducted two MEG experiments: auditory evoked magnetic field and somatosensory evoked magnetic field, on three healthy male subjects, using both our OPM array and a 306-channel Elekta-Neuromag superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID)more » MEG system. The described OPM array measures the tangential components of the magnetic field as opposed to the radial component measured by most SQUID-based MEG systems. Finally, herein, we compare the results of the OPM- and SQUID-based MEG systems on the auditory and somatosensory data recorded in the same individuals on both systems.« less

  13. Variability and bias between magnetoencephalography systems in non-invasive localization of the primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Bardouille, Timothy; Power, Lindsey; Lalancette, Marc; Bishop, Ronald; Beyea, Steven; Taylor, Margot J; Dunkley, Benjamin T

    2018-05-26

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides functional neuroimaging data for pre-surgical planning in patients with epilepsy or brain tumour. For mapping the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), MEG data are acquired while a patient undergoes median nerve stimulation (MNS) to localize components of the somatosensory evoked field (SEF). In clinical settings, only one MEG imaging session is usually possible due to limited resources. As such, it is important to have an a priori estimate of the expected variability in localization. Variability in S1 localization between mapping sessions using the same MEG system has been previously measured as 8 mm. There are different types of MEG systems available with varied hardware and software, and it is not known how using a different MEG system will impact on S1 localization. In our study, healthy participants underwent the MNS procedure with two different MEG systems (Vector View and CTF). We compared the location, amplitude and latency of SEF components between data from each system to quantify variability and bias between MEG systems. We found 8-11 mm variability in S1 localization between the two MEG systems, and no evidence for a systematic bias in location, amplitude or latency between the two systems. These findings suggest that S1 localization is not biased by the type of MEG system used, and that differences between the two systems are not a major contributor to variability in localization. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Note: optical receiver system for 152-channel magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Mok; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong

    2014-11-01

    An optical receiver system composing 13 serial data restore/synchronizer modules and a single module combiner converted optical 32-bit serial data into 32-bit synchronous parallel data for a computer to acquire 152-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. A serial data restore/synchronizer module identified 32-bit channel-voltage bits from 48-bit streaming serial data, and then consecutively reproduced 13 times of 32-bit serial data, acting in a synchronous clock. After selecting a single among 13 reproduced data in each module, a module combiner converted it into 32-bit parallel data, which were carried to 32-port digital input board in a computer. When the receiver system together with optical transmitters were applied to 152-channel superconducting quantum interference device sensors, this MEG system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz at a sample rate of 1 kSample/s per channel.

  15. Development of multichannel MEG system at IGCAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariyappa, N.; Parasakthi, C.; Gireesan, K.; Sengottuvel, S.; Patel, Rajesh; Janawadkar, M. P.; Radhakrishnan, T. S.; Sundar, C. S.

    2013-02-01

    We describe some of the challenging aspects in the indigenous development of the whole head multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) system at IGCAR, Kalpakkam. These are: i) fabrication and testing of a helmet shaped sensor array holder of a polymeric material experimentally tested to be compatible with liquid helium temperatures, ii) the design and fabrication of the PCB adapter modules, keeping in mind the inter-track cross talk considerations between the electrical leads used to provide connections from SQUID at liquid helium temperature (4.2K) to the electronics at room temperature (300K) and iii) use of high resistance manganin wires for the 86 channels (86×8 leads) essential to reduce the total heat leak which, however, inevitably causes an attenuation of the SQUID output signal due to voltage drop in the leads. We have presently populated 22 of the 86 channels, which include 6 reference channels to reject the common mode noise. The whole head MEG system to cover all the lobes of the brain will be progressively assembled when other three PCB adapter modules, presently under fabrication, become available. The MEG system will be used for a variety of basic and clinical studies including localization of epileptic foci during pre-surgical mapping in collaboration with neurologists.

  16. Fetal auditory evoked responses to onset of amplitude modulated sounds. A fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG) study.

    PubMed

    Draganova, R; Schollbach, A; Schleger, F; Braendle, J; Brucker, S; Abele, H; Kagan, K O; Wallwiener, D; Fritsche, A; Eswaran, H; Preissl, H

    2018-06-01

    The human fetal auditory system is functional around the 25th week of gestational age when the thalamocortical connections are established. Fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG) provides evidence for fetal auditory brain responses to pure tones and syllables. Fifty-five pregnant women between 31 and 40 weeks of gestation were included in the study. Fetal MEG was recorded during the presentation of an amplitude modulated tone (AM) with a carrier frequency of 500 Hz to the maternal abdomen modulated by low modulation rates (MRs) - 2/s and 4/s, middle MR - 8/s and high MRs - 27/s, 42/s, 78/s and 91/s. The aim was to determine whether the fetal brain responds differently to envelope slopes and intensity change at the onset of the AM sounds. A significant decrease of the response latencies of transient event-related responses (ERR) to high and middle MRs in comparison to the low MRs was observed. The highest fetal response rate was achieved by modulation rates of 2/s, 4/s and 27/s (70%, 57%, and 86%, respectively). Additionally, a maturation effect of the ERR (response latency vs. gestational age) was observed only for 4/s MR. The significant difference between the response latencies to low, middle, and high MRs suggests that still before birth the fetal brain processes the sound slopes at the onset in different integration time-windows, depending on the time for the intensity increase or stimulus power density at the onset, which is a prerequisite for language acquisition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Feasibility of clinical magnetoencephalography (MEG) functional mapping in the presence of dental artefacts.

    PubMed

    Hillebrand, A; Fazio, P; de Munck, J C; van Dijk, B W

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the viability of MEG source reconstruction in the presence of large interference due to orthodontic material. We recorded the magnetic fields following a simple hand movement and following electrical stimulation of the median nerve (somatosensory evoked field -SEF). These two tasks were performed twice, once with and once without artificial dental artefacts. Temporal Signal Space Separation (tSSS) was applied to spatially filter the data and source reconstruction was performed according to standard procedures for pre-surgical mapping of eloquent cortex, applying dipole fitting to the SEF data and beamforming to the hand movement data. Comparing the data with braces to the data without braces, the observed distances between the activations following hand movement in the two conditions were on average 6.4 and 4.5 mm for the left and right hand, respectively, whereas the dipole localisation errors for the SEF were 4.1 and 5.4 mm, respectively. Without tSSS it was generally not possible to obtain reliable dipole fit or beamforming results when wearing braces. We confirm that tSSS is a required and effective pre-processing step for data recorded with the Elekta-MEG system. Moreover, we have shown that even the presence of large interference from orthodontic material does not significantly alter the results from dipole localisation or beamformer analysis, provided the data are spatially filtered by tSSS. State-of-the-art signal processing techniques enable the use of MEG for pre-surgical evaluation in a much larger clinical population than previously thought possible. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of phonological contrast on auditory word discrimination in children with and without reading disability: A magnetoencephalography (MEG) study

    PubMed Central

    Wehner, Daniel T.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Mody, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Poor readers perform worse than their normal reading peers on a variety of speech perception tasks, which may be linked to their phonological processing abilities. The purpose of the study was to compare the brain activation patterns of normal and impaired readers on speech perception to better understand the phonological basis in reading disability. Whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded as good and poor readers, 7-13 years of age, performed an auditory word discrimination task. We used an auditory oddball paradigm in which the ‘deviant’ stimuli (/bat/, /kat/, /rat/) differed in the degree of phonological contrast (1 vs. 3 features) from a repeated standard word (/pat/). Both good and poor readers responded more slowly to deviants that were phonologically similar compared to deviants that were phonologically dissimilar to the standard word. Source analysis of the MEG data using Minimum Norm Estimation (MNE) showed that compared to good readers, poor readers had reduced left-hemisphere activation to the most demanding phonological condition reflecting their difficulties with phonological processing. Furthermore, unlike good readers, poor readers did not show differences in activation as a function of the degree of phonological contrast. These results are consistent with a phonological account of reading disability. PMID:17675109

  19. A new methodology for automated diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using magnetoencephalography (MEG).

    PubMed

    Amezquita-Sanchez, Juan P; Adeli, Anahita; Adeli, Hojjat

    2016-05-15

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a cognitive disorder characterized by memory impairment, greater than expected by age. A new methodology is presented to identify MCI patients during a working memory task using MEG signals. The methodology consists of four steps: In step 1, the complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD) is used to decompose the MEG signal into a set of adaptive sub-bands according to its contained frequency information. In step 2, a nonlinear dynamics measure based on permutation entropy (PE) analysis is employed to analyze the sub-bands and detect features to be used for MCI detection. In step 3, an analysis of variation (ANOVA) is used for feature selection. In step 4, the enhanced probabilistic neural network (EPNN) classifier is applied to the selected features to distinguish between MCI and healthy patients. The usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed methodology are validated using the sensed MEG data obtained experimentally from 18 MCI and 19 control patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance of the Helium Circulation System on a Commercialized MEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T, Takeda; M, Okamoto; T, Miyazaki; K, Katagiri

    2012-12-01

    We report the performance of a helium circulation system (HCS) mounted on a MEG (Magnetoencephalography) at Nagoya University, Japan. This instrument is the first commercialized version of an HCS. The HCS collects warm helium gas at approximately 300 K and then cools it to approximately 40 K. The gas is returned to the neck tube of a Dewar of the MEG to keep it cold. It also collects helium gas in the region just above the liquid helium surface while it is still cold, re-liquefies the gas and returns it to the Dewar. A special transfer tube (TT) of approximately 3 m length was developed to allow for dual helium streams. This tube separates the HCS using a MEG to reduce magnetic noise. A refiner was incorporated to effectively collect contaminating gases by freezing them. The refiner was equipped with an electric heater to remove the frozen contaminants as gases into the air. A gas flow controller was also developed, which automatically controlled the heater and electric valves to clean up contamination. The developed TT exhibited a very low heat inflow of less than 0.1 W/m to the liquid helium, ensuring efficient operation. The insert tube diameter, which was 1.5 in. was reduced to a standard 0.5 in. size. This dimensional change enabled the HCS to mount onto any commercialized MEG without any modifications to the MEG. The HCS can increase liquid helium in the Dewar by at least 3 liters/Day using two GM cryocoolers (SRDK-415D, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd.). The noise levels were virtually the same as before this installation.

  1. An intra-neural microstimulation system for ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Glover, Paul M; Watkins, Roger H; O'Neill, George C; Ackerley, Rochelle; Sanchez-Panchuelo, Rosa; McGlone, Francis; Brookes, Matthew J; Wessberg, Johan; Francis, Susan T

    2017-10-01

    Intra-neural microstimulation (INMS) is a technique that allows the precise delivery of low-current electrical pulses into human peripheral nerves. Single unit INMS can be used to stimulate individual afferent nerve fibres during microneurography. Combining this with neuroimaging allows the unique monitoring of central nervous system activation in response to unitary, controlled tactile input, with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) providing exquisite spatial localisation of brain activity and magnetoencephalography (MEG) high temporal resolution. INMS systems suitable for use within electrophysiology laboratories have been available for many years. We describe an INMS system specifically designed to provide compatibility with both ultra-high field (7T) fMRI and MEG. Numerous technical and safety issues are addressed. The system is fully analogue, allowing for arbitrary frequency and amplitude INMS stimulation. Unitary recordings obtained within both the MRI and MEG screened-room environments are comparable with those obtained in 'clean' electrophysiology recording environments. Single unit INMS (current <7μA, 200μs pulses) of individual mechanoreceptive afferents produces appropriate and robust responses during fMRI and MEG. This custom-built MRI- and MEG-compatible stimulator overcomes issues with existing INMS approaches; it allows well-controlled switching between recording and stimulus mode, prevents electrical shocks because of long cable lengths, permits unlimited patterns of stimulation, and provides a system with improved work-flow and participant comfort. We demonstrate that the requirements for an INMS-integrated system, which can be used with both fMRI and MEG imaging systems, have been fully met. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Temporal Processing of Audiovisual Stimuli Is Enhanced in Musicians: Evidence from Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the structural and functional differences between professional musicians and non-musicians are not only found within a single modality, but also with regard to multisensory integration. In this study we have combined psychophysical with neurophysiological measurements investigating the processing of non-musical, synchronous or various levels of asynchronous audiovisual events. We hypothesize that long-term multisensory experience alters temporal audiovisual processing already at a non-musical stage. Behaviorally, musicians scored significantly better than non-musicians in judging whether the auditory and visual stimuli were synchronous or asynchronous. At the neural level, the statistical analysis for the audiovisual asynchronous response revealed three clusters of activations including the ACC and the SFG and two bilaterally located activations in IFG and STG in both groups. Musicians, in comparison to the non-musicians, responded to synchronous audiovisual events with enhanced neuronal activity in a broad left posterior temporal region that covers the STG, the insula and the Postcentral Gyrus. Musicians also showed significantly greater activation in the left Cerebellum, when confronted with an audiovisual asynchrony. Taken together, our MEG results form a strong indication that long-term musical training alters the basic audiovisual temporal processing already in an early stage (direct after the auditory N1 wave), while the psychophysical results indicate that musical training may also provide behavioral benefits in the accuracy of the estimates regarding the timing of audiovisual events. PMID:24595014

  3. Temporal processing of audiovisual stimuli is enhanced in musicians: evidence from magnetoencephalography (MEG).

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the structural and functional differences between professional musicians and non-musicians are not only found within a single modality, but also with regard to multisensory integration. In this study we have combined psychophysical with neurophysiological measurements investigating the processing of non-musical, synchronous or various levels of asynchronous audiovisual events. We hypothesize that long-term multisensory experience alters temporal audiovisual processing already at a non-musical stage. Behaviorally, musicians scored significantly better than non-musicians in judging whether the auditory and visual stimuli were synchronous or asynchronous. At the neural level, the statistical analysis for the audiovisual asynchronous response revealed three clusters of activations including the ACC and the SFG and two bilaterally located activations in IFG and STG in both groups. Musicians, in comparison to the non-musicians, responded to synchronous audiovisual events with enhanced neuronal activity in a broad left posterior temporal region that covers the STG, the insula and the Postcentral Gyrus. Musicians also showed significantly greater activation in the left Cerebellum, when confronted with an audiovisual asynchrony. Taken together, our MEG results form a strong indication that long-term musical training alters the basic audiovisual temporal processing already in an early stage (direct after the auditory N1 wave), while the psychophysical results indicate that musical training may also provide behavioral benefits in the accuracy of the estimates regarding the timing of audiovisual events.

  4. Neural synchrony examined with magnetoencephalography (MEG) during eye gaze processing in autism spectrum disorders: preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gaze processing deficits are a seminal, early, and enduring behavioral deficit in autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, a comprehensive characterization of the neural processes mediating abnormal gaze processing in ASD has yet to be conducted. Methods This study investigated whole-brain patterns of neural synchrony during passive viewing of direct and averted eye gaze in ASD adolescents and young adults (M Age  = 16.6) compared to neurotypicals (NT) (M Age  = 17.5) while undergoing magnetoencephalography. Coherence between each pair of 54 brain regions within each of three frequency bands (low frequency (0 to 15 Hz), beta (15 to 30 Hz), and low gamma (30 to 45 Hz)) was calculated. Results Significantly higher coherence and synchronization in posterior brain regions (temporo-parietal-occipital) across all frequencies was evident in ASD, particularly within the low 0 to 15 Hz frequency range. Higher coherence in fronto-temporo-parietal regions was noted in NT. A significantly higher number of low frequency cross-hemispheric synchronous connections and a near absence of right intra-hemispheric coherence in the beta frequency band were noted in ASD. Significantly higher low frequency coherent activity in bilateral temporo-parieto-occipital cortical regions and higher gamma band coherence in right temporo-parieto-occipital brain regions during averted gaze was related to more severe symptomology as reported on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Conclusions The preliminary results suggest a pattern of aberrant connectivity that includes higher low frequency synchronization in posterior cortical regions, lack of long-range right hemispheric beta and gamma coherence, and decreased coherence in fronto-temporo-parietal regions necessary for orienting to shifts in eye gaze in ASD; a critical behavior essential for social communication. PMID:24976870

  5. Atypical brain lateralisation in the auditory cortex and language performance in 3- to 7-year-old children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: a child-customised magnetoencephalography (MEG) study.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Ueno, Sanae; Munesue, Toshio; Ono, Yasuki; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Haruta, Yasuhiro; Oi, Manabu; Niida, Yo; Remijn, Gerard B; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Michio; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2013-10-08

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is used to measure the auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF), which reflects language-related performance. In young children, however, the simultaneous quantification of the bilateral auditory-evoked response during binaural hearing is difficult using conventional adult-sized MEG systems. Recently, a child-customised MEG device has facilitated the acquisition of bi-hemispheric recordings, even in young children. Using the child-customised MEG device, we previously reported that language-related performance was reflected in the strength of the early component (P50m) of the auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF) in typically developing (TD) young children (2 to 5 years old) [Eur J Neurosci 2012, 35:644-650]. The aim of this study was to investigate how this neurophysiological index in each hemisphere is correlated with language performance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and TD children. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure the auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF), which reflects language-related performance. We investigated the P50m that is evoked by voice stimuli (/ne/) bilaterally in 33 young children (3 to 7 years old) with ASD and in 30 young children who were typically developing (TD). The children were matched according to their age (in months) and gender. Most of the children with ASD were high-functioning subjects. The results showed that the children with ASD exhibited significantly less leftward lateralisation in their P50m intensity compared with the TD children. Furthermore, the results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that a shorter P50m latency in both hemispheres was specifically correlated with higher language-related performance in the TD children, whereas this latency was not correlated with non-verbal cognitive performance or chronological age. The children with ASD did not show any correlation between P50m latency and language-related performance; instead, increasing chronological age was a

  6. Added diagnostic value of magnetoencephalography (MEG) in patients suspected for epilepsy, where previous, extensive EEG workup was unrevealing.

    PubMed

    Duez, Lene; Beniczky, Sándor; Tankisi, Hatice; Hansen, Peter Orm; Sidenius, Per; Sabers, Anne; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2016-10-01

    To elucidate the possible additional diagnostic yield of MEG in the workup of patients with suspected epilepsy, where repeated EEGs, including sleep-recordings failed to identify abnormalities. Fifty-two consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of epilepsy and at least three normal EEGs, including sleep-EEG, were prospectively analyzed. The reference standard was inferred from the diagnosis obtained from the medical charts, after at least one-year follow-up. MEG (306-channel, whole-head) and simultaneous EEG (MEG-EEG) was recorded for one hour. The added sensitivity of MEG was calculated from the cases where abnormalities were seen in MEG but not EEG. Twenty-two patients had the diagnosis epilepsy according to the reference standard. MEG-EEG detected abnormalities, and supported the diagnosis in nine of the 22 patients with the diagnosis epilepsy at one-year follow-up. Sensitivity of MEG-EEG was 41%. The added sensitivity of MEG was 18%. MEG-EEG was normal in 28 of the 30 patients categorized as 'not epilepsy' at one year follow-up, yielding a specificity of 93%. MEG provides additional diagnostic information in patients suspected for epilepsy, where repeated EEG recordings fail to demonstrate abnormality. MEG should be included in the diagnostic workup of patients where the conventional, widely available methods are unrevealing. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-noise magnetoencephalography system cooled by a continuously operating reliquefier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Kwon, H.; Yu, K. K.; Kim, J. M.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, M.-Y.; Kim, K.

    2017-08-01

    We fabricated a low-noise magnetoencephalography (MEG) system based on a continuously operating reliquefier for cooling of low-temperature superconducting quantum interference device gradiometers. In order to reduce the vibration transmission, the gradiometers are mounted in the vacuum space of the helmet dewar with direct thermal contact with the liquid helium helmet. The reliquefier uses a 1.4 W pulse tube cryocooler with a remote motor, and a horizontal transfer tube with a downslope angle of 1°. The white noise of the system is 3.5 fTrms/√Hz (at 100 Hz). The vibration-induced peak at 1.4 Hz is 18 fTrms/√Hz averaged over the whole helmet array of 150 channels, which is the lowest among the reported values using reliquefier cooling and comparable to the noise peak cooled by conventional direct liquid helium cooling with axial gradiometers of the same baseline. The spontaneous brain activity signal showed nearly identical signal quality with the reliquefier turned on and off, and the reliquefier-based MEG system noise is well below the brain noise level.

  8. Advanced electronics for the CTF MEG system.

    PubMed

    McCubbin, J; Vrba, J; Spear, P; McKenzie, D; Willis, R; Loewen, R; Robinson, S E; Fife, A A

    2004-11-30

    Development of the CTF MEG system has been advanced with the introduction of a computer processing cluster between the data acquisition electronics and the host computer. The advent of fast processors, memory, and network interfaces has made this innovation feasible for large data streams at high sampling rates. We have implemented tasks including anti-alias filter, sample rate decimation, higher gradient balancing, crosstalk correction, and optional filters with a cluster consisting of 4 dual Intel Xeon processors operating on up to 275 channel MEG systems at 12 kHz sample rate. The architecture is expandable with additional processors to implement advanced processing tasks which may include e.g., continuous head localization/motion correction, optional display filters, coherence calculations, or real time synthetic channels (via beamformer). We also describe an electronics configuration upgrade to provide operator console access to the peripheral interface features such as analog signal and trigger I/O. This allows remote location of the acoustically noisy electronics cabinet and fitting of the cabinet with doors for improved EMI shielding. Finally, we present the latest performance results available for the CTF 275 channel MEG system including an unshielded SEF (median nerve electrical stimulation) measurement enhanced by application of an adaptive beamformer technique (SAM) which allows recognition of the nominal 20-ms response in the unaveraged signal.

  9. Simultaneous transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG): assessing the impact of tDCS on slow cortical magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Cossio, Eliana; Witkowski, Matthias; Robinson, Stephen E; Cohen, Leonardo G; Birbaumer, Niels; Soekadar, Surjo R

    2016-10-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can influence cognitive, affective or motor brain functions. Whereas previous imaging studies demonstrated widespread tDCS effects on brain metabolism, direct impact of tDCS on electric or magnetic source activity in task-related brain areas could not be confirmed due to the difficulty to record such activity simultaneously during tDCS. The aim of this proof-of-principal study was to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-head source localization and reconstruction of neuromagnetic brain activity during tDCS and to confirm the direct effect of tDCS on ongoing neuromagnetic activity in task-related brain areas. Here we show for the first time that tDCS has an immediate impact on slow cortical magnetic fields (SCF, 0-4Hz) of task-related areas that are identical with brain regions previously described in metabolic neuroimaging studies. 14 healthy volunteers performed a choice reaction time (RT) task while whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded. Task-related source-activity of SCFs was calculated using synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) in absence of stimulation and while anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS was delivered over the right primary motor cortex (M1). Source reconstruction revealed task-related SCF modulations in brain regions that precisely matched prior metabolic neuroimaging studies. Anodal and cathodal tDCS had a polarity-dependent impact on RT and SCF in primary sensorimotor and medial centro-parietal cortices. Combining tDCS and whole-head MEG is a powerful approach to investigate the direct effects of transcranial electric currents on ongoing neuromagnetic source activity, brain function and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG): assessing the impact of tDCS on slow cortical magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Cossio, Eliana; Witkowski, Matthias; Robinson, Stephen E.; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Birbaumer, Niels; Soekadar, Surjo R.

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can influence cognitive, affective or motor brain functions. Whereas previous imaging studies demonstrated widespread tDCS effects on brain metabolism, direct impact of tDCS on electric or magnetic source activity in task-related brain areas could not be confirmed due to the difficulty to record such activity simultaneously during tDCS. The aim of this proof-of-principal study was to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-head source localization and reconstruction of neuromagnetic brain activity during tDCS and to confirm the direct effect of tDCS on ongoing neuromagnetic activity in task-related brain areas. Here we show for the first time that tDCS has an immediate impact on slow cortical magnetic fields (SCF, 0–4 Hz) of task-related areas that are identical with brain regions previously described in metabolic neuroimaging studies. 14 healthy volunteers performed a choice reaction time (RT) task while whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded. Task-related source-activity of SCFs was calculated using synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) in absence of stimulation and while anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS was delivered over the right primary motor cortex (M1). Source reconstruction revealed task-related SCF modulations in brain regions that precisely matched prior metabolic neuroimaging studies. Anodal and cathodal tDCS had a polarity-dependent impact on RT and SCF in primary sensorimotor and medial centro-parietal cortices. Combining tDCS and whole-head MEG is a powerful approach to investigate the direct effects of transcranial electric currents on ongoing neuromagnetic source activity, brain function and behavior. PMID:26455796

  11. BabySQUID: A mobile, high-resolution multichannel magnetoencephalography system for neonatal brain assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Yoshio; Pratt, Kevin; Atwood, Christopher; Mascarenas, Anthony; Reineman, Richard; Nurminen, Jussi; Paulson, Douglas

    2006-02-01

    We developed a prototype of a mobile, high-resolution, multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) system, called babySQUID, for assessing brain functions in newborns and infants. Unlike electroencephalography, MEG signals are not distorted by the scalp or the fontanels and sutures in the skull. Thus, brain activity can be measured and localized with MEG as if the sensors were above an exposed brain. The babySQUID is housed in a moveable cart small enough to be transported from one room to another. To assess brain functions, one places the baby on the bed of the cart and the head on its headrest with MEG sensors just below. The sensor array consists of 76 first-order axial gradiometers, each with a pickup coil diameter of 6mm and a baseline of 30mm, in a high-density array with a spacing of 12-14mm center-to-center. The pickup coils are 6±1mm below the outer surface of the headrest. The short gap provides unprecedented sensitivity since the scalp and skull are thin (as little as 3-4mm altogether) in babies. In an electromagnetically unshielded room in a hospital, the field sensitivity at 1kHz was ˜17fT/√Hz. The noise was reduced from ˜400to200fT/√Hz at 1Hz using a reference cancellation technique and further to ˜40fT/√Hz using a gradient common mode rejection technique. Although the residual environmental magnetic noise interfered with the operation of the babySQUID, the instrument functioned sufficiently well to detect spontaneous brain signals from babies with a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of as much as 7.6:1. In a magnetically shielded room, the field sensitivity was 17fT/√Hz at 20Hz and 30fT/√Hz at 1Hz without implementation of reference or gradient cancellation. The sensitivity was sufficiently high to detect spontaneous brain activity from a 7month old baby with a SNR as much as 40:1 and evoked somatosensory responses with a 50Hz bandwidth after as little as four averages. We expect that both the noise and the sensor gap can be reduced further by

  12. MEG (Magnetoencephalography) multipolar modeling of distributed sources using RAP-MUSIC (Recursively Applied and Projected Multiple Signal Characterization)

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J. C.; Baillet, S.; Jerbi, K.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the use of truncated multipolar expansions for producing dynamic images of cortical neural activation from measurements of the magnetoencephalogram. We use a signal-subspace method to find the locations of a set of multipolar sources, each of which represents a region of activity in the cerebral cortex. Our method builds up an estimate of the sources in a recursive manner, i.e. we first search for point current dipoles, then magnetic dipoles, and finally first order multipoles. The dynamic behavior of these sources is then computed using a linear fit to the spatiotemporal data. The final step in the proceduremore » is to map each of the multipolar sources into an equivalent distributed source on the cortical surface. The method is illustrated through an application to epileptic interictal MEG data.« less

  13. Self-awareness and the subconscious effect of personal pronouns on word encoding: a magnetoencephalography (MEG) study.

    PubMed

    Walla, Peter; Greiner, Katharina; Duregger, Cornelia; Deecke, Lüder; Thurner, Stefan

    2007-03-02

    The effect of personal pronouns such as "ein" (German for "a"), "mein" (German for "my") and "sein" (German for "his") on the processing of associated nouns was investigated using MEG. Three different encoding strategies were provided in order to vary the level of consciousness involved in verbal information processing. A shallow (alphabetic), a deep (semantic) and a very deep (contextual) encoding instruction related to visual word presentation were given to all study participants. After the encoding of pronoun-noun pairs, recognition performances of nouns only were tested. The number of correctly recognized nouns previously associated with "sein" was significantly lower than the number of correctly recognized nouns previously associated with "ein" in the shallow encoding condition. The same trend was found for "mein" associated nouns which were also less accurately recognized compared to "ein" associated nouns. Magnetic field distributions recorded during the encoding phases revealed two significant effects, one between about 200 and 400ms after stimulus onset and the other between about 500 and 800ms. The earlier effect was found over occipito-parietal sensors, whereas the later effect occurred over left frontal sensors. Within both time ranges, brain activation varied significantly as a function of associated pronoun independent of depth of word processing. In the respective areas of both time ranges, conditions including personal pronouns ("mein" and "sein") showed higher magnetic field components compared to the control condition of no personal pronouns ("ein"). Evidence is shown that early stage processing is able to distinguish between no personal and personal information, whereas later stage processing is able to distinguish between information related to oneself and to another person (self and non-self). Along with other previous reports our MEG findings support the notion that particular human brain functions involved in processing neurophysiological

  14. Spectral power and functional connectivity changes during mindfulness meditation with eyes open: A magnetoencephalography (MEG) study in long-term meditators.

    PubMed

    Wong, W P; Camfield, D A; Woods, W; Sarris, J; Pipingas, A

    2015-10-01

    Whilst a number of previous studies have been conducted in order to investigate functional brain changes associated with eyes-closed meditation techniques, there is a relative scarcity in the literature with regards to changes occurring during eyes-open meditation. The current project used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate differences in spectral power and functional connectivity between 11 long-term mindfulness meditators (LTMMs) with >5 years of experience and 12 meditation-naïve control participants both during baseline eyes-open rest and eyes-open open-monitoring (OM) mindfulness meditation. During resting with eyes-open, prior to meditating, greater mean alpha power was observed for LTMMs in comparison to controls. However, during the course of OM meditation, a significantly greater increase in theta power was observed over a broad fronto-centro-parietal region for control participants in comparison to LTMMs. In contrast, whole-head mean connectivity was found to be significantly greater for long-term meditators in comparison to controls in the theta band both during rest as well as during meditation. Additionally, mean connectivity was significantly lower for long-term meditators in the low gamma band during rest and significantly lower in both low and high gamma bands during meditation; and the variance of low-gamma connectivity scores for long-term meditators was significantly decreased compared to the control group. The current study provides important new information as to the trait functional changes in brain activity associated with long-term mindfulness meditation, as well as the state changes specifically associated with eyes-open open monitoring meditation techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Second Language Research Using Magnetoencephalography: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Gwen L.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2009-01-01

    In this review we show how magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a constructive tool for language research and review MEG findings in second language (L2) research. MEG is the magnetic analog of electroencephalography (EEG), and its primary advantage over other cross-sectional (e.g. magnetic resonance imaging, or positron emission tomography) functional…

  16. Artemis 123: development of a whole-head infant and young child MEG system

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Timothy P. L.; Paulson, Douglas N.; Hirschkoff, Eugene; Pratt, Kevin; Mascarenas, Anthony; Miller, Paul; Han, Mengali; Caffrey, Jason; Kincade, Chuck; Power, Bill; Murray, Rebecca; Chow, Vivian; Fisk, Charlie; Ku, Matthew; Chudnovskaya, Darina; Dell, John; Golembski, Rachel; Lam, Peter; Blaskey, Lisa; Kuschner, Emily; Bloy, Luke; Gaetz, William; Edgar, J. Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background: A major motivation in designing the new infant and child magnetoencephalography (MEG) system described in this manuscript is the premise that electrophysiological signatures (resting activity and evoked responses) may serve as biomarkers of neurodevelopmental disorders, with neuronal abnormalities in conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) potentially detectable early in development. Whole-head MEG systems are generally optimized/sized for adults. Since magnetic field produced by neuronal currents decreases as a function of distance2 and infants and young children have smaller head sizes (and thus increased brain-to-sensor distance), whole-head adult MEG systems do not provide optimal signal-to-noise in younger individuals. This spurred development of a whole-head infant and young child MEG system – Artemis 123. Methods:In addition to describing the design of the Artemis 123, the focus of this manuscript is the use of Artemis 123 to obtain auditory evoked neuromagnetic recordings and resting-state data in young children. Data were collected from a 14-month-old female, an 18-month-old female, and a 48-month-old male. Phantom data are also provided to show localization accuracy. Results:Examination of Artemis 123 auditory data showed generalizability and reproducibility, with auditory responses observed in all participants. The auditory MEG measures were also found to be manipulable, exhibiting sensitivity to tone frequency. Furthermore, there appeared to be a predictable sensitivity of evoked components to development, with latencies decreasing with age. Examination of resting-state data showed characteristic oscillatory activity. Finally, phantom data showed that dipole sources could be localized with an error less than 0.5 cm. Conclusions:Artemis 123 allows efficient recording of high-quality whole-head MEG in infants four years and younger. Future work will involve examining the feasibility of obtaining somatosensory and visual recordings

  17. Benchmarking for On-Scalp MEG Sensors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Minshu; Schneiderman, Justin F; Chukharkin, Maxim L; Kalabukhov, Alexei; Riaz, Bushra; Lundqvist, Daniel; Whitmarsh, Stephen; Hamalainen, Matti; Jousmaki, Veikko; Oostenveld, Robert; Winkler, Dag

    2017-06-01

    We present a benchmarking protocol for quantitatively comparing emerging on-scalp magnetoencephalography (MEG) sensor technologies to their counterparts in state-of-the-art MEG systems. As a means of validation, we compare a high-critical-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (high T c SQUID) with the low- T c SQUIDs of an Elekta Neuromag TRIUX system in MEG recordings of auditory and somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) on one human subject. We measure the expected signal gain for the auditory-evoked fields (deeper sources) and notice some unfamiliar features in the on-scalp sensor-based recordings of SEFs (shallower sources). The experimental results serve as a proof of principle for the benchmarking protocol. This approach is straightforward, general to various on-scalp MEG sensors, and convenient to use on human subjects. The unexpected features in the SEFs suggest on-scalp MEG sensors may reveal information about neuromagnetic sources that is otherwise difficult to extract from state-of-the-art MEG recordings. As the first systematically established on-scalp MEG benchmarking protocol, magnetic sensor developers can employ this method to prove the utility of their technology in MEG recordings. Further exploration of the SEFs with on-scalp MEG sensors may reveal unique information about their sources.

  18. Integration of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetoencephalography Functional Maps Into a CyberKnife Planning System: Feasibility Study for Motor Activity Localization and Dose Planning.

    PubMed

    De Martin, Elena; Duran, Dunja; Ghielmetti, Francesco; Visani, Elisa; Aquino, Domenico; Marchetti, Marcello; Sebastiano, Davide Rossi; Cusumano, Davide; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Panzica, Ferruccio; Fariselli, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provide noninvasive localization of eloquent brain areas for presurgical planning. The aim of this study is the integration of MEG and fMRI maps into a CyberKnife (CK) system to optimize dose planning. Four patients with brain metastases in the motor area underwent functional imaging study of the hand motor cortex before radiosurgery. MEG data were acquired during a visually cued hand motor task. Motor activations were identified also using an fMRI block-designed paradigm. MEG and fMRI maps were then integrated into a CK system and contoured as organs at risk for treatment planning optimization. The integration of fMRI data into the CK system was achieved for all patients by means of a standardized protocol. We also implemented an ad hoc pipeline to convert the MEG signal into a DICOM standard, to make sure that it was readable by our CK treatment planning system. Inclusion of the activation areas into the optimization plan allowed the creation of treatment plans that reduced the irradiation of the motor cortex yet not affecting the brain peripheral dose. The availability of advanced neuroimaging techniques is playing an increasingly important role in radiosurgical planning strategy. We successfully imported MEG and fMRI activations into a CK system. This additional information can improve dose sparing of eloquent areas, allowing a more comprehensive investigation of the related dose-volume constraints that in theory could translate into a gain in tumor local control, and a reduction of neurological complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fast Room Temperature Very Low Field-Magnetic Resonance Imaging System Compatible with MagnetoEncephaloGraphy Environment

    PubMed Central

    Galante, Angelo; Sinibaldi, Raffaele; Conti, Allegra; De Luca, Cinzia; Catallo, Nadia; Sebastiani, Piero; Pizzella, Vittorio; Romani, Gian Luca; Sotgiu, Antonello; Della Penna, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, ultra-low field (ULF)-MRI is being given more and more attention, due to the possibility of integrating ULF-MRI and Magnetoencephalography (MEG) in the same device. Despite the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) reduction, there are several advantages to operating at ULF, including increased tissue contrast, reduced cost and weight of the scanners, the potential to image patients that are not compatible with clinical scanners, and the opportunity to integrate different imaging modalities. The majority of ULF-MRI systems are based, until now, on magnetic field pulsed techniques for increasing SNR, using SQUID based detectors with Larmor frequencies in the kHz range. Although promising results were recently obtained with such systems, it is an open question whether similar SNR and reduced acquisition time can be achieved with simpler devices. In this work a room-temperature, MEG-compatible very-low field (VLF)-MRI device working in the range of several hundred kHz without sample pre-polarization is presented. This preserves many advantages of ULF-MRI, but for equivalent imaging conditions and SNR we achieve reduced imaging time based on preliminary results using phantoms and ex-vivo rabbits heads. PMID:26630172

  20. Multichannel System Based on a High Sensitivity Superconductive Sensor for Magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Rombetto, Sara; Granata, Carmine; Vettoliere, Antonio; Russo, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We developed a multichannel system based on superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) for magnetoencephalography measurements. Our system consists of 163 fully-integrated SQUID magnetometers, 154 channels and 9 references, and all of the operations are performed inside a magnetically-shielded room. The system exhibits a magnetic field noise spectral density of approximatively 5 fT/Hz1/2. The presented magnetoencephalography is the first system working in a clinical environment in Italy. PMID:25006995

  1. Imaging DC MEG Fields Associated with Epileptic Onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, B. J.; Bowyer, S. M.; Moran, J. E.; Jenrow, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a non-invasive brain imaging modality, with high spatial and temporal resolution, used to evaluate and quantify the magnetic fields associated with neuronal activity. Complex partial epileptic seizures are characterized by hypersynchronous neuronal activity believed to arise from a zone of epileptogenesis. This study investigated the characteristics of direct current (DC) MEG shifts arising at epileptic onset. MEG data were acquired with rats using a six-channel first order gradiometer system. Limbic status epilepticus was induced by IA (femoral) administration of kainic acid. DC-MEG shifts were observed at the onset of epileptic spike train activity and status epilepticus. Epilepsy is also being studied in patients undergoing presurgical mapping from the Comprehensive Epilepsy Center at Henry Ford Hospital using a whole head Neuromagnetometer. Preliminary data analysis shows that DC-MEG waveforms, qualitatively similar to those seen in the animal model, are evident prior to seizure activity in human subjects.

  2. Non-invasive Investigation of Human Hippocampal Rhythms Using Magnetoencephalography: A Review.

    PubMed

    Pu, Yi; Cheyne, Douglas O; Cornwell, Brian R; Johnson, Blake W

    2018-01-01

    Hippocampal rhythms are believed to support crucial cognitive processes including memory, navigation, and language. Due to the location of the hippocampus deep in the brain, studying hippocampal rhythms using non-invasive magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings has generally been assumed to be methodologically challenging. However, with the advent of whole-head MEG systems in the 1990s and development of advanced source localization techniques, simulation and empirical studies have provided evidence that human hippocampal signals can be sensed by MEG and reliably reconstructed by source localization algorithms. This paper systematically reviews simulation studies and empirical evidence of the current capacities and limitations of MEG "deep source imaging" of the human hippocampus. Overall, these studies confirm that MEG provides a unique avenue to investigate human hippocampal rhythms in cognition, and can bridge the gap between animal studies and human hippocampal research, as well as elucidate the functional role and the behavioral correlates of human hippocampal oscillations.

  3. Non-invasive Investigation of Human Hippocampal Rhythms Using Magnetoencephalography: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Yi; Cheyne, Douglas O.; Cornwell, Brian R.; Johnson, Blake W.

    2018-01-01

    Hippocampal rhythms are believed to support crucial cognitive processes including memory, navigation, and language. Due to the location of the hippocampus deep in the brain, studying hippocampal rhythms using non-invasive magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings has generally been assumed to be methodologically challenging. However, with the advent of whole-head MEG systems in the 1990s and development of advanced source localization techniques, simulation and empirical studies have provided evidence that human hippocampal signals can be sensed by MEG and reliably reconstructed by source localization algorithms. This paper systematically reviews simulation studies and empirical evidence of the current capacities and limitations of MEG “deep source imaging” of the human hippocampus. Overall, these studies confirm that MEG provides a unique avenue to investigate human hippocampal rhythms in cognition, and can bridge the gap between animal studies and human hippocampal research, as well as elucidate the functional role and the behavioral correlates of human hippocampal oscillations. PMID:29755314

  4. Magnetoencephalography in Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Paggiaro, Andrea; Birbaumer, Niels; Cavinato, Marianna; Turco, Cristina; Formaggio, Emanuela; Del Felice, Alessandra; Masiero, Stefano; Piccione, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a non-invasive neurophysiological technique used to study the cerebral cortex. Currently, MEG is mainly used clinically to localize epileptic foci and eloquent brain areas in order to avoid damage during neurosurgery. MEG might, however, also be of help in monitoring stroke recovery and rehabilitation. This review focuses on experimental use of MEG in neurorehabilitation. MEG has been employed to detect early modifications in neuroplasticity and connectivity, but there is insufficient evidence as to whether these methods are sensitive enough to be used as a clinical diagnostic test. MEG has also been exploited to derive the relationship between brain activity and movement kinematics for a motor-based brain–computer interface. In the current body of experimental research, MEG appears to be a powerful tool in neurorehabilitation, but it is necessary to produce new data to confirm its clinical utility. PMID:27065338

  5. Performance of an efficient Helium Circulation System on a MEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, T.; Okamoto, M.; Atsuda, K.; Katagiri, K.

    2009-02-01

    We report a Helium Circulation System (HCS) that re-liquefies all the evaporating helium gas, consumes far less power and has extremely lower magnetic noise compared with conventional systems. It collects warm helium gas about 300 K, cools it to about 40K and returns it to the neck tube of the Dewar to keep it cold. It also collects helium gas just above the liquid helium surface while it is still cold, re-liquefies and returns it to the Dewar. A special transfer tube (TT) about 2 m length with 7 multi-concentric pipes was developed to allow the dual helium streams. It separates the HCS with a MEG to reduce magnetic noise. A refiner to collect the contaminating gases such as oxygen and nitrogen effectively by freezing the gases is developed. It has an electric heater to remove the frozen contamination in the form of gases into the air. A gas flow controller is also developed, which automatically control the heater to cleanup the contamination. The developed TT has very low heat inflow less than 0.1W/m to the liquid helium ensuring the efficient operation. The HCS can re-liquefy up to 35.5 1/D of liquid helium from the evaporated helium gas using two 1.5W@4.2K GM cryocoolers (SRDK-415D, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd.). It has been confirmed that the HCS could be used with the real MEG system without any noise problem for over one year. The maintenance cost (electricity charges and cryocoolers maintenance fee) of the MEG has reduced to be less than 1/10 of the previous cost.

  6. Auditory Habituation in the Fetus and Neonate: An fMEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muenssinger, Jana; Matuz, Tamara; Schleger, Franziska; Kiefer-Schmidt, Isabelle; Goelz, Rangmar; Wacker-Gussmann, Annette; Birbaumer, Niels; Preissl, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    Habituation--the most basic form of learning--is used to evaluate central nervous system (CNS) maturation and to detect abnormalities in fetal brain development. In the current study, habituation, stimulus specificity and dishabituation of auditory evoked responses were measured in fetuses and newborns using fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG). An…

  7. Requirements for Coregistration Accuracy in On-Scalp MEG.

    PubMed

    Zetter, Rasmus; Iivanainen, Joonas; Stenroos, Matti; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2018-06-22

    Recent advances in magnetic sensing has made on-scalp magnetoencephalography (MEG) possible. In particular, optically-pumped magnetometers (OPMs) have reached sensitivity levels that enable their use in MEG. In contrast to the SQUID sensors used in current MEG systems, OPMs do not require cryogenic cooling and can thus be placed within millimetres from the head, enabling the construction of sensor arrays that conform to the shape of an individual's head. To properly estimate the location of neural sources within the brain, one must accurately know the position and orientation of sensors in relation to the head. With the adaptable on-scalp MEG sensor arrays, this coregistration becomes more challenging than in current SQUID-based MEG systems that use rigid sensor arrays. Here, we used simulations to quantify how accurately one needs to know the position and orientation of sensors in an on-scalp MEG system. The effects that different types of localisation errors have on forward modelling and source estimates obtained by minimum-norm estimation, dipole fitting, and beamforming are detailed. We found that sensor position errors generally have a larger effect than orientation errors and that these errors affect the localisation accuracy of superficial sources the most. To obtain similar or higher accuracy than with current SQUID-based MEG systems, RMS sensor position and orientation errors should be [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively.

  8. Magnetoencephalography recording and analysis.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Jayabal; Sinha, Sanjib; Satishchandra, Parthasarathy

    2014-03-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) non-invasively measures the magnetic field generated due to the excitatory postsynaptic electrical activity of the apical dendritic pyramidal cells. Such a tiny magnetic field is measured with the help of the biomagnetometer sensors coupled with the Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) inside the magnetically shielded room (MSR). The subjects are usually screened for the presence of ferromagnetic materials, and then the head position indicator coils, electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes (if measured simultaneously), and fiducials are digitized using a 3D digitizer, which aids in movement correction and also in transferring the MEG data from the head coordinates to the device and voxel coordinates, thereby enabling more accurate co-registration and localization. MEG data pre-processing involves filtering the data for environmental and subject interferences, artefact identification, and rejection. Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI) is processed for correction and identifying fiducials. After choosing and computing for the appropriate head models (spherical or realistic; boundary/finite element model), the interictal/ictal epileptiform discharges are selected and modeled by an appropriate source modeling technique (clinically and commonly used - single equivalent current dipole - ECD model). The equivalent current dipole (ECD) source localization of the modeled interictal epileptiform discharge (IED) is considered physiologically valid or acceptable based on waveform morphology, isofield pattern, and dipole parameters (localization, dipole moment, confidence volume, goodness of fit). Thus, MEG source localization can aid clinicians in sublobar localization, lateralization, and grid placement, by evoking the irritative/seizure onset zone. It also accurately localizes the eloquent cortex-like visual, language areas. MEG also aids in diagnosing and delineating multiple novel findings in other neuropsychiatric disorders

  9. What you need to know to become a MEG technologist.

    PubMed

    Mason, Karen M; Ebersole, Susan M; Fujiwara, Hisako; Lowe, James P; Bowyer, Susan M

    2013-09-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a way to noninvasively localize sources of electrical activity within the human brain, by measuring the very weak magnetic fields just outside of the head. This paper is an introduction to MEG for technologists who are interested in performing MEG studies. We have organized the paper into a brief overview of what MEG measures and how it does it, as well as a short history of the MEG manufacturers. There is a discussion of the differences in coils/sensors used to detect the magnetic fields, followed by a detailed description of what an average MEG technologist does to perform a MEG study. Some MEG centers may require more duties from the MEG technologist than are listed here and others may require fewer duties. We finish the paper with the contraindications for a MEG study, a job description for the MEG technologist, and a MEG procedure checklist to help keep the tasks organized.

  10. Real Time Data Acquisition and Online Signal Processing for Magnetoencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rongen, H.; Hadamschek, V.; Schiek, M.

    2006-06-01

    To establish improved therapies for patients suffering from severe neurological and psychiatric diseases, a demand controlled and desynchronizing brain-pacemaker has been developed with techniques from statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics. To optimize the novel therapeutic approach, brain activity is investigated with a Magnetoencephalography (MEG) system prior to surgery. For this, a real time data acquisition system for a 148 channel MEG and online signal processing for artifact rejection, filtering, cross trial phase resetting analysis and three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of the cerebral current sources was developed. The developed PCI bus hardware is based on a FPGA and DSP design, using the benefits from both architectures. The reconstruction and visualization of the 3-D volume data is done by the PC which hosts the real time DAQ and pre-processing board. The framework of the MEG-online system is introduced and the architecture of the real time DAQ board and online reconstruction is described. In addition we show first results with the MEG-Online system for the investigation of dynamic brain activities in relation to external visual stimulation, based on test data sets.

  11. Moving magnetoencephalography towards real-world applications with a wearable system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boto, Elena; Holmes, Niall; Leggett, James; Roberts, Gillian; Shah, Vishal; Meyer, Sofie S.; Muñoz, Leonardo Duque; Mullinger, Karen J.; Tierney, Tim M.; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth R.; Bowtell, Richard; Brookes, Matthew J.

    2018-03-01

    Imaging human brain function with techniques such as magnetoencephalography typically requires a subject to perform tasks while their head remains still within a restrictive scanner. This artificial environment makes the technique inaccessible to many people, and limits the experimental questions that can be addressed. For example, it has been difficult to apply neuroimaging to investigation of the neural substrates of cognitive development in babies and children, or to study processes in adults that require unconstrained head movement (such as spatial navigation). Here we describe a magnetoencephalography system that can be worn like a helmet, allowing free and natural movement during scanning. This is possible owing to the integration of quantum sensors, which do not rely on superconducting technology, with a system for nulling background magnetic fields. We demonstrate human electrophysiological measurement at millisecond resolution while subjects make natural movements, including head nodding, stretching, drinking and playing a ball game. Our results compare well to those of the current state-of-the-art, even when subjects make large head movements. The system opens up new possibilities for scanning any subject or patient group, with myriad applications such as characterization of the neurodevelopmental connectome, imaging subjects moving naturally in a virtual environment and investigating the pathophysiology of movement disorders.

  12. Magnetoencephalography signals are influenced by skull defects.

    PubMed

    Lau, S; Flemming, L; Haueisen, J

    2014-08-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals had previously been hypothesized to have negligible sensitivity to skull defects. The objective is to experimentally investigate the influence of conducting skull defects on MEG and EEG signals. A miniaturized electric dipole was implanted in vivo into rabbit brains. Simultaneous recording using 64-channel EEG and 16-channel MEG was conducted, first above the intact skull and then above a skull defect. Skull defects were filled with agar gels, which had been formulated to have tissue-like homogeneous conductivities. The dipole was moved beneath the skull defects, and measurements were taken at regularly spaced points. The EEG signal amplitude increased 2-10 times, whereas the MEG signal amplitude reduced by as much as 20%. The EEG signal amplitude deviated more when the source was under the edge of the defect, whereas the MEG signal amplitude deviated more when the source was central under the defect. The change in MEG field-map topography (relative difference measure, RDM(∗)=0.15) was geometrically related to the skull defect edge. MEG and EEG signals can be substantially affected by skull defects. MEG source modeling requires realistic volume conductor head models that incorporate skull defects. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of realistic layouts for next generation on-scalp MEG: spatial information density maps.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Bushra; Pfeiffer, Christoph; Schneiderman, Justin F

    2017-08-01

    While commercial magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems are the functional neuroimaging state-of-the-art in terms of spatio-temporal resolution, MEG sensors have not changed significantly since the 1990s. Interest in newer sensors that operate at less extreme temperatures, e.g., high critical temperature (high-T c ) SQUIDs, optically-pumped magnetometers, etc., is growing because they enable significant reductions in head-to-sensor standoff (on-scalp MEG). Various metrics quantify the advantages of on-scalp MEG, but a single straightforward one is lacking. Previous works have furthermore been limited to arbitrary and/or unrealistic sensor layouts. We introduce spatial information density (SID) maps for quantitative and qualitative evaluations of sensor arrays. SID-maps present the spatial distribution of information a sensor array extracts from a source space while accounting for relevant source and sensor parameters. We use it in a systematic comparison of three practical on-scalp MEG sensor array layouts (based on high-T c SQUIDs) and the standard Elekta Neuromag TRIUX magnetometer array. Results strengthen the case for on-scalp and specifically high-T c SQUID-based MEG while providing a path for the practical design of future MEG systems. SID-maps are furthermore general to arbitrary magnetic sensor technologies and source spaces and can thus be used for design and evaluation of sensor arrays for magnetocardiography, magnetic particle imaging, etc.

  14. Ellipsoidal head model for fetal magnetoencephalography: forward and inverse solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, David; Nehorai, Arye; Preissl, Hubert

    2005-05-01

    Fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG) is a non-invasive technique where measurements of the magnetic field outside the maternal abdomen are used to infer the source location and signals of the fetus' neural activity. There are a number of aspects related to fMEG modelling that must be addressed, such as the conductor volume, fetal position and orientation, gestation period, etc. We propose a solution to the forward problem of fMEG based on an ellipsoidal head geometry. This model has the advantage of highlighting special characteristics of the field that are inherent to the anisotropy of the human head, such as the spread and orientation of the field in relationship with the localization and position of the fetal head. Our forward solution is presented in the form of a kernel matrix that facilitates the solution of the inverse problem through decoupling of the dipole localization parameters from the source signals. Then, we use this model and the maximum likelihood technique to solve the inverse problem assuming the availability of measurements from multiple trials. The applicability and performance of our methods are illustrated through numerical examples based on a real 151-channel SQUID fMEG measurement system (SARA). SARA is an MEG system especially designed for fetal assessment and is currently used for heart and brain studies. Finally, since our model requires knowledge of the best-fitting ellipsoid's centre location and semiaxes lengths, we propose a method for estimating these parameters through a least-squares fit on anatomical information obtained from three-dimensional ultrasound images.

  15. Performance of a novel SQUID-based superconducting imaging-surface magnetoencephalography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, R. H.; Volegov, P.; Maharajh, K.; Espy, M. A.; Matlashov, A. N.; Flynn, E. R.

    2002-03-01

    Performance for a recently completed whole-head magnetoencephalography system using a superconducting imaging surface (SIS) surrounding an array of 150 SQUID magnetometers is reported. The helmet-like SIS is hemispherical in shape with a brim. Conceptually, the SIS images nearby sources onto the SQUIDs while shielding sensors from distant “noise” sources. A finite element method (FEM) description using the as-built geometry was developed to describe the SIS effect on source fields by imposing B⊥( surface)=0 . Sensors consist of 8×8 mm 2 SQUID magnetometers with 0.84 nT/ Φ0 sensitivity and <3 fT/ Hz noise. A series of phantom experiments to verify system efficacy have been completed. Simple dry-wire phantoms were used to eliminate model dependence from our results. Phantom coils were distributed throughout the volume encompassed by the array with a variety of orientations. Each phantom coil was precisely machined and located to better than 25 μm and 10 mRad accuracy. Excellent agreement between model-calculated and measured magnetic field distributions of all phantom coil positions and orientations was found. Good agreement was found between modeled and measured shielding of the SQUIDs from sources external to the array showing significant frequency-independent shielding. Phantom localization precision was better than 0.5 mm at all locations with a mean of better than 0.3 mm.

  16. Auditory Evoked Responses in Neonates by MEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Pavon, J. C.; Sosa, M.; Lutter, W. J.; Maier, M.; Wakai, R. T.

    2008-08-01

    Magnetoencephalography is a biomagnetic technique with outstanding potential for neurodevelopmental studies. In this work, we have used MEG to determinate if newborns can discriminate between different stimuli during the first few months of life. Five neonates were stimulated during several minutes with auditory stimulation. The results suggest that the newborns are able to discriminate between different stimuli despite their early age.

  17. Auditory Evoked Responses in Neonates by MEG

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Pavon, J. C.; Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin; Sosa, M.

    2008-08-11

    Magnetoencephalography is a biomagnetic technique with outstanding potential for neurodevelopmental studies. In this work, we have used MEG to determinate if newborns can discriminate between different stimuli during the first few months of life. Five neonates were stimulated during several minutes with auditory stimulation. The results suggest that the newborns are able to discriminate between different stimuli despite their early age.

  18. Four-channel optically pumped atomic magnetometer for magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Anthony P.; Carter, Tony R.; Borna, Amir; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Johnson, Cort N.; Dagel, Amber L.; Schwindt, Peter D. D.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a four-channel optically pumped atomic magnetometer for magnetoencephalography (MEG) that incorporates a passive diffractive optical element (DOE). The DOE allows us to achieve a long, 18-mm gradiometer baseline in a compact footprint on the head. Using gradiometry, the sensitivities of the channels are < 5 fT/Hz1/2, and the 3-dB bandwidths are approximately 90 Hz, which are both sufficient to perform MEG. Additionally, the channels are highly uniform, which offers the possibility of employing standard MEG post-processing techniques. This module will serve as a building block of an array for magnetic source localization. PMID:27410816

  19. Four-channel optically pumped atomic magnetometer for magnetoencephalography

    DOE PAGES

    Colombo, Anthony P.; Carter, Tony R.; Borna, Amir; ...

    2016-06-29

    We have developed a four-channel optically pumped atomic magnetometer for magnetoencephalography (MEG) that incorporates a passive diffractive optical element (DOE). The DOE allows us to achieve a long, 18-mm gradiometer baseline in a compact footprint on the head. Using gradiometry, the sensitivities of the channels are < 5 fT/Hz 1/2, and the 3-dB bandwidths are approximately 90 Hz, which are both sufficient to perform MEG. Additionally, the channels are highly uniform, which offers the possibility of employing standard MEG post-processing techniques. As a result, this module will serve as a building block of an array for magnetic source localization.

  20. Magnetoencephalography-guided surgery in frontal lobe epilepsy using neuronavigation and intraoperative MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Björn; Roessler, Karl; Rampp, Stefan; Hamer, Hajo M; Blumcke, Ingmar; Stefan, Hermann; Buchfelder, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Especially in hidden lesions causing drug-resistant frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), the localization of the epileptic zone EZ can be a challenge. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) can raise the chances for localization of the (EZ) in combination with electroencephalography (EEG). We investigated the impact of MEG-guided epilepsy surgery with the aid of neuronavigation and intraoperative MR imaging (iopMRI) on seizure outcome of FLE patients. Twenty-eight patients (15 females, 13 males; mean age 31.0±11.1 years) underwent surgery in our department. All patients underwent presurgical MEG monitoring (two-sensor Magnes II or whole head WH3600 MEG system; 4-D Neuroimaging, San Diego, CA, USA). Of those, six patients (group 1) with MRI-negative FLE were operated on before 2002 with intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) and invasive EEG mapping only. Eleven patients with MRI-negative FLE (group 2) and eleven with lesional FLE (group 3) underwent surgery using 1.5T-iopMRI and neuronavigation, including intraoperative visualization of the MEG localizations in 22 and functional MR imaging (for motor and speech areas) as well as DTI fiber tracking (for language and pyramidal tracts) in 13 patients. In the first group, complete resection of the defined EZ including the MEG localization according to the latest postoperative MRI was achieved in four out of six patients. Groups two and three had complete removal of the MEG localizations in 20/22 (91%, 10 of 11 each). Intraoperative MRI revealed incomplete resection of the MEG localizations of four patients (12%; two in both groups), leading to successful re-resection. Transient and permanent neurological deficits alike occurred in 7.1%, surgery-associated complications in 11% of all patients. In the first group, excellent seizure outcome (Engel Class IA) was achieved in three (50%), in the second in 7 patients (61%) and third group in 8 patients (64%, two iopMRI-based re-resections). Mean follow-up was 70.3 months (from 12 to 284

  1. Music and the brain - design of an MEG compatible piano.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Castano, Julian; Rathbone, Daniel R; Hoffman, Rachel; Heng Yang; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Yang, Jason; Hornberger, Erik; Hanumara, Nevan C

    2017-07-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) neuroimaging has been used to study subjects' responses when listening to music, but research into the effects of playing music has been limited by the lack of MEG compatible instruments that can operate in a magnetically shielded environment without creating electromagnetic interference. This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of an MEG compatible piano keyboard with 25 full size keys that employs a novel 3-state optical encoder design and electronics to provide realistic velocity-controlled volume modulation. This instrument will allow researchers to study musical performance on a finer timescale than fMRI and enable a range of MEG studies.

  2. MEG evidence that the central auditory system simultaneously encodes multiple temporal cues.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Michael I G; Barnes, Gareth R; Johnson, Sam R; Hillebrand, Arjan; Singh, Krish D; Green, Gary G R

    2009-09-01

    Speech contains complex amplitude modulations that have envelopes with multiple temporal cues. The processing of these complex envelopes is not well explained by the classical models of amplitude modulation processing. This may be because the evidence for the models typically comes from the use of simple sinusoidal amplitude modulations. In this study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to generate source space current estimates of the steady-state responses to simple one-component amplitude modulations and to a two-component amplitude modulation. A two-component modulation introduces the simplest form of modulation complexity into the waveform; the summation of the two-modulation rates introduces a beat-like modulation at the difference frequency between the two modulation rates. We compared the cortical representations of responses to the one-component and two-component modulations. In particular, we show that the temporal complexity in the two-component amplitude modulation stimuli was preserved at the cortical level. The method of stimulus normalization that we used also allows us to interpret these results as evidence that the important feature in sound modulations is the relative depth of one modulation rate with respect to another, rather than the absolute carrier-to-sideband modulation depth. More generally, this may be interpreted as evidence that modulation detection accurately preserves a representation of the modulation envelope. This is an important observation with respect to models of modulation processing, as it suggests that models may need a dynamic processing step to effectively model non-stationary stimuli. We suggest that the classic modulation filterbank model needs to be modified to take these findings into account.

  3. Recording temporal lobe epileptic activity with MEG in a light-weight magnetic shield.

    PubMed

    Carrette, Evelien; Op de Beeck, Marc; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Boon, Paul; Vonck, Kristl; Legros, Benjamin; Goldman, Serge; Van Bogaert, Patrick; De Tiège, Xavier

    2011-06-01

    To assess the interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) detection rate of magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings performed in a new light-weight magnetic shielding (LMSR) concept in a large group of consecutive patients with presumed mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Thirty-eight patients (23 women; age range: 6-63 years) with presumed MTLE were prospectively studied. MEG investigations were performed with the 306-channel Elekta Neuromag® MEG-system installed in a normal hospital environment into a LMSR (MaxShield, Elekta Oy). Equivalent current dipoles (ECD, g/% > 80%) corresponding to epileptic events were fitted to each patient's spherical head model at IEDs onset and peak and then superimposed on the patient's co-registered MRI. IEDs were observed in 26 out of 38 patients (68.4%). Temporal ECDs were mesial in 14 patients, anterior in 23 patients and posterior in 8 patients. Interestingly, in 6 patients, ECDs fitted at spike-onset were localized in the hippocampus while at the peak of the spike, they had an anterior temporal location. MEG using LMSR provides adequate signal to noise ratio (SNR) to allow reliable detection and localization of single epileptic abnormalities on continuous MEG data in 68% of patients with presumed MTLE. Moreover, mesial temporal epileptic sources were detected in 54% of patients with abnormal MEG. The SNR of MEG data acquired using the LMSR is therefore suitable for the non-invasive localization of epileptic foci in patients with MTLE. The use of LMSR, which are cheaper and smaller than conventional MSR, should facilitate the development of MEG in clinical environments. Copyright © 2011 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Application of Electro- and Magneto-Encephalography in Tinnitus Research – Methods and Interpretations

    PubMed Central

    Adjamian, Peyman

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the use of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate changes in oscillatory brain activity associated with tinnitus with many conflicting results. Current view of the underlying mechanism of tinnitus is that it results from changes in brain activity in various structures of the brain as a consequence of sensory deprivation. This in turn gives rise to increased spontaneous activity and/or synchrony in the auditory centers but also involves modulation from non-auditory processes from structures of the limbic and paralimbic system. Some of the neural changes associated with tinnitus may be assessed non-invasively in human beings with MEG and EEG (M/EEG) in ways, which are superior to animal studies and other non-invasive imaging techniques. However, both MEG and EEG have their limitations and research results can be misinterpreted without appropriate consideration of these limitations. In this article, I intend to provide a brief review of these techniques, describe what the recorded signals reflect in terms of the underlying neural activity, and their strengths and limitations. I also discuss some pertinent methodological issues involved in tinnitus-related studies and conclude with suggestions to minimize possible discrepancies between results. The overall message is that while MEG and EEG are extremely useful techniques, the interpretation of results from tinnitus studies requires much caution given the individual variability in oscillatory activity and the limits of these techniques. PMID:25431567

  5. EEG-MEG Integration Enhances the Characterization of Functional and Effective Connectivity in the Resting State Network

    PubMed Central

    Mideksa, Kidist Gebremariam; Anwar, Abdul Rauf; Stephani, Ulrich; Deuschl, Günther; Freitag, Christine M.; Siniatchkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    At the sensor level many aspects, such as spectral power, functional and effective connectivity as well as relative-power-ratio ratio (RPR) and spatial resolution have been comprehensively investigated through both electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Despite this, differences between both modalities have not yet been systematically studied by direct comparison. It remains an open question as to whether the integration of EEG and MEG data would improve the information obtained from the above mentioned parameters. Here, EEG (64-channel system) and MEG (275 sensor system) were recorded simultaneously in conditions with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) in 29 healthy adults. Spectral power, functional and effective connectivity, RPR, and spatial resolution were analyzed at five different frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma). Networks of functional and effective connectivity were described using a spatial filter approach called the dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) followed by the renormalized partial directed coherence (RPDC). Absolute mean power at the sensor level was significantly higher in EEG than in MEG data in both EO and EC conditions. At the source level, there was a trend towards a better performance of the combined EEG+MEG analysis compared with separate EEG or MEG analyses for the source mean power, functional correlation, effective connectivity for both EO and EC. The network of coherent sources and the spatial resolution were similar for both the EEG and MEG data if they were analyzed separately. Results indicate that the combined approach has several advantages over the separate analyses of both EEG and MEG. Moreover, by a direct comparison of EEG and MEG, EEG was characterized by significantly higher values in all measured parameters in both sensor and source level. All the above conclusions are specific to the resting state task and the specific analysis used in this study to have general

  6. Improving MEG source localizations: an automated method for complete artifact removal based on independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Mantini, D; Franciotti, R; Romani, G L; Pizzella, V

    2008-03-01

    The major limitation for the acquisition of high-quality magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings is the presence of disturbances of physiological and technical origins: eye movements, cardiac signals, muscular contractions, and environmental noise are serious problems for MEG signal analysis. In the last years, multi-channel MEG systems have undergone rapid technological developments in terms of noise reduction, and many processing methods have been proposed for artifact rejection. Independent component analysis (ICA) has already shown to be an effective and generally applicable technique for concurrently removing artifacts and noise from the MEG recordings. However, no standardized automated system based on ICA has become available so far, because of the intrinsic difficulty in the reliable categorization of the source signals obtained with this technique. In this work, approximate entropy (ApEn), a measure of data regularity, is successfully used for the classification of the signals produced by ICA, allowing for an automated artifact rejection. The proposed method has been tested using MEG data sets collected during somatosensory, auditory and visual stimulation. It was demonstrated to be effective in attenuating both biological artifacts and environmental noise, in order to reconstruct clear signals that can be used for improving brain source localizations.

  7. Localization of MEG human brain responses to retinotopic visual stimuli with contrasting source reconstruction approaches

    PubMed Central

    Cicmil, Nela; Bridge, Holly; Parker, Andrew J.; Woolrich, Mark W.; Krug, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) allows the physiological recording of human brain activity at high temporal resolution. However, spatial localization of the source of the MEG signal is an ill-posed problem as the signal alone cannot constrain a unique solution and additional prior assumptions must be enforced. An adequate source reconstruction method for investigating the human visual system should place the sources of early visual activity in known locations in the occipital cortex. We localized sources of retinotopic MEG signals from the human brain with contrasting reconstruction approaches (minimum norm, multiple sparse priors, and beamformer) and compared these to the visual retinotopic map obtained with fMRI in the same individuals. When reconstructing brain responses to visual stimuli that differed by angular position, we found reliable localization to the appropriate retinotopic visual field quadrant by a minimum norm approach and by beamforming. Retinotopic map eccentricity in accordance with the fMRI map could not consistently be localized using an annular stimulus with any reconstruction method, but confining eccentricity stimuli to one visual field quadrant resulted in significant improvement with the minimum norm. These results inform the application of source analysis approaches for future MEG studies of the visual system, and indicate some current limits on localization accuracy of MEG signals. PMID:24904268

  8. Magnetoencephalography and normal pressure hydrocephalus: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kotini, A; Birbilis, T; Anninos, P; Seimenis, I

    2018-04-18

    A 82-year-old male experiencing headaches, dementia, urinary incontinence and gait instability was diagnosed with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and underwent a resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG) examination. MEG data were recorded in a magnetically shielded room with a whole-head 122 channel biomagnetometer. Following MEG, a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt was placed in his head and greatly improved his symptomatology. Spontaneous MEG recordings revealed lower magnetic fields at frontal and frontotemporal regions compared to central and posterior regions. This finding correlated well with the significant ventricular distention, and specifically the enlargement of the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles, observed in presurgical CT. The regional pattern of MEG signal decrease in NPH seems to be quite different from that encountered in brain atrophy. In the latter case, a more generalized distribution of low magnetic fields is observed, possibly reflecting the high sensitivity of MEG to activity originating in sulci. Acquired data suggest that MEG may be able to differentiate between NPH and brain atrophy. Furthermore, MEG could potentially constitute a non-invasive, non-imaging tool, useful in the selection of patients with NPH to undergo shunt surgery. The findings of this study warrant further research in patient groups before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  9. Statistical Learning Effects in Musicians and Non-Musicians: An MEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Kuchenbuch, Anja; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Pantev, Christo

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of musical training in statistical learning of tone sequences using Magnetoencephalography (MEG). Specifically, MEG recordings were used to investigate the neural and functional correlates of the pre-attentive ability for detection of deviance, from a statistically learned tone sequence. The effect of…

  10. The octapolic ellipsoidal term in magnetoencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassios, George; Hadjiloizi, Demetra; Kariotou, Fotini

    2009-01-01

    The forward problem of magnetoencephalography (MEG) in ellipsoidal geometry has been studied by Dassios and Kariotou ["Magnetoencephalography in ellipsoidal geometry," J. Math. Phys. 44, 220 (2003)] using the theory of ellipsoidal harmonics. In fact, the analytic solution of the quadrupolic term for the magnetic induction field has been calculated in the case of a dipolar neuronal current. Nevertheless, since the quadrupolic term is only the leading nonvanishing term in the multipole expansion of the magnetic field, it contains not enough information for the construction of an effective algorithm to solve the inverse MEG problem, i.e., to recover the position and the orientation of a dipole from measurements of the magnetic field outside the head. For this task, the next multipole of the magnetic field is also needed. The present work provides exactly this octapolic contribution of the dipolar current to the expansion of the magnetic induction field. The octapolic term is expressed in terms of the ellipsoidal harmonics of the third degree, and therefore it provides the highest order terms that can be expressed in closed form using long but reasonable analytic and algebraic manipulations. In principle, the knowledge of the quadrupolic and the octapolic terms is enough to solve the inverse problem of identifying a dipole inside an ellipsoid. Nevertheless, a simple inversion algorithm for this problem is not yet known.

