Science.gov

Sample records for magnetospheric radio bursts

  1. On the detection of magnetospheric radio bursts from Uranus and Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, C. F.; Maggs, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn are sources of intense but sporadic bursts of electromagnetic radiation or magnetospheric radio bursts (MRB). The similarity of the differential power flux spectra of the MRB from all three planets is examined. The intensity of the MRB is scaled for the solar wind power input into a planetary magnetosphere. The possibility of detecting MRB from Uranus and Neptune is considered.

  2. Cassini observations of low-frequency drifting radio bursts in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubenschuss, U.; Leisner, J. S.; Fischer, G.; Gurnett, D. A.; Nemec, F.

    2010-12-01

    This study presents an analysis of a new type of Saturnian radio emission observed between 3 and 50 kHz by Cassini’s RPWS instrument. These emissions comprise radio bursts which last for several minutes and exhibit a characteristic drift in the time-frequency spectrograms. Spectral features (such as frequency range, bandwidth, and drift rate) and the spatial distribution of observations are subject to statistical analysis. Furthermore, this study uses the goniopolarimetric (“direction-finding”) mode to study the polarization. We discuss the obtained results in the context of possible source mechanisms and correlations between the radio bursts and the moons in Saturn’s inner magnetosphere.

  3. Radio emission in Mercury magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, J.; Reville, V.; Brun, A. S.; Pantellini, F.; Zarka, P.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Active stars possess magnetized wind that has a direct impact on planets that can lead to radio emission. Mercury is a good test case to study the effect of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on radio emission driven in the planet magnetosphere. Such studies could be used as proxies to characterize the magnetic field topology and intensity of exoplanets. Aims: The aim of this study is to quantify the radio emission in the Hermean magnetosphere. Methods: We use the magnetohydrodynamic code PLUTO in spherical coordinates with an axisymmetric multipolar expansion for the Hermean magnetic field, to analyze the effect of the IMF orientation and intensity, as well as the hydrodynamic parameters of the solar wind (velocity, density and temperature), on the net power dissipated on the Hermean day and night side. We apply the formalism derived by Zarka et al. (2001, Astrophys. Space Sci., 277, 293), Zarka (2007, Planet. Space Sci., 55, 598) to infer the radio emission level from the net dissipated power. We perform a set of simulations with different hydrodynamic parameters of the solar wind, IMF orientations and intensities, that allow us to calculate the dissipated power distribution and infer the existence of radio emission hot spots on the planet day side, and to calculate the integrated radio emission of the Hermean magnetosphere. Results: The obtained radio emission distribution of dissipated power is determined by the IMF orientation (associated with the reconnection regions in the magnetosphere), although the radio emission strength is dependent on the IMF intensity and solar wind hydro parameters. The calculated total radio emission level is in agreement with the one estimated in Zarka et al. (2001, Astrophys. Space Sci., 277, 293) , between 5 × 105 and 2 × 106 W.

  4. Radio emissions from planetary magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    2012-03-01

    Since the discovery of intense radio emissions from Jupiter by Burke and Franklin in 1955, it is now known that the magnetospheres of all the strongly magnetized planets emit intense non-thermal radio emissions. This talk will review the progress that has been made in understanding these radio emissions during the more than fifty years since their discovery. It is now known that two basic radio emission processes are involved: cyclotron maser radiation from precipitating auroral electrons, and mode conversion from electrostatic waves driven by the anisotropy of magnetically trapped magnetospheric electrons. Of these, the cyclotron maser radiation is by far the most intense. Since the gaseous outer planets have no visible surface and since the magnetic field which controls the motion of the electrons is linked to the deep interior, the rotational modulation of cyclotron maser radiation provides the primary method of determining the rotation rates of these planets. Cyclotron maser radiation has also been detected from certain strongly magnetized stars, and serious efforts are now underway to try to detect cyclotron maser radiation from extra-solar system planets.

  5. A repeating fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star. PMID:26934226

  6. A repeating fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  7. Gamma-ray bursts from extragalactic radio pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melia, Fulvio; Fatuzzo, Marco

    1992-01-01

    It is argued here that the recent BATSE results on the distribution of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) does not require the abandonment of the isolated neutron stars model in which most of the bursts have a magnetospheric origin. It is demonstrated that GRBs may be produced on relatively young radio pulsars residing in galaxies out to a redshift of about 2.5, consistent with the cosmological hypothesis. These sources may therefore be beacons that trace galactic evolution.

  8. Cosmology: Home of a fast radio burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorimer, Duncan

    2016-02-01

    Our understanding of fast radio bursts -- intense pulses of radio waves -- and their use as cosmic probes promises to be transformed now that one burst has been associated with a galaxy of known distance from Earth. See Letter p.453

  9. Periodic bursts of Jovian non-Io decametric radio emission.

    PubMed

    Panchenko, M; Rucker, H O; Farrell, W M

    2013-03-01

    During the years 2000-2011 the radio instruments onboard Cassini, Wind and STEREO spacecraft have recorded a large amount of the Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). In this paper we report on the analysis of the new type of Jovian periodic radio bursts recently revealed in the decametric frequency range. These bursts, which are non-Io component of DAM, are characterized by a strong periodic reoccurrence over several Jovian days with a period [Formula: see text] longer than the rotation rate of the planet's magnetosphere (System III). The bursts are typically observed between 4 and 12 MHz and their occurrence probability has been found to be significantly higher in the sector of Jovian Central Meridian Longitude between 300° and 60° (via 360°). The stereoscopic multispacecraft observations have shown that the radio sources of the periodic bursts radiate in a non-axisymmetric hollow cone-like pattern and sub-corotate with Jupiter remaining active during several planet's rotations. The occurrence of the periodic non-Io DAM bursts is strongly correlated with pulses of the solar wind ram pressure at Jupiter. Moreover the periodic bursts exhibit a tendency to occur in groups every [Formula: see text] days. The polarization measurements have shown that the periodic bursts are right hand polarized radio emission associated with the Northern magnetic hemisphere of Jupiter. We suggest that periodic non-Io DAM bursts may be connected with the interchange instability in Io plasma torus triggered by the solar wind. PMID:23585696

  10. Periodic bursts of Jovian non-Io decametric radio emission

    PubMed Central

    Panchenko, M.; Rucker, H.O.; Farrell, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    During the years 2000–2011 the radio instruments onboard Cassini, Wind and STEREO spacecraft have recorded a large amount of the Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). In this paper we report on the analysis of the new type of Jovian periodic radio bursts recently revealed in the decametric frequency range. These bursts, which are non-Io component of DAM, are characterized by a strong periodic reoccurrence over several Jovian days with a period ≈1.5% longer than the rotation rate of the planet's magnetosphere (System III). The bursts are typically observed between 4 and 12 MHz and their occurrence probability has been found to be significantly higher in the sector of Jovian Central Meridian Longitude between 300° and 60° (via 360°). The stereoscopic multispacecraft observations have shown that the radio sources of the periodic bursts radiate in a non-axisymmetric hollow cone-like pattern and sub-corotate with Jupiter remaining active during several planet's rotations. The occurrence of the periodic non-Io DAM bursts is strongly correlated with pulses of the solar wind ram pressure at Jupiter. Moreover the periodic bursts exhibit a tendency to occur in groups every ∼25 days. The polarization measurements have shown that the periodic bursts are right hand polarized radio emission associated with the Northern magnetic hemisphere of Jupiter. We suggest that periodic non-Io DAM bursts may be connected with the interchange instability in Io plasma torus triggered by the solar wind. PMID:23585696

  11. Periodic Bursts of Jovian Non-Io Decametric Radio Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panchenko, M.; Rucker, H O.; Farrell, W. M.

    2013-01-01

    During the years 2000-2011 the radio instruments onboard Cassini, Wind and STEREO spacecraft have Recorded a large amount of the Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). In this paper we report on the analysis of the new type of Jovian periodic radio bursts recently revealed in the decametric frequency range. These bursts, which are non-Io component of DAM, are characterized by a strong periodic reoccurrence over several Jovian days with a period approx. = 1:5% longer than the rotation rate of the planet's magnetosphere (System III). The bursts are typically observed between 4 and 12 MHz and their occurrence probability has been found to be significantly higher in the sector of Jovian Central Meridian Longitude between 300 deg. and 60 deg. (via 360 deg.). The stereoscopic multispacecraft observations have shown that the radio sources of the periodic bursts radiate in a non-axisymmetric hollow cone-like pattern and sub-corotate with Jupiter remaining active during several planet's rotations. The occurrence of the periodic non-Io DAM bursts is strongly correlated with pulses of the solar wind ram pressure at Jupiter. Moreover the periodic bursts exhibit a tendency to occur in groups every approx. 25 days. The polarization measurements have shown that the periodic bursts are right hand polarized radio emission associated with the Northern magnetic hemisphere of Jupiter. We suggest that periodic non-Io DAM bursts may be connected with the interchange instability in Io plasma torus triggered by the solar wind.

  12. Periodic bursts of Jovian non-Io decametric radio emission.

    PubMed

    Panchenko, M; Rucker, H O; Farrell, W M

    2013-03-01

    During the years 2000-2011 the radio instruments onboard Cassini, Wind and STEREO spacecraft have recorded a large amount of the Jovian decametric radio emission (DAM). In this paper we report on the analysis of the new type of Jovian periodic radio bursts recently revealed in the decametric frequency range. These bursts, which are non-Io component of DAM, are characterized by a strong periodic reoccurrence over several Jovian days with a period [Formula: see text] longer than the rotation rate of the planet's magnetosphere (System III). The bursts are typically observed between 4 and 12 MHz and their occurrence probability has been found to be significantly higher in the sector of Jovian Central Meridian Longitude between 300° and 60° (via 360°). The stereoscopic multispacecraft observations have shown that the radio sources of the periodic bursts radiate in a non-axisymmetric hollow cone-like pattern and sub-corotate with Jupiter remaining active during several planet's rotations. The occurrence of the periodic non-Io DAM bursts is strongly correlated with pulses of the solar wind ram pressure at Jupiter. Moreover the periodic bursts exhibit a tendency to occur in groups every [Formula: see text] days. The polarization measurements have shown that the periodic bursts are right hand polarized radio emission associated with the Northern magnetic hemisphere of Jupiter. We suggest that periodic non-Io DAM bursts may be connected with the interchange instability in Io plasma torus triggered by the solar wind.