  11. Compact, ultra-low vibration, closed-cycle helium recycler for uninterrupted operation of MEG with SQUID magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Sun, Limin; Lichtenwalter, Ben; Zerkle, Brent; Okada, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    A closed-cycle helium recycler was developed for continuous uninterrupted operation for magnetometer-based whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems. The recycler consists of a two stage 4 K pulse-tube cryocooler and is mounted on the roof of a magnetically shielded room (MSR). A flexible liquid helium (LHe) return line on the recycler is inserted into the fill port of the MEG system in the MSR through a slotted opening in the ceiling. The helium vapor is captured through a line that returns the gas to the top of the recycler assembly. A high-purity helium gas cylinder connected to the recycler assembly supplies the gas, which, after it is liquefied, increases the level of LHe in the MEG system during the start-up phase. No storage tank for evaporated helium gas nor a helium gas purifier is used. The recycler is capable of liquefying helium with a rate of ∼17 L/d after precooling the MEG system. It has provided a fully maintenance-free operation under computer control for 7 months without refill of helium. Although the recycler is used for single-orientation operation at this initial testing site, it is designed to operate at ±20° orientations, allowing the MEG system to be tilted for supine and reclining positions. Vibration of the recycler is dampened to an ultra-low level by using several vibration isolation methods, which enables uninterrupted operation during MEG measurements. Recyclers similar to this system may be quite useful even for MEG systems with 100% magnetometers.

  12. Altered Cortical Activation in Adolescents With Acute Migraine: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jing; deGrauw, Xinyao; Korostenskaja, Milena; Korman, Abraham M.; O’Brien, Hope L.; Kabbouche, Marielle A.; Powers, Scott W.; Hershey, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    To quantitatively assess cortical dysfunction in pediatric migraine, 31 adolescents with acute migraine and age- and gender-matched controls were studied using a magnetoencephalography (MEG) system at a sampling rate of 6,000 Hz. Neuromagnetic brain activation was elicited by a finger-tapping task. The spectral and spatial signatures of magnetoencephalography data in 5 to 2,884 Hz were analyzed using Morlet wavelet and beamformers. Compared with controls, 31 migraine subjects during their headache attack phases (ictal) showed significantly prolonged latencies of neuromagnetic activation in 5 to 30 Hz, increased spectral power in 100 to 200 Hz, and a higher likelihood of neuromagnetic activation in the supplementary motor area, the occipital and ipsilateral sensorimotor cortices, in 2,200 to 2,800 Hz. Of the 31 migraine subjects, 16 migraine subjects during their headache-free phases (interictal) showed that there were no significant differences between interictal and control MEG data except that interictal spectral power in 100 to 200 Hz was significantly decreased. The results demonstrated that migraine subjects had significantly aberrant ictal brain activation, which can normalize interictally. The spread of abnormal ictal brain activation in both low- and high-frequency ranges triggered by movements may play a key role in the cascade of migraine attacks. Perspective This is the first study focusing on the spectral and spatial signatures of cortical dysfunction in adolescents with migraine using MEG signals in a frequency range of 5 to 2,884 Hz. This analyzing aberrant brain activation may be important for developing new therapeutic interventions for migraine in the future. PMID:23792072

  13. Versatile synchronized real-time MEG hardware controller for large-scale fast data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Limin; Han, Menglai; Pratt, Kevin; Paulson, Douglas; Dinh, Christoph; Esch, Lorenz; Okada, Yoshio; Hämäläinen, Matti

    2017-05-01

    Versatile controllers for accurate, fast, and real-time synchronized acquisition of large-scale data are useful in many areas of science, engineering, and technology. Here, we describe the development of a controller software based on a technique called queued state machine for controlling the data acquisition (DAQ) hardware, continuously acquiring a large amount of data synchronized across a large number of channels (>400) at a fast rate (up to 20 kHz/channel) in real time, and interfacing with applications for real-time data analysis and display of electrophysiological data. This DAQ controller was developed specifically for a 384-channel pediatric whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system, but its architecture is useful for wide applications. This controller running in a LabVIEW environment interfaces with microprocessors in the MEG sensor electronics to control their real-time operation. It also interfaces with a real-time MEG analysis software via transmission control protocol/internet protocol, to control the synchronous acquisition and transfer of the data in real time from >400 channels to acquisition and analysis workstations. The successful implementation of this controller for an MEG system with a large number of channels demonstrates the feasibility of employing the present architecture in several other applications.

  14. Versatile synchronized real-time MEG hardware controller for large-scale fast data acquisition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Limin; Han, Menglai; Pratt, Kevin; Paulson, Douglas; Dinh, Christoph; Esch, Lorenz; Okada, Yoshio; Hämäläinen, Matti

    2017-05-01

    Versatile controllers for accurate, fast, and real-time synchronized acquisition of large-scale data are useful in many areas of science, engineering, and technology. Here, we describe the development of a controller software based on a technique called queued state machine for controlling the data acquisition (DAQ) hardware, continuously acquiring a large amount of data synchronized across a large number of channels (>400) at a fast rate (up to 20 kHz/channel) in real time, and interfacing with applications for real-time data analysis and display of electrophysiological data. This DAQ controller was developed specifically for a 384-channel pediatric whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system, but its architecture is useful for wide applications. This controller running in a LabVIEW environment interfaces with microprocessors in the MEG sensor electronics to control their real-time operation. It also interfaces with a real-time MEG analysis software via transmission control protocol/internet protocol, to control the synchronous acquisition and transfer of the data in real time from >400 channels to acquisition and analysis workstations. The successful implementation of this controller for an MEG system with a large number of channels demonstrates the feasibility of employing the present architecture in several other applications.

  15. A Comparative Study on the Detection of Covert Attention in Event-Related EEG and MEG Signals to Control a BCI

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Christoph; Dürschmid, Stefan; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Hinrichs, Hermann

    2017-01-01

    In brain-computer interface (BCI) applications the detection of neural processing as revealed by event-related potentials (ERPs) is a frequently used approach to regain communication for people unable to interact through any peripheral muscle control. However, the commonly used electroencephalography (EEG) provides signals of low signal-to-noise ratio, making the systems slow and inaccurate. As an alternative noninvasive recording technique, the magnetoencephalography (MEG) could provide more advantageous electrophysiological signals due to a higher number of sensors and the magnetic fields not being influenced by volume conduction. We investigated whether MEG provides higher accuracy in detecting event-related fields (ERFs) compared to detecting ERPs in simultaneously recorded EEG, both evoked by a covert attention task, and whether a combination of the modalities is advantageous. In our approach, a detection algorithm based on spatial filtering is used to identify ERP/ERF components in a data-driven manner. We found that MEG achieves higher decoding accuracy (DA) compared to EEG and that the combination of both further improves the performance significantly. However, MEG data showed poor performance in cross-subject classification, indicating that the algorithm's ability for transfer learning across subjects is better in EEG. Here we show that BCI control by covert attention is feasible with EEG and MEG using a data-driven spatial filter approach with a clear advantage of the MEG regarding DA but with a better transfer learning in EEG. PMID:29085279

  16. Comparing Features for Classification of MEG Responses to Motor Imagery.

    PubMed

    Halme, Hanna-Leena; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) with real-time neurofeedback could be a viable approach, e.g., in rehabilitation of cerebral stroke. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) noninvasively measures electric brain activity at high temporal resolution and is well-suited for recording oscillatory brain signals. MI is known to modulate 10- and 20-Hz oscillations in the somatomotor system. In order to provide accurate feedback to the subject, the most relevant MI-related features should be extracted from MEG data. In this study, we evaluated several MEG signal features for discriminating between left- and right-hand MI and between MI and rest. MEG was measured from nine healthy participants imagining either left- or right-hand finger tapping according to visual cues. Data preprocessing, feature extraction and classification were performed offline. The evaluated MI-related features were power spectral density (PSD), Morlet wavelets, short-time Fourier transform (STFT), common spatial patterns (CSP), filter-bank common spatial patterns (FBCSP), spatio-spectral decomposition (SSD), and combined SSD+CSP, CSP+PSD, CSP+Morlet, and CSP+STFT. We also compared four classifiers applied to single trials using 5-fold cross-validation for evaluating the classification accuracy and its possible dependence on the classification algorithm. In addition, we estimated the inter-session left-vs-right accuracy for each subject. The SSD+CSP combination yielded the best accuracy in both left-vs-right (mean 73.7%) and MI-vs-rest (mean 81.3%) classification. CSP+Morlet yielded the best mean accuracy in inter-session left-vs-right classification (mean 69.1%). There were large inter-subject differences in classification accuracy, and the level of the 20-Hz suppression correlated significantly with the subjective MI-vs-rest accuracy. Selection of the classification algorithm had only a minor effect on the results. We obtained good accuracy in sensor-level decoding of MI from single-trial MEG data. Feature extraction

  17. Comparing Features for Classification of MEG Responses to Motor Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Halme, Hanna-Leena; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Background Motor imagery (MI) with real-time neurofeedback could be a viable approach, e.g., in rehabilitation of cerebral stroke. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) noninvasively measures electric brain activity at high temporal resolution and is well-suited for recording oscillatory brain signals. MI is known to modulate 10- and 20-Hz oscillations in the somatomotor system. In order to provide accurate feedback to the subject, the most relevant MI-related features should be extracted from MEG data. In this study, we evaluated several MEG signal features for discriminating between left- and right-hand MI and between MI and rest. Methods MEG was measured from nine healthy participants imagining either left- or right-hand finger tapping according to visual cues. Data preprocessing, feature extraction and classification were performed offline. The evaluated MI-related features were power spectral density (PSD), Morlet wavelets, short-time Fourier transform (STFT), common spatial patterns (CSP), filter-bank common spatial patterns (FBCSP), spatio—spectral decomposition (SSD), and combined SSD+CSP, CSP+PSD, CSP+Morlet, and CSP+STFT. We also compared four classifiers applied to single trials using 5-fold cross-validation for evaluating the classification accuracy and its possible dependence on the classification algorithm. In addition, we estimated the inter-session left-vs-right accuracy for each subject. Results The SSD+CSP combination yielded the best accuracy in both left-vs-right (mean 73.7%) and MI-vs-rest (mean 81.3%) classification. CSP+Morlet yielded the best mean accuracy in inter-session left-vs-right classification (mean 69.1%). There were large inter-subject differences in classification accuracy, and the level of the 20-Hz suppression correlated significantly with the subjective MI-vs-rest accuracy. Selection of the classification algorithm had only a minor effect on the results. Conclusions We obtained good accuracy in sensor-level decoding of MI from single

  18. A new wavelet transform to sparsely represent cortical current densities for EEG/MEG inverse problems.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ke; Zhu, Min; Ding, Lei

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the use of transform sparseness of cortical current density on human brain surface to improve electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG) inverse solutions. Transform sparseness was assessed by evaluating compressibility of cortical current densities in transform domains. To do that, a structure compression method from computer graphics was first adopted to compress cortical surface structure, either regular or irregular, into hierarchical multi-resolution meshes. Then, a new face-based wavelet method based on generated multi-resolution meshes was proposed to compress current density functions defined on cortical surfaces. Twelve cortical surface models were built by three EEG/MEG softwares and their structural compressibility was evaluated and compared by the proposed method. Monte Carlo simulations were implemented to evaluate the performance of the proposed wavelet method in compressing various cortical current density distributions as compared to other two available vertex-based wavelet methods. The present results indicate that the face-based wavelet method can achieve higher transform sparseness than vertex-based wavelet methods. Furthermore, basis functions from the face-based wavelet method have lower coherence against typical EEG and MEG measurement systems than vertex-based wavelet methods. Both high transform sparseness and low coherent measurements suggest that the proposed face-based wavelet method can improve the performance of L1-norm regularized EEG/MEG inverse solutions, which was further demonstrated in simulations and experimental setups using MEG data. Thus, this new transform on complicated cortical structure is promising to significantly advance EEG/MEG inverse source imaging technologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetoencephalography Study of Right Parietal Lobe Dysfunction of the Evoked Mirror Neuron System in Antipsychotic-Free Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yutaka; Muramatsu, Taro; Kato, Motoichiro; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Shintani, Masuro; Mimura, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Patients with schizophrenia commonly exhibit deficits of non-verbal communication in social contexts, which may be related to cognitive dysfunction that impairs recognition of biological motion. Although perception of biological motion is known to be mediated by the mirror neuron system, there have been few empirical studies of this system in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Using magnetoencephalography, we examined whether antipsychotic-free schizophrenia patients displayed mirror neuron system dysfunction during observation of biological motion (jaw movement of another individual). Results Compared with normal controls, the patients with schizophrenia had fewer components of both the waveform and equivalent current dipole, suggesting aberrant brain activity resulting from dysfunction of the right inferior parietal cortex. They also lacked the changes of alpha band and gamma band oscillation seen in normal controls, and had weaker phase-locking factors and gamma-synchronization predominantly in right parietal cortex. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that untreated patients with schizophrenia exhibit aberrant mirror neuron system function based on the right inferior parietal cortex, which is characterized by dysfunction of gamma-synchronization in the right parietal lobe during observation of biological motion. PMID:22132217

  20. Magnetocardiography and magnetoencephalography measurements at room temperature using tunnel magneto-resistance sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Kosuke; Oogane, Mikihiko; Kanno, Akitake; Imada, Masahiro; Jono, Junichi; Terauchi, Takashi; Okuno, Tetsuo; Aritomi, Yuuji; Morikawa, Masahiro; Tsuchida, Masaaki; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Ando, Yasuo

    2018-02-01

    Magnetocardiography (MCG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals were detected at room temperature using tunnel magneto-resistance (TMR) sensors. TMR sensors developed with low-noise amplifier circuits detected the MCG R wave without averaging, and the QRS complex was clearly observed with averaging at a high signal-to-noise ratio. Spatial mapping of the MCG was also achieved. Averaging of MEG signals triggered by electroencephalography (EEG) clearly observed the phase inversion of the alpha rhythm with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.7 between EEG and MEG.

  1. Magnetoencephalography Phantom Comparison and Validation: Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) Requisite.

    PubMed

    Omar, Hazim; Ahmad, Alwani Liyan; Hayashi, Noburo; Idris, Zamzuri; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2015-12-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has been extensively used to measure small-scale neuronal brain activity. Although it is widely acknowledged as a sensitive tool for deciphering brain activity and source localisation, the accuracy of the MEG system must be critically evaluated. Typically, on-site calibration with the provided phantom (Local phantom) is used. However, this method is still questionable due to the uncertainty that may originate from the phantom itself. Ideally, the validation of MEG data measurements would require cross-site comparability. A simple method of phantom testing was used twice in addition to a measurement taken with a calibrated reference phantom (RefPhantom) obtained from Elekta Oy of Helsinki, Finland. The comparisons of two main aspects were made in terms of the dipole moment (Qpp) and the difference in the dipole distance from the origin (d) after the tests of statistically equal means and variance were confirmed. The result of Qpp measurements for the LocalPhantom and RefPhantom were 978 (SD24) nAm and 988 (SD32) nAm, respectively, and were still optimally within the accepted range of 900 to 1100 nAm. Moreover, the shifted d results for the LocalPhantom and RefPhantom were 1.84 mm (SD 0.53) and 2.14 mm (SD 0.78), respectively, and these values were below the maximum acceptance range of within 5.0 mm of the nominal dipole location. The Local phantom seems to outperform the reference phantom as indicated by the small standard error of the former (SE 0.094) compared with the latter (SE 0.138). The result indicated that HUSM MEG system was in excellent working condition in terms of the dipole magnitude and localisation measurements as these values passed the acceptance limits criteria of the phantom test.

  2. Source counting in MEG neuroimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Tianhu; Dell, John; Magee, Ralphy; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2009-02-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a multi-channel, functional imaging technique. It measures the magnetic field produced by the primary electric currents inside the brain via a sensor array composed of a large number of superconducting quantum interference devices. The measurements are then used to estimate the locations, strengths, and orientations of these electric currents. This magnetic source imaging technique encompasses a great variety of signal processing and modeling techniques which include Inverse problem, MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC), Beamforming (BF), and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) method. A key problem with Inverse problem, MUSIC and ICA methods is that the number of sources must be detected a priori. Although BF method scans the source space on a point-to-point basis, the selection of peaks as sources, however, is finally made by subjective thresholding. In practice expert data analysts often select results based on physiological plausibility. This paper presents an eigenstructure approach for the source number detection in MEG neuroimaging. By sorting eigenvalues of the estimated covariance matrix of the acquired MEG data, the measured data space is partitioned into the signal and noise subspaces. The partition is implemented by utilizing information theoretic criteria. The order of the signal subspace gives an estimate of the number of sources. The approach does not refer to any model or hypothesis, hence, is an entirely data-led operation. It possesses clear physical interpretation and efficient computation procedure. The theoretical derivation of this method and the results obtained by using the real MEG data are included to demonstrates their agreement and the promise of the proposed approach.

  3. Increases in Language Lateralization in Normal Children as Observed Using Magnetoencephalography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ressel, Volker; Wilke, Marko; Lidzba, Karen; Lutzenberger, Werner; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg

    2008-01-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating hemispheric dominance for language have shown that hemispheric specialization increases with age. We employed magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate these effects as a function of normal development. In sum, 22 healthy children aged 7-16 years were investigated using…

  4. Multivariate pattern analysis of MEG and EEG: A comparison of representational structure in time and space.

    PubMed

    Cichy, Radoslaw Martin; Pantazis, Dimitrios

    2017-09-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) data can reveal the rapid neural dynamics underlying cognition. However, MEG and EEG have systematic differences in sampling neural activity. This poses the question to which degree such measurement differences consistently bias the results of multivariate analysis applied to MEG and EEG activation patterns. To investigate, we conducted a concurrent MEG/EEG study while participants viewed images of everyday objects. We applied multivariate classification analyses to MEG and EEG data, and compared the resulting time courses to each other, and to fMRI data for an independent evaluation in space. We found that both MEG and EEG revealed the millisecond spatio-temporal dynamics of visual processing with largely equivalent results. Beyond yielding convergent results, we found that MEG and EEG also captured partly unique aspects of visual representations. Those unique components emerged earlier in time for MEG than for EEG. Identifying the sources of those unique components with fMRI, we found the locus for both MEG and EEG in high-level visual cortex, and in addition for MEG in low-level visual cortex. Together, our results show that multivariate analyses of MEG and EEG data offer a convergent and complimentary view on neural processing, and motivate the wider adoption of these methods in both MEG and EEG research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Post-movement beta rebound abnormality as indicator of mirror neuron system dysfunction in autistic spectrum disorder: an MEG study.

    PubMed

    Honaga, Eiko; Ishii, Ryouhei; Kurimoto, Ryu; Canuet, Leonides; Ikezawa, Koji; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Nakahachi, Takayuki; Iwase, Masao; Mizuta, Ichiro; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2010-07-12

    The mu rhythm is regarded as a physiological indicator of the human mirror neuron system (MNS). The dysfunctional MNS hypothesis in patients with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) has often been tested using EEG and MEG, targeting mu rhythm suppression during action observation/execution, although with controversial results. We explored neural activity related to the MNS in patients with ASD, focusing on power increase in the beta frequency band after observation and execution of movements, known as post-movement beta rebound (PMBR). Multiple source beamformer (MSBF) and BrainVoyager QX were used for MEG source imaging and statistical group analysis, respectively. Seven patients with ASD and ten normal subjects participated in this study. During the MEG recordings, the subjects were asked to observe and later execute object-related hand actions performed by an experimenter. We found that both groups exhibited pronounced PMBR exceeding 20% when observing and executing actions with a similar topographic distribution of maximal activity. However, significantly reduced PMBR was found only during the observation condition in the patients relative to controls in cortical regions within the MNS, namely the sensorimotor area, premotor cortex and superior temporal gyrus. Reduced PMBR during the observation condition was also found in the medial prefrontal cortex. These results support the notion of a dysfunctional execution/observation matching system related to MNS impairment in patients with ASD, and the feasibility of using MEG to detect neural activity, in particular PMBR abnormalities, as an index of MNS dysfunction during performance of motor or cognitive tasks. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Localizing on-scalp MEG sensors using an array of magnetic dipole coils.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Christoph; Andersen, Lau M; Lundqvist, Daniel; Hämäläinen, Matti; Schneiderman, Justin F; Oostenveld, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the neural activity underlying magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals requires co-registration i.e., determination of the position and orientation of the sensors with respect to the head. In modern MEG systems, an array of hundreds of low-Tc SQUID sensors is used to localize a set of small, magnetic dipole-like (head-position indicator, HPI) coils that are attached to the subject's head. With accurate prior knowledge of the positions and orientations of the sensors with respect to one another, the HPI coils can be localized with high precision, and thereby the positions of the sensors in relation to the head. With advances in magnetic field sensing technologies, e.g., high-Tc SQUIDs and optically pumped magnetometers (OPM), that require less extreme operating temperatures than low-Tc SQUID sensors, on-scalp MEG is on the horizon. To utilize the full potential of on-scalp MEG, flexible sensor arrays are preferable. Conventional co-registration is impractical for such systems as the relative positions and orientations of the sensors to each other are subject-specific and hence not known a priori. Herein, we present a method for co-registration of on-scalp MEG sensors. We propose to invert the conventional co-registration approach and localize the sensors relative to an array of HPI coils on the subject's head. We show that given accurate prior knowledge of the positions of the HPI coils with respect to one another, the sensors can be localized with high precision. We simulated our method with realistic parameters and layouts for sensor and coil arrays. Results indicate co-registration is possible with sub-millimeter accuracy, but the performance strongly depends upon a number of factors. Accurate calibration of the coils and precise determination of the positions and orientations of the coils with respect to one another are crucial. Finally, we propose methods to tackle practical challenges to further improve the method.

  7. MEG and fMRI Fusion for Non-Linear Estimation of Neural and BOLD Signal Changes

    PubMed Central

    Plis, Sergey M.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Weisend, Michael P.; Eichele, Tom; Lane, Terran

    2010-01-01

    The combined analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG)/electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements can lead to improvement in the description of the dynamical and spatial properties of brain activity. In this paper we empirically demonstrate this improvement using simulated and recorded task related MEG and fMRI activity. Neural activity estimates were derived using a dynamic Bayesian network with continuous real valued parameters by means of a sequential Monte Carlo technique. In synthetic data, we show that MEG and fMRI fusion improves estimation of the indirectly observed neural activity and smooths tracking of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response. In recordings of task related neural activity the combination of MEG and fMRI produces a result with greater signal-to-noise ratio, that confirms the expectation arising from the nature of the experiment. The highly non-linear model of the BOLD response poses a difficult inference problem for neural activity estimation; computational requirements are also high due to the time and space complexity. We show that joint analysis of the data improves the system's behavior by stabilizing the differential equations system and by requiring fewer computational resources. PMID:21120141

  8. Intracranial EEG potentials estimated from MEG sources: A new approach to correlate MEG and iEEG data in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Grova, Christophe; Aiguabella, Maria; Zelmann, Rina; Lina, Jean-Marc; Hall, Jeffery A; Kobayashi, Eliane

    2016-05-01

    Detection of epileptic spikes in MagnetoEncephaloGraphy (MEG) requires synchronized neuronal activity over a minimum of 4cm2. We previously validated the Maximum Entropy on the Mean (MEM) as a source localization able to recover the spatial extent of the epileptic spike generators. The purpose of this study was to evaluate quantitatively, using intracranial EEG (iEEG), the spatial extent recovered from MEG sources by estimating iEEG potentials generated by these MEG sources. We evaluated five patients with focal epilepsy who had a pre-operative MEG acquisition and iEEG with MRI-compatible electrodes. Individual MEG epileptic spikes were localized along the cortical surface segmented from a pre-operative MRI, which was co-registered with the MRI obtained with iEEG electrodes in place for identification of iEEG contacts. An iEEG forward model estimated the influence of every dipolar source of the cortical surface on each iEEG contact. This iEEG forward model was applied to MEG sources to estimate iEEG potentials that would have been generated by these sources. MEG-estimated iEEG potentials were compared with measured iEEG potentials using four source localization methods: two variants of MEM and two standard methods equivalent to minimum norm and LORETA estimates. Our results demonstrated an excellent MEG/iEEG correspondence in the presumed focus for four out of five patients. In one patient, the deep generator identified in iEEG could not be localized in MEG. MEG-estimated iEEG potentials is a promising method to evaluate which MEG sources could be retrieved and validated with iEEG data, providing accurate results especially when applied to MEM localizations. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1661-1683, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Automated model selection in covariance estimation and spatial whitening of MEG and EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Engemann, Denis A; Gramfort, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    Magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography (M/EEG) measure non-invasively the weak electromagnetic fields induced by post-synaptic neural currents. The estimation of the spatial covariance of the signals recorded on M/EEG sensors is a building block of modern data analysis pipelines. Such covariance estimates are used in brain-computer interfaces (BCI) systems, in nearly all source localization methods for spatial whitening as well as for data covariance estimation in beamformers. The rationale for such models is that the signals can be modeled by a zero mean Gaussian distribution. While maximizing the Gaussian likelihood seems natural, it leads to a covariance estimate known as empirical covariance (EC). It turns out that the EC is a poor estimate of the true covariance when the number of samples is small. To address this issue the estimation needs to be regularized. The most common approach downweights off-diagonal coefficients, while more advanced regularization methods are based on shrinkage techniques or generative models with low rank assumptions: probabilistic PCA (PPCA) and factor analysis (FA). Using cross-validation all of these models can be tuned and compared based on Gaussian likelihood computed on unseen data. We investigated these models on simulations, one electroencephalography (EEG) dataset as well as magnetoencephalography (MEG) datasets from the most common MEG systems. First, our results demonstrate that different models can be the best, depending on the number of samples, heterogeneity of sensor types and noise properties. Second, we show that the models tuned by cross-validation are superior to models with hand-selected regularization. Hence, we propose an automated solution to the often overlooked problem of covariance estimation of M/EEG signals. The relevance of the procedure is demonstrated here for spatial whitening and source localization of MEG signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Brainstorm: A User-Friendly Application for MEG/EEG Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tadel, François; Baillet, Sylvain; Mosher, John C.; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Leahy, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Brainstorm is a collaborative open-source application dedicated to magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) data visualization and processing, with an emphasis on cortical source estimation techniques and their integration with anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The primary objective of the software is to connect MEG/EEG neuroscience investigators with both the best-established and cutting-edge methods through a simple and intuitive graphical user interface (GUI). PMID:21584256

  11. On the Potential of a New Generation of Magnetometers for MEG: A Beamformer Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Boto, Elena; Bowtell, Richard; Krüger, Peter; Fromhold, T. Mark; Morris, Peter G.; Meyer, Sofie S.; Barnes, Gareth R.; Brookes, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a sophisticated tool which yields rich information on the spatial, spectral and temporal signatures of human brain function. Despite unique potential, MEG is limited by a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) which is caused by both the inherently small magnetic fields generated by the brain, and the scalp-to-sensor distance. The latter is limited in current systems due to a requirement for pickup coils to be cryogenically cooled. Recent work suggests that optically-pumped magnetometers (OPMs) might be a viable alternative to superconducting detectors for MEG measurement. They have the advantage that sensors can be brought to within ~4 mm of the scalp, thus offering increased sensitivity. Here, using simulations, we quantify the advantages of hypothetical OPM systems in terms of sensitivity, reconstruction accuracy and spatial resolution. Our results show that a multi-channel whole-head OPM system offers (on average) a fivefold improvement in sensitivity for an adult brain, as well as clear improvements in reconstruction accuracy and spatial resolution. However, we also show that such improvements depend critically on accurate forward models; indeed, the reconstruction accuracy of our simulated OPM system only outperformed that of a simulated superconducting system in cases where forward field error was less than 5%. Overall, our results imply that the realisation of a viable whole-head multi-channel OPM system could generate a step change in the utility of MEG as a means to assess brain electrophysiological activity in health and disease. However in practice, this will require both improved hardware and modelling algorithms. PMID:27564416

  12. Correlation between magnetoencephalography-based "clusterectomy" and postoperative seizure freedom.

    PubMed

    Vadera, Sumeet; Jehi, Lara; Burgess, Richard C; Shea, Katherine; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Mosher, John; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Bingaman, William

    2013-06-01

    During the presurgical evaluation of patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy, a variety of noninvasive studies are performed to localize the hypothetical epileptogenic zone and guide the resection. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is becoming increasingly used in the clinical realm for this purpose. No investigators have previously reported on coregisteration of MEG clusters with postoperative resection cavities to evaluate whether complete "clusterectomy" (resection of the area associated with MEG clusters) was performed or to compare these findings with postoperative seizure-free outcomes. The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts and imaging studies of 65 patients undergoing MEG followed by resective epilepsy surgery from 2009 until 2012 at the Cleveland Clinic. Preoperative MEG studies were fused with postoperative MRI studies to evaluate whether clusters were within the resected area. These data were then correlated with postoperative seizure freedom. Sixty-five patients were included in this study. The average duration of follow-up was 13.9 months, the mean age at surgery was 23.1 years, and the mean duration of epilepsy was 13.7 years. In 30 patients, the main cluster was located completely within the resection cavity, in 28 it was completely outside the resection cavity, and in 7 it was partially within the resection cavity. Seventy-four percent of patients were seizure free at 12 months after surgery, and this rate decreased to 60% at 24 months. Improved likelihood of seizure freedom was seen with complete clusterectomy in patients with localization outside the temporal lobe (extra-temporal lobe epilepsy) (p = 0.04). In patients with preoperative MEG studies that show clusters in surgically accessible areas outside the temporal lobe, we suggest aggressive resection to improve the chances for seizure freedom. When the cluster is found within the temporal lobe, further diagnostic testing may be required to better localize the epileptogenic zone.

  13. Fetal Magnetoencephalography--Achievements and Challenges in the Study of Prenatal and Early Postnatal Brain Responses: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Carolin J.; Matuz, Tamara; Draganova, Rossitza; Eswaran, Hari; Preissl, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG) is the only non-invasive method for investigating evoked brain responses and spontaneous brain activity generated by the fetus "in utero". Fetal auditory as well as visual-evoked fields have been successfully recorded in basic stimulus-response studies. Moreover, paradigms investigating precursors for cognitive…

  14. Recording epileptic activity with MEG in a light-weight magnetic shield.

    PubMed

    De Tiège, Xavier; Op de Beeck, Marc; Funke, Michael; Legros, Benjamin; Parkkonen, Lauri; Goldman, Serge; Van Bogaert, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    Ten patients with focal epilepsy were studied with magnetoencephalography (MEG) to determine if a new light-weight magnetically shielded room (lMSR) provides sufficient attenuation of magnetic interference to detect and localize the magnetic correlates of epileptic activity. Interictal MEG epileptic events co-localizing with the presumed location of the epileptogenic zone were found in all patients. MEG measurements performed in the lMSR provide an adequate signal-to-noise ratio for non-invasive localization of epileptic foci.

  15. Magnetoencephalography - a noninvasive brain imaging method with 1 ms time resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DelGratta, Cosimo; Pizzella, Vittorio; Tecchio, Franca; Luca Romani, Gian

    2001-12-01

    The basics of magnetoencephalography (MEG), i.e. the measurement and the analysis of the tiny magnetic fields generated outside the scalp by the working human brain, are reviewed. Three main topics are discussed: (1) the relationship between the magnetic field and its generators, including on one hand the neurophysiological basis and the physical theory of magnetic field generation, and on the other hand the techniques for the estimation of the sources from the magnetic field measurements; (2) the instrumental techniques and the laboratory practice of neuromagnetic field measurement and (3) the main applications of MEG in basic neurophysiology as well as in clinical neurology.

  16. Skull Defects in Finite Element Head Models for Source Reconstruction from Magnetoencephalography Signals

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Stephan; Güllmar, Daniel; Flemming, Lars; Grayden, David B.; Cook, Mark J.; Wolters, Carsten H.; Haueisen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals are influenced by skull defects. However, there is a lack of evidence of this influence during source reconstruction. Our objectives are to characterize errors in source reconstruction from MEG signals due to ignoring skull defects and to assess the ability of an exact finite element head model to eliminate such errors. A detailed finite element model of the head of a rabbit used in a physical experiment was constructed from magnetic resonance and co-registered computer tomography imaging that differentiated nine tissue types. Sources of the MEG measurements above intact skull and above skull defects respectively were reconstructed using a finite element model with the intact skull and one incorporating the skull defects. The forward simulation of the MEG signals reproduced the experimentally observed characteristic magnitude and topography changes due to skull defects. Sources reconstructed from measured MEG signals above intact skull matched the known physical locations and orientations. Ignoring skull defects in the head model during reconstruction displaced sources under a skull defect away from that defect. Sources next to a defect were reoriented. When skull defects, with their physical conductivity, were incorporated in the head model, the location and orientation errors were mostly eliminated. The conductivity of the skull defect material non-uniformly modulated the influence on MEG signals. We propose concrete guidelines for taking into account conducting skull defects during MEG coil placement and modeling. Exact finite element head models can improve localization of brain function, specifically after surgery. PMID:27092044

  17. MEG Evidence for Incremental Sentence Composition in the Anterior Temporal Lobe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Jonathan R.; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2017-01-01

    Research investigating the brain basis of language comprehension has associated the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) with sentence-level combinatorics. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we test the parsing strategy implemented in this brain region. The number of incremental parse steps from a predictive left-corner parsing strategy that is…

  18. Combined MEG-EEG source localisation in patients with sub-acute sclerosing pan-encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, J; Sinha, Sanjib; Nagappa, Madhu; Mariyappa, N; Bindu, P S; Ravi, G S; Hazra, Nandita; Thennarasu, K; Ravi, V; Taly, A B; Satishchandra, P

    2016-08-01

    To study the genesis and propagation patterns of periodic complexes (PCs) associated with myoclonic jerks in sub-acute sclerosing pan-encephalitis (SSPE) using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG). Simultaneous recording of MEG (306 channels) and EEG (64 channels) in five patients of SSPE (M:F = 3:2; age 10.8 ± 3.2 years; symptom-duration 6.2 ± 10 months) was carried out using Elekta Neuromag(®) TRIUX™ system. Qualitative analysis of 80-160 PCs per patient was performed. Ten isomorphic classical PCs with significant field topography per patient were analysed at the 'onset' and at 'earliest significant peak' of the burst using discrete and distributed source imaging methods. MEG background was asymmetrical in 2 and slow in 3 patients. Complexes were periodic (3) or quasi-periodic (2), occurring every 4-16 s and varied in morphology among patients. Mean source localization at onset of bursts using discrete and distributed source imaging in magnetic source imaging (MSI) was in thalami and or insula (50 and 50 %, respectively) and in electric source imaging (ESI) was also in thalami and or insula (38 and 46 %, respectively). Mean source localization at the earliest rising phase of peak in MSI was in peri-central gyrus (49 and 42 %) and in ESI it was in frontal cortex (52 and 56 %). Further analysis revealed that PCs were generated in thalami and or insula and thereafter propagated to anterolateral surface of the cortices (viz. sensori-motor cortex and frontal cortex) to same side as that of the onset. This novel MEG-EEG based case series of PCs provides newer insights for understanding the plausible generators of myoclonus in SSPE and patterns of their propagation.

  19. Magnetoencephalography and ictal SPECT in patients with failed epilepsy surgery.

    PubMed

    El Tahry, Riёm; Wang, Z Irene; Thandar, Aung; Podkorytova, Irina; Krishnan, Balu; Tousseyn, Simon; Guiyun, Wu; Burgess, Richard C; Alexopoulos, Andreas V

    2018-06-06

    Selected patients with intractable focal epilepsy who have failed a previous epilepsy surgery can become seizure-free with reoperation. Preoperative evaluation is exceedingly challenging in this cohort. We aim to investigate the diagnostic value of two noninvasive approaches, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and ictal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), in patients with failed epilepsy surgery. We retrospectively included a consecutive cohort of patients who failed prior resective epilepsy surgery, underwent re-evaluation including MEG and ictal SPECT, and had another surgery after the re-evaluation. The relationship between resection and localization from each test was determined, and their association with seizure outcomes was analyzed. A total of 46 patients were included; 21 (46%) were seizure-free at 1-year followup after reoperation. Twenty-seven (58%) had a positive MEG and 31 (67%) had a positive ictal SPECT. The resection of MEG foci was significantly associated with seizure-free outcome (p = 0.002). Overlap of ictal SPECT hyperperfusion zones with resection was significantly associated with seizure-free outcome in the subgroup of patients with injection time ≤20 seconds(p = 0.03), but did not show significant association in the overall cohort (p = 0.46) although all injections were ictal. Patients whose MEG and ictal SPECT were concordant on a sublobar level had a significantly higher chance of seizure freedom (p = 0.05). MEG alone achieved successful localization in patients with failed epilepsy surgery with a statistical significance. Only ictal SPECT with early injection (≤20 seconds) had good localization value. Sublobar concordance between both tests was significantly associated with seizure freedom. SPECT can provide essential information in MEG-negative cases and vice versa. Our results emphasize the importance of considering a multimodal presurgical evaluation including MEG and SPECT in all patients with a

  20. Masked Repetition Priming Using Magnetoencephalography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Philip J.; Fiorentino, Robert; Poeppel, David

    2008-01-01

    Masked priming is used in psycholinguistic studies to assess questions about lexical access and representation. We present two masked priming experiments using MEG. If the MEG signal elicited by words reflects specific aspects of lexical retrieval, then one expects to identify specific neural correlates of retrieval that are sensitive to priming.…

  1. Brain activity is related to individual differences in the number of items stored in auditory short-term memory for pitch: evidence from magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Grimault, Stephan; Nolden, Sophie; Lefebvre, Christine; Vachon, François; Hyde, Krista; Peretz, Isabelle; Zatorre, Robert; Robitaille, Nicolas; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2014-07-01

    We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine brain activity related to the maintenance of non-verbal pitch information in auditory short-term memory (ASTM). We focused on brain activity that increased with the number of items effectively held in memory by the participants during the retention interval of an auditory memory task. We used very simple acoustic materials (i.e., pure tones that varied in pitch) that minimized activation from non-ASTM related systems. MEG revealed neural activity in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices that increased with a greater number of items effectively held in memory by the participants during the maintenance of pitch representations in ASTM. The present results reinforce the functional role of frontal and temporal cortices in the retention of pitch information in ASTM. This is the first MEG study to provide both fine spatial localization and temporal resolution on the neural mechanisms of non-verbal ASTM for pitch in relation to individual differences in the capacity of ASTM. This research contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms mediating the representation and maintenance of basic non-verbal auditory features in the human brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Wavelet-based localization of oscillatory sources from magnetoencephalography data.

    PubMed

    Lina, J M; Chowdhury, R; Lemay, E; Kobayashi, E; Grova, C

    2014-08-01

    Transient brain oscillatory activities recorded with Eelectroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG) are characteristic features in physiological and pathological processes. This study is aimed at describing, evaluating, and illustrating with clinical data a new method for localizing the sources of oscillatory cortical activity recorded by MEG. The method combines time-frequency representation and an entropic regularization technique in a common framework, assuming that brain activity is sparse in time and space. Spatial sparsity relies on the assumption that brain activity is organized among cortical parcels. Sparsity in time is achieved by transposing the inverse problem in the wavelet representation, for both data and sources. We propose an estimator of the wavelet coefficients of the sources based on the maximum entropy on the mean (MEM) principle. The full dynamics of the sources is obtained from the inverse wavelet transform, and principal component analysis of the reconstructed time courses is applied to extract oscillatory components. This methodology is evaluated using realistic simulations of single-trial signals, combining fast and sudden discharges (spike) along with bursts of oscillating activity. The method is finally illustrated with a clinical application using MEG data acquired on a patient with a right orbitofrontal epilepsy.

  3. Optimising experimental design for MEG resting state functional connectivity measurement.

    PubMed

    Liuzzi, Lucrezia; Gascoyne, Lauren E; Tewarie, Prejaas K; Barratt, Eleanor L; Boto, Elena; Brookes, Matthew J

    2017-07-15

    The study of functional connectivity using magnetoencephalography (MEG) is an expanding area of neuroimaging, and adds an extra dimension to the more common assessments made using fMRI. The importance of such metrics is growing, with recent demonstrations of their utility in clinical research, however previous reports suggest that whilst group level resting state connectivity is robust, single session recordings lack repeatability. Such robustness is critical if MEG measures in individual subjects are to prove clinically valuable. In the present paper, we test how practical aspects of experimental design affect the intra-subject repeatability of MEG findings; specifically we assess the effect of co-registration method and data recording duration. We show that the use of a foam head-cast, which is known to improve co-registration accuracy, increased significantly the between session repeatability of both beamformer reconstruction and connectivity estimation. We also show that recording duration is a critical parameter, with large improvements in repeatability apparent when using ten minute, compared to five minute recordings. Further analyses suggest that the origin of this latter effect is not underpinned by technical aspects of source reconstruction, but rather by a genuine effect of brain state; short recordings are simply inefficient at capturing the canonical MEG network in a single subject. Our results provide important insights on experimental design and will prove valuable for future MEG connectivity studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Sound envelope processing in the developing human brain: A MEG study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Huizhen; Brock, Jon; Johnson, Blake W

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated auditory cortical processing of linguistically-relevant temporal modulations in the developing brains of young children. Auditory envelope following responses to white noise amplitude modulated at rates of 1-80 Hz in healthy children (aged 3-5 years) and adults were recorded using a paediatric magnetoencephalography (MEG) system and a conventional MEG system, respectively. For children, there were envelope following responses to slow modulations but no significant responses to rates higher than about 25 Hz, whereas adults showed significant envelope following responses to almost the entire range of stimulus rates. Our results show that the auditory cortex of preschool-aged children has a sharply limited capacity to process rapid amplitude modulations in sounds, as compared to the auditory cortex of adults. These neurophysiological results are consistent with previous psychophysical evidence for a protracted maturational time course for auditory temporal processing. The findings are also in good agreement with current linguistic theories that posit a perceptual bias for low frequency temporal information in speech during language acquisition. These insights also have clinical relevance for our understanding of language disorders that are associated with difficulties in processing temporal information in speech. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A MEG investigation of somatosensory processing in the rhesus monkey

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Tony W.; Godwin, Dwayne W.; Czoty, Paul W.; Nader, Michael A.; Kraft, Robert A.; Buchheimer, Nancy C.; Daunais, James B.

    2009-01-01

    The use of minimally and non-invasive neuroimaging methods in animal models has sharply increased over the past decade. Such studies have enhanced understanding of the neural basis of the physical signals quantified by these tools, and have addressed an assortment of fundamental and otherwise intractable questions in neurobiology. To date, these studies have almost exclusively utilized positron-emission tomography or variants of magnetic resonance based imaging. These methods provide largely indirect measures of brain activity and are strongly reliant on intact vasculature and normal blood flow, which is known to be compromised in many clinical conditions. The current study provides the first demonstration of whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG), a non-invasive and direct measure of neuronal activity, in a rhesus monkey, and in the process supplies the initial data on systems-level dynamics in somatosensory cortices. An adult rhesus monkey underwent three separate studies of tactile stimulation on the pad of the right second or fifth digit as whole-head MEG data were acquired. The neural generators of the primary neuromagnetic components were localized using an equivalent-current-dipole model. Second digit stimulation produced an initial cortical response peaking ∼16 ms after stimulus onset in the contralateral somatosensory cortices, with a later response at ∼96 ms in an overlapping or nearby neural area with a roughly orthogonal orientation. Stimulation of the fifth digit produced similar results, the main exception being a substantially weaker later response. We believe the 16ms response is likely the monkey homologue of the human M50 response, as both are the earliest cortical response and localize to the contralateral primary somatosensory area. Thus, these data suggest that mechanoreception in nonhuman primates operates substantially faster than that in adult humans. More broadly, these results demonstrate that it is feasible to use current human whole

  6. Rejecting deep brain stimulation artefacts from MEG data using ICA and mutual information.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Omid; Hirschmann, Jan; Schmitz, Georg; Schnitzler, Alfons; Butz, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Recording brain activity during deep brain stimulation (DBS) using magnetoencephalography (MEG) can potentially help clarifying the neurophysiological mechanism of DBS. The DBS artefact, however, distorts MEG data significantly. We present an artefact rejection approach to remove the DBS artefact from MEG data. We developed an approach consisting of four consecutive steps: (i) independent component analysis was used to decompose MEG data to independent components (ICs); (ii) mutual information (MI) between stimulation signal and all ICs was calculated; (iii) artefactual ICs were identified by means of an MI threshold; and (iv) the MEG signal was reconstructed using only non-artefactual ICs. This approach was applied to MEG data from five Parkinson's disease patients with implanted DBS stimulators. MEG was recorded with DBS ON (unilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus) and DBS OFF during two experimental conditions: a visual attention task and alternating right and left median nerve stimulation. With the presented approach most of the artefact could be removed. The signal of interest could be retrieved in both conditions. In contrast to existing artefact rejection methods for MEG-DBS data (tSSS and S(3)P), the proposed method uses the actual artefact source, i.e. the stimulation signal, as reference signal. Using the presented method, the DBS artefact can be significantly rejected and the physiological data can be restored. This will facilitate research addressing the impact of DBS on brain activity during rest and various tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Technical solutions for simultaneous MEG and SEEG recordings: towards routine clinical use.

    PubMed

    Badier, J M; Dubarry, A S; Gavaret, M; Chen, S; Trébuchon, A S; Marquis, P; Régis, J; Bartolomei, F; Bénar, C G; Carron, R

    2017-09-21

    The simultaneous recording of intracerebral EEG (stereotaxic EEG, SEEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a promising strategy that provides both local and global views on brain pathological activity. Yet, acquiring simultaneous signals poses difficult technical issues that hamper their use in clinical routine. Our objective was thus to develop a set of solutions for recording a high number of SEEG channels while preserving signal quality. We recorded data in a patient with drug resistant epilepsy during presurgical evaluation. We used dedicated insertion screws and optically insulated amplifiers. We recorded 137 SEEG contacts on 10 depth electrodes (5-15 contacts each) and 248 MEG channels (magnetometers). Signal quality was assessed by comparing the distribution of RMS values in different frequency bands to a reference set of MEG acquisitions. The quality of signals was excellent for both MEG and SEEG; for MEG, it was comparable to that of MEG signals without concurrent SEEG. Discharges involving several structures on SEEG were visible on MEG, whereas discharges limited in space were not seen at the surface. SEEG can now be recorded simultaneously with whole-head MEG in routine. This opens new avenues, both methodologically for understanding signals and improving signal processing methods, and clinically for future combined analyses.

  8. Language in Context: MEG Evidence for Modality-General and -Specific Responses to Reference Resolution

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Successful language comprehension critically depends on our ability to link linguistic expressions to the entities they refer to. Without reference resolution, newly encountered language cannot be related to previously acquired knowledge. The human experience includes many different types of referents, some visual, some auditory, some very abstract. Does the neural basis of reference resolution depend on the nature of the referents, or do our brains use a modality-general mechanism for linking meanings to referents? Here we report evidence for both. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we varied both the modality of referents, which consisted either of visual or auditory objects, and the point at which reference resolution was possible within sentences. Source-localized MEG responses revealed brain activity associated with reference resolution that was independent of the modality of the referents, localized to the medial parietal lobe and starting ∼415 ms after the onset of reference resolving words. A modality-specific response to reference resolution in auditory domains was also found, in the vicinity of auditory cortex. Our results suggest that referential language processing cannot be reduced to processing in classical language regions and representations of the referential domain in modality-specific neural systems. Instead, our results suggest that reference resolution engages medial parietal cortex, which supports a mechanism for referential processing regardless of the content modality. PMID:28058272

  9. Localizing on-scalp MEG sensors using an array of magnetic dipole coils

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lau M.; Lundqvist, Daniel; Hämäläinen, Matti; Schneiderman, Justin F.; Oostenveld, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the neural activity underlying magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals requires co-registration i.e., determination of the position and orientation of the sensors with respect to the head. In modern MEG systems, an array of hundreds of low-Tc SQUID sensors is used to localize a set of small, magnetic dipole-like (head-position indicator, HPI) coils that are attached to the subject’s head. With accurate prior knowledge of the positions and orientations of the sensors with respect to one another, the HPI coils can be localized with high precision, and thereby the positions of the sensors in relation to the head. With advances in magnetic field sensing technologies, e.g., high-Tc SQUIDs and optically pumped magnetometers (OPM), that require less extreme operating temperatures than low-Tc SQUID sensors, on-scalp MEG is on the horizon. To utilize the full potential of on-scalp MEG, flexible sensor arrays are preferable. Conventional co-registration is impractical for such systems as the relative positions and orientations of the sensors to each other are subject-specific and hence not known a priori. Herein, we present a method for co-registration of on-scalp MEG sensors. We propose to invert the conventional co-registration approach and localize the sensors relative to an array of HPI coils on the subject’s head. We show that given accurate prior knowledge of the positions of the HPI coils with respect to one another, the sensors can be localized with high precision. We simulated our method with realistic parameters and layouts for sensor and coil arrays. Results indicate co-registration is possible with sub-millimeter accuracy, but the performance strongly depends upon a number of factors. Accurate calibration of the coils and precise determination of the positions and orientations of the coils with respect to one another are crucial. Finally, we propose methods to tackle practical challenges to further improve the method. PMID:29746486

  10. Assessment of the Utility of Ictal Magnetoencephalography in the Localization of the Epileptic Seizure Onset Zone.

    PubMed

    Alkawadri, Rafeed; Burgess, Richard C; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Mosher, John C; Alexopoulos, Andreas V

    2018-06-11

    Literature on ictal magnetoencephalography (MEG) in clinical practice and the relationship to other modalities is limited because of the brevity of routine studies. To investigate the utility and reliability of ictal MEG in the localization of the epileptogenic zone. A retrospective medical record review and prospective analysis of a novel ictal rhythm analysis method was conducted at a tertiary epilepsy center with a wide base of referrals for epilepsy surgery evaluation and included consecutive cases of patients who experienced epileptic seizures during routine MEG studies from March 2008 to February 2012. A total of 377 studies screened. Data were analyzed from November 2011 to October 2015. Presurgical workup and interictal and ictal MEG data were reviewed. The localizing value of using extended-source localization of a narrow band identified visually at onset was analyzed. Of the 44 included patients, the mean (SD) age at the time of recording was 19.3 (14.9) years, and 25 (57%) were male. The mean duration of recording was 51.2 minutes. Seizures were provoked by known triggers in 3 patients and were spontaneous otherwise. Twenty-five patients (57%) had 1 seizure, 6 (14%) had 2, and 13 (30%) had 3 or more. Magnetoencephalography single equivalent current dipole analysis was possible in 29 patients (66%), of whom 8 (28%) had no clear interictal discharges. Sublobar concordance between ictal and interictal dipoles was seen in 18 of 21 patients (86%). Three patients (7%) showed clear ictal MEG patterns without electroencephalography changes. Ictal MEG dipoles correlated with the lobe of onset in 7 of 8 patients (88%) who underwent intracranial electroencephalography evaluations. Reasons for failure to identify ictal dipoles included diffuse or poor dipolar ictal patterns, no MEG changes, and movement artifact. Resection of areas containing a minimum-norm estimate of a narrow band at onset, not single equivalent current dipole, was associated with sustained

  11. Particle swarm optimization and its application in MEG source localization using single time sliced data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Juan; Liu, Chenglian; Guo, Yongning

    2014-10-01

    The estimation of neural active sources from the magnetoencephalography (MEG) data is a very critical issue for both clinical neurology and brain functions research. A widely accepted source-modeling technique for MEG involves calculating a set of equivalent current dipoles (ECDs). Depth in the brain is one of difficulties in MEG source localization. Particle swarm optimization(PSO) is widely used to solve various optimization problems. In this paper we discuss its ability and robustness to find the global optimum in different depths of the brain when using single equivalent current dipole (sECD) model and single time sliced data. The results show that PSO is an effective global optimization to MEG source localization when given one dipole in different depths.

  12. Restrictive vs. non-restrictive composition: a magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Leffel, Timothy; Lauter, Miriam; Westerlund, Masha; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the brain mechanisms underlying language processing has implicated the left anterior temporal lobe (LATL) as a central region for the composition of simple phrases. Because these studies typically present their critical stimuli without contextual information, the sensitivity of LATL responses to contextual factors is unknown. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we employed a simple question-answer paradigm to manipulate whether a prenominal adjective or determiner is interpreted restrictively, i.e., as limiting the set of entities under discussion. Our results show that the LATL is sensitive to restriction, with restrictive composition eliciting higher responses than non-restrictive composition. However, this effect was only observed when the restricting element was a determiner, adjectival stimuli showing the opposite pattern, which we hypothesise to be driven by the special pragmatic properties of non-restrictive adjectives. Overall, our results demonstrate a robust sensitivity of the LATL to high level contextual and potentially also pragmatic factors. PMID:25379512

  13. MEG Coherence and DTI Connectivity in mTLE

    PubMed Central

    Nazem-Zadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Bowyer, Susan M.; Moran, John E.; Davoodi-Bojd, Esmaeil; Zillgitt, Andrew; Weiland, Barbara J.; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Mahmoudi, Fariborz; Elisevich, Kost; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a noninvasive imaging method for localization of focal epileptiform activity in patients with epilepsy. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive imaging method for measuring the diffusion properties of the underlying white matter tracts through which epileptiform activity is propagated. This study investigates the relationship between the cerebral functional abnormalities quantified by MEG coherence and structural abnormalities quantified by DTI in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). Methods Resting state MEG data was analyzed using MEG coherence source imaging (MEG-CSI) method to determine the coherence in 54 anatomical sites in 17 adult mTLE patients with surgical resection and Engel class I outcome, and 17 age- and gender- matched controls. DTI tractography identified the fiber tracts passing through these same anatomical sites of the same subjects. Then, DTI nodal degree and laterality index were calculated and compared with the corresponding MEG coherence and laterality index. Results MEG coherence laterality, after Bonferroni adjustment, showed significant differences for right versus left mTLE in insular cortex and both lateral orbitofrontal and superior temporal gyri (p<0.017). Likewise, DTI nodal degree laterality, after Bonferroni adjustment, showed significant differences for right versus left mTLE in gyrus rectus, insular cortex, precuneus and superior temporal gyrus (p<0.017). In insular cortex, MEG coherence laterality correlated with DTI nodal degree laterality (R2 = 0.46; p = 0.003) in the cases of mTLE. None of these anatomical sites showed statistically significant differences in coherence laterality between right and left sides of the controls. Coherence laterality was in agreement with the declared side of epileptogenicity in insular cortex (in 82% of patients) and both lateral orbitofrontal (88%) and superior temporal gyri (88%). Nodal degree laterality was also in agreement with the declared

  14. Assessment of hemispheric dominance for receptive language in pediatric patients under sedation using magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, Roozbeh; Narayana, Shalini; Schiller, Katherine; Birg, Liliya; Wheless, James W; Boop, Frederick A; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of hemispheric dominance for receptive language using magnetoencephalography (MEG) is now a well-established procedure used across several epilepsy centers in the context of pre-surgical evaluation of children and adults while awake, alert and attentive. However, the utility of MEG for the same purpose, in cases of sedated patients, is contested. Establishment of the efficiency of MEG is especially important in the case of children who, for a number of reasons, must be assessed under sedation. Here we explored the efficacy of MEG language mapping under sedation through retrospective review of 95 consecutive pediatric patients, who underwent our receptive language test as part of routine clinical evaluation. Localization of receptive language cortex and subsequent determination of laterality was successfully completed in 78% (n = 36) and 55% (n = 27) of non-sedated and sedated patients, respectively. Moreover, the proportion of patients deemed left hemisphere dominant for receptive language did not differ between non-sedated and sedated patients, exceeding 90% in both groups. Considering the challenges associated with assessing brain function in pediatric patients, the success of passive MEG in the context of the cases reviewed in this study support the utility of this method in pre-surgical receptive language mapping.

  15. Assessment of hemispheric dominance for receptive language in pediatric patients under sedation using magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Rezaie, Roozbeh; Narayana, Shalini; Schiller, Katherine; Birg, Liliya; Wheless, James W.; Boop, Frederick A.; Papanicolaou, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of hemispheric dominance for receptive language using magnetoencephalography (MEG) is now a well-established procedure used across several epilepsy centers in the context of pre-surgical evaluation of children and adults while awake, alert and attentive. However, the utility of MEG for the same purpose, in cases of sedated patients, is contested. Establishment of the efficiency of MEG is especially important in the case of children who, for a number of reasons, must be assessed under sedation. Here we explored the efficacy of MEG language mapping under sedation through retrospective review of 95 consecutive pediatric patients, who underwent our receptive language test as part of routine clinical evaluation. Localization of receptive language cortex and subsequent determination of laterality was successfully completed in 78% (n = 36) and 55% (n = 27) of non-sedated and sedated patients, respectively. Moreover, the proportion of patients deemed left hemisphere dominant for receptive language did not differ between non-sedated and sedated patients, exceeding 90% in both groups. Considering the challenges associated with assessing brain function in pediatric patients, the success of passive MEG in the context of the cases reviewed in this study support the utility of this method in pre-surgical receptive language mapping. PMID:25191260

  16. Magnetoencephalography as a Tool in Psychiatric Research: Current Status and Perspective.

    PubMed

    Uhlhaas, Peter J; Liddle, Peter; Linden, David E J; Nobre, Anna C; Singh, Krish D; Gross, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    The application of neuroimaging to provide mechanistic insights into circuit dysfunctions in major psychiatric conditions and the development of biomarkers are core challenges in current psychiatric research. We propose that recent technological and analytic advances in magnetoencephalography (MEG), a technique that allows measurement of neuronal events directly and noninvasively with millisecond resolution, provides novel opportunities to address these fundamental questions. Because of its potential in delineating normal and abnormal brain dynamics, we propose that MEG provides a crucial tool to advance our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of major neuropsychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and the dementias. We summarize the mechanisms underlying the generation of MEG signals and the tools available to reconstruct generators and underlying networks using advanced source-reconstruction techniques. We then surveyed recent studies that have used MEG to examine aberrant rhythmic activity in neuropsychiatric disorders. This was followed by links with preclinical research that has highlighted possible neurobiological mechanisms, such as disturbances in excitation/inhibition parameters, that could account for measured changes in neural oscillations. Finally, we discuss challenges as well as novel methodological developments that could pave the way for widespread application of MEG in translational research with the aim of developing biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis.

  17. Epileptogenic zone localization using magnetoencephalography predicts seizure freedom in epilepsy surgery

    PubMed Central

    Englot, Dario J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Imber, Brandon S.; Raygor, Kunal P.; Honma, Susanne M.; Mizuiri, Danielle; Mantle, Mary; Knowlton, Robert C.; Kirsch, Heidi E.; Chang, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The efficacy of epilepsy surgery depends critically upon successful localization of the epileptogenic zone. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) enables non-invasive detection of interictal spike activity in epilepsy, which can then be localized in three dimensions using magnetic source imaging (MSI) techniques. However, the clinical value of MEG in the pre-surgical epilepsy evaluation is not fully understood, as studies to date are limited by either a lack of long-term seizure outcomes or small sample size. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of focal epilepsy patients who received MEG for interictal spike mapping followed by surgical resection at our institution. Results We studied 132 surgical patients, with mean post-operative follow-up of 3.6 years (minimum 1 year). Dipole source modelling was successful in 103 (78%) patients, while no interictal spikes were seen in others. Among patients with successful dipole modelling, MEG findings were concordant with and specific to: i) the region of resection in 66% of patients, ii) invasive electrocorticography (ECoG) findings in 67% of individuals, and iii) the MRI abnormality in 74% of cases. MEG showed discordant lateralization in ~5% of cases. After surgery, 70% of all patients achieved seizure-freedom (Engel class I outcome). Whereas 85% of patients with concordant and specific MEG findings became seizure-free, this outcome was achieved by only 37% of individuals with MEG findings that were non-specific or discordant with the region of resection (χ2 = 26.4, p < 0.001). MEG reliability was comparable in patients with or without localized scalp EEG, and overall, localizing MEG findings predicted seizure freedom with an odds ratio of 5.11 (2.23–11.8, 95% CI). Significance MEG is a valuable tool for non-invasive interictal spike mapping in epilepsy surgery, including patients with non-localized findings on long-term EEG monitoring, and localization of the epileptogenic zone using MEG is associated

  18. Source-space ICA for MEG source imaging.

    PubMed

    Jonmohamadi, Yaqub; Jones, Richard D

    2016-02-01

    One of the most widely used approaches in electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography (MEG) source imaging is application of an inverse technique (such as dipole modelling or sLORETA) on the component extracted by independent component analysis (ICA) (sensor-space ICA + inverse technique). The advantage of this approach over an inverse technique alone is that it can identify and localize multiple concurrent sources. Among inverse techniques, the minimum-variance beamformers offer a high spatial resolution. However, in order to have both high spatial resolution of beamformer and be able to take on multiple concurrent sources, sensor-space ICA + beamformer is not an ideal combination. We propose source-space ICA for MEG as a powerful alternative approach which can provide the high spatial resolution of the beamformer and handle multiple concurrent sources. The concept of source-space ICA for MEG is to apply the beamformer first and then singular value decomposition + ICA. In this paper we have compared source-space ICA with sensor-space ICA both in simulation and real MEG. The simulations included two challenging scenarios of correlated/concurrent cluster sources. Source-space ICA provided superior performance in spatial reconstruction of source maps, even though both techniques performed equally from a temporal perspective. Real MEG from two healthy subjects with visual stimuli were also used to compare performance of sensor-space ICA and source-space ICA. We have also proposed a new variant of minimum-variance beamformer called weight-normalized linearly-constrained minimum-variance with orthonormal lead-field. As sensor-space ICA-based source reconstruction is popular in EEG and MEG imaging, and given that source-space ICA has superior spatial performance, it is expected that source-space ICA will supersede its predecessor in many applications.

  19. A Review of Issues Related to Data Acquisition and Analysis in EEG/MEG Studies.

    PubMed

    Puce, Aina; Hämäläinen, Matti S

    2017-05-31

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are non-invasive electrophysiological methods, which record electric potentials and magnetic fields due to electric currents in synchronously-active neurons. With MEG being more sensitive to neural activity from tangential currents and EEG being able to detect both radial and tangential sources, the two methods are complementary. Over the years, neurophysiological studies have changed considerably: high-density recordings are becoming de rigueur; there is interest in both spontaneous and evoked activity; and sophisticated artifact detection and removal methods are available. Improved head models for source estimation have also increased the precision of the current estimates, particularly for EEG and combined EEG/MEG. Because of their complementarity, more investigators are beginning to perform simultaneous EEG/MEG studies to gain more complete information about neural activity. Given the increase in methodological complexity in EEG/MEG, it is important to gather data that are of high quality and that are as artifact free as possible. Here, we discuss some issues in data acquisition and analysis of EEG and MEG data. Practical considerations for different types of EEG and MEG studies are also discussed.

  20. A Review of Issues Related to Data Acquisition and Analysis in EEG/MEG Studies

    PubMed Central

    Puce, Aina; Hämäläinen, Matti S.

    2017-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are non-invasive electrophysiological methods, which record electric potentials and magnetic fields due to electric currents in synchronously-active neurons. With MEG being more sensitive to neural activity from tangential currents and EEG being able to detect both radial and tangential sources, the two methods are complementary. Over the years, neurophysiological studies have changed considerably: high-density recordings are becoming de rigueur; there is interest in both spontaneous and evoked activity; and sophisticated artifact detection and removal methods are available. Improved head models for source estimation have also increased the precision of the current estimates, particularly for EEG and combined EEG/MEG. Because of their complementarity, more investigators are beginning to perform simultaneous EEG/MEG studies to gain more complete information about neural activity. Given the increase in methodological complexity in EEG/MEG, it is important to gather data that are of high quality and that are as artifact free as possible. Here, we discuss some issues in data acquisition and analysis of EEG and MEG data. Practical considerations for different types of EEG and MEG studies are also discussed. PMID:28561761

  1. Presence of strong harmonics during visual entrainment: a magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Wilson, Tony W

    2012-09-01

    Visual neurons are known to synchronize their firing with stimuli that flicker at a constant rate (e.g. 12Hz). These so-called visual steady-state responses (VSSR) are a well-studied phenomenon, yet the underlying mechanisms are widely disagreed upon. Furthermore, there is limited evidence that visual neurons may simultaneously synchronize at harmonics of the stimulation frequency. We utilized magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine synchronization at harmonics of the visual stimulation frequency (18Hz). MEG data were analyzed for event-related-synchronization (ERS) at the fundamental frequency, 36, 54, and 72Hz. We found strong ERS in all bands. Only 31% of participants showed maximum entrainment at the fundamental; others showed stronger entrainment at either 36 or 54Hz. The cortical foci of these responses indicated that the harmonics involved cortices that were partially distinct from the fundamental. These findings suggest that spatially-overlapping subpopulations of neurons are simultaneously entrained at different harmonics of the stimulus frequency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sensor Level Functional Connectivity Topography Comparison Between Different References Based EEG and MEG.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunzhi; Zhang, Junpeng; Cui, Yuan; Yang, Gang; Liu, Qi; Yin, Guangfu

    2018-01-01

    Sensor-level functional connectivity topography (sFCT) contributes significantly to our understanding of brain networks. sFCT can be constructed using either electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG). Here, we compared sFCT within the EEG modality and between EEG and MEG modalities. We first used simulations to look at how different EEG references-including the Reference Electrode Standardization Technique (REST), average reference (AR), linked mastoids (LM), and left mastoid references (LR)-affect EEG-based sFCT. The results showed that REST decreased the reference effects on scalp EEG recordings, making REST-based sFCT closer to the ground truth (sFCT based on ideal recordings). For the inter-modality simulation comparisons, we compared each type of EEG-sFCT with MEG-sFCT using three metrics to quantize the differences: Relative Error (RE), Overlap Rate (OR), and Hamming Distance (HD). When two sFCTs are similar, RE and HD are low, while OR is high. Results showed that among all reference schemes, EEG-and MEG-sFCT were most similar when the EEG was REST-based and the EEG and MEG were recorded simultaneously. Next, we analyzed simultaneously recorded MEG and EEG data from publicly available face-recognition experiments using a similar procedure as in the simulations. The results showed (1) if MEG-sFCT is the standard, REST-and LM-based sFCT provided results closer to this standard in the terms of HD; (2) REST-based sFCT and MEG-sFCT had the highest similarity in terms of RE; (3) REST-based sFCT had the most overlapping edges with MEG-sFCT in terms of OR. This study thus provides new insights into the effect of different reference schemes on sFCT and the similarity between MEG and EEG in terms of sFCT.