  13. How Else Can We Detect Fast Radio Bursts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Lorimer, Duncan R.

    2016-06-01

    We discuss possible electromagnetic signals accompanying Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) that are expected in the scenario where FRBs originate in neutron star magnetospheres. For models involving Crab-like giant pulses, no appreciable contemporaneous emission is expected at other wavelengths. However, magnetar giant flares, driven by the reconfiguration of the magnetosphere, can produce both contemporaneous bursts at other wavelengths as well as afterglow-like emission. We conclude that the best chances are: (i) prompt short GRB-like emission, (ii) a contemporaneous optical flash that can reach naked eye peak luminosity (but only for a few milliseconds), and (iii) a high-energy afterglow emission. Case (i) could be tested by coordinated radio and high-energy experiments. Case (ii) could be seen in a coordinated radio-optical surveys, e.g., by the Palomar Transient Factory in a 60 s frame as a transient object of m = 15–20 mag with an expected optical detection rate of about 0.1 hr‑1, an order of magnitude higher than in radio. Shallow, but large-area sky surveys such as ASAS-SN and EVRYSCOPE could also detect prompt optical flashes from the more powerful Lorimer-burst clones. The best constraints on the optical to radio power for this kind of emission could be provided by future observations with facilities like Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Case (iii) might be seen in relatively rare cases that the relativistically ejected magnetic blob is moving along the line of sight.

  14. How Else Can We Detect Fast Radio Bursts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Lorimer, Duncan R.

    2016-06-01

    We discuss possible electromagnetic signals accompanying Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) that are expected in the scenario where FRBs originate in neutron star magnetospheres. For models involving Crab-like giant pulses, no appreciable contemporaneous emission is expected at other wavelengths. However, magnetar giant flares, driven by the reconfiguration of the magnetosphere, can produce both contemporaneous bursts at other wavelengths as well as afterglow-like emission. We conclude that the best chances are: (i) prompt short GRB-like emission, (ii) a contemporaneous optical flash that can reach naked eye peak luminosity (but only for a few milliseconds), and (iii) a high-energy afterglow emission. Case (i) could be tested by coordinated radio and high-energy experiments. Case (ii) could be seen in a coordinated radio-optical surveys, e.g., by the Palomar Transient Factory in a 60 s frame as a transient object of m = 15-20 mag with an expected optical detection rate of about 0.1 hr-1, an order of magnitude higher than in radio. Shallow, but large-area sky surveys such as ASAS-SN and EVRYSCOPE could also detect prompt optical flashes from the more powerful Lorimer-burst clones. The best constraints on the optical to radio power for this kind of emission could be provided by future observations with facilities like Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Case (iii) might be seen in relatively rare cases that the relativistically ejected magnetic blob is moving along the line of sight.

  15. Magnetospheric radio and plasma wave research - 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Kurth, W.S. )

    1991-01-01

    This review covers research performed in the area of magnetospheric plasma waves and wave-particle interactions as well as magnetospheric radio emissions. The report focuses on the near-completion of the discovery phase of radio and plasma wave phenomena in the planetary magnetospheres with the successful completion of the Voyager 2 encounters of Neptune and Uranus. Consideration is given to the advances made in detailed studies and theoretical investigations of radio and plasma wave phenomena in the terrestrial magnetosphere or in magnetospheric plasmas in general.

  16. Solar Radio Bursts and Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk,

    2012-01-01

    Radio bursts from the Sun are produced by electron accelerated to relativistic energies by physical processes on the Sun such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The radio bursts are thus good indicators of solar eruptions. Three types of nonthermal radio bursts are generally associated with CMEs. Type III bursts due to accelerated electrons propagating along open magnetic field lines. The electrons are thought to be accelerated at the reconnection region beneath the erupting CME, although there is another view that the electrons may be accelerated at the CME-driven shock. Type II bursts are due to electrons accelerated at the shock front. Type II bursts are also excellent indicators of solar energetic particle (SEP) events because the same shock is supposed accelerate electrons and ions. There is a hierarchical relationship between the wavelength range of type /I bursts and the CME kinetic energy. Finally, Type IV bursts are due to electrons trapped in moving or stationary structures. The low frequency stationary type IV bursts are observed occasionally in association with very fast CMEs. These bursts originate from flare loops behind the erupting CME and hence indicate tall loops. This paper presents a summary of radio bursts and their relation to CMEs and how they can be useful for space weather predictions.

  17. Forecasting SEP Events with Solar Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, J. R.; Winter, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events from the Sun occur when particles associated with solar bursts like CMEs and flares are propelled into space. These events can cause substantial damage to objects in their paths, like satellites, by penetrating into them and causing radiation. In a related recent study a method was devised to forecast the occurrence of an SEP event using properties of the type II and type III radio bursts measured from WIND/WAVES (Winter & Ledbetter 2015). This study analyzed 27 SEP events from 2010 to 2013. We now present an analysis of type II and type III bursts in solar cycle 23, associated with the 63 SEP events from 2000-2003. Parameters including the peak flux of type II bursts, integral flux of type II and II bursts, and the duration of type III bursts are used to create a radio index. This index is used to predict whether or not an SEP event will occur. Cycle 23 was more active than cycle 24, with significantly more radio bursts and SEP events. Our results show that the radio index successfully predicts the occurrence of SEPs for the events in the more active solar cycle 23. We also find that, in general, the higher the radio index the higher the peak proton flux will be following the burst.

  18. FRBCAT: The Fast Radio Burst Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, E.; Barr, E. D.; Jameson, A.; Keane, E. F.; Bailes, M.; Kramer, M.; Morello, V.; Tabbara, D.; van Straten, W.

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present a catalogue of known Fast Radio Burst sources in the form of an online catalogue, FRBCAT. The catalogue includes information about the instrumentation used for the observations for each detected burst, the measured quantities from each observation, and model-dependent quantities derived from observed quantities. To aid in consistent comparisons of burst properties such as width and signal-to-noise ratios, we have re-processed all the bursts for which we have access to the raw data, with software which we make available. The originally derived properties are also listed for comparison. The catalogue is hosted online as a Mysql database which can also be downloaded in tabular or plain text format for off-line use. This database will be maintained for use by the community for studies of the Fast Radio Burst population as it grows.

  19. Association of Energetic Neutral Atom Bursts and Magnetospheric Substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, A. M.; Kepko, L.; Henderson, M. G.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Sigwarth, J. B.; Frank, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present evidence that short-lived bursts of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) observed with the Comprehensive Energetic Particle and Pitch Angle Distribution/Imaging Proton Spectrometer (CEPPAD/IPS) instrument on the Polar spacecraft are signatures of substorms. The IPS was designed primarily to measure ions in situ, with energies between 17.5 and 1500 keV. However, it has also proven to be a very capable ENA imager in the range 17.5 keV to a couple hundred keV. It was expected that some ENA signatures of the storm time ring current would be observed. Interestingly, IPS also routinely measures weaker, shorter-lived, and more spatially confined bursts of ENAs with duration from a few tens of minutes to a few hours and appearing once or twice a day. One of these bursts was quickly associated with magnetospheric and auroral substorm activity and has been reported in the literature [Henderson et al., 19971. In this paper we characterize ENA bursts observed from Polar and establish statistically their association with classic substorm signatures (global auroral onsets, electron and ion injections, AL drops, and Pi2 onsets). We conclude that -90% of the observed ENA bursts are associated with classic substorms and thus represent a new type of substorm signature.

  20. How Soft Gamma Repeaters Might Make Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, J. I.

    2016-08-01

    There are several phenomenological similarities between soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) and fast radio bursts (FRBs), including duty factors, timescales, and repetition. The sudden release of magnetic energy in a neutron star magnetosphere, as in popular models of SGRs, can meet the energy requirements of FRBs, but requires both the presence of magnetospheric plasma, in order for dissipation to occur in a transparent region, and a mechanism for releasing much of that energy quickly. FRB sources and SGRs are distinguished by long-lived (up to thousands of years) current-carrying coronal arches remaining from the formation of the young neutron star, and their decay ends the phase of SGR/AXP/FRB activity even though “magnetar” fields may persist. Runaway increases in resistance when the current density exceeds a threshold, releases magnetostatic energy in a sudden burst, and produces high brightness GHz emission of FRB by a coherent process. SGRs are produced when released energy thermalizes as an equlibrium pair plasma. The failures of some alternative FRB models and the non-detection of SGR 1806-20 at radio frequencies are discussed in the appendices.

  1. The Green Bank Solar Radio Burst Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, T. S.; Bradley, R.; White, S.; Mastrantonio, E.

    2005-05-01

    The Solar Radio Burst Spectrometer (SRBS) is a project designed to 1) provide high quality radio dynamic spectra to the wider solar, heliospheric, and space weather communities; 2) serve as a development platform for ultra-wideband feeds and receivers. Dynamic spectroscopy is a powerful tool for observing radio bursts in the Sun's corona. These bursts are associated with solar flares and/or coronal mass ejections and result from coronal shocks (type II radio bursts), electron beams (type III radio bursts), and other forms of energy release in the corona. The community has been hampered by a lack of readily available dynamic spectra in the 12-24 hr UT time range, a shortcoming that has now been remedied. The instrument is located at the Green Bank Site of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in the National Radio Quiet Zone, where the effects of radio frequency interference are much reduced compared with unprotected sites. The spectrometer is composed of two swept-frequency systems that together support observations from 18 MHz to 2 GHz with a time resolution of approximately 1 sec. The low frequency system, operating from 18-70 MHz, is a standalone dipole antenna. The high frequency system is fed by an antenna mounted at the vertex of a 13.7 m telescope and operates from 70-300 MHz; a broadband feed at the prime focus of the telescope provides frequency coverage from 300-2500 MHz. The data are available daily through a web-based interface. Both raw and background-subtracted data are available in a variety of formats. Users are encouraged to view and download selected data for research or forecasting purposes.

  2. Solar Type III Radio Bursts: Directivity Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2015-09-01

    Type III radio bursts are a group of fast drifting radio emissions associated with solar flares. These radio emissions are believed to be excited at the fundamental and second harmonic of the electron plasma frequency, fpe by the electron beam excited Langmuir waves through a mechanism called the plasma mechanism. This mechanism attributes the dipole and quadrupole beam patterns for the fundamental and harmonic emissions. To verify these predictions, we analyze the simultaneous observations of type III radio bursts by the STEREO A, B and Wind spacecraft located at different vantage points in the ecliptic plane, and determine their normalized peak intensities (directivity factors) at each spacecraft using their time profiles. Assuming that the sources of these bursts are located on the Parker spiral magnetic field lines emerging from the associated active regions, we estimate the angles between the magnetic field directions and the lines connecting the sources to the spacecraft (viewing angles). Based on the plots of the directivity factors versus the viewing angles, one can divide these bursts into (1) intense bursts emitted into a narrow cone centered around the tangent to the magnetic field, and (2) relatively weaker bursts emitting into a wider cone centered around the tangent to the magnetic field. We compute the distributions of ray trajectories emitted by an isotropic point source and show that the refraction focuses the fundamental and harmonic emissions into narrow and wider cones, respectively. The comparison of these distributions with observations indicates that the intense bursts visible to a narrow range of angles around the tangent to the magnetic field probably correspond to the fundamental, and the relatively weaker bursts visible to a wide range of angles probably are the harmonic emissions.

  3. Radio Flares from Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopač, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Kobayashi, S.; Virgili, F. J.; Harrison, R.; Japelj, J.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A.; Gomboc, A.

    2015-06-01

    We present predictions of centimeter and millimeter radio emission from reverse shocks (RSs) in the early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the goal of determining their detectability with current and future radio facilities. Using a range of GRB properties, such as peak optical brightness and time, isotropic equivalent gamma-ray energy, and redshift, we simulate radio light curves in a framework generalized for any circumburst medium structure and including a parameterization of the shell thickness regime that is more realistic than the simple assumption of thick- or thin-shell approximations. Building on earlier work by Mundell et al. and Melandri et al. in which the typical frequency of the RS was suggested to lie at radio rather than optical wavelengths at early times, we show that the brightest and most distinct RS radio signatures are detectable up to 0.1-1 day after the burst, emphasizing the need for rapid radio follow-up. Detection is easier for bursts with later optical peaks, high isotropic energies, lower circumburst medium densities, and at observing frequencies that are less prone to synchrotron self-absorption effects—typically above a few GHz. Given recent detections of polarized prompt gamma-ray and optical RS emission, we suggest that detection of polarized radio/millimeter emission will unambiguously confirm the presence of low-frequency RSs at early time.

  4. RADIO FLARES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kopač, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Kobayashi, S.; Virgili, F. J.; Harrison, R.; Japelj, J.; Gomboc, A.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A.

    2015-06-20

    We present predictions of centimeter and millimeter radio emission from reverse shocks (RSs) in the early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the goal of determining their detectability with current and future radio facilities. Using a range of GRB properties, such as peak optical brightness and time, isotropic equivalent gamma-ray energy, and redshift, we simulate radio light curves in a framework generalized for any circumburst medium structure and including a parameterization of the shell thickness regime that is more realistic than the simple assumption of thick- or thin-shell approximations. Building on earlier work by Mundell et al. and Melandri et al. in which the typical frequency of the RS was suggested to lie at radio rather than optical wavelengths at early times, we show that the brightest and most distinct RS radio signatures are detectable up to 0.1–1 day after the burst, emphasizing the need for rapid radio follow-up. Detection is easier for bursts with later optical peaks, high isotropic energies, lower circumburst medium densities, and at observing frequencies that are less prone to synchrotron self-absorption effects—typically above a few GHz. Given recent detections of polarized prompt gamma-ray and optical RS emission, we suggest that detection of polarized radio/millimeter emission will unambiguously confirm the presence of low-frequency RSs at early time.

  5. Harmonic components of decametric solar radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsybko, Ia. G.

    1984-05-01

    Type IIIb, IIId, and III solar decametric radio bursts distinguished by the typical negative drift rate of their dynamic spectra are compared and noted to fall into two groups: the type IIIb chains of simple stria bursts and normal type III storm bursts observed at central regions constitute a group of events with a fast drifting spectrum, while type III bursts from type IIIb-III pairs and the limb variant of normal III bursts, as well as peculiar type IIId chains of diffuse striae and related chains with an echo component, constitute a second group of events with comparatively slow drift rates. The first group is associated with the fundamental F frequency; the second group is associated with the harmonic H of the coronal plasma frequency.

  6. Powerful Radio Burst Indicates New Astronomical Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    Astronomers studying archival data from an Australian radio telescope have discovered a powerful, short-lived burst of radio waves that they say indicates an entirely new type of astronomical phenomenon. Region of Strong Radio Burst Visible-light (negative greyscale) and radio (contours) image of Small Magellanic Cloud and area where burst originated. CREDIT: Lorimer et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file ( 114 KB) "This burst appears to have originated from the distant Universe and may have been produced by an exotic event such as the collision of two neutron stars or the death throes of an evaporating black hole," said Duncan Lorimer, Assistant Professor of Physics at West Virginia University (WVU) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The research team led by Lorimer consists of Matthew Bailes of Swinburne University in Australia, Maura McLaughlin of WVU and NRAO, David Narkevic of WVU, and Fronefield Crawford of Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The astronomers announced their findings in the September 27 issue of the online journal Science Express. The startling discovery came as WVU undergraduate student David Narkevic re-analyzed data from observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud made by the 210-foot Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The data came from a survey of the Magellanic Clouds that included 480 hours of observations. "This survey had sought to discover new pulsars, and the data already had been searched for the type of pulsating signals they produce," Lorimer said. "We re-examined the data, looking for bursts that, unlike the usual ones from pulsars, are not periodic," he added. The survey had covered the Magellanic Clouds, a pair of small galaxies in orbit around our own Milky Way Galaxy. Some 200,000 light-years from Earth, the Magellanic Clouds are prominent features in the Southern sky. Ironically, the new discovery is not part of these galaxies, but rather is much more distant

  7. Microsat and Lunar-Based Imaging of Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowall, R. J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Demaio, L. D.; Bale, S. D.; Kasper, J. C.; Lazarus, A. J.; Howard, R. E.; Jones, D. L.; Reiner, M. J.; Weiler, K. W.

    2005-01-01

    No present or approved spacecraft mission has the capability to provide high angular resolution imaging of solar or magnetospheric radio bursts or of the celestial sphere at frequencies below the ionospheric cutoff. Here, we describe a MIDEX-class mission to perform such imaging in the frequency range approx. 30 kHz to 15 MHz. This mission, the Solar Imaging Radio Array (SIRA), is solar and exploration-oriented, with emphasis on improved understanding and application of radio bursts associated with solar energetic particle (SEP) events and on tracking shocks and other components of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). SIRA will require 12 to 16 micro-satellites to establish a sufficient number of baselines with separations on the order of kilometers. The constellation consists of microsats located quasi-randomly on a spherical shell, initially of approx. 10 km diameter. The baseline microsat is 3-axis stabilized with body-mounted solar arrays and an articulated, earth pointing high gain antenna. The constellation will likely be placed at L1, which is the preferred location for full-time solar observations. We also discuss briefly follow-on missions that would be lunar-based with of order 10,000 dipole antennas.

  8. Plasma Density and Radio Echoes in the Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1995-01-01

    This project provided a opportunity to study a variety of interesting topics related to radio sounding in the magnetosphere. The results of this study are reported in two papers which have been submitted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research and Radio Science, and various aspects of this study were also reported at meetings of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) at Baltimore, Maryland and the International Scientific Radio Union (URSI) at Boulder, Colorado. The major results of this study were also summarized during a one-day symposium on this topic sponsored by Marshall Space Flight Center in December 1994. The purpose of the study was to examine the density structure of the plasmasphere and determine the relevant mechanisms for producing radio echoes which can be detected by a radio sounder in the magnetosphere. Under this study we have examined density irregularities, biteouts, and outliers of the plasmasphere, studied focusing, specular reflection, ducting, and scattering by the density structures expected to occur in the magnetosphere, and predicted the echoes which can be detected by a magnetospheric radio sounder.

  9. PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS ON FAST RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Luan, Jing; Goldreich, Peter

    2014-04-20

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are isolated, ms radio pulses with dispersion measure (DM) of order 10{sup 3} pc cm{sup –3}. Galactic candidates for the DM of high latitude bursts detected at GHz frequencies are easily dismissed. DM from bursts emitted in stellar coronas are limited by free-free absorption and those from H II regions are bounded by the nondetection of associated free-free emission at radio wavelengths. Thus, if astronomical, FRBs are probably extragalactic. FRB 110220 has a scattering tail of ∼5.6 ± 0.1 ms. If the electron density fluctuations arise from a turbulent cascade, the scattering is unlikely to be due to propagation through the diffuse intergalactic plasma. A more plausible explanation is that this burst sits in the central region of its host galaxy. Pulse durations of order ms constrain the sizes of FRB sources implying high brightness temperatures that indicates coherent emission. Electric fields near FRBs at cosmological distances would be so strong that they could accelerate free electrons from rest to relativistic energies in a single wave period.

  10. Powerful Radio Burst Indicates New Astronomical Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    Astronomers studying archival data from an Australian radio telescope have discovered a powerful, short-lived burst of radio waves that they say indicates an entirely new type of astronomical phenomenon. Region of Strong Radio Burst Visible-light (negative greyscale) and radio (contours) image of Small Magellanic Cloud and area where burst originated. CREDIT: Lorimer et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file ( 114 KB) "This burst appears to have originated from the distant Universe and may have been produced by an exotic event such as the collision of two neutron stars or the death throes of an evaporating black hole," said Duncan Lorimer, Assistant Professor of Physics at West Virginia University (WVU) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The research team led by Lorimer consists of Matthew Bailes of Swinburne University in Australia, Maura McLaughlin of WVU and NRAO, David Narkevic of WVU, and Fronefield Crawford of Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The astronomers announced their findings in the September 27 issue of the online journal Science Express. The startling discovery came as WVU undergraduate student David Narkevic re-analyzed data from observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud made by the 210-foot Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The data came from a survey of the Magellanic Clouds that included 480 hours of observations. "This survey had sought to discover new pulsars, and the data already had been searched for the type of pulsating signals they produce," Lorimer said. "We re-examined the data, looking for bursts that, unlike the usual ones from pulsars, are not periodic," he added. The survey had covered the Magellanic Clouds, a pair of small galaxies in orbit around our own Milky Way Galaxy. Some 200,000 light-years from Earth, the Magellanic Clouds are prominent features in the Southern sky. Ironically, the new discovery is not part of these galaxies, but rather is much more distant

  11. Terrestrial Myriametric Radio Burst Observed by IMAGE and Geotail Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Shing F.; Hashimoto, KoZo; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Boardson, Scott A.; Garcia, Leonard N.; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Green, James L.; Reinisch, Bodo W.