  3. Sensor Level Functional Connectivity Topography Comparison Between Different References Based EEG and MEG

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yunzhi; Zhang, Junpeng; Cui, Yuan; Yang, Gang; Liu, Qi; Yin, Guangfu

    2018-01-01

    Sensor-level functional connectivity topography (sFCT) contributes significantly to our understanding of brain networks. sFCT can be constructed using either electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG). Here, we compared sFCT within the EEG modality and between EEG and MEG modalities. We first used simulations to look at how different EEG references—including the Reference Electrode Standardization Technique (REST), average reference (AR), linked mastoids (LM), and left mastoid references (LR)—affect EEG-based sFCT. The results showed that REST decreased the reference effects on scalp EEG recordings, making REST-based sFCT closer to the ground truth (sFCT based on ideal recordings). For the inter-modality simulation comparisons, we compared each type of EEG-sFCT with MEG-sFCT using three metrics to quantize the differences: Relative Error (RE), Overlap Rate (OR), and Hamming Distance (HD). When two sFCTs are similar, RE and HD are low, while OR is high. Results showed that among all reference schemes, EEG-and MEG-sFCT were most similar when the EEG was REST-based and the EEG and MEG were recorded simultaneously. Next, we analyzed simultaneously recorded MEG and EEG data from publicly available face-recognition experiments using a similar procedure as in the simulations. The results showed (1) if MEG-sFCT is the standard, REST—and LM-based sFCT provided results closer to this standard in the terms of HD; (2) REST-based sFCT and MEG-sFCT had the highest similarity in terms of RE; (3) REST-based sFCT had the most overlapping edges with MEG-sFCT in terms of OR. This study thus provides new insights into the effect of different reference schemes on sFCT and the similarity between MEG and EEG in terms of sFCT. PMID:29867395

  4. Categorical discrimination of human body parts by magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Misaki; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Okamura, Yumiko; Fukuma, Ryohei; Hirata, Masayuki; Araki, Toshihiko; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Humans recognize body parts in categories. Previous studies have shown that responses in the fusiform body area (FBA) and extrastriate body area (EBA) are evoked by the perception of the human body, when presented either as whole or as isolated parts. These responses occur approximately 190 ms after body images are visualized. The extent to which body-sensitive responses show specificity for different body part categories remains to be largely clarified. We used a decoding method to quantify neural responses associated with the perception of different categories of body parts. Nine subjects underwent measurements of their brain activities by magnetoencephalography (MEG) while viewing 14 images of feet, hands, mouths, and objects. We decoded categories of the presented images from the MEG signals using a support vector machine (SVM) and calculated their accuracy by 10-fold cross-validation. For each subject, a response that appeared to be a body-sensitive response was observed and the MEG signals corresponding to the three types of body categories were classified based on the signals in the occipitotemporal cortex. The accuracy in decoding body-part categories (with a peak at approximately 48%) was above chance (33.3%) and significantly higher than that for random categories. According to the time course and location, the responses are suggested to be body-sensitive and to include information regarding the body-part category. Finally, this non-invasive method can decode category information of a visual object with high temporal and spatial resolution and this result may have a significant impact in the field of brain-machine interface research.

  5. Categorical discrimination of human body parts by magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Misaki; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Okamura, Yumiko; Fukuma, Ryohei; Hirata, Masayuki; Araki, Toshihiko; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Humans recognize body parts in categories. Previous studies have shown that responses in the fusiform body area (FBA) and extrastriate body area (EBA) are evoked by the perception of the human body, when presented either as whole or as isolated parts. These responses occur approximately 190 ms after body images are visualized. The extent to which body-sensitive responses show specificity for different body part categories remains to be largely clarified. We used a decoding method to quantify neural responses associated with the perception of different categories of body parts. Nine subjects underwent measurements of their brain activities by magnetoencephalography (MEG) while viewing 14 images of feet, hands, mouths, and objects. We decoded categories of the presented images from the MEG signals using a support vector machine (SVM) and calculated their accuracy by 10-fold cross-validation. For each subject, a response that appeared to be a body-sensitive response was observed and the MEG signals corresponding to the three types of body categories were classified based on the signals in the occipitotemporal cortex. The accuracy in decoding body-part categories (with a peak at approximately 48%) was above chance (33.3%) and significantly higher than that for random categories. According to the time course and location, the responses are suggested to be body-sensitive and to include information regarding the body-part category. Finally, this non-invasive method can decode category information of a visual object with high temporal and spatial resolution and this result may have a significant impact in the field of brain–machine interface research. PMID:26582986

  6. Cross-Correlation of Motor Activity Signals from dc-Magnetoencephalography, Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, and Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Tilmann H.; Leistner, Stefanie; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Mackert, Bruno-Marcel; Macdonald, Rainer; Trahms, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal and vascular responses due to finger movements were synchronously measured using dc-magnetoencephalography (dcMEG) and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (trNIRS). The finger movements were monitored with electromyography (EMG). Cortical responses related to the finger movement sequence were extracted by independent component analysis from both the dcMEG and the trNIRS data. The temporal relations between EMG rate, dcMEG, and trNIRS responses were assessed pairwise using the cross-correlation function (CCF), which does not require epoch averaging. A positive lag on a scale of seconds was found for the maximum of the CCF between dcMEG and trNIRS. A zero lag is observed for the CCF between dcMEG and EMG. Additionally this CCF exhibits oscillations at the frequency of individual finger movements. These findings show that the dcMEG with a bandwidth up to 8 Hz records both slow and faster neuronal responses, whereas the vascular response is confirmed to change on a scale of seconds. PMID:20145717

  7. Cross-correlation of motor activity signals from dc-magnetoencephalography, near-infrared spectroscopy, and electromyography.

    PubMed

    Sander, Tilmann H; Leistner, Stefanie; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Mackert, Bruno-Marcel; Macdonald, Rainer; Trahms, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal and vascular responses due to finger movements were synchronously measured using dc-magnetoencephalography (dcMEG) and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (trNIRS). The finger movements were monitored with electromyography (EMG). Cortical responses related to the finger movement sequence were extracted by independent component analysis from both the dcMEG and the trNIRS data. The temporal relations between EMG rate, dcMEG, and trNIRS responses were assessed pairwise using the cross-correlation function (CCF), which does not require epoch averaging. A positive lag on a scale of seconds was found for the maximum of the CCF between dcMEG and trNIRS. A zero lag is observed for the CCF between dcMEG and EMG. Additionally this CCF exhibits oscillations at the frequency of individual finger movements. These findings show that the dcMEG with a bandwidth up to 8 Hz records both slow and faster neuronal responses, whereas the vascular response is confirmed to change on a scale of seconds.

  8. Brain activity during bilateral rapid alternate finger tapping measured with magnetoencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi; Odagaki, Masato; Hiwaki, Osamu; Kodabashi, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Toshiro

    2009-04-01

    Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), brain regions involved in an alternate bimanual tapping task by index fingers triggered with spontaneous timing were investigated. The tapping mode in which both index fingers moved simultaneously was interlaced during the task. The groups of the alternate tapping (AL mode) and the simultaneous tapping (SI mode) were extracted from the successive alternating taps with a histogram of intervals between the right and left index fingers. MEG signals in each mode were averaged separately before and after the tapping initiation of the dominant index finger. The activities of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex before and after the tapping initiation in the AL mode were larger than that in the SI mode. The result indicates that the activity of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex depends on the degree of achievement in the difficult motor task such as the voluntary alternate tapping movements.

  9. EEG and MEG: sensitivity to epileptic spike activity as function of source orientation and depth.

    PubMed

    Hunold, A; Funke, M E; Eichardt, R; Stenroos, M; Haueisen, J

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of neuronal activity from epileptic patients reveal situations in which either EEG or MEG or both modalities show visible interictal spikes. While different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the spikes in EEG and MEG have been reported, a quantitative relation of spike source orientation and depth as well as the background brain activity to the SNR has not been established. We investigated this quantitative relationship for both dipole and patch sources in an anatomically realistic cortex model. Altogether, 5600 dipole and 3300 patch sources were distributed on the segmented cortical surfaces of two volunteers. The sources were classified according to their quantified depths and orientations, ranging from 20 mm to 60 mm below the skin surface and radial and tangential, respectively. The source time-courses mimicked an interictal spike, and the simulated background activity emulated resting activity. Simulations were conducted with individual three-compartment boundary element models. The SNR was evaluated for 128 EEG, 102 MEG magnetometer, and 204 MEG gradiometer channels. For superficial dipole and superficial patch sources, EEG showed higher SNRs for dominantly radial orientations, and MEG showed higher values for dominantly tangential orientations. Gradiometers provided higher SNR than magnetometers for superficial sources, particularly for those with dominantly tangential orientations. The orientation dependent difference in SNR in EEG and MEG gradually changed as the sources were located deeper, where the interictal spikes generated higher SNRs in EEG compared to those in MEG for all source orientations. With deep sources, the SNRs in gradiometers and magnetometers were of the same order. To better detect spikes, both EEG and MEG should be used.

  10. Information spreading by a combination of MEG source estimation and multivariate pattern classification.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masashi; Yamashita, Okito; Sato, Masa-Aki; Miyawaki, Yoichi

    2018-01-01

    To understand information representation in human brain activity, it is important to investigate its fine spatial patterns at high temporal resolution. One possible approach is to use source estimation of magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. Previous studies have mainly quantified accuracy of this technique according to positional deviations and dispersion of estimated sources, but it remains unclear how accurately MEG source estimation restores information content represented by spatial patterns of brain activity. In this study, using simulated MEG signals representing artificial experimental conditions, we performed MEG source estimation and multivariate pattern analysis to examine whether MEG source estimation can restore information content represented by patterns of cortical current in source brain areas. Classification analysis revealed that the corresponding artificial experimental conditions were predicted accurately from patterns of cortical current estimated in the source brain areas. However, accurate predictions were also possible from brain areas whose original sources were not defined. Searchlight decoding further revealed that this unexpected prediction was possible across wide brain areas beyond the original source locations, indicating that information contained in the original sources can spread through MEG source estimation. This phenomenon of "information spreading" may easily lead to false-positive interpretations when MEG source estimation and classification analysis are combined to identify brain areas that represent target information. Real MEG data analyses also showed that presented stimuli were able to be predicted in the higher visual cortex at the same latency as in the primary visual cortex, also suggesting that information spreading took place. These results indicate that careful inspection is necessary to avoid false-positive interpretations when MEG source estimation and multivariate pattern analysis are combined.

  11. Information spreading by a combination of MEG source estimation and multivariate pattern classification

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Masashi; Yamashita, Okito; Sato, Masa-aki

    2018-01-01

    To understand information representation in human brain activity, it is important to investigate its fine spatial patterns at high temporal resolution. One possible approach is to use source estimation of magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. Previous studies have mainly quantified accuracy of this technique according to positional deviations and dispersion of estimated sources, but it remains unclear how accurately MEG source estimation restores information content represented by spatial patterns of brain activity. In this study, using simulated MEG signals representing artificial experimental conditions, we performed MEG source estimation and multivariate pattern analysis to examine whether MEG source estimation can restore information content represented by patterns of cortical current in source brain areas. Classification analysis revealed that the corresponding artificial experimental conditions were predicted accurately from patterns of cortical current estimated in the source brain areas. However, accurate predictions were also possible from brain areas whose original sources were not defined. Searchlight decoding further revealed that this unexpected prediction was possible across wide brain areas beyond the original source locations, indicating that information contained in the original sources can spread through MEG source estimation. This phenomenon of “information spreading” may easily lead to false-positive interpretations when MEG source estimation and classification analysis are combined to identify brain areas that represent target information. Real MEG data analyses also showed that presented stimuli were able to be predicted in the higher visual cortex at the same latency as in the primary visual cortex, also suggesting that information spreading took place. These results indicate that careful inspection is necessary to avoid false-positive interpretations when MEG source estimation and multivariate pattern analysis are combined. PMID:29912968

  12. Development of Advanced Active Haptic System for Musculokelelton-Exoskeleton Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-31

    magnetoencephalography system (MEG). The Cognoscope device may allow researchers to determine when a specific muscle contraction is about to take...motion before it actually occurs. In order for the limbs to move voluntarily, muscle contraction needs to occur. There are several physiologic changes...to muscle that occur immediately preceding force production. The most common way of measuring the onset of muscle contraction is via

  13. Physical fatigue increases neural activation during eyes-closed state: a magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-11-05

    Fatigue, defined as difficulty initiating or sustaining voluntary activities, can be classified as physical or mental. In this study, we use magnetoencephalography (MEG) to quantify the effect of physical fatigue on neural activity under the condition of simulated physical load. Thirteen healthy right-handed male volunteers participated in this study. The experiment consisted of one fatigue-inducing physical task session performed between two MEG sessions. During the 10-min physical task session, participants performed maximum-effort handgrips with the left hand lasting 1 s every 4 s; during MEG sessions, 3-min recordings were made during the eyes-closed state. MEG data were analyzed using narrow-band adaptive spatial filtering methods. Alpha-frequency band (8-13 Hz) power in the left postcentral gyrus, precentral gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 46) were decreased after performing the physical fatigue-inducing task. These results show that performing the physical fatigue-inducing task caused activation of the left sensorimotor and prefrontal areas, manifested as decreased alpha-frequency band power in these brain areas. Our results increase understanding of the neural mechanisms of physical fatigue.

  14. MEG adaptation reveals action representations in posterior occipitotemporal regions.

    PubMed

    Hauswald, Anne; Tucciarelli, Raffaele; Lingnau, Angelika

    2018-06-01

    When we observe other people's actions, a number of parietal and precentral regions known to be involved in the planning and execution of actions are recruited for example seen as power decreases in alpha and beta frequencies indicative of increased activation. It has been argued that this recruitment reflects the process of simulating the observed action, thereby providing access to the meaning of the action. Alternatively, it has been suggested that rather than providing access to the meaning of an action, parietal and precentral regions might be recruited as a consequence of action understanding. A way to distinguish between these alternatives is to examine where in the brain and at which time point it is possible to discriminate between different types of actions (e.g., pointing or grasping) irrespective of the way these are performed. To this aim, we presented participants with videos of simple hand actions performed with the left or right hand towards a target on the left or the right side while recording magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. In each trial, participants were presented with two subsequent videos (S1, S2) depicting either the same (repeat trials) or different (non-repeat trials) actions. We predicted that areas that are sensitive to the type of action should show stronger adaptation (i.e., a smaller decrease in alpha and beta power) in repeat in comparison to non-repeat trials. Indeed, we observed less alpha and beta power decreases during the presentation of S2 when the action was repeated compared to when two different actions were presented indicating adaptation of neuronal populations that are selective for the type of action. Sources were obtained exclusively in posterior occipitotemporal regions, supporting the notion that an early differentiation of actions occurs outside the motor system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alterations of Intrinsic Brain Connectivity Patterns in Depression and Bipolar Disorders: A Critical Assessment of Magnetoencephalography-Based Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Alamian, Golnoush; Hincapié, Ana-Sofía; Combrisson, Etienne; Thiery, Thomas; Martel, Véronique; Althukov, Dmitrii; Jerbi, Karim

    2017-01-01

    Despite being the object of a thriving field of clinical research, the investigation of intrinsic brain network alterations in psychiatric illnesses is still in its early days. Because the pathological alterations are predominantly probed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), many questions about the electrophysiological bases of resting-state alterations in psychiatric disorders, particularly among mood disorder patients, remain unanswered. Alongside important research using electroencephalography (EEG), the specific recent contributions and future promise of magnetoencephalography (MEG) in this field are not fully recognized and valued. Here, we provide a critical review of recent findings from MEG resting-state connectivity within major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). The clinical MEG resting-state results are compared with those previously reported with fMRI and EEG. Taken together, MEG appears to be a promising but still critically underexploited technique to unravel the neurophysiological mechanisms that mediate abnormal (both hyper- and hypo-) connectivity patterns involved in MDD and BD. In particular, a major strength of MEG is its ability to provide source-space estimations of neuromagnetic long-range rhythmic synchronization at various frequencies (i.e., oscillatory coupling). The reviewed literature highlights the relevance of probing local and interregional rhythmic synchronization to explore the pathophysiological underpinnings of each disorder. However, before we can fully take advantage of MEG connectivity analyses in psychiatry, several limitations inherent to MEG connectivity analyses need to be understood and taken into account. Thus, we also discuss current methodological challenges and outline paths for future research. MEG resting-state studies provide an important window onto perturbed spontaneous oscillatory brain networks and hence supply an important complement to fMRI-based resting-state measurements in

  16. Autoreject: Automated artifact rejection for MEG and EEG data.

    PubMed

    Jas, Mainak; Engemann, Denis A; Bekhti, Yousra; Raimondo, Federico; Gramfort, Alexandre

    2017-10-01

    We present an automated algorithm for unified rejection and repair of bad trials in magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Our method capitalizes on cross-validation in conjunction with a robust evaluation metric to estimate the optimal peak-to-peak threshold - a quantity commonly used for identifying bad trials in M/EEG. This approach is then extended to a more sophisticated algorithm which estimates this threshold for each sensor yielding trial-wise bad sensors. Depending on the number of bad sensors, the trial is then repaired by interpolation or by excluding it from subsequent analysis. All steps of the algorithm are fully automated thus lending itself to the name Autoreject. In order to assess the practical significance of the algorithm, we conducted extensive validation and comparisons with state-of-the-art methods on four public datasets containing MEG and EEG recordings from more than 200 subjects. The comparisons include purely qualitative efforts as well as quantitatively benchmarking against human supervised and semi-automated preprocessing pipelines. The algorithm allowed us to automate the preprocessing of MEG data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) going up to the computation of the evoked responses. The automated nature of our method minimizes the burden of human inspection, hence supporting scalability and reliability demanded by data analysis in modern neuroscience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Online and offline tools for head movement compensation in MEG.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Todorovic, Ana; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Oostenveld, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is measured above the head, which makes it sensitive to variations of the head position with respect to the sensors. Head movements blur the topography of the neuronal sources of the MEG signal, increase localization errors, and reduce statistical sensitivity. Here we describe two novel and readily applicable methods that compensate for the detrimental effects of head motion on the statistical sensitivity of MEG experiments. First, we introduce an online procedure that continuously monitors head position. Second, we describe an offline analysis method that takes into account the head position time-series. We quantify the performance of these methods in the context of three different experimental settings, involving somatosensory, visual and auditory stimuli, assessing both individual and group-level statistics. The online head localization procedure allowed for optimal repositioning of the subjects over multiple sessions, resulting in a 28% reduction of the variance in dipole position and an improvement of up to 15% in statistical sensitivity. Offline incorporation of the head position time-series into the general linear model resulted in improvements of group-level statistical sensitivity between 15% and 29%. These tools can substantially reduce the influence of head movement within and between sessions, increasing the sensitivity of many cognitive neuroscience experiments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Spectral changes in spontaneous MEG activity across the lifespan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Carlos; Pérez-Macías, Jose M.; Poza, Jesús; Fernández, Alberto; Hornero, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to explore the spectral patterns of spontaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG) activity across the lifespan. Approach. Relative power (RP) in six frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta-1, beta-2 and gamma) was calculated in a sample of 220 healthy subjects with ages ranging from 7 to 84 years. Main results. A significant RP decrease in low-frequency bands (i.e. delta and theta) and a significant increase in high bands (mainly beta-1 and beta-2) were found from childhood to adolescence. This trend was observed until the sixth decade of life, though only slight changes were found. Additionally, healthy aging was characterized by a power increase in low-frequency bands. Our results show that spectral changes across the lifespan may follow a quadratic relationship in delta, theta, alpha, beta-2 and gamma bands with peak ages being reached around the fifth or sixth decade of life. Significance. Our findings provide original insights into the definition of the ‘normal’ behavior of age-related MEG spectral patterns. Furthermore, our study can be useful for the forthcoming MEG research focused on the description of the abnormalities of different brain diseases in comparison to cognitive decline in normal aging.

  19. Measuring functional connectivity using MEG: Methodology and comparison with fcMRI

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Matthew J.; Hale, Joanne R.; Zumer, Johanna M.; Stevenson, Claire M.; Francis, Susan T.; Barnes, Gareth R.; Owen, Julia P.; Morris, Peter G.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2011-01-01

    Functional connectivity (FC) between brain regions is thought to be central to the way in which the brain processes information. Abnormal connectivity is thought to be implicated in a number of diseases. The ability to study FC is therefore a key goal for neuroimaging. Functional connectivity (fc) MRI has become a popular tool to make connectivity measurements but the technique is limited by its indirect nature. A multimodal approach is therefore an attractive means to investigate the electrodynamic mechanisms underlying hemodynamic connectivity. In this paper, we investigate resting state FC using fcMRI and magnetoencephalography (MEG). In fcMRI, we exploit the advantages afforded by ultra high magnetic field. In MEG we apply envelope correlation and coherence techniques to source space projected MEG signals. We show that beamforming provides an excellent means to measure FC in source space using MEG data. However, care must be taken when interpreting these measurements since cross talk between voxels in source space can potentially lead to spurious connectivity and this must be taken into account in all studies of this type. We show good spatial agreement between FC measured independently using MEG and fcMRI; FC between sensorimotor cortices was observed using both modalities, with the best spatial agreement when MEG data are filtered into the β band. This finding helps to reduce the potential confounds associated with each modality alone: while it helps reduce the uncertainties in spatial patterns generated by MEG (brought about by the ill posed inverse problem), addition of electrodynamic metric confirms the neural basis of fcMRI measurements. Finally, we show that multiple MEG based FC metrics allow the potential to move beyond what is possible using fcMRI, and investigate the nature of electrodynamic connectivity. Our results extend those from previous studies and add weight to the argument that neural oscillations are intimately related to functional

  20. The Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for Solving the MEG and the Combined MEG/EEG Forward Problem

    PubMed Central

    Piastra, Maria Carla; Nüßing, Andreas; Vorwerk, Johannes; Bornfleth, Harald; Oostenveld, Robert; Engwer, Christian; Wolters, Carsten H.

    2018-01-01

    In Electro- (EEG) and Magnetoencephalography (MEG), one important requirement of source reconstruction is the forward model. The continuous Galerkin finite element method (CG-FEM) has become one of the dominant approaches for solving the forward problem over the last decades. Recently, a discontinuous Galerkin FEM (DG-FEM) EEG forward approach has been proposed as an alternative to CG-FEM (Engwer et al., 2017). It was shown that DG-FEM preserves the property of conservation of charge and that it can, in certain situations such as the so-called skull leakages, be superior to the standard CG-FEM approach. In this paper, we developed, implemented, and evaluated two DG-FEM approaches for the MEG forward problem, namely a conservative and a non-conservative one. The subtraction approach was used as source model. The validation and evaluation work was done in statistical investigations in multi-layer homogeneous sphere models, where an analytic solution exists, and in a six-compartment realistically shaped head volume conductor model. In agreement with the theory, the conservative DG-FEM approach was found to be superior to the non-conservative DG-FEM implementation. This approach also showed convergence with increasing resolution of the hexahedral meshes. While in the EEG case, in presence of skull leakages, DG-FEM outperformed CG-FEM, in MEG, DG-FEM achieved similar numerical errors as the CG-FEM approach, i.e., skull leakages do not play a role for the MEG modality. In particular, for the finest mesh resolution of 1 mm sources with a distance of 1.59 mm from the brain-CSF surface, DG-FEM yielded mean topographical errors (relative difference measure, RDM%) of 1.5% and mean magnitude errors (MAG%) of 0.1% for the magnetic field. However, if the goal is a combined source analysis of EEG and MEG data, then it is highly desirable to employ the same forward model for both EEG and MEG data. Based on these results, we conclude that the newly presented conservative DG-FEM can

  1. Neural Signatures of Phonetic Learning in Adulthood: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Kuhl, Patricia K.; Imada, Toshiaki; Iverson, Paul; Pruitt, John; Stevens, Erica B.; Kawakatsu, Masaki; Tohkura, Yoh'ichi; Nemoto, Iku

    2010-01-01

    The present study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine perceptual learning of American English /r/ and /l/ categories by Japanese adults who had limited English exposure. A training software program was developed based on the principles of infant phonetic learning, featuring systematic acoustic exaggeration, multi-talker variability, visible articulation, and adaptive listening. The program was designed to help Japanese listeners utilize an acoustic dimension relevant for phonemic categorization of /r-l/ in English. Although training did not produce native-like phonetic boundary along the /r-l/ synthetic continuum in the second language learners, success was seen in highly significant identification improvement over twelve training sessions and transfer of learning to novel stimuli. Consistent with behavioral results, pre-post MEG measures showed not only enhanced neural sensitivity to the /r-l/ distinction in the left-hemisphere mismatch field (MMF) response but also bilateral decreases in equivalent current dipole (ECD) cluster and duration measures for stimulus coding in the inferior parietal region. The learning-induced increases in neural sensitivity and efficiency were also found in distributed source analysis using Minimum Current Estimates (MCE). Furthermore, the pre-post changes exhibited significant brain-behavior correlations between speech discrimination scores and MMF amplitudes as well as between the behavioral scores and ECD measures of neural efficiency. Together, the data provide corroborating evidence that substantial neural plasticity for second-language learning in adulthood can be induced with adaptive and enriched linguistic exposure. Like the MMF, the ECD cluster and duration measures are sensitive neural markers of phonetic learning. PMID:19457395

  2. From Structure to Circuits: The Contribution of MEG Connectivity Studies to Functional Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Pang, Elizabeth W; Snead Iii, O C

    2016-01-01

    New advances in structural neuroimaging have revealed the intricate and extensive connections within the brain, data which have informed a number of ambitious projects such as the mapping of the human connectome. Elucidation of the structural connections of the brain, at both the macro and micro levels, promises new perspectives on brain structure and function that could translate into improved outcomes in functional neurosurgery. The understanding of neuronal structural connectivity afforded by these data now offers a vista on the brain, in both healthy and diseased states, that could not be seen with traditional neuroimaging. Concurrent with these developments in structural imaging, a complementary modality called magnetoencephalography (MEG) has been garnering great attention because it too holds promise for being able to shed light on the intricacies of functional brain connectivity. MEG is based upon the elemental principle of physics that an electrical current generates a magnetic field. Hence, MEG uses highly sensitive biomagnetometers to measure extracranial magnetic fields produced by intracellular neuronal currents. Put simply then, MEG is a measure of neurophysiological activity, which captures the magnetic fields generated by synchronized intraneuronal electrical activity. As such, MEG recordings offer exquisite resolution in the time and oscillatory domain and, as well, when co-registered with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), offer excellent resolution in the spatial domain. Recent advances in MEG computational and graph theoretical methods have led to studies of connectivity in the time-frequency domain. As such, MEG can elucidate a neurophysiological-based functional circuitry that may enhance what is seen with MRI connectivity studies. In particular, MEG may offer additional insight not possible by MRI when used to study complex eloquent function, where the precise timing and coordination of brain areas is critical. This article will review the

  3. MEG time-frequency analyses for pre- and post-surgical evaluation of patients with epileptic rhythmic fast activity.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Keitaro; Takeuchi, Fumiya; Shiraishi, Hideaki; Nakane, Shingo; Asahina, Naoko; Kohsaka, Shinobu; Nakama, Hideyuki; Otsuki, Taisuke; Sawamura, Yutaka; Saitoh, Shinji

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of surgery for epilepsy, we analyzed rhythmic fast activity by magnetoencephalography (MEG) before and after surgery using time-frequency analysis. To assess reliability, the results obtained by pre-surgical MEG and intraoperative electrocorticography were compared. Four children with symptomatic localization-related epilepsy caused by circumscribed cortical lesion were examined in the present study using 204-channel helmet-shaped MEG with a sampling rate of 600Hz. One patient had dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) and three patients had focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Aberrant areas were superimposed, to reconstruct 3D MRI images, and illustrated as moving images. In three patients, short-time Fourier transform (STFT) analyses of MEG showed rhythmic activities just above the lesion with FCD and in the vicinity of DNT. In one patient with FCD in the medial temporal lobe, rhythmic activity appeared in the ipsilateral frontal lobe and temporal lateral aspect. These findings correlate well with the results obtained by intraoperative electrocorticography. After the surgery, three patients were relieved of their seizures, and the area of rhythmic MEG activity disappeared or become smaller. One patient had residual rhythmic MEG activity, and she suffered from seizure relapse. Time-frequency analyses using STFT successfully depicted MEG rhythmic fast activity, and would provide valuable information for pre- and post-surgical evaluations to define surgical strategies for patients with epilepsy.

  4. Estimation of the velocity and trajectory of three-dimensional reaching movements from non-invasive magnetoencephalography signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Hong Gi; Sic Kim, June; Chung, Chun Kee

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Studies on the non-invasive brain-machine interface that controls prosthetic devices via movement intentions are at their very early stages. Here, we aimed to estimate three-dimensional arm movements using magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals with high accuracy. Approach. Whole-head MEG signals were acquired during three-dimensional reaching movements (center-out paradigm). For movement decoding, we selected 68 MEG channels in motor-related areas, which were band-pass filtered using four subfrequency bands (0.5-8, 9-22, 25-40 and 57-97 Hz). After the filtering, the signals were resampled, and 11 data points preceding the current data point were used as features for estimating velocity. Multiple linear regressions were used to estimate movement velocities. Movement trajectories were calculated by integrating estimated velocities. We evaluated our results by calculating correlation coefficients (r) between real and estimated velocities. Main results. Movement velocities could be estimated from the low-frequency MEG signals (0.5-8 Hz) with significant and considerably high accuracy (p <0.001, mean r > 0.7). We also showed that preceding (60-140 ms) MEG signals are important to estimate current movement velocities and the intervals of brain signals of 200-300 ms are sufficient for movement estimation. Significance. These results imply that disabled people will be able to control prosthetic devices without surgery in the near future.

  5. Suppressive responses by visual food cues in postprandial activities of insular cortex as revealed by magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2014-06-03

    'Hara-Hachibu' in Japanese means a subjective sense by which we stop eating just before the motivation to eat is completely lost, a similar concept to caloric restriction (CR). Insular cortex is a critical platform which integrates sensory information into decision-making processes in eating behavior. We compared the responses of insular cortex, as assessed by magnetoencephalography (MEG), immediately after presentation of food images in the Fasting condition with those in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition. Eleven healthy, right-handed males [age, 27.2±9.6 years; body mass index, 22.6±2.1kg/m(2) (mean±SD)] were enrolled in a randomized, two-crossover experiment (Fasting and 'Hara-Hachibu' conditions). Before the MEG recordings in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition, the participants consumed rice balls as much as they judged themselves to have consumed shortly before reaching satiety. During the MEG recordings, they viewed food pictures projected on a screen. The intensities of MEG responses to viewing food pictures were significantly lower in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition than those in the Fasting condition (P<0.05). The intensities of the MEG responses to the visual food stimuli in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition was positively associated with the factor-3 (food tasted) (r=0.693, P=0.018) and aggregated scores (r=0.659, P=0.027) of the Power of Food Scale, a self-report measure of hedonic hunger. These findings may help to elucidate the neural basis of variability of appetite phenotypes under the condition of CR among individuals, and to develop possible strategies for the maintenance of adequate CR in daily life. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Two types of exercise-induced neuroplasticity in congenital hemiparesis: a transcranial magnetic stimulation, functional MRI, and magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Juenger, Hendrik; Kuhnke, Nicola; Braun, Christoph; Ummenhofer, Frank; Wilke, Marko; Walther, Michael; Koerte, Inga; Delvendahl, Igor; Jung, Nikolai H; Berweck, Steffen; Staudt, Martin; Mall, Volker

    2013-10-01

    Early unilateral brain lesions can lead to a persistence of ipsilateral corticospinal projections from the contralesional hemisphere, which can enable the contralesional hemisphere to exert motor control over the paretic hand. In contrast to the primary motor representation (M1), the primary somatosensory representation (S1) of the paretic hand always remains in the lesioned hemisphere. Here, we report on differences in exercise-induced neuroplasticity between individuals with such ipsilateral motor projections (ipsi) and individuals with early unilateral lesions but 'healthy' contralateral motor projections (contra). Sixteen children and young adults with congenital hemiparesis participated in the study (contralateral [Contra] group: n=7, four females, three males; age range 10-30y, median age 16y; ipsilateral [Ipsi] group: n=9, four females, five males; age range 11-31y, median age 12y; Manual Ability Classification System levels I to II in all individuals in both groups). The participants underwent a 12-day intervention of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), consisting of individual training (2h/d) and group training (8h/d). Before and after CIMT, hand function was tested using the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) and diverging neuroplastic effects were observed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Statistical analysis of TMS data was performed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test for pair-wise comparison; for fMRI standard statistical parametric and non-parametric mapping (SPM5, SnPM3) procedures (first level/second level) were carried out. Statistical analyses of MEG data involved analyses of variance (ANOVA) and t-tests. While MEG demonstrated a significant increase in S1 activation in both groups (p=0.012), TMS showed a decrease in M1 excitability in the Ipsi group (p=0.036), but an increase in M1 excitability in the Contra group (p=0.043). Similarly

  7. Complexity Measures in Magnetoencephalography: Measuring "Disorder" in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Matthew J.; Hall, Emma L.; Robson, Siân E.; Price, Darren; Palaniyappan, Lena; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Liddle, Peter F.; Robinson, Stephen E.; Morris, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper details a methodology which, when applied to magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, is capable of measuring the spatio-temporal dynamics of ‘disorder’ in the human brain. Our method, which is based upon signal entropy, shows that spatially separate brain regions (or networks) generate temporally independent entropy time-courses. These time-courses are modulated by cognitive tasks, with an increase in local neural processing characterised by localised and transient increases in entropy in the neural signal. We explore the relationship between entropy and the more established time-frequency decomposition methods, which elucidate the temporal evolution of neural oscillations. We observe a direct but complex relationship between entropy and oscillatory amplitude, which suggests that these metrics are complementary. Finally, we provide a demonstration of the clinical utility of our method, using it to shed light on aberrant neurophysiological processing in schizophrenia. We demonstrate significantly increased task induced entropy change in patients (compared to controls) in multiple brain regions, including a cingulo-insula network, bilateral insula cortices and a right fronto-parietal network. These findings demonstrate potential clinical utility for our method and support a recent hypothesis that schizophrenia can be characterised by abnormalities in the salience network (a well characterised distributed network comprising bilateral insula and cingulate cortices). PMID:25886553

  8. Using joint ICA to link function and structure using MEG and DTI in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, JM; Coffman, BA; Jung, RE; Bustillo, JR; Aine, CJ; Calhoun, VD

    2013-01-01

    In this study we employed joint independent component analysis (jICA) to perform a novel multivariate integration of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data to investigate the link between function and structure. This model-free approach allows one to identify covariation across modalities with different temporal and spatial scales [temporal variation in MEG and spatial variation in fractional anisotropy (FA) maps]. Healthy controls (HC) and patients with schizophrenia (SP) participated in an auditory/visual multisensory integration paradigm to probe cortical connectivity in schizophrenia. To allow direct comparisons across participants and groups, the MEG data were registered to an average head position and regional waveforms were obtained by calculating the local field power of the planar gradiometers. Diffusion tensor images obtained in the same individuals were preprocessed to provide FA maps for each participant. The MEG/FA data were then integrated using the jICA software (http://mialab.mrn.org/software/fit). We identified MEG/FA components that demonstrated significantly different (p < 0.05) covariation in MEG/FA data between diagnostic groups (SP vs. HC) and three components that captured the predominant sensory responses in the MEG data. Lower FA values in bilateral posterior parietal regions, which include anterior/posterior association tracts, were associated with reduced MEG amplitude (120-170 ms) of the visual response in occipital sensors in SP relative to HC. Additionally, increased FA in a right medial frontal region was linked with larger amplitude late MEG activity (300-400 ms) in bilateral central channels for SP relative to HC. Step-wise linear regression provided evidence that right temporal, occipital and late central components were significant predictors of reaction time and cognitive performance based on the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) cognitive assessment

  9. Body position alters human resting-state: Insights from multi-postural magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Robert T; Lifshitz, Michael; Raz, Amir

    2016-09-01

    Neuroimaging researchers tacitly assume that body-position scantily affects neural activity. However, whereas participants in most psychological experiments sit upright, many modern neuroimaging techniques (e.g., fMRI) require participants to lie supine. Sparse findings from electroencephalography and positron emission tomography suggest that body position influences cognitive processes and neural activity. Here we leverage multi-postural magnetoencephalography (MEG) to further unravel how physical stance alters baseline brain activity. We present resting-state MEG data from 12 healthy participants in three orthostatic conditions (i.e., lying supine, reclined at 45°, and sitting upright). Our findings demonstrate that upright, compared to reclined or supine, posture increases left-hemisphere high-frequency oscillatory activity over common speech areas. This proof-of-concept experiment establishes the feasibility of using MEG to examine the influence of posture on brain dynamics. We highlight the advantages and methodological challenges inherent to this approach and lay the foundation for future studies to further investigate this important, albeit little-acknowledged, procedural caveat.

  10. The Neural Bases of Taxonomic and Thematic Conceptual Relations: An MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gwyneth A.; Poeppel, David; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Converging evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies of human concepts indicate distinct neural systems for taxonomic and thematic knowledge. A recent study of naming in aphasia found involvement of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) during taxonomic (feature-based) processing, and involvement of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) during thematic (function-based) processing. We conducted an online magnetoencephalography (MEG) study to examine the spatio-temporal nature of taxonomic and thematic relations. We measured participants’ brain responses to words preceded by either a taxonomically or thematically related item (e.g., cottage→castle, king→castle). In a separate experiment we collected relatedness ratings of the word pairs from participants. We examined effects of relatedness and relation type on activation in ATL and TPJ regions of interest (ROIs) using permutation t-tests to identify differences in ROI activation between conditions as well as single-trial correlational analyses to examine the millisecond-by-millisecond influence of the stimulus variables on the ROIs. Taxonomic relations strongly predicted ATL activation, and both kinds of relations influenced the TPJ. Our results further strengthen the view of the ATL's importance to taxonomic knowledge. Moreover, they provide a nuanced view of thematic relations as involving taxonomic knowledge. PMID:25582406

  11. Non-invasive detection of language-related prefrontal high gamma band activity with beamforming MEG.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hiroaki; Hasegawa, Yuka; Araki, Toshihiko; Sugata, Hisato; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Yorifuji, Shiro; Hirata, Masayuki

    2017-10-27

    High gamma band (>50 Hz) activity is a key oscillatory phenomenon of brain activation. However, there has not been a non-invasive method established to detect language-related high gamma band activity. We used a 160-channel whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system equipped with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) gradiometers to non-invasively investigate neuromagnetic activities during silent reading and verb generation tasks in 15 healthy participants. Individual data were divided into alpha (8-13 Hz), beta (13-25 Hz), low gamma (25-50 Hz), and high gamma (50-100 Hz) bands and analysed with the beamformer method. The time window was consecutively moved. Group analysis was performed to delineate common areas of brain activation. In the verb generation task, transient power increases in the high gamma band appeared in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) at the 550-750 ms post-stimulus window. We set a virtual sensor on the left MFG for time-frequency analysis, and high gamma event-related synchronization (ERS) induced by a verb generation task was demonstrated at 650 ms. In contrast, ERS in the high gamma band was not detected in the silent reading task. Thus, our study successfully non-invasively measured language-related prefrontal high gamma band activity.

  12. Analysis of MEG Auditory 40-Hz Response by Event-Related Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keita; Kawakatsu, Masaki; Yunokuchi, Kazutomo

    We examined the event-related coherence of magnetoencephalography (auditory 40-Hz response) while the subjects were presented click acoustic stimuli at repetition rate 40Hz in the ‘Attend' and ‘Reading' conditions. MEG signals were recorded of 5 healthy males using the whole-head SQUID system. The event-related coherence was used to provide a measurement of short synchronization which occurs in response to a stimulus. The results showed that the peak value of coherence in auditory 40-Hz response between right and left temporal regions was significantly larger when subjects paid attention to stimuli (‘Attend' condition) rather than it was when the subject ignored them (‘Reading' condition). Moreover, the latency of coherence in auditory 40-Hz response was significantly shorter when the subjects paid attention to stimuli (‘Attend' condition). These results suggest that the phase synchronization between right and left temporal region in auditory 40-Hz response correlate closely with selective attention.

  13. Beamformer source analysis and connectivity on concurrent EEG and MEG data during voluntary movements.

    PubMed

    Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Hellriegel, Helge; Hoogenboom, Nienke; Anwar, Abdul Rauf; Mideksa, Kidist Gebremariam; Krause, Holger; Schnitzler, Alfons; Deuschl, Günther; Raethjen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are the two modalities for measuring neuronal dynamics at a millisecond temporal resolution. Different source analysis methods, to locate the dipoles in the brain from which these dynamics originate, have been readily applied to both modalities alone. However, direct comparisons and possible advantages of combining both modalities have rarely been assessed during voluntary movements using coherent source analysis. In the present study, the cortical and sub-cortical network of coherent sources at the finger tapping task frequency (2-4 Hz) and the modes of interaction within this network were analysed in 15 healthy subjects using a beamformer approach called the dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) with subsequent source signal reconstruction and renormalized partial directed coherence analysis (RPDC). MEG and EEG data were recorded simultaneously allowing the comparison of each of the modalities separately to that of the combined approach. We found the identified network of coherent sources for the finger tapping task as described in earlier studies when using only the MEG or combined MEG+EEG whereas the EEG data alone failed to detect single sub-cortical sources. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) level of the coherent rhythmic activity at the tapping frequency in MEG and combined MEG+EEG data was significantly higher than EEG alone. The functional connectivity analysis revealed that the combined approach had more active connections compared to either of the modalities during the finger tapping (FT) task. These results indicate that MEG is superior in the detection of deep coherent sources and that the SNR seems to be more vital than the sensitivity to theoretical dipole orientation and the volume conduction effect in the case of EEG.

  14. Beamformer Source Analysis and Connectivity on Concurrent EEG and MEG Data during Voluntary Movements

    PubMed Central

    Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Hellriegel, Helge; Hoogenboom, Nienke; Anwar, Abdul Rauf; Mideksa, Kidist Gebremariam; Krause, Holger; Schnitzler, Alfons; Deuschl, Günther; Raethjen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are the two modalities for measuring neuronal dynamics at a millisecond temporal resolution. Different source analysis methods, to locate the dipoles in the brain from which these dynamics originate, have been readily applied to both modalities alone. However, direct comparisons and possible advantages of combining both modalities have rarely been assessed during voluntary movements using coherent source analysis. In the present study, the cortical and sub-cortical network of coherent sources at the finger tapping task frequency (2–4 Hz) and the modes of interaction within this network were analysed in 15 healthy subjects using a beamformer approach called the dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) with subsequent source signal reconstruction and renormalized partial directed coherence analysis (RPDC). MEG and EEG data were recorded simultaneously allowing the comparison of each of the modalities separately to that of the combined approach. We found the identified network of coherent sources for the finger tapping task as described in earlier studies when using only the MEG or combined MEG+EEG whereas the EEG data alone failed to detect single sub-cortical sources. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) level of the coherent rhythmic activity at the tapping frequency in MEG and combined MEG+EEG data was significantly higher than EEG alone. The functional connectivity analysis revealed that the combined approach had more active connections compared to either of the modalities during the finger tapping (FT) task. These results indicate that MEG is superior in the detection of deep coherent sources and that the SNR seems to be more vital than the sensitivity to theoretical dipole orientation and the volume conduction effect in the case of EEG. PMID:24618596

  15. EEG and MEG source localization using recursively applied (RAP) MUSIC

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.C.; Leahy, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    The multiple signal characterization (MUSIC) algorithm locates multiple asynchronous dipolar sources from electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. A signal subspace is estimated from the data, then the algorithm scans a single dipole model through a three-dimensional head volume and computes projections onto this subspace. To locate the sources, the user must search the head volume for local peaks in the projection metric. Here we describe a novel extension of this approach which we refer to as RAP (Recursively APplied) MUSIC. This new procedure automatically extracts the locations of the sources through a recursive use of subspace projections, which usesmore » the metric of principal correlations as a multidimensional form of correlation analysis between the model subspace and the data subspace. The dipolar orientations, a form of `diverse polarization,` are easily extracted using the associated principal vectors.« less

  16. Magnetoencephalography of frontotemporal dementia: spatiotemporally localized changes during semantic decisions

    PubMed Central

    Nestor, Peter J.; Hodges, John R.; Rowe, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder with dysfunction and atrophy of the frontal lobes leading to changes in personality, behaviour, empathy, social conduct and insight, with relative preservation of language and memory. As novel treatments begin to emerge, biomarkers of frontotemporal dementia will become increasingly important, including functionally relevant neuroimaging indices of the neurophysiological basis of cognition. We used magnetoencephalography to examine behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia using a semantic decision task that elicits both frontal and temporal activity in healthy people. Twelve patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (age 50–75) and 16 matched controls made categorical semantic judgements about 400 pictures during continuous magnetoencephalography. Distributed source analysis was used to compare patients and controls. The patients had normal early responses to picture confrontation, indicating intact visual processing. However, a predominantly posterior set of regions including temporoparietal cortex showed reduced source activity 250–310 ms after stimulus onset, in proportion to behavioural measures of semantic association. In contrast, a left frontoparietal network showed reduced source activity at 550–650 ms, proportional to patients’ deficits in attention and orientation. This late deficit probably reflects impairment in the neural substrate of goal-oriented decision making. The results demonstrate behaviourally relevant neural correlates of semantic processing and decision making in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, and show for the first time that magnetoencephalography can be used to study cognitive systems in the context of frontotemporal dementia. PMID:21840892

  17. Distributed Source Modeling of Language with Magnetoencephalography: Application to Patients with Intractable Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Carrie R.; Thesen, Thomas; Hagler, Donald J.; Carlson, Chad; Devinksy, Orrin; Kuzniecky, Rubin; Barr, William; Gharapetian, Lusineh; Trongnetrpunya, Amy; Dale, Anders M.; Halgren, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To examine distributed patterns of language processing in healthy controls and patients with epilepsy using magnetoencephalography (MEG), and to evaluate the concordance between laterality of distributed MEG sources and language laterality as determined by the intracarotid amobarbitol procedure (IAP). Methods MEG was performed in ten healthy controls using an anatomically-constrained, noise-normalized distributed source solution (dSPM). Distributed source modeling of language was then applied to eight patients with intractable epilepsy. Average source strengths within temporoparietal and frontal lobe regions of interest (ROIs) were calculated and the laterality of activity within ROIs during discrete time windows was compared to results from the IAP. Results In healthy controls, dSPM revealed activity in visual cortex bilaterally from ~80-120ms in response to novel words and sensory control stimuli (i.e., false fonts). Activity then spread to fusiform cortex ~160-200ms, and was dominated by left hemisphere activity in response to novel words. From ~240-450ms, novel words produced activity that was left-lateralized in frontal and temporal lobe regions, including anterior and inferior temporal, temporal pole, and pars opercularis, as well as bilaterally in posterior superior temporal cortex. Analysis of patient data with dSPM demonstrated that from 350-450ms, laterality of temporoparietal sources agreed with the IAP 75% of the time, whereas laterality of frontal MEG sources agreed with the IAP in all eight patients. Discussion Our results reveal that dSPM can unveil the timing and spatial extent of language processes in patients with epilepsy and may enhance knowledge of language lateralization and localization for use in preoperative planning. PMID:19552656

  18. Test-retest reliability of resting-state magnetoencephalography power in sensor and source space.

    PubMed

    Martín-Buro, María Carmen; Garcés, Pilar; Maestú, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported changes in spontaneous brain rhythms that could be used as clinical biomarkers or in the evaluation of neuropsychological and drug treatments in longitudinal studies using magnetoencephalography (MEG). There is an increasing necessity to use these measures in early diagnosis and pathology progression; however, there is a lack of studies addressing how reliable they are. Here, we provide the first test-retest reliability estimate of MEG power in resting-state at sensor and source space. In this study, we recorded 3 sessions of resting-state MEG activity from 24 healthy subjects with an interval of a week between each session. Power values were estimated at sensor and source space with beamforming for classical frequency bands: delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), low beta (13-20 Hz), high beta (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-45 Hz). Then, test-retest reliability was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We also evaluated the relation between source power and the within-subject variability. In general, ICC of theta, alpha, and low beta power was fairly high (ICC > 0.6) while in delta and gamma power was lower. In source space, fronto-posterior alpha, frontal beta, and medial temporal theta showed the most reliable profiles. Signal-to-noise ratio could be partially responsible for reliability as low signal intensity resulted in high within-subject variability, but also the inherent nature of some brain rhythms in resting-state might be driving these reliability patterns. In conclusion, our results described the reliability of MEG power estimates in each frequency band, which could be considered in disease characterization or clinical trials. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Convergent evidence for hierarchical prediction networks from human electrocorticography and magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Holly N; Blenkmann, Alejandro; Hughes, Laura E; Kochen, Silvia; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Cam-Can; Rowe, James B

    2016-09-01

    We propose that sensory inputs are processed in terms of optimised predictions and prediction error signals within hierarchical neurocognitive models. The combination of non-invasive brain imaging and generative network models has provided support for hierarchical frontotemporal interactions in oddball tasks, including recent identification of a temporal expectancy signal acting on prefrontal cortex. However, these studies are limited by the need to invert magnetoencephalographic or electroencephalographic sensor signals to localise activity from cortical 'nodes' in the network, or to infer neural responses from indirect measures such as the fMRI BOLD signal. To overcome this limitation, we examined frontotemporal interactions estimated from direct cortical recordings from two human participants with cortical electrode grids (electrocorticography - ECoG). Their frontotemporal network dynamics were compared to those identified by magnetoencephalography (MEG) in forty healthy adults. All participants performed the same auditory oddball task with standard tones interspersed with five deviant tone types. We normalised post-operative electrode locations to standardised anatomic space, to compare across modalities, and inverted the MEG to cortical sources using the estimated lead field from subject-specific head models. A mismatch negativity signal in frontal and temporal cortex was identified in all subjects. Generative models of the electrocorticographic and magnetoencephalographic data were separately compared using the free-energy estimate of the model evidence. Model comparison confirmed the same critical features of hierarchical frontotemporal networks in each patient as in the group-wise MEG analysis. These features included bilateral, feedforward and feedback frontotemporal modulated connectivity, in addition to an asymmetric expectancy driving input on left frontal cortex. The invasive ECoG provides an important step in construct validation of the use of neural

  20. Cerebral oscillatory activity during simulated driving using MEG

    PubMed Central

    Sakihara, Kotoe; Hirata, Masayuki; Ebe, Kazutoshi; Kimura, Kenji; Yi Ryu, Seong; Kono, Yoshiyuki; Muto, Nozomi; Yoshioka, Masako; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to examine cerebral oscillatory differences associated with psychological processes during simulated car driving. We recorded neuromagnetic signals in 14 healthy volunteers using magnetoencephalography (MEG) during simulated driving. MEG data were analyzed using synthetic aperture magnetometry to detect the spatial distribution of cerebral oscillations. Group effects between subjects were analyzed statistically using a non-parametric permutation test. Oscillatory differences were calculated by comparison between “passive viewing” and “active driving.” “Passive viewing” was the baseline, and oscillatory differences during “active driving” showed an increase or decrease in comparison with a baseline. Power increase in the theta band was detected in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) during active driving. Power decreases in the alpha, beta, and low gamma bands were detected in the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL), left postcentral gyrus (PoCG), middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and posterior cingulate gyrus (PCiG) during active driving. Power increase in the theta band in the SFG may play a role in attention. Power decrease in the right IPL may reflect selectively divided attention and visuospatial processing, whereas that in the left PoCG reflects sensorimotor activation related to driving manipulation. Power decreases in the MTG and PCiG may be associated with object recognition. PMID:25566017

  1. Cerebral oscillatory activity during simulated driving using MEG.

    PubMed

    Sakihara, Kotoe; Hirata, Masayuki; Ebe, Kazutoshi; Kimura, Kenji; Yi Ryu, Seong; Kono, Yoshiyuki; Muto, Nozomi; Yoshioka, Masako; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to examine cerebral oscillatory differences associated with psychological processes during simulated car driving. We recorded neuromagnetic signals in 14 healthy volunteers using magnetoencephalography (MEG) during simulated driving. MEG data were analyzed using synthetic aperture magnetometry to detect the spatial distribution of cerebral oscillations. Group effects between subjects were analyzed statistically using a non-parametric permutation test. Oscillatory differences were calculated by comparison between "passive viewing" and "active driving." "Passive viewing" was the baseline, and oscillatory differences during "active driving" showed an increase or decrease in comparison with a baseline. Power increase in the theta band was detected in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) during active driving. Power decreases in the alpha, beta, and low gamma bands were detected in the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL), left postcentral gyrus (PoCG), middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and posterior cingulate gyrus (PCiG) during active driving. Power increase in the theta band in the SFG may play a role in attention. Power decrease in the right IPL may reflect selectively divided attention and visuospatial processing, whereas that in the left PoCG reflects sensorimotor activation related to driving manipulation. Power decreases in the MTG and PCiG may be associated with object recognition.

  2. Spatial MEG laterality maps for language: clinical applications in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, Ryan C N; Bardouille, Timothy; Newman, Aaron J; McWhinney, Sean R; Debay, Drew; Sadler, R Mark; Clarke, David B; Esser, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    Functional imaging is increasingly being used to provide a noninvasive alternative to intracarotid sodium amobarbitol testing (i.e., the Wada test). Although magnetoencephalography (MEG) has shown significant potential in this regard, the resultant output is often reduced to a simplified estimate of laterality. Such estimates belie the richness of functional imaging data and consequently limit the potential value. We present a novel approach that utilizes MEG data to compute "complex laterality vectors" and consequently "laterality maps" for a given function. Language function was examined in healthy controls and in people with epilepsy. When compared with traditional laterality index (LI) approaches, the resultant maps provided critical information about the magnitude and spatial characteristics of lateralized function. Specifically, it was possible to more clearly define low LI scores resulting from strong bilateral activation, high LI scores resulting from weak unilateral activation, and most importantly, the spatial distribution of lateralized activation. We argue that the laterality concept is better presented with the inherent spatial sensitivity of activation maps, rather than being collapsed into a one-dimensional index. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Quality assessment of MEG-to-MRI coregistrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonntag, Hermann; Haueisen, Jens; Maess, Burkhard

    2018-04-01

    For high precision in source reconstruction of magnetoencephalography (MEG) or electroencephalography data, high accuracy of the coregistration of sources and sensors is mandatory. Usually, the source space is derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In most cases, however, no quality assessment is reported for sensor-to-MRI coregistrations. If any, typically root mean squares (RMS) of point residuals are provided. It has been shown, however, that RMS of residuals do not correlate with coregistration errors. We suggest using target registration error (TRE) as criterion for the quality of sensor-to-MRI coregistrations. TRE measures the effect of uncertainty in coregistrations at all points of interest. In total, 5544 data sets with sensor-to-head and 128 head-to-MRI coregistrations, from a single MEG laboratory, were analyzed. An adaptive Metropolis algorithm was used to estimate the optimal coregistration and to sample the coregistration parameters (rotation and translation). We found an average TRE between 1.3 and 2.3 mm at the head surface. Further, we observed a mean absolute difference in coregistration parameters between the Metropolis and iterative closest point algorithm of (1.9 +/- 15){\\hspace{0pt}}\\circ and (1.1 +/- 9) m. A paired sample t-test indicated a significant improvement in goal function minimization by using the Metropolis algorithm. The sampled parameters allowed computation of TRE on the entire grid of the MRI volume. Hence, we recommend the Metropolis algorithm for head-to-MRI coregistrations.

  4. Evidence for morphological composition in compound words using MEG.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Teon L; Cid de Garcia, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Psycholinguistic and electrophysiological studies of lexical processing show convergent evidence for morpheme-based lexical access for morphologically complex words that involves early decomposition into their constituent morphemes followed by some combinatorial operation. Considering that both semantically transparent (e.g., sailboat) and semantically opaque (e.g., bootleg) compounds undergo morphological decomposition during the earlier stages of lexical processing, subsequent combinatorial operations should account for the difference in the contribution of the constituent morphemes to the meaning of these different word types. In this study we use magnetoencephalography (MEG) to pinpoint the neural bases of this combinatorial stage in English compound word recognition. MEG data were acquired while participants performed a word naming task in which three word types, transparent compounds (e.g., roadside), opaque compounds (e.g., butterfly), and morphologically simple words (e.g., brothel) were contrasted in a partial-repetition priming paradigm where the word of interest was primed by one of its constituent morphemes. Analysis of onset latency revealed shorter latencies to name compound words than simplex words when primed, further supporting a stage of morphological decomposition in lexical access. An analysis of the associated MEG activity uncovered a region of interest implicated in morphological composition, the Left Anterior Temporal Lobe (LATL). Only transparent compounds showed increased activity in this area from 250 to 470 ms. Previous studies using sentences and phrases have highlighted the role of LATL in performing computations for basic combinatorial operations. Results are in tune with decomposition models for morpheme accessibility early in processing and suggest that semantics play a role in combining the meanings of morphemes when their composition is transparent to the overall word meaning.

  5. Multimodal imaging of repetition priming: Using fMRI, MEG, and intracranial EEG to reveal spatiotemporal profiles of word processing.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Carrie R; Thesen, Thomas; Carlson, Chad; Blumberg, Mark; Girard, Holly M; Trongnetrpunya, Amy; Sherfey, Jason S; Devinsky, Orrin; Kuzniecky, Rubin; Dolye, Werner K; Cash, Sydney S; Leonard, Matthew K; Hagler, Donald J; Dale, Anders M; Halgren, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Repetition priming is a core feature of memory processing whose anatomical correlates remain poorly understood. In this study, we use advanced multimodal imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography; MEG) to investigate the spatiotemporal profile of repetition priming. We use intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) to validate our fMRI/MEG measurements. Twelve controls completed a semantic judgment task with fMRI and MEG that included words presented once (new, 'N') and words that repeated (old, 'O'). Six patients with epilepsy completed the same task during iEEG recordings. Blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses for N vs. O words were examined across the cortical surface and within regions of interest. MEG waveforms for N vs. O words were estimated using a noise-normalized minimum norm solution, and used to interpret the timecourse of fMRI. Spatial concordance was observed between fMRI and MEG repetition effects from 350 to 450 ms within bilateral occipitotemporal and medial temporal, left prefrontal, and left posterior temporal cortex. Additionally, MEG revealed widespread sources within left temporoparietal regions, whereas fMRI revealed bilateral reductions in occipitotemporal and left superior frontal, and increases in inferior parietal, precuneus, and dorsolateral prefrontal activity. BOLD suppression in left posterior temporal, left inferior prefrontal, and right occipitotemporal cortex correlated with MEG repetition-related reductions. IEEG responses from all three regions supported the timecourse of MEG and localization of fMRI. Furthermore, iEEG decreases to repeated words were associated with decreased gamma power in several regions, providing evidence that gamma oscillations are tightly coupled to cognitive phenomena and reflect regional activations seen in the BOLD signal. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Multimodal imaging of repetition priming: Using fMRI, MEG, and intracranial EEG to reveal spatiotemporal profiles of word processing

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Carrie R.; Thesen, Thomas; Carlson, Chad; Blumberg, Mark; Girard, Holly M.; Trongnetrpunya, Amy; Sherfey, Jason S.; Devinsky, Orrin; Kuzniecky, Rubin; Dolye, Werner K.; Cash, Sydney S.; Leonard, Matt K.; Hagler, Donald J.; Dale, Anders M.; Halgren, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Repetition priming is a core feature of memory processing whose anatomical correlates remain poorly understood. In this study, we use advanced multimodal imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography; MEG) to investigate the spatiotemporal profile of repetition priming. We use intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) to validate our fMRI/MEG measurements. Twelve controls completed a semantic judgment task with fMRI and MEG that included words presented once (new, ‘N’) and words that repeated (old, ‘O’). Six patients with epilepsy completed the same task during iEEG recordings. Blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses for N vs O words were examined across the cortical surface and within regions of interest. MEG waveforms for N vs O words were estimated using a noise-normalized minimum norm solution, and used to interpret the timecourse of fMRI. Spatial concordance was observed between fMRI and MEG repetition effects from 350–450ms within bilateral occipitotemporal and medial temporal, left prefrontal, and left posterior temporal cortex. Additionally, MEG revealed widespread sources within left temporoparietal regions, whereas fMRI revealed bilateral reductions in occipitotemporal and left superior frontal, and increases in inferior parietal, precuneus, and dorsolateral prefrontal activity. BOLD suppression in left posterior temporal, left inferior prefrontal, and right occipitotemporal cortex correlated with MEG repetition-related reductions. IEEG responses from all three regions supported the timecourse of MEG and localization of fMRI. Furthermore, iEEG decreases to repeated words were associated with decreased gamma power in several regions, providing evidence that gamma oscillations are tightly coupled to cognitive phenomena and reflect regional activations seen in the BOLD signal. PMID:20620212

  7. Simultaneous EEG and MEG source reconstruction in sparse electromagnetic source imaging.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lei; Yuan, Han

    2013-04-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) have different sensitivities to differently configured brain activations, making them complimentary in providing independent information for better detection and inverse reconstruction of brain sources. In the present study, we developed an integrative approach, which integrates a novel sparse electromagnetic source imaging method, i.e., variation-based cortical current density (VB-SCCD), together with the combined use of EEG and MEG data in reconstructing complex brain activity. To perform simultaneous analysis of multimodal data, we proposed to normalize EEG and MEG signals according to their individual noise levels to create unit-free measures. Our Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated that this integrative approach is capable of reconstructing complex cortical brain activations (up to 10 simultaneously activated and randomly located sources). Results from experimental data showed that complex brain activations evoked in a face recognition task were successfully reconstructed using the integrative approach, which were consistent with other research findings and validated by independent data from functional magnetic resonance imaging using the same stimulus protocol. Reconstructed cortical brain activations from both simulations and experimental data provided precise source localizations as well as accurate spatial extents of localized sources. In comparison with studies using EEG or MEG alone, the performance of cortical source reconstructions using combined EEG and MEG was significantly improved. We demonstrated that this new sparse ESI methodology with integrated analysis of EEG and MEG data could accurately probe spatiotemporal processes of complex human brain activations. This is promising for noninvasively studying large-scale brain networks of high clinical and scientific significance. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Measuring electrophysiological connectivity by power envelope correlation: a technical review on MEG methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, George C.; Barratt, Eleanor L.; Hunt, Benjamin A. E.; Tewarie, Prejaas K.; Brookes, Matthew J.

    2015-11-01

    The human brain can be divided into multiple areas, each responsible for different aspects of behaviour. Healthy brain function relies upon efficient connectivity between these areas and, in recent years, neuroimaging has been revolutionised by an ability to estimate this connectivity. In this paper we discuss measurement of network connectivity using magnetoencephalography (MEG), a technique capable of imaging electrophysiological brain activity with good (~5 mm) spatial resolution and excellent (~1 ms) temporal resolution. The rich information content of MEG facilitates many disparate measures of connectivity between spatially separate regions and in this paper we discuss a single metric known as power envelope correlation. We review in detail the methodology required to measure power envelope correlation including (i) projection of MEG data into source space, (ii) removing confounds introduced by the MEG inverse problem and (iii) estimation of connectivity itself. In this way, we aim to provide researchers with a description of the key steps required to assess envelope based functional networks, which are thought to represent an intrinsic mode of coupling in the human brain. We highlight the principal findings of the techniques discussed, and furthermore, we show evidence that this method can probe how the brain forms and dissolves multiple transient networks on a rapid timescale in order to support current processing demand. Overall, power envelope correlation offers a unique and verifiable means to gain novel insights into network coordination and is proving to be of significant value in elucidating the neural dynamics of the human connectome in health and disease.

  9. MEG Connectivity and Power Detections with Minimum Norm Estimates Require Different Regularization Parameters.

    PubMed

    Hincapié, Ana-Sofía; Kujala, Jan; Mattout, Jérémie; Daligault, Sebastien; Delpuech, Claude; Mery, Domingo; Cosmelli, Diego; Jerbi, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Minimum Norm Estimation (MNE) is an inverse solution method widely used to reconstruct the source time series that underlie magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. MNE addresses the ill-posed nature of MEG source estimation through regularization (e.g., Tikhonov regularization). Selecting the best regularization parameter is a critical step. Generally, once set, it is common practice to keep the same coefficient throughout a study. However, it is yet to be known whether the optimal lambda for spectral power analysis of MEG source data coincides with the optimal regularization for source-level oscillatory coupling analysis. We addressed this question via extensive Monte-Carlo simulations of MEG data, where we generated 21,600 configurations of pairs of coupled sources with varying sizes, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and coupling strengths. Then, we searched for the Tikhonov regularization coefficients (lambda) that maximize detection performance for (a) power and (b) coherence. For coherence, the optimal lambda was two orders of magnitude smaller than the best lambda for power. Moreover, we found that the spatial extent of the interacting sources and SNR, but not the extent of coupling, were the main parameters affecting the best choice for lambda. Our findings suggest using less regularization when measuring oscillatory coupling compared to power estimation.

  10. Non-Gaussian probabilistic MEG source localisation based on kernel density estimation☆

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Hamid R.; Kringelbach, Morten L.; Woolrich, Mark W.; Baker, Adam; Aziz, Tipu Z.; Probert-Smith, Penny

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence to suggest that data recorded from magnetoencephalography (MEG) follows a non-Gaussian distribution. However, existing standard methods for source localisation model the data using only second order statistics, and therefore use the inherent assumption of a Gaussian distribution. In this paper, we present a new general method for non-Gaussian source estimation of stationary signals for localising brain activity from MEG data. By providing a Bayesian formulation for MEG source localisation, we show that the source probability density function (pdf), which is not necessarily Gaussian, can be estimated using multivariate kernel density estimators. In the case of Gaussian data, the solution of the method is equivalent to that of widely used linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) beamformer. The method is also extended to handle data with highly correlated sources using the marginal distribution of the estimated joint distribution, which, in the case of Gaussian measurements, corresponds to the null-beamformer. The proposed non-Gaussian source localisation approach is shown to give better spatial estimates than the LCMV beamformer, both in simulations incorporating non-Gaussian signals, and in real MEG measurements of auditory and visual evoked responses, where the highly correlated sources are known to be difficult to estimate. PMID:24055702

  11. MEG Connectivity and Power Detections with Minimum Norm Estimates Require Different Regularization Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Hincapié, Ana-Sofía; Kujala, Jan; Mattout, Jérémie; Daligault, Sebastien; Delpuech, Claude; Mery, Domingo; Cosmelli, Diego; Jerbi, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Minimum Norm Estimation (MNE) is an inverse solution method widely used to reconstruct the source time series that underlie magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. MNE addresses the ill-posed nature of MEG source estimation through regularization (e.g., Tikhonov regularization). Selecting the best regularization parameter is a critical step. Generally, once set, it is common practice to keep the same coefficient throughout a study. However, it is yet to be known whether the optimal lambda for spectral power analysis of MEG source data coincides with the optimal regularization for source-level oscillatory coupling analysis. We addressed this question via extensive Monte-Carlo simulations of MEG data, where we generated 21,600 configurations of pairs of coupled sources with varying sizes, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and coupling strengths. Then, we searched for the Tikhonov regularization coefficients (lambda) that maximize detection performance for (a) power and (b) coherence. For coherence, the optimal lambda was two orders of magnitude smaller than the best lambda for power. Moreover, we found that the spatial extent of the interacting sources and SNR, but not the extent of coupling, were the main parameters affecting the best choice for lambda. Our findings suggest using less regularization when measuring oscillatory coupling compared to power estimation. PMID:27092179

  12. Measuring alterations in oscillatory brain networks in schizophrenia with resting-state MEG: State-of-the-art and methodological challenges.

    PubMed

    Alamian, Golnoush; Hincapié, Ana-Sofía; Pascarella, Annalisa; Thiery, Thomas; Combrisson, Etienne; Saive, Anne-Lise; Martel, Véronique; Althukov, Dmitrii; Haesebaert, Frédéric; Jerbi, Karim

    2017-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of disturbed resting-state brain networks in Schizophrenia (SZ). However, untangling the neuronal mechanisms that subserve these baseline alterations requires measurement of their electrophysiological underpinnings. This systematic review specifically investigates the contributions of resting-state Magnetoencephalography (MEG) in elucidating abnormal neural organization in SZ patients. A systematic literature review of resting-state MEG studies in SZ was conducted. This literature is discussed in relation to findings from resting-state fMRI and EEG, as well as to task-based MEG research in SZ population. Importantly, methodological limitations are considered and recommendations to overcome current limitations are proposed. Resting-state MEG literature in SZ points towards altered local and long-range oscillatory network dynamics in various frequency bands. Critical methodological challenges with respect to experiment design, and data collection and analysis need to be taken into consideration. Spontaneous MEG data show that local and global neural organization is altered in SZ patients. MEG is a highly promising tool to fill in knowledge gaps about the neurophysiology of SZ. However, to reach its fullest potential, basic methodological challenges need to be overcome. MEG-based resting-state power and connectivity findings could be great assets to clinical and translational research in psychiatry, and SZ in particular. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. fMRI-vs-MEG evaluation of post-stroke interhemispheric asymmetries in primary sensorimotor hand areas.