    2013-01-01

    We report the simultaneous detection of a terrestrial myriametric radio burst (TMRB) by IMAGE and Geotail on 19 August 2001. The TMRB was confined in time (0830-1006 UT) and frequency (12-50kHz). Comparisons with all known nonthermal myriametric radiation components reveal that the TMRB might be a distinct radiation with a source that is unrelated to the previously known radiation. Considerations of beaming from spin-modulation analysis and observing satellite and source locations suggest that the TMRB may have a fan beamlike radiation pattern emitted by a discrete, dayside source located along the poleward edge of magnetospheric cusp field lines. TMRB responsiveness to IMF Bz and By orientations suggests that a possible source of the TMRB could be due to dayside magnetic reconnection instigated by northward interplanetary field condition.

  12. Possible Source Location of the Terrestrial Myriametric Radio Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, S. F.; Shao, X.; Frey, H. U.; Garcia, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    Fung et al. [2013] reported recently the identification of a terrestrial myriametric radio burst (TMRB) that was possibly a result from a dayside high latitude reconnection process. The TMRB was observed simultaneously by the IMAGE and Geotail satellites when the satellites were located at widely different latitudes on opposite sides of the Earth in nearly the same meridional plane. The TMRB was observed when the interplanetary field was northward. Its intensity seemed to be modulated by the IMF Bz component while the source directions (relative to the Geotail positions over the TMRB interval) also seemed to respond to the changes in the IMF By component. In this paper, we will present further observations from the IMAGE FUV data during the TMRB interval, revealing the presence of a bright proton aurora spot at the cusp foot print and thus confirming the presence of high-latitude dayside reconnection at the time. We have also performed a CCMC run-on-request of a global magnetospheric simulation for a time period over the TMRB interval. We will present the CCMC results and discuss the possible identification of the location of the TMRB source. Fung, S. F., K. Hashimoto, H. Kojima, S. A. Boardsen, L. N. Garcia, H. Matsumoto, J. L. Green, and B. W. Reinisch (2013), Terrestrial myriametric radio burst observed by IMAGE and Geotail satellites, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, 1101-1111, doi:10.1002/jgra.50149.

  13. Fast Radio Bursts and Their Gamma-Ray or Radio Afterglows as Kerr-Newman Black Hole Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tong; Romero, Gustavo E.; Liu, Mo-Lin; Li, Ang

    2016-07-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are radio transients lasting only about a few milliseconds. They seem to occur at cosmological distances. We propose that these events can originate in the collapse of the magnetospheres of Kerr-Newman black holes (KNBHs). We show that the closed orbits of charged particles in the magnetospheres of these objects are unstable. After examining the dependencies on the specific charge of the particle and the spin and charge of the KNBH, we conclude that the resulting timescale and radiation mechanism fit well with extant observations of FRBs. Furthermore, we argue that the merger of a KNBH binary is a plausible central engine for the potential gamma-ray or radio afterglow following certain FRBs and can also account for gravitational wave (GW) events like GW 150914. Our model leads to predictions that can be tested by combined multi-wavelength electromagnetic and GW observations.

  14. Fast Radio Bursts and Their Gamma-Ray or Radio Afterglows as Kerr–Newman Black Hole Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tong; Romero, Gustavo E.; Liu, Mo-Lin; Li, Ang

    2016-07-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are radio transients lasting only about a few milliseconds. They seem to occur at cosmological distances. We propose that these events can originate in the collapse of the magnetospheres of Kerr–Newman black holes (KNBHs). We show that the closed orbits of charged particles in the magnetospheres of these objects are unstable. After examining the dependencies on the specific charge of the particle and the spin and charge of the KNBH, we conclude that the resulting timescale and radiation mechanism fit well with extant observations of FRBs. Furthermore, we argue that the merger of a KNBH binary is a plausible central engine for the potential gamma-ray or radio afterglow following certain FRBs and can also account for gravitational wave (GW) events like GW 150914. Our model leads to predictions that can be tested by combined multi-wavelength electromagnetic and GW observations.

  15. Interplanetary Shocks Lacking Type 2 Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Maekela, P.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Kaiser, M. L.; Howard, R. A.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the radio-emission characteristics of 222 interplanetary (IP) shocks detected by spacecraft at Sun-Earth L1 during solar cycle 23 (1996 to 2006, inclusive). A surprisingly large fraction of the IP shocks (approximately 34%) was radio quiet (RQ; i.e., the shocks lacked type II radio bursts). We examined the properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and soft X-ray flares associated with such RQ shocks and compared them with those of the radio-loud (RL) shocks. The CMEs associated with the RQ shocks were generally slow (average speed approximately 535 km/s) and only approximately 40% of the CMEs were halos. The corresponding numbers for CMEs associated with RL shocks were 1237 km/s and 72%, respectively. Thus, the CME kinetic energy seems to be the deciding factor in the radio-emission properties of shocks. The lower kinetic energy of CMEs associated with RQ shocks is also suggested by the lower peak soft X-ray flux of the associated flares (C3.4 versus M4.7 for RL shocks). CMEs associated with RQ CMEs were generally accelerating within the coronagraph field of view (average acceleration approximately +6.8 m/s (exp 2)), while those associated with RL shocks were decelerating (average acceleration approximately 3.5 m/s (exp 2)). This suggests that many of the RQ shocks formed at large distances from the Sun, typically beyond 10 Rs, consistent with the absence of metric and decameter-hectometric (DH) type II radio bursts. A small fraction of RL shocks had type II radio emission solely in the kilometric (km) wavelength domain. Interestingly, the kinematics of the CMEs associated with the km type II bursts is similar to those of RQ shocks, except that the former are slightly more energetic. Comparison of the shock Mach numbers at 1 AU shows that the RQ shocks are mostly subcritical, suggesting that they were not efficient in accelerating electrons. The Mach number values also indicate that most of these are quasi-perpendicular shocks. The radio-quietness is

  16. INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS LACKING TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Xie, H.; Maekelae, P.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Howard, R. A.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2010-02-20

    We report on the radio-emission characteristics of 222 interplanetary (IP) shocks detected by spacecraft at Sun-Earth L1 during solar cycle 23 (1996 to 2006, inclusive). A surprisingly large fraction of the IP shocks ({approx}34%) was radio quiet (RQ; i.e., the shocks lacked type II radio bursts). We examined the properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and soft X-ray flares associated with such RQ shocks and compared them with those of the radio-loud (RL) shocks. The CMEs associated with the RQ shocks were generally slow (average speed {approx}535 km s{sup -1}) and only {approx}40% of the CMEs were halos. The corresponding numbers for CMEs associated with RL shocks were 1237 km s{sup -1} and 72%, respectively. Thus, the CME kinetic energy seems to be the deciding factor in the radio-emission properties of shocks. The lower kinetic energy of CMEs associated with RQ shocks is also suggested by the lower peak soft X-ray flux of the associated flares (C3.4 versus M4.7 for RL shocks). CMEs associated with RQ CMEs were generally accelerating within the coronagraph field of view (average acceleration {approx}+6.8 m s{sup -2}), while those associated with RL shocks were decelerating (average acceleration {approx}-3.5 m s{sup -2}). This suggests that many of the RQ shocks formed at large distances from the Sun, typically beyond 10 Rs, consistent with the absence of metric and decameter-hectometric (DH) type II radio bursts. A small fraction of RL shocks had type II radio emission solely in the kilometric (km) wavelength domain. Interestingly, the kinematics of the CMEs associated with the km type II bursts is similar to those of RQ shocks, except that the former are slightly more energetic. Comparison of the shock Mach numbers at 1 AU shows that the RQ shocks are mostly subcritical, suggesting that they were not efficient in accelerating electrons. The Mach number values also indicate that most of these are quasi-perpendicular shocks. The radio-quietness is predominant

  17. Exploring the Progenitors of Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Kramer, Michael; Bhat, Ramesh; Kulkarni, S. R.; Keller, Stefan; Champion, David; Flynn, Chris; Kasliwal, Mansi

    2014-10-01

    Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are millisecond bursts that are broadly evidenced to arise from extragalactic, but yet unknown, progenitors. They have presented a true mystery in that so far no progenitor theory can adequately account for their observed properties. We request observations that will glean basic information on FRB progenitors. Our observations will execute a specific test of whether FRBs originate in nearby galaxies. We have also designed our target field and time request to enable a thorough exploration of optical counterparts before, during, and after any detected FRB episode. Additionally, with a number depending on the typical distance to FRBs, our observations will raise the running list of total FRB discoveries by 10-60%.

  18. FAST RADIO BURSTS AND RADIO TRANSIENTS FROM BLACK HOLE BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect

    Mingarelli, Chiara M. F.; Levin, Janna; Lazio, T. Joseph W.

    2015-12-01

    Most black holes (BHs) will absorb a neutron star (NS) companion fully intact without tidal disruption, suggesting the pair will remain dark to telescopes. Even without tidal disruption, electromagnetic (EM) luminosity is generated from the battery phase of the binary when the BH interacts with the NS magnetic field. Originally, the luminosity was expected to be in high-energy X-rays or gamma-rays, however, we conjecture that some of the battery power is emitted in the radio bandwidth. While the luminosity and timescale are suggestive of fast radio bursts (FRBs; millisecond-scale radio transients) NS–BH coalescence rates are too low to make these a primary FRB source. Instead, we propose that the transients form a FRB sub-population, distinguishable by a double peak with a precursor. The rapid ramp-up in luminosity manifests as a precursor to the burst which is 20%–80% as luminous given 0.5 ms timing resolution. The main burst arises from the peak luminosity before the merger. The post-merger burst follows from the NS magnetic field migration to the BH, causing a shock. NS–BH pairs are especially desirable for ground-based gravitational wave (GW) observatories since the pair might not otherwise be detected, with EM counterparts greatly augmenting the scientific leverage beyond the GW signal. The EM signal’s ability to break degeneracies in the parameters encoded in the GW and probe the NS magnetic field strength is quite valuable, yielding insights into open problems in NS magnetic field decay.

  19. Fast Radio Bursts and Radio Transients from Black Hole Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingarelli, Chiara M. F.; Levin, Janna; Lazio, T. Joseph W.