    PubMed

    Altamura, Claudia; Torquati, Kahtya; Zappasodi, Filippo; Ferretti, Antonio; Pizzella, Vittorio; Tibuzzi, Francesco; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Landi, Doriana; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Romani, Gian-Luca; Maria Rossini, Paolo; Tecchio, Franca

    2007-04-01

    Growing evidence emphasizes a positive role of brain ipsilesional (IL) reorganization in stroke patients with partial recovery. Ten patients affected by a monohemispheric stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory underwent functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) evaluation of the primary sensory (S1) activation via the same paradigm (median nerve galvanic stimulation). Four patients did not present S1 fMRI activation [Rossini, P.M., Altamura, C., Ferretti, A., Vernieri, F., Zappasodi, F., Caulo, M., Pizzella, V., Del Gratta, C., Romani, G.L., Tecchio, F., 2004. Does cerebrovascular disease affect the coupling between neuronal activity and local haemodynamics? Brain 127, 99-110], although inclusion criteria required bilateral identifiable MEG responses. Mean Euclidean distance between fMRI and MEG S1 activation Talairach coordinates was 10.1+/-2.9 mm, with a 3D intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficient of 0.986. Interhemispheric asymmetries, evaluated by an MEG procedure independent of Talairach transformation, were outside or at the boundaries of reference ranges in 6 patients. In 3 of them, the IL activation presented medial or lateral shift with respect to the omega-shaped post-rolandic area while in the other 3, IL areas were outside the peri-rolandic region. In conclusion, despite dissociated intensity, the MEG and fMRI activations displayed good spatial consistency in stroke patients, thus confirming excessive interhemispheric asymmetries as a suitable indicator of unusual recruitments in the ipsilesional hemisphere, within or outside the peri-rolandic region.

  14. MEG Working Memory N-Back Task Reveals Functional Deficits in Combat-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Nichols, Sharon; Robb-Swan, Ashley; Angeles-Quinto, Annemarie; Harrington, Deborah L; Drake, Angela; Huang, Charles W; Song, Tao; Diwakar, Mithun; Risbrough, Victoria B; Matthews, Scott; Clifford, Royce; Cheng, Chung-Kuan; Huang, Jeffrey W; Sinha, Anusha; Yurgil, Kate A; Ji, Zhengwei; Lerman, Imanuel; Lee, Roland R; Baker, Dewleen G

    2018-04-13

    Combat-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of sustained cognitive impairment in military service members and Veterans. However, the mechanism of persistent cognitive deficits including working memory (WM) dysfunction is not fully understood in mTBI. Few studies of WM deficits in mTBI have taken advantage of the temporal and frequency resolution afforded by electromagnetic measurements. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and an N-back WM task, we investigated functional abnormalities in combat-related mTBI. Study participants included 25 symptomatic active-duty service members or Veterans with combat-related mTBI and 20 healthy controls with similar combat experiences. MEG source-magnitude images were obtained for alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (15-30 Hz), gamma (30-90 Hz), and low-frequency (1-7 Hz) bands. Compared with healthy combat controls, mTBI participants showed increased MEG signals across frequency bands in frontal pole (FP), ventromedial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), but decreased MEG signals in anterior cingulate cortex. Hyperactivations in FP, OFC, and anterior dlPFC were associated with slower reaction times. MEG activations in lateral FP also negatively correlated with performance on tests of letter sequencing, verbal fluency, and digit symbol coding. The profound hyperactivations from FP suggest that FP is particularly vulnerable to combat-related mTBI.

  15. Guiding transcranial brain stimulation by EEG/MEG to interact with ongoing brain activity and associated functions: A position paper

    PubMed Central

    Thut, Gregor; Bergmann, Til Ole; Fröhlich, Flavio; Soekadar, Surjo R.; Brittain, John-Stuart; Valero-Cabré, Antoni; Sack, Alexander; Miniussi, Carlo; Antal, Andrea; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Ziemann, Ulf; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques have a wide range of applications but also suffer from a number of limitations mainly related to poor specificity of intervention and variable effect size. These limitations motivated recent efforts to focus on the temporal dimension of NTBS with respect to the ongoing brain activity. Temporal patterns of ongoing neuronal activity, in particular brain oscillations and their fluctuations, can be traced with electro- or magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), to guide the timing as well as the stimulation settings of NTBS. These novel, online and offline EEG/MEG-guided NTBS-approaches are tailored to specifically interact with the underlying brain activity. Online EEG/MEG has been used to guide the timing of NTBS (i.e., when to stimulate): by taking into account instantaneous phase or power of oscillatory brain activity, NTBS can be aligned to fluctuations in excitability states. Moreover, offline EEG/MEG recordings prior to interventions can inform researchers and clinicians how to stimulate: by frequency-tuning NTBS to the oscillation of interest, intrinsic brain oscillations can be up- or down-regulated. In this paper, we provide an overview of existing approaches and ideas of EEG/MEG-guided interventions, and their promises and caveats. We point out potential future lines of research to address challenges. PMID:28233641

  16. Differential spectral power alteration following acupuncture at different designated places revealed by magnetoencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Youbo; Bai, Lijun; Dai, Ruwei; Xue, Ting; Zhong, Chongguang; Liu, Zhenyu; Wang, Hu; Feng, Yuanyuan; Wei, Wenjuan; Tian, Jie

    2012-03-01

    As an ancient therapeutic technique in Traditional Chinese Medicine, acupuncture has been used increasingly in modern society to treat a range of clinical conditions as an alternative and complementary therapy. However, acupoint specificity, lying at the core of acupuncture, still faces many controversies. Considering previous neuroimaging studies on acupuncture have mainly employed functional magnetic resonance imaging, which only measures the secondary effect of neural activity on cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics, in the current study, we adopted an electrophysiological measurement technique named magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure the direct neural activity. 28 healthy college students were recruited in this study. We filtered MEG data into 5 consecutive frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma band) and grouped 140 sensors into 10 main brain regions (left/right frontal, central, temporal, parietal and occipital regions). Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) based spectral analysis approach was further performed to explore the differential band-limited power change patterns of acupuncture at Stomach Meridian 36 (ST36) using a nearby nonacupoint (NAP) as control condition. Significantly increased delta power and decreased alpha as well as beta power in bilateral frontal ROIs were observed following stimulation at ST36. Compared with ST36, decreased alpha power in left and right central, right parietal as well as right temporal ROIs were detected in NAP group. Our research results may provide additional evidence for acupoint specificity.

  17. Enhanced Early Neuronal Processing of Food Pictures in Anorexia Nervosa: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    PubMed Central

    Scaife, Jessica C.; Park, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) have shown increased activation in reward and cognitive control regions in response to food, and a behavioral attentional bias (AB) towards food stimuli is reported. This study aimed to further investigate the neural processing of food using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Participants were 13 females with restricting-type AN, 14 females recovered from restricting-type AN, and 15 female healthy controls. MEG data was acquired whilst participants viewed high- and low-calorie food pictures. Attention was assessed with a reaction time task and eye tracking. Time-series analysis suggested increased neural activity in response to both calorie conditions in the AN groups, consistent with an early AB. Increased activity was observed at 150 ms in the current AN group. Neuronal activity at this latency was at normal level in the recovered group; however, this group exhibited enhanced activity at 320 ms after stimulus. Consistent with previous studies, analysis in source space and behavioral data suggested enhanced attention and cognitive control processes in response to food stimuli in AN. This may enable avoidance of salient food stimuli and maintenance of dietary restraint in AN. A later latency of increased activity in the recovered group may reflect a reversal of this avoidance, with source space and behavioral data indicating increased visual and cognitive processing of food stimuli. PMID:27525258

  18. Dynamics of scene representations in the human brain revealed by magnetoencephalography and deep neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Cichy, Radoslaw Martin; Khosla, Aditya; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Oliva, Aude

    2017-01-01

    Human scene recognition is a rapid multistep process evolving over time from single scene image to spatial layout processing. We used multivariate pattern analyses on magnetoencephalography (MEG) data to unravel the time course of this cortical process. Following an early signal for lower-level visual analysis of single scenes at ~100 ms, we found a marker of real-world scene size, i.e. spatial layout processing, at ~250 ms indexing neural representations robust to changes in unrelated scene properties and viewing conditions. For a quantitative model of how scene size representations may arise in the brain, we compared MEG data to a deep neural network model trained on scene classification. Representations of scene size emerged intrinsically in the model, and resolved emerging neural scene size representation. Together our data provide a first description of an electrophysiological signal for layout processing in humans, and suggest that deep neural networks are a promising framework to investigate how spatial layout representations emerge in the human brain. PMID:27039703

  19. Dynamics of scene representations in the human brain revealed by magnetoencephalography and deep neural networks.

    PubMed

    Martin Cichy, Radoslaw; Khosla, Aditya; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Oliva, Aude

    2017-06-01

    Human scene recognition is a rapid multistep process evolving over time from single scene image to spatial layout processing. We used multivariate pattern analyses on magnetoencephalography (MEG) data to unravel the time course of this cortical process. Following an early signal for lower-level visual analysis of single scenes at ~100ms, we found a marker of real-world scene size, i.e. spatial layout processing, at ~250ms indexing neural representations robust to changes in unrelated scene properties and viewing conditions. For a quantitative model of how scene size representations may arise in the brain, we compared MEG data to a deep neural network model trained on scene classification. Representations of scene size emerged intrinsically in the model, and resolved emerging neural scene size representation. Together our data provide a first description of an electrophysiological signal for layout processing in humans, and suggest that deep neural networks are a promising framework to investigate how spatial layout representations emerge in the human brain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Abnormal hippocampal functioning and impaired spatial navigation in depressed individuals: evidence from whole-head magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Brian R; Salvadore, Giacomo; Colon-Rosario, Veronica; Latov, David R; Holroyd, Tom; Carver, Frederick W; Coppola, Richard; Manji, Husseini K; Zarate, Carlos A; Grillon, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Dysfunction of the hippocampus has long been suspected to be a key component of the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Despite evidence of hippocampal structural abnormalities in depressed patients, abnormal hippocampal functioning has not been demonstrated. The authors aimed to link spatial navigation deficits previously documented in depressed patients to abnormal hippocampal functioning using a virtual reality navigation task. Whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were collected while participants (19 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder and 19 healthy subjects matched by gender and age) navigated a virtual Morris water maze to find a hidden platform; navigation to a visible platform served as a control condition. Behavioral measures were obtained to assess navigation performance. Theta oscillatory activity (4-8 Hz) was mapped across the brain on a voxel-wise basis using a spatial-filtering MEG source analysis technique. Depressed patients performed worse than healthy subjects in navigating to the hidden platform. Robust group differences in theta activity were observed in right medial temporal cortices during navigation, with patients exhibiting less engagement of the anterior hippocampus and parahippocampal cortices relative to comparison subjects. Left posterior hippocampal theta activity was positively correlated with individual performance within each group. Consistent with previous findings, depressed patients showed impaired spatial navigation. Dysfunction of right anterior hippocampus and parahippocampal cortices may underlie this deficit and stem from structural abnormalities commonly found in depressed patients.

  1. Synchronous neural interactions assessed by magnetoencephalography: a functional biomarker for brain disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.; Karageorgiou, Elissaios; Leuthold, Arthur C.; Lewis, Scott M.; Lynch, Joshua K.; Alonso, Aurelio A.; Aslam, Zaheer; Carpenter, Adam F.; Georgopoulos, Angeliki; Hemmy, Laura S.; Koutlas, Ioannis G.; Langheim, Frederick J. P.; Riley McCarten, J.; McPherson, Susan E.; Pardo, José V.; Pardo, Patricia J.; Parry, Gareth J.; Rottunda, Susan J.; Segal, Barbara M.; Sponheim, Scott R.; Stanwyck, John J.; Stephane, Massoud; Westermeyer, Joseph J.

    2007-12-01

    We report on a test to assess the dynamic brain function at high temporal resolution using magnetoencephalography (MEG). The essence of the test is the measurement of the dynamic synchronous neural interactions, an essential aspect of the brain function. MEG signals were recorded from 248 axial gradiometers while 142 human subjects fixated a spot of light for 45-60 s. After fitting an autoregressive integrative moving average (ARIMA) model and taking the stationary residuals, all pairwise, zero-lag, partial cross-correlations (PCCij0) and their z-transforms (zij0) between i and j sensors were calculated, providing estimates of the strength and sign (positive, negative) of direct synchronous coupling at 1 ms temporal resolution. We found that subsets of zij0 successfully classified individual subjects to their respective groups (multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, Sjögren's syndrome, chronic alcoholism, facial pain, healthy controls) and gave excellent external cross-validation results. Contribution by the authors: Designed research (APG); acquired data (AAA, IGK, FJPL, ACL, SML, JJS); analyzed data (APG, EK, ACL, JKL); wrote the paper (APG, EK, ACL, SML); contributed subjects (AAA, ZA, AFC, AG, LSH, IGK, FJPL, SML, JRM, SEM, JVP, PJP, GJP, SJR, BMS, SRS, MS, JJS, JJW); discussed results (All); contributed equally (ZA, AFC, AG, LSH, FJPL, JRM, SEM, JVP, PJP, GJP, SJR, BMS, SRS, MS, JJS, JJW).

  2. [Magnetoencephalography in the presurgical evaluation of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Koptelova, A M; Arkhipova, N A; Golovteev, A L; Chadaev, V A; Grinenko, O A; Kozlova, A B; Novikova, S I; Stepanenko, A Iu; Melikian, A G; Stroganova, T A

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) in combination with structural MRI (magnetic source imaging, MSI) plays an increasingly important role as one of the tools for presurgical evaluation of medically intractable focal epilepsy. The aim of the study was to compare the MSI and commonly used video EEG monitoring method (vEEG) in their sensitivity to interictal epileptic discharges (IED) in 22 patients with drug resistant epilepsy. Furthermore, the detection and localization results obtained by both methods were verified using the data of electrocorticography (ECoG) and postsurgical outcome in 13 patients who underwent invasive EEG monitoring and surgery. The results showed that MSI was superior to vEEC in terms of sensitivity to IED with difference in sensitivity of 22%. The data also suggested that MSI superiority to vEEG in detecting epileptic discharges might, at least partly, arise from better MEG responsiveness to epileptic events coming from the medial, opercular and basal aspects of cortical lobes. MSI localization estimates were in the same cortical lobe and at the same lobar aspects as the epileptic foci detected by ECoG in all patients. Thus, magnetic source imaging can provide critical localization information that is not available when other noninvasive methods, such as vEEG and MRI, are used.

  3. Multimodal Classification of Schizophrenia Patients with MEG and fMRI Data Using Static and Dynamic Connectivity Measures

    PubMed Central

    Cetin, Mustafa S.; Houck, Jon M.; Rashid, Barnaly; Agacoglu, Oktay; Stephen, Julia M.; Sui, Jing; Canive, Jose; Mayer, Andy; Aine, Cheryl; Bustillo, Juan R.; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2016-01-01

    Mental disorders like schizophrenia are currently diagnosed by physicians/psychiatrists through clinical assessment and their evaluation of patient's self-reported experiences as the illness emerges. There is great interest in identifying biological markers of prognosis at the onset of illness, rather than relying on the evolution of symptoms across time. Functional network connectivity, which indicates a subject's overall level of “synchronicity” of activity between brain regions, demonstrates promise in providing individual subject predictive power. Many previous studies reported functional connectivity changes during resting-state using only functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nevertheless, exclusive reliance on fMRI to generate such networks may limit the inference of the underlying dysfunctional connectivity, which is hypothesized to be a factor in patient symptoms, as fMRI measures connectivity via hemodynamics. Therefore, combination of connectivity assessments using fMRI and magnetoencephalography (MEG), which more directly measures neuronal activity, may provide improved classification of schizophrenia than either modality alone. Moreover, recent evidence indicates that metrics of dynamic connectivity may also be critical for understanding pathology in schizophrenia. In this work, we propose a new framework for extraction of important disease related features and classification of patients with schizophrenia based on using both fMRI and MEG to investigate functional network components in the resting state. Results of this study show that the integration of fMRI and MEG provides important information that captures fundamental characteristics of functional network connectivity in schizophrenia and is helpful for prediction of schizophrenia patient group membership. Combined fMRI/MEG methods, using static functional network connectivity analyses, improved classification accuracy relative to use of fMRI or MEG methods alone (by 15 and 12

  4. The Neural Substrates of Self-Evaluation of Mental Fatigue: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Akira; Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    There have been several studies of the neural mechanisms underlying sensation of fatigue. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying self-evaluation of the level of fatigue. The aim of this study was to identify the neural substrates involved in self-evaluation of the level of mental fatigue. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) with high temporal resolution on 14 healthy participants. During MEG recordings, participants were asked to evaluate their level of mental fatigue in time with execution cues (evaluation trials) or to do nothing in time with execution cues (control trials). The MEG data were analyzed with equivalent current dipole (ECD) and spatial filtering methods to localize the neural activity related to the evaluation of mental fatigue. The daily level of fatigue sensation was assessed using the Checklist Individual Strength questionnaire. In evaluation trials, ECDs were observed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in seven of 14 participants, with a mean latency of 366.0 ms. The proportion of the participants with ECDs in the PCC was higher in evaluation trials than in control trials (P<0.05, McNemar test). The extent of the decreased delta band power in the PCC (Brodmann’s area 31) 600–700 ms after the onset of the execution cue and that in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; Brodmann’s area 9) 800–900 ms after the onset of the execution cue were greater in the evaluation trials than in the control trials. The decrease in delta band power in the DLPFC was positively related to that in the PCC and to the daily level of fatigue sensation. These data suggest that the PCC and DLPFC are involved in the self-evaluation of mental fatigue. PMID:24752677

  5. Automated detection of epileptic ripples in MEG using beamformer-based virtual sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorelli, Carolina; Alonso, Joan F.; Romero, Sergio; Nowak, Rafał; Russi, Antonio; Mañanas, Miguel A.

    2017-08-01

    Objective. In epilepsy, high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are expressively linked to the seizure onset zone (SOZ). The detection of HFOs in the noninvasive signals from scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) is still a challenging task. The aim of this study was to automate the detection of ripples in MEG signals by reducing the high-frequency noise using beamformer-based virtual sensors (VSs) and applying an automatic procedure for exploring the time-frequency content of the detected events. Approach. Two-hundred seconds of MEG signal and simultaneous iEEG were selected from nine patients with refractory epilepsy. A two-stage algorithm was implemented. Firstly, beamforming was applied to the whole head to delimitate the region of interest (ROI) within a coarse grid of MEG-VS. Secondly, a beamformer using a finer grid in the ROI was computed. The automatic detection of ripples was performed using the time-frequency response provided by the Stockwell transform. Performance was evaluated through comparisons with simultaneous iEEG signals. Main results. ROIs were located within the seizure-generating lobes in the nine subjects. Precision and sensitivity values were 79.18% and 68.88%, respectively, by considering iEEG-detected events as benchmarks. A higher number of ripples were detected inside the ROI compared to the same region in the contralateral lobe. Significance. The evaluation of interictal ripples using non-invasive techniques can help in the delimitation of the epileptogenic zone and guide placement of intracranial electrodes. This is the first study that automatically detects ripples in MEG in the time domain located within the clinically expected epileptic area taking into account the time-frequency characteristics of the events through the whole signal spectrum. The algorithm was tested against intracranial recordings, the current gold standard. Further studies should explore this approach to enable the localization of

  6. Compliant finger sensor for sensorimotor studies in MEG and MR environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Yong, X.; Cheung, T. P. L.; Menon, C.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are widely used for functional brain imaging. The correlations between the sensorimotor functions of the hand and brain activities have been investigated in MEG/fMRI studies. Currently, limited information can be drawn from these studies due to the limitations of existing motion sensors that are used to detect hand movements. One major challenge in designing these motion sensors is to limit the signal interference between the motion sensors and the MEG/fMRI. In this work, a novel finger motion sensor, which contains low-ferromagnetic and non-conductive materials, is introduced. The finger sensor consists of four air-filled chambers. When compressed by finger(s), the pressure change in the chambers can be detected by the electronics of the finger sensor. Our study has validated that the interference between the finger sensor and an MEG is negligible. Also, by applying a support vector machine algorithm to the data obtained from the finger sensor, at least 11 finger patterns can be discriminated. Comparing to the use of traditional electromyography (EMG) in detecting finger motion, our proposed finger motion sensor is not only MEG/fMRI compatible, it is also easy to use. As the signals acquired from the sensor have a higher SNR than that of the EMG, no complex algorithms are required to detect different finger movement patterns. Future studies can utilize this motion sensor to investigate brain activations during different finger motions and correlate the activations with the sensory and motor functions respectively.

  7. MEG predicts outcome following surgery for intractable epilepsy in children with normal or nonfocal MRI findings.

    PubMed

    RamachandranNair, Rajesh; Otsubo, Hiroshi; Shroff, Manohar M; Ochi, Ayako; Weiss, Shelly K; Rutka, James T; Snead, O Carter

    2007-01-01

    To identify the predictors of postsurgical seizure freedom in children with refractory epilepsy and normal or nonfocal MRI findings. We analyzed 22 children with normal or subtle and nonfocal MRI findings, who underwent surgery for intractable epilepsy following extraoperative intracranial EEG. We compared clinical profiles, neurophysiological data (scalp EEG, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and intracranial EEG), completeness of surgical resection and pathology to postoperative seizure outcomes. Seventeen children (77%) had a good postsurgical outcome (defined as Engel class IIIA or better), which included eight (36%) seizure-free children. All children with postsurgical seizure freedom had an MEG cluster in the final resection area. Postsurgical seizure freedom was obtained in none of the children who had bilateral MEG dipole clusters (3) or only scattered dipoles (1). All five children in whom ictal onset zones were confined to < or = 5 adjacent intracranial electrodes achieved seizure freedom compared to three of 17 children with ictal onset zones that extended over >5 electrodes (p = 0.002). None of six children with more than one type of seizure became seizure-free, compared to eight of 16 children with a single seizure type (p = 0.04). Complete resection of the preoperatively localized epileptogenic zone resulted in seizure remission in 63% (5/8) and incomplete resections, in 21% (3/14) (p = 0.06). Age of onset, duration of epilepsy, number of lobes involved in resection, and pathology failed to correlate with seizure freedom. Surgery for intractable epilepsy in children with normal MRI findings provided good postsurgical outcomes in the majority of our patients. As well, restricted ictal onset zone predicted postoperative seizure freedom. Postoperative seizure freedom was less likely to occur in children with bilateral MEG dipole clusters or only scattered dipoles, multiple seizure types and incomplete resection of the proposed epileptogenic zone. Seizure

  8. Complexity analysis of spontaneous brain activity in mood disorders: A magnetoencephalography study of bipolar disorder and major depression.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Alberto; Al-Timemy, Ali H; Ferre, Francisco; Rubio, Gabriel; Escudero, Javier

    2018-04-26

    The lack of a biomarker for Bipolar Disorder (BD) causes problems in the differential diagnosis with other mood disorders such as major depression (MD), and misdiagnosis frequently occurs. Bearing this in mind, we investigated non-linear magnetoencephalography (MEG) patterns in BD and MD. Lempel-Ziv Complexity (LZC) was used to evaluate the resting-state MEG activity in a cross-sectional sample of 60 subjects, including 20 patients with MD, 16 patients with BD type-I, and 24 control (CON) subjects. Particular attention was paid to the role of age. The results were aggregated by scalp region. Overall, MD patients showed significantly higher LZC scores than BD patients and CONs. Linear regression analyses demonstrated distinct tendencies of complexity progression as a function of age, with BD patients showing a divergent tendency as compared with MD and CON groups. Logistic regressions confirmed such distinct relationship with age, which allowed the classification of diagnostic groups. The patterns of neural complexity in BD and MD showed not only quantitative differences in their non-linear MEG characteristics but also divergent trajectories of progression as a function of age. Moreover, neural complexity patterns in BD patients resembled those previously observed in schizophrenia, thus supporting preceding evidence of common neuropathological processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetoencephalography for the Detection of Intervention Effects of a Specific Nutrient Combination in Patients with Mild Alzheimer's Disease: Results from an Exploratory Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    van Straaten, Elisabeth C W; de Waal, Hanneke; Lansbergen, Marieke M; Scheltens, Philip; Maestu, Fernando; Nowak, Rafal; Hillebrand, Arjan; Stam, Cornelis J

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic loss is an early pathological finding in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and correlates with memory impairment. Changes in macroscopic brain activity measured with electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG and MEG) in AD indicate synaptic changes and may therefore serve as markers of intervention effects in clinical trials. EEG peak frequency and functional networks have shown, in addition to improved memory performance, to be sensitive to detect an intervention effect in mild AD patients of the medical food Souvenaid containing the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn ® Connect, which is designed to enhance synapse formation and function. Here, we explore the value of MEG, with higher spatial resolution than EEG, in identifying intervention effects of the nutrient combination by comparing MEG spectral measures, functional connectivity, and networks between an intervention and a control group. Quantitative markers describing spectral properties, functional connectivity, and graph theoretical aspects of MEG from the exploratory 24-week, double-blind, randomized, controlled Souvenir II MEG sub-study (NTR1975, http://www.trialregister.nl) in drug naïve patients with mild AD were compared between a test group ( n  = 27), receiving Souvenaid, and a control group ( n  = 28), receiving an isocaloric control product. The groups were unbalanced at screening with respect to Mini-Mental State Examination. Peak frequencies of MEG were compared with EEG peak frequencies, recorded in the same patients at similar time points, were compared with respect to sensitivity to intervention effects. No consistent statistically significant intervention effects were detected. In addition, we found no difference in sensitivity between MEG and EEG peak frequency. This exploratory study could not unequivocally establish the value of MEG in detecting interventional effects on brain activity, possibly due to small sample size and unbalanced study groups. We found no indication that

  10. The effects of AMPA receptor blockade on resting magnetoencephalography recordings.

    PubMed

    Routley, Bethany C; Singh, Krish D; Hamandi, Khalid; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D

    2017-12-01

    The ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system are of fundamental importance to healthy brain function. Neuroimaging studies in humans have previously been conducted using various drugs that interact with N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors, but no such studies have investigated AMPA receptor signalling. The recent approval of perampanel (Fycompa) for use in humans provides a means to specifically study the role of AMPA receptors in the pharmacological basis of neuroimaging signals. Twenty male subjects participated in this placebo-controlled crossover study that consisted of two study days separated by a minimum two-week washout period. On one occasion participants ingested a 6 mg dose of perampanel, and on the other a placebo. Ten minutes of wakeful rest was recorded before and after each dose using magnetoencephalography. Subjective ratings of intoxication were significantly higher following drug than placebo. Cluster-based randomisation testing of sensor-level magnetoencephalography data showed significant drug-induced increases in low frequency power (1-4 Hz, 4-8 Hz, 8-13 Hz, 13-30 Hz), along with a significant decrease in the high gamma range (50-90 Hz). We also observed selective increases in functional connectivity in the alpha and beta bands. The findings are consistent with preclinical work and are similar to the spectral profile of other anti-epileptic drugs.

  11. Multivariate pattern analysis for MEG: A comparison of dissimilarity measures.

    PubMed

    Guggenmos, Matthias; Sterzer, Philipp; Cichy, Radoslaw Martin

    2018-06-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) methods such as decoding and representational similarity analysis (RSA) are growing rapidly in popularity for the analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. However, little is known about the relative performance and characteristics of the specific dissimilarity measures used to describe differences between evoked activation patterns. Here we used a multisession MEG data set to qualitatively characterize a range of dissimilarity measures and to quantitatively compare them with respect to decoding accuracy (for decoding) and between-session reliability of representational dissimilarity matrices (for RSA). We tested dissimilarity measures from a range of classifiers (Linear Discriminant Analysis - LDA, Support Vector Machine - SVM, Weighted Robust Distance - WeiRD, Gaussian Naïve Bayes - GNB) and distances (Euclidean distance, Pearson correlation). In addition, we evaluated three key processing choices: 1) preprocessing (noise normalisation, removal of the pattern mean), 2) weighting decoding accuracies by decision values, and 3) computing distances in three different partitioning schemes (non-cross-validated, cross-validated, within-class-corrected). Four main conclusions emerged from our results. First, appropriate multivariate noise normalization substantially improved decoding accuracies and the reliability of dissimilarity measures. Second, LDA, SVM and WeiRD yielded high peak decoding accuracies and nearly identical time courses. Third, while using decoding accuracies for RSA was markedly less reliable than continuous distances, this disadvantage was ameliorated by decision-value-weighting of decoding accuracies. Fourth, the cross-validated Euclidean distance provided unbiased distance estimates and highly replicable representational dissimilarity matrices. Overall, we strongly advise the use of multivariate noise normalisation as a general preprocessing step, recommend LDA, SVM and WeiRD as classifiers for decoding and

  12. Statistical learning of multisensory regularities is enhanced in musicians: An MEG study.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Chalas, Nikolas; Kartsidis, Panagiotis; Wollbrink, Andreas; Bamidis, Panagiotis

    2018-07-15

    The present study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to identify the neural correlates of audiovisual statistical learning, while disentangling the differential contributions of uni- and multi-modal statistical mismatch responses in humans. The applied paradigm was based on a combination of a statistical learning paradigm and a multisensory oddball one, combining an audiovisual, an auditory and a visual stimulation stream, along with the corresponding deviances. Plasticity effects due to musical expertise were investigated by comparing the behavioral and MEG responses of musicians to non-musicians. The behavioral results indicated that the learning was successful for both musicians and non-musicians. The unimodal MEG responses are consistent with previous studies, revealing the contribution of Heschl's gyrus for the identification of auditory statistical mismatches and the contribution of medial temporal and visual association areas for the visual modality. The cortical network underlying audiovisual statistical learning was found to be partly common and partly distinct from the corresponding unimodal networks, comprising right temporal and left inferior frontal sources. Musicians showed enhanced activation in superior temporal and superior frontal gyrus. Connectivity and information processing flow amongst the sources comprising the cortical network of audiovisual statistical learning, as estimated by transfer entropy, was reorganized in musicians, indicating enhanced top-down processing. This neuroplastic effect showed a cross-modal stability between the auditory and audiovisual modalities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatiotemporal signal space separation method for rejecting nearby interference in MEG measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taulu, S.; Simola, J.

    2006-04-01

    Limitations of traditional magnetoencephalography (MEG) exclude some important patient groups from MEG examinations, such as epilepsy patients with a vagus nerve stimulator, patients with magnetic particles on the head or having magnetic dental materials that cause severe movement-related artefact signals. Conventional interference rejection methods are not able to remove the artefacts originating this close to the MEG sensor array. For example, the reference array method is unable to suppress interference generated by sources closer to the sensors than the reference array, about 20-40 cm. The spatiotemporal signal space separation method proposed in this paper recognizes and removes both external interference and the artefacts produced by these nearby sources, even on the scalp. First, the basic separation into brain-related and external interference signals is accomplished with signal space separation based on sensor geometry and Maxwell's equations only. After this, the artefacts from nearby sources are extracted by a simple statistical analysis in the time domain, and projected out. Practical examples with artificial current dipoles and interference sources as well as data from real patients demonstrate that the method removes the artefacts without altering the field patterns of the brain signals.

  14. Spectral-Spatial Differentiation of Brain Activity During Mental Imagery of Improvisational Music Performance Using MEG.

    PubMed

    Boasen, Jared; Takeshita, Yuya; Kuriki, Shinya; Yokosawa, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). However, we have found no reports based on magnetoencephalography (MEG). With the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improvisational music performance experimentation in MEG. We designed a novel MEG-compatible keyboard, and used it with experienced musicians ( N = 13) in a music performance paradigm to spectral-spatially differentiate spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery of improvisational music performance. Analyses of source activity revealed that mental imagery of improvisational music performance induced greater theta (5-7 Hz) activity in left temporal areas associated with rhythm production and communication, greater alpha (8-12 Hz) activity in left premotor and parietal areas associated with sensorimotor integration, and less beta (15-29 Hz) activity in right frontal areas associated with inhibition control. These findings support the notion that musical improvisation is conversational, and suggest that creation of novel auditory content is facilitated by a more internally-directed, disinhibited cognitive state.

  15. Spectral-Spatial Differentiation of Brain Activity During Mental Imagery of Improvisational Music Performance Using MEG

    PubMed Central

    Boasen, Jared; Takeshita, Yuya; Kuriki, Shinya; Yokosawa, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    Group musical improvisation is thought to be akin to conversation, and therapeutically has been shown to be effective at improving communicativeness, sociability, creative expression, and overall psychological health. To understand these therapeutic effects, clarifying the nature of brain activity during improvisational cognition is important. Some insight regarding brain activity during improvisational music cognition has been gained via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). However, we have found no reports based on magnetoencephalography (MEG). With the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of improvisational music performance experimentation in MEG. We designed a novel MEG-compatible keyboard, and used it with experienced musicians (N = 13) in a music performance paradigm to spectral-spatially differentiate spontaneous brain activity during mental imagery of improvisational music performance. Analyses of source activity revealed that mental imagery of improvisational music performance induced greater theta (5–7 Hz) activity in left temporal areas associated with rhythm production and communication, greater alpha (8–12 Hz) activity in left premotor and parietal areas associated with sensorimotor integration, and less beta (15–29 Hz) activity in right frontal areas associated with inhibition control. These findings support the notion that musical improvisation is conversational, and suggest that creation of novel auditory content is facilitated by a more internally-directed, disinhibited cognitive state. PMID:29740300

  16. The Effects of Sweet, Bitter, Salty and Sour Stimuli on Alpha Rhythm. A Meg Study.

    PubMed

    Kotini, Athanasia; Anninos, Photios; Gemousakakis, Triandafillos; Adamopoulos, Adam

    2016-09-01

    the possible diff erences in processing gustatory stimuli in healthy subjects was investigated by magnetoencephalography (meg). meg recordings were evaluated for 10 healthy volunteers (3 men within the age range 20-46 years, 7 women within the age range 10-28 years), with four diff erent gustatory stimuli: sweet, bi" er, sour and salty. Fast fourier transform was performed on meg epochs recorded for the above conditions and the eff ect of each kind of stimuli on alpha rhythm was examined. A significant higher percent of alpha power was found irrespective of hemispheric side in all gustatory states located mainly at the occipital, le$ and right parietal lobes. One female volunteer experienced no statistically signifi cance when comparing normal with salty and sour taste respectively. Two female volunteers exhibited no statistically signifi cance when comparing their normal with their salty taste. One male volunteer experienced no statistically signifi cance when comparing the normalbitter and normal-salty states correspondingly. All the other subjects showed statistically signifi cant changes in alpha power for the 4 gustatory stimuli. The pattern of activation caused by the four stimuli indicated elevated gustatory processing mechanisms. This cortical activation might have applicability in modulation of brain status.

  17. Differentiability of simulated MEG hippocampal, medial temporal and neocortical temporal epileptic spike activity.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Julia M; Ranken, Doug M; Aine, Cheryl J; Weisend, Michael P; Shih, Jerry J

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that magnetoencephalography (MEG) can measure hippocampal activity, despite the cylindrical shape and deep location in the brain. The current study extended this work by examining the ability to differentiate the hippocampal subfields, parahippocampal cortex, and neocortical temporal sources using simulated interictal epileptic activity. A model of the hippocampus was generated on the MRIs of five subjects. CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were activated as well as entorhinal cortex, presubiculum, and neocortical temporal cortex. In addition, pairs of sources were activated sequentially to emulate various hypotheses of mesial temporal lobe seizure generation. The simulated MEG activity was added to real background brain activity from the five subjects and modeled using a multidipole spatiotemporal modeling technique. The waveforms and source locations/orientations for hippocampal and parahippocampal sources were differentiable from neocortical temporal sources. In addition, hippocampal and parahippocampal sources were differentiated to varying degrees depending on source. The sequential activation of hippocampal and parahippocampal sources was adequately modeled by a single source; however, these sources were not resolvable when they overlapped in time. These results suggest that MEG has the sensitivity to distinguish parahippocampal and hippocampal spike generators in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

  18. Current Source Mapping by Spontaneous MEG and ECoG in Piglets Model

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lin; Wang, Jue; Stephen, Julia; Zhang, Tongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The previous research reveals the presence of relatively strong spatial correlations from spontaneous activity over cortex in Electroencephalography (EEG) and Magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurement. A critical obstacle in MEG current source mapping is that strong background activity masks the relatively weak local information. In this paper, the hypothesis is that the dominant components of this background activity can be captured by the first Principal Component (PC) after employing Principal Component Analysis (PCA), thus discarding the first PC before the back projection would enhance the exposure of the information carried by a subset of sensors that reflects the local neuronal activity. By detecting MEG signals densely (one measurement per 2×2 mm2) in three piglets neocortical models over an area of 18×26 mm2 with a special shape of lesion by means of a μSQUID, this basic idea was demonstrated by the fact that a strong activity could be imaged in the lesion region after removing the first PC in Delta, Theta and Alpha band, while the original recordings did not show such activity clearly. Thus, the PCA decomposition can be employed to expose the local activity, which is around the lesion in the piglets’ neocortical models, by removing the dominant components of the background activity. PMID:27570537

  19. MEG biomarker of Alzheimer's disease: Absence of a prefrontal generator during auditory sensory gating.

    PubMed

    Josef Golubic, Sanja; Aine, Cheryl J; Stephen, Julia M; Adair, John C; Knoefel, Janice E; Supek, Selma

    2017-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG), a direct measure of neuronal activity, is an underexplored tool in the search for biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we used MEG source estimates of auditory gating generators, nonlinear correlations with neuropsychological results, and multivariate analyses to examine the sensitivity and specificity of gating topology modulation to detect AD. Our results demonstrated the use of MEG localization of a medial prefrontal (mPFC) gating generator as a discrete (binary) detector of AD at the individual level and resulted in recategorizing the participant categories in: (1) controls with mPFC generator localized in response to both the standard and deviant tones; (2) a possible preclinical stage of AD participants (a lower functioning group of controls) in which mPFC activation was localized to the deviant tone only; and (3) symptomatic AD in which mPFC activation was not localized to either the deviant or standard tones. This approach showed a large effect size (0.9) and high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity (100%) in identifying symptomatic AD patients within a limited research sample. The present results demonstrate high potential of mPFC activation as a noninvasive biomarker of AD pathology during putative preclinical and clinical stages. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5180-5194, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The Iterative Reweighted Mixed-Norm Estimate for Spatio-Temporal MEG/EEG Source Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, Daniel; Bekhti, Yousra; Haueisen, Jens; Gramfort, Alexandre

    2016-10-01

    Source imaging based on magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) allows for the non-invasive analysis of brain activity with high temporal and good spatial resolution. As the bioelectromagnetic inverse problem is ill-posed, constraints are required. For the analysis of evoked brain activity, spatial sparsity of the neuronal activation is a common assumption. It is often taken into account using convex constraints based on the l 1 -norm. The resulting source estimates are however biased in amplitude and often suboptimal in terms of source selection due to high correlations in the forward model. In this work, we demonstrate that an inverse solver based on a block-separable penalty with a Frobenius norm per block and a l 0.5 -quasinorm over blocks addresses both of these issues. For solving the resulting non-convex optimization problem, we propose the iterative reweighted Mixed Norm Estimate (irMxNE), an optimization scheme based on iterative reweighted convex surrogate optimization problems, which are solved efficiently using a block coordinate descent scheme and an active set strategy. We compare the proposed sparse imaging method to the dSPM and the RAP-MUSIC approach based on two MEG data sets. We provide empirical evidence based on simulations and analysis of MEG data that the proposed method improves on the standard Mixed Norm Estimate (MxNE) in terms of amplitude bias, support recovery, and stability.

  1. Fusion of magnetometer and gradiometer sensors of MEG in the presence of multiplicative error.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Hamid R; Woolrich, Mark W; Kringelbach, Morten L; Luckhoo, Henry; Smith, Penny Probert; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2012-07-01

    Novel neuroimaging techniques have provided unprecedented information on the structure and function of the living human brain. Multimodal fusion of data from different sensors promises to radically improve this understanding, yet optimal methods have not been developed. Here, we demonstrate a novel method for combining multichannel signals. We show how this method can be used to fuse signals from the magnetometer and gradiometer sensors used in magnetoencephalography (MEG), and through extensive experiments using simulation, head phantom and real MEG data, show that it is both robust and accurate. This new approach works by assuming that the lead fields have multiplicative error. The criterion to estimate the error is given within a spatial filter framework such that the estimated power is minimized in the worst case scenario. The method is compared to, and found better than, existing approaches. The closed-form solution and the conditions under which the multiplicative error can be optimally estimated are provided. This novel approach can also be employed for multimodal fusion of other multichannel signals such as MEG and EEG. Although the multiplicative error is estimated based on beamforming, other methods for source analysis can equally be used after the lead-field modification.

  2. Advanced dynamic statistical parametric mapping with MEG in localizing epileptogenicity of the bottom of sulcus dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Midori; Wong, Simeon; Widjaja, Elysa; Baba, Shiro; Okanishi, Tohru; Takada, Lynne; Sato, Yosuke; Iwata, Hiroki; Sogabe, Maya; Morooka, Hikaru; Whitney, Robyn; Ueda, Yuki; Ito, Tomoshiro; Yagyu, Kazuyori; Ochi, Ayako; Carter Snead, O; Rutka, James T; Drake, James M; Doesburg, Sam; Takeuchi, Fumiya; Shiraishi, Hideaki; Otsubo, Hiroshi

    2018-06-01

    To investigate whether advanced dynamic statistical parametric mapping (AdSPM) using magnetoencephalography (MEG) can better localize focal cortical dysplasia at bottom of sulcus (FCDB). We analyzed 15 children with diagnosis of FCDB in surgical specimen and 3 T MRI by using MEG. Using AdSPM, we analyzed a ±50 ms epoch relative to each single moving dipole (SMD) and applied summation technique to estimate the source activity. The most active area in AdSPM was defined as the location of AdSPM spike source. We compared spatial congruence between MRI-visible FCDB and (1) dipole cluster in SMD method; and (2) AdSPM spike source. AdSPM localized FCDB in 12 (80%) of 15 children whereas dipole cluster localized six (40%). AdSPM spike source was concordant within seizure onset zone in nine (82%) of 11 children with intracranial video EEG. Eleven children with resective surgery achieved seizure freedom with follow-up period of 1.9 ± 1.5 years. Ten (91%) of them had an AdSPM spike source in the resection area. AdSPM can noninvasively and neurophysiologically localize epileptogenic FCDB, whether it overlaps with the dipole cluster or not. This is the first study to localize epileptogenic FCDB using MEG. Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. MEG Source Imaging Method using Fast L1 Minimum-norm and its Applications to Signals with Brain Noise and Human Resting-state Source Amplitude Images

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Huang, Charles W.; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, AnneMarie; Nichols, Sharon L.; Baker, Dewleen G.; Song, Tao; Harrington, Deborah L.; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Heister, David; Diwakar, Mithun; Canive, Jose M.; Edgar, J. Christopher; Chen, Yu-Han; Ji, Zhengwei; Shen, Max; El-Gabalawy, Fady; Levy, Michael; McLay, Robert; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer; Liu, Thomas T.; Drake, Angela; Lee, Roland R.

    2014-01-01

    The present study developed a fast MEG source imaging technique based on Fast Vector-based Spatio-Temporal Analysis using a L1-minimum-norm (Fast-VESTAL) and then used the method to obtain the source amplitude images of resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals for different frequency bands. The Fast-VESTAL technique consists of two steps. First, L1-minimum-norm MEG source images were obtained for the dominant spatial modes of sensor-waveform covariance matrix. Next, accurate source time-courses with millisecond temporal resolution were obtained using an inverse operator constructed from the spatial source images of Step 1. Using simulations, Fast-VESTAL’s performance of was assessed for its 1) ability to localize multiple correlated sources; 2) ability to faithfully recover source time-courses; 3) robustness to different SNR conditions including SNR with negative dB levels; 4) capability to handle correlated brain noise; and 5) statistical maps of MEG source images. An objective pre-whitening method was also developed and integrated with Fast-VESTAL to remove correlated brain noise. Fast-VESTAL’s performance was then examined in the analysis of human mediannerve MEG responses. The results demonstrated that this method easily distinguished sources in the entire somatosensory network. Next, Fast-VESTAL was applied to obtain the first whole-head MEG source-amplitude images from resting-state signals in 41 healthy control subjects, for all standard frequency bands. Comparisons between resting-state MEG sources images and known neurophysiology were provided. Additionally, in simulations and cases with MEG human responses, the results obtained from using conventional beamformer technique were compared with those from Fast-VESTAL, which highlighted the beamformer’s problems of signal leaking and distorted source time-courses. PMID:24055704

  4. MEG source imaging method using fast L1 minimum-norm and its applications to signals with brain noise and human resting-state source amplitude images.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Huang, Charles W; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, AnneMarie; Nichols, Sharon L; Baker, Dewleen G; Song, Tao; Harrington, Deborah L; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Heister, David; Diwakar, Mithun; Canive, Jose M; Edgar, J Christopher; Chen, Yu-Han; Ji, Zhengwei; Shen, Max; El-Gabalawy, Fady; Levy, Michael; McLay, Robert; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer; Liu, Thomas T; Drake, Angela; Lee, Roland R

    2014-01-01

    The present study developed a fast MEG source imaging technique based on Fast Vector-based Spatio-Temporal Analysis using a L1-minimum-norm (Fast-VESTAL) and then used the method to obtain the source amplitude images of resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals for different frequency bands. The Fast-VESTAL technique consists of two steps. First, L1-minimum-norm MEG source images were obtained for the dominant spatial modes of sensor-waveform covariance matrix. Next, accurate source time-courses with millisecond temporal resolution were obtained using an inverse operator constructed from the spatial source images of Step 1. Using simulations, Fast-VESTAL's performance was assessed for its 1) ability to localize multiple correlated sources; 2) ability to faithfully recover source time-courses; 3) robustness to different SNR conditions including SNR with negative dB levels; 4) capability to handle correlated brain noise; and 5) statistical maps of MEG source images. An objective pre-whitening method was also developed and integrated with Fast-VESTAL to remove correlated brain noise. Fast-VESTAL's performance was then examined in the analysis of human median-nerve MEG responses. The results demonstrated that this method easily distinguished sources in the entire somatosensory network. Next, Fast-VESTAL was applied to obtain the first whole-head MEG source-amplitude images from resting-state signals in 41 healthy control subjects, for all standard frequency bands. Comparisons between resting-state MEG sources images and known neurophysiology were provided. Additionally, in simulations and cases with MEG human responses, the results obtained from using conventional beamformer technique were compared with those from Fast-VESTAL, which highlighted the beamformer's problems of signal leaking and distorted source time-courses. © 2013.

  5. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Nichols, Sharon; Baker, Dewleen G.; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, Annemarie; Yurgil, Kate A.; Drake, Angela; Levy, Michael; Song, Tao; McLay, Robert; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Diwakar, Mithun; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Ji, Zhengwei; Huang, Charles W.; Chang, Douglas G.; Harrington, Deborah L.; Muzzatti, Laura; Canive, Jose M.; Christopher Edgar, J.; Chen, Yu-Han; Lee, Roland R.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI) can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz) that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG). In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz) from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes), our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes), blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI. PMID:25009772

  6. Multimodal description of whole brain connectivity: A comparison of resting state MEG, fMRI, and DWI.

    PubMed

    Garcés, Pilar; Pereda, Ernesto; Hernández-Tamames, Juan A; Del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando; Pineda-Pardo, José Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional connectivity (SC and FC) have received much attention over the last decade, as they offer unique insight into the coordination of brain functioning. They are often assessed independently with three imaging modalities: SC using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), FC using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and magnetoencephalography/electroencephalography (MEG/EEG). DWI provides information about white matter organization, allowing the reconstruction of fiber bundles. fMRI uses blood-oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast to indirectly map neuronal activation. MEG and EEG are direct measures of neuronal activity, as they are sensitive to the synchronous inputs in pyramidal neurons. Seminal studies have targeted either the electrophysiological substrate of BOLD or the anatomical basis of FC. However, multimodal comparisons have been scarcely performed, and the relation between SC, fMRI-FC, and MEG-FC is still unclear. Here we present a systematic comparison of SC, resting state fMRI-FC, and MEG-FC between cortical regions, by evaluating their similarities at three different scales: global network, node, and hub distribution. We obtained strong similarities between the three modalities, especially for the following pairwise combinations: SC and fMRI-FC; SC and MEG-FC at theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands; and fMRI-FC and MEG-FC in alpha and beta. Furthermore, highest node similarity was found for regions of the default mode network and primary motor cortex, which also presented the highest hubness score. Distance was partially responsible for these similarities since it biased all three connectivity estimates, but not the unique contributor, since similarities remained after controlling for distance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Analysis of simultaneous MEG and intracranial LFP recordings during Deep Brain Stimulation: a protocol and experimental validation

    PubMed Central

    Oswal, Ashwini; Jha, Ashwani; Neal, Spencer; Reid, Alphonso; Bradbury, David; Aston, Peter; Limousin, Patricia; Foltynie, Tom; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Brown, Peter; Litvak, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Background Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for several neurological and psychiatric disorders. In order to gain insights into the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS and to advance future therapies a better understanding of the effects of DBS on large-scale brain networks is required. New method In this paper, we describe an experimental protocol and analysis pipeline for simultaneously performing DBS and intracranial local field potential (LFP) recordings at a target brain region during concurrent magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurement. Firstly we describe a phantom setup that allowed us to precisely characterise the MEG artefacts that occurred during DBS at clinical settings. Results Using the phantom recordings we demonstrate that with MEG beamforming it is possible to recover oscillatory activity synchronised to a reference channel, despite the presence of high amplitude artefacts evoked by DBS. Finally, we highlight the applicability of these methods by illustrating in a single patient with Parkinson's disease (PD), that changes in cortical-subthalamic nucleus coupling can be induced by DBS. Comparison with existing approaches To our knowledge this paper provides the first technical description of a recording and analysis pipeline for combining simultaneous cortical recordings using MEG, with intracranial LFP recordings of a target brain nucleus during DBS. PMID:26698227

  8. Effects of action observation therapy and mirror therapy after stroke on rehabilitation outcomes and neural mechanisms by MEG: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shih, Tsai-Yu; Wu, Ching-Yi; Lin, Keh-Chung; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lai, Chih-Jou; Chen, Chih-Chi

    2017-10-04

    Loss of upper-extremity motor function is one of the most debilitating deficits following stroke. Two promising treatment approaches, action observation therapy (AOT) and mirror therapy (MT), aim to enhance motor learning and promote neural reorganization in patients through different afferent inputs and patterns of visual feedback. Both approaches involve different patterns of motor observation, imitation, and execution but share some similar neural bases of the mirror neuron system. AOT and MT used in stroke rehabilitation may confer differential benefits and neural activities that remain to be determined. This clinical trial aims to investigate and compare treatment effects and neural activity changes of AOT and MT with those of the control intervention in patients with subacute stroke. An estimated total of 90 patients with subacute stroke will be recruited for this study. All participants will be randomly assigned to receive AOT, MT, or control intervention for a 3-week training period (15 sessions). Outcome measurements will be taken at baseline, immediately after treatment, and at the 3-month follow-up. For the magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we anticipate that we will recruit 12 to 15 patients per group. The primary outcome will be the Fugl-Meyer Assessment score. Secondary outcomes will include the modified Rankin Scale, the Box and Block Test, the ABILHAND questionnaire, the Questionnaire Upon Mental Imagery, the Functional Independence Measure, activity monitors, the Stroke Impact Scale version 3.0, and MEG signals. This clinical trial will provide scientific evidence of treatment effects on motor, functional outcomes, and neural activity mechanisms after AOT and MT in patients with subacute stroke. Further application and use of AOT and MT may include telerehabilitation or home-based rehabilitation through web-based or video teaching. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02871700 . Registered on 1 August 2016.

  9. Early visual analysis tool using magnetoencephalography for treatment and recovery of neuronal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Waqas; Neoh, Yee Yik; Bin Hamid, Nor Hisham; Reza, Faruque; Idris, Zamzuri; Tang, Tong Boon

    2017-10-01

    Functional neuroimaging modalities play an important role in deciding the diagnosis and course of treatment of neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. This article presents an analytical tool with visualization by exploiting the strengths of the MEG (magnetoencephalographic) neuroimaging technique. The tool automates MEG data import (in tSSS format), channel information extraction, time/frequency decomposition, and circular graph visualization (connectogram) for simple result inspection. For advanced users, the tool also provides magnitude squared coherence (MSC) values allowing personalized threshold levels, and the computation of default model from MEG data of control population. Default model obtained from healthy population data serves as a useful benchmark to diagnose and monitor neuronal recovery during treatment. The proposed tool further provides optional labels with international 10-10 system nomenclature in order to facilitate comparison studies with EEG (electroencephalography) sensor space. Potential applications in epilepsy and traumatic brain injury studies are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Current and Emerging Potential of Magnetoencephalography in the Detection and Localization of High-Frequency Oscillations in Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Tamilia, Eleonora; Madsen, Joseph R.; Grant, Patricia Ellen; Pearl, Phillip L.; Papadelis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Up to one-third of patients with epilepsy are medically intractable and need resective surgery. To be successful, epilepsy surgery requires a comprehensive preoperative evaluation to define the epileptogenic zone (EZ), the brain area that should be resected to achieve seizure freedom. Due to lack of tools and methods that measure the EZ directly, this area is defined indirectly based on concordant data from a multitude of presurgical non-invasive tests and intracranial recordings. However, the results of these tests are often insufficiently concordant or inconclusive. Thus, the presurgical evaluation of surgical candidates is frequently challenging or unsuccessful. To improve the efficacy of the surgical treatment, there is an overriding need for reliable biomarkers that can delineate the EZ. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) have emerged over the last decade as new potential biomarkers for the delineation of the EZ. Multiple studies have shown that HFOs are spatially associated with the EZ. Despite the encouraging findings, there are still significant challenges for the translation of HFOs as epileptogenic biomarkers to the clinical practice. One of the major barriers is the difficulty to detect and localize them with non-invasive techniques, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) or scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Although most literature has studied HFOs using invasive recordings, recent studies have reported the detection and localization of HFOs using MEG or scalp EEG. MEG seems to be particularly advantageous compared to scalp EEG due to its inherent advantages of being less affected by skull conductivity and less susceptible to contamination from muscular activity. The detection and localization of HFOs with MEG would largely expand the clinical utility of these new promising biomarkers to an earlier stage in the diagnostic process and to a wider range of patients with epilepsy. Here, we conduct a thorough critical review of the recent MEG literature that

  11. Differences in MEG gamma oscillatory power during performance of a prosaccade task in adolescents with FASD

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Julia M.; Coffman, Brian A.; Stone, David B.; Kodituwakku, Piyadasa

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is characterized by a broad range of behavioral and cognitive deficits that impact the long-term quality of life for affected individuals. However, the underlying changes in brain structure and function associated with these cognitive impairments are not well-understood. Previous studies identified deficits in behavioral performance of prosaccade tasks in children with FASD. In this study, we investigated group differences in gamma oscillations during performance of a prosaccade task. We collected magnetoencephalography (MEG) data from 15 adolescents with FASD and 20 age-matched healthy controls (HC) with a mean age of 15.9 ± 0.4 years during performance of a prosaccade task. Eye movement was recorded and synchronized to the MEG data using an MEG compatible eye-tracker. The MEG data were analyzed relative to the onset of the visual saccade. Time-frequency analysis was performed using Fieldtrip with a focus on group differences in gamma-band oscillations. Following left target presentation, we identified four clusters over right frontal, right parietal, and left temporal/occipital cortex, with significantly different gamma-band (30–50 Hz) power between FASD and HC. Furthermore, visual M100 latencies described in Coffman etal. (2012) corresponded with increased gamma power over right central cortex in FASD only. Gamma-band differences were not identified for stimulus-averaged responses implying that these gamma-band differences were related to differences in saccade network functioning. These differences in gamma-band power may provide indications of atypical development of cortical networks in individuals with FASD. PMID:24399957

  12. Increased Functional MEG Connectivity as a Hallmark of MRI-Negative Focal and Generalized Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Li Hegner, Yiwen; Marquetand, Justus; Elshahabi, Adham; Klamer, Silke; Lerche, Holger; Braun, Christoph; Focke, Niels K

    2018-05-15

    Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent neurological diseases with a high morbidity. Accumulating evidence has shown that epilepsy is an archetypical neural network disorder. Here we developed a non-invasive cortical functional connectivity analysis based on magnetoencephalography (MEG) to assess commonalities and differences in the network phenotype in different epilepsy syndromes (non-lesional/cryptogenic focal and idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsy). Thirty-seven epilepsy patients with normal structural brain anatomy underwent a 30-min resting state MEG measurement with eyes closed. We only analyzed interictal epochs without epileptiform discharges. The imaginary part of coherency was calculated as an indicator of cortical functional connectivity in five classical frequency bands. This connectivity measure was computed between all sources on individually reconstructed cortical surfaces that were surface-aligned to a common template. In comparison to healthy controls, both focal and generalized epilepsy patients showed widespread increased functional connectivity in several frequency bands, demonstrating the potential of elevated functional connectivity as a common pathophysiological hallmark in different epilepsy types. Furthermore, the comparison between focal and generalized epilepsies revealed increased network connectivity in bilateral mesio-frontal and motor regions specifically for the generalized epilepsy patients. Our study indicated that the surface-based normalization of MEG sources of individual brains enables the comparison of imaging findings across subjects and groups on a united platform, which leads to a straightforward and effective disclosure of pathological network characteristics in epilepsy. This approach may allow for the definition of more specific markers of different epilepsy syndromes, and increased MEG-based resting-state functional connectivity seems to be a common feature in MRI-negative epilepsy syndromes.

  13. Influence of metallic artifact filtering on MEG signals for source localization during interictal epileptiform activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorelli, Carolina; Alonso, Joan F.; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miguel A.; Nowak, Rafał; Russi, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Medical intractable epilepsy is a common condition that affects 40% of epileptic patients that generally have to undergo resective surgery. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has been increasingly used to identify the epileptogenic foci through equivalent current dipole (ECD) modeling, one of the most accepted methods to obtain an accurate localization of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). Modeling requires that MEG signals are adequately preprocessed to reduce interferences, a task that has been greatly improved by the use of blind source separation (BSS) methods. MEG recordings are highly sensitive to metallic interferences originated inside the head by implanted intracranial electrodes, dental prosthesis, etc and also coming from external sources such as pacemakers or vagal stimulators. To reduce these artifacts, a BSS-based fully automatic procedure was recently developed and validated, showing an effective reduction of metallic artifacts in simulated and real signals (Migliorelli et al 2015 J. Neural Eng. 12 046001). The main objective of this study was to evaluate its effects in the detection of IEDs and ECD modeling of patients with focal epilepsy and metallic interference. Approach. A comparison between the resulting positions of ECDs was performed: without removing metallic interference; rejecting only channels with large metallic artifacts; and after BSS-based reduction. Measures of dispersion and distance of ECDs were defined to analyze the results. Main results. The relationship between the artifact-to-signal ratio and ECD fitting showed that higher values of metallic interference produced highly scattered dipoles. Results revealed a significant reduction on dispersion using the BSS-based reduction procedure, yielding feasible locations of ECDs in contrast to the other two approaches. Significance. The automatic BSS-based method can be applied to MEG datasets affected by metallic artifacts as a processing step to improve the localization of

  14. Towards brain-activity-controlled information retrieval: Decoding image relevance from MEG signals.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kandemir, Melih; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Parkkonen, Lauri; Klami, Arto; Hari, Riitta; Kaski, Samuel

    2015-05-15

    We hypothesize that brain activity can be used to control future information retrieval systems. To this end, we conducted a feasibility study on predicting the relevance of visual objects from brain activity. We analyze both magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and gaze signals from nine subjects who were viewing image collages, a subset of which was relevant to a predetermined task. We report three findings: i) the relevance of an image a subject looks at can be decoded from MEG signals with performance significantly better than chance, ii) fusion of gaze-based and MEG-based classifiers significantly improves the prediction performance compared to using either signal alone, and iii) non-linear classification of the MEG signals using Gaussian process classifiers outperforms linear classification. These findings break new ground for building brain-activity-based interactive image retrieval systems, as well as for systems utilizing feedback both from brain activity and eye movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Deep brain stimulation of the ventral striatal area for poststroke pain syndrome: a magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Raghavan; Burgess, Richard C; Malone, Donald A; Lempka, Scott F; Gale, John T; Floden, Darlene P; Baker, Kenneth B; Machado, Andre G

    2018-06-01

    Poststroke pain syndrome (PSPS) is an often intractable disorder characterized by hemiparesis associated with unrelenting chronic pain. Although traditional analgesics have largely failed, integrative approaches targeting affective-cognitive spheres have started to show promise. Recently, we demonstrated that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral striatal area significantly improved the affective sphere of pain in patients with PSPS. In the present study, we examined whether electrophysiological correlates of pain anticipation were modulated by DBS that could serve as signatures of treatment effects. We recorded event-related fields (ERFs) of pain anticipation using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 10 patients with PSPS preoperatively and postoperatively in DBS OFF and ON states. Simple visual cues evoked anticipation as patients awaited a painful (PS) or nonpainful stimulus (NPS) to the nonaffected or affected extremity. Preoperatively, ERFs showed no difference between PS and NPS anticipation to the affected extremity, possibly due to loss of salience in a network saturated by pain experience. DBS significantly modulated the early N1, consistent with improvements in affective networks involving restoration of salience and discrimination capacity. Additionally, DBS suppressed the posterior P2 (aberrant anticipatory anxiety) while enhancing the anterior N1 (cognitive and emotional regulation) in responders. DBS-induced changes in ERFs could potentially serve as signatures for clinical outcomes. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We examined the electrophysiological correlates of pain affect in poststroke pain patients who underwent deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting the ventral striatal area under a randomized, controlled trial. DBS significantly modulated early event-related components, particularly N1 and P2, measured with magnetoencephalography during a pain anticipatory task, compared with baseline and the DBS-OFF condition, pointing to possible mechanisms of action

  16. The Neural Mechanisms of Re-Experiencing Mental Fatigue Sensation: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Akira; Karasuyama, Takuma; Kikuchi, Taiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present study, we investigated the neural activity caused by re-experiencing the fatigue sensation that had been experienced during a fatigue-inducing session. Thirteen healthy volunteers participated in fatigue and non-fatigue experiments in a crossover fashion. In the fatigue experiment, they performed a 2-back test session for 40 min to induce fatigue sensation, a rest session for 15 min to recover from fatigue, and a magnetoencephalography (MEG) session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body with fatigue that they had experienced in the 2-back test session. In the non-fatigue experiment, the participants performed a free session for 15 min, a rest session for 15 min, and an MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body without fatigue that they had experienced in the free session. Spatial filtering analyses of oscillatory brain activity showed that the delta band power in the left Brodmann’s area (BA) 39, alpha band power in the right pulvinar nucleus and the left BA 40, and beta band power in the left BA 40 were lower when they re-experienced the fatigue sensation than when they re-experienced the fatigue-free sensation, indicating that these brain regions are related to re-experiencing the fatigue sensation. Our findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms underlying fatigue sensation. PMID:25826300

  17. Spatial variability in cortex-muscle coherence investigated with magnetoencephalography and high-density surface electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Botter, Alberto; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    Cortex-muscle coherence (CMC) reflects coupling between magnetoencephalography (MEG) and surface electromyography (sEMG), being strongest during isometric contraction but absent, for unknown reasons, in some individuals. We used a novel nonmagnetic high-density sEMG (HD-sEMG) electrode grid (36 mm × 12 mm; 60 electrodes separated by 3 mm) to study effects of sEMG recording site, electrode derivation, and rectification on the strength of CMC. Monopolar sEMG from right thenar and 306-channel whole-scalp MEG were recorded from 14 subjects during 4-min isometric thumb abduction. CMC was computed for 60 monopolar, 55 bipolar, and 32 Laplacian HD-sEMG derivations, and two derivations were computed to mimic “macroscopic” monopolar and bipolar sEMG (electrode diameter 9 mm; interelectrode distance 21 mm). With unrectified sEMG, 12 subjects showed statistically significant CMC in 91–95% of the HD-sEMG channels, with maximum coherence at ∼25 Hz. CMC was about a fifth stronger for monopolar than bipolar and Laplacian derivations. Monopolar derivations resulted in most uniform CMC distributions across the thenar and in tightest cortical source clusters in the left rolandic hand area. CMC was 19–27% stronger for HD-sEMG than for “macroscopic” monopolar or bipolar derivations. EMG rectification reduced the CMC peak by a quarter, resulted in a more uniformly distributed CMC across the thenar, and provided more tightly clustered cortical sources than unrectifed sEMGs. Moreover, it revealed CMC at ∼12 Hz. We conclude that HD-sEMG, especially with monopolar derivation, can facilitate detection of CMC and that individual muscle anatomy cannot explain the high interindividual CMC variability. PMID:26354317

  18. Through a glass darkly: some insights on change talk via magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Houck, Jon M; Moyers, Theresa B; Tesche, Claudia D

    2013-06-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a directive, client-centered therapeutic method employed in the treatment of substance abuse, with strong evidence of effectiveness. To date, the sole mechanism of action in MI with any consistent empirical support is "change talk" (CT), which is generally defined as client within-session speech in support of a behavior change. "Sustain talk" (ST) incorporates speech in support of the status quo. MI maintains that during treatment, clients essentially talk themselves into change. Multiple studies have now supported this theory, linking within-session speech to substance use outcomes. Although a causal chain has been established linking therapist behavior, client CT, and substance use outcome, the neural substrate of CT has been largely uncharted. We addressed this gap by measuring neural responses to clients' own CT using magnetoencephalography (MEG), a noninvasive neuroimaging technique with excellent spatial and temporal resolution. Following a recorded MI session, MEG was used to measure brain activity while participants heard multiple repetitions of their CT and ST utterances from that session, intermingled and presented in a random order. Results suggest that CT processing occurs in a right-hemisphere network that includes the inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and superior temporal cortex. These results support a representation of CT at the neural level, consistent with the role of these structures in self-perception. This suggests that during treatment sessions, clinicians who are able to evoke this special kind of language are tapping into neural circuitry that may be essential to behavior change. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Neural mechanisms of phonemic restoration for speech comprehension revealed by magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Sunami, Kishiko; Ishii, Akira; Takano, Sakurako; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Sakashita, Tetsushi; Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Yamane, Hideo

    2013-11-06

    In daily communication, we can usually still hear the spoken words as if they had not been masked and can comprehend the speech when spoken words are masked by background noise. This phenomenon is known as phonemic restoration. Since little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying phonemic restoration for speech comprehension, we aimed to identify the neural mechanisms using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Twelve healthy male volunteers with normal hearing participated in the study. Participants were requested to carefully listen to and understand recorded spoken Japanese stories, which were either played forward (forward condition) or in reverse (reverse condition), with their eyes closed. Several syllables of spoken words were replaced by 300-ms white-noise stimuli with an inter-stimulus interval of 1.6-20.3s. We compared MEG responses to white-noise stimuli during the forward condition with those during the reverse condition using time-frequency analyses. Increased 3-5 Hz band power in the forward condition compared with the reverse condition was continuously observed in the left inferior frontal gyrus [Brodmann's areas (BAs) 45, 46, and 47] and decreased 18-22 Hz band powers caused by white-noise stimuli were seen in the left transverse temporal gyrus (BA 42) and superior temporal gyrus (BA 22). These results suggest that the left inferior frontal gyrus and left transverse and superior temporal gyri are involved in phonemic restoration for speech comprehension. Our findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms of phonemic restoration as well as develop innovative treatment methods for individuals suffering from impaired speech comprehension, particularly in noisy environments. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamic semantic cognition: Characterising coherent and controlled conceptual retrieval through time using magnetoencephalography and chronometric transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Teige, Catarina; Mollo, Giovanna; Millman, Rebecca; Savill, Nicola; Smallwood, Jonathan; Cornelissen, Piers L; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2018-06-01

    Distinct neural processes are thought to support the retrieval of semantic information that is (i) coherent with strongly-encoded aspects of knowledge, and (ii) non-dominant yet relevant for the current task or context. While the brain regions that support readily coherent and more controlled patterns of semantic retrieval are relatively well-characterised, the temporal dynamics of these processes are not well-understood. This study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) and dual-pulse chronometric transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTMS) in two separate experiments to examine temporal dynamics during the retrieval of strong and weak associations. MEG results revealed a dissociation within left temporal cortex: anterior temporal lobe (ATL) showed greater oscillatory response for strong than weak associations, while posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) showed the reverse pattern. Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a site associated with semantic control and retrieval, showed both patterns at different time points. In the cTMS experiment, stimulation of ATL at ∼150 msec disrupted the efficient retrieval of strong associations, indicating a necessary role for ATL in coherent conceptual activations. Stimulation of pMTG at the onset of the second word disrupted the retrieval of weak associations, suggesting this site may maintain information about semantic context from the first word, allowing efficient engagement of semantic control. Together these studies provide converging evidence for a functional dissociation within the temporal lobe, across both tasks and time. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Verbal memory and verbal fluency tasks used for language localization and lateralization during magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Pirmoradi, Mona; Jemel, Boutheina; Gallagher, Anne; Tremblay, Julie; D'Hondt, Fabien; Nguyen, Dang Khoa; Béland, Renée; Lassonde, Maryse

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a presurgical magnetoencephalography (MEG) protocol to localize and lateralize expressive and receptive language function as well as verbal memory in patients with epilepsy. Two simple language tasks and a different analytical procedure were developed. Ten healthy participants and 13 epileptic patients completed two language tasks during MEG recording: a verbal memory task and a verbal fluency task. As a first step, principal component analyses (PCA) were performed on source data from the group of healthy participants to identify spatiotemporal factors that were relevant to these paradigms. Averaged source data were used to localize areas activated during each task and a laterality index (LI) was computed on an individual basis for both groups, healthy participants and patients, using sensor data. PCA revealed activation in the left temporal lobe (300 ms) during the verbal memory task, and from the frontal lobe (210 ms) to the temporal lobe (500 ms) during the verbal fluency task in healthy participants. Averaged source data showed activity in the left hemisphere (250-750 ms), in Wernicke's area, for all participants. Left hemisphere dominance was demonstrated better using the verbal memory task than the verbal fluency task (F1,19=4.41, p=0.049). Cohen's kappa statistic revealed 93% agreement (k=0.67, p=0.002) between LIs obtained from MEG sensor data and fMRI, the IAT, electrical cortical stimulation or handedness with the verbal memory task for all participants. At 74%, agreement results for the verbal fluency task did not reach statistical significance. Analysis procedures yielded interesting findings with both tasks and localized language-related activation. However, based on source localization and laterality indices, the verbal memory task yielded better results in the context of the presurgical evaluation of epileptic patients. The verbal fluency task did not add any further information to the verbal memory task as

  2. Friends, not foes: Magnetoencephalography as a tool to uncover brain dynamics during transcranial alternating current stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Neuling, Toralf; Ruhnau, Philipp; Fuscà, Marco; Demarchi, Gianpaolo; Herrmann, Christoph S.; Weisz, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Brain oscillations are supposedly crucial for normal cognitive functioning and alterations are associated with cognitive dysfunctions. To demonstrate their causal role on behavior, entrainment approaches in particular aim at driving endogenous oscillations via rhythmic stimulation. Within this context, transcranial electrical stimulation, especially transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), has received renewed attention. This is likely due to the possibility of defining oscillatory stimulation properties precisely. Also, measurements comparing pre-tACS with post-tACS electroencephalography (EEG) have shown impressive modulations. However, the period during tACS has remained a blackbox until now, due to the enormous stimulation artifact. By means of application of beamforming to magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, we successfully recovered modulations of the amplitude of brain oscillations during weak and strong tACS. Additionally, we demonstrate that also evoked responses to visual and auditory stimuli can be recovered during tACS. The main contribution of the present study is to provide critical evidence that during ongoing tACS, subtle modulations of oscillatory brain activity can be reconstructed even at the stimulation frequency. Future tACS experiments will be able to deliver direct physiological insights in order to further the understanding of the contribution of brain oscillations to cognition and behavior. PMID:26080310

  3. Magnetoencephalography with temporal spread imaging to visualize propagation of epileptic activity.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Sumiya; Matsuhashi, Masao; Kunieda, Takeharu; Yamao, Yukihiro; Inano, Rika; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Imamura, Hisaji; Takaya, Shigetoshi; Matsumoto, Riki; Ikeda, Akio; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2017-05-01

    We describe temporal spread imaging (TSI) that can identify the spatiotemporal pattern of epileptic activity using Magnetoencephalography (MEG). A three-dimensional grid of voxels covering the brain is created. The array-gain minimum-variance spatial filter is applied to an interictal spike to estimate the magnitude of the source and the time (Ta) when the magnitude exceeds a predefined threshold at each voxel. This calculation is performed through all spikes. Each voxel has the mean Ta () and spike number (N sp ), which is the number of spikes whose source exceeds the threshold. Then, a random resampling method is used to determine the cutoff value of N sp for the statistically reproducible pattern of the activity. Finally, all the voxels where the source exceeds the threshold reproducibly shown on the MRI with a color scale representing . Four patients with intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) were analyzed. In three patients, the common pattern of the overlap between the propagation and the hypometabolism shown by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) was identified. TSI can visualize statistically reproducible patterns of the temporal and spatial spread of epileptic activity. TSI can assess the statistical significance of the spatiotemporal pattern based on its reproducibility. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Friends, not foes: Magnetoencephalography as a tool to uncover brain dynamics during transcranial alternating current stimulation.

    PubMed

    Neuling, Toralf; Ruhnau, Philipp; Fuscà, Marco; Demarchi, Gianpaolo; Herrmann, Christoph S; Weisz, Nathan

    2015-09-01

    Brain oscillations are supposedly crucial for normal cognitive functioning and alterations are associated with cognitive dysfunctions. To demonstrate their causal role on behavior, entrainment approaches in particular aim at driving endogenous oscillations via rhythmic stimulation. Within this context, transcranial electrical stimulation, especially transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), has received renewed attention. This is likely due to the possibility of defining oscillatory stimulation properties precisely. Also, measurements comparing pre-tACS with post-tACS electroencephalography (EEG) have shown impressive modulations. However, the period during tACS has remained a blackbox until now, due to the enormous stimulation artifact. By means of application of beamforming to magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, we successfully recovered modulations of the amplitude of brain oscillations during weak and strong tACS. Additionally, we demonstrate that also evoked responses to visual and auditory stimuli can be recovered during tACS. The main contribution of the present study is to provide critical evidence that during ongoing tACS, subtle modulations of oscillatory brain activity can be reconstructed even at the stimulation frequency. Future tACS experiments will be able to deliver direct physiological insights in order to further the understanding of the contribution of brain oscillations to cognition and behavior. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Frequency specific patterns of resting-state networks development from childhood to adolescence: A magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lu; Xiang, Jing

    2016-11-01

    The present study investigated frequency dependent developmental patterns of the brain resting-state networks from childhood to adolescence. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were recorded from 20 healthy subjects at resting-state with eyes-open. The resting-state networks (RSNs) was analyzed at source-level. Brain network organization was characterized by mean clustering coefficient and average path length. The correlations between brain network measures and subjects' age during development from childhood to adolescence were statistically analyzed in delta (1-4Hz), theta (4-8Hz), alpha (8-12Hz), and beta (12-30Hz) frequency bands. A significant positive correlation between functional connectivity with age was found in alpha and beta frequency bands. A significant negative correlation between average path lengths with age was found in beta frequency band. The results suggest that there are significant developmental changes of resting-state networks from childhood to adolescence, which matures from a lattice network to a small-world network. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Neural correlation of successful cognitive behaviour therapy for spider phobia: a magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Wright, Barry; Alderson-Day, Ben; Prendergast, Garreth; Kennedy, Juliette; Bennett, Sophie; Docherty, Mary; Whitton, Clare; Manea, Laura; Gouws, Andre; Tomlinson, Heather; Green, Gary

    2013-12-30

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can be an effective treatment for spider phobia, but the underlying neural correlates of therapeutic change are yet to be specified. The present study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to study responses within the first half second, to phobogenic stimuli in a group of individuals with spider phobia prior to treatment (n=12) and then in nine of them following successful CBT (where they could touch and manage live large common house spiders) at least 9 months later. We also compared responses to a group of age-matched healthy control participants (n=11). Participants viewed static photographs of real spiders, other fear-inducing images (e.g. snakes, sharks) and neutral stimuli (e.g. kittens). Beamforming methods were used to localise sources of significant power changes in response to stimuli. Prior to treatment, participants with spider phobia showed a significant maximum response in the right frontal pole when viewing images of real spiders specifically. No significant frontal response was observed for either control participants or participants with spider phobia post-treatment. In addition, participants' subjective ratings of spider stimuli significantly predicted peak responses in right frontal regions. The implications for understanding brain-based effects of cognitive therapies are discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Automatic Processing of Changes in Facial Emotions in Dysphoria: A Magnetoencephalography Study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qianru; Ruohonen, Elisa M; Ye, Chaoxiong; Li, Xueqiao; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Stefanics, Gabor; Luo, Wenbo; Astikainen, Piia

    2018-01-01

    It is not known to what extent the automatic encoding and change detection of peripherally presented facial emotion is altered in dysphoria. The negative bias in automatic face processing in particular has rarely been studied. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to record automatic brain responses to happy and sad faces in dysphoric (Beck's Depression Inventory ≥ 13) and control participants. Stimuli were presented in a passive oddball condition, which allowed potential negative bias in dysphoria at different stages of face processing (M100, M170, and M300) and alterations of change detection (visual mismatch negativity, vMMN) to be investigated. The magnetic counterpart of the vMMN was elicited at all stages of face processing, indexing automatic deviance detection in facial emotions. The M170 amplitude was modulated by emotion, response amplitudes being larger for sad faces than happy faces. Group differences were found for the M300, and they were indexed by two different interaction effects. At the left occipital region of interest, the dysphoric group had larger amplitudes for sad than happy deviant faces, reflecting negative bias in deviance detection, which was not found in the control group. On the other hand, the dysphoric group showed no vMMN to changes in facial emotions, while the vMMN was observed in the control group at the right occipital region of interest. Our results indicate that there is a negative bias in automatic visual deviance detection, but also a general change detection deficit in dysphoria.

  8. Fatigue sensation induced by the sounds associated with mental fatigue and its related neural activities: revealed by magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that an inappropriately conditioned fatigue sensation could be one cause of chronic fatigue. Although classical conditioning of the fatigue sensation has been reported in rats, there have been no reports in humans. Our aim was to examine whether classical conditioning of the mental fatigue sensation can take place in humans and to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Methods Ten and 9 healthy volunteers participated in a conditioning and a control experiment, respectively. In the conditioning experiment, we used metronome sounds as conditioned stimuli and two-back task trials as unconditioned stimuli to cause fatigue sensation. Participants underwent MEG measurement while listening to the metronome sounds for 6 min. Thereafter, fatigue-inducing mental task trials (two-back task trials), which are demanding working-memory task trials, were performed for 60 min; metronome sounds were started 30 min after the start of the task trials (conditioning session). The next day, neural activities while listening to the metronome for 6 min were measured. Levels of fatigue sensation were also assessed using a visual analogue scale. In the control experiment, participants listened to the metronome on the first and second days, but they did not perform conditioning session. MEG was not recorded in the control experiment. Results The level of fatigue sensation caused by listening to the metronome on the second day was significantly higher relative to that on the first day only when participants performed the conditioning session on the first day. Equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) in the insular cortex, with mean latencies of approximately 190 ms, were observed in six of eight participants after the conditioning session, although ECDs were not identified in any participant before the conditioning session. Conclusions We demonstrated that the metronome sounds can cause mental fatigue sensation as a

  9. Fatigue sensation induced by the sounds associated with mental fatigue and its related neural activities: revealed by magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akira; Tanaka, Masaaki; Iwamae, Masayoshi; Kim, Chongsoo; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-06-13

    It has been proposed that an inappropriately conditioned fatigue sensation could be one cause of chronic fatigue. Although classical conditioning of the fatigue sensation has been reported in rats, there have been no reports in humans. Our aim was to examine whether classical conditioning of the mental fatigue sensation can take place in humans and to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Ten and 9 healthy volunteers participated in a conditioning and a control experiment, respectively. In the conditioning experiment, we used metronome sounds as conditioned stimuli and two-back task trials as unconditioned stimuli to cause fatigue sensation. Participants underwent MEG measurement while listening to the metronome sounds for 6 min. Thereafter, fatigue-inducing mental task trials (two-back task trials), which are demanding working-memory task trials, were performed for 60 min; metronome sounds were started 30 min after the start of the task trials (conditioning session). The next day, neural activities while listening to the metronome for 6 min were measured. Levels of fatigue sensation were also assessed using a visual analogue scale. In the control experiment, participants listened to the metronome on the first and second days, but they did not perform conditioning session. MEG was not recorded in the control experiment. The level of fatigue sensation caused by listening to the metronome on the second day was significantly higher relative to that on the first day only when participants performed the conditioning session on the first day. Equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) in the insular cortex, with mean latencies of approximately 190 ms, were observed in six of eight participants after the conditioning session, although ECDs were not identified in any participant before the conditioning session. We demonstrated that the metronome sounds can cause mental fatigue sensation as a result of repeated pairings of the sounds

  10. The magnetic lead field theorem in the quasi-static approximation and its use for magnetoencephalography forward calculation in realistic volume conductors.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Guido

    2003-11-21

    The equation for the magnetic lead field for a given magnetoencephalography (MEG) channel is well known for arbitrary frequencies omega but is not directly applicable to MEG in the quasi-static approximation. In this paper we derive an equation for omega = 0 starting from the very definition of the lead field instead of using Helmholtz's reciprocity theorems. The results are (a) the transpose of the conductivity times the lead field is divergence-free, and (b) the lead field differs from the one in any other volume conductor by a gradient of a scalar function. Consequently, for a piecewise homogeneous and isotropic volume conductor, the lead field is always tangential at the outermost surface. Based on this theoretical result, we formulated a simple and fast method for the MEG forward calculation for one shell of arbitrary shape: we correct the corresponding lead field for a spherical volume conductor by a superposition of basis functions, gradients of harmonic functions constructed here from spherical harmonics, with coefficients fitted to the boundary conditions. The algorithm was tested for a prolate spheroid of realistic shape for which the analytical solution is known. For high order in the expansion, we found the solutions to be essentially exact and for reasonable accuracies much fewer multiplications are needed than in typical implementations of the boundary element methods. The generalization to more shells is straightforward.

  11. Enhanced Awareness Followed Reversible Inhibition of Human Visual Cortex: A Combined TMS, MRS and MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Christopher P. G.; Dunkley, Benjamin T.; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.; Edden, Richard; Evans, C. John; Sumner, Petroc; Singh, Krish D.; Chambers, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    This series of experiments investigated the neural basis of conscious vision in humans using a form of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) known as continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS). Previous studies have shown that occipital TMS, when time-locked to the onset of visual stimuli, can induce a phenomenon analogous to blindsight in which conscious detection is impaired while the ability to discriminate ‘unseen’ stimuli is preserved above chance. Here we sought to reproduce this phenomenon using offline occipital cTBS, which has been shown to induce an inhibitory cortical aftereffect lasting 45–60 minutes. Contrary to expectations, our first experiment revealed the opposite effect: cTBS enhanced conscious vision relative to a sham control. We then sought to replicate this cTBS-induced potentiation of consciousness in conjunction with magnetoencephalography (MEG) and undertook additional experiments to assess its relationship to visual cortical excitability and levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA; via magnetic resonance spectroscopy, MRS). Occipital cTBS decreased cortical excitability and increased regional GABA concentration. No significant effects of cTBS on MEG measures were observed, although the results provided weak evidence for potentiation of event related desynchronisation in the β band. Collectively these experiments suggest that, through the suppression of noise, cTBS can increase the signal-to-noise ratio of neural activity underlying conscious vision. We speculate that gating-by-inhibition in the visual cortex may provide a key foundation of consciousness. PMID:24956195

  12. Aging changes and gender differences in response to median nerve stimulation measured with MEG.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Julia M; Ranken, Doug; Best, Elaine; Adair, John; Knoefel, Janice; Kovacevic, Sanja; Padilla, Denise; Hart, Blaine; Aine, Cheryl J

    2006-01-01

    The current study uses magnetoencephalography (MEG) to characterize age-related changes and gender differences in the amplitudes and timing of cortical sources evoked by median nerve stimulation. Thirty-four healthy subjects from two age groups: 20-29 and >64 years of age were examined. After measuring the MEG responses, we modeled the data using a spatio-temporal multi-dipole modeling approach to determine the source locations and their associated timecourses. We found early, large amplitude responses in the elderly in primary somatosensory (approximately 20 ms) and pre-central sulcus timecourses (approximately 22 ms) and lower amplitude responses in the elderly later in primary somatosensory (approximately 32 ms) and contralateral secondary somatosensory timecourses (approximately 90 ms). In addition, females had larger peak amplitude responses than males in the contralateral secondary somatosensory timecourse (approximately 28 and 51 ms). These results show that the median nerve stimulation paradigm provides considerable sensitivity to age- and gender-related differences. The results are consistent with the theory that increased amplitudes identified in the elderly may be associated with decreased inhibition. The results emphasize that an examination of two discrete age groups, collapsed across gender, cannot provide a complete understanding of the fundamental changes that occur in the brain across the lifetime.

  13. Sparsity enables estimation of both subcortical and cortical activity from MEG and EEG

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswamy, Pavitra; Obregon-Henao, Gabriel; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Khan, Sheraz; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Purdon, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    Subcortical structures play a critical role in brain function. However, options for assessing electrophysiological activity in these structures are limited. Electromagnetic fields generated by neuronal activity in subcortical structures can be recorded noninvasively, using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG). However, these subcortical signals are much weaker than those generated by cortical activity. In addition, we show here that it is difficult to resolve subcortical sources because distributed cortical activity can explain the MEG and EEG patterns generated by deep sources. We then demonstrate that if the cortical activity is spatially sparse, both cortical and subcortical sources can be resolved with M/EEG. Building on this insight, we develop a hierarchical sparse inverse solution for M/EEG. We assess the performance of this algorithm on realistic simulations and auditory evoked response data, and show that thalamic and brainstem sources can be correctly estimated in the presence of cortical activity. Our work provides alternative perspectives and tools for characterizing electrophysiological activity in subcortical structures in the human brain. PMID:29138310

  14. Magnetoencephalography for the Detection of Intervention Effects of a Specific Nutrient Combination in Patients with Mild Alzheimer’s Disease: Results from an Exploratory Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    van Straaten, Elisabeth C. W.; de Waal, Hanneke; Lansbergen, Marieke M.; Scheltens, Philip; Maestu, Fernando; Nowak, Rafal; Hillebrand, Arjan; Stam, Cornelis J.

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic loss is an early pathological finding in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and correlates with memory impairment. Changes in macroscopic brain activity measured with electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG and MEG) in AD indicate synaptic changes and may therefore serve as markers of intervention effects in clinical trials. EEG peak frequency and functional networks have shown, in addition to improved memory performance, to be sensitive to detect an intervention effect in mild AD patients of the medical food Souvenaid containing the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn® Connect, which is designed to enhance synapse formation and function. Here, we explore the value of MEG, with higher spatial resolution than EEG, in identifying intervention effects of the nutrient combination by comparing MEG spectral measures, functional connectivity, and networks between an intervention and a control group. Quantitative markers describing spectral properties, functional connectivity, and graph theoretical aspects of MEG from the exploratory 24-week, double-blind, randomized, controlled Souvenir II MEG sub-study (NTR1975, http://www.trialregister.nl) in drug naïve patients with mild AD were compared between a test group (n = 27), receiving Souvenaid, and a control group (n = 28), receiving an isocaloric control product. The groups were unbalanced at screening with respect to Mini-Mental State Examination. Peak frequencies of MEG were compared with EEG peak frequencies, recorded in the same patients at similar time points, were compared with respect to sensitivity to intervention effects. No consistent statistically significant intervention effects were detected. In addition, we found no difference in sensitivity between MEG and EEG peak frequency. This exploratory study could not unequivocally establish the value of MEG in detecting interventional effects on brain activity, possibly due to small sample size and unbalanced study groups. We found no indication that

  15. Deriving frequency-dependent spatial patterns in MEG-derived resting state sensorimotor network: A novel multiband ICA technique.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Allison C; Luber, Bruce; Carver, Frederick W; Robinson, Stephen E; Coppola, Richard; Zarate, Carlos A

    2017-02-01

    Recently, independent components analysis (ICA) of resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings has revealed resting state networks (RSNs) that exhibit fluctuations of band-limited power envelopes. Most of the work in this area has concentrated on networks derived from the power envelope of beta bandpass-filtered data. Although research has demonstrated that most networks show maximal correlation in the beta band, little is known about how spatial patterns of correlations may differ across frequencies. This study analyzed MEG data from 18 healthy subjects to determine if the spatial patterns of RSNs differed between delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma, and high gamma frequency bands. To validate our method, we focused on the sensorimotor network, which is well-characterized and robust in both MEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting state data. Synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) was used to project signals into anatomical source space separately in each band before a group temporal ICA was performed over all subjects and bands. This method preserved the inherent correlation structure of the data and reflected connectivity derived from single-band ICA, but also allowed identification of spatial spectral modes that are consistent across subjects. The implications of these results on our understanding of sensorimotor function are discussed, as are the potential applications of this technique. Hum Brain Mapp 38:779-791, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Preliminary differences in resting state MEG functional connectivity pre- and post-ketamine in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Allison C; Robinson, Stephen E; Coppola, Richard; Zarate, Carlos A

    2016-08-30

    Functional neuroimaging techniques including magnetoencephalography (MEG) have demonstrated that the brain is organized into networks displaying correlated activity. Group connectivity differences between healthy controls and participants with major depressive disorder (MDD) can be detected using temporal independent components analysis (ICA) on beta-bandpass filtered Hilbert envelope MEG data. However, the response of these networks to treatment is unknown. Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, exerts rapid antidepressant effects. We obtained MEG recordings before and after open-label infusion of 0.5mg/kg ketamine in MDD subjects (N=13) and examined networks previously shown to differ between healthy individuals and those with MDD. Connectivity between the amygdala and an insulo-temporal component decreased post-ketamine in MDD subjects towards that observed in control subjects at baseline. Decreased baseline connectivity of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) with a bilateral precentral network had previously been observed in MDD compared to healthy controls, and the change in connectivity post-ketamine was proportional to the change in sgACC glucose metabolism in a subset (N=8) of subjects receiving [11F]FDG-PET imaging. Ketamine appeared to reduce connectivity, regardless of whether connectivity was abnormally high or low compared to controls at baseline. These preliminary findings suggest that sgACC connectivity may be directly related to glutamate levels. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Cognitive inhibition of number/length interference in a Piaget-like task: evidence by combining ERP and MEG.

    PubMed

    Joliot, Marc; Leroux, Gaëlle; Dubal, Stéphanie; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Houdé, Olivier; Mazoyer, Bernard; Petit, Laurent

    2009-08-01

    We combined event-related potential (ERP) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) acquisition and analysis to investigate the electrophysiological markers of the inhibitory processes involved in the number/length interference in a Piaget-like numerical task. Eleven healthy subjects performed four gradually interfering conditions with the heuristic "length equals number" to be inhibited. Low resolution tomography reconstruction was performed on the combined grand averaged electromagnetic data at the early (N1, P1) and late (P2, N2, P3(early) and P3(late)) latencies. Every condition was analyzed at both scalp and regional brain levels. The inhibitory processes were visible on the late components of the electromagnetic brain activity. A right P2-related frontal orbital activation reflected the change of strategy in the inhibitory processes. N2-related SMA/cingulate activation revealed the first occurrence of the stimuli processing to be inhibited. Both P3 components revealed the working memory processes operating in a medial temporal complex and the mental imagery processes subtended by the precuneus. Simultaneous ERP and MEG signal acquisition and analysis allowed to describe the spatiotemporal patterns of neural networks involved in the inhibition of the "length equals number" interference. Combining ERP and MEG ensured a sensitivity which could be reached previously only through invasive intracortical recordings.

  18. tDCS Modulates Visual Gamma Oscillations and Basal Alpha Activity in Occipital Cortices: Evidence from MEG.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Tony W; McDermott, Timothy J; Mills, Mackenzie S; Coolidge, Nathan M; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth

    2018-05-01

    Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is now a widely used method for modulating the human brain, but the resulting physiological effects are not understood. Recent studies have combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) with simultaneous tDCS to evaluate online changes in occipital alpha and gamma oscillations, but no study to date has quantified the offline (i.e., after tDCS) alterations in these responses. Thirty-five healthy adults received active or sham anodal tDCS to the occipital cortices, and then completed a visual stimulation paradigm during MEG that is known to elicit robust gamma and alpha oscillations. The resulting MEG data were imaged and peak voxel time series were extracted to evaluate tDCS effects. We found that tDCS to the occipital increased the amplitude of local gamma oscillations, and basal alpha levels during the baseline. tDCS was also associated with network-level effects, including increased gamma oscillations in the prefrontal cortex, parietal, and other visual attention regions. Finally, although tDCS did not modulate peak gamma frequency, this variable was inversely correlated with gamma amplitude, which is consistent with a GABA-gamma link. In conclusion, tDCS alters gamma oscillations and basal alpha levels. The net offline effects on gamma activity are consistent with the view that anodal tDCS decreases local GABA.

  19. Male veterans with PTSD exhibit aberrant neural dynamics during working memory processing: an MEG study

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Timothy J.; Badura-Brack, Amy S.; Becker, Katherine M.; Ryan, Tara J.; Khanna, Maya M.; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Wilson, Tony W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with executive functioning deficits, including disruptions in working memory. In this study, we examined the neural dynamics of working memory processing in veterans with PTSD and a matched healthy control sample using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Methods Our sample of recent combat veterans with PTSD and demographically matched participants without PTSD completed a working memory task during a 306-sensor MEG recording. The MEG data were preprocessed and transformed into the time-frequency domain. Significant oscillatory brain responses were imaged using a beamforming approach to identify spatiotemporal dynamics. Results Fifty-one men were included in our analyses: 27 combat veterans with PTSD and 24 controls. Across all participants, a dynamic wave of neural activity spread from posterior visual cortices to left frontotemporal regions during encoding, consistent with a verbal working memory task, and was sustained throughout maintenance. Differences related to PTSD emerged during early encoding, with patients exhibiting stronger α oscillatory responses than controls in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Differences spread to the right supramarginal and temporal cortices during later encoding where, along with the right IFG, they persisted throughout the maintenance period. Limitations This study focused on men with combat-related PTSD using a verbal working memory task. Future studies should evaluate women and the impact of various traumatic experiences using diverse tasks. Conclusion Posttraumatic stress disorder is associated with neurophysiological abnormalities during working memory encoding and maintenance. Veterans with PTSD engaged a bilateral network, including the inferior prefrontal cortices and supramarginal gyri. Right hemispheric neural activity likely reflects compensatory processing, as veterans with PTSD work to maintain accurate performance despite known cognitive deficits

  20. Resting-State Oscillatory Activity in Children Born Small for Gestational Age: An MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Boersma, Maria; de Bie, Henrica M. A.; Oostrom, Kim J.; van Dijk, Bob W.; Hillebrand, Arjan; van Wijk, Bernadette C. M.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriëtte A.; Stam, Cornelis J.

    2013-01-01

    Growth restriction in utero during a period that is critical for normal growth of the brain, has previously been associated with deviations in cognitive abilities and brain anatomical and functional changes. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 4- to 7-year-old children to test if children born small for gestational age (SGA) show deviations in resting-state brain oscillatory activity. Children born SGA with postnatally spontaneous catch-up growth [SGA+; six boys, seven girls; mean age 6.3 year (SD = 0.9)] and children born appropriate for gestational age [AGA; seven boys, three girls; mean age 6.0 year (SD = 1.2)] participated in a resting-state MEG study. We calculated absolute and relative power spectra and used non-parametric statistics to test for group differences. SGA+ and AGA born children showed no significant differences in absolute and relative power except for reduced absolute gamma band power in SGA children. At the time of MEG investigation, SGA+ children showed significantly lower head circumference (HC) and a trend toward lower IQ, however there was no association of HC or IQ with absolute or relative power. Except for reduced absolute gamma band power, our findings suggest normal brain activity patterns at school age in a group of children born SGA in which spontaneous catch-up growth of bodily length after birth occurred. Although previous findings suggest that being born SGA alters brain oscillatory activity early in neonatal life, we show that these neonatal alterations do not persist at early school age when spontaneous postnatal catch-up growth occurs after birth. PMID:24068993

  1. MEG Source Localization of Spatially Extended Generators of Epileptic Activity: Comparing Entropic and Hierarchical Bayesian Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Rasheda Arman; Lina, Jean Marc; Kobayashi, Eliane; Grova, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Localizing the generators of epileptic activity in the brain using Electro-EncephaloGraphy (EEG) or Magneto-EncephaloGraphy (MEG) signals is of particular interest during the pre-surgical investigation of epilepsy. Epileptic discharges can be detectable from background brain activity, provided they are associated with spatially extended generators. Using realistic simulations of epileptic activity, this study evaluates the ability of distributed source localization methods to accurately estimate the location of the generators and their sensitivity to the spatial extent of such generators when using MEG data. Source localization methods based on two types of realistic models have been investigated: (i) brain activity may be modeled using cortical parcels and (ii) brain activity is assumed to be locally smooth within each parcel. A Data Driven Parcellization (DDP) method was used to segment the cortical surface into non-overlapping parcels and diffusion-based spatial priors were used to model local spatial smoothness within parcels. These models were implemented within the Maximum Entropy on the Mean (MEM) and the Hierarchical Bayesian (HB) source localization frameworks. We proposed new methods in this context and compared them with other standard ones using Monte Carlo simulations of realistic MEG data involving sources of several spatial extents and depths. Detection accuracy of each method was quantified using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis and localization error metrics. Our results showed that methods implemented within the MEM framework were sensitive to all spatial extents of the sources ranging from 3 cm2 to 30 cm2, whatever were the number and size of the parcels defining the model. To reach a similar level of accuracy within the HB framework, a model using parcels larger than the size of the sources should be considered. PMID:23418485

  2. Automated Detection of Epileptic Biomarkers in Resting-State Interictal MEG Data

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Miguel C.; Niso, Guiomar; Clements, Jillian; Ortín, Silvia; Carrasco, Sira; Gudín, María; Mirasso, Claudio R.; Pereda, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    Certain differences between brain networks of healthy and epilectic subjects have been reported even during the interictal activity, in which no epileptic seizures occur. Here, magnetoencephalography (MEG) data recorded in the resting state is used to discriminate between healthy subjects and patients with either idiopathic generalized epilepsy or frontal focal epilepsy. Signal features extracted from interictal periods without any epileptiform activity are used to train a machine learning algorithm to draw a diagnosis. This is potentially relevant to patients without frequent or easily detectable spikes. To analyze the data, we use an up-to-date machine learning algorithm and explore the benefits of including different features obtained from the MEG data as inputs to the algorithm. We find that the relative power spectral density of the MEG time-series is sufficient to distinguish between healthy and epileptic subjects with a high prediction accuracy. We also find that a combination of features such as the phase-locked value and the relative power spectral density allow to discriminate generalized and focal epilepsy, when these features are calculated over a filtered version of the signals in certain frequency bands. Machine learning algorithms are currently being applied to the analysis and classification of brain signals. It is, however, less evident to identify the proper features of these signals that are prone to be used in such machine learning algorithms. Here, we evaluate the influence of the input feature selection on a clinical scenario to distinguish between healthy and epileptic subjects. Our results indicate that such distinction is possible with a high accuracy (86%), allowing the discrimination between idiopathic generalized and frontal focal epilepsy types. PMID:28713260

  3. MEG source localization of spatially extended generators of epileptic activity: comparing entropic and hierarchical bayesian approaches.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Rasheda Arman; Lina, Jean Marc; Kobayashi, Eliane; Grova, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Localizing the generators of epileptic activity in the brain using Electro-EncephaloGraphy (EEG) or Magneto-EncephaloGraphy (MEG) signals is of particular interest during the pre-surgical investigation of epilepsy. Epileptic discharges can be detectable from background brain activity, provided they are associated with spatially extended generators. Using realistic simulations of epileptic activity, this study evaluates the ability of distributed source localization methods to accurately estimate the location of the generators and their sensitivity to the spatial extent of such generators when using MEG data. Source localization methods based on two types of realistic models have been investigated: (i) brain activity may be modeled using cortical parcels and (ii) brain activity is assumed to be locally smooth within each parcel. A Data Driven Parcellization (DDP) method was used to segment the cortical surface into non-overlapping parcels and diffusion-based spatial priors were used to model local spatial smoothness within parcels. These models were implemented within the Maximum Entropy on the Mean (MEM) and the Hierarchical Bayesian (HB) source localization frameworks. We proposed new methods in this context and compared them with other standard ones using Monte Carlo simulations of realistic MEG data involving sources of several spatial extents and depths. Detection accuracy of each method was quantified using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis and localization error metrics. Our results showed that methods implemented within the MEM framework were sensitive to all spatial extents of the sources ranging from 3 cm(2) to 30 cm(2), whatever were the number and size of the parcels defining the model. To reach a similar level of accuracy within the HB framework, a model using parcels larger than the size of the sources should be considered.

  4. The design of the MEG II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, A. M.; Baracchini, E.; Bemporad, C.; Berg, F.; Biasotti, M.; Boca, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavoto, G.; Cei, F.; Chiappini, M.; Chiarello, G.; Chiri, C.; Cocciolo, G.; Corvaglia, A.; de Bari, A.; De Gerone, M.; D'Onofrio, A.; Francesconi, M.; Fujii, Y.; Galli, L.; Gatti, F.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grassi, M.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hodge, Z.; Ieki, K.; Ignatov, F.; Iwai, R.; Iwamoto, T.; Kaneko, D.; Kasami, K.; Kettle, P.-R.; Khazin, B. I.; Khomutov, N.; Korenchenko, A.; Kravchuk, N.; Libeiro, T.; Maki, M.; Matsuzawa, N.; Mihara, S.; Milgie, M.; Molzon, W.; Mori, Toshinori; Morsani, F.; Mtchedilishvili, A.; Nakao, M.; Nakaura, S.; Nicolò, D.; Nishiguchi, H.; Nishimura, M.; Ogawa, S.; Ootani, W.; Panareo, M.; Papa, A.; Pepino, A.; Piredda, G.; Popov, A.; Raffaelli, F.; Renga, F.; Ripiccini, E.; Ritt, S.; Rossella, M.; Rutar, G.; Sawada, R.; Signorelli, G.; Simonetta, M.; Tassielli, G. F.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usami, M.; Venturini, M.; Voena, C.; Yoshida, K.; Yudin, Yu. V.; Zhang, Y.

    2018-05-01

    The MEG experiment, designed to search for the {μ ^+ → e^+ γ } decay, completed data-taking in 2013 reaching a sensitivity level of {5.3× 10^{-13}} for the branching ratio. In order to increase the sensitivity reach of the experiment by an order of magnitude to the level of 6× 10^{-14}, a total upgrade, involving substantial changes to the experiment, has been undertaken, known as MEG II. We present both the motivation for the upgrade and a detailed overview of the design of the experiment and of the expected detector performance.

  5. Effects of Phonological Contrast on Auditory Word Discrimination in Children with and without Reading Disability: A Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehner, Daniel T.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Mody, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Poor readers perform worse than their normal reading peers on a variety of speech perception tasks, which may be linked to their phonological processing abilities. The purpose of the study was to compare the brain activation patterns of normal and impaired readers on speech perception to better understand the phonological basis in reading…

  6. Magnetoencephalography with a Cs-based high-sensitivity compact atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Jingwei; Wan, Shuangai; Sun, Yifan; Dou, Rongshe; Guo, Yuhao; Wei, Kequan; He, Kaiyan; Qin, Jie; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, substantial progress has been made in developing a new generation of magnetoencephalography (MEG) with a spin-exchange relaxation free (SERF)-based atomic magnetometer (AM). An AM employs alkali atoms to detect weak magnetic fields. A compact AM array with high sensitivity is crucial to the design; however, most proposed compact AMs are potassium (K)- or rubidium (Rb)-based with single beam configurations. In the present study, a pump-probe two beam configuration with a Cesium (Cs)-based AM (Cs-AM) is introduced to detect human neuronal magnetic fields. The length of the vapor cell is 4 mm, which can fully satisfy the need of designing a compact sensor array. Compared with state-of-the-art compact AMs, our new Cs-AM has two advantages. First, it can be operated in a SERF regime, requiring much lower heating temperature, which benefits the sensor with a closer distance to scalp due to ease of thermal insulation and less electric heating noise interference. Second, the two-beam configuration in the design can achieve higher sensitivity. It is free of magnetic modulation, which is necessary in one-beam AMs; however, such modulation may cause other interference in multi-channel circumstances. In the frequency band between 10 Hz and 30 Hz, the noise level of the proposed Cs-AM is approximately 10 f T/Hz1/2, which is comparable with state-of-the-art K- or Rb-based compact AMs. The performance of the Cs-AM was verified by measuring human auditory evoked fields (AEFs) in reference to commercial superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) channels. By using a Cs-AM, we observed a clear peak in AEFs around 100 ms (M100) with a much larger amplitude compared with that of a SQUID, and the temporal profiles of the two devices were in good agreement. The results indicate the possibility of using the compact Cs-AM for MEG recordings, and the current Cs-AM has the potential to be designed for multi-sensor arrays and gradiometers for future neuroscience

  7. Whole-brain MEG connectivity-based analyses reveals critical hubs in childhood absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Youssofzadeh, Vahab; Agler, William; Tenney, Jeffrey R; Kadis, Darren S

    2018-06-04

    Absence seizures are thought to be linked to abnormal interplays between regions of a thalamocortical network. However, the complexity of this widespread network makes characterizing the functional interactions among various brain regions challenging. Using whole-brain functional connectivity and network analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data, we explored pre-treatment brain hubs ("highly connected nodes") of patients aged 6 to 12 years with childhood absence epilepsy. We analyzed ictal MEG data of 74 seizures from 16 patients. We employed a time-domain beamformer technique to estimate MEG sources in broadband (1-40 Hz) where the greatest power changes between ictal and preictal periods were identified. A phase synchrony measure, phase locking value, and a graph theory metric, eigenvector centrality (EVC), were utilized to quantify voxel-level connectivity and network hubs of ictal > preictal periods, respectively. A volumetric atlas containing 116 regions of interests (ROIs) was utilized to summarize the network measures. ROIs with EVC (z-score) > 1.96 were reported as critical hubs. ROIs analysis revealed functional-anatomical hubs in a widespread network containing bilateral precuneus (right/left, z = 2.39, 2.18), left thalamus (z = 2.28), and three anterior cerebellar subunits of lobule "IV-V" (z = 3.9), vermis "IV-V" (z = 3.57), and lobule "III" (z = 2.03). Findings suggest that highly connected brain areas or hubs are present in focal cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions during absence seizures. Hubs in thalami, precuneus and cingulate cortex generally support a theory of rapidly engaging and bilaterally distributed networks of cortical and subcortical regions responsible for seizures generation, whereas hubs in anterior cerebellar regions may be linked to terminating motor automatisms frequently seen during typical absence seizures. Whole-brain network connectivity is a powerful analytic tool to reveal focal

  8. Musical Expectations Enhance Auditory Cortical Processing in Musicians: A Magnetoencephalography Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Mi; Chung, Chun Kee; Kim, June Sic; Lee, Kyung Myun; Seol, Jaeho; Yi, Suk Won

    2018-01-15

    The present study investigated the influence of musical expectations on auditory representations in musicians and non-musicians using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Neuroscientific studies have demonstrated that musical syntax is processed in the inferior frontal gyri, eliciting an early right anterior negativity (ERAN), and anatomical evidence has shown that interconnections occur between the frontal cortex and the belt and parabelt regions in the auditory cortex (AC). Therefore, we anticipated that musical expectations would mediate neural activities in the AC via an efferent pathway. To test this hypothesis, we measured the auditory-evoked fields (AEFs) of seven musicians and seven non-musicians while they were listening to a five-chord progression in which the expectancy of the third chord was manipulated (highly expected, less expected, and unexpected). The results revealed that highly expected chords elicited shorter N1m (negative AEF at approximately 100 ms) and P2m (positive AEF at approximately 200 ms) latencies and larger P2m amplitudes in the AC than less-expected and unexpected chords. The relations between P2m amplitudes/latencies and harmonic expectations were similar between the groups; however, musicians' results were more remarkable than those of non-musicians. These findings suggest that auditory cortical processing is enhanced by musical knowledge and long-term training in a top-down manner, which is reflected in shortened N1m and P2m latencies and enhanced P2m amplitudes in the AC. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transcranial direct-current stimulation modulates offline visual oscillatory activity: A magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; McDermott, Timothy J.; Mills, Mackenzie S.; Coolidge, Nathan M.; Wilson, Tony W.

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive neuromodulatory method that involves delivering low amplitude, direct current to specific regions of the brain. While a wealth of literature shows changes in behavior and cognition following tDCS administration, the underlying neuronal mechanisms remain largely unknown. Neuroimaging studies have generally used fMRI and shown only limited consensus to date, while the few electrophysiological studies have reported mostly null or counterintuitive findings. The goal of the current investigation was to quantify tDCS-induced alterations in the oscillatory dynamics of visual processing. To this end, we performed either active or sham tDCS using an occipital-frontal electrode configuration, and then recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) offline during a visual entrainment task. Significant oscillatory responses were imaged in the time-frequency domain using beamforming, and the effects of tDCS on absolute and relative power were assessed. The results indicated significantly increased basal alpha levels in the occipital cortex following anodal tDCS, as well as reduced occipital synchronization at the second harmonic of the stimulus-flicker frequency relative to sham stimulation. In addition, we found reduced power in brain regions near the cathode (e.g., right inferior frontal gyrus) following active tDCS, which was absent in the sham group. Taken together, these results suggest that anodal tDCS of the occipital cortices differentially modulates spontaneous and induced activity, and may interfere with the entrainment of neuronal populations by a visual-flicker stimulus. These findings also demonstrate the importance of electrode configuration on whole-brain dynamics, and highlight the deceptively complicated nature of tDCS in the context of neurophysiology. PMID:28042984

  10. Hyperedge bundling: A practical solution to spurious interactions in MEG/EEG source connectivity analyses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng H; Lobier, Muriel; Siebenhühner, Felix; Puoliväli, Tuomas; Palva, Satu; Palva, J Matias

    2018-06-01

    Inter-areal functional connectivity (FC), neuronal synchronization in particular, is thought to constitute a key systems-level mechanism for coordination of neuronal processing and communication between brain regions. Evidence to support this hypothesis has been gained largely using invasive electrophysiological approaches. In humans, neuronal activity can be non-invasively recorded only with magneto- and electroencephalography (MEG/EEG), which have been used to assess FC networks with high temporal resolution and whole-scalp coverage. However, even in source-reconstructed MEG/EEG data, signal mixing, or "source leakage", is a significant confounder for FC analyses and network localization. Signal mixing leads to two distinct kinds of false-positive observations: artificial interactions (AI) caused directly by mixing and spurious interactions (SI) arising indirectly from the spread of signals from true interacting sources to nearby false loci. To date, several interaction metrics have been developed to solve the AI problem, but the SI problem has remained largely intractable in MEG/EEG all-to-all source connectivity studies. Here, we advance a novel approach for correcting SIs in FC analyses using source-reconstructed MEG/EEG data. Our approach is to bundle observed FC connections into hyperedges by their adjacency in signal mixing. Using realistic simulations, we show here that bundling yields hyperedges with good separability of true positives and little loss in the true positive rate. Hyperedge bundling thus significantly decreases graph noise by minimizing the false-positive to true-positive ratio. Finally, we demonstrate the advantage of edge bundling in the visualization of large-scale cortical networks with real MEG data. We propose that hypergraphs yielded by bundling represent well the set of true cortical interactions that are detectable and dissociable in MEG/EEG connectivity analysis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. Heightened amygdala responsiveness in s-carriers of 5-HTTLPR genetic polymorphism reflects enhanced cortical rather than subcortical inputs: An MEG study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qian; Holroyd, Tom; Mitchell, Derek; Yu, Henry; Cheng, Xi; Hodgkinson, Colin; Chen, Gang; McCaffrey, Daniel; Goldman, David; Blair, R James

    2017-09-01

    Short allele carriers (S-carriers) of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) show an elevated amygdala response to emotional stimuli relative to long allele carriers (LL-homozygous). However, whether this reflects increased responsiveness of the amygdala generally or interactions between the amygdala and the specific input systems remains unknown. It is argued that the amygdala receives input via a quick subcortical and a slower cortical pathway. If the elevated amygdala response in S-carriers reflects generally increased amygdala responding, then group differences in amygdala should be seen across the amygdala response time course. However, if the difference is a secondary consequence of enhanced amygdala-cortical interactions, then group differences might only be present later in the amygdala response. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we found an enhanced amygdala response to fearful expressions starting 40-50 ms poststimulus. However, group differences in the amygdala were only seen 190-200 ms poststimulus, preceded by increased superior temporal sulcus (STS) responses in S-carriers from 130 to 140 ms poststimulus. An enhanced amygdala response to angry expressions started 260-270 ms poststimulus with group differences in the amygdala starting at 160-170 ms poststimulus onset, preceded by increased STS responses in S-carriers from 150 to 160 ms poststimulus. These suggest that enhanced amygdala responses in S-carriers might reflect enhanced STS-amygdala connectivity in S-carriers. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4313-4321, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Anti-Stress, Behavioural and Magnetoencephalography Effects of an L-Theanine-Based Nutrient Drink: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial.

    PubMed

    White, David J; de Klerk, Suzanne; Woods, William; Gondalia, Shakuntla; Noonan, Chris; Scholey, Andrew B

    2016-01-19

    L-theanine (γ-glutamylethylamide) is an amino acid found primarily in the green tea plant. This study explored the effects of an L-theanine-based nutrient drink on mood responses to a cognitive stressor. Additional measures included an assessment of cognitive performance and resting state alpha oscillatory activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Thirty-four healthy adults aged 18-40 participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover study. The primary outcome measure, subjective stress response to a multitasking cognitive stressor, was significantly reduced one hour after administration of the L-theanine drink when compared to placebo. The salivary cortisol response to the stressor was reduced three hours post-dose following active treatment. No treatment-related cognitive performance changes were observed. Resting state alpha oscillatory activity was significantly greater in posterior MEG sensors after active treatment compared to placebo two hours post-dose; however, this effect was only apparent for those higher in trait anxiety. This change in resting state alpha oscillatory activity was not correlated with the change in subjective stress response or the cortisol response, suggesting further research is required to assess the functional relevance of these treatment-related changes in resting alpha activity. These findings further support the anti-stress effects of L-theanine.

  13. fMRI and MEG in the study of typical and atypical cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M J; Donner, E J; Pang, E W

    2012-01-01

    The tremendous changes in brain structure over childhood are critical to the development of cognitive functions. Neuroimaging provides a means of linking these brain-behaviour relations, as task protocols can be adapted for use with young children to assess the development of cognitive functions in both typical and atypical populations. This paper reviews some of our research using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional MRI (fMRI) in the study of cognitive development, with a focus on frontal lobe functions. Working memory for complex abstract patterns showed clear development in terms of the recruitment of frontal regions, seen with fMRI, with indications of strategy differences across the age range, from 6 to 35 years of age. Right hippocampal involvement was also evident in these n-back tasks, demonstrating its involvement in recognition in simple working memory protocols. Children born very preterm (7 to 9 years of age) showed reduced fMRI activation particularly in the precuneus and right hippocampal regions relative to control children. In a large normative n-back study (n=90) with upright and inverted faces, MEG data also showed right hippocampal activation that was present across the age range; frontal sources were evident only from 10 years of age. Other studies have investigated the development of set shifting, an executive function that is often deficit in atypical populations. fMRI showed recruitment of frontal areas, including the insula, that have significantly different patterns in children (7 to 14 years of age) with autism spectrum disorder compared to typically developing children, indicating that successful performance implicated differing strategies in these two groups of children. These types of studies will help our understanding of both normal brain-behaviour development and cognitive dysfunction in atypically developing populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring MEG closer to the brain: Performance of on-scalp sensor arrays

    PubMed Central

    Iivanainen, Joonas; Stenroos, Matti; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Optically-pumped magnetometers (OPMs) have recently reached sensitivity levels required for magnetoencephalography (MEG). OPMs do not need cryogenics and can thus be placed within millimetres from the scalp into an array that adapts to the invidual head size and shape, thereby reducing the distance from cortical sources to the sensors. Here, we quantified the improvement in recording MEG with hypothetical on-scalp OPM arrays compared to a 306-channel state-of-the-art SQUID array (102 magnetometers and 204 planar gradiometers). We simulated OPM arrays that measured either normal (nOPM; 102 sensors), tangential (tOPM; 204 sensors), or all components (aOPM; 306 sensors) of the magnetic field. We built forward models based on magnetic resonance images of 10 adult heads; we employed a three-compartment boundary element model and distributed current dipoles evenly across the cortical mantle. Compared to the SQUID magnetometers, nOPM and tOPM yielded 7.5 and 5.3 times higher signal power, while the correlations between the field patterns of source dipoles were reduced by factors of 2.8 and 3.6, respectively. Values of the field-pattern correlations were similar across nOPM, tOPM and SQUID gradiometers. Volume currents reduced the signals of primary currents on average by 10%, 72% and 15% in nOPM, tOPM and SQUID magnetometers, respectively. The information capacities of the OPM arrays were clearly higher than that of the SQUID array. The dipole-localization accuracies of the arrays were similar while the minimum-norm-based point-spread functions were on average 2.4 and 2.5 times more spread for the SQUID array compared to nOPM and tOPM arrays, respectively. PMID:28007515

  15. Robust decoding of selective auditory attention from MEG in a competing-speaker environment via state-space modeling✩

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Sahar; Presacco, Alessandro; Simon, Jonathan Z.; Shamma, Shihab A.; Babadi, Behtash

    2015-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of how the human brain solves the cocktail party problem is largely unknown. Recent neuroimaging studies, however, suggest salient temporal correlations between the auditory neural response and the attended auditory object. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of the neural responses of human subjects, we propose a decoding approach for tracking the attentional state while subjects are selectively listening to one of the two speech streams embedded in a competing-speaker environment. We develop a biophysically-inspired state-space model to account for the modulation of the neural response with respect to the attentional state of the listener. The constructed decoder is based on a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate of the state parameters via the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. Using only the envelope of the two speech streams as covariates, the proposed decoder enables us to track the attentional state of the listener with a temporal resolution of the order of seconds, together with statistical confidence intervals. We evaluate the performance of the proposed model using numerical simulations and experimentally measured evoked MEG responses from the human brain. Our analysis reveals considerable performance gains provided by the state-space model in terms of temporal resolution, computational complexity and decoding accuracy. PMID:26436490

  16. Deficits in auditory processing contribute to impairments in vocal affect recognition in autism spectrum disorders: A MEG study.

    PubMed

    Demopoulos, Carly; Hopkins, Joyce; Kopald, Brandon E; Paulson, Kim; Doyle, Lauren; Andrews, Whitney E; Lewine, Jeffrey David

    2015-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether there is an association between magnetoencephalography-based (MEG) indices of basic cortical auditory processing and vocal affect recognition (VAR) ability in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). MEG data were collected from 25 children/adolescents with ASD and 12 control participants using a paired-tone paradigm to measure quality of auditory physiology, sensory gating, and rapid auditory processing. Group differences were examined in auditory processing and vocal affect recognition ability. The relationship between differences in auditory processing and vocal affect recognition deficits was examined in the ASD group. Replicating prior studies, participants with ASD showed longer M1n latencies and impaired rapid processing compared with control participants. These variables were significantly related to VAR, with the linear combination of auditory processing variables accounting for approximately 30% of the variability after controlling for age and language skills in participants with ASD. VAR deficits in ASD are typically interpreted as part of a core, higher order dysfunction of the "social brain"; however, these results suggest they also may reflect basic deficits in auditory processing that compromise the extraction of socially relevant cues from the auditory environment. As such, they also suggest that therapeutic targeting of sensory dysfunction in ASD may have additional positive implications for other functional deficits. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Whole-Brain Source-Reconstructed MEG-Data Reveal Reduced Long-Range Synchronization in Chronic Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Jonni; Wibral, Michael; Palva, J Matias; Singer, Wolf; Uhlhaas, Peter; Palva, Satu

    2017-01-01

    Current theories of schizophrenia (ScZ) posit that the symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions arise from a dysconnection syndrome. However, studies that have examined this hypothesis with physiological data at realistic time scales are so far scarce. The current study employed a state-of-the-art approach using Magnetoencephalography (MEG) to test alterations in large-scale phase synchronization in a sample of n = 16 chronic ScZ patients, 10 males and n = 19 healthy participants, 10 males, during a perceptual closure task. We identified large-scale networks from source reconstructed MEG data using data-driven analyses of neuronal synchronization. Oscillation amplitudes and interareal phase-synchronization in the 3-120 Hz frequency range were estimated for 400 cortical parcels and correlated with clinical symptoms and neuropsychological scores. ScZ patients were characterized by a reduction in γ-band (30-120 Hz) oscillation amplitudes that was accompanied by a pronounced deficit in large-scale synchronization at γ-band frequencies. Synchronization was reduced within visual regions as well as between visual and frontal cortex and the reduction of synchronization correlated with elevated clinical disorganization. Accordingly, these data highlight that ScZ is associated with a profound disruption of transient synchronization, providing critical support for the notion that core aspect of the pathophysiology arises from an impairment in coordination of distributed neural activity.

  18. Beamspace dual signal space projection (bDSSP): a method for selective detection of deep sources in MEG measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekihara, Kensuke; Adachi, Yoshiaki; Kubota, Hiroshi K.; Cai, Chang; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has a well-recognized weakness at detecting deeper brain activities. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for selective detection of deep sources by suppressing interference signals from superficial sources in MEG measurements. Approach. The proposed algorithm combines the beamspace preprocessing method with the dual signal space projection (DSSP) interference suppression method. A prerequisite of the proposed algorithm is prior knowledge of the location of the deep sources. The proposed algorithm first derives the basis vectors that span a local region just covering the locations of the deep sources. It then estimates the time-domain signal subspace of the superficial sources by using the projector composed of these basis vectors. Signals from the deep sources are extracted by projecting the row space of the data matrix onto the direction orthogonal to the signal subspace of the superficial sources. Main results. Compared with the previously proposed beamspace signal space separation (SSS) method, the proposed algorithm is capable of suppressing much stronger interference from superficial sources. This capability is demonstrated in our computer simulation as well as experiments using phantom data. Significance. The proposed bDSSP algorithm can be a powerful tool in studies of physiological functions of midbrain and deep brain structures.

  19. Beamspace dual signal space projection (bDSSP): a method for selective detection of deep sources in MEG measurements.

    PubMed

    Sekihara, Kensuke; Adachi, Yoshiaki; Kubota, Hiroshi K; Cai, Chang; Nagarajan, Srikantan S

    2018-06-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has a well-recognized weakness at detecting deeper brain activities. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for selective detection of deep sources by suppressing interference signals from superficial sources in MEG measurements. The proposed algorithm combines the beamspace preprocessing method with the dual signal space projection (DSSP) interference suppression method. A prerequisite of the proposed algorithm is prior knowledge of the location of the deep sources. The proposed algorithm first derives the basis vectors that span a local region just covering the locations of the deep sources. It then estimates the time-domain signal subspace of the superficial sources by using the projector composed of these basis vectors. Signals from the deep sources are extracted by projecting the row space of the data matrix onto the direction orthogonal to the signal subspace of the superficial sources. Compared with the previously proposed beamspace signal space separation (SSS) method, the proposed algorithm is capable of suppressing much stronger interference from superficial sources. This capability is demonstrated in our computer simulation as well as experiments using phantom data. The proposed bDSSP algorithm can be a powerful tool in studies of physiological functions of midbrain and deep brain structures.

  20. Whole-Brain Source-Reconstructed MEG-Data Reveal Reduced Long-Range Synchronization in Chronic Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hirvonen, Jonni; Palva, J. Matias; Singer, Wolf; Uhlhaas, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Current theories of schizophrenia (ScZ) posit that the symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions arise from a dysconnection syndrome. However, studies that have examined this hypothesis with physiological data at realistic time scales are so far scarce. The current study employed a state-of-the-art approach using Magnetoencephalography (MEG) to test alterations in large-scale phase synchronization in a sample of n = 16 chronic ScZ patients, 10 males and n = 19 healthy participants, 10 males, during a perceptual closure task. We identified large-scale networks from source reconstructed MEG data using data-driven analyses of neuronal synchronization. Oscillation amplitudes and interareal phase-synchronization in the 3–120 Hz frequency range were estimated for 400 cortical parcels and correlated with clinical symptoms and neuropsychological scores. ScZ patients were characterized by a reduction in γ-band (30–120 Hz) oscillation amplitudes that was accompanied by a pronounced deficit in large-scale synchronization at γ-band frequencies. Synchronization was reduced within visual regions as well as between visual and frontal cortex and the reduction of synchronization correlated with elevated clinical disorganization. Accordingly, these data highlight that ScZ is associated with a profound disruption of transient synchronization, providing critical support for the notion that core aspect of the pathophysiology arises from an impairment in coordination of distributed neural activity. PMID:29085902

  1. Development of a bio-magnetic measurement system and sensor configuration analysis for rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, In-Seon; Kim, Kiwoong; Lim, Sanghyun; Kwon, Hyukchan; Kang, Chan Seok; Ahn, San; Yu, Kwon Kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho

    2017-04-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) based on superconducting quantum interference devices enables the measurement of very weak magnetic fields (10-1000 fT) generated from the human or animal brain. In this article, we introduce a small MEG system that we developed specifically for use with rats. Our system has the following characteristics: (1) variable distance between the pick-up coil and outer Dewar bottom (˜5 mm), (2) small pick-up coil (4 mm) for high spatial resolution, (3) good field sensitivity (45 ˜ 80 fT /cm/√{Hz} ) , (4) the sensor interval satisfies the Nyquist spatial sampling theorem, and (5) small source localization error for the region to be investigated. To reduce source localization error, it is necessary to establish an optimal sensor layout. To this end, we simulated confidence volumes at each point on a grid on the surface of a virtual rat head. In this simulation, we used locally fitted spheres as model rat heads. This enabled us to consider more realistic volume currents. We constrained the model such that the dipoles could have only four possible orientations: the x- and y-axes from the original coordinates, and two tangentially layered dipoles (local x- and y-axes) in the locally fitted spheres. We considered the confidence volumes according to the sensor layout and dipole orientation and positions. We then conducted a preliminary test with a 4-channel MEG system prior to manufacturing the multi-channel system. Using the 4-channel MEG system, we measured rat magnetocardiograms. We obtained well defined P-, QRS-, and T-waves in rats with a maximum value of 15 pT/cm. Finally, we measured auditory evoked fields and steady state auditory evoked fields with maximum values 400 fT/cm and 250 fT/cm, respectively.

  2. Conversation Effects on Neural Mechanisms Underlying Reaction Time to Visual Events while Viewing a Driving Scene using MEG

    PubMed Central

    Bowyer, Susan M.; Hsieh, Li; Moran, John E.; Young, Richard A.; Manoharan, Arun; Liao, Chia-cheng Jason; Malladi, Kiran; Yu, Ya-Ju; Chiang, Yow-Ren; Tepley, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) imaging examined the neural mechanisms that modulate reaction times to visual events while viewing a driving video, with and without a conversation. Twenty-four subjects ages 18–65 were monitored by whole-head MEG. The primary tasks were to monitor a driving video and to depress a foot pedal in response to a small red light presented to the left or below the driving scene at unpredictable times. The behavioral reaction time (RT) to the lights was recorded. The secondary task was a hands-free conversation. The subject pressed a button to answer a ring tone, and then covertly answered pre-recorded non-emotional questions such as “What is your birth date?” RTs for the conversation task (1043ms, SE=65ms) were slightly longer than for the primary task (baseline no conversation (944ms, SE=48ms). During the primary task RTs were inversely related to the amount of brain activity detected by MEG in the right superior parietal lobe (Brodmann’s Area 7). Brain activity was seen in the 200 to 300 ms range after the onset of the red light and in the visual cortex (BA 19) about 85 ms after the red light. Conversation reduced the strengths of these regression relationships and increased mean RT. Conversation may contribute to increased reaction times by (1) damping brain activation in specific regions during specific time windows, or (2) reducing facilitation from attention inputs into those areas. These laboratory findings should not be interpreted as indicative of real-world driving, without on-road validation, and comparison to other in-vehicle tasks. PMID:18992728

  3. Maturation of auditory neural processes in autism spectrum disorder - A longitudinal MEG study.

    PubMed

    Port, Russell G; Edgar, J Christopher; Ku, Matthew; Bloy, Luke; Murray, Rebecca; Blaskey, Lisa; Levy, Susan E; Roberts, Timothy P L

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show atypical brain activity, perhaps due to delayed maturation. Previous studies examining the maturation of auditory electrophysiological activity have been limited due to their use of cross-sectional designs. The present study took a first step in examining magnetoencephalography (MEG) evidence of abnormal auditory response maturation in ASD via the use of a longitudinal design. Initially recruited for a previous study, 27 children with ASD and nine typically developing (TD) children, aged 6- to 11-years-old, were re-recruited two to five years later. At both timepoints, MEG data were obtained while participants passively listened to sinusoidal pure-tones. Bilateral primary/secondary auditory cortex time domain (100 ms evoked response latency (M100)) and spectrotemporal measures (gamma-band power and inter-trial coherence (ITC)) were examined. MEG measures were also qualitatively examined for five children who exhibited "optimal outcome", participants who were initially on spectrum, but no longer met diagnostic criteria at follow-up. M100 latencies were delayed in ASD versus TD at the initial exam (~ 19 ms) and at follow-up (~ 18 ms). At both exams, M100 latencies were associated with clinical ASD severity. In addition, gamma-band evoked power and ITC were reduced in ASD versus TD. M100 latency and gamma-band maturation rates did not differ between ASD and TD. Of note, the cohort of five children that demonstrated "optimal outcome" additionally exhibited M100 latency and gamma-band activity mean values in-between TD and ASD at both timepoints. Though justifying only qualitative interpretation, these "optimal outcome" related data are presented here to motivate future studies. Children with ASD showed perturbed auditory cortex neural activity, as evidenced by M100 latency delays as well as reduced transient gamma-band activity. Despite evidence for maturation of these responses in ASD, the neural abnormalities

  4. MEG Frequency Analysis Depicts the Impaired Neurophysiological Condition of Ischemic Brain

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Uda, Takehiro; Okumura, Eiichi; Asakawa, Takashi; Haruta, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Hideki; Okada, Toyoji; Kamada, Hajime; Ohata, Kenji; Miki, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Quantitative imaging of neuromagnetic fields based on automated region of interest (ROI) setting was analyzed to determine the characteristics of cerebral neural activity in ischemic areas. Methods Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to evaluate spontaneous neuromagnetic fields in the ischemic areas of 37 patients with unilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusive disease. Voxel-based time-averaged intensity of slow waves was obtained in two frequency bands (0.3–4 Hz and 4–8 Hz) using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) modified for a quantifiable method (sLORETA-qm). ROIs were automatically applied to the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), anterior middle cerebral artery (MCAa), posterior middle cerebral artery (MCAp), and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Positron emission tomography with 15O-gas inhalation (15O-PET) was also performed to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). Statistical analyses were performed using laterality index of MEG and 15O-PET in each ROI with respect to distribution and intensity. Results MEG revealed statistically significant laterality in affected MCA regions, including 4–8 Hz waves in MCAa, and 0.3–4 Hz and 4–8 Hz waves in MCAp (95% confidence interval: 0.020–0.190, 0.030–0.207, and 0.034–0.213), respectively. We found that 0.3–4 Hz waves in MCAp were highly correlated with CBF in MCAa and MCAp (r = 0.74, r = 0.68, respectively), whereas 4–8 Hz waves were moderately correlated with CBF in both the MCAa and MCAp (r = 0.60, r = 0.63, respectively). We also found that 4–8 Hz waves in MCAp were statistically significant for misery perfusion identified on 15O-PET (p<0.05). Conclusions Quantitatively imaged spontaneous neuromagnetic fields using the automated ROI setting enabled clear depiction of cerebral ischemic areas. Frequency analysis may reveal unique neural activity that is distributed in

  5. Modulation of the mirror system by social relevance.

    PubMed

    Kilner, James M; Marchant, Jennifer L; Frith, Chris D

    2006-09-01

    When we observe the actions of others, certain areas of the brain are activated in a similar manner as to when we perform the same actions ourselves. This 'mirror system' includes areas in the ventral premotor cortex and the inferior parietal lobule. Experimental studies suggest that action observation automatically elicits activity in the observer, which precisely mirrors the activity observed. In this case we would expect this activity to be independent of observer's viewpoint. Here we use whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) to record cortical activity of human subjects whilst they watched a series of videos of an actor making a movement recorded from different viewpoints. We show that one cortical response to action observation (oscillatory activity in the 7-12 Hz frequency range) is modulated by the relationship between the observer and the actor. We suggest that this modulation reflects a mechanism that filters information into the 'mirror system', allowing only socially relevant information to pass.

  6. Absence of Auditory M100 Source Asymmetry in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: A MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Feng, Yigang; Jia, Yanbin; Xie, Yanping; Wang, Wensheng; Guan, Yufang; Zhong, Shuming; Zhu, Dan; Huang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Background Whether schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are the clinical outcomes of discrete or shared causative processes is much debated in psychiatry. Several studies have demonstrated anomalous structural and functional superior temporal gyrus (STG) symmetries in schizophrenia. We examined bipolar patients to determine if they also have altered STG asymmetry. Methods Whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of auditory evoked fields were obtained for 20 subjects with schizophrenia, 20 with bipolar disorder, and 20 control subjects. Neural generators of the M100 auditory response were modeled using a single equivalent current dipole for each hemisphere. The source location of the M100 response was used as a measure of functional STG asymmetry. Results Control subjects showed the typical M100 asymmetrical pattern with more anterior sources in the right STG. In contrast, both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients displayed a symmetrical M100 source pattern. There was no significant difference in the M100 latency and strength in bilateral hemispheres within three groups. Conclusions Our results indicate that disturbed asymmetry of temporal lobe function may reflect a common deviance present in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, suggesting the two disorders might share etiological and pathophysiological factors. PMID:24340052

  7. Neural mechanisms of savant calendar calculating in autism: an MEG-study of few single cases.

    PubMed

    Dubischar-Krivec, Anna Milena; Bölte, Sven; Braun, Christoph; Poustka, Fritz; Birbaumer, Niels; Neumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    This study contrasted the neurological correlates of calendar calculating (CC) between those individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing individuals. CC is the ability to correctly and quickly state the day of the week of a given date. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we presented 126 calendar tasks with dates of the present, past, and future. Event-related magnetic fields (ERF) of 3000ms duration and brain activation patterns were compared in three savant calendar calculators with ASD (ASDCC) and three typically developing calendar calculators (TYPCC). ASDCC outperformed TYPCC in correct responses, but not in answering speed. Comparing amplitudes of their ERFs, there was a main effect of group between 1000 and 3000ms, but no further effects of hemisphere or sensor location. We conducted CLARA source analysis across the entire CC period in each individual. Both ASDCC and TYPCC exhibited activation maxima in prefrontal areas including the insulae and the left superior temporal gyrus. This is in accordance with verbal fact retrieval and working memory as well as monitoring and coordination processes. In ASDCC, additional activation sites at the right superior occipital gyrus, the right precuneus, and the right putamen point to visual-spatial strategies and are in line with the preference of autistic individuals for engaging posterior regions relatively more strongly in various reasoning and problem solving tasks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Waves of regret: a meg study of emotion and decision-making.