    2015-12-01

    Most black holes (BHs) will absorb a neutron star (NS) companion fully intact without tidal disruption, suggesting the pair will remain dark to telescopes. Even without tidal disruption, electromagnetic (EM) luminosity is generated from the battery phase of the binary when the BH interacts with the NS magnetic field. Originally, the luminosity was expected to be in high-energy X-rays or gamma-rays, however, we conjecture that some of the battery power is emitted in the radio bandwidth. While the luminosity and timescale are suggestive of fast radio bursts (FRBs; millisecond-scale radio transients) NS–BH coalescence rates are too low to make these a primary FRB source. Instead, we propose that the transients form a FRB sub-population, distinguishable by a double peak with a precursor. The rapid ramp-up in luminosity manifests as a precursor to the burst which is 20%–80% as luminous given 0.5 ms timing resolution. The main burst arises from the peak luminosity before the merger. The post-merger burst follows from the NS magnetic field migration to the BH, causing a shock. NS–BH pairs are especially desirable for ground-based gravitational wave (GW) observatories since the pair might not otherwise be detected, with EM counterparts greatly augmenting the scientific leverage beyond the GW signal. The EM signal’s ability to break degeneracies in the parameters encoded in the GW and probe the NS magnetic field strength is quite valuable, yielding insights into open problems in NS magnetic field decay.

  20. Magnetospheric Radio Tomography: Observables, Algorithms, and Experimental Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummer, Steven

    2005-01-01

    This grant supported research towards developing magnetospheric electron density and magnetic field remote sensing techniques via multistatic radio propagation and tomographic image reconstruction. This work was motivated by the need to better develop the basic technique of magnetospheric radio tomography, which holds substantial promise as a technology uniquely capable of imaging magnetic field and electron density in the magnetosphere on large scales with rapid cadence. Such images would provide an unprecedented and needed view into magnetospheric processes. By highlighting the systems-level interconnectedness of different regions, our understanding of space weather processes and ability to predict them would be dramatically enhanced. Three peer-reviewed publications and 5 conference presentations have resulted from this work, which supported 1 PhD student and 1 postdoctoral researcher. One more paper is in progress and will be submitted shortly. Because the main results of this research have been published or are soon to be published in refereed journal articles listed in the reference section of this document, we provide here an overview of the research and accomplishments without describing all of the details that are contained in the articles.

  1. Fast Radio Bursts and Radio Transients from Black Hole Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingarelli, Chiara; Levin, Janna; Lazio, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    Most black holes (BHs) will absorb a neutron star (NS) companion fully intact, without tidal disruption, suggesting the pair will remain dark to telescopes. Even without tidal disruption, electromagnetic (EM) luminosity is generated from the battery phase of the binary when the BH interacts with the NS magnetic field. Originally the luminosity was expected in high-energy X-rays or gamma-rays, however we conjecture that some of the battery power is emitted in the radio bandwidth. While the luminosity and timescale are suggestive of fast radio bursts (FRBs), NS-BH coalescence rates are too low to make these a primary FRB source. Instead, we propose the transients form a FRB sub-population, distinguishable by a double peak. The main burst is from the peak luminosity before merger, while the post-merger burst follows from the NS magnetic field migration to the BH, causing a shock. NS-BH pairs are desirable for ground-based gravitational wave (GW) observatories since the pair might not be detected any other way, with EM counterparts augmenting the scientific leverage beyond the GW signal. Valuably, EM signal can break degeneracies in the parameters encoded in the GW as well as probe the NS magnetic field strength, yielding insights into open problems in NS magnetic field decay.

  2. Quark nova model for fast radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shand, Zachary; Ouyed, Amir; Koning, Nico; Ouyed, Rachid

    2016-05-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are puzzling, millisecond, energetic radio transients with no discernible source; observations show no counterparts in other frequency bands. The birth of a quark star from a parent neutron star experiencing a quark nova - previously thought undetectable when born in isolation - provides a natural explanation for the emission characteristics of FRBs. The generation of unstable r-process elements in the quark nova ejecta provides millisecond exponential injection of electrons into the surrounding strong magnetic field at the parent neutron star's light cylinder via β-decay. This radio synchrotron emission has a total duration of hundreds of milliseconds and matches the observed spectrum while reducing the inferred dispersion measure by approximately 200 cm‑3 pc. The model allows indirect measurement of neutron star magnetic fields and periods in addition to providing astronomical measurements of β-decay chains of unstable neutron rich nuclei. Using this model, we can calculate expected FRB average energies (˜ 1041 erg) and spectral shapes, and provide a theoretical framework for determining distances.

  3. Quark nova model for fast radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shand, Zachary; Ouyed, Amir; Koning, Nico; Ouyed, Rachid

    2016-05-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are puzzling, millisecond, energetic radio transients with no discernible source; observations show no counterparts in other frequency bands. The birth of a quark star from a parent neutron star experiencing a quark nova - previously thought undetectable when born in isolation - provides a natural explanation for the emission characteristics of FRBs. The generation of unstable r-process elements in the quark nova ejecta provides millisecond exponential injection of electrons into the surrounding strong magnetic field at the parent neutron star's light cylinder via β-decay. This radio synchrotron emission has a total duration of hundreds of milliseconds and matches the observed spectrum while reducing the inferred dispersion measure by approximately 200 cm‑3 pc. The model allows indirect measurement of neutron star magnetic fields and periods in addition to providing astronomical measurements of β-decay chains of unstable neutron rich nuclei. Using this model, we can calculate expected FRB average energies (∼ 1041 erg) and spectral shapes, and provide a theoretical framework for determining distances.

  4. The Euclidean distribution of fast radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppermann, Niels; Connor, Liam D.; Pen, Ue-Li

    2016-09-01

    We investigate whether current data on the distribution of observed flux densities of fast radio bursts (FRBs) are consistent with a constant source density in Euclidean space. We use the number of FRBs detected in two surveys with different characteristics along with the observed signal-to-noise ratios of the detected FRBs in a formalism similar to a V/Vmax-test to constrain the distribution of flux densities. We find consistency between the data and a Euclidean distribution. Any extension of this model is therefore not data-driven and needs to be motivated separately. As a byproduct we also obtain new improved limits for the FRB rate at 1.4 GHz, which had not been constrained in this way before.

  5. Comparison of magnetospheres and radio emissions of Jupiter with earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libby, L. M.; Libby, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    The magnetosphere and radio emission of Jupiter is compared with those of the earth. It was predicted that Jupiter would have a Van Allen belt at a radius such that its magnetic field strength would be about equal to that in earth's Van Allen belt and that Jupiter's moon Io travels in the Van Allen belt. Because of Io's low conductivity, plasma sweeping past hits Io, producing a turbulent plasma proboscis which forms hydrodynamic shocks. These shocks travel down the magnetic field lines to the Jovian magnetosphere where they stimulate electron cyclotron emission and free radical spin-flip emission. The free radicals likely to exist abundantly and the richness of the likely decametric frequencies resulting from the many g values of the free radicals are discussed.

  6. ARBIS 3: A Software Package for Automated Radio Burst Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, V.; Cairns, I. H.; Robinson, P. A.; Steward, G.; Patterson, G.

    2010-12-01

    The major drivers of space weather are closely related to complicated explosion-like events on the Sun, i.e., solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CME). They are usually accompanied by type II and III solar radio bursts. Both type II and III solar radio bursts are assumed to be generated by fast electrons, the emission being at the local plasma frequency and/or its second harmonic. Type II radio bursts are associated with shock waves moving through the corona and solar wind with a typical speed of ~1000 km/s. These bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency gradually falling with time (~0.25 MHz/s), the duration of the coronal burst being several minutes. The speed of electrons responsible for type III bursts is much higher, ~c/3, where c is the speed of light, and typical duration of coronal type III events is 1-3 s. This paper describes an implementation of ARBIS 3, an extended version of Automated Radio Burst Identification System. ARBIS 3 detects coronal type II and type III radio bursts in near-real-time radio spectra from two observatories: Learmonth and Culgoora. The performance of the current implementation is quite high: ~84% for type III events observed at Learmonth and ~80% for type II bursts for both observatories. The probability of false type II events is reasonably low, 0.004-0.010 false positives per hour. The speeds of shocks associated with detected type II bursts are automatically estimated from radio data. For comparison, ARBIS 3 also shows information about CMEs detected by CACTUS in images from LASCO, as well as X-ray fluxes measured by GOES. Comparison of radio-derived results with information about CMEs and X-ray flares facilitates interpretation of radio data and space weather forecasting. Prospects for further improvements are discussed.

  7. CME-Associated Radio Bursts from Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2012-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are closely associated with various types of radio bursts from the Sun. All radio bursts are due to nonthermal electrons, which are accelerated during the eruption of CMEs. Radio bursts at frequencies below about 15 MHz are of particular interest because they are associated with energetic CMEs that contribute to severe space weather. The low-frequency bursts need to be observed primarily from space because of the ionospheric cutoff. The main CME-related radio bursts are associated are: type III bursts due to accelerated electrons propagating along open magnetic field lines, type II bursts due to electrons accelerated in shocks, and type IV bursts due to electrons trapped in post-eruption arcades behind CMEs. This paper presents a summary of results obtained during solar cycle 23 primarily using the white-light coronagraphic observations from the Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the WAVES experiment on board Wind. Particular emphasis will be placed on what we can learn about particle acceleration in the coronal and interplanetary medium by analyzing the CMEs and the associated radio bursts.

  8. The host galaxy of a fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Keane, E F; Johnston, S; Bhandari, S; Barr, E; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Caleb, M; Flynn, C; Jameson, A; Kramer, M; Petroff, E; Possenti, A; van Straten, W; Bailes, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; Eatough, R P; Stappers, B W; Totani, T; Honma, M; Furusawa, H; Hattori, T; Morokuma, T; Niino, Y; Sugai, H; Terai, T; Tominaga, N; Yamasaki, S; Yasuda, N; Allen, R; Cooke, J; Jencson, J; Kasliwal, M M; Kaplan, D L; Tingay, S J; Williams, A; Wayth, R; Chandra, P; Perrodin, D; Berezina, M; Mickaliger, M; Bassa, C

    2016-02-25

    In recent years, millisecond-duration radio signals originating in distant galaxies appear to have been discovered in the so-called fast radio bursts. These signals are dispersed according to a precise physical law and this dispersion is a key observable quantity, which, in tandem with a redshift measurement, can be used for fundamental physical investigations. Every fast radio burst has a dispersion measurement, but none before now have had a redshift measurement, because of the difficulty in pinpointing their celestial coordinates. Here we report the discovery of a fast radio burst and the identification of a fading radio transient lasting ~6 days after the event, which we use to identify the host galaxy; we measure the galaxy's redshift to be z = 0.492 ± 0.008. The dispersion measure and redshift, in combination, provide a direct measurement of the cosmic density of ionized baryons in the intergalactic medium of ΩIGM = 4.9 ± 1.3 per cent, in agreement with the expectation from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, and including all of the so-called 'missing baryons'. The ~6-day radio transient is largely consistent with the radio afterglow of a short γ-ray burst, and its existence and timescale do not support progenitor models such as giant pulses from pulsars, and supernovae. This contrasts with the interpretation of another recently discovered fast radio burst, suggesting that there are at least two classes of bursts. PMID:26911781