    PubMed

    Giorgetta, Cinzia; Grecucci, Alessandro; Bonini, Nicolao; Coricelli, Giorgio; Demarchi, Gianpaolo; Braun, Christoph; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-01-01

    Recent fMRI studies have investigated brain activity involved in the feeling of regret and disappointment by manipulating the feedback participants saw after making a decision to play certain gambles: full-feedback (regret: participant sees the outcomes from both the chosen and unchosen gamble) vs. partial-feedback (disappointment: participant only sees the outcome from chosen gamble). However, regret and disappointment are also characterized by differential agency attribution: personal agency for regret, external agency for disappointment. In this study, we investigate the neural correlates of these two characterizations of regret and disappointment using magnetoencephalography (MEG). To do this, we experimentally induced each emotion by manipulating feedback (chosen gamble vs. unchosen gamble), agency (human vs. computer choice) and outcomes (win vs. loss) in a fully randomized design. At the behavioral level the emotional experience of regret and disappointment were indeed affected by both feedback and agency manipulations. These emotions also differentially affect subsequent choices, with regret leading to riskier behavior. At the neural level both feedback and agency affected the brain responses associated with regret and disappointment, demonstrating differential localization in the brain for each. Notably, feedback regret showed greater brain activity in the right anterior and posterior regions, with agency regret producing greater activity in the left anterior region. These findings extend the evidence for neural activity in processing both regret and disappointment by highlighting for the first time the respective importance of feedback and agency, as well as outlining the temporal dynamics of these emotions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting depression based on dynamic regional connectivity: a windowed Granger causality analysis of MEG recordings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing; Bi, Kun; Liu, Chu; Luo, Guoping; Tang, Hao; Yao, Zhijian

    2013-10-16

    Abnormal inter-regional causalities can be mapped for the objective diagnosis of various diseases. These inter-regional connectivities are usually calculated over an entire scan and used to characterize the stationary strength of the connections. However, the connectivity within networks may undergo substantial changes during a scan. In this study, we developed an objective depression recognition approach using the dynamic regional interactions that occur in response to sad facial stimuli. The whole time-period magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals from the visual cortex, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were separated into sequential time intervals. The Granger causality mapping method was used to identify the pairwise interaction pattern within each time interval. Feature selection was then undertaken within a minimum redundancy-maximum relevance (mRMR) framework. Typical classifiers were utilized to predict those patients who had depression. The overall performances of these classifiers were similar, and the highest classification accuracy rate was 87.5%. The best discriminative performance was obtained when the number of features was within a robust range. The discriminative network pattern obtained through support vector machine (SVM) analyses displayed abnormal causal connectivities that involved the amygdala during the early and late stages. These early and late connections in the amygdala appear to reveal a negative bias to coarse expression information processing and abnormal negative modulation in patients with depression, which may critically affect depression discrimination. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Good practice for conducting and reporting MEG research

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Joachim; Baillet, Sylvain; Barnes, Gareth R.; Henson, Richard N.; Hillebrand, Arjan; Jensen, Ole; Jerbi, Karim; Litvak, Vladimir; Maess, Burkhard; Oostenveld, Robert; Parkkonen, Lauri; Taylor, Jason R.; van Wassenhove, Virginie; Wibral, Michael; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings are a rich source of information about the neural dynamics underlying cognitive processes in the brain, with excellent temporal and good spatial resolution. In recent years there have been considerable advances in MEG hardware developments and methods. Sophisticated analysis techniques are now routinely applied and continuously improved, leading to fascinating insights into the intricate dynamics of neural processes. However, the rapidly increasing level of complexity of the different steps in a MEG study make it difficult for novices, and sometimes even for experts, to stay aware of possible limitations and caveats. Furthermore, the complexity of MEG data acquisition and data analysis requires special attention when describing MEG studies in publications, in order to facilitate interpretation and reproduction of the results. This manuscript aims at making recommendations for a number of important data acquisition and data analysis steps and suggests details that should be specified in manuscripts reporting MEG studies. These recommendations will hopefully serve as guidelines that help to strengthen the position of the MEG research community within the field of neuroscience, and may foster discussion in order to further enhance the quality and impact of MEG research. PMID:23046981

  11. A pilot treatment study for mild traumatic brain injury: Neuroimaging changes detected by MEG after low-intensity pulse-based transcranial electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Swan, Ashley Robb; Quinto, Annemarie Angeles; Matthews, Scott; Harrington, Deborah L; Nichols, Sharon; Bruder, Barry J; Snook, Corey C; Huang, Charles W; Baker, Dewleen G; Lee, Roland R

    2017-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairments in military service members, Veterans, and civilians. However, few treatments are available for mTBI, partially because the mechanism of persistent mTBI deficits is not fully understood. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate neuronal changes in individuals with mTBI following a passive neurofeedback-based treatment programme called IASIS. This programme involved applying low-intensity pulses using transcranial electrical stimulation (LIP-tES) with electroencephalography monitoring. Study participants included six individuals with mTBI and persistent post-concussive symptoms (PCS). MEG exams were performed at baseline and follow-up to evaluate the effect of IASIS on brain functioning. At the baseline MEG exam, all participants had abnormal slow-waves. In the follow-up MEG exam, the participants showed significantly reduced abnormal slow-waves with an average reduction of 53.6 ± 24.6% in slow-wave total score. The participants also showed significant reduction of PCS scores after IASIS treatment, with an average reduction of 52.76 ± 26.4% in PCS total score. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, the neuroimaging-based documentation of the effect of LIP-tES treatment on brain functioning in mTBI. The mechanisms of LIP-tES treatment are discussed, with an emphasis on LIP-tES's potentiation of the mTBI healing process.

  12. Voxel-wise resting-state MEG source magnitude imaging study reveals neurocircuitry abnormality in active-duty service members and veterans with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Yurgil, Kate A.; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, Annemarie; Diwakar, Mithun; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Nichols, Sharon L.; McLay, Robert; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Song, Tao; Huang, Charles W.; Lee, Roland R.; Baker, Dewleen G.

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a leading cause of sustained impairment, distress, and poor quality of life in military personnel, veterans, and civilians. Indirect functional neuroimaging studies using PET or fMRI with fear-related stimuli support a PTSD neurocircuitry model that includes amygdala, hippocampus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, it is not clear if this model can fully account for PTSD abnormalities detected directly by electromagnetic-based source imaging techniques in resting-state. The present study examined resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in 25 active-duty service members and veterans with PTSD and 30 healthy volunteers. In contrast to the healthy volunteers, individuals with PTSD showed: 1) hyperactivity from amygdala, hippocampus, posterolateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and insular cortex in high-frequency (i.e., beta, gamma, and high-gamma) bands; 2) hypoactivity from vmPFC, Frontal Pole (FP), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in high-frequency bands; 3) extensive hypoactivity from dlPFC, FP, anterior temporal lobes, precuneous cortex, and sensorimotor cortex in alpha and low-frequency bands; and 4) in individuals with PTSD, MEG activity in the left amygdala and posterolateral OFC correlated positively with PTSD symptom scores, whereas MEG activity in vmPFC and precuneous correlated negatively with symptom score. The present study showed that MEG source imaging technique revealed new abnormalities in the resting-state electromagnetic signals from the PTSD neurocircuitry. Particularly, posterolateral OFC and precuneous may play important roles in the PTSD neurocircuitry model. PMID:25180160

  13. [Magneto-encephalographic (MEG) brain recordings during traumatic memory recall in women with post-traumatic stress disorder: A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Cottraux, J; Lecaignard, F; Yao, S-N; De Mey-Guillard, C; Haour, F; Delpuech, C; Servan-Schreiber, D

    2015-06-01

    The experiment studied the effects of a short duration exposure to traumatic memories using magneto-encephalography (MEG). Nine right-handed DSM-4 PTSD patients were recruited from a unit for anxiety disorders and an organisation supporting victims of violence. In order to have a homogeneous sample, we included only women who suffered from civilian PTSD. Exclusion criteria were co-morbid major medical illness, metallic dental prostheses that would interfere in the magnetic measurement, and current drug treatment. All participants were free from neurological disease and had normal hearing. They signed a written informed consent form. An ethics committee accepted the study. A tape-recorded voice administered a script-driven imagery. The patients had to imagine, successively, a neutral image, a traumatic memory and rest, while MEG measured brain activities across delta, theta, alpha and beta bands. Each condition lasted three minutes. Heart rate (HR), anxiety and the vividness of mental images were recorded at the end of each phase. MEG power analysis was carried out with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) 8. The signals were averaged for each of the three conditions of threeminutes duration. The dependent variable was a subtracted value: (trauma - rest) - (neutral - rest). The significance threshold was set at P<0.01. Anxiety and HR significantly increased during the trauma condition and returned to the neutral level during rest. The vividness of the mental imagery remained stable across the three conditions. The left-brain demonstrated a statistically significant power decrease in the secondary visual cortex (BA 18-19) in the delta band, the insula (BA13) in the beta band, the insula (BA13), premotor cortex (BA 6), Broca area (BA 44), and BA 43, in the alpha band. The symptom provocation protocol was successful in eliciting subjective anxiety and HR response in relation to traumatic memories. Our MEG results are in keeping with previous neuro-imagery studies

  14. Language-motor interference reflected in MEG beta oscillations.

    PubMed

    Klepp, Anne; Niccolai, Valentina; Buccino, Giovanni; Schnitzler, Alfons; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2015-04-01

    The involvement of the brain's motor system in action-related language processing can lead to overt interference with simultaneous action execution. The aim of the current study was to find evidence for this behavioural interference effect and to investigate its neurophysiological correlates using oscillatory MEG analysis. Subjects performed a semantic decision task on single action verbs, describing actions executed with the hands or the feet, and abstract verbs. Right hand button press responses were given for concrete verbs only. Therefore, longer response latencies for hand compared to foot verbs should reflect interference. We found interference effects to depend on verb imageability: overall response latencies for hand verbs did not differ significantly from foot verbs. However, imageability interacted with effector: while response latencies to hand and foot verbs with low imageability were equally fast, those for highly imageable hand verbs were longer than for highly imageable foot verbs. The difference is reflected in motor-related MEG beta band power suppression, which was weaker for highly imageable hand verbs compared with highly imageable foot verbs. This provides a putative neuronal mechanism for language-motor interference where the involvement of cortical hand motor areas in hand verb processing interacts with the typical beta suppression seen before movements. We found that the facilitatory effect of higher imageability on action verb processing time is perturbed when verb and motor response relate to the same body part. Importantly, this effect is accompanied by neurophysiological effects in beta band oscillations. The attenuated power suppression around the time of movement, reflecting decreased cortical excitability, seems to result from motor simulation during action-related language processing. This is in line with embodied cognition theories. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Integration of a Cryocooler into a SQUID Magnetospinography System for Reduction of Liquid Helium Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Yoshiaki; Oyama, Daisuke; Kawai, Jun; Ogata, Hisanao; Uehara, Gen

    We are currently developing a magnetospinography (MSG) system for noninvasive functional imaging of the spinal cord. The MSG system is a device for observing a weak magnetic field accompanied by the neural activity of the spinal cord by using an array of low-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic flux sensors. As in the case of other biomagnetic measurement systems such as the magnetoencephalography (MEG) system, the running cost of the MSG system is mainly dependent on the liquid helium (LHe) consumption of a dewar vessel. We integrated a cryocooler into the MSG system to reduce LHe consumption. A pulse tube cryocooler with a cooling power of 0.5Wat 4 K was placed adjacent to a magnetically shielded room and was directly connected to the thermal radiation shield of the dewar by an electrically isolated transfer tube. Cold helium gas was circulated between the cryocooler and the radiation shield. Consequently, the temperature of the radiation shield decreased below 40 K. Previous studies have shown that the detection of a weak magnetic field is often hindered by severe low-frequency band noise from the cryocooler. However, the band of the MSG signals is much higher than that of the cryocooler noise. Therefore, the noise can be filtered out and has a less detrimental effect on MSG measurement than on other biomagnetic field measurements such as MEG measurement. As a result, LHe consumption was reduced by 46%, with no increase in the noise floor.

  16. Cortical processing of tactile stimuli applied in quick succession across the fingertips: temporal evolution of dipole sources revealed by magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Karageorgiou, Elissaios; Koutlas, Ioannis G; Alonso, Aurelio A; Leuthold, Arthur C; Lewis, Scott M; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2008-08-01

    We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 10 healthy human subjects to study cortical responses to tactile stimuli applied to the fingertips of digits 2-5 of the right hand. Each stimulus lasted 50 ms and was produced by air-driven elastic membranes. Four-hundred stimuli were delivered on each finger in three temporal patterns (conditions). In the "Discrete" condition, stimuli were applied to each finger repetitively with an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 1-2 s. In the "Continuous" condition, stimuli were applied to the fingers sequentially as four-stimulus trains with zero ISI and 1-2 s intervening between trains. Finally, in the "Gap" condition, stimuli were applied as in the Continuous condition but with an ISI of 50 ms. A sensation of tactile motion across fingers (digit 2 --> digit 5) was reported by all subjects in the Continuous and Gap conditions. Cortical responses were extracted as single equivalent current dipoles over a period of 1 s following stimulus onset. In all three conditions, initial responses in left primary somatosensory cortex (SI) were observed ~20 to 50 ms after stimulus onset and were followed by additional left SI responses and bilateral responses in the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII). In addition, in the Continuous and Gap conditions, there was an activation of the precentral gyrus, the temporal aspects of which depended on the temporal relation of the administered stimuli, as follows. An ISI of 0 ms led to activation of the precentral gyrus shortly after the second stimulation, whereas an ISI of 50 ms led to activation of the precentral gyrus after the third stimulation. The current findings support results from previous studies on temporal activity patterns in SI and SII, verify the participation of the precentral gyrus during tactile motion perception and, in addition, reveal aspects of integration of sequential sensory stimulations over nonadjacent areas as well as temporal activity patterns in the postcentral and precentral

  17. Methodes entropiques appliquees au probleme inverse en magnetoencephalographie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapalme, Ervig

    2005-07-01

    This thesis is devoted to biomagnetic source localization using magnetoencephalography. This problem is known to have an infinite number of solutions. So methods are required to take into account anatomical and functional information on the solution. The work presented in this thesis uses the maximum entropy on the mean method to constrain the solution. This method originates from statistical mechanics and information theory. This thesis is divided into two main parts containing three chapters each. The first part reviews the magnetoencephalographic inverse problem: the theory needed to understand its context and the hypotheses for simplifying the problem. In the last chapter of this first part, the maximum entropy on the mean method is presented: its origins are explained and also how it is applied to our problem. The second part is the original work of this thesis presenting three articles; one of them already published and two others submitted for publication. In the first article, a biomagnetic source model is developed and applied in a theoretical con text but still demonstrating the efficiency of the method. In the second article, we go one step further towards a realistic modelization of the cerebral activation. The main priors are estimated using the magnetoencephalographic data. This method proved to be very efficient in realistic simulations. In the third article, the previous method is extended to deal with time signals thus exploiting the excellent time resolution offered by magnetoencephalography. Compared with our previous work, the temporal method is applied to real magnetoencephalographic data coming from a somatotopy experience and results agree with previous physiological knowledge about this kind of cognitive process.

  18. Automatic detection and visualisation of MEG ripple oscillations in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    van Klink, Nicole; van Rosmalen, Frank; Nenonen, Jukka; Burnos, Sergey; Helle, Liisa; Taulu, Samu; Furlong, Paul Lawrence; Zijlmans, Maeike; Hillebrand, Arjan

    2017-01-01

    High frequency oscillations (HFOs, 80-500 Hz) in invasive EEG are a biomarker for the epileptic focus. Ripples (80-250 Hz) have also been identified in non-invasive MEG, yet detection is impeded by noise, their low occurrence rates, and the workload of visual analysis. We propose a method that identifies ripples in MEG through noise reduction, beamforming and automatic detection with minimal user effort. We analysed 15 min of presurgical resting-state interictal MEG data of 25 patients with epilepsy. The MEG signal-to-noise was improved by using a cross-validation signal space separation method, and by calculating ~ 2400 beamformer-based virtual sensors in the grey matter. Ripples in these sensors were automatically detected by an algorithm optimized for MEG. A small subset of the identified ripples was visually checked. Ripple locations were compared with MEG spike dipole locations and the resection area if available. Running the automatic detection algorithm resulted in on average 905 ripples per patient, of which on average 148 ripples were visually reviewed. Reviewing took approximately 5 min per patient, and identified ripples in 16 out of 25 patients. In 14 patients the ripple locations showed good or moderate concordance with the MEG spikes. For six out of eight patients who had surgery, the ripple locations showed concordance with the resection area: 4/5 with good outcome and 2/3 with poor outcome. Automatic ripple detection in beamformer-based virtual sensors is a feasible non-invasive tool for the identification of ripples in MEG. Our method requires minimal user effort and is easily applicable in a clinical setting.

  19. Correlating magnetoencephalography to stereo-electroencephalography in patients undergoing epilepsy surgery

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Hiroatsu; Wang, Zhong I.; Marashly, Ahmad; Krishnan, Balu; Prayson, Richard A.; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Mosher, John C.; Bulacio, Juan; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge A.; Bingaman, William E.; Najm, Imad M.; Burgess, Richard C.; Alexopoulos, Andreas V.

    2016-01-01

    See Bear and Kirsch (doi:10.1093/aww248) for a scientific commentary on this article. Magnetoencephalography and stereo-electroencephalography are often necessary in the course of the non-invasive and invasive presurgical evaluation of challenging patients with medically intractable focal epilepsies. In this study, we aim to examine the significance of magnetoencephalography dipole clusters and their relationship to stereo-electroencephalography findings, area of surgical resection, and seizure outcome. We also aim to define the positive and negative predictors based on magnetoencephalography dipole cluster characteristics pertaining to seizure-freedom. Included in this retrospective study were a consecutive series of 50 patients who underwent magnetoencephalography and stereo-electroencephalography at the Cleveland Clinic Epilepsy Center. Interictal magnetoencephalography localization was performed using a single equivalent current dipole model. Magnetoencephalography dipole clusters were classified based on tightness and orientation criteria. Magnetoencephalography dipole clusters, stereo-electroencephalography findings and area of resection were reconstructed and examined in the same space using the patient’s own magnetic resonance imaging scan. Seizure outcomes at 1 year postoperative were dichotomized into seizure-free or not seizure-free. We found that patients in whom the magnetoencephalography clusters were completely resected had a much higher chance of seizure-freedom compared to the partial and no resection groups (P = 0.007). Furthermore, patients had a significantly higher chance of being seizure-free when stereo-electroencephalography completely sampled the area identified by magnetoencephalography as compared to those with incomplete or no sampling of magnetoencephalography results (P = 0.012). Partial concordance between magnetoencephalography and interictal or ictal stereo-electroencephalography was associated with a much lower chance of seizure

  20. Within- and between-session replicability of cognitive brain processes: An MEG study with an N-back task.

    PubMed

    Ahonen, L; Huotilainen, M; Brattico, E

    2016-05-01

    In the vast majority of electrophysiological studies on cognition, participants are only measured once during a single experimental session. The dearth of studies on test-retest reliability in magnetoencephalography (MEG) within and across experimental sessions is a preventing factor for longitudinal designs, imaging genetics studies, and clinical applications. From the recorded signals, it is not straightforward to draw robust and steady indices of brain activity that could directly be used in exploring behavioral effects or genetic associations. To study the variations in markers associated with cognitive functions, we extracted three event-related field (ERF) features from time-locked global field power (GFP) epochs using MEG while participants were performing a numerical N-back task in four consecutive measurements conducted during two different days separated by two weeks. We demonstrate that the latency of the M170, a neural correlate associated with cognitive functions such as working memory, was a stable parameter and did not show significant variations over time. In addition, the M170 peak amplitude and the mean amplitude of late positive component (LPP) also expressed moderate-to-strong reliability across multiple measures over time over many sensor spaces and between participants. The M170 amplitude varied more significantly between the measurements in some conditions but showed consistency over the participants over time. In addition we demonstrated significant correlation with the M170 and LPP parameters and cognitive load. The results are in line with the literature showing less within-subject fluctuation for the latency parameters and more consistency in between-subject comparisons for amplitude based features. The within-subject consistency was apparent also with longer delays between the measurements. We suggest that with a few limitations the ERF features show sufficient reliability and stability for longitudinal research designs and clinical

  1. Group-level spatio-temporal pattern recovery in MEG decoding using multi-task joint feature learning.

    PubMed

    Kia, Seyed Mostafa; Pedregosa, Fabian; Blumenthal, Anna; Passerini, Andrea

    2017-06-15

    The use of machine learning models to discriminate between patterns of neural activity has become in recent years a standard analysis approach in neuroimaging studies. Whenever these models are linear, the estimated parameters can be visualized in the form of brain maps which can aid in understanding how brain activity in space and time underlies a cognitive function. However, the recovered brain maps often suffer from lack of interpretability, especially in group analysis of multi-subject data. To facilitate the application of brain decoding in group-level analysis, we present an application of multi-task joint feature learning for group-level multivariate pattern recovery in single-trial magnetoencephalography (MEG) decoding. The proposed method allows for recovering sparse yet consistent patterns across different subjects, and therefore enhances the interpretability of the decoding model. Our experimental results demonstrate that the mutli-task joint feature learning framework is capable of recovering more meaningful patterns of varying spatio-temporally distributed brain activity across individuals while still maintaining excellent generalization performance. We compare the performance of the multi-task joint feature learning in terms of generalization, reproducibility, and quality of pattern recovery against traditional single-subject and pooling approaches on both simulated and real MEG datasets. These results can facilitate the usage of brain decoding for the characterization of fine-level distinctive patterns in group-level inference. Considering the importance of group-level analysis, the proposed approach can provide a methodological shift towards more interpretable brain decoding models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Maximum-likelihood estimation of channel-dependent trial-to-trial variability of auditory evoked brain responses in MEG

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We propose a mathematical model for multichannel assessment of the trial-to-trial variability of auditory evoked brain responses in magnetoencephalography (MEG). Methods Following the work of de Munck et al., our approach is based on the maximum likelihood estimation and involves an approximation of the spatio-temporal covariance of the contaminating background noise by means of the Kronecker product of its spatial and temporal covariance matrices. Extending the work of de Munck et al., where the trial-to-trial variability of the responses was considered identical to all channels, we evaluate it for each individual channel. Results Simulations with two equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) with different trial-to-trial variability, one seeded in each of the auditory cortices, were used to study the applicability of the proposed methodology on the sensor level and revealed spatial selectivity of the trial-to-trial estimates. In addition, we simulated a scenario with neighboring ECDs, to show limitations of the method. We also present an illustrative example of the application of this methodology to real MEG data taken from an auditory experimental paradigm, where we found hemispheric lateralization of the habituation effect to multiple stimulus presentation. Conclusions The proposed algorithm is capable of reconstructing lateralization effects of the trial-to-trial variability of evoked responses, i.e. when an ECD of only one hemisphere habituates, whereas the activity of the other hemisphere is not subject to habituation. Hence, it may be a useful tool in paradigms that assume lateralization effects, like, e.g., those involving language processing. PMID:24939398

  3. Directional information flow in patients with Alzheimer's disease. A source-space resting-state MEG study.

    PubMed

    Engels, M M A; Yu, M; Stam, C J; Gouw, A A; van der Flier, W M; Scheltens, Ph; van Straaten, E C W; Hillebrand, A

    2017-01-01

    In a recent magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we found posterior-to-anterior information flow over the cortex in higher frequency bands in healthy subjects, with a reversed pattern in the theta band. A disruption of information flow may underlie clinical symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In AD, highly connected regions (hubs) in posterior areas are mostly disrupted. We therefore hypothesized that in AD the information flow from these hub regions would be disturbed. We used resting-state MEG recordings from 27 early-onset AD patients and 26 healthy controls. Using beamformer-based virtual electrodes, we estimated neuronal oscillatory activity for 78 cortical regions of interest (ROIs) and 12 subcortical ROIs of the AAL atlas, and calculated the directed phase transfer entropy (dPTE) as a measure of information flow between these ROIs. Group differences were evaluated using permutation tests and, for the AD group, associations between dPTE and general cognition or CSF biomarkers were determined using Spearman correlation coefficients. We confirmed the previously reported posterior-to-anterior information flow in the higher frequency bands in the healthy controls, and found it to be disturbed in the beta band in AD. Most prominently, the information flow from the precuneus and the visual cortex, towards frontal and subcortical structures, was decreased in AD. These disruptions did not correlate with cognitive impairment or CSF biomarkers. We conclude that AD pathology may affect the flow of information between brain regions, particularly from posterior hub regions, and that changes in the information flow in the beta band indicate an aspect of the pathophysiological process in AD.

  4. Time course of gamma-band oscillation associated with face processing in the inferior occipital gyrus and fusiform gyrus: A combined fMRI and MEG study.

    PubMed

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2017-04-01

    Debate continues over whether the inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) or the fusiform gyrus (FG) represents the first stage of face processing and what role these brain regions play. We investigated this issue by combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) in normal adults. Participants passively observed upright and inverted faces and houses. First, we identified the IOG and FG as face-specific regions using fMRI. We applied beamforming source reconstruction and time-frequency analysis to MEG source signals to reveal the time course of gamma-band activations in these regions. The results revealed that the right IOG showed higher gamma-band activation in response to upright faces than to upright houses at 100 ms from the stimulus onset. Subsequently, the right FG showed greater gamma-band response to upright faces versus upright houses at around 170 ms. The gamma-band activation in the right IOG and right FG was larger in response to inverted faces than to upright faces at the later time window. These results suggest that (1) the gamma-band activities occurs rapidly first in the IOG and next in the FG and (2) the gamma-band activity in the right IOG at later time stages is involved in configuration processing for faces. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2067-2079, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Similarity-Based Fusion of MEG and fMRI Reveals Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in Human Cortex During Visual Object Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Cichy, Radoslaw Martin; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Oliva, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Every human cognitive function, such as visual object recognition, is realized in a complex spatio-temporal activity pattern in the brain. Current brain imaging techniques in isolation cannot resolve the brain's spatio-temporal dynamics, because they provide either high spatial or temporal resolution but not both. To overcome this limitation, we developed an integration approach that uses representational similarities to combine measurements of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to yield a spatially and temporally integrated characterization of neuronal activation. Applying this approach to 2 independent MEG–fMRI data sets, we observed that neural activity first emerged in the occipital pole at 50–80 ms, before spreading rapidly and progressively in the anterior direction along the ventral and dorsal visual streams. Further region-of-interest analyses established that dorsal and ventral regions showed MEG–fMRI correspondence in representations later than early visual cortex. Together, these results provide a novel and comprehensive, spatio-temporally resolved view of the rapid neural dynamics during the first few hundred milliseconds of object vision. They further demonstrate the feasibility of spatially unbiased representational similarity-based fusion of MEG and fMRI, promising new insights into how the brain computes complex cognitive functions. PMID:27235099

  6. Gating of memory encoding of time-delayed cross-frequency MEG networks revealed by graph filtration based on persistent homology

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Jarang; Lee, Hyekyoung; Park, Hyojin; Kang, Eunjoo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Chung, Chun Kee; Kang, Hyejin; Lee, Dong Soo

    2017-01-01

    To explain gating of memory encoding, magnetoencephalography (MEG) was analyzed over multi-regional network of negative correlations between alpha band power during cue (cue-alpha) and gamma band power during item presentation (item-gamma) in Remember (R) and No-remember (NR) condition. Persistent homology with graph filtration on alpha-gamma correlation disclosed topological invariants to explain memory gating. Instruction compliance (R-hits minus NR-hits) was significantly related to negative coupling between the left superior occipital (cue-alpha) and the left dorsolateral superior frontal gyri (item-gamma) on permutation test, where the coupling was stronger in R than NR. In good memory performers (R-hits minus false alarm), the coupling was stronger in R than NR between the right posterior cingulate (cue-alpha) and the left fusiform gyri (item-gamma). Gating of memory encoding was dictated by inter-regional negative alpha-gamma coupling. Our graph filtration over MEG network revealed these inter-regional time-delayed cross-frequency connectivity serve gating of memory encoding. PMID:28169281

  7. MEG Network Differences between Low- and High-Grade Glioma Related to Epilepsy and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    van Dellen, Edwin; Douw, Linda; Hillebrand, Arjan; Ris-Hilgersom, Irene H. M.; Schoonheim, Menno M.; Baayen, Johannes C.; De Witt Hamer, Philip C.; Velis, Demetrios N.; Klein, Martin; Heimans, Jan J.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Reijneveld, Jaap C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To reveal possible differences in whole brain topology of epileptic glioma patients, being low-grade glioma (LGG) and high-grade glioma (HGG) patients. We studied functional networks in these patients and compared them to those in epilepsy patients with non-glial lesions (NGL) and healthy controls. Finally, we related network characteristics to seizure frequency and cognitive performance within patient groups. Methods We constructed functional networks from pre-surgical resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of 13 LGG patients, 12 HGG patients, 10 NGL patients, and 36 healthy controls. Normalized clustering coefficient and average shortest path length as well as modular structure and network synchronizability were computed for each group. Cognitive performance was assessed in a subset of 11 LGG and 10 HGG patients. Results LGG patients showed decreased network synchronizability and decreased global integration compared to healthy controls in the theta frequency range (4–8 Hz), similar to NGL patients. HGG patients’ networks did not significantly differ from those in controls. Network characteristics correlated with clinical presentation regarding seizure frequency in LGG patients, and with poorer cognitive performance in both LGG and HGG glioma patients. Conclusion Lesion histology partly determines differences in functional networks in glioma patients suffering from epilepsy. We suggest that differences between LGG and HGG patients’ networks are explained by differences in plasticity, guided by the particular lesional growth pattern. Interestingly, decreased synchronizability and decreased global integration in the theta band seem to make LGG and NGL patients more prone to the occurrence of seizures and cognitive decline. PMID:23166829

  8. A combined study of MEG and pico-Tesla TMS on children with autism disorder.

    PubMed

    Anninos, Photios; Chatzimichael, Athanasios; Adamopoulos, Adam; Kotini, Athanasia; Tsagas, Nicolaos

    2016-12-01

    Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from the brain of 10 children with autism (6 boys and 4 girls, with ages range from 5-12 years, mean[Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]SD: 8.3[Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text]2.1) were obtained using a whole-head 122-channel MEG system in a magnetically shielded room of low magnetic noise. A double-blind experimental design was used in order to look for possible effect of external pico-Tesla Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (pT-TMS). The pT-TMS was applied on the brain of the autistic children with proper field characteristics (magnetic field amplitude: 1-7.5[Formula: see text]pT, frequency: the alpha - rhythm of the patient 8-13[Formula: see text]Hz). After unblinding it was found a significant effect of an increase of frequencies in the range of 2-7[Formula: see text]Hz across the subjects followed by an improvement and normalization of their MEG recordings. The statistical analysis of our results showed a statistical significance at 6 out of 10 patients (60%). It is also observed an increase of alpha activity in autistic children at the end of one month after pT-TMS treatment at home. In conclusion, the application of pT-TMS has the prospective to be a noninvasive, safe and important modality in the management of autism children.

  9. Evidence for an All-Or-None Perceptual Response: Single-Trial Analyses of Magnetoencephalography Signals Indicate an Abrupt Transition Between Visual Perception and Its Absence

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Krithiga; Findley, William M.; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2014-01-01

    Whether consciousness is an all-or-none or graded phenomenon is an area of inquiry that has received considerable interest in neuroscience and is as of yet, still debated. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study we used a single stimulus paradigm with sub-threshold, threshold and supra-threshold duration inputs to assess whether stimulus perception is continuous with or abruptly differentiated from unconscious stimulus processing in the brain. By grouping epochs according to stimulus identification accuracy and exposure duration, we were able to investigate whether a high-amplitude perception-related cortical event was (1) only evoked for conditions where perception was most probable (2) had invariant amplitude once evoked and (3) was largely absent for conditions where perception was least probable (criteria satisfying an all-on-none hypothesis). We found that averaged evoked responses showed a gradual increase in amplitude with increasing perceptual strength. However, single trial analyses demonstrated that stimulus perception was correlated with an all-or-none response, the temporal precision of which increased systematically as perception transitioned from ambiguous to robust states. Due to poor signal-to-noise resolution of single trial data, whether perception-related responses, whenever present, were invariant in amplitude could not be unambiguously demonstrated. However, our findings strongly suggest that visual perception of simple stimuli is associated with an all-or-none cortical evoked response the temporal precision of which varies as a function of perceptual strength. PMID:22020091

  10. A magnetoencephalography study of visual processing of pain anticipation.

    PubMed

    Machado, Andre G; Gopalakrishnan, Raghavan; Plow, Ela B; Burgess, Richard C; Mosher, John C

    2014-07-15

    Anticipating pain is important for avoiding injury; however, in chronic pain patients, anticipatory behavior can become maladaptive, leading to sensitization and limiting function. Knowledge of networks involved in pain anticipation and conditioning over time could help devise novel, better-targeted therapies. With the use of magnetoencephalography, we evaluated in 10 healthy subjects the neural processing of pain anticipation. Anticipatory cortical activity elicited by consecutive visual cues that signified imminent painful stimulus was compared with cues signifying nonpainful and no stimulus. We found that the neural processing of visually evoked pain anticipation involves the primary visual cortex along with cingulate and frontal regions. Visual cortex could quickly and independently encode and discriminate between visual cues associated with pain anticipation and no pain during preconscious phases following object presentation. When evaluating the effect of task repetition on participating cortical areas, we found that activity of prefrontal and cingulate regions was mostly prominent early on when subjects were still naive to a cue's contextual meaning. Visual cortical activity was significant throughout later phases. Although visual cortex may precisely and time efficiently decode cues anticipating pain or no pain, prefrontal areas establish the context associated with each cue. These findings have important implications toward processes involved in pain anticipation and maladaptive pain conditioning. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Modeling spatiotemporal covariance for magnetoencephalography or electroencephalography source analysis.

    PubMed

    Plis, Sergey M; George, J S; Jun, S C; Paré-Blagoev, J; Ranken, D M; Wood, C C; Schmidt, D M

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new model to approximate spatiotemporal noise covariance for use in neural electromagnetic source analysis, which better captures temporal variability in background activity. As with other existing formalisms, our model employs a Kronecker product of matrices representing temporal and spatial covariance. In our model, spatial components are allowed to have differing temporal covariances. Variability is represented as a series of Kronecker products of spatial component covariances and corresponding temporal covariances. Unlike previous attempts to model covariance through a sum of Kronecker products, our model is designed to have a computationally manageable inverse. Despite increased descriptive power, inversion of the model is fast, making it useful in source analysis. We have explored two versions of the model. One is estimated based on the assumption that spatial components of background noise have uncorrelated time courses. Another version, which gives closer approximation, is based on the assumption that time courses are statistically independent. The accuracy of the structural approximation is compared to an existing model, based on a single Kronecker product, using both Frobenius norm of the difference between spatiotemporal sample covariance and a model, and scatter plots. Performance of ours and previous models is compared in source analysis of a large number of single dipole problems with simulated time courses and with background from authentic magnetoencephalography data.

  12. Early Parallel Activation of Semantics and Phonology in Picture Naming: Evidence from a Multiple Linear Regression MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Miozzo, Michele; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    The time course of brain activation during word production has become an area of increasingly intense investigation in cognitive neuroscience. The predominant view has been that semantic and phonological processes are activated sequentially, at about 150 and 200–400 ms after picture onset. Although evidence from prior studies has been interpreted as supporting this view, these studies were arguably not ideally suited to detect early brain activation of semantic and phonological processes. We here used a multiple linear regression approach to magnetoencephalography (MEG) analysis of picture naming in order to investigate early effects of variables specifically related to visual, semantic, and phonological processing. This was combined with distributed minimum-norm source estimation and region-of-interest analysis. Brain activation associated with visual image complexity appeared in occipital cortex at about 100 ms after picture presentation onset. At about 150 ms, semantic variables became physiologically manifest in left frontotemporal regions. In the same latency range, we found an effect of phonological variables in the left middle temporal gyrus. Our results demonstrate that multiple linear regression analysis is sensitive to early effects of multiple psycholinguistic variables in picture naming. Crucially, our results suggest that access to phonological information might begin in parallel with semantic processing around 150 ms after picture onset. PMID:25005037

  13. Cognitive reserve is associated with the functional organization of the brain in healthy aging: a MEG study

    PubMed Central

    López, María E.; Aurtenetxe, Sara; Pereda, Ernesto; Cuesta, Pablo; Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Bruña, Ricardo; Niso, Guiomar; Maestú, Fernando; Bajo, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of elderly people in the population has increased rapidly in the last century and consequently “healthy aging” is expected to become a critical area of research in neuroscience. Evidence reveals how healthy aging depends on three main behavioral factors: social lifestyle, cognitive activity, and physical activity. In this study, we focused on the role of cognitive activity, concentrating specifically on educational and occupational attainment factors, which were considered two of the main pillars of cognitive reserve (CR). Twenty-one subjects with similar rates of social lifestyle, physical and cognitive activity were selected from a sample of 55 healthy adults. These subjects were divided into two groups according to their level of CR; one group comprised subjects with high CR (9 members) and the other one contained those with low CR (12 members). To evaluate the cortical brain connectivity network, all participants were recorded by Magnetoencephalography (MEG) while they performed a memory task (modified version of the Sternberg's Task). We then applied two algorithms [Phase Locking Value (PLV) and Phase Lag Index (PLI)] to study the dynamics of functional connectivity. In response to the same task, the subjects with lower CR presented higher functional connectivity than those with higher CR. These results may indicate that participants with low CR needed a greater “effort” than those with high CR to achieve the same level of cognitive performance. Therefore, we conclude that CR contributes to the modulation of the functional connectivity patterns of the aging brain. PMID:24982632

  14. Differential neural responses to acupuncture revealed by MEG using wavelet-based time-frequency analysis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    You, Youbo; Bai, Lijun; Dai, Ruwei; Xue, Ting; Zhong, Chongguang; Feng, Yuanyuan; Wang, Hu; Liu, Zhenyu; Tian, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Acupoint specificity, lying at the core of the Traditional Chinese Medicine, still faces many controversies. As previous neuroimaging studies on acupuncture mainly adopted relatively low time-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology and inappropriate block-designed experimental paradigm due to sustained effect, in the current study, we employed a single block-designed paradigm together with high temporal-resolution magnetoencephalography (MEG) technology. We applied time-frequency analysis based upon Morlet wavelet transforming approach to detect differential oscillatory brain dynamics induced by acupuncture at Stomach Meridian 36 (ST36) using a nearby nonacupoint (NAP) as control condition. We observed that frequency power changes were mainly restricted to delta band for both ST36 group and NAP group. Consistently increased delta band power in contralateral temporal regions and decreased power in the counterparts of ipsilateral hemisphere were detected following stimulation at ST36 on the right leg. Compared with ST36, no significant delta ranges were found in temporal regions in NAP group, illustrating different oscillatory brain patterns. Our results may provide additional evidence to support the specificity of acupuncture modulation effects.

  15. Development of face recognition: Dynamic causal modelling of MEG data.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Johnson, Blake W

    2018-04-01

    Electrophysiological studies of adults indicate that brain activity is enhanced during viewing of repeated faces, at a latency of about 250 ms after the onset of the face (M250/N250). The present study aimed to determine if this effect was also present in preschool-aged children, whose brain activity was measured in a custom-sized pediatric MEG system. The results showed that, unlike adults, face repetition did not show any significant modulation of M250 amplitude in children; however children's M250 latencies were significantly faster for repeated than non-repeated faces. Dynamic causal modelling (DCM) of the M250 in both age groups tested the effects of face repetition within the core face network including the occipital face area (OFA), the fusiform face area (FFA), and the superior temporal sulcus (STS). DCM revealed that repetition of identical faces altered both forward and backward connections in children and adults; however the modulations involved inputs to both FFA and OFA in adults but only to OFA in children. These findings suggest that the amplitude-insensitivity of the immature M250 may be due to a weaker connection between the FFA and lower visual areas. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. An MEG Investigation of Neural Biomarkers and Language in Nonverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0293 TITLE: An MEG Investigation of Neural Biomarkers and Language in...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An MEG Investigation of Neural Biomarkers and Language in Nonverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders 5b...technique to correct MEG data for subject movement during recording. This correction reduces signal loss due to movement, resulting in higher

  17. LncRNA MEG3 repressed malignant melanoma progression via inactivating Wnt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Gao, Ying; Li, Jun; Zhou, Yu; Yuan, Jing; Guan, Huiwen; Yao, Peng

    2018-05-21

    Accumulating evidence has indicated that MEG3 can serve as a tumor suppressive lncRNA in various tumors. It is aberrantly expressed in multiple cancers. However, the biological roles of MEG3 in melanoma are poorly understood. Therefore, in our study, we concentrated on the biological mechanism of MEG3 in melanoma progression. First, we observed that MEG3 was obviously decreased in melanoma cells including A375, SK-MEL-1, B16, and A2058 cells compared to human epidermal melanocytes HEMa-LP. MEG3 was restored by transfecting LV-MEG3 in to A375 and A2058 cells. Subsequently, we found that overexpression of MEG3 was able to inhibit cell proliferation and colony formation capacity. Meanwhile, melanoma cell apoptosis was induced by up-regulation of MEG3. Overexpression of MEG3 greatly repressed melanoma cell migration and invasion ability. In addition, Wnt signaling pathway has been identified in the progression of various cancers. Here, in our study, it was indicated that Wnt signaling was highly activated in melanoma cells with β-catenin expression significantly increased and GSK-3β decreased. Interestingly, MEG restoration strongly inactivated Wnt signaling pathway by reducing β-catenin and CyclinD1, elevating GSK-3β levels in vitro. Finally, in vivo experiments were carried out to confirm the inhibitory roles of MEG3 in vivo. Taken these together, we suggested that MEG3 can inhibit melanoma development through blocking Wnt signaling pathway. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Magnetoencephalography evidence for different brain subregions serving two musical cultures.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Rie; Yokosawa, Koichi; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2012-12-01

    Individuals who have been exposed to two different musical cultures (bimusicals) can be differentiated from those exposed to only one musical culture (monomusicals). Just as bilingual speakers handle the distinct language-syntactic rules of each of two languages, bimusical listeners handle two distinct musical-syntactic rules (e.g., tonal schemas) in each musical culture. This study sought to determine specific brain activities that contribute to differentiating two culture-specific tonal structures. We recorded magnetoencephalogram (MEG) responses of bimusical Japanese nonmusicians and amateur musicians as they monitored unfamiliar Western melodies and unfamiliar, but traditional, Japanese melodies, both of which contained tonal deviants (out-of-key tones). Previous studies with Western monomusicals have shown that tonal deviants elicit an early right anterior negativity (mERAN) originating in the inferior frontal cortex. In the present study, tonal deviants in both Western and Japanese melodies elicited mERANs with characteristics fitted by dipoles around the inferior frontal gyrus in the right hemisphere and the premotor cortex in the left hemisphere. Comparisons of the nature of mERAN activity to Western and Japanese melodies showed differences in the dipoles' locations but not in their peak latency or dipole strength. These results suggest that the differentiation between a tonal structure of one culture and that of another culture correlates with localization differences in brain subregions around the inferior frontal cortex and the premotor cortex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Unusual developmental pattern of brain lateralization in young boys with autism spectrum disorder: Power analysis with child-sized magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Yuko; Kitagawa, Sachiko; Hasegawa, Chiaki; Munesue, Toshio; Takesaki, Natsumi; Ono, Yasuki; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Michio; Higashida, Haruhiro; Asada, Minoru; Minabe, Yoshio

    2015-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often described as comprising an unusual brain growth pattern and aberrant brain lateralization. Although it is important to study the pathophysiology of the developing ASD cortex, examples of physiological brain lateralization in young children with ASD have yet to be well examined. Thirty-eight boys with ASD (aged 3-7 years) and 38 typically developing (TD) boys (aged 3-8 years) concentrated on video programs and their brain activities were measured non-invasively. We employed a customized child-sized magnetoencephalography system in which the sensors were located as close to the brain as possible for optimal recording in young children. To produce a credible laterality index of the brain oscillations, we defined two clusters of sensors corresponding to the right and left hemispheres. We focused on the laterality index ([left - right]/[left+right]) of the relative power band in seven frequency bands. The TD group displayed significantly rightward lateralized brain oscillations in the theta-1 frequency bands compared to the ASD group. This is the first study to demonstrate unusual brain lateralization of brain oscillations measured by magnetoencephalography in young children with ASD. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  20. An FPGA-based trigger for the phase II of the MEG experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, A.; Bemporad, C.; Cei, F.; Galli, L.; Grassi, M.; Morsani, F.; Nicolò, D.; Ritt, S.; Venturini, M.

    2016-07-01

    For the phase II of MEG, we are going to develop a combined trigger and DAQ system. Here we focus on the former side, which operates an on-line reconstruction of detector signals and event selection within 450 μs from event occurrence. Trigger concentrator boards (TCB) are under development to gather data from different crates, each connected to a set of detector channels, to accomplish higher-level algorithms to issue a trigger in the case of a candidate signal event. We describe the major features of the new system, in comparison with phase I, as well as its performances in terms of selection efficiency and background rejection.

  1. MEG3, HCN3 and linc01105 influence the proliferation and apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells via the HIF-1α and p53 pathways.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weitao; Dong, Kuiran; Li, Kai; Dong, Rui; Zheng, Shan

    2016-11-08

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential expression and functional roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in neuroblastoma tissue. LncRNA microarrays were used to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs between tumor and para-tumor tissues. In total, in tumor tissues, 3,098 and 1,704 lncRNAs were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. HCN3 and linc01105 exhibited the higher expression (P < 0.05; P < 0.01, respectively) in neuroblastoma tissue, whereas MEG3 displayed the lower expression (P < 0.01). HIF-1α expression was negatively correlated with cell proliferation in the linc01105 KD group. In addition, Noxa and Bid expression was positively correlated with cell apoptosis. Moreover, linc01105 knockdown promoted cell proliferation, whereas MEG3 overexpression inhibited proliferation. Finally, linc01105 knockdown, MEG3 overexpression and HCN3 knockdown all increased apoptosis. The correlation coefficients between those three lncRNAs and the International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage were -0.48, -0.58 and -0.55, respectively. In conclusion, we have identified lncRNAs that are differentially expressed in neuroblastoma tissues. The lncRNAs HCN3, linc01105, and MEG3 may be important in biological behaviors of neuroblastoma through mechanisms involving p53 pathway members such as HIF-1α, Noxa, and Bid. The expressions of MEG3, HCN3 and linc01105 are all negatively correlated with the INSS stage.

  2. Differences between magnetoencephalographic (MEG) spectral profiles of drugs acting on GABA at synaptic and extrasynaptic sites: a study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Nutt, David; Wilson, Sue; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Myers, Jim; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    A range of medications target different aspects of the GABA system; understanding their effects is important to inform further drug development. Effects on the waking EEG comparing these mechanisms have not been reported; in this study we compare the effects on resting MEG spectra of the benzodiazepine receptor agonist zolpidem, the delta sub-unit selective agonist gaboxadol (also known as THIP) and the GABA reuptake inhibitor tiagabine. These were two randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies in healthy volunteers, one using zolpidem 10 mg, gaboxadol 15 mg and placebo, and the other tiagabine 15 mg and placebo. Whole head MEG recordings and individual MEG spectra were divided into frequency bands. Baseline spectra were subtracted from each post-intervention spectra and then differences between intervention and placebo compared. After zolpidem there were significant increases in beta frequencies and reduction in alpha frequency power; after gaboxadol and tiagabine there were significant increases in power at all frequencies up to beta. Enhancement of tonic inhibition via extrasynaptic receptors by gaboxadol gives rise to a very different MEG signature from the synaptic action of zolpidem. Tiagabine theoretically can affect both types of receptor; from these MEG results it is likely that the latter is the more prominent effect here. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of biomarkers and MEG-based imaging markers in the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder and blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingxiong; Risling, Mårten; Baker, Dewleen G

    2016-01-01

    Pervasive use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), rocket-propelled grenades, and land mines in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has brought traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its impact on health outcomes into public awareness. Blast injuries have been deemed signature wounds of these wars. War-related TBI is not new, having become prevalent during WWI and remaining medically relevant in WWII and beyond. Medicine's past attempts to accurately diagnose and disentangle the pathophysiology of war-related TBI parallels current lines of inquiry and highlights limitations in methodology and attribution of symptom etiology, be it organic, psychological, or behavioral. New approaches and biomarkers are needed. Serological biomarkers and biomarkers of injury obtained with imaging techniques represent cornerstones in the translation between experimental data and clinical observations. Experimental models for blast related TBI and PTSD can generate critical data on injury threshold, for example for white matter injury from acceleration. Carefully verified and validated models can be evaluated with gene expression arrays and proteomics to identify new candidates for serological biomarkers. Such models can also be analyzed with diffusion MRI and microscopy in order to identify criteria for detection of diffuse white matter injuries, such as DAI (diffuse axonal injury). The experimental models can also be analyzed with focus on injury outcome in brain stem regions, such as locus coeruleus or nucleus raphe magnus that can be involved in response to anxiety changes. Mild (and some moderate) TBI can be difficult to diagnose because the injuries are often not detectable on conventional MRI or CT. There is accumulating evidence that injured brain tissues in TBI patients generate abnormal low-frequency magnetic activity (ALFMA, peaked at 1-4Hz) that can be measured and localized by magnetoencephalography (MEG). MEG imaging detects TBI abnormalities at the rates of 87

  4. The construction technique of the high granularity and high transparency drift chamber of MEG II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarello, G.; Chiri, C.; Corvaglia, A.; Grancagnolo, F.; Miccoli, A.; Panareo, M.; Pinto, C.; Spedicato, M.; Tassielli, G. F.

    2017-07-01

    The MEG experiment searches for the charged lepton flavor violating decay, μ +→ e+γ. MEG has already determined the world best upper limit on the branching ratio BR<4.2× 10-13 at 90% CL. An upgrade of the whole detector has been approved to obtain a substantial increase in sensitivity. Currently MEG is in upgrade phases, this phase involves all the detectors. The new positron tracker is a single volume, full stereo, small cells drift chamber (DCH) co-axial to the beam line. It is composed of 10 concentric layers and each single drift cell is approximately square 7 mm side, with a 20 μ m gold plated W sense wire surrounded by 40 μ m and 50 μ m silver plated Al field wires in a ratio of 5:1, about 12,000 wires. Due to the high wire density (12 wires/cm2), the use of the classical feed-through technique as wire anchoring system could hardly be implemented and therefore it was necessary to develop new wiring strategies. The number of wires and the stringent requirements on the precision of their position and on the uniformity of the wire mechanical tension impose the use of an automatic system to operate the wiring procedures. This wiring robot, designed and built at the INFN Lecce and University of Salento laboratories, consists of: ṡ a semiautomatic wiring machine with a high precision on wire mechanical tensioning (better than 0.5 g) and on wire positioning (20 μ m) for simultaneous wiring of multiwire layers; ṡ a contact-less infrared laser soldering tool; ṡ an automatic handling system for storing and transporting the multi-wire layers. The drift chamber is currently under construction at INFN and should be completed by the end of summer 2017 to be then delivered to PSI for commissioning.

  5. A three domain covariance framework for EEG/MEG data.

    PubMed

    Roś, Beata P; Bijma, Fetsje; de Gunst, Mathisca C M; de Munck, Jan C

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we introduce a covariance framework for the analysis of single subject EEG and MEG data that takes into account observed temporal stationarity on small time scales and trial-to-trial variations. We formulate a model for the covariance matrix, which is a Kronecker product of three components that correspond to space, time and epochs/trials, and consider maximum likelihood estimation of the unknown parameter values. An iterative algorithm that finds approximations of the maximum likelihood estimates is proposed. Our covariance model is applicable in a variety of cases where spontaneous EEG or MEG acts as source of noise and realistic noise covariance estimates are needed, such as in evoked activity studies, or where the properties of spontaneous EEG or MEG are themselves the topic of interest, like in combined EEG-fMRI experiments in which the correlation between EEG and fMRI signals is investigated. We use a simulation study to assess the performance of the estimator and investigate the influence of different assumptions about the covariance factors on the estimated covariance matrix and on its components. We apply our method to real EEG and MEG data sets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporal dynamics of the knowledge-mediated visual disambiguation process in humans: a magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Tomokazu; Ogata, Katsuya; Kimura, Takahiro; Kume, Yuko; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2015-01-01

    Disambiguation of a noisy visual scene with prior knowledge is an indispensable task of the visual system. To adequately adapt to a dynamically changing visual environment full of noisy visual scenes, the implementation of knowledge-mediated disambiguation in the brain is imperative and essential for proceeding as fast as possible under the limited capacity of visual image processing. However, the temporal profile of the disambiguation process has not yet been fully elucidated in the brain. The present study attempted to determine how quickly knowledge-mediated disambiguation began to proceed along visual areas after the onset of a two-tone ambiguous image using magnetoencephalography with high temporal resolution. Using the predictive coding framework, we focused on activity reduction for the two-tone ambiguous image as an index of the implementation of disambiguation. Source analysis revealed that a significant activity reduction was observed in the lateral occipital area at approximately 120 ms after the onset of the ambiguous image, but not in preceding activity (about 115 ms) in the cuneus when participants perceptually disambiguated the ambiguous image with prior knowledge. These results suggested that knowledge-mediated disambiguation may be implemented as early as approximately 120 ms following an ambiguous visual scene, at least in the lateral occipital area, and provided an insight into the temporal profile of the disambiguation process of a noisy visual scene with prior knowledge. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Aberrant Neuromagnetic Activation in the Motor Cortex in Children with Acute Migraine: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xinyao; Xiang, Jing; Wang, Yingying; O’Brien, Hope; Kabbouche, Marielle; Horn, Paul; Powers, Scott W.; Hershey, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    Migraine attacks have been shown to interfere with normal function in the brain such as motor or sensory function. However, to date, there has been no clinical neurophysiology study focusing on the motor function in children with migraine during headache attacks. To investigate the motor function in children with migraine, twenty-six children with acute migraine, meeting International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria and age- and gender-matched healthy children were studied using a 275-channel magnetoencephalography system. A finger-tapping paradigm was designed to elicit neuromagnetic activation in the motor cortex. Children with migraine showed significantly prolonged latency of movement-evoked magnetic fields (MEF) during finger movement compared with the controls. The correlation coefficient of MEF latency and age in children with migraine was significantly different from that in healthy controls. The spectral power of high gamma (65–150 Hz) oscillations during finger movement in the primary motor cortex is also significantly higher in children with migraine than in controls. The alteration of responding latency and aberrant high gamma oscillations suggest that the developmental trajectory of motor function in children with migraine is impaired during migraine attacks and/or developmentally delayed. This finding indicates that childhood migraine may affect the development of brain function and result in long-term problems. PMID:23185541

  8. The neural effects of positively and negatively re-experiencing mental fatigue sensation: a magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akira; Ishizuka, Takuya; Muta, Yuki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2018-06-01

    Fatigue sensation is an essential biological alarm that urges us to take rest to avoid disrupting homeostasis and thus plays an important role in maintaining well-being. However, there are situations in which the anticipation of unpleasant fatigue sensation undesirably reduces motivation for activity. The aim of this study was to examine whether thinking positively about the fatigue sensation would increase motivation to accomplish the workload. Fourteen healthy male volunteers participated in this study and performed a two-back test for 30 min to induce mental fatigue sensation. After their subjective level of fatigue had recovered to the baseline level, they re-experienced the fatigue sensation experienced in the two-back test positively, negatively, and without any modification (i.e., re-experienced the fatigue sensation as it was). The level of motivation to perform another two-back test they felt during the re-experiencing was assessed. The neural activity related to the re-experiencing was recorded using magnetoencephalography. The level of the motivation to perform another two-back test was increased by positively re-experiencing the fatigue sensation. The increase in delta band power in Brodmann area 7 was positively associated with the increase in motivation. These results show that positive thinking about fatigue sensation can enhance motivation and suggest that this enhanced motivation may have some effects on visual attention system.

  9. Bilateral Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Reshapes Resting-State Brain Networks: A Magnetoencephalography Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Turco, Cristina; Di Pino, Giovanni; Arcara, Giorgio

    2018-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can noninvasively induce brain plasticity, and it is potentially useful to treat patients affected by neurological conditions. However, little is known about tDCS effects on resting-state brain networks, which are largely involved in brain physiological functions and in diseases. In this randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind study on healthy subjects, we have assessed the effect of bilateral tDCS applied over the sensorimotor cortices on brain and network activity using a whole-head magnetoencephalography system. Bilateral tDCS, with the cathode (−) centered over C4 and the anode (+) centered over C3, reshapes brain networks in a nonfocal fashion. Compared to sham stimulation, tDCS reduces left frontal alpha, beta, and gamma power and increases global connectivity, especially in delta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequencies. The increase of connectivity is consistent across bands and widespread. These results shed new light on the effects of tDCS and may be of help in personalizing treatments in neurological disorders. PMID:29593782

  10. Combined EEG/MEG Can Outperform Single Modality EEG or MEG Source Reconstruction in Presurgical Epilepsy Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Ümit; Vorwerk, Johannes; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Küpper, Philipp; Kugel, Harald; Heers, Marcel; Wellmer, Jörg; Kellinghaus, Christoph; Haueisen, Jens; Rampp, Stefan; Stefan, Hermann; Wolters, Carsten H.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated two important means for improving source reconstruction in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis. The first investigation is about the optimal choice of the number of epileptic spikes in averaging to (1) sufficiently reduce the noise bias for an accurate determination of the center of gravity of the epileptic activity and (2) still get an estimation of the extent of the irritative zone. The second study focuses on the differences in single modality EEG (80-electrodes) or MEG (275-gradiometers) and especially on the benefits of combined EEG/MEG (EMEG) source analysis. Both investigations were validated with simultaneous stereo-EEG (sEEG) (167-contacts) and low-density EEG (ldEEG) (21-electrodes). To account for the different sensitivity profiles of EEG and MEG, we constructed a six-compartment finite element head model with anisotropic white matter conductivity, and calibrated the skull conductivity via somatosensory evoked responses. Our results show that, unlike single modality EEG or MEG, combined EMEG uses the complementary information of both modalities and thereby allows accurate source reconstructions also at early instants in time (epileptic spike onset), i.e., time points with low SNR, which are not yet subject to propagation and thus supposed to be closer to the origin of the epileptic activity. EMEG is furthermore able to reveal the propagation pathway at later time points in agreement with sEEG, while EEG or MEG alone reconstructed only parts of it. Subaveraging provides important and accurate information about both the center of gravity and the extent of the epileptogenic tissue that neither single nor grand-averaged spike localizations can supply. PMID:25761059

  11. Long noncoding RNA-MEG3 is involved in diabetes mellitus-related microvascular dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Gui-Zhen; Tian, Wei; Fu, Hai-Tao

    Microvascular dysfunction is an important characteristic of diabetic retinopathy. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in diverse biological processes. In this study, we investigated the role of lncRNA-MEG3 in diabetes-related microvascular dysfunction. We show that MEG3 expression level is significantly down-regulated in the retinas of STZ-induced diabetic mice, and endothelial cells upon high glucose and oxidative stress. MEG3 knockdown aggravates retinal vessel dysfunction in vivo, as shown by serious capillary degeneration, and increased microvascular leakage and inflammation. MEG3 knockdown also regulates retinal endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro. The role of MEG3 in endothelial cell function is mainlymore » mediated by the activation of PI3k/Akt signaling. MEG3 up-regulation may serve as a therapeutic strategy for treating diabetes-related microvascular complications. - Highlights: • LncRNA-MEG3 level is down-regulated upon diabetic stress. • MEG3 knockdown aggravates retinal vascular dysfunction in vivo. • MEG3 regulates retinal endothelial cell function in vitro. • MEG3 regulates endothelial cell function through PI3k/Akt signaling.« less

  12. Adaptive flexibility of the within-hand attentional gradient in touch: An MEG study.

    PubMed

    Kida, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Emi; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2018-06-21

    Previous studies have demonstrated the cortical mechanisms for the gradient of spatial attention in vision and audition, whereas those for touch have yet to be elucidated in detail. In order to examine the within-hand gradient of tactile spatial attention in the cerebral cortex, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to record cortical responses to an electrocutaneous stimulation presented randomly to any of the five fingers of the right hand at a random interstimulus interval (750-1250 ms). Participants attended to the index finger, ring finger, or both to detect a rare target stimulus in a sequence of frequent standard stimuli presented to the attended finger(s) by silent counting. Neuromagnetic responses around the contralateral primary and secondary somatosensory cortices (SIc and SIIc) at 50-70 ms and 80-100 ms, respectively, for the stimulation of the index or ring finger were stronger when that finger was attended than when the distant finger was attended or at rest. The amplitude of the SIIc response was also intermediate when the index and ring fingers were simultaneously attended. The SIIc response to the task-irrelevant stimulation of the thumb or little finger increased when the index or ring finger was attended, respectively, suggesting an across-finger gradient of tactile attention. Simultaneous attention to the index and ring fingers decreased the SIIc response to the task-irrelevant stimulation of the intervening middle finger more than that with attention to either one of the two fingers. The earliest attentional sign was observed for the SI M40c response, with the amplitude increasing with the stimulation of the unattended finger. Furthermore, late responses in the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) were stronger with the stimulation of the unattended finger than with that of the attended finger. Thus, the present study provides cortical evidence for the adaptive control of the within-hand, across-finger gradient of

  13. Interpretability of Multivariate Brain Maps in Linear Brain Decoding: Definition, and Heuristic Quantification in Multivariate Analysis of MEG Time-Locked Effects.

    PubMed

    Kia, Seyed Mostafa; Vega Pons, Sandro; Weisz, Nathan; Passerini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Brain decoding is a popular multivariate approach for hypothesis testing in neuroimaging. Linear classifiers are widely employed in the brain decoding paradigm to discriminate among experimental conditions. Then, the derived linear weights are visualized in the form of multivariate brain maps to further study spatio-temporal patterns of underlying neural activities. It is well known that the brain maps derived from weights of linear classifiers are hard to interpret because of high correlations between predictors, low signal to noise ratios, and the high dimensionality of neuroimaging data. Therefore, improving the interpretability of brain decoding approaches is of primary interest in many neuroimaging studies. Despite extensive studies of this type, at present, there is no formal definition for interpretability of multivariate brain maps. As a consequence, there is no quantitative measure for evaluating the interpretability of different brain decoding methods. In this paper, first, we present a theoretical definition of interpretability in brain decoding; we show that the interpretability of multivariate brain maps can be decomposed into their reproducibility and representativeness. Second, as an application of the proposed definition, we exemplify a heuristic for approximating the interpretability in multivariate analysis of evoked magnetoencephalography (MEG) responses. Third, we propose to combine the approximated interpretability and the generalization performance of the brain decoding into a new multi-objective criterion for model selection. Our results, for the simulated and real MEG data, show that optimizing the hyper-parameters of the regularized linear classifier based on the proposed criterion results in more informative multivariate brain maps. More importantly, the presented definition provides the theoretical background for quantitative evaluation of interpretability, and hence, facilitates the development of more effective brain decoding algorithms

  14. Interpretability of Multivariate Brain Maps in Linear Brain Decoding: Definition, and Heuristic Quantification in Multivariate Analysis of MEG Time-Locked Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kia, Seyed Mostafa; Vega Pons, Sandro; Weisz, Nathan; Passerini, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Brain decoding is a popular multivariate approach for hypothesis testing in neuroimaging. Linear classifiers are widely employed in the brain decoding paradigm to discriminate among experimental conditions. Then, the derived linear weights are visualized in the form of multivariate brain maps to further study spatio-temporal patterns of underlying neural activities. It is well known that the brain maps derived from weights of linear classifiers are hard to interpret because of high correlations between predictors, low signal to noise ratios, and the high dimensionality of neuroimaging data. Therefore, improving the interpretability of brain decoding approaches is of primary interest in many neuroimaging studies. Despite extensive studies of this type, at present, there is no formal definition for interpretability of multivariate brain maps. As a consequence, there is no quantitative measure for evaluating the interpretability of different brain decoding methods. In this paper, first, we present a theoretical definition of interpretability in brain decoding; we show that the interpretability of multivariate brain maps can be decomposed into their reproducibility and representativeness. Second, as an application of the proposed definition, we exemplify a heuristic for approximating the interpretability in multivariate analysis of evoked magnetoencephalography (MEG) responses. Third, we propose to combine the approximated interpretability and the generalization performance of the brain decoding into a new multi-objective criterion for model selection. Our results, for the simulated and real MEG data, show that optimizing the hyper-parameters of the regularized linear classifier based on the proposed criterion results in more informative multivariate brain maps. More importantly, the presented definition provides the theoretical background for quantitative evaluation of interpretability, and hence, facilitates the development of more effective brain decoding algorithms

  15. Gamma band activity associated with BCI performance: simultaneous MEG/EEG study.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Minkyu; Ahn, Sangtae; Hong, Jun H; Cho, Hohyun; Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Bong S; Chang, Jin W; Jun, Sung C

    2013-01-01

    While brain computer interface (BCI) can be employed with patients and healthy subjects, there are problems that must be resolved before BCI can be useful to the public. In the most popular motor imagery (MI) BCI system, a significant number of target users (called "BCI-Illiterates") cannot modulate their neuronal signals sufficiently to use the BCI system. This causes performance variability among subjects and even among sessions within a subject. The mechanism of such BCI-Illiteracy and possible solutions still remain to be determined. Gamma oscillation is known to be involved in various fundamental brain functions, and may play a role in MI. In this study, we investigated the association of gamma activity with MI performance among subjects. Ten simultaneous MEG/EEG experiments were conducted; MI performance for each was estimated by EEG data, and the gamma activity associated with BCI performance was investigated with MEG data. Our results showed that gamma activity had a high positive correlation with MI performance in the prefrontal area. This trend was also found across sessions within one subject. In conclusion, gamma rhythms generated in the prefrontal area appear to play a critical role in BCI performance.

  16. A symmetric multivariate leakage correction for MEG connectomes

    PubMed Central

    Colclough, G.L.; Brookes, M.J.; Smith, S.M.; Woolrich, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Ambiguities in the source reconstruction of magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements can cause spurious correlations between estimated source time-courses. In this paper, we propose a symmetric orthogonalisation method to correct for these artificial correlations between a set of multiple regions of interest (ROIs). This process enables the straightforward application of network modelling methods, including partial correlation or multivariate autoregressive modelling, to infer connectomes, or functional networks, from the corrected ROIs. Here, we apply the correction to simulated MEG recordings of simple networks and to a resting-state dataset collected from eight subjects, before computing the partial correlations between power envelopes of the corrected ROItime-courses. We show accurate reconstruction of our simulated networks, and in the analysis of real MEGresting-state connectivity, we find dense bilateral connections within the motor and visual networks, together with longer-range direct fronto-parietal connections. PMID:25862259

  17. Movement-related changes in local and long-range synchronization in Parkinson’s disease revealed by simultaneous magnetoencephalography and intracranial recordings

    PubMed Central

    Litvak, Vladimir; Eusebio, Alexandre; Jha, Ashwani; Oostenveld, Robert; Barnes, Gareth; Foltynie, Tom; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan I.; Friston, Karl; Brown, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Functional neurosurgery has afforded the opportunity to assess interactions between populations of neurons in the human cerebral cortex and basal ganglia in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Interactions occur over a wide range of frequencies, and the functional significance of those above 30 Hz is particularly unclear. Do they improve movement and, if so, in what way? We acquired simultaneously magnetoencephalography (MEG) and direct recordings from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in 17 PD patients. We examined the effect of synchronous and sequential finger movements and of the dopamine prodrug levodopa on induced power in the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) and STN and on the coherence between the two structures. We observed discrete peaks in M1 and STN power over 60-90 Hz and 300-400 Hz. All these power peaks increased with movement and levodopa treatment. Only STN activity over 60-90 Hz was coherent with activity in M1. Directionality analysis showed that STN gamma activity at 60-90 Hz tended to drive gamma activity in M1. The effects of levodopa on both local and distant synchronisation over 60-90 Hz correlated with the degree of improvement in bradykinesia-rigidity, as did local STN activity at 300-400 Hz. Despite this, there were no effects of movement type, nor interactions between movement type and levodopa in the STN, nor in the coherence between STN and M1. We conclude that synchronisation over 60-90 Hz in the basal ganglia cortical network is prokinetic, but likely through a modulatory effect rather than any involvement in explicit motor processing. PMID:22855804

  18. Tracking the Speech Signal--Time-Locked MEG Signals during Perception of Ultra-Fast and Moderately Fast Speech in Blind and in Sighted Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertrich, Ingo; Dietrich, Susanne; Ackermann, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Blind people can learn to understand speech at ultra-high syllable rates (ca. 20 syllables/s), a capability associated with hemodynamic activation of the central-visual system. To further elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying this skill, magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements during listening to sentence utterances were cross-correlated…

  19. Cortical contributions to the auditory frequency-following response revealed by MEG

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Emily B. J.; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Chepesiuk, Alexander M. P.; Baillet, Sylvain; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The auditory frequency-following response (FFR) to complex periodic sounds is used to study the subcortical auditory system, and has been proposed as a biomarker for disorders that feature abnormal sound processing. Despite its value in fundamental and clinical research, the neural origins of the FFR are unclear. Using magnetoencephalography, we observe a strong, right-asymmetric contribution to the FFR from the human auditory cortex at the fundamental frequency of the stimulus, in addition to signal from cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus and medial geniculate. This finding is highly relevant for our understanding of plasticity and pathology in the auditory system, as well as higher-level cognition such as speech and music processing. It suggests that previous interpretations of the FFR may need re-examination using methods that allow for source separation. PMID:27009409

  20. Functional brain development in growth-restricted and constitutionally small fetuses: a fetal magnetoencephalography case-control study.

    PubMed

    Morin, E C; Schleger, F; Preissl, H; Braendle, J; Eswaran, H; Abele, H; Brucker, S; Kiefer-Schmidt, I

    2015-08-01

    Fetal magnetoencephalography records fetal brain activity non-invasively. Delayed brain responses were reported for fetuses weighing below the tenth percentile. To investigate whether this delay indicates delayed brain maturation resulting from placental insufficiency, this study distinguished two groups of fetuses below the tenth percentile: growth-restricted fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocity (IUGR) and constitutionally small-for-gestational-age fetuses with normal umbilical artery Doppler findings (SGA) were compared with fetuses of adequate weight for gestational age (AGA), matched for age and behavioural state. A case-control study of matched pairs. Fetal magnetoencephalography-Center at the University Hospital of Tuebingen. Fourteen IUGR fetuses and 23 SGA fetuses were matched for gestational age and fetal behavioural state with 37 healthy, normal-sized fetuses. A 156-channel fetal magentoencephalography system was used to record fetal brain activity. Light flashes as visual stimulation were applied to the fetus. The Student's t-test for paired groups was performed. Latency of fetal visual evoked magnetic responses (VER). The IUGR fetuses showed delayed VERs compared with controls (IUGR, 233.1 ms; controls, 184.6 ms; P = 0.032). SGA fetuses had similar evoked response latencies compared with controls (SGA, 216.1 ms; controls, 219.9 ms; P = 0.828). Behavioural states were similarly distributed. Visual evoked responses are delayed in IUGR fetuses, but not in SGA. Fetal behavioural state as an influencing factor of brain response latency was accounted for in the comparison. This reinforces that delayed brain maturation is the result of placental insufficiency. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. Source analysis of MEG activities during sleep (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, S.; Iramina, K.