  9. The host galaxy of a fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Keane, E F; Johnston, S; Bhandari, S; Barr, E; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Caleb, M; Flynn, C; Jameson, A; Kramer, M; Petroff, E; Possenti, A; van Straten, W; Bailes, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; Eatough, R P; Stappers, B W; Totani, T; Honma, M; Furusawa, H; Hattori, T; Morokuma, T; Niino, Y; Sugai, H; Terai, T; Tominaga, N; Yamasaki, S; Yasuda, N; Allen, R; Cooke, J; Jencson, J; Kasliwal, M M; Kaplan, D L; Tingay, S J; Williams, A; Wayth, R; Chandra, P; Perrodin, D; Berezina, M; Mickaliger, M; Bassa, C

    2016-02-25

    In recent years, millisecond-duration radio signals originating in distant galaxies appear to have been discovered in the so-called fast radio bursts. These signals are dispersed according to a precise physical law and this dispersion is a key observable quantity, which, in tandem with a redshift measurement, can be used for fundamental physical investigations. Every fast radio burst has a dispersion measurement, but none before now have had a redshift measurement, because of the difficulty in pinpointing their celestial coordinates. Here we report the discovery of a fast radio burst and the identification of a fading radio transient lasting ~6 days after the event, which we use to identify the host galaxy; we measure the galaxy's redshift to be z = 0.492 ± 0.008. The dispersion measure and redshift, in combination, provide a direct measurement of the cosmic density of ionized baryons in the intergalactic medium of ΩIGM = 4.9 ± 1.3 per cent, in agreement with the expectation from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, and including all of the so-called 'missing baryons'. The ~6-day radio transient is largely consistent with the radio afterglow of a short γ-ray burst, and its existence and timescale do not support progenitor models such as giant pulses from pulsars, and supernovae. This contrasts with the interpretation of another recently discovered fast radio burst, suggesting that there are at least two classes of bursts.

  10. Mergers of Charged Black Holes: Gravitational-wave Events, Short Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing

    2016-08-01

    The discoveries of GW150914, GW151226, and LVT151012 suggest that double black hole (BH-BH) mergers are common in the universe. If at least one of the two merging black holes (BHs) carries a certain amount of charge, possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere, the inspiral of a BH-BH system would drive a global magnetic dipole normal to the orbital plane. The rapidly evolving magnetic moment during the merging process would drive a Poynting flux with an increasing wind power. The magnetospheric activities during the final phase of the merger would make a fast radio burst (FRB) if the BH charge can be as large as a factor of \\hat{q}˜ ({10}-9{--}{10}-8) of the critical charge Q c of the BH. At large radii, dissipation of the Poynting flux energy in the outflow would power a short-duration high-energy transient, which would appear as a detectable short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) if the charge can be as large as \\hat{q}˜ ({10}-5{--}{10}-4). The putative short GRB coincident with GW150914 recorded by Fermi GBM may be interpreted with this model. Future joint GW/GRB/FRB searches would lead to a measurement or place a constraint on the charges carried by isolate BHs.

  11. Mergers of Charged Black Holes: Gravitational-wave Events, Short Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing

    2016-08-01

    The discoveries of GW150914, GW151226, and LVT151012 suggest that double black hole (BH–BH) mergers are common in the universe. If at least one of the two merging black holes (BHs) carries a certain amount of charge, possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere, the inspiral of a BH–BH system would drive a global magnetic dipole normal to the orbital plane. The rapidly evolving magnetic moment during the merging process would drive a Poynting flux with an increasing wind power. The magnetospheric activities during the final phase of the merger would make a fast radio burst (FRB) if the BH charge can be as large as a factor of \\hat{q}˜ ({10}-9{--}{10}-8) of the critical charge Q c of the BH. At large radii, dissipation of the Poynting flux energy in the outflow would power a short-duration high-energy transient, which would appear as a detectable short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) if the charge can be as large as \\hat{q}˜ ({10}-5{--}{10}-4). The putative short GRB coincident with GW150914 recorded by Fermi GBM may be interpreted with this model. Future joint GW/GRB/FRB searches would lead to a measurement or place a constraint on the charges carried by isolate BHs.

  12. Automatic recognition of type III solar radio bursts: Automated Radio Burst Identification System method and first observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, Vasili V.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.; Steward, Graham; Patterson, Garth

    2009-04-01

    Because of the rapidly increasing role of technology, including complicated electronic systems, spacecraft, etc., modern society has become more vulnerable to a set of extraterrestrial influences (space weather) and requires continuous observation and forecasts of space weather. The major space weather events like solar flares and coronal mass ejections are usually accompanied by solar radio bursts, which can be used for a real-time space weather forecast. Coronal type III radio bursts are produced near the local electron plasma frequency and near its harmonic by fast electrons ejected from the solar active regions and moving through the corona and solar wind. These bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency rapidly falling with time, the typical duration of the coronal burst being about 1-3 s. This paper presents a new method developed to detect coronal type III bursts automatically and its implementation in a new Automated Radio Burst Identification System. The central idea of the implementation is to use the Radon transform for more objective detection of the bursts as approximately straight lines in dynamic spectra. Preliminary tests of the method with the use of the spectra obtained during 13 days show that the performance of the current implementation is quite high, ˜84%, while no false positives are observed and 23 events not listed previously are found. Prospects for improvements are discussed. The first automatically detected coronal type III radio bursts are presented.

  13. Observations and interpretation of solar decameter type IIIb radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishan, V.; Subramanian, K. R.; Sastry, C. V.

    1980-06-01

    Observations on the time structure of short duration, narrow band solar decameter type IIIb radio bursts are presented along with a theoretical model accounting for various features of the bursts. In contrast to the theory of Smith and de la Noe (1976), the electromagnetic modes of the plasma are immersed in the electric and magnetic fields in the presented theory, and the electric field enters at the single particle level and thus is accounted for in a more exact manner. In addition, the direction of propagation of the type IIIb radio burst is more clearly indicated by this theory than by Smith and de la Noe (1976).

  14. Observation of a Metric Type N Solar Radio Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangliang; Chen, Yao; Feng, Shiwei; Du, Guohui; Li, Chuanyang; Koval, Artem; Vasanth, V.; Wang, Bing; Guo, Fan; Li, Gang

    2016-10-01

    Type III and type-III-like radio bursts are produced by energetic electron beams guided along coronal magnetic fields. As a variant of type III bursts, Type N bursts appear as the letter “N” in the radio dynamic spectrum and reveal a magnetic mirror effect in coronal loops. Here, we report a well-observed N-shaped burst consisting of three successive branches at metric wavelength with both fundamental and harmonic components and a high brightness temperature (>109 K). We verify the burst as a true type N burst generated by the same electron beam from three aspects of the data. First, durations of the three branches at a given frequency increase gradually and may be due to the dispersion of the beam along its path. Second, the flare site, as the only possible source of non-thermal electrons, is near the western feet of large-scale closed loops. Third, the first branch and the following two branches are localized at different legs of the loops with opposite senses of polarization. We also find that the sense of polarization of the radio burst is in contradiction to the O-mode and there exists a fairly large time delay (∼3–5 s) between the fundamental and harmonic components. Possible explanations accounting for these observations are presented. Assuming the classical plasma emission mechanism, we can infer coronal parameters such as electron density and magnetic field near the radio source and make diagnostics on the magnetic mirror process.

  15. The host galaxy of a fast radio burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, E. F.; Johnston, S.; Bhandari, S.; Barr, E.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Caleb, M.; Flynn, C.; Jameson, A.; Kramer, M.; Petroff, E.; Possenti, A.; van Straten, W.; Bailes, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Eatough, R. P.; Stappers, B. W.; Totani, T.; Honma, M.; Furusawa, H.; Hattori, T.; Morokuma, T.; Niino, Y.; Sugai, H.; Terai, T.; Tominaga, N.; Yamasaki, S.; Yasuda, N.; Allen, R.; Cooke, J.; Jencson, J.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Tingay, S. J.; Williams, A.; Wayth, R.; Chandra, P.; Perrodin, D.; Berezina, M.; Mickaliger, M.; Bassa, C.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, millisecond-duration radio signals originating in distant galaxies appear to have been discovered in the so-called fast radio bursts. These signals are dispersed according to a precise physical law and this dispersion is a key observable quantity, which, in tandem with a redshift measurement, can be used for fundamental physical investigations. Every fast radio burst has a dispersion measurement, but none before now have had a redshift measurement, because of the difficulty in pinpointing their celestial coordinates. Here we report the discovery of a fast radio burst and the identification of a fading radio transient lasting ~6 days after the event, which we use to identify the host galaxy; we measure the galaxy’s redshift to be z = 0.492 ± 0.008. The dispersion measure and redshift, in combination, provide a direct measurement of the cosmic density of ionized baryons in the intergalactic medium of ΩIGM = 4.9 ± 1.3 per cent, in agreement with the expectation from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, and including all of the so-called ‘missing baryons’. The ~6-day radio transient is largely consistent with the radio afterglow of a short γ-ray burst, and its existence and timescale do not support progenitor models such as giant pulses from pulsars, and supernovae. This contrasts with the interpretation of another recently discovered fast radio burst, suggesting that there are at least two classes of bursts.

  16. Implications of fast radio bursts for superconducting cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yun-Wei; Cheng, Kwong-Sang; Shiu, Gary; Tye, Henry E-mail: hrspksc@hku.hk E-mail: iastye@ust.hk

    2014-11-01

    Highly beamed, short-duration electromagnetic bursts could be produced by superconducting cosmic string (SCS) loops oscillating in cosmic magnetic fields. We demonstrated that the basic characteristics of SCS bursts such as the electromagnetic frequency and the energy release could be consistently exhibited in the recently discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs). Moreover, it is first showed that the redshift distribution of the FRBs can also be well accounted for by the SCS burst model. Such agreements between the FRBs and SCS bursts suggest that the FRBs could originate from SCS bursts and thus they could provide an effective probe to study SCSs. The obtained values of model parameters indicate that the loops generating the FRBs have a small length scale and they are mostly formed in the radiation-dominated cosmological epoch.

  17. Low-Frequency Radio Bursts and Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency radio phenomena are due to the presence of nonthermal electrons in the interplanetary (IP) medium. Understanding these phenomena is important in characterizing the space environment near Earth and other destinations in the solar system. Substantial progress has been made in the past two decades, because of the continuous and uniform data sets available from space-based radio and white-light instrumentation. This paper highlights some recent results obtained on IP radio phenomena. In particular, the source of type IV radio bursts, the behavior of type III storms, shock propagation in the IP medium, and the solar-cycle variation of type II radio bursts are considered. All these phenomena are closely related to solar eruptions and active region evolution. The results presented were obtained by combining data from the Wind and SOHO missions.

  18. A TYPE II RADIO BURST WITHOUT A CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Su, W.; Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.; Sun, J. Q. E-mail: dmd@nju.edu.cn

    2015-05-10

    Type II radio bursts are thought to be a signature of coronal shocks. In this paper, we analyze a short-lived type II burst that started at 07:40 UT on 2011 February 28. By carefully checking white-light images, we find that the type II radio burst is not accompanied by a coronal mass ejection, only by a C2.4 class flare and narrow jet. However, in the EUV images provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we find a wave-like structure that propagated at a speed of ∼600 km s{sup −1} during the burst. The relationship between the type II radio burst and the wave-like structure is, in particular, explored. For this purpose, we first derive the density distribution under the wave by the differential emission measure method, which is used to restrict the empirical density model. We then use the restricted density model to invert the speed of the shock that produces the observed frequency drift rate in the dynamic spectrum. The inverted shock speed is similar to the speed of the wave-like structure. This implies that the wave-like structure is most likely a coronal shock that produces the type II radio burst. We also examine the evolution of the magnetic field in the flare-associated active region and find continuous flux emergence and cancellation taking place near the flare site. Based on these facts, we propose a new mechanism for the formation of the type II radio burst, i.e., the expansion of the strongly inclined magnetic loops after reconnecting with a nearby emerging flux acts as a piston to generate the shock wave.

  19. A Type II Radio Burst without a Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, W.; Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.; Sun, J. Q.

    2015-05-01

    Type II radio bursts are thought to be a signature of coronal shocks. In this paper, we analyze a short-lived type II burst that started at 07:40 UT on 2011 February 28. By carefully checking white-light images, we find that the type II radio burst is not accompanied by a coronal mass ejection, only by a C2.4 class flare and narrow jet. However, in the EUV images provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we find a wave-like structure that propagated at a speed of ˜600 km s-1 during the burst. The relationship between the type II radio burst and the wave-like structure is, in particular, explored. For this purpose, we first derive the density distribution under the wave by the differential emission measure method, which is used to restrict the empirical density model. We then use the restricted density model to invert the speed of the shock that produces the observed frequency drift rate in the dynamic spectrum. The inverted shock speed is similar to the speed of the wave-like structure. This implies that the wave-like structure is most likely a coronal shock that produces the type II radio burst. We also examine the evolution of the magnetic field in the flare-associated active region and find continuous flux emergence and cancellation taking place near the flare site. Based on these facts, we propose a new mechanism for the formation of the type II radio burst, i.e., the expansion of the strongly inclined magnetic loops after reconnecting with a nearby emerging flux acts as a piston to generate the shock wave.

  20. Observing Solar and Jovian Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grippaldi, Joseph

    2011-05-01

    A recently constructed low frequency radio telescope has been constructed on the campus of the The College of New Jersey (TCNJ) has recently begun conducting observations at 20MHz as part of NASA'a Radio Jove program. This instrument is capable of observations of Jovian radio emission including strong prompt radio emission associated with the Jovian moon Io. We will discuss Jovian observations conducted with this instrument as an effort to conduct coincident observation with the Eight-meter-wavelength Transient Array (ETA) and the Long Wavelength Array (LWA).

  1. Theory of type IIIb solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.; De La Noe, J.

    1976-01-01

    During the initial space-time evolution of an electron beam injected into the corona, the strong beam-plasma interaction occurs at the head of the beam, leading to the amplification of a quasi-monochromatic large-amplitude plasma wave that stabilizes by trapping the beam particles. Oscillation of the trapped particles in the wave troughs amplifies sideband electrostatic waves. The sidebands and the main wave subsequently decay to observable transverse electromagnetic waves through the parametric decay instability. This process gives rise to the elementary striation bursts. Owing to velocity dispersion in the beam and the density gradient of the corona, the entire process may repeat at a finite number of discrete plasma levels, producing chains of elementary bursts. All the properties of the type IIIb bursts are accounted for in the context of the theory.

  2. Background Information: Deciphering Gamma Ray Burst Physics With Radio Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    For 30 years, Gamma Ray Bursts, now known to be the most energetic explosions in the sky, have intrigued scientists and constituted one of the greatest mysteries in astrophysics. Such basic details as their exact locations in the sky and their distances from Earth remained unknown or subject to intense debate until just last year. With the discovery of "afterglows" at X-ray, visible, infrared and radio wavelengths, scientists have been able to study the physics of these explosive fireballs for the first time. Radio telescopes, the NSF's VLA in particular, are vitally important in this quest for the answers about Gamma Ray Bursts. Planned improvements to the VLA will make it an even more valuable tool in this field. Since their first identification in 1967 by satellites orbited to monitor compliance with the atmospheric nuclear test ban, more than 2,000 Gamma Ray Bursts have been detected. The celestial positions of the bursts have only been well-localized since early 1997, when the Italian- Dutch satellite Beppo-SAX went into operation. Since Beppo-SAX began providing improved information on burst positions, other instruments, both orbiting and ground-based, have been able to study the afterglows. So far, X-ray afterglows have been seen in about a dozen bursts, visible-light afterglows in six and radio afterglows in three. The search for radio emission from Gamma Ray Bursts has been an ongoing, target-of-opportunity program at the VLA for more than four years, led by NRAO scientist Dale Frail. The detection of afterglows "opens up a new era in the studies of Gamma Ray Bursts," Princeton University theorist Bohdan Paczynski wrote in a recent scientific paper. Optical studies of GRB 970508 indicated a distance of at least seven billion light-years, the first distance measured for a Gamma Ray Burst. VLA studies of the same burst showed that the fireball was about a tenth of a light-year in diameter a few days after the explosion and that it was expanding at very

  3. Radio frequency interference affecting type III solar burst observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anim, N. M.; Hamidi, Z. S.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Monstein, C.; Rohizat, N. S.

    2013-05-01

    The solar burst extinguish from the Sun's corona atmosphere and it dynamical structure of the magnetic field in radio wavelength are studied. Observation of solar radio burst with Compact Astronomical Low cost Low frequency Instrument for Spectroscopy and Transportable Observatory (CALLISTO) from ETH, Zurich in frequency range of 45 until 870 MHz. Observation done at Pusat Angkasa Negara, Banting, Selangor and successfully detected the solar burst type III on 9th March 2012 from 4:22:00 UT until 4:28:00 UT. The solar burst emission is associated with M6.3 solar flare which occurred at sunspot AR1429 at 03:58UT were observed by NOAA. Frequency ranges chosen as the best ranges for solar monitoring in Malaysia is 150 MHz until 400 MHz. The highest signal amplitude within this frequency ranges is 1.7619 dB at 153.188 MHz (Government Use) have potential to influence the detection of solar radio burst type III within 20 until 400 MHz.

  4. SHORT-LIVED RADIO BURSTS FROM THE CRAB PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, J. H.; Eilek, J. A.; Hankins, T. H.; Kern, J. S.

    2010-10-20

    Our high-time-resolution observations reveal that individual main pulses from the Crab pulsar contain one or more short-lived microbursts. Both the energy and duration of bursts measured above 1 GHz can vary dramatically in less than a millisecond. These fluctuations are too rapid to be caused by propagation through turbulence in the Crab Nebula or in the interstellar medium; they must be intrinsic to the radio emission process in the pulsar. The mean duration of a burst varies with frequency as {nu}{sup -2}, significantly different from the broadening caused by interstellar scattering. We compare the properties of the bursts to some simple models of microstructure in the radio emission region.

  5. On the correlation between exciter duration and decay constant of solar decameter Type III radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, K. R.; Krishan, V.; Sastry, Ch. V.

    1981-04-01

    It is observed that while there exists a strong correlation between the decay constant and the exciter duration for isolated Type III radio bursts, it is absent for those Type III radio bursts which are preceded by Type IIIb radio bursts. A possible theoretical explanation for the presence of correlation in one case and lack of it in the other is proposed.

  6. Dense magnetized plasma associated with a fast radio burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, Kiyoshi; Lin, Hsiu-Hsien; Sievers, Jonathan; Anderson, Christopher J.; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Xuelei; Ganguly, Apratim; Jarvis, Miranda; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Li, Yi-Chao; Liao, Yu-Wei; McLaughlin, Maura; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Roman, Alexander; Timbie, Peter T.; Voytek, Tabitha; Yadav, Jaswant K.

    2015-12-01

    Fast radio bursts are bright, unresolved, non-repeating, broadband, millisecond flashes, found primarily at high Galactic latitudes, with dispersion measures much larger than expected for a Galactic source. The inferred all-sky burst rate is comparable to the core-collapse supernova rate out to redshift 0.5. If the observed dispersion measures are assumed to be dominated by the intergalactic medium, the sources are at cosmological distances with redshifts of 0.2 to 1 (refs 10 and 11). These parameters are consistent with a wide range of source models. One fast burst revealed circular polarization of the radio emission, but no linear polarization was detected, and hence no Faraday rotation measure could be determined. Here we report the examination of archival data revealing Faraday rotation in the fast radio burst FRB 110523. Its radio flux and dispersion measure are consistent with values from previously reported bursts and, accounting for a Galactic contribution to the dispersion and using a model of intergalactic electron density, we place the source at a maximum redshift of 0.5. The burst has a much higher rotation measure than expected for this line of sight through the Milky Way and the intergalactic medium, indicating magnetization in the vicinity of the source itself or within a host galaxy. The pulse was scattered by two distinct plasma screens during propagation, which requires either a dense nebula associated with the source or a location within the central region of its host galaxy. The detection in this instance of magnetization and scattering that are both local to the source favours models involving young stellar populations such as magnetars over models involving the mergers of older neutron stars, which are more likely to be located in low-density regions of the host galaxy.