    1991-04-01

    The present study focuses on magnetic fields of the brain activities during sleep, in particular on K-complexes, vertex waves, and sleep spindles in human subjects. We analyzed these waveforms based on both topographic EEG (electroencephalographic) maps and magnetic fields measurements, called MEGs (magnetoencephalograms). The components of magnetic fields perpendicular to the surface of the head were measured using a dc SQUID magnetometer with a second derivative gradiometer. In our computer simulation, the head is assumed to be a homogeneous spherical volume conductor, with electric sources of brain activity modeled as current dipoles. Comparison of computer simulations with the measured data, particularly the MEG, suggests that the source of K-complexes can be modeled by two current dipoles. A source for the vertex wave is modeled by a single current dipole which orients along the body axis out of the head. By again measuring the simultaneous MEG and EEG signals, it is possible to uniquely determine the orientation of this dipole, particularly when it is tilted slightly off-axis. In sleep stage 2, fast waves of magnetic fields consistently appeared, but EEG spindles appeared intermittently. The results suggest that there exist sources which are undetectable by electrical measurement but are detectable by magnetic-field measurement. Such source can be described by a pair of opposing dipoles of which directions are oppositely oriented.

  2. Oscillations, networks, and their development: MEG connectivity changes with age.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Carmen B; Morgan, Benjamin R; Ye, Annette X; Taylor, Margot J; Doesburg, Sam M

    2014-10-01

    Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) investigations of inter-regional amplitude correlations have yielded new insights into the organization and neurophysiology of resting-state networks (RSNs) first identified using fMRI. Inter-regional MEG amplitude correlations in adult RSNs have been shown to be most prominent in alpha and beta frequency ranges and to express strong congruence with RSN topologies found using fMRI. Despite such advances, little is known about how oscillatory connectivity in RSNs develops throughout childhood and adolescence. This study used a novel fMRI-guided MEG approach to investigate the maturation of resting-state amplitude correlations in physiologically relevant frequency ranges within and among six RSNs in 59 participants, aged 6-34 years. We report age-related increases in inter-regional amplitude correlations that were largest in alpha and beta frequency bands. In contrast to fMRI reports, these changes were observed both within and between the various RSNs analyzed. Our results provide the first evidence of developmental changes in spontaneous neurophysiological connectivity in source-resolved RSNs, which indicate increasing integration within and among intrinsic functional brain networks throughout childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. MEG Can Map Short and Long-Term Changes in Brain Activity following Deep Brain Stimulation for Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Hamid R.; Smith, Penny P.; Parsons, Christine E.; Young, Katherine S.; Hyam, Jonathan A.; Stein, Alan; Stein, John F.; Green, Alexander L.; Aziz, Tipu Z.; Kringelbach, Morten L.

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be clinically effective for some forms of treatment-resistant chronic pain, but the precise mechanisms of action are not well understood. Here, we present an analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data from a patient with whole-body chronic pain, in order to investigate changes in neural activity induced by DBS for pain relief over both short- and long-term. This patient is one of the few cases treated using DBS of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We demonstrate that a novel method, null-beamforming, can be used to localise accurately brain activity despite the artefacts caused by the presence of DBS electrodes and stimulus pulses. The accuracy of our source localisation was verified by correlating the predicted DBS electrode positions with their actual positions. Using this beamforming method, we examined changes in whole-brain activity comparing pain relief achieved with deep brain stimulation (DBS ON) and compared with pain experienced with no stimulation (DBS OFF). We found significant changes in activity in pain-related regions including the pre-supplementary motor area, brainstem (periaqueductal gray) and dissociable parts of caudal and rostral ACC. In particular, when the patient reported experiencing pain, there was increased activity in different regions of ACC compared to when he experienced pain relief. We were also able to demonstrate long-term functional brain changes as a result of continuous DBS over one year, leading to specific changes in the activity in dissociable regions of caudal and rostral ACC. These results broaden our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of DBS in the human brain. PMID:22675503

  4. Effects of inverting contour and features on processing for static and dynamic face perception: an MEG study.

    PubMed

    Miki, Kensaku; Takeshima, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Shoko; Honda, Yukiko; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2011-04-06

    We investigated the effects of inverting facial contour (hair and chin) and features (eyes, nose and mouth) on processing for static and dynamic face perception using magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used apparent motion, in which the first stimulus (S1) was replaced by a second stimulus (S2) with no interstimulus interval and subjects perceived visual motion, and presented three conditions as follows: (1) U&U: Upright contour and Upright features, (2) U&I: Upright contour and Inverted features, and (3) I&I: Inverted contour and Inverted features. In static face perception (S1 onset), the peak latency of the fusiform area's activity, which was related to static face perception, was significantly longer for U&I and I&I than for U&U in the right hemisphere and for U&I than for U&U and I&I in the left. In dynamic face perception (S2 onset), the strength (moment) of the occipitotemporal area's activity, which was related to dynamic face perception, was significantly larger for I&I than for U&U and U&I in the right hemisphere, but not the left. These results can be summarized as follows: (1) in static face perception, the activity of the right fusiform area was more affected by the inversion of features while that of the left fusiform area was more affected by the disruption of the spatial relation between the contour and features, and (2) in dynamic face perception, the activity of the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The 170ms Response to Faces as Measured by MEG (M170) Is Consistently Altered in Congenital Prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Deffke, Iris; Sander, Tilmann; Grüter, Thomas; Grüter, Martina; Trahms, Lutz; Curio, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Modularity of face processing is still a controversial issue. Congenital prosopagnosia (cPA), a selective and lifelong impairment in familiar face recognition without evidence of an acquired cerebral lesion, offers a unique opportunity to support this fundamental hypothesis. However, in spite of the pronounced behavioural impairment, identification of a functionally relevant neural alteration in congenital prosopagnosia by electrophysiogical methods has not been achieved so far. Here we show that persons with congenital prosopagnosia can be distinguished as a group from unimpaired persons using magnetoencephalography. Early face-selective MEG-responses in the range of 140 to 200ms (the M170) showed prolonged latency and decreased amplitude whereas responses to another category (houses) were indistinguishable between subjects with congenital prosopagnosia and unimpaired controls. Latency and amplitude of face-selective EEG responses (the N170) which were simultaneously recorded were statistically indistinguishable between subjects with cPA and healthy controls which resolves heterogeneous and partly conflicting results from existing studies. The complementary analysis of categorical differences (evoked activity to faces minus evoked activity to houses) revealed that the early part of the 170ms response to faces is altered in subjects with cPA. This finding can be adequately explained in a common framework of holistic and part-based face processing. Whereas a significant brain-behaviour correlation of face recognition performance and the size of the M170 amplitude is found in controls a corresponding correlation is not seen in subjects with cPA. This indicates functional relevance of the alteration found for the 170ms response to faces in cPA and pinpoints the impairment of face processing to early perceptual stages. PMID:26393348

  6. Neural network classifications and correlation analysis of EEG and MEG activity accompanying spontaneous reversals of the Necker cube.

    PubMed

    Gaetz, M; Weinberg, H; Rzempoluck, E; Jantzen, K J

    1998-04-01

    It has recently been suggested that reentrant connections are essential in systems that process complex information [A. Damasio, H. Damasio, Cortical systems for the retrieval of concrete knowledge: the convergence zone framework, in: C. Koch, J.L. Davis (Eds.), Large Scale Neuronal Theories of the Brain, The MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995, pp. 61-74; G. Edelman, The Remembered Present, Basic Books, New York, 1989; M.I. Posner, M. Rothbart, Constructing neuronal theories of mind, in: C. Koch, J.L. Davis (Eds.), Large Scale Neuronal Theories of the Brain, The MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995, pp. 183-199; C. von der Malsburg, W. Schneider, A neuronal cocktail party processor, Biol. Cybem., 54 (1986) 29-40]. Reentry is not feedback, but parallel signalling in the time domain between spatially distributed maps, similar to a process of correlation between distributed systems. Accordingly, it was expected that during spontaneous reversals of the Necker cube, complex patterns of correlations between distributed systems would be present in the cortex. The present study included EEG (n=4) and MEG recordings (n=5). Two experimental questions were posed: (1) Can distributed cortical patterns present during perceptual reversals be classified differently using a generalised regression neural network (GRNN) compared to processing of a two-dimensional figure? (2) Does correlated cortical activity increase significantly during perception of a Necker cube reversal? One-second duration single trials of EEG and MEG data were analysed using the GRNN. Electrode/sensor pairings based on cortico-cortical connections were selected to assess correlated activity in each condition. The GRNN significantly classified single trials recorded during Necker cube reversals as different from single trials recorded during perception of a two-dimensional figure for both EEG and MEG. In addition, correlated cortical activity increased significantly in the Necker cube reversal condition for EEG and MEG compared

  7. Magnetoencephalography reveals altered auditory information processing in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Korostenskaja, Milena; Harris, Elana; Giovanetti, Cathy; Horn, Paul; Wang, Yingying; Rose, Douglas; Fujiwara, Hisako; Xiang, Jing

    2013-05-30

    Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often report sensory intolerances which may lead to significant functional impairment. This study used auditory evoked fields (AEFs) to address the question of whether neural correlates of sensory auditory information processing differ in youth with OCD compared with healthy comparison subjects (HCS). AEFs, recorded with a whole head 275-channel magnetoencephalography system, were elicited in response to binaural auditory stimuli from 10 pediatric subjects with OCD (ages 8-13, mean 11 years, 6 males) and 10 age- and gender-matched HCS. Three major neuromagnetic responses were studied: M70 (60-80 ms), M100 (90-120 ms), and M150 (130-190 ms). When compared with HCS, subjects with OCD demonstrated delayed latency of the M100 response. In subjects with OCD the amplitude of the M100 and M150 responses was significantly greater in the right hemisphere compared with the left hemisphere. Current results suggest that when compared with HCS, subjects with OCD have altered auditory information processing, evident from the delayed latency of the M100 response, which is thought to be associated with the encoding of physical stimulus characteristics. Interhemispheric asymmetry with increased M100 and M150 amplitudes over the right hemisphere compared with the left hemisphere was found in young OCD subjects. These results should be interpreted with caution due to the high variability rate of responses in both HCS and OCD subjects, as well as the possible effect of medication in OCD subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MEG-SIM: a web portal for testing MEG analysis methods using realistic simulated and empirical data.

    PubMed

    Aine, C J; Sanfratello, L; Ranken, D; Best, E; MacArthur, J A; Wallace, T; Gilliam, K; Donahue, C H; Montaño, R; Bryant, J E; Scott, A; Stephen, J M

    2012-04-01

    MEG and EEG measure electrophysiological activity in the brain with exquisite temporal resolution. Because of this unique strength relative to noninvasive hemodynamic-based measures (fMRI, PET), the complementary nature of hemodynamic and electrophysiological techniques is becoming more widely recognized (e.g., Human Connectome Project). However, the available analysis methods for solving the inverse problem for MEG and EEG have not been compared and standardized to the extent that they have for fMRI/PET. A number of factors, including the non-uniqueness of the solution to the inverse problem for MEG/EEG, have led to multiple analysis techniques which have not been tested on consistent datasets, making direct comparisons of techniques challenging (or impossible). Since each of the methods is known to have their own set of strengths and weaknesses, it would be beneficial to quantify them. Toward this end, we are announcing the establishment of a website containing an extensive series of realistic simulated data for testing purposes ( http://cobre.mrn.org/megsim/ ). Here, we present: 1) a brief overview of the basic types of inverse procedures; 2) the rationale and description of the testbed created; and 3) cases emphasizing functional connectivity (e.g., oscillatory activity) suitable for a wide assortment of analyses including independent component analysis (ICA), Granger Causality/Directed transfer function, and single-trial analysis.

  9. MEG-SIM: A Web Portal for Testing MEG Analysis Methods using Realistic Simulated and Empirical Data

    PubMed Central

    Aine, C. J.; Sanfratello, L.; Ranken, D.; Best, E.; MacArthur, J. A.; Wallace, T.; Gilliam, K.; Donahue, C. H.; Montaño, R.; Bryant, J. E.; Scott, A.; Stephen, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    MEG and EEG measure electrophysiological activity in the brain with exquisite temporal resolution. Because of this unique strength relative to noninvasive hemodynamic-based measures (fMRI, PET), the complementary nature of hemodynamic and electrophysiological techniques is becoming more widely recognized (e.g., Human Connectome Project). However, the available analysis methods for solving the inverse problem for MEG and EEG have not been compared and standardized to the extent that they have for fMRI/PET. A number of factors, including the non-uniqueness of the solution to the inverse problem for MEG/EEG, have led to multiple analysis techniques which have not been tested on consistent datasets, making direct comparisons of techniques challenging (or impossible). Since each of the methods is known to have their own set of strengths and weaknesses, it would be beneficial to quantify them. Toward this end, we are announcing the establishment of a website containing an extensive series of realistic simulated data for testing purposes (http://cobre.mrn.org/megsim/). Here, we present: 1) a brief overview of the basic types of inverse procedures; 2) the rationale and description of the testbed created; and 3) cases emphasizing functional connectivity (e.g., oscillatory activity) suitable for a wide assortment of analyses including independent component analysis (ICA), Granger Causality/Directed transfer function, and single-trial analysis. PMID:22068921

  10. The effect of ageing on fMRI: Correction for the confounding effects of vascular reactivity evaluated by joint fMRI and MEG in 335 adults.

    PubMed

    Tsvetanov, Kamen A; Henson, Richard N A; Tyler, Lorraine K; Davis, Simon W; Shafto, Meredith A; Taylor, Jason R; Williams, Nitin; Cam-Can; Rowe, James B

    2015-06-01

    In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research one is typically interested in neural activity. However, the blood-oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal is a composite of both neural and vascular activity. As factors such as age or medication may alter vascular function, it is essential to account for changes in neurovascular coupling when investigating neurocognitive functioning with fMRI. The resting-state fluctuation amplitude (RSFA) in the fMRI signal (rsfMRI) has been proposed as an index of vascular reactivity. The RSFA compares favourably with other techniques such as breath-hold and hypercapnia, but the latter are more difficult to perform in some populations, such as older adults. The RSFA is therefore a candidate for use in adjusting for age-related changes in vascular reactivity in fMRI studies. The use of RSFA is predicated on its sensitivity to vascular rather than neural factors; however, the extent to which each of these factors contributes to RSFA remains to be characterized. The present work addressed these issues by comparing RSFA (i.e., rsfMRI variability) to proxy measures of (i) cardiovascular function in terms of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) and (ii) neural activity in terms of resting state magnetoencephalography (rsMEG). We derived summary scores of RSFA, a sensorimotor task BOLD activation, cardiovascular function and rsMEG variability for 335 healthy older adults in the population-based Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience cohort (Cam-CAN; www.cam-can.com). Mediation analysis revealed that the effects of ageing on RSFA were significantly mediated by vascular factors, but importantly not by the variability in neuronal activity. Furthermore, the converse effects of ageing on the rsMEG variability were not mediated by vascular factors. We then examined the effect of RSFA scaling of task-based BOLD in the sensorimotor task. The scaling analysis revealed that much of the effects of age on task

  11. The effect of ageing on fMRI: Correction for the confounding effects of vascular reactivity evaluated by joint fMRI and MEG in 335 adults

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Richard N. A.; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Davis, Simon W.; Shafto, Meredith A.; Taylor, Jason R.; Williams, Nitin; Cam‐CAN; Rowe, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research one is typically interested in neural activity. However, the blood‐oxygenation level‐dependent (BOLD) signal is a composite of both neural and vascular activity. As factors such as age or medication may alter vascular function, it is essential to account for changes in neurovascular coupling when investigating neurocognitive functioning with fMRI. The resting‐state fluctuation amplitude (RSFA) in the fMRI signal (rsfMRI) has been proposed as an index of vascular reactivity. The RSFA compares favourably with other techniques such as breath‐hold and hypercapnia, but the latter are more difficult to perform in some populations, such as older adults. The RSFA is therefore a candidate for use in adjusting for age‐related changes in vascular reactivity in fMRI studies. The use of RSFA is predicated on its sensitivity to vascular rather than neural factors; however, the extent to which each of these factors contributes to RSFA remains to be characterized. The present work addressed these issues by comparing RSFA (i.e., rsfMRI variability) to proxy measures of (i) cardiovascular function in terms of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) and (ii) neural activity in terms of resting state magnetoencephalography (rsMEG). We derived summary scores of RSFA, a sensorimotor task BOLD activation, cardiovascular function and rsMEG variability for 335 healthy older adults in the population‐based Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience cohort (Cam‐CAN; www.cam-can.com). Mediation analysis revealed that the effects of ageing on RSFA were significantly mediated by vascular factors, but importantly not by the variability in neuronal activity. Furthermore, the converse effects of ageing on the rsMEG variability were not mediated by vascular factors. We then examined the effect of RSFA scaling of task‐based BOLD in the sensorimotor task. The scaling analysis revealed that much of the effects

  12. Distinct spatio-temporal profiles of beta-oscillations within visual and sensorimotor areas during action recognition as revealed by MEG.

    PubMed

    Pavlidou, Anastasia; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The neural correlates of action recognition have been widely studied in visual and sensorimotor areas of the human brain. However, the role of neuronal oscillations involved during the process of action recognition remains unclear. Here, we were interested in how the plausibility of an action modulates neuronal oscillations in visual and sensorimotor areas. Subjects viewed point-light displays (PLDs) of biomechanically plausible and implausible versions of the same actions. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we examined dynamic changes of oscillatory activity during these action recognition processes. While both actions elicited oscillatory activity in visual and sensorimotor areas in several frequency bands, a significant difference was confined to the beta-band (∼20 Hz). An increase of power for plausible actions was observed in left temporal, parieto-occipital and sensorimotor areas of the brain, in the beta-band in successive order between 1650 and 2650 msec. These distinct spatio-temporal beta-band profiles suggest that the action recognition process is modulated by the degree of biomechanical plausibility of the action, and that spectral power in the beta-band may provide a functional interaction between visual and sensorimotor areas in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Similarities and differences between on-scalp and conventional in-helmet magnetoencephalography recordings

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Christoph; Ruffieux, Silvia; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hämäläinen, Matti; Schneiderman, Justin F.; Lundqvist, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The development of new magnetic sensor technologies that promise sensitivities approaching that of conventional MEG technology while operating at far lower operating temperatures has catalysed the growing field of on-scalp MEG. The feasibility of on-scalp MEG has been demonstrated via benchmarking of new sensor technologies performing neuromagnetic recordings in close proximity to the head surface against state-of-the-art in-helmet MEG sensor technology. However, earlier work has provided little information about how these two approaches compare, or about the reliability of observed differences. Herein, we present such a comparison, based on recordings of the N20m component of the somatosensory evoked field as elicited by electric median nerve stimulation. As expected from the proximity differences between the on-scalp and in-helmet sensors, the magnitude of the N20m activation as recorded with the on-scalp sensor was higher than that of the in-helmet sensors. The dipole pattern of the on-scalp recordings was also more spatially confined than that of the conventional recordings. Our results furthermore revealed unexpected temporal differences in the peak of the N20m component. An analysis protocol was therefore developed for assessing the reliability of this observed difference. We used this protocol to examine our findings in terms of differences in sensor sensitivity between the two types of MEG recordings. The measurements and subsequent analysis raised attention to the fact that great care has to be taken in measuring the field close to the zero-line crossing of the dipolar field, since it is heavily dependent on the orientation of sensors. Taken together, our findings provide reliable evidence that on-scalp and in-helmet sensors measure neural sources in mostly similar ways. PMID:28742118

  14. MEG-EEG Information Fusion and Electromagnetic Source Imaging: From Theory to Clinical Application in Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Rasheda Arman; Zerouali, Younes; Hedrich, Tanguy; Heers, Marcel; Kobayashi, Eliane; Lina, Jean-Marc; Grova, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and quantitatively assess whether fusion of EEG and MEG (MEEG) data within the maximum entropy on the mean (MEM) framework increases the spatial accuracy of source localization, by yielding better recovery of the spatial extent and propagation pathway of the underlying generators of inter-ictal epileptic discharges (IEDs). The key element in this study is the integration of the complementary information from EEG and MEG data within the MEM framework. MEEG was compared with EEG and MEG when localizing single transient IEDs. The fusion approach was evaluated using realistic simulation models involving one or two spatially extended sources mimicking propagation patterns of IEDs. We also assessed the impact of the number of EEG electrodes required for an efficient EEG-MEG fusion. MEM was compared with minimum norm estimate, dynamic statistical parametric mapping, and standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography. The fusion approach was finally assessed on real epileptic data recorded from two patients showing IEDs simultaneously in EEG and MEG. Overall the localization of MEEG data using MEM provided better recovery of the source spatial extent, more sensitivity to the source depth and more accurate detection of the onset and propagation of IEDs than EEG or MEG alone. MEM was more accurate than the other methods. MEEG proved more robust than EEG and MEG for single IED localization in low signal-to-noise ratio conditions. We also showed that only few EEG electrodes are required to bring additional relevant information to MEG during MEM fusion.

  15. MEG3, HCN3 and linc01105 influence the proliferation and apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells via the HIF-1α and p53 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weitao; Dong, Kuiran; Li, Kai; Dong, Rui; Zheng, Shan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential expression and functional roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in neuroblastoma tissue. LncRNA microarrays were used to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs between tumor and para-tumor tissues. In total, in tumor tissues, 3,098 and 1,704 lncRNAs were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. HCN3 and linc01105 exhibited the higher expression (P < 0.05; P < 0.01, respectively) in neuroblastoma tissue, whereas MEG3 displayed the lower expression (P < 0.01). HIF-1α expression was negatively correlated with cell proliferation in the linc01105 KD group. In addition, Noxa and Bid expression was positively correlated with cell apoptosis. Moreover, linc01105 knockdown promoted cell proliferation, whereas MEG3 overexpression inhibited proliferation. Finally, linc01105 knockdown, MEG3 overexpression and HCN3 knockdown all increased apoptosis. The correlation coefficients between those three lncRNAs and the International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage were −0.48, −0.58 and −0.55, respectively. In conclusion, we have identified lncRNAs that are differentially expressed in neuroblastoma tissues. The lncRNAs HCN3, linc01105, and MEG3 may be important in biological behaviors of neuroblastoma through mechanisms involving p53 pathway members such as HIF-1α, Noxa, and Bid. The expressions of MEG3, HCN3 and linc01105 are all negatively correlated with the INSS stage. PMID:27824082

  16. Emotion processing in the visual brain: a MEG analysis.

    PubMed

    Peyk, Peter; Schupp, Harald T; Elbert, Thomas; Junghöfer, Markus

    2008-06-01

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related brain potential (ERP) studies provide empirical support for the notion that emotional cues guide selective attention. Extending this line of research, whole head magneto-encephalogram (MEG) was measured while participants viewed in separate experimental blocks a continuous stream of either pleasant and neutral or unpleasant and neutral pictures, presented for 330 ms each. Event-related magnetic fields (ERF) were analyzed after intersubject sensor coregistration, complemented by minimum norm estimates (MNE) to explore neural generator sources. Both streams of analysis converge by demonstrating the selective emotion processing in an early (120-170 ms) and a late time interval (220-310 ms). ERF analysis revealed that the polarity of the emotion difference fields was reversed across early and late intervals suggesting distinct patterns of activation in the visual processing stream. Source analysis revealed the amplified processing of emotional pictures in visual processing areas with more pronounced occipito-parieto-temporal activation in the early time interval, and a stronger engagement of more anterior, temporal, regions in the later interval. Confirming previous ERP studies showing facilitated emotion processing, the present data suggest that MEG provides a complementary look at the spread of activation in the visual processing stream.

  17. Sparse EEG/MEG source estimation via a group lasso

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Michael; Ales, Justin M.; Cottereau, Benoit R.; Hastie, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive recordings of human brain activity through electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencelphalography (MEG) are of value for both basic science and clinical applications in sensory, cognitive, and affective neuroscience. Here we introduce a new approach to estimating the intra-cranial sources of EEG/MEG activity measured from extra-cranial sensors. The approach is based on the group lasso, a sparse-prior inverse that has been adapted to take advantage of functionally-defined regions of interest for the definition of physiologically meaningful groups within a functionally-based common space. Detailed simulations using realistic source-geometries and data from a human Visual Evoked Potential experiment demonstrate that the group-lasso method has improved performance over traditional ℓ2 minimum-norm methods. In addition, we show that pooling source estimates across subjects over functionally defined regions of interest results in improvements in the accuracy of source estimates for both the group-lasso and minimum-norm approaches. PMID:28604790

  18. Song Perception by Professional Singers and Actors: An MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosslau, Ken; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Knief, Arne; Ortmann, Magdalene; Deuster, Dirk; Schmidt, Claus-Michael; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinetteam; Pantev, Christo; Dobel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The cortical correlates of speech and music perception are essentially overlapping, and the specific effects of different types of training on these networks remain unknown. We compared two groups of vocally trained professionals for music and speech, singers and actors, using recited and sung rhyme sequences from German art songs with semantic and/ or prosodic/melodic violations (i.e. violations of pitch) of the last word, in order to measure the evoked activation in a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) experiment. MEG data confirmed the existence of intertwined networks for the sung and spoken modality in an early time window after word violation. In essence for this early response, higher activity was measured after melodic/prosodic than semantic violations in predominantly right temporal areas. For singers as well as for actors, modality-specific effects were evident in predominantly left-temporal lateralized activity after semantic expectancy violations in the spoken modality, and right-dominant temporal activity in response to melodic violations in the sung modality. As an indication of a special group-dependent audiation process, higher neuronal activity for singers appeared in a late time window in right temporal and left parietal areas, both after the recited and the sung sequences. PMID:26863437

  19. The Use of Magnetoencephalography in Evaluating Human Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    determines the head cartesian coordinate system, and calculates the locations of the dipole sets in this reference frame. This system is based on an optical ...differences in brain activity are found between imagers and nonimagers , the brain areas which seem to be involved will be localized. 25 3. The poor

  20. Fenofibrate inhibited pancreatic cancer cells proliferation via activation of p53 mediated by upregulation of LncRNA MEG3

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Duanmin; Su, Cunjin; Jiang, Min

    There is still no suitable drug for pancreatic cancer treatment, which is one of the most aggressive human tumors. Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3), a LncRNA, has been suggested as a tumor suppressor in a range of human tumors. Studies found fenofibrate exerted anti-tumor roles in various human cancer cell lines. However, its role in pancreatic cancer remains unknown. The present study aimed to explore the impacts of fenofibrate on pancreatic cancer cell lines, and to investigate MEG3 role in its anti-tumor mechanisms. We used MTT assay to determine cells proliferation, genome-wide LncRNA microarray analysis to identify differently expressed LncRNAs,more » siRNA or pCDNA-MEG3 transfection to interfere or upregulate MEG3 expression, western blot to detect protein levels, real-time PCR to determine MEG3 level. Fenofibrate significantly inhibited proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells, increased MEG3 expression and p53 levels. Moreover, knockdown of MEG3 attenuated cytotoxicity induced by fenofibrate. Furthermore, overexpression of MEG3 induced cells death and increased p53 expression. Our results indicated fenofibrate inhibited pancreatic cancer cells proliferation via activation of p53 mediated by upregulation of MEG3. - Highlights: • We found that fenofibrate suppressed proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. • We found fenofibrate increased LncRNA-MEG3 expression and p53 level in PANC-1 cells. • Inhibition of MEG3 expression attenuated anti-tumor effects of fenofibrate.« less

  1. MNE software for processing MEG and EEG data

    PubMed Central

    Gramfort, A.; Luessi, M.; Larson, E.; Engemann, D.; Strohmeier, D.; Brodbeck, C.; Parkkonen, L.; Hämäläinen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography (M/EEG) measure the weak electromagnetic signals originating from neural currents in the brain. Using these signals to characterize and locate brain activity is a challenging task, as evidenced by several decades of methodological contributions. MNE, whose name stems from its capability to compute cortically-constrained minimum-norm current estimates from M/EEG data, is a software package that provides comprehensive analysis tools and workflows including preprocessing, source estimation, time–frequency analysis, statistical analysis, and several methods to estimate functional connectivity between distributed brain regions. The present paper gives detailed information about the MNE package and describes typical use cases while also warning about potential caveats in analysis. The MNE package is a collaborative effort of multiple institutes striving to implement and share best methods and to facilitate distribution of analysis pipelines to advance reproducibility of research. Full documentation is available at http://martinos.org/mne. PMID:24161808

  2. Direction of Magnetoencephalography Sources Associated with Feedback and Feedforward Contributions in a Visual Object Recognition Task

    PubMed Central

    Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Jones, Stephanie R.; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Belliveau, John W.; Bar, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Identifying inter-area communication in terms of the hierarchical organization of functional brain areas is of considerable interest in human neuroimaging. Previous studies have suggested that the direction of magneto- and electroencephalography (MEG, EEG) source currents depends on the layer-specific input patterns into a cortical area. We examined the direction in MEG source currents in a visual object recognition experiment in which there were specific expectations of activation in the fusiform region being driven by either feedforward or feedback inputs. The source for the early non-specific visual evoked response, presumably corresponding to feedforward driven activity, pointed outward, i.e., away from the white matter. In contrast, the source for the later, object-recognition related signals, expected to be driven by feedback inputs, pointed inward, toward the white matter. Associating specific features of the MEG/EEG source waveforms to feedforward and feedback inputs could provide unique information about the activation patterns within hierarchically organized cortical areas. PMID:25445356

  3. Reducing Sensor Noise in MEG and EEG Recordings Using Oversampled Temporal Projection.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric; Taulu, Samu

    2018-05-01

    Here, we review the theory of suppression of spatially uncorrelated, sensor-specific noise in electro- and magentoencephalography (EEG and MEG) arrays, and introduce a novel method for suppression. Our method requires only that the signals of interest are spatially oversampled, which is a reasonable assumption for many EEG and MEG systems. Our method is based on a leave-one-out procedure using overlapping temporal windows in a mathematical framework to project spatially uncorrelated noise in the temporal domain. This method, termed "oversampled temporal projection" (OTP), has four advantages over existing methods. First, sparse channel-specific artifacts are suppressed while limiting mixing with other channels, whereas existing linear, time-invariant spatial operators can spread such artifacts to other channels with a spatial distribution which can be mistaken for one produced by an electrophysiological source. Second, OTP minimizes distortion of the spatial configuration of the data. During source localization (e.g., dipole fitting), many spatial methods require corresponding modification of the forward model to avoid bias, while OTP does not. Third, noise suppression factors at the sensor level are maintained during source localization, whereas bias compensation removes the denoising benefit for spatial methods that require such compensation. Fourth, OTP uses a time-window duration parameter to control the tradeoff between noise suppression and adaptation to time-varying sensor characteristics. OTP efficiently optimizes noise suppression performance while controlling for spatial bias of the signal of interest. This is important in applications where sensor noise significantly limits the signal-to-noise ratio, such as high-frequency brain oscillations.

  4. Comparative studies of brain activation with MEG and functional MRI

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.S.; Aine, C.J.; Sanders, J.A.

    The past two years have witnessed the emergence of MRI as a functional imaging methodology. Initial demonstrations involved the injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent and required ultrafast echo planar imaging capability to adequately resolve the passage of the injected bolus. By measuring the local reduction in image intensity due to magnetic susceptibility, it was possible to calculate blood volume, which changes as a function of neural activation. Later developments have exploited endogenous contrast mechanisms to monitor changes in blood volume or in venous blood oxygen content. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that it is possible to make suchmore » measurements in a clinical imager, suggesting that the large installed base of such machines might be utilized for functional imaging. Although it is likely that functional MRI (fMRI) will subsume some of the clinical and basic neuroscience applications now touted for MEG, it is also clear that these techniques offer different largely complementary, capabilities. At the very least, it is useful to compare and cross-validate the activation maps produced by these techniques. Such studies will be valuable as a check on results of neuromagnetic distributed current reconstructions and will allow better characterization of the relationship between neurophysiological activation and associated hemodynamic changes. A more exciting prospect is the development of analyses that combine information from the two modalities to produce a better description of underlying neural activity than is possible with either technique in isolation. In this paper we describe some results from initial comparative studies and outline several techniques that can be used to treat MEG and fMRI data within a unified computational framework.« less

  5. Alpha, delta and theta rhythms in a neural net model. Comparison with MEG data.

    PubMed

    Kotini, A; Anninos, P

    2016-01-07

    The aim of this study is to provide information regarding the comparison of a neural model to MEG measurements. Our study population consisted of 10 epileptic patients and 10 normal subjects. The epileptic patients had high MEG amplitudes characterized with θ (4-7 Hz) or δ (2-3 Hz) rhythms and absence of α-rhythm (8-13 Hz). The statistical analysis of such activities corresponded to Poisson distribution. Conversely, the MEG from normal subjects had low amplitudes, higher frequencies and presence of α-rhythm (8-13 Hz). Such activities were not synchronized and their distributions were Gauss. These findings were in agreement with our theoretical neural model. The comparison of the neural network with MEG data provides information about the status of brain function in epileptic and normal states. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. MEG dual scanning: a procedure to study real-time auditory interaction between two persons

    PubMed Central

    Baess, Pamela; Zhdanov, Andrey; Mandel, Anne; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Mäkelä, Jyrki P.; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    Social interactions fill our everyday life and put strong demands on our brain function. However, the possibilities for studying the brain basis of social interaction are still technically limited, and even modern brain imaging studies of social cognition typically monitor just one participant at a time. We present here a method to connect and synchronize two faraway neuromagnetometers. With this method, two participants at two separate sites can interact with each other through a stable real-time audio connection with minimal delay and jitter. The magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and audio recordings of both laboratories are accurately synchronized for joint offline analysis. The concept can be extended to connecting multiple MEG devices around the world. As a proof of concept of the MEG-to-MEG link, we report the results of time-sensitive recordings of cortical evoked responses to sounds delivered at laboratories separated by 5 km. PMID:22514530

  7. Altered cortical beta‐band oscillations reflect motor system degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Proudfoot, Malcolm; Rohenkohl, Gustavo; Quinn, Andrew; Colclough, Giles L.; Wuu, Joanne; Talbot, Kevin; Woolrich, Mark W.; Benatar, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Continuous rhythmic neuronal oscillations underpin local and regional cortical communication. The impact of the motor system neurodegenerative syndrome amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) on the neuronal oscillations subserving movement might therefore serve as a sensitive marker of disease activity. Movement preparation and execution are consistently associated with modulations to neuronal oscillation beta (15–30 Hz) power. Cortical beta‐band oscillations were measured using magnetoencephalography (MEG) during preparation for, execution, and completion of a visually cued, lateralized motor task that included movement inhibition trials. Eleven “classical” ALS patients, 9 with the primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) phenotype, and 12 asymptomatic carriers of ALS‐associated gene mutations were compared with age‐similar healthy control groups. Augmented beta desynchronization was observed in both contra‐ and ipsilateral motor cortices of ALS patients during motor preparation. Movement execution coincided with excess beta desynchronization in asymptomatic mutation carriers. Movement completion was followed by a slowed rebound of beta power in all symptomatic patients, further reflected in delayed hemispheric lateralization for beta rebound in the PLS group. This may correspond to the particular involvement of interhemispheric fibers of the corpus callosum previously demonstrated in diffusion tensor imaging studies. We conclude that the ALS spectrum is characterized by intensified cortical beta desynchronization followed by delayed rebound, concordant with a broader concept of cortical hyperexcitability, possibly through loss of inhibitory interneuronal influences. MEG may potentially detect cortical dysfunction prior to the development of overt symptoms, and thus be able to contribute to the assessment of future neuroprotective strategies. Hum Brain Mapp 38:237–254, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27623516

  8. Altered cortical beta-band oscillations reflect motor system degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Malcolm; Rohenkohl, Gustavo; Quinn, Andrew; Colclough, Giles L; Wuu, Joanne; Talbot, Kevin; Woolrich, Mark W; Benatar, Michael; Nobre, Anna C; Turner, Martin R

    2017-01-01

    Continuous rhythmic neuronal oscillations underpin local and regional cortical communication. The impact of the motor system neurodegenerative syndrome amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) on the neuronal oscillations subserving movement might therefore serve as a sensitive marker of disease activity. Movement preparation and execution are consistently associated with modulations to neuronal oscillation beta (15-30 Hz) power. Cortical beta-band oscillations were measured using magnetoencephalography (MEG) during preparation for, execution, and completion of a visually cued, lateralized motor task that included movement inhibition trials. Eleven "classical" ALS patients, 9 with the primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) phenotype, and 12 asymptomatic carriers of ALS-associated gene mutations were compared with age-similar healthy control groups. Augmented beta desynchronization was observed in both contra- and ipsilateral motor cortices of ALS patients during motor preparation. Movement execution coincided with excess beta desynchronization in asymptomatic mutation carriers. Movement completion was followed by a slowed rebound of beta power in all symptomatic patients, further reflected in delayed hemispheric lateralization for beta rebound in the PLS group. This may correspond to the particular involvement of interhemispheric fibers of the corpus callosum previously demonstrated in diffusion tensor imaging studies. We conclude that the ALS spectrum is characterized by intensified cortical beta desynchronization followed by delayed rebound, concordant with a broader concept of cortical hyperexcitability, possibly through loss of inhibitory interneuronal influences. MEG may potentially detect cortical dysfunction prior to the development of overt symptoms, and thus be able to contribute to the assessment of future neuroprotective strategies. Hum Brain Mapp 38:237-254, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals

  9. Emerging Object Representations in the Visual System Predict Reaction Times for Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, J. Brendan; Tovar, David A.; Carlson, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing an object takes just a fraction of a second, less than the blink of an eye. Applying multivariate pattern analysis, or “brain decoding”, methods to magnetoencephalography (MEG) data has allowed researchers to characterize, in high temporal resolution, the emerging representation of object categories that underlie our capacity for rapid recognition. Shortly after stimulus onset, object exemplars cluster by category in a high-dimensional activation space in the brain. In this emerging activation space, the decodability of exemplar category varies over time, reflecting the brain’s transformation of visual inputs into coherent category representations. How do these emerging representations relate to categorization behavior? Recently it has been proposed that the distance of an exemplar representation from a categorical boundary in an activation space is critical for perceptual decision-making, and that reaction times should therefore correlate with distance from the boundary. The predictions of this distance hypothesis have been born out in human inferior temporal cortex (IT), an area of the brain crucial for the representation of object categories. When viewed in the context of a time varying neural signal, the optimal time to “read out” category information is when category representations in the brain are most decodable. Here, we show that the distance from a decision boundary through activation space, as measured using MEG decoding methods, correlates with reaction times for visual categorization during the period of peak decodability. Our results suggest that the brain begins to read out information about exemplar category at the optimal time for use in choice behaviour, and support the hypothesis that the structure of the representation for objects in the visual system is partially constitutive of the decision process in recognition. PMID:26107634

  10. Consistency and similarity of MEG- and fMRI-signal time courses during movie viewing.

    PubMed

    Lankinen, Kaisu; Saari, Jukka; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Tikka, Pia; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hari, Riitta; Koskinen, Miika

    2018-06-01

    Movie viewing allows human perception and cognition to be studied in complex, real-life-like situations in a brain-imaging laboratory. Previous studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and with magneto- and electroencephalography (MEG and EEG) have demonstrated consistent temporal dynamics of brain activity across movie viewers. However, little is known about the similarities and differences of fMRI and MEG or EEG dynamics during such naturalistic situations. We thus compared MEG and fMRI responses to the same 15-min black-and-white movie in the same eight subjects who watched the movie twice during both MEG and fMRI recordings. We analyzed intra- and intersubject voxel-wise correlations within each imaging modality as well as the correlation of the MEG envelopes and fMRI signals. The fMRI signals showed voxel-wise within- and between-subjects correlations up to r = 0.66 and r = 0.37, respectively, whereas these correlations were clearly weaker for the envelopes of band-pass filtered (7 frequency bands below 100 Hz) MEG signals (within-subjects correlation r < 0.14 and between-subjects r < 0.05). Direct MEG-fMRI voxel-wise correlations were unreliable. Notably, applying a spatial-filtering approach to the MEG data uncovered consistent canonical variates that showed considerably stronger (up to r = 0.25) between-subjects correlations than the univariate voxel-wise analysis. Furthermore, the envelopes of the time courses of these variates up to about 10 Hz showed association with fMRI signals in a general linear model. Similarities between envelopes of MEG canonical variates and fMRI voxel time-courses were seen mostly in occipital, but also in temporal and frontal brain regions, whereas intra- and intersubject correlations for MEG and fMRI separately were strongest only in the occipital areas. In contrast to the conventional univariate analysis, the spatial-filtering approach was able to uncover associations between the MEG

  11. Bilingual Language Control in Perception versus Action: MEG Reveals Comprehension Control Mechanisms in Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Domain-General Control of Production in Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Elorrieta, Esti; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2016-01-13

    For multilingual individuals, adaptive goal-directed behavior as enabled by cognitive control includes the management of two or more languages. This work used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the degree of neural overlap between language control and domain-general cognitive control both in action and perception. Highly proficient Arabic-English bilingual individuals participated in maximally parallel language-switching tasks in production and comprehension as well as in analogous tasks in which, instead of the used language, the semantic category of the comprehended/produced word changed. Our results indicated a clear dissociation of language control mechanisms in production versus comprehension. Language-switching in production recruited dorsolateral prefrontal regions bilaterally and, importantly, these regions were similarly recruited by category-switching. Conversely, effects of language-switching in comprehension were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex and were not shared by category-switching. These results suggest that bilingual individuals rely on adaptive language control strategies and that the neural involvement during language-switching could be extensively influenced by whether the switch is active (e.g., in production) or passive (e.g., in comprehension). In addition, these results support that humans require high-level cognitive control to switch languages in production, but the comprehension of language switches recruits a distinct neural circuitry. The use of MEG enabled us to obtain the first characterization of the spatiotemporal profile of these effects, establishing that switching processes begin ∼ 400 ms after stimulus presentation. This research addresses the neural mechanisms underlying multilingual individuals' ability to successfully manage two or more languages, critically targeting whether language control is uniform across linguistic domains (production and comprehension) and whether it is a subdomain of general

  12. Optimized beamforming for simultaneous MEG and intracranial local field potential recordings in deep brain stimulation patients.

    PubMed

    Litvak, Vladimir; Eusebio, Alexandre; Jha, Ashwani; Oostenveld, Robert; Barnes, Gareth R; Penny, William D; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan I; Limousin, Patricia; Friston, Karl J; Brown, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Insight into how brain structures interact is critical for understanding the principles of functional brain architectures and may lead to better diagnosis and therapy for neuropsychiatric disorders. We recorded, simultaneously, magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals and subcortical local field potentials (LFP) in a Parkinson's disease (PD) patient with bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). These recordings offer a unique opportunity to characterize interactions between the subcortical structures and the neocortex. However, high-amplitude artefacts appeared in the MEG. These artefacts originated from the percutaneous extension wire, rather than from the actual DBS electrode and were locked to the heart beat. In this work, we show that MEG beamforming is capable of suppressing these artefacts and quantify the optimal regularization required. We demonstrate how beamforming makes it possible to localize cortical regions whose activity is coherent with the STN-LFP, extract artefact-free virtual electrode time-series from regions of interest and localize cortical areas exhibiting specific task-related power changes. This furnishes results that are consistent with previously reported results using artefact-free MEG data. Our findings demonstrate that physiologically meaningful information can be extracted from heavily contaminated MEG signals and pave the way for further analysis of combined MEG-LFP recordings in DBS patients. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Boosting specificity of MEG artifact removal by weighted support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Duan, Fang; Phothisonothai, Montri; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Yuko; Minabe, Yoshio; Watanabe, Kastumi; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    An automatic artifact removal method of magnetoencephalogram (MEG) was presented in this paper. The method proposed is based on independent components analysis (ICA) and support vector machine (SVM). However, different from the previous studies, in this paper we consider two factors which would influence the performance. First, the imbalance factor of independent components (ICs) of MEG is handled by weighted SVM. Second, instead of simply setting a fixed weight to each class, a re-weighting scheme is used for the preservation of useful MEG ICs. Experimental results on manually marked MEG dataset showed that the method proposed could correctly distinguish the artifacts from the MEG ICs. Meanwhile, 99.72% ± 0.67 of MEG ICs were preserved. The classification accuracy was 97.91% ± 1.39. In addition, it was found that this method was not sensitive to individual differences. The cross validation (leave-one-subject-out) results showed an averaged accuracy of 97.41% ± 2.14.

  14. Zoomed MRI Guided by Combined EEG/MEG Source Analysis: A Multimodal Approach for Optimizing Presurgical Epilepsy Work-up and its Application in a Multi-focal Epilepsy Patient Case Study.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ü; Rampp, S; Wollbrink, A; Kugel, H; Cho, J -H; Knösche, T R; Grova, C; Wellmer, J; Wolters, C H

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, the use of source analysis based on electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) has gained considerable attention in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis. However, in many cases the source analysis alone is not used to tailor surgery unless the findings are confirmed by lesions, such as, e.g., cortical malformations in MRI. For many patients, the histology of tissue resected from MRI negative epilepsy shows small lesions, which indicates the need for more sensitive MR sequences. In this paper, we describe a technique to maximize the synergy between combined EEG/MEG (EMEG) source analysis and high resolution MRI. The procedure has three main steps: (1) construction of a detailed and calibrated finite element head model that considers the variation of individual skull conductivities and white matter anisotropy, (2) EMEG source analysis performed on averaged interictal epileptic discharges (IED), (3) high resolution (0.5 mm) zoomed MR imaging, limited to small areas centered at the EMEG source locations. The proposed new diagnosis procedure was then applied in a particularly challenging case of an epilepsy patient: EMEG analysis at the peak of the IED coincided with a right frontal focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), which had been detected at standard 1 mm resolution MRI. Of higher interest, zoomed MR imaging (applying parallel transmission, 'ZOOMit') guided by EMEG at the spike onset revealed a second, fairly subtle, FCD in the left fronto-central region. The evaluation revealed that this second FCD, which had not been detectable with standard 1 mm resolution, was the trigger of the seizures.

  15. Sensorimotor Cortex Reorganization in Alzheimer's Disease and Metal Dysfunction: A MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Salustri, C.; Tecchio, F.; Zappasodi, F.; Tomasevic, L.; Ercolani, M.; Moffa, F.; Cassetta, E.; Rossini, P. M.; Squitti, R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To verify whether systemic biometals dysfunctions affect neurotransmission in living Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Methods. We performed a case-control study using magnetoencephalography to detect sensorimotor fields of AD patients, at rest and during median nerve stimulation. We analyzed position and amount of neurons synchronously activated by the stimulation in both hemispheres to investigate the capability of the primary somatosensory cortex to reorganize its circuitry disrupted by the disease. We also assessed systemic levels of copper, ceruloplasmin, non-Cp copper (i.e., copper not bound to ceruloplasmin), peroxides, transferrin, and total antioxidant capacity. Results. Patients' sensorimotor generators appeared spatially shifted, despite no change of latency and strength, while spontaneous activity sources appeared unchanged. Neuronal reorganization was greater in moderately ill patients, while delta activity increased in severe patients. Non-Cp copper was the only biological variable appearing to be associated with patient sensorimotor transmission. Conclusions. Our data strengthen the notion that non-Cp copper, not copper in general, affects neuronal activity in AD. Significance. High plasticity in the disease early stages in regions controlling more commonly used body parts strengthens the notion that physical and cognitive activities are protective factors against progression of dementia. PMID:24416615

  16. Interictal High Frequency Oscillations Detected with Simultaneous Magnetoencephalography and Electroencephalography as Biomarker of Pediatric Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Papadelis, Christos; Tamilia, Eleonora; Stufflebeam, Steven; Grant, Patricia E.; Madsen, Joseph R.; Pearl, Phillip L.; Tanaka, Naoaki

    2016-01-01

    Crucial to the success of epilepsy surgery is the availability of a robust biomarker that identifies the Epileptogenic Zone (EZ). High Frequency Oscillations (HFOs) have emerged as potential presurgical biomarkers for the identification of the EZ in addition to Interictal Epileptiform Discharges (IEDs) and ictal activity. Although they are promising to localize the EZ, they are not yet suited for the diagnosis or monitoring of epilepsy in clinical practice. Primary barriers remain: the lack of a formal and global definition for HFOs; the consequent heterogeneity of methodological approaches used for their study; and the practical difficulties to detect and localize them noninvasively from scalp recordings. Here, we present a methodology for the recording, detection, and localization of interictal HFOs from pediatric patients with refractory epilepsy. We report representative data of HFOs detected noninvasively from interictal scalp EEG and MEG from two children undergoing surgery. The underlying generators of HFOs were localized by solving the inverse problem and their localization was compared to the Seizure Onset Zone (SOZ) as this was defined by the epileptologists. For both patients, Interictal Epileptogenic Discharges (IEDs) and HFOs were localized with source imaging at concordant locations. For one patient, intracranial EEG (iEEG) data were also available. For this patient, we found that the HFOs localization was concordant between noninvasive and invasive methods. The comparison of iEEG with the results from scalp recordings served to validate these findings. To our best knowledge, this is the first study that presents the source localization of scalp HFOs from simultaneous EEG and MEG recordings comparing the results with invasive recordings. These findings suggest that HFOs can be reliably detected and localized noninvasively with scalp EEG and MEG. We conclude that the noninvasive localization of interictal HFOs could significantly improve the

  17. Armored long non-coding RNA MEG3 targeting EGFR based on recombinant MS2 bacteriophage virus-like particles against hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Le; Wang, Guojing; Jia, Tingting; Zhang, Lei; Li, Yulong; Han, Yanxi; Zhang, Kuo; Lin, Guigao; Zhang, Rui; Li, Jinming; Wang, Lunan

    2016-04-26

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide. However, the treatment of patients with HCC is particularly challenging. Long non-coding RNA maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) has been identified as a potential suppressor of several types of tumors, but the delivery of long RNA remains problematic, limiting its applications. In the present study, we designed a novel delivery system based on MS2 virus-like particles (VLPs) crosslinked with GE11 polypeptide. This vector was found to be fast, effective and safe for the targeted delivery of lncRNA MEG3 RNA to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive HCC cell lines without the activation of EGFR downstream pathways, and significantly attenuated both in vitro and in vivo tumor cell growth. Our study also revealed that the targeted delivery was mainly dependent on clathrin-mediated endocytosis and MEG3 RNA suppresses tumor growth mainly via increasing the expression of p53 and its downstream gene GDF15, but decreasing the expression of MDM2. Thus, this vector is promising as a novel delivery system and may facilitate a new approach to lncRNA based cancer therapy.

  18. Modality-specific spectral dynamics in response to visual and tactile sequential shape information processing tasks: An MEG study using multivariate pattern classification analysis.

    PubMed

    Gohel, Bakul; Lee, Peter; Jeong, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Brain regions that respond to more than one sensory modality are characterized as multisensory regions. Studies on the processing of shape or object information have revealed recruitment of the lateral occipital cortex, posterior parietal cortex, and other regions regardless of input sensory modalities. However, it remains unknown whether such regions show similar (modality-invariant) or different (modality-specific) neural oscillatory dynamics, as recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG), in response to identical shape information processing tasks delivered to different sensory modalities. Modality-invariant or modality-specific neural oscillatory dynamics indirectly suggest modality-independent or modality-dependent participation of particular brain regions, respectively. Therefore, this study investigated the modality-specificity of neural oscillatory dynamics in the form of spectral power modulation patterns in response to visual and tactile sequential shape-processing tasks that are well-matched in terms of speed and content between the sensory modalities. Task-related changes in spectral power modulation and differences in spectral power modulation between sensory modalities were investigated at source-space (voxel) level, using a multivariate pattern classification (MVPC) approach. Additionally, whole analyses were extended from the voxel level to the independent-component level to take account of signal leakage effects caused by inverse solution. The modality-specific spectral dynamics in multisensory and higher-order brain regions, such as the lateral occipital cortex, posterior parietal cortex, inferior temporal cortex, and other brain regions, showed task-related modulation in response to both sensory modalities. This suggests modality-dependency of such brain regions on the input sensory modality for sequential shape-information processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatio-temporal brain activity related to rotation method during a mental rotation task of three-dimensional objects: an MEG study.

    PubMed

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Ueno, Shoogo

    2007-09-01

    During mental rotation tasks, subjects perform mental simulation to solve tasks. However, detailed neural mechanisms underlying mental rotation of three-dimensional (3D) objects, particularly, whether higher motor areas related to mental simulation are activated, remain unknown. We hypothesized that environmental monitoring-a process based on environmental information and is included in motor execution-is as a key factor affecting the utilization of higher motor areas. Therefore, using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we measured spatio-temporal brain activities during two types (two-dimensional (2D) and 3D rotation tasks) of mental rotation of 3D objects. Only the 3D rotation tasks required subjects to mentally rotate objects in a depth plane with visualization of hidden parts of the visual stimuli by acquiring and retrieving 3D information. In cases showing significant differences in the averaged activities at 100-ms intervals between the two rotations, the activities were located in the right dorsal premotor (PMd) at approximately 500 ms. In these cases, averaged activities during 3D rotation were greater than those during 2D rotation, implying that the right PMd activities are related to environmental monitoring. During 3D rotation, higher activities were observed from 200 to 300 ms in the left PMd and from 400 to 700 ms in the right PMd. It is considered that the left PMd is related to primary motor control, whereas the right PMd plays a supplementary role during mental simulation. Further, during 3D rotation, late higher activities related to mental simulation are observed in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL), which is connected to PMd.

  20. Functional connectivity changes detected with magnetoencephalography after mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriadis, Stavros I.; Zouridakis, George; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas; Papanicolaou, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may affect normal cognition and behavior by disrupting the functional connectivity networks that mediate efficient communication among brain regions. In this study, we analyzed brain connectivity profiles from resting state Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings obtained from 31 mTBI patients and 55 normal controls. We used phase-locking value estimates to compute functional connectivity graphs to quantify frequency-specific couplings between sensors at various frequency bands. Overall, normal controls showed a dense network of strong local connections and a limited number of long-range connections that accounted for approximately 20% of all connections, whereas mTBI patients showed networks characterized by weak local connections and strong long-range connections that accounted for more than 60% of all connections. Comparison of the two distinct general patterns at different frequencies using a tensor representation for the connectivity graphs and tensor subspace analysis for optimal feature extraction showed that mTBI patients could be separated from normal controls with 100% classification accuracy in the alpha band. These encouraging findings support the hypothesis that MEG-based functional connectivity patterns may be used as biomarkers that can provide more accurate diagnoses, help guide treatment, and monitor effectiveness of intervention in mTBI. PMID:26640764

  1. Amplitude modulation of alpha-band rhythm caused by mimic collision: MEG study.

    PubMed

    Yokosawa, Koichi; Watanabe, Tatsuya; Kikuzawa, Daichi; Aoyama, Gakuto; Takahashi, Makoto; Kuriki, Shinya

    2013-01-01

    Detection of a collision risk and avoiding the collision are important for survival. We have been investigating neural responses when humans anticipate a collision or intend to take evasive action by applying collision-simulating images in a predictable manner. Collision-simulating images and control images were presented in random order to 9 healthy male volunteers. A cue signal was also given visually two seconds before each stimulus to enable each participant to anticipate the upcoming stimulus. Magnetoencephalograms (MEG) were recorded with a 76-ch helmet system. The amplitude of alpha band (8-13 Hz) rhythm when anticipating the upcoming collision-simulating image was significantly smaller than that when anticipating control images even just after the cue signal. This result demonstrates that anticipating a negative (dangerous) event induced event-related desynchronization (ERD) of alpha band activity, probably caused by attention. The results suggest the feasibility of detecting endogenous brain activities by monitoring alpha band rhythm and its possible applications to engineering systems, such as an automatic collision evasion system for automobiles.

  2. Aging-related changes in auditory and visual integration measured with MEG.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Julia M; Knoefel, Janice E; Adair, John; Hart, Blaine; Aine, Cheryl J

    2010-10-22

    As noted in the aging literature, processing delays often occur in the central nervous system with increasing age, which is often attributable in part to demyelination. In addition, differential slowing between sensory systems has been shown to be most discrepant between visual (up to 20ms) and auditory systems (<5ms). Therefore, we used MEG to measure the multisensory integration response in auditory association cortex in young and elderly participants to better understand the effects of aging on multisensory integration abilities. Results show a main effect for reaction times (RTs); the mean RTs of the elderly were significantly slower than the young. In addition, in the young we found significant facilitation of RTs to the multisensory stimuli relative to both unisensory stimuli, when comparing the cumulative distribution functions, which was not evident for the elderly. We also identified a significant interaction between age and condition in the superior temporal gyrus. In particular, the elderly had larger amplitude responses (∼100ms) to auditory stimuli relative to the young when auditory stimuli alone were presented, whereas the amplitude of responses to the multisensory stimuli was reduced in the elderly, relative to the young. This suppressed cortical multisensory integration response in the elderly, which corresponded with slower RTs and reduced RT facilitation effects, has not been reported previously and may be related to poor cortical integration based on timing changes in unisensory processing in the elderly. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aging-related changes in auditory and visual integration measured with MEG

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Julia M.; Knoefel, Janice E.; Adair, John; Hart, Blaine; Aine, Cheryl J.

    2010-01-01

    As noted in the aging literature, processing delays often occur in the central nervous system with increasing age, which is often attributable in part to demyelination. In addition, differential slowing between sensory systems has been shown to be most discrepant between visual (up to 20 ms) and auditory systems (< 5 ms). Therefore, we used MEG to measure the multisensory integration response in auditory association cortex in young and elderly participants to better understand the effects of aging on multisensory integration abilities. Results show a main effect for reaction times (RTs); the mean RTs of the elderly were significantly slower than the young. In addition, in the young we found significant facilitation of RTs to the multisensory stimuli relative to both unisensory stimuli, when comparing the cumulative distribution functions, which was not evident for the elderly. We also identified a significant interaction between age and condition in the superior temporal gyrus. In particular, the elderly had larger amplitude responses (~100 ms) to auditory stimuli relative to the young when auditory stimuli alone were presented, whereas the amplitude of responses to the multisensory stimuli was reduced in the elderly, relative to the young. This suppressed cortical multisensory integration response in the elderly, which corresponded with slower RTs and reduced RT facilitation effects in the elderly, has not been reported previously and may be related to poor cortical integration based on timing changes in unisensory processing in the elderly. PMID:20713130

  4. Muon polarization in the MEG experiment: predictions and measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Baldini, A. M.; Bao, Y.; Baracchini, E.; ...

    2016-04-22

    The MEG experiment makes use of one of the world’s most intense low energy muon beams, in order to search for the lepton flavour violating process μ +→e +γ. We determined the residual beam polarization at the thin stopping target, by measuring the asymmetry of the angular distribution of Michel decay positrons as a function of energy. The initial muon beam polarization at the production is predicted to be P μ=-1 by the Standard Model (SM) with massless neutrinos. We estimated our residual muon polarization to be P μ= -0.86 ± 0.02 (stat)more » $$+0.05\\atop{-0.06}$$ (syst) at the stopping target, which is consistent with the SM predictions when the depolarizing effects occurring during the muon production, propagation and moderation in the target are taken into account. The knowledge of beam polarization is of fundamental importance in order to model the background of our μ +→e +γ search induced by the muon radiative decay: μ +→e +$$\\bar{v}$$ μν eγ.« less

  5. EEG and MEG data analysis in SPM8.

    PubMed

    Litvak, Vladimir; Mattout, Jérémie; Kiebel, Stefan; Phillips, Christophe; Henson, Richard; Kilner, James; Barnes, Gareth; Oostenveld, Robert; Daunizeau, Jean; Flandin, Guillaume; Penny, Will; Friston, Karl

    2011-01-01

    SPM is a free and open source software written in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.). In addition to standard M/EEG preprocessing, we presently offer three main analysis tools: (i) statistical analysis of scalp-maps, time-frequency images, and volumetric 3D source reconstruction images based on the general linear model, with correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory; (ii) Bayesian M/EEG source reconstruction, including support for group studies, simultaneous EEG and MEG, and fMRI priors; (iii) dynamic causal modelling (DCM), an approach combining neural modelling with data analysis for which there are several variants dealing with evoked responses, steady state responses (power spectra and cross-spectra), induced responses, and phase coupling. SPM8 is integrated with the FieldTrip toolbox , making it possible for users to combine a variety of standard analysis methods with new schemes implemented in SPM and build custom analysis tools using powerful graphical user interface (GUI) and batching tools.

  6. A Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) Study of Gulf War Illness (GWI).

    PubMed

    Engdahl, Brian E; James, Lisa M; Miller, Ryan D; Leuthold, Arthur C; Lewis, Scott M; Carpenter, Adam F; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2016-10-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) has affected many Gulf War veterans. It involves several organs, most notably the brain. Neurological-cognitive-mood-related symptoms frequently dominate and are at the root of chronic ill-health and disability in GWI. Here we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying brain dysfunction in GWI in the absence of mental health disorders. Eighty-six veterans completed diagnostic interviews to establish the presence of GWI and assess mental health status. Participants diagnosed with GWI met both Center for Disease Control and Kansas criteria. We studied 46 healthy controls and 40 veterans with GWI without mental illness. They all underwent a resting-state magnetoencephalographic (MEG) scan to assess brain communication based on synchronous neural interactions (SNI; Georgopoulos et al., 2007). We found substantial differences in SNI between control and GWI groups centered on the cerebellum and frontal cortex. In addition, using the maxima and minima of SNI per sensor as predictors, we successfully classified 94.2% of the 86 participants (95% sensitivity, 93.5% specificity). These findings document distinct differences in brain function between control and GWI in the absence of mental health comorbidities, differences that are excellent predictors of GWI. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and University of Minnesota. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. EEG and MEG Data Analysis in SPM8

    PubMed Central

    Litvak, Vladimir; Mattout, Jérémie; Kiebel, Stefan; Phillips, Christophe; Henson, Richard; Kilner, James; Barnes, Gareth; Oostenveld, Robert; Daunizeau, Jean; Flandin, Guillaume; Penny, Will; Friston, Karl

    2011-01-01

    SPM is a free and open source software written in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.). In addition to standard M/EEG preprocessing, we presently offer three main analysis tools: (i) statistical analysis of scalp-maps, time-frequency images, and volumetric 3D source reconstruction images based on the general linear model, with correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory; (ii) Bayesian M/EEG source reconstruction, including support for group studies, simultaneous EEG and MEG, and fMRI priors; (iii) dynamic causal modelling (DCM), an approach combining neural modelling with data analysis for which there are several variants dealing with evoked responses, steady state responses (power spectra and cross-spectra), induced responses, and phase coupling. SPM8 is integrated with the FieldTrip toolbox , making it possible for users to combine a variety of standard analysis methods with new schemes implemented in SPM and build custom analysis tools using powerful graphical user interface (GUI) and batching tools. PMID:21437221

  8. Evidence for a Caregiving Instinct: Rapid Differentiation of Infant from Adult Vocalizations Using Magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Young, Katherine S; Parsons, Christine E; Jegindoe Elmholdt, Else-Marie; Woolrich, Mark W; van Hartevelt, Tim J; Stevner, Angus B A; Stein, Alan; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2016-03-01

    Crying is the most salient vocal signal of distress. The cries of a newborn infant alert adult listeners and often elicit caregiving behavior. For the parent, rapid responding to an infant in distress is an adaptive behavior, functioning to ensure offspring survival. The ability to react rapidly requires quick recognition and evaluation of stimuli followed by a co-ordinated motor response. Previous neuroimaging research has demonstrated early specialized activity in response to infant faces. Using magnetoencephalography, we found similarly early (100-200 ms) differences in neural responses to infant and adult cry vocalizations in auditory, emotional, and motor cortical brain regions. We propose that this early differential activity may help to rapidly identify infant cries and engage affective and motor neural circuitry to promote adaptive behavioral responding, before conscious awareness. These differences were observed in adults who were not parents, perhaps indicative of a universal brain-based "caregiving instinct." © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Evidence for a Caregiving Instinct: Rapid Differentiation of Infant from Adult Vocalizations Using Magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Young, Katherine S.; Parsons, Christine E.; Jegindoe Elmholdt, Else-Marie; Woolrich, Mark W.; van Hartevelt, Tim J.; Stevner, Angus B. A.; Stein, Alan; Kringelbach, Morten L.

    2016-01-01

    Crying is the most salient vocal signal of distress. The cries of a newborn infant alert adult listeners and often elicit caregiving behavior. For the parent, rapid responding to an infant in distress is an adaptive behavior, functioning to ensure offspring survival. The ability to react rapidly requires quick recognition and evaluation of stimuli followed by a co-ordinated motor response. Previous neuroimaging research has demonstrated early specialized activity in response to infant faces. Using magnetoencephalography, we found similarly early (100–200 ms) differences in neural responses to infant and adult cry vocalizations in auditory, emotional, and motor cortical brain regions. We propose that this early differential activity may help to rapidly identify infant cries and engage affective and motor neural circuitry to promote adaptive behavioral responding, before conscious awareness. These differences were observed in adults who were not parents, perhaps indicative of a universal brain-based “caregiving instinct.” PMID:26656998

  10. The neurochemical basis of human cortical auditory processing: combining proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Sörös, Peter; Michael, Nikolaus; Tollkötter, Melanie; Pfleiderer, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    Background A combination of magnetoencephalography and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to correlate the electrophysiology of rapid auditory processing and the neurochemistry of the auditory cortex in 15 healthy adults. To assess rapid auditory processing in the left auditory cortex, the amplitude and decrement of the N1m peak, the major component of the late auditory evoked response, were measured during rapidly successive presentation of acoustic stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that: (i) the amplitude of the N1m response and (ii) its decrement during rapid stimulation are associated with the cortical neurochemistry as determined by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results Our results demonstrated a significant association between the concentrations of N-acetylaspartate, a marker of neuronal integrity, and the amplitudes of individual N1m responses. In addition, the concentrations of choline-containing compounds, representing the functional integrity of membranes, were significantly associated with N1m amplitudes. No significant association was found between the concentrations of the glutamate/glutamine pool and the amplitudes of the first N1m. No significant associations were seen between the decrement of the N1m (the relative amplitude of the second N1m peak) and the concentrations of N-acetylaspartate, choline-containing compounds, or the glutamate/glutamine pool. However, there was a trend for higher glutamate/glutamine concentrations in individuals with higher relative N1m amplitude. Conclusion These results suggest that neuronal and membrane functions are important for rapid auditory processing. This investigation provides a first link between the electrophysiology, as recorded by magnetoencephalography, and the neurochemistry, as assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, of the auditory cortex. PMID:16884545

  11. MEG and EEG data analysis with MNE-Python

    PubMed Central

    Gramfort, Alexandre; Luessi, Martin; Larson, Eric; Engemann, Denis A.; Strohmeier, Daniel; Brodbeck, Christian; Goj, Roman; Jas, Mainak; Brooks, Teon; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hämäläinen, Matti

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography (M/EEG) measure the weak electromagnetic signals generated by neuronal activity in the brain. Using these signals to characterize and locate neural activation in the brain is a challenge that requires expertise in physics, signal processing, statistics, and numerical methods. As part of the MNE software suite, MNE-Python is an open-source software package that addresses this challenge by providing state-of-the-art algorithms implemented in Python that cover multiple methods of data preprocessing, source localization, statistical analysis, and estimation of functional connectivity between distributed brain regions. All algorithms and utility functions are implemented in a consistent manner with well-documented interfaces, enabling users to create M/EEG data analysis pipelines by writing Python scripts. Moreover, MNE-Python is tightly integrated with the core Python libraries for scientific comptutation (NumPy, SciPy) and visualization (matplotlib and Mayavi), as well as the greater neuroimaging ecosystem in Python via the Nibabel package. The code is provided under the new BSD license allowing code reuse, even in commercial products. Although MNE-Python has only been under heavy development for a couple of years, it has rapidly evolved with expanded analysis capabilities and pedagogical tutorials because multiple labs have collaborated during code development to help share best practices. MNE-Python also gives easy access to preprocessed datasets, helping users to get started quickly and facilitating reproducibility of methods by other researchers. Full documentation, including dozens of examples, is available at http://martinos.org/mne. PMID:24431986

  12. MEG and EEG data analysis with MNE-Python.

    PubMed

    Gramfort, Alexandre; Luessi, Martin; Larson, Eric; Engemann, Denis A; Strohmeier, Daniel; Brodbeck, Christian; Goj, Roman; Jas, Mainak; Brooks, Teon; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hämäläinen, Matti

    2013-12-26

    Magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography (M/EEG) measure the weak electromagnetic signals generated by neuronal activity in the brain. Using these signals to characterize and locate neural activation in the brain is a challenge that requires expertise in physics, signal processing, statistics, and numerical methods. As part of the MNE software suite, MNE-Python is an open-source software package that addresses this challenge by providing state-of-the-art algorithms implemented in Python that cover multiple methods of data preprocessing, source localization, statistical analysis, and estimation of functional connectivity between distributed brain regions. All algorithms and utility functions are implemented in a consistent manner with well-documented interfaces, enabling users to create M/EEG data analysis pipelines by writing Python scripts. Moreover, MNE-Python is tightly integrated with the core Python libraries for scientific comptutation (NumPy, SciPy) and visualization (matplotlib and Mayavi), as well as the greater neuroimaging ecosystem in Python via the Nibabel package. The code is provided under the new BSD license allowing code reuse, even in commercial products. Although MNE-Python has only been under heavy development for a couple of years, it has rapidly evolved with expanded analysis capabilities and pedagogical tutorials because multiple labs have collaborated during code development to help share best practices. MNE-Python also gives easy access to preprocessed datasets, helping users to get started quickly and facilitating reproducibility of methods by other researchers. Full documentation, including dozens of examples, is available at http://martinos.org/mne.