  7. Dense magnetized plasma associated with a fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Masui, Kiyoshi; Lin, Hsiu-Hsien; Sievers, Jonathan; Anderson, Christopher J; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Xuelei; Ganguly, Apratim; Jarvis, Miranda; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Li, Yi-Chao; Liao, Yu-Wei; McLaughlin, Maura; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Roman, Alexander; Timbie, Peter T; Voytek, Tabitha; Yadav, Jaswant K

    2015-12-24

    Fast radio bursts are bright, unresolved, non-repeating, broadband, millisecond flashes, found primarily at high Galactic latitudes, with dispersion measures much larger than expected for a Galactic source. The inferred all-sky burst rate is comparable to the core-collapse supernova rate out to redshift 0.5. If the observed dispersion measures are assumed to be dominated by the intergalactic medium, the sources are at cosmological distances with redshifts of 0.2 to 1 (refs 10 and 11). These parameters are consistent with a wide range of source models. One fast burst revealed circular polarization of the radio emission, but no linear polarization was detected, and hence no Faraday rotation measure could be determined. Here we report the examination of archival data revealing Faraday rotation in the fast radio burst FRB 110523. Its radio flux and dispersion measure are consistent with values from previously reported bursts and, accounting for a Galactic contribution to the dispersion and using a model of intergalactic electron density, we place the source at a maximum redshift of 0.5. The burst has a much higher rotation measure than expected for this line of sight through the Milky Way and the intergalactic medium, indicating magnetization in the vicinity of the source itself or within a host galaxy. The pulse was scattered by two distinct plasma screens during propagation, which requires either a dense nebula associated with the source or a location within the central region of its host galaxy. The detection in this instance of magnetization and scattering that are both local to the source favours models involving young stellar populations such as magnetars over models involving the mergers of older neutron stars, which are more likely to be located in low-density regions of the host galaxy. PMID:26633633

  8. Dense magnetized plasma associated with a fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Masui, Kiyoshi; Lin, Hsiu-Hsien; Sievers, Jonathan; Anderson, Christopher J; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Xuelei; Ganguly, Apratim; Jarvis, Miranda; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Li, Yi-Chao; Liao, Yu-Wei; McLaughlin, Maura; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Roman, Alexander; Timbie, Peter T; Voytek, Tabitha; Yadav, Jaswant K

    2015-12-24

    Fast radio bursts are bright, unresolved, non-repeating, broadband, millisecond flashes, found primarily at high Galactic latitudes, with dispersion measures much larger than expected for a Galactic source. The inferred all-sky burst rate is comparable to the core-collapse supernova rate out to redshift 0.5. If the observed dispersion measures are assumed to be dominated by the intergalactic medium, the sources are at cosmological distances with redshifts of 0.2 to 1 (refs 10 and 11). These parameters are consistent with a wide range of source models. One fast burst revealed circular polarization of the radio emission, but no linear polarization was detected, and hence no Faraday rotation measure could be determined. Here we report the examination of archival data revealing Faraday rotation in the fast radio burst FRB 110523. Its radio flux and dispersion measure are consistent with values from previously reported bursts and, accounting for a Galactic contribution to the dispersion and using a model of intergalactic electron density, we place the source at a maximum redshift of 0.5. The burst has a much higher rotation measure than expected for this line of sight through the Milky Way and the intergalactic medium, indicating magnetization in the vicinity of the source itself or within a host galaxy. The pulse was scattered by two distinct plasma screens during propagation, which requires either a dense nebula associated with the source or a location within the central region of its host galaxy. The detection in this instance of magnetization and scattering that are both local to the source favours models involving young stellar populations such as magnetars over models involving the mergers of older neutron stars, which are more likely to be located in low-density regions of the host galaxy.

  9. Coincident bursts of auroral kilometric radiation and VLF emissions associated with a type III solar radio noise event

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, T.J.; Singh, S.; Wu, C.S.; LaBelle, J.; Treumann, R.A.; Inan, U.S.; Lanzerotti, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines an isolated magnetospheric VLF/radio noise event that is highly suggestive of the triggering of terrestrial auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) by solar type III radio emission and of a close relation between AKR and broadband hiss. The solar type III burst was measured on polar HF riometers and was coincident with local dayside VLF/LF noise emission bursts at South Pole station. It was also coincident with AKR bursts detected on the AMPTE/IRM satellite, at the same magnetic local time as South Pole. On the basis of the close association of AKR and VLF bursts, and from geometrical considerations relating to wave propagnation, it is likely that the AKR source was on the dayside and on field lines near South Pole station. The general level of geomagnetic activity was very low. However, an isolated magnetic impulse event (MIE) accompanied by a riometer absorption pulse was in progress when all of the VLF/radio noise bursts occurred. The very close association of the type III burst at HF with the AKR is consistent with external stimulation of the AKR, if a different, more immediate, triggering process than that implied by Calvert is invoked. It is suggested here that some of the HF solar radiant energy may decay into waves with frequencies comparable to those of the AKR by parametric excitation or some other process, thus providing the few background photons required for the generation of AKR by the Wu and Lee cyclotron maser instability. The AKR, perhaps by modifying the magnetospheric electron velocity distribution, might have produced the observed VLF emissions. Alternatively, the VLF emissions may have arisen from the same anisotropic and unstable electron distribution function responsible for the AKR. 41 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Coincident bursts of auroral kilometric radiation and VLF emissions associted with a type 3 solar radio noise event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, T. J.; Singh, S.; Wu, C. S.; Labelle, J.; Treumann, R. A.; Inan, U. S.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines an isolated magnetospheric VLF/radio noise event that is highly suggestive of the triggering of terrestrial auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) bu solar type III radio emission and of a close relation between AKR and broadband hiss. The solar type III burst was measured on polar HF riometers and was coincident with local dayside VLF/LF noise emission bursts at South Pole station. It was also coincident with AKR bursts detected onthe AMPTE/IRM satellite, at the same magnetic local time as South Pole. On the basis of the close association of AKR and VLF bursts, and from geometric considerations relating to wave propagation, it is likely that the AKR source was on the dayside and on field lines near South Pole station. The general level of geomagnetic activity was very low. However, an isolated magnetic impulse event (MIE) accompanied by a riometer absorption pulse was in progress when all of the VLF/radio noise bursts occurred. The very close association of the typew III burst at HF with the AKR is consistent with external stimulation of the AKR, is different, more immediate,triggering process than that implied by Calvert (1981) is invoked. It is suggested here that some of the HF solar radiant energy may decay into waves with frequences comparable to those of the AKR by paraetric excitation or some other process, thus providing the few background photons required for the generation of AKR by the WU and Lee (1979) cyclotron maser instability. The AKR, perhaps by modifying the magnetospheric electron velocity distribution, might have produced the observed VLF emissions. Alternatively, the VLF emissions may have arisen from the same anisotropic and unstable electron distribution function responsible for the AKR.

  11. First Radio Burst Imaging Observation From Mingantu Ultrawide Spectral Radioheliograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yihua; Chen, Linjie; Yu, Sijie; CSRH Team

    2015-08-01

    Radio imaging spectroscopy over wide range wavelength in dm/cm-bands will open new windows on solar flares and coronal mass ejections by tracing the radio emissions from accelerated electrons. The Chinese Spectral Radioheliograph (CSRH) with two arrays in 400MHz-2GHz /2-15GHz ranges with 64/532 frequency channels have been established in Mingantu Observing Station, Inner Mongolia of China, since 2013 and is in test observations now. CSRH is renamed as MUSER (Mingantu Ultrawide SpEctral Radioheliograph) after it's accomplishment We will introduce the progress and current status of CSRH. Some preliminary results of CSRH will be presented.On 11 Nov2014, the first burst event was registered by MUSER-I array at 400MHz-2GHz waveband. According to SGD event list there was a C-class flare peaked at 04:49UT in the disk center and the radio bursts around 04:22-04:24UT was attributed to this flare. However, MUSER-I image observation of the burst indicates that the radio burst peaked around 04:22UT was due to the eruption at the east limb of the Sun and connected to a CME appeared in that direction about 1 hour later. This demonstrate the importance of the spectroscopy observation of the solar radio burst.Acknowledgement: The CSRH team includes Wei Wang, Zhijun Chen, Fei Liu, Lihong Geng and Jian Zhang and CSRH project is supported by National Major Scientific Equipment R&D Project ZDYZ2009-3. The research was also supported by NSFC grants (11433006, 11221063), MOST grant (MOST2011CB811401), CAS Pilot-B Project (XDB09000000) and Marie Curie PIRSES- GA-295272-RADIOSUN.

  12. Nuclear burst plasma injection into the magnetosphere and resulting spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, A. L.; Cipolla, J. A.; Silevitch, M. B.; Golden, K. I.

    1977-01-01

    The passage of debris from a high altitude ( 400 km) nuclear burst over the ionospheric plasma is found to be capable of exciting large amplitude whistler waves which can act to structure a collisionless shock. This instability will occur in the loss cone exits of the nuclear debris bubble, and the accelerated ambient ions will freestream along the magnetic field lines into the magnetosphere. Using Starfish-like parameters and accounting for plasma diffusion and thermalization of the propagating plasma mass, it is found that synchronous orbit plasma fluxes of high temperature electrons (near 10 keV) will be significantly greater than those encountered during magnetospheric substorms. These fluxes will last for sufficiently long periods of time so as to charge immersed bodies to high potentials and arc discharges to take place.

  13. Gamma-ray bursts from magnetospheric plasma oscillations. II - Model spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melia, Fulvio

    1990-01-01

    Several mechanisms for the primary release of energy in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) may result in the excitation of relativistic, magnetospheric plasma oscillations above the polar cap of a neutron star. This paper presents a survey of detailed calculations of the inverse Compton scattering interaction between the sinusoidally accelerated particles in relativistic, magnetospheric plasma oscillations and the self-consistently determined thermal radiation from the stellar surface. The upscattered photons are boosted to gamma-ray energies and a Monte Carlo simulation is used to obtain the spectrum for different viewing angles relative to the magnetic field in the oscillating region. It is shown that several GRB spectral characteristics may be understood in the context of a model wherein the overall spectrum changes with aspect angle as a result of the superposition of four components with different angular distributions.

  14. Type 2 radio bursts, interplanetary shocks and energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Stone, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    Using the ISEE-3 radio astronomy experiment data 37 interplanetary (IP) type II bursts have been identified in the period September 1978 to December 1981. These events and the associated phenomena are listed. The events are preceded by intense, soft X ray events with long decay times (LDEs) and type II and/or type IV bursts at meter wavelengths. The meter wavelength type II bursts are usually intense and exhibit herringbone structure. The extension of the herringbone structure into the kilometer wavelength range results in the occurrence of a shock accelerated (SA) event. The majority of the interplanetary type II bursts are associated with energetic particle events. These results support other studies which indicate that energetic solar particles detected at 1 A.U. are generated by shock acceleration. From a preliminary analysis of the available data there appears to be a high correlation with white light coronal