  13. False recognition depends on depth of prior word processing: a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study.

    PubMed

    Walla, P; Hufnagl, B; Lindinger, G; Deecke, L; Imhof, H; Lang, W

    2001-04-01

    Brain activity was measured with a whole head magnetoencephalograph (MEG) during the test phases of word recognition experiments. Healthy young subjects had to discriminate between previously presented and new words. During prior study phases two different levels of word processing were provided according to two different kinds of instructions (shallow and deep encoding). Event-related fields (ERFs) associated with falsely recognized words (false alarms) were found to depend on the depth of processing during the prior study phase. False alarms elicited higher brain activity (as reflected by dipole strength) in case of prior deep encoding as compared to shallow encoding between 300 and 500 ms after stimulus onset at temporal brain areas. Between 500 and 700 ms we found evidence for differences in the involvement of neural structures related to both conditions of false alarms. Furthermore, the number of false alarms was found to depend on depth of processing. Shallow encoding led to a higher number of false alarms than deep encoding. All data are discussed as strong support for the ideas that a certain level of word processing is performed by a distinct set of neural systems and that the same neural systems which encode information are reactivated during the retrieval.

  14. Selective impairment of hippocampus and posterior hub areas in Alzheimer's disease: an MEG-based multiplex network study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Meichen; Engels, Marjolein M A; Hillebrand, Arjan; van Straaten, Elisabeth C W; Gouw, Alida A; Teunissen, Charlotte; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Stam, Cornelis J

    2017-05-01

    Although frequency-specific network analyses have shown that functional brain networks are altered in patients with Alzheimer's disease, the relationships between these frequency-specific network alterations remain largely unknown. Multiplex network analysis is a novel network approach to study complex systems consisting of subsystems with different types of connectivity patterns. In this study, we used magnetoencephalography to integrate five frequency-band specific brain networks in a multiplex framework. Previous structural and functional brain network studies have consistently shown that hub brain areas are selectively disrupted in Alzheimer's disease. Accordingly, we hypothesized that hub regions in the multiplex brain networks are selectively targeted in patients with Alzheimer's disease in comparison to healthy control subjects. Eyes-closed resting-state magnetoencephalography recordings from 27 patients with Alzheimer's disease (60.6 ± 5.4 years, 12 females) and 26 controls (61.8 ± 5.5 years, 14 females) were projected onto atlas-based regions of interest using beamforming. Subsequently, source-space time series for both 78 cortical and 12 subcortical regions were reconstructed in five frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha 1, alpha 2 and beta band). Multiplex brain networks were constructed by integrating frequency-specific magnetoencephalography networks. Functional connections between all pairs of regions of interests were quantified using a phase-based coupling metric, the phase lag index. Several multiplex hub and heterogeneity metrics were computed to capture both overall importance of each brain area and heterogeneity of the connectivity patterns across frequency-specific layers. Different nodal centrality metrics showed consistently that several hub regions, particularly left hippocampus, posterior parts of the default mode network and occipital regions, were vulnerable in patients with Alzheimer's disease compared to control subjects. Of note

  15. Synthesis, bioactivity, 3D-QSAR studies of novel dibenzofuran derivatives as PTP-MEG2 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Ze; Jin, Wen-Yan; Li, Hong-Lian; Zhou, Hui; Cheng, Xian-Chao; Wang, Run-Ling

    2017-01-01

    PTP-MEG2 plays a critical role in the diverse cell signalling processes, so targeting PTP-MEG2 is a promising strategy for various human diseases treatments. In this study, a series of novel dibenzofuran derivatives was synthesized and assayed for their PTP-MEG2 inhibitory activities. 10a with highest inhibitory activity (320 nM) exhibited significant selectivity for PTP-MEG2 over its close homolog SHP2, CDC25 (IC50 > 50 μM). By means of the powerful “HipHop” technique, a 3D-QSAR study was carried out to explore structure activity relationship of these molecules. The generated pharmacophore model revealed that the one RA, three Hyd, and two HBA features play an important role in binding to the active site of the target protein-PTP-MEG2. Docking simulation study indicated that 10a achieved its potency and specificity for PTP-MEG2 by targeting unique nearby peripheral binding pockets and the active site. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) predictions showed that the 11 compounds hold high potential to be novel lead compounds for targeting PTP-MEG2. Our findings here can provide a new strategy or useful insights for designing the effective PTP-MEG2 inhibitors. PMID:28388567

  16. Chaos in the brain: imaging via chaoticity of EEG/MEG signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalik, Zbigniew J.; Elbert, Thomas; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Hoke, Manfried

    1995-03-01

    Brain electro- (EEG) or magnetoencephalogram (MEG) can be analyzed by using methods of the nonlinear system theory. We show that even for very short and nonstationary time series it is possible to functionally differentiate various brain activities. Usually the analysis assumes that the analyzed signals are both long and stationary, so that the classic spectral methods can be used. Even more convincing results can be obtained under these circumstances when the dimensional analysis or estimation of the Kolmogorov entropy or the Lyapunov exponent are performed. When measuring the spontaneous activity of a human brain the assumption of stationarity is questionable and `static' methods (correlation dimension, entropy, etc.) are then not adequate. In this case `dynamic' methods like pointwise-D2 dimension or chaoticity measures should be applied. Predictability measures in the form of local Lyapunov exponents are capable of revealing directly the chaoticity of a given process, and can practically be applied for functional differentiation of brain activity. We exemplify these in cases of apallic syndrome, tinnitus and schizophrenia. We show that: the average chaoticity in apallic syndrome differentiates brain states both in space and time, chaoticity changes temporally in case of schizophrenia (critical jumps of chaoticity), chaoticity changes locally in space, i.e., in the cortex plane in case of tinnitus.

  17. Different Cortical Dynamics in Face and Body Perception: An MEG study

    PubMed Central

    Meeren, Hanneke K. M.; de Gelder, Beatrice; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from functional neuroimaging indicates that visual perception of human faces and bodies is carried out by distributed networks of face and body-sensitive areas in the occipito-temporal cortex. However, the dynamics of activity in these areas, needed to understand their respective functional roles, are still largely unknown. We monitored brain activity with millisecond time resolution by recording magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses while participants viewed photographs of faces, bodies, and control stimuli. The cortical activity underlying the evoked responses was estimated with anatomically-constrained noise-normalised minimum-norm estimate and statistically analysed with spatiotemporal cluster analysis. Our findings point to distinct spatiotemporal organization of the neural systems for face and body perception. Face-selective cortical currents were found at early latencies (120–200 ms) in a widespread occipito-temporal network including the ventral temporal cortex (VTC). In contrast, early body-related responses were confined to the lateral occipito-temporal cortex (LOTC). These were followed by strong sustained body-selective responses in the orbitofrontal cortex from 200–700 ms, and in the lateral temporal cortex and VTC after 500 ms latency. Our data suggest that the VTC region has a key role in the early processing of faces, but not of bodies. Instead, the LOTC, which includes the extra-striate body area (EBA), appears the dominant area for early body perception, whereas the VTC contributes to late and post-perceptual processing. PMID:24039712

  18. Mindfulness-induced selflessness: a MEG neurophenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Dor-Ziderman, Yair; Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Glicksohn, Joseph; Goldstein, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary philosophical and neurocognitive studies of the self have dissociated two distinct types of self-awareness: a “narrative” self-awareness (NS) weaving together episodic memory, future planning and self-evaluation into a coherent self-narrative and identity, and a “minimal” self-awareness (MS) focused on present momentary experience and closely tied to the sense of agency and ownership. Long-term Buddhist meditation practice aims at realization of a “selfless” mode of awareness (SL), where identification with a static sense of self is replaced by identification with the phenomenon of experiencing itself. NS-mediating mechanisms have been explored by neuroimaging, mainly fMRI, implicating prefrontal midline structures, but MS processes are not well characterized and SL even less so. To this end we tested 12 long-term mindfulness meditators using a neurophenomenological study design, incorporating both magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings and first person descriptions. We found that (1) NS attenuation involves extensive frontal, and medial prefrontal gamma band (60–80 Hz) power decreases, consistent with fMRI and intracranial EEG findings; (2) MS attenuation is related to beta-band (13–25 Hz) power decreases in a network that includes ventral medial prefrontal, medial posterior and lateral parietal regions; and (3) the experience of selflessness is linked to attenuation of beta-band activity in the right inferior parietal lobule. These results highlight the role of dissociable frequency-dependent networks in supporting different modes of self-processing, and the utility of combining phenomenology, mindfulness training and electrophysiological neuroimaging for characterizing self-awareness. PMID:24068990

  19. Statistical parametric mapping for analyzing interictal magnetoencephalography in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haitao; Zhu, Jinlong; Bao, Forrest Sheng; Liu, Hongyi; Zhu, Xuchuang; Wu, Ting; Yang, Lu; Zou, Yuanjie; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Frontal lobe epilepsy is a common epileptic disorder and is characterized by recurring seizures that arise in the frontal lobes. The purpose of this study is to identify the epileptogenic regions and other abnormal regions in patients with left frontal lobe epilepsy (LFLE) based on the magnetoencephalogram (MEG), and to understand the effects of clinical variables on brain activities in patients with LFLE. Fifteen patients with LFLE (23.20 ± 8.68 years, 6 female and 9 male) and 16 healthy controls (23.13 ± 7.66 years, 6 female and 10 male) were included in resting-stage MEG examinations. Epileptogenic regions of LFLE patients were confirmed by surgery. Regional brain activations were quantified using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The correlation between the activations of the abnormal brain regions and the clinical seizure parameters were computed for LFLE patients. Brain activations of LFLE patients were significantly elevated in left superior/middle/inferior frontal gyri, postcentral gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, insula, parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala, including the epileptogenic regions. Remarkable decreased activations were found mainly in the left parietal gyrus and precuneus. There is a positive correlation between the duration of the epilepsy (in month) and activations of the abnormal regions, while no relation was found between age of seizure onset (year), seizure frequency and the regions of the abnormal activity of the epileptic patients. Our findings suggest that the aberrant brain activities of LFLE patients were not restricted to the epileptogenic zones. Long duration of epilepsy might induce further functional damage in patients with LFLE. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MEG-guided analysis of 7T-MRI in patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Colon, A J; Osch, M J P van; Buijs, M; Grond, J V D; Hillebrand, A; Schijns, O; Wagner, G J; Ossenblok, P; Hofman, P; Buchem, M A V; Boon, P

    2018-05-26

    To study possible detection of structural abnormalities on 7T MRI that were not detected on 3T MRI and estimate the added value of MEG-guidance. For abnormalities found, analysis of convergence between clinical, MEG and 7T MRI localization of suspected epileptogenic foci. In adult patients with well-documented localization-related epilepsy in whom a previous 3T MRI did not demonstrate an epileptogenic lesion but MEG indicated a plausible epileptogenic focus, 7T MRI was performed. Based on semiologic data, visual analysis of the 7T images was performed as well as based on prior MEG results. Correlation with other data from the patient charts, for as far as these were available, was analysed. To establish the level of concordance between the three observers the generalized or Fleiss kappa was calculated. In 3/19 patients abnormalities that, based on semiology, could plausibly represent an epileptogenic lesion were detected using 7T MRI. In an additional 3/19 an abnormality was detected after MEG-guidance. However, in these later cases there was no concordance among the three observers with regard to the presence of a structural abnormality. In one of these three cases intracranial recording was performed, proving the possible abnormality on 7T MRI to be the epileptogenic focus. In 32% of patients 7T MRI showed abnormalities that could indicate an epileptogenic lesion whereas previous 3T MRI did not, especially when visual inspection was guided by the presence of focal interictal MEG abnormalities. Copyright © 2018 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MEG3 is a prognostic factor for CRC and promotes chemosensitivity by enhancing oxaliplatin-induced cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Lixia; Shang, Jian; Zhang, Yupeng; Liu, Shi; Peng, Yanan; Zhou, Zhou; Pan, Huaqing; Wang, Xiaobing; Chen, Lipng; Zhao, Qiu

    2017-09-01

    A major reason for the failure of advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment is the occurrence of chemoresistance to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Recently, studies have shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in drug resistance. Using HiSeq sequencing methods, we identified that lncRNAs show differential expression levels in oxaliplatin-resistant (OxR) and non-resistant CRC patients. RT-qPCR was then performed in tissues and serum samples, and lncRNA MEG3 was verified to be downregulated in non-responding patients and to have considerable discriminating potential to identify responding patients from non-responding patients. Moreover, decreased serum MEG3 expression was associated with poor chemoresponse and low survival rate in CRC patients receiving oxaliplatin treatment. Subsequently, OxR cell lines were established, and MEG3 was significantly downregulated in HT29 OxR and SW480 OxR cells. In addition, overexpression of MEG3 with pMEG3 reversed oxaliplatin resistance in both CRC cell lines. Flow cytometric apoptosis analysis indicated that MEG3 promoted CRC cell apoptosis. More importantly, MEG3 enhanced oxaliplatin‑induced cell cytotoxicity in CRC. In conclusion, our integrated approach demonstrated that decreased expression of lncRNA MEG3 in CRC confers potent poor therapeutic efficacy, and that MEG3 promotes chemosensitivity by enhancing oxaliplatin-induced cell apoptosis. Thus, overexpression of MEG3 may be a future direction by which to develop a novel therapeutic strategy to overcome oxaliplatin resistance of CRC patients.

  2. Long Noncoding RNA MEG3 Is an Epigenetic Determinant of Oncogenic Signaling in Functional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Sucharitha; Modali, Sita D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) MEG3 is significantly downregulated in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). MEG3 loss corresponds with aberrant upregulation of the oncogenic hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor c-MET in PNETs. Meg3 overexpression in a mouse insulin-secreting PNET cell line, MIN6, downregulates c-Met expression. However, the molecular mechanism by which MEG3 regulates c-MET is not known. Using chromatin isolation by RNA purification and sequencing (ChIRP-Seq), we identified Meg3 binding to unique genomic regions in and around the c-Met gene. In the absence of Meg3, these c-Met regions displayed distinctive enhancer-signature histone modifications. Furthermore, Meg3 relied on functional enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a component of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), to inhibit c-Met expression. Another mechanism of lncRNA-mediated regulation of gene expression utilized triplex-forming GA-GT rich sequences. Transfection of such motifs from Meg3 RNA, termed triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs), in MIN6 cells suppressed c-Met expression and enhanced cell proliferation, perhaps by modulating other targets. This study comprehensively establishes epigenetic mechanisms underlying Meg3 control of c-Met and the oncogenic consequences of Meg3 loss or c-Met gain. These findings have clinical relevance for targeting c-MET in PNETs. There is also the potential for pancreatic islet β-cell expansion through c-MET regulation to ameliorate β-cell loss in diabetes. PMID:28847847

  3. Neural dynamics of speech act comprehension: an MEG study of naming and requesting.

    PubMed

    Egorova, Natalia; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury

    2014-05-01

    The neurobiological basis and temporal dynamics of communicative language processing pose important yet unresolved questions. It has previously been suggested that comprehension of the communicative function of an utterance, i.e. the so-called speech act, is supported by an ensemble of neural networks, comprising lexico-semantic, action and mirror neuron as well as theory of mind circuits, all activated in concert. It has also been demonstrated that recognition of the speech act type occurs extremely rapidly. These findings however, were obtained in experiments with insufficient spatio-temporal resolution, thus possibly concealing important facets of the neural dynamics of the speech act comprehension process. Here, we used magnetoencephalography to investigate the comprehension of Naming and Request actions performed with utterances controlled for physical features, psycholinguistic properties and the probability of occurrence in variable contexts. The results show that different communicative actions are underpinned by a dynamic neural network, which differentiates between speech act types very early after the speech act onset. Within 50-90 ms, Requests engaged mirror-neuron action-comprehension systems in sensorimotor cortex, possibly for processing action knowledge and intentions. Still, within the first 200 ms of stimulus onset (100-150 ms), Naming activated brain areas involved in referential semantic retrieval. Subsequently (200-300 ms), theory of mind and mentalising circuits were activated in medial prefrontal and temporo-parietal areas, possibly indexing processing of intentions and assumptions of both communication partners. This cascade of stages of processing information about actions and intentions, referential semantics, and theory of mind may underlie dynamic and interactive speech act comprehension.

  4. Neural mechanisms to predict subjective level of fatigue in the future: a magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Akira; Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is a major contributor to workplace accidents, morbidity, and mortality. To prevent the disruption of homeostasis and to concurrently accomplish an assigned workload, it is essential to control the level of workload based on the subjective estimation of the level of fatigue that will be experienced in the near future. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural mechanisms related to predicting subjective levels of fatigue that would be experienced 60 min later, using magnetoencephalography. Sixteen healthy male volunteers participated in this study. In relation to the prediction, a decrease of alpha band power in the right Brodmann’s area (BA) 40 and BA 9 at 1200 to 1350 ms and that in the right BA 9 at 1350 to 1500 ms, and a decrease of gamma band power in the right BA 10 at 1500 to 1650 ms were observed. In addition, the decreased level of alpha band power in BA 9 at 1200 to 1350 ms was positively associated with the daily level of fatigue. These findings may help increase our understanding of the neural mechanisms activated to indicate the need to take a rest based on the prediction of the subjective fatigue in the future. PMID:27112115

  5. Detection of atypical network development patterns in children with autism spectrum disorder using magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Katsumi; Yoshimura, Yuko; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Minabe, Yoshio; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that involves developmental delays. It has been hypothesized that aberrant neural connectivity in ASD may cause atypical brain network development. Brain graphs not only describe the differences in brain networks between clinical and control groups, but also provide information about network development within each group. In the present study, graph indices of brain networks were estimated in children with ASD and in typically developing (TD) children using magnetoencephalography performed while the children viewed a cartoon video. We examined brain graphs from a developmental point of view, and compared the networks between children with ASD and TD children. Network development patterns (NDPs) were assessed by examining the association between the graph indices and the raw scores on the achievement scale or the age of the children. The ASD and TD groups exhibited different NDPs at both network and nodal levels. In the left frontal areas, the nodal degree and efficiency of the ASD group were negatively correlated with the achievement scores. Reduced network connections were observed in the temporal and posterior areas of TD children. These results suggested that the atypical network developmental trajectory in children with ASD is associated with the development score rather than age. PMID:28886147

  6. Neural activity induced by visual food stimuli presented out of awareness: a preliminary magnetoencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Takada, Katsuko; Ishii, Akira; Matsuo, Takashi; Nakamura, Chika; Uji, Masato; Yoshikawa, Takahiro

    2018-02-15

    Obesity is a major public health problem in modern society. Appetitive behavior has been proposed to be partially driven by unconscious decision-making processes and thus, targeting the unconscious cognitive processes related to eating behavior is essential to develop strategies for overweight individuals and obese patients. Here, we presented food pictures below the threshold of awareness to healthy male volunteers and examined neural activity related to appetitive behavior using magnetoencephalography. We found that, among participants who did not recognize food pictures during the experiment, an index of heart rate variability assessed by electrocardiography (low-frequency component power/high-frequency component power ratio, LF/HF) just after picture presentation was increased compared with that just before presentation, and the increase in LF/HF was negatively associated with the score for cognitive restraint of food intake. In addition, increased LF/HF was negatively associated with increased alpha band power in Brodmann area (BA) 47 caused by food pictures presented below the threshold of awareness, and level of cognitive restraint was positively associated with increased alpha band power in BA13. Our findings may provide valuable clues to the development of methods assessing unconscious regulation of appetite and offer avenues for further study of the neural mechanisms related to eating behavior.

  7. Visual motion direction is represented in population-level neural response as measured by magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Kaneoke, Y; Urakawa, T; Kakigi, R

    2009-05-19

    We investigated whether direction information is represented in the population-level neural response evoked by the visual motion stimulus, as measured by magnetoencephalography. Coherent motions with varied speed, varied direction, and different coherence level were presented using random dot kinematography. Peak latency of responses to motion onset was inversely related to speed in all directions, as previously reported, but no significant effect of direction on latency changes was identified. Mutual information entropy (IE) calculated using four-direction response data increased significantly (>2.14) after motion onset in 41.3% of response data and maximum IE was distributed at approximately 20 ms after peak response latency. When response waveforms showing significant differences (by multivariate discriminant analysis) in distribution of the three waveform parameters (peak amplitude, peak latency, and 75% waveform width) with stimulus directions were analyzed, 87 waveform stimulus directions (80.6%) were correctly estimated using these parameters. Correct estimation rate was unaffected by stimulus speed, but was affected by coherence level, even though both speed and coherence affected response amplitude similarly. Our results indicate that speed and direction of stimulus motion are represented in the distinct properties of a response waveform, suggesting that the human brain processes speed and direction separately, at least in part.

  8. Magnetoencephalography Reveals a Widespread Increase in Network Connectivity in Idiopathic/Genetic Generalized Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Elshahabi, Adham; Klamer, Silke; Sahib, Ashish Kaul; Lerche, Holger; Braun, Christoph; Focke, Niels K.

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsy (IGE/GGE) is characterized by seizures, which start and rapidly engage widely distributed networks, and result in symptoms such as absences, generalized myoclonic and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Although routine magnetic resonance imaging is apparently normal, many studies have reported structural alterations in IGE/GGE patients using diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry. Changes have also been reported in functional networks during generalized spike wave discharges. However, network function in the resting-state without epileptiforme discharges has been less well studied. We hypothesize that resting-state networks are more representative of the underlying pathophysiology and abnormal network synchrony. We studied functional network connectivity derived from whole-brain magnetoencephalography recordings in thirteen IGE/GGE and nineteen healthy controls. Using graph theoretical network analysis, we found a widespread increase in connectivity in patients compared to controls. These changes were most pronounced in the motor network, the mesio-frontal and temporal cortex. We did not, however, find any significant difference between the normalized clustering coefficients, indicating preserved gross network architecture. Our findings suggest that increased resting state connectivity could be an important factor for seizure spread and/or generation in IGE/GGE, and could serve as a biomarker for the disease. PMID:26368933

  9. A magnetoencephalography study of multi-modal processing of pain anticipation in primary sensory cortices.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, R; Burgess, R C; Plow, E B; Floden, D P; Machado, A G

    2015-09-24

    Pain anticipation plays a critical role in pain chronification and results in disability due to pain avoidance. It is important to understand how different sensory modalities (auditory, visual or tactile) may influence pain anticipation as different strategies could be applied to mitigate anticipatory phenomena and chronification. In this study, using a countdown paradigm, we evaluated with magnetoencephalography the neural networks associated with pain anticipation elicited by different sensory modalities in normal volunteers. When encountered with well-established cues that signaled pain, visual and somatosensory cortices engaged the pain neuromatrix areas early during the countdown process, whereas the auditory cortex displayed delayed processing. In addition, during pain anticipation, the visual cortex displayed independent processing capabilities after learning the contextual meaning of cues from associative and limbic areas. Interestingly, cross-modal activation was also evident and strong when visual and tactile cues signaled upcoming pain. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and mid-cingulate cortex showed significant activity during pain anticipation regardless of modality. Our results show pain anticipation is processed with great time efficiency by a highly specialized and hierarchical network. The highest degree of higher-order processing is modulated by context (pain) rather than content (modality) and rests within the associative limbic regions, corroborating their intrinsic role in chronification. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Challenges of recording human fetal auditory-evoked response using magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Eswaran, H; Lowery, C L; Robinson, S E; Wilson, J D; Cheyne, D; McKenzie, D

    2000-01-01

    Our goals were to successfully perform fetal auditory-evoked responses using the magnetoencephalography technique, understand its problems and limitations, and propose instrument design modifications to improve the signal quality and success rate. Fetal auditory-evoked responses were recorded from four fetuses with gestational ages ranging from 33-40+ weeks. The signals were recorded using a gantry-based superconducting quantum interference device. Auditory stimulus was 1 kHz tone burst. The evoked signals were digitized and averaged over an 800 ms window. After several trials of positioning and repositioning the subjects, we were able to record auditory-evoked responses in three out of the four fetuses. Since the superconducting quantum interference device array design was not shaped to fit over the mother's abdomen, we experienced difficulty in positioning the sensors over the fetal head. Based on this pilot study, we propose instrument design that may improve signal quality and success rate of the fetal magnetic auditory-evoked response.

  11. The neural processing of musical instrument size information in the brain investigated by magnetoencephalography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, Andre; van Dinther, Ralph; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-04-01

    The specific cortical representation of size was investigated by recording auditory evoked fields (AEFs) elicited by changes of instrument size and pitch. In Experiment 1, a French horn and one scaled to double the size played a three note melody around F3 or its octave, F4. Many copies of these four melodies were played in random order and the AEF was measured continuously. A similar procedure was applied to saxophone sounds in a separate run. In Experiment 2, the size and type of instrument (French horn and saxophone) were varied without changing the octave. AEFs were recorded in five subjects using magnetoencephalography and evaluated by spatio-temporal source analysis with one equivalent dipole in each hemisphere. The morphology of the source waveforms revealed that each note within the melody elicits a well-defined P1-N1-P2 AEF-complex with adaptation for the 2nd and 3rd note. At the transition of size, pitch, or both, a larger AEF-complex was evoked. However, size changes elicited a stronger N1 than pitch changes. Furthermore, this size-related N1 enhancement was larger for French horn than saxophone. The results indicate that the N1 plays an important role in the specific representation of instrument size.

  12. Spatiotemporal frequency tuning of BOLD and gamma band MEG responses compared in primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Singh, Krish D

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the spatial and temporal frequency tuning characteristics of the MEG gamma (40-60 Hz) rhythm and the BOLD response in primary visual cortex were measured and compared. In an identical MEG/fMRI paradigm, 10 participants viewed reversing square wave gratings at 2 spatial frequencies [0.5 and 3 cycles per degree (cpd)] reversing at 5 temporal frequencies (0, 1 6, 10, 15 Hz). Three-dimensional images of MEG source power were generated with synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) and showed a high degree of spatial correspondence with BOLD responses in primary visual cortex with a mean spatial separation of 6.5 mm, but the two modalities showed different tuning characteristics. The gamma rhythm showed a clear increase in induced power for the high spatial frequency stimulus while BOLD showed no difference in activity for the two spatial frequencies used. Both imaging modalities showed a general increase of activity with temporal frequency, however, BOLD plateaued around 6-10 Hz while the MEG generally increased with a dip exhibited at 6 Hz. These results demonstrate that the two modalities may show activation in similar spatial locations but that the functional pattern of these activations may differ in a complex manner, suggesting that they may be tuned to different aspects of neuronal activity.

  13. Disambiguating Form and Lexical Frequency Effects in MEG Responses Using Homonyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Dylan Alexander; Lewis, Gwyneth; Marantz, Alec

    2012-01-01

    We present an MEG study of homonym recognition in reading, identifying effects of a semantic measure of homonym ambiguity. This measure sheds light on two competing theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing; and the "late access" theory, which…

  14. Interpretation of the MEG-MUSIC scan in biomagnetic source localization

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.C.; Lewis, P.S.; Leahy, R.M.

    1993-09-01

    MEG-Music is a new approach to MEG source localization. MEG-Music is based on a spatio-temporal source model in which the observed biomagnetic fields are generated by a small number of current dipole sources with fixed positions/orientations and varying strengths. From the spatial covariance matrix of the observed fields, a signal subspace can be identified. The rank of this subspace is equal to the number of elemental sources present. This signal sub-space is used in a projection metric that scans the three dimensional head volume. Given a perfect signal subspace estimate and a perfect forward model, the metric will peak atmore » unity at each dipole location. In practice, the signal subspace estimate is contaminated by noise, which in turn yields MUSIC peaks which are less than unity. Previously we examined the lower bounds on localization error, independent of the choice of localization procedure. In this paper, we analyzed the effects of noise and temporal coherence on the signal subspace estimate and the resulting effects on the MEG-MUSIC peaks.« less

  15. Liquid xenon calorimeter for MEG II experiment with VUV-sensitive MPPCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Shinji; MEG II Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    The MEG II experiment is an upgrade of the MEG experiment to search for the charged lepton flavor violating decay of muon, μ+ →e+ γ . The MEG II experiment is expected to reach a branching ratio sensitivity of 4 ×10-14 , which is one order of magnitude better than the sensitivity of the current MEG experiment. The performance of the liquid xenon (LXe) γ-ray detector will be greatly improved with a highly granular scintillation readout realized by replacing 216 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) on the γ-ray entrance face with 4092 Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs). For this purpose, we have developed a new type of MPPC which is sensitive to the LXe scintillation light in vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) range, in collaboration with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. We have measured the performance of the MPPC in LXe, and an excellent performance has been confirmed including high photon detection efficiency (> 15 %) for LXe scintillation light. An excellent performance of the LXe detector has been confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations based on the measured properties of the MPPC. The construction of the detector is in progress, aiming to start physics data taking in 2017.

  16. Spatial patterning of P granules by RNA-induced phase separation of the intrinsically-disordered protein MEG-3

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jarrett; Calidas, Deepika; Schmidt, Helen; Lu, Tu; Rasoloson, Dominique; Seydoux, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    RNA granules are non-membrane bound cellular compartments that contain RNA and RNA binding proteins. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the spatial distribution of RNA granules in cells are poorly understood. During polarization of the C. elegans zygote, germline RNA granules, called P granules, assemble preferentially in the posterior cytoplasm. We present evidence that P granule asymmetry depends on RNA-induced phase separation of the granule scaffold MEG-3. MEG-3 is an intrinsically disordered protein that binds and phase separates with RNA in vitro. In vivo, MEG-3 forms a posterior-rich concentration gradient that is anti-correlated with a gradient in the RNA-binding protein MEX-5. MEX-5 is necessary and sufficient to suppress MEG-3 granule formation in vivo, and suppresses RNA-induced MEG-3 phase separation in vitro. Our findings suggest that MEX-5 interferes with MEG-3’s access to RNA, thus locally suppressing MEG-3 phase separation to drive P granule asymmetry. Regulated access to RNA, combined with RNA-induced phase separation of key scaffolding proteins, may be a general mechanism for controlling the formation of RNA granules in space and time. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21337.001 PMID:27914198

  17. The value of magnetoencephalography for seizure-onset zone localization in magnetic resonance imaging-negative partial epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Julien; Bouet, Romain; Delpuech, Claude; Ryvlin, Philippe; Isnard, Jean; Guenot, Marc; Bertrand, Olivier; Hammers, Alexander; Mauguière, François

    2013-10-01

    Surgical treatment of epilepsy is a challenge for patients with non-contributive brain magnetic resonance imaging. However, surgery is feasible if the seizure-onset zone is precisely delineated through intracranial electroencephalography recording. We recently described a method, volumetric imaging of epileptic spikes, to delineate the spiking volume of patients with focal epilepsy using magnetoencephalography. We postulated that the extent of the spiking volume delineated with volumetric imaging of epileptic spikes could predict the localizability of the seizure-onset zone by intracranial electroencephalography investigation and outcome of surgical treatment. Twenty-one patients with non-contributive magnetic resonance imaging findings were included. All patients underwent intracerebral electroencephalography investigation through stereotactically implanted depth electrodes (stereo-electroencephalography) and magnetoencephalography with delineation of the spiking volume using volumetric imaging of epileptic spikes. We evaluated the spatial congruence between the spiking volume determined by magnetoencephalography and the localization of the seizure-onset zone determined by stereo-electroencephalography. We also evaluated the outcome of stereo-electroencephalography and surgical treatment according to the extent of the spiking volume (focal, lateralized but non-focal or non-lateralized). For all patients, we found a spatial overlap between the seizure-onset zone and the spiking volume. For patients with a focal spiking volume, the seizure-onset zone defined by stereo-electroencephalography was clearly localized in all cases and most patients (6/7, 86%) had a good surgical outcome. Conversely, stereo-electroencephalography failed to delineate a seizure-onset zone in 57% of patients with a lateralized spiking volume, and in the two patients with bilateral spiking volume. Four of the 12 patients with non-focal spiking volumes were operated upon, none became seizure

  18. The value of magnetoencephalography for seizure-onset zone localization in magnetic resonance imaging-negative partial epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Bouet, Romain; Delpuech, Claude; Ryvlin, Philippe; Isnard, Jean; Guenot, Marc; Bertrand, Olivier; Hammers, Alexander; Mauguière, François

    2013-01-01

    Surgical treatment of epilepsy is a challenge for patients with non-contributive brain magnetic resonance imaging. However, surgery is feasible if the seizure-onset zone is precisely delineated through intracranial electroencephalography recording. We recently described a method, volumetric imaging of epileptic spikes, to delineate the spiking volume of patients with focal epilepsy using magnetoencephalography. We postulated that the extent of the spiking volume delineated with volumetric imaging of epileptic spikes could predict the localizability of the seizure-onset zone by intracranial electroencephalography investigation and outcome of surgical treatment. Twenty-one patients with non-contributive magnetic resonance imaging findings were included. All patients underwent intracerebral electroencephalography investigation through stereotactically implanted depth electrodes (stereo-electroencephalography) and magnetoencephalography with delineation of the spiking volume using volumetric imaging of epileptic spikes. We evaluated the spatial congruence between the spiking volume determined by magnetoencephalography and the localization of the seizure-onset zone determined by stereo-electroencephalography. We also evaluated the outcome of stereo-electroencephalography and surgical treatment according to the extent of the spiking volume (focal, lateralized but non-focal or non-lateralized). For all patients, we found a spatial overlap between the seizure-onset zone and the spiking volume. For patients with a focal spiking volume, the seizure-onset zone defined by stereo-electroencephalography was clearly localized in all cases and most patients (6/7, 86%) had a good surgical outcome. Conversely, stereo-electroencephalography failed to delineate a seizure-onset zone in 57% of patients with a lateralized spiking volume, and in the two patients with bilateral spiking volume. Four of the 12 patients with non-focal spiking volumes were operated upon, none became seizure

  19. Decreased expression of MEG3 contributes to retinoblastoma progression and affects retinoblastoma cell growth by regulating the activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yali; Lu, Xiaohe

    2016-02-01

    The aberrant expression of MEG3 has been found in some types of cancers; however, little is known concerning the function of MEG3 in retinoblastoma. To elucidate the roles of MEG3 in retinoblastoma, MEG3 expression was quantified in 63 retinoblastoma samples and corresponding nontumor tissues in this work. Moreover, retinoblastoma cell lines were transfected with pcDNA3.1-MEG3 or si-MEG3, after which proliferation, apoptosis, and expression of β-catenin were assayed. TOP-Flash reporter assay was also used to investigate the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results showed that MEG3 was downregulated in retinoblastoma tissues, and the level of MEG3 was negatively associated with IIRC stages and nodal or distant metastasis. More importantly, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that patients with low MEG3 expression had poorer survival and multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that MEG3 was an independent prognostic factor in retinoblastoma patients. We also observed that MEG3 expression can be modulated by DNA methylation by using 5-aza-CdR treatment. In addition, overexpression of MEG3 suppressed proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and influences the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in retinoblastoma cell lines. Furthermore, we found that Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator rescued the anticancer effect of MEG3 in retinoblastoma. In conclusion, our study for the first time demonstrated that MEG3 was a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the progression of retinoblastoma and might serve as a prognostic biomarker and molecular therapeutic target.

  20. Adaptive expansion of the maize maternally expressed gene (Meg) family involves changes in expression patterns and protein secondary structures of its members

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Maternally expressed gene (Meg) family is a locally-duplicated gene family of maize which encodes cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs). The founding member of the family, Meg1, is required for normal development of the basal endosperm transfer cell layer (BETL) and is involved in the allocation of maternal nutrients to growing seeds. Despite the important roles of Meg1 in maize seed development, the evolutionary history of the Meg cluster and the activities of the duplicate genes are not understood. Results In maize, the Meg gene cluster resides in a 2.3 Mb-long genomic region that exhibits many features of non-centromeric heterochromatin. Using phylogenetic reconstruction and syntenic alignments, we identified the pedigree of the Meg family, in which 11 of its 13 members arose in maize after allotetraploidization ~4.8 mya. Phylogenetic and population-genetic analyses identified possible signatures suggesting recent positive selection in Meg homologs. Structural analyses of the Meg proteins indicated potentially adaptive changes in secondary structure from α-helix to β-strand during the expansion. Transcriptomic analysis of the maize endosperm indicated that 6 Meg genes are selectively activated in the BETL, and younger Meg genes are more active than older ones. In endosperms from B73 by Mo17 reciprocal crosses, most Meg genes did not display parent-specific expression patterns. Conclusions Recently-duplicated Meg genes have different protein secondary structures, and their expressions in the BETL dominate over those of older members. Together with the signs of positive selections in the young Meg genes, these results suggest that the expansion of the Meg family involves potentially adaptive transitions in which new members with novel functions prevailed over older members. PMID:25084677

  1. Mass test of AdvanSiD model ASD-NUV3S-P SiliconPMs for the Pixel Timing Counter of the MEG II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossella, M.; Bariani, S.; Barnaba, O.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cervi, T.; Menegolli, A.; Nardò, R.; Prata, M. C.; Romano, E.; Scagliotti, C.; Simonetta, M.; Vercellati, F.

    2017-02-01

    The MEG II Timing Counter will measure the positron time of arrival with a resolution of 30 ps relying on two arrays of scintillator pixels read out by 6144 Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) from AdvanSiD. They must be characterized, measuring their breakdown voltage, to assure that the gains of the SiPMs of each pixel are as uniform as possible, to maximize the pixel resolution. To do this an automatic test system that can measure sequentially the parameters of 32 devices has been developed.

  2. Primary visual response (M100) delays in adolescents with FASD as measured with MEG.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Brian A; Kodituwakku, Piyadasa; Kodituwakku, Elizabeth L; Romero, Lucinda; Sharadamma, Nirupama Muniswamy; Stone, David; Stephen, Julia M

    2013-11-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are debilitating, with effects of prenatal alcohol exposure persisting into adolescence and adulthood. Complete characterization of FASD is crucial for the development of diagnostic tools and intervention techniques to decrease the high cost to individual families and society of this disorder. In this experiment, we investigated visual system deficits in adolescents (12-21 years) diagnosed with an FASD by measuring the latency of patients' primary visual M100 responses using MEG. We hypothesized that patients with FASD would demonstrate delayed primary visual responses compared to controls. M100 latencies were assessed both for FASD patients and age-matched healthy controls for stimuli presented at the fovea (central stimulus) and at the periphery (peripheral stimuli; left or right of the central stimulus) in a saccade task requiring participants to direct their attention and gaze to these stimuli. Source modeling was performed on visual responses to the central and peripheral stimuli and the latency of the first prominent peak (M100) in the occipital source timecourse was identified. The peak latency of the M100 responses were delayed in FASD patients for both stimulus types (central and peripheral), but the difference in latency of primary visual responses to central vs. peripheral stimuli was significant only in FASD patients, indicating that, while FASD patients' visual systems are impaired in general, this impairment is more pronounced in the periphery. These results suggest that basic sensory deficits in this population may contribute to sensorimotor integration deficits described previously in this disorder. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A Real-Time Magnetoencephalography Brain-Computer Interface Using Interactive 3D Visualization and the Hadoop Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    McClay, Wilbert A; Yadav, Nancy; Ozbek, Yusuf; Haas, Andy; Attias, Hagaii T; Nagarajan, Srikantan S

    2015-09-30

    Ecumenically, the fastest growing segment of Big Data is human biology-related data and the annual data creation is on the order of zetabytes. The implications are global across industries, of which the treatment of brain related illnesses and trauma could see the most significant and immediate effects. The next generation of health care IT and sensory devices are acquiring and storing massive amounts of patient related data. An innovative Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) for interactive 3D visualization is presented utilizing the Hadoop Ecosystem for data analysis and storage. The BCI is an implementation of Bayesian factor analysis algorithms that can distinguish distinct thought actions using magneto encephalographic (MEG) brain signals. We have collected data on five subjects yielding 90% positive performance in MEG mid- and post-movement activity. We describe a driver that substitutes the actions of the BCI as mouse button presses for real-time use in visual simulations. This process has been added into a flight visualization demonstration. By thinking left or right, the user experiences the aircraft turning in the chosen direction. The driver components of the BCI can be compiled into any software and substitute a user's intent for specific keyboard strikes or mouse button presses. The BCI's data analytics OPEN ACCESS Brain. Sci. 2015, 5 420 of a subject's MEG brainwaves and flight visualization performance are stored and analyzed using the Hadoop Ecosystem as a quick retrieval data warehouse.

  4. A Real-Time Magnetoencephalography Brain-Computer Interface Using Interactive 3D Visualization and the Hadoop Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    McClay, Wilbert A.; Yadav, Nancy; Ozbek, Yusuf; Haas, Andy; Attias, Hagaii T.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2015-01-01

    Ecumenically, the fastest growing segment of Big Data is human biology-related data and the annual data creation is on the order of zetabytes. The implications are global across industries, of which the treatment of brain related illnesses and trauma could see the most significant and immediate effects. The next generation of health care IT and sensory devices are acquiring and storing massive amounts of patient related data. An innovative Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) for interactive 3D visualization is presented utilizing the Hadoop Ecosystem for data analysis and storage. The BCI is an implementation of Bayesian factor analysis algorithms that can distinguish distinct thought actions using magneto encephalographic (MEG) brain signals. We have collected data on five subjects yielding 90% positive performance in MEG mid- and post-movement activity. We describe a driver that substitutes the actions of the BCI as mouse button presses for real-time use in visual simulations. This process has been added into a flight visualization demonstration. By thinking left or right, the user experiences the aircraft turning in the chosen direction. The driver components of the BCI can be compiled into any software and substitute a user’s intent for specific keyboard strikes or mouse button presses. The BCI’s data analytics of a subject’s MEG brainwaves and flight visualization performance are stored and analyzed using the Hadoop Ecosystem as a quick retrieval data warehouse. PMID:26437432

  5. Age-related sex differences in language lateralization: A magnetoencephalography study in children.

    PubMed

    Yu, Vickie Y; MacDonald, Matt J; Oh, Anna; Hua, Gordon N; De Nil, Luc F; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2014-09-01

    It is well supported by behavioral and neuroimaging studies that typical language function is lateralized to the left hemisphere in the adult brain and this laterality is less well defined in children. The behavioral literature suggests there maybe be sex differences in language development, but this has not been examined systematically with neuroimaging. In this study, magnetoencephalography was used to investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of language lateralization as a function of age and sex. Eighty typically developing children (46 female, 34 male; 4-18 years) participated in an overt visual verb generation task. An analysis method called differential beamforming was used to analyze language-related changes in oscillatory activity referred to as low-gamma event-related desynchrony (ERD). The proportion of ERD over language areas relative to total ERD was calculated. We found different patterns of laterality between boys and girls. Boys showed left-hemisphere lateralization in the frontal and temporal language-related areas across age groups, whereas girls showed a more bilateral pattern, particularly in frontal language-related areas. Differences in patterns of ERD were most striking between boys and girls in the younger age groups, and these patterns became more similar with increasing age, specifically in the preteen years. Our findings show sex differences in language lateralization during childhood; however, these differences do not seem to persist into adulthood. We present possible explanations for these differences. We also discuss the implications of these findings for presurgical language mapping in children and highlight the importance of examining the question of sex-related language differences across development.

  6. The Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Decision to Rest in the Presence of Fatigue: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Akira; Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Adequate rest is essential to avoid fatigue and disruption of homeostasis. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the decision to rest are not well understood. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the neural mechanisms of this decision-making process using magnetoencephalography. Fifteen healthy volunteers participated in decision and control experiments performed in a cross-over fashion. In the decision experiment, participants performed 1,200 reverse Stroop test trials and were intermittently asked to decide whether they wanted to take a rest or continue. In the control experiments, participants performed 1,200 reverse Stroop test trials and were instructed to press a response button intermittently without making any decision. Changes in oscillatory brain activity were assessed using a narrow-band adaptive spatial filtering method. The levels of decrease in theta (4–8 Hz) band power in left Brodmann's area (BA) 31, alpha (8–13 Hz) band power in left BA 10 and BA 9, and beta (13–25 Hz) band power in right BA 46 and left BA 10 were greater in trials when the participant opted to rest (rest trials) than those in control trials. The decrease in theta band power in BA 31 in the rest trials was positively correlated with the subjective level of fatigue after the decision experiment. These results demonstrated that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, frontal pole, and posterior cingulate cortex play a role in the decision to rest in the presence of fatigue. These findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms underlying fatigue and fatigue-related problems. PMID:25303465

  7. Neurodevelopmental retardation, as assessed clinically and with magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography, associated with perinatal dioxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Ten Tusscher, G W; Leijs, M M; de Boer, L C C; Legler, J; Olie, K; Spekreijse, H; van Dijk, B W; Vulsma, T; Briët, J; Ilsen, A; Koppe, J G

    2014-09-01

    In 1980s Western Europe, human perinatal exposure to background levels of dioxins was rather high. We therefore evaluated the neurodevelopment of our cohort during the prepubertal period and in adolescence. At prepubertal age (7-12 years) 41 children were tested. Both neuromotor functioning and psychological testing were performed (Dutch version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) and the Dutch version of the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 4-18 years (CBCL 4-18) and the Teacher Report Form (TRF)). Neurophysiological tests were performed using magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography. In adolescence (14-18 years) the behavior of 33 children was studied again (CBCL and TRF). And the levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) were measured in serum. At prepubertal age no association was found between perinatal dioxin exposure and verbal, performal and total IQ or with the Touwen's test for neuromotor development. There were behavioral problems associated with both prenatal and postnatal dioxin exposure. In adolescence there were problems associated with the current dioxin levels and dioxin-like-PCBs. Neurophysiological tests revealed clear negative dysfunction. An increase in latency time after a motion stimulus (N2b) of 13 ms (= a delay of 10%) is associated with the higher prenatal dioxin exposure. A similar delay was measured in testing cognitive ability by analyzing the odd ball measurements, N200 and P300, together with an amplitude decrease of 12 %. The delay is indicative of a defective myelinisation and the decrease in amplitude of a loss of neurons. We found effects on behavior in association with the perinatal dioxin exposure and in adolescence in association with the current dioxin levels. Neurophysiological testing is instrumental in the detection of effects of perinatal background levels of chemicals on brain development in normal, healthy children. The clinical, neurological and psychological tests commonly used are

  8. Long noncoding RNA MEG3 inhibits proliferation of chronic myeloid leukemia cells by sponging microRNA21.

    PubMed

    Li, Ziye; Yang, Lin; Liu, Xiaojun; Nie, Ziyuan; Luo, Jianmin

    2018-05-14

    The long noncoding RNA (lnc) maternally expressed 3 (MEG3) is downregulated in many types of cancers. However, the relationship between lncRNA MEG3, microRNA-21 (miR-21) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) blast crisis is unknown. This study examined bone marrow samples from 40 CML patients and 10 healthy donors. Proliferation and apoptosis assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), bisulfite sequencing PCR, Western blotting, luciferase assay, RNA pull-down, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP) and Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) were performed. We found that MEG3 and PTEN expression were down-regulated, whereas, MDM2, DNMT1 and miR-21 were up-regulated in the accelerated and blast phases of CML. Treated with 5-azacytidine decreased the level of MDM2, DNMT1 and miR21, but increased the level of MEG3 and PTEN. Overexpression of MEG3 and silencing the expression of miR-21 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. MEG3 overexpression and silencing the expression of miR21 influence the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, bcl-2 and Bax. MEG3 was able to interact with MDM2 and EZH2. MDM2 could interact with DNMT1 and PTEN. MYC and AKT can interact with EZH2. ChIP-seq showed that the promoter of KLF4 and SFRP2 interacts with DNMT1. In conclusion, lncRNA MEG3 and its target miR21 may serve as novel therapeutic targets for CML blast crisis; and demethylation drugs might also have potential clinical application in treating CML blast crisis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparative study of a theoretical neural net model with MEG data from epileptic patients and normal individuals.

    PubMed

    Kotini, A; Anninos, P; Anastasiadis, A N; Tamiolakis, D

    2005-09-07

    The aim of this study was to compare a theoretical neural net model with MEG data from epileptic patients and normal individuals. Our experimental study population included 10 epilepsy sufferers and 10 healthy subjects. The recordings were obtained with a one-channel biomagnetometer SQUID in a magnetically shielded room. Using the method of x2-fitting it was found that the MEG amplitudes in epileptic patients and normal subjects had Poisson and Gauss distributions respectively. The Poisson connectivity derived from the theoretical neural model represents the state of epilepsy, whereas the Gauss connectivity represents normal behavior. The MEG data obtained from epileptic areas had higher amplitudes than the MEG from normal regions and were comparable with the theoretical magnetic fields from Poisson and Gauss distributions. Furthermore, the magnetic field derived from the theoretical model had amplitudes in the same order as the recorded MEG from the 20 participants. The approximation of the theoretical neural net model with real MEG data provides information about the structure of the brain function in epileptic and normal states encouraging further studies to be conducted.

  10. Measurement of the radiative decay of polarized muons in the MEG experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Baldini, A. M.; Bao, Y.; Baracchini, E.; ...

    2016-02-29

    Here, we studied the radiative muon decay μ + → e +νν¯γ by using for the first time an almost fully polarized muon source. We identified a large sample (~13,000) of these decays in a total sample of 1.8×10 14 positive muon decays collected in the MEG experiment in the years 2009–2010 and measured the branching ratio B(μ → eνν¯γ)=(6.03 ± 0.14(stat.) ± 0.53(sys.))×10 –8 for E e > 45 MeV and E γ > 40 MeV, consistent with the Standard Model prediction. The precise measurement of this decay mode provides a basic tool for the timing calibration, a normalizationmore » channel, and a strong quality check of the complete MEG experiment in the search for μ+→e+γ process.« less

  11. Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hock, R. A.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. . In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

  12. The Hierarchy of Brain Networks Is Related to Insulin Growth Factor-1 in a Large, Middle-Aged, Healthy Cohort: An Exploratory Magnetoencephalography Study.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Pierpaolo; Nieboer, Dagmar; Twisk, Jos W R; Stam, Cornelis J; Douw, Linda; Hillebrand, Arjan

    2017-06-01

    Recently, a large study demonstrated that lower serum levels of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) relate to brain atrophy and to a greater risk for developing Alzheimer's disease in a healthy elderly population. We set out to test if functional brain networks relate to IGF-1 levels in the middle aged. Hence, we studied the association between IGF-1 and magnetoencephalography-based functional network characteristics in a middle-aged population. The functional connections between brain areas were estimated for six frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta, gamma) using the phase lag index. Subsequently, the topology of the frequency-specific functional networks was characterized using the minimum spanning tree. Our results showed that lower levels of serum IGF-1 relate to a globally less integrated functional network in the beta and theta band. The associations remained significant when correcting for gender and systemic effects of IGF-1 that might indirectly affect the brain. The value of this exploratory study is the demonstration that lower levels of IGF-1 are associated with brain network topology in the middle aged.

  13. Single trial discrimination of individual finger movements on one hand: A combined MEG and EEG study☆

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, F.; Reichert, C.; Hinrichs, H.; Heinze, H.J.; Knight, R.T.; Rieger, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    It is crucial to understand what brain signals can be decoded from single trials with different recording techniques for the development of Brain-Machine Interfaces. A specific challenge for non-invasive recording methods are activations confined to small spatial areas on the cortex such as the finger representation of one hand. Here we study the information content of single trial brain activity in non-invasive MEG and EEG recordings elicited by finger movements of one hand. We investigate the feasibility of decoding which of four fingers of one hand performed a slight button press. With MEG we demonstrate reliable discrimination of single button presses performed with the thumb, the index, the middle or the little finger (average over all subjects and fingers 57%, best subject 70%, empirical guessing level: 25.1%). EEG decoding performance was less robust (average over all subjects and fingers 43%, best subject 54%, empirical guessing level 25.1%). Spatiotemporal patterns of amplitude variations in the time series provided best information for discriminating finger movements. Non-phase-locked changes of mu and beta oscillations were less predictive. Movement related high gamma oscillations were observed in average induced oscillation amplitudes in the MEG but did not provide sufficient information about the finger's identity in single trials. Importantly, pre-movement neuronal activity provided information about the preparation of the movement of a specific finger. Our study demonstrates the potential of non-invasive MEG to provide informative features for individual finger control in a Brain-Machine Interface neuroprosthesis. PMID:22155040

  14. Spatiotemporal mapping of interictal epileptiform discharges in human absence epilepsy: A MEG study.

    PubMed

    Rozendaal, Yvonne J W; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Ossenblok, Pauly P W

    2016-01-01

    Although absence epilepsy is considered to be a prototypic type of generalized epilepsy, it is still under debate whether generalized 3 Hz spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) might have a cortical focal origin. Here it is investigated whether focal interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), which typically occur in the electro- (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) in case of focal epilepsy, are present in the MEG of children with absence epilepsy. Next, the location of the sources of the IEDs is established, and it is investigated whether the location is concordant to the earlier established focal cortical regions involved in the generalized SWDs of these children. Whole head MEG recordings of seven children with absence epilepsy were reviewed with respect to the presence of IEDs (spikes and sharp waves). These IEDs were grouped into distinct clusters, in which each contribution to a cluster yields a comparable magnetic field distribution. Source localization was then performed onto the average signal of each cluster using an equivalent current dipole model and a realistic head model of the cortical surface. IEDs were detected in 6 out of 7 patients. Source reconstruction indicated most often frontal, central or parietal origins of the IED in either the left and or right hemisphere. Spatiotemporal assessment of the IEDs indicated a stable location of the averages of these discharges, indicating a single underlying cortical source. The outcome of this pilot study shows that MEG is well suited for the detection of IEDs and suggests that their estimated sources coincide rather well with the cortical regions involved during the spikes of the SWDs. It is discussed whether the presence of IEDs, classically seen as a marker of focal epilepsies, indicate that absence epilepsy should be considered as a focal type of epilepsy, in which changes in the network are evolving rapidly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An Internet-Based Real-Time Audiovisual Link for Dual MEG Recordings

    PubMed Central

    Zhdanov, Andrey; Nurminen, Jussi; Baess, Pamela; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Jousmäki, Veikko; Mäkelä, Jyrki P.; Mandel, Anne; Meronen, Lassi; Hari, Riitta; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    Hyperscanning Most neuroimaging studies of human social cognition have focused on brain activity of single subjects. More recently, “two-person neuroimaging” has been introduced, with simultaneous recordings of brain signals from two subjects involved in social interaction. These simultaneous “hyperscanning” recordings have already been carried out with a spectrum of neuroimaging modalities, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Dual MEG Setup We have recently developed a setup for simultaneous magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings of two subjects that communicate in real time over an audio link between two geographically separated MEG laboratories. Here we present an extended version of the setup, where we have added a video connection and replaced the telephone-landline-based link with an Internet connection. Our setup enabled transmission of video and audio streams between the sites with a one-way communication latency of about 130 ms. Our software that allows reproducing the setup is publicly available. Validation We demonstrate that the audiovisual Internet-based link can mediate real-time interaction between two subjects who try to mirror each others’ hand movements that they can see via the video link. All the nine pairs were able to synchronize their behavior. In addition to the video, we captured the subjects’ movements with accelerometers attached to their index fingers; we determined from these signals that the average synchronization accuracy was 215 ms. In one subject pair we demonstrate inter-subject coherence patterns of the MEG signals that peak over the sensorimotor areas contralateral to the hand used in the task. PMID:26098628

  16. Anatomically constrained dipole adjustment (ANACONDA) for accurate MEG/EEG focal source localizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Chang-Hwan; Jung, Hyun-Kyo; Fujimaki, Norio

    2005-10-01

    This paper proposes an alternative approach to enhance localization accuracy of MEG and EEG focal sources. The proposed approach assumes anatomically constrained spatio-temporal dipoles, initial positions of which are estimated from local peak positions of distributed sources obtained from a pre-execution of distributed source reconstruction. The positions of the dipoles are then adjusted on the cortical surface using a novel updating scheme named cortical surface scanning. The proposed approach has many advantages over the conventional ones: (1) as the cortical surface scanning algorithm uses spatio-temporal dipoles, it is robust with respect to noise; (2) it requires no a priori information on the numbers and initial locations of the activations; (3) as the locations of dipoles are restricted only on a tessellated cortical surface, it is physiologically more plausible than the conventional ECD model. To verify the proposed approach, it was applied to several realistic MEG/EEG simulations and practical experiments. From the several case studies, it is concluded that the anatomically constrained dipole adjustment (ANACONDA) approach will be a very promising technique to enhance accuracy of focal source localization which is essential in many clinical and neurological applications of MEG and EEG.

  17. Truncated RAP-MUSIC (TRAP-MUSIC) for MEG and EEG source localization.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Niko; Stenroos, Matti; Sarvas, Jukka; Ilmoniemi, Risto J

    2018-02-15

    Electrically active brain regions can be located applying MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) on magneto- or electroencephalographic (MEG; EEG) data. We introduce a new MUSIC method, called truncated recursively-applied-and-projected MUSIC (TRAP-MUSIC). It corrects a hidden deficiency of the conventional RAP-MUSIC algorithm, which prevents estimation of the true number of brain-signal sources accurately. The correction is done by applying a sequential dimension reduction to the signal-subspace projection. We show that TRAP-MUSIC significantly improves the performance of MUSIC-type localization; in particular, it successfully and robustly locates active brain regions and estimates their number. We compare TRAP-MUSIC and RAP-MUSIC in simulations with varying key parameters, e.g., signal-to-noise ratio, correlation between source time-courses, and initial estimate for the dimension of the signal space. In addition, we validate TRAP-MUSIC with measured MEG data. We suggest that with the proposed TRAP-MUSIC method, MUSIC-type localization could become more reliable and suitable for various online and offline MEG and EEG applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Algorithmic procedures for Bayesian MEG/EEG source reconstruction in SPM☆

    PubMed Central

    López, J.D.; Litvak, V.; Espinosa, J.J.; Friston, K.; Barnes, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    The MEG/EEG inverse problem is ill-posed, giving different source reconstructions depending on the initial assumption sets. Parametric Empirical Bayes allows one to implement most popular MEG/EEG inversion schemes (Minimum Norm, LORETA, etc.) within the same generic Bayesian framework. It also provides a cost-function in terms of the variational Free energy—an approximation to the marginal likelihood or evidence of the solution. In this manuscript, we revisit the algorithm for MEG/EEG source reconstruction with a view to providing a didactic and practical guide. The aim is to promote and help standardise the development and consolidation of other schemes within the same framework. We describe the implementation in the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software package, carefully explaining each of its stages with the help of a simple simulated data example. We focus on the Multiple Sparse Priors (MSP) model, which we compare with the well-known Minimum Norm and LORETA models, using the negative variational Free energy for model comparison. The manuscript is accompanied by Matlab scripts to allow the reader to test and explore the underlying algorithm. PMID:24041874

  19. Algorithmic procedures for Bayesian MEG/EEG source reconstruction in SPM.

    PubMed

    López, J D; Litvak, V; Espinosa, J J; Friston, K; Barnes, G R

    2014-01-01

    The MEG/EEG inverse problem is ill-posed, giving different source reconstructions depending on the initial assumption sets. Parametric Empirical Bayes allows one to implement most popular MEG/EEG inversion schemes (Minimum Norm, LORETA, etc.) within the same generic Bayesian framework. It also provides a cost-function in terms of the variational Free energy-an approximation to the marginal likelihood or evidence of the solution. In this manuscript, we revisit the algorithm for MEG/EEG source reconstruction with a view to providing a didactic and practical guide. The aim is to promote and help standardise the development and consolidation of other schemes within the same framework. We describe the implementation in the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software package, carefully explaining each of its stages with the help of a simple simulated data example. We focus on the Multiple Sparse Priors (MSP) model, which we compare with the well-known Minimum Norm and LORETA models, using the negative variational Free energy for model comparison. The manuscript is accompanied by Matlab scripts to allow the reader to test and explore the underlying algorithm. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An MEG signature corresponding to an axiomatic model of reward prediction error.

    PubMed

    Talmi, Deborah; Fuentemilla, Lluis; Litvak, Vladimir; Duzel, Emrah; Dolan, Raymond J

    2012-01-02

    Optimal decision-making is guided by evaluating the outcomes of previous decisions. Prediction errors are theoretical teaching signals which integrate two features of an outcome: its inherent value and prior expectation of its occurrence. To uncover the magnetic signature of prediction errors in the human brain we acquired magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data while participants performed a gambling task. Our primary objective was to use formal criteria, based upon an axiomatic model (Caplin and Dean, 2008a), to determine the presence and timing profile of MEG signals that express prediction errors. We report analyses at the sensor level, implemented in SPM8, time locked to outcome onset. We identified, for the first time, a MEG signature of prediction error, which emerged approximately 320 ms after an outcome and expressed as an interaction between outcome valence and probability. This signal followed earlier, separate signals for outcome valence and probability, which emerged approximately 200 ms after an outcome. Strikingly, the time course of the prediction error signal, as well as the early valence signal, resembled the Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN). In simultaneously acquired EEG data we obtained a robust FRN, but the win and loss signals that comprised this difference wave did not comply with the axiomatic model. Our findings motivate an explicit examination of the critical issue of timing embodied in computational models of prediction errors as seen in human electrophysiological data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Using EEG/MEG Data of Cognitive Processes in Brain-Computer Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, David

    2008-08-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) aim at providing a non-muscular channel for sending commands to the external world using electroencephalographic (EEG) and, more recently, magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements of the brain function. Most of the current implementations of BCIs rely on EEG/MEG data of motor activities as such neural processes are well characterized, while the use of data related to cognitive activities has been neglected due to its intrinsic complexity. However, cognitive data usually has larger amplitude, lasts longer and, in some cases, cognitive brain signals are easier to control at will than motor signals. This paper briefy reviews the use of EEG/MEG data of cognitive processes in the implementation of BCIs. Specifically, this paper reviews some of the neuromechanisms, signal features, and processing methods involved. This paper also refers to some of the author's work in the area of detection and classifcation of cognitive signals for BCIs using variability enhancement, parametric modeling, and spatial fltering, as well as recent developments in BCI performance evaluation.

  2. On the use of EEG or MEG brain imaging tools in neuromarketing research.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Toppi, Jlenia; Aloise, Fabio; Bez, Francesco; Wei, Daming; Kong, Wanzeng; Dai, Jounging; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Here we present an overview of some published papers of interest for the marketing research employing electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) methods. The interest for these methodologies relies in their high-temporal resolution as opposed to the investigation of such problem with the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) methodology, also largely used in the marketing research. In addition, EEG and MEG technologies have greatly improved their spatial resolution in the last decades with the introduction of advanced signal processing methodologies. By presenting data gathered through MEG and high resolution EEG we will show which kind of information it is possible to gather with these methodologies while the persons are watching marketing relevant stimuli. Such information will be related to the memorization and pleasantness related to such stimuli. We noted that temporal and frequency patterns of brain signals are able to provide possible descriptors conveying information about the cognitive and emotional processes in subjects observing commercial advertisements. These information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. We also show an example of how an EEG methodology could be used to analyze cultural differences between fruition of video commercials of carbonated beverages in Western and Eastern countries.

  3. On the Use of EEG or MEG Brain Imaging Tools in Neuromarketing Research

    PubMed Central

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Toppi, Jlenia; Aloise, Fabio; Bez, Francesco; Wei, Daming; Kong, Wanzeng; Dai, Jounging; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Babiloni, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Here we present an overview of some published papers of interest for the marketing research employing electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) methods. The interest for these methodologies relies in their high-temporal resolution as opposed to the investigation of such problem with the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) methodology, also largely used in the marketing research. In addition, EEG and MEG technologies have greatly improved their spatial resolution in the last decades with the introduction of advanced signal processing methodologies. By presenting data gathered through MEG and high resolution EEG we will show which kind of information it is possible to gather with these methodologies while the persons are watching marketing relevant stimuli. Such information will be related to the memorization and pleasantness related to such stimuli. We noted that temporal and frequency patterns of brain signals are able to provide possible descriptors conveying information about the cognitive and emotional processes in subjects observing commercial advertisements. These information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. We also show an example of how an EEG methodology could be used to analyze cultural differences between fruition of video commercials of carbonated beverages in Western and Eastern countries. PMID:21960996

  4. Long noncoding RNA MEG3 mediated angiogenesis after cerebral infarction through regulating p53/NOX4 axis.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Renya; Xu, Kangli; Pan, Jianwei; Xu, Qingsheng; Xu, Shengjie; Shen, Jian

    2017-08-26

    This study aimed to explore the mechanism of lncRNA MEG3 on angiogenesis after cerebral infarction (CI). The rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBMVECs) isolated from rat was used to establish CI model, which were treated with oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R). The genes mRNA and protein expression levels in RBMVECs were determined by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot, respectively. The flow cytometry was used to measured cell apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The RBMVECs activities was detected by MTT method. The RNA-immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay was used to detect the interaction between MEG3 and p53, and the relationship between p53 and NOX4 was proved by chromatin co-immunoprecipitation (chip) assay. The results showed that OGD or OGD/R increased MEG3 and NOX4 expression, and there was positive correlation between MEG3 and NOX4 expression in RBMVECs. Next, knockdown of MEG3 indicated that inhibition of MEG3 was conducive to protect RBMVECs against OGD/R-induced apoptosis, with decreased NOX4 and p53 expression, further enhanced pro-angiogenic factors (HIF-1α and VEGF) expression, and reduced intracellular ROS generation. And then the RIP and CHIP assay demonstrated that MEG3 could interacted with p53 and regulated its expression, and p53 exerted significant binding in the promoters for NOX4, suggesting that MEG3 regulated NOX4 expression via p53. At last, knockdown of NOX4 indicated that inhibition of NOX4 protected RBMVECs against OGD/R-induced apoptosis, with increased cell viability and pro-angiogenic factors expression, and reduced ROS generation. LncRNA MEG3 was an important regulator in OGD/R induced-RBMVECs apoptosis and the mechanism of MEG3 on angiogenesis after CI was reduced ROS by p53/NOX4 axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Downregulated long non-coding RNA MEG3 in breast cancer regulates proliferation, migration and invasion by depending on p53’s transcriptional activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Lin; Li, Yu; Yang, Bangxiang, E-mail: b19933009@qq.coom

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) was found to play critical roles in tumorigenesis, hence, screen of tumor-related lncRNAs, identification of their biological roles is important for understanding the processes of tumorigenesis. In this study, we identified the expressing difference of several tumor-related lncRNAs in breast cancer samples and found that, MEG3, which is downregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor tissues, is also downregulated in breast cancer samples compared with adjacent tissues. For figuring out the effect of MEG3 in breast cancer cells MCF7 and MB231, we overexpressed MEG3 in these cells, and found that it resulted the inhibition ofmore » proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion capacities by enhancing p53’s transcriptional activity on its target genes, including p21, Maspin and KAI1. MEG3 presented similar effects in MB157, which is a p53-null breast cancer cell line, when functional p53 but not p53R273H mutant, which lacks transcriptional activity, was introduced. Surprisingly, overexpression of MEG3 activates p53’s transcriptional activity by decreasing MDM2’s transcription level, and thus stabilizes and accumulates P53. Taken together, our findings indicate that MEG3 is downregulated in breast cancer tissues and affects breast cancer cells’ malignant behaviors, which indicate MEG3 a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer. - Highlights: • MEG3 RNA is widely downregulated in breast tumor tissue. • MEG3 regulates P53 indirectly through transcriptional regulation of MDM2. • Under unstressed condition, MEG3-related P53 accumulation transcriptionally activates p53’s target genes. • MEG3 expression level tightly regulates proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion in breast tumor cells.« less

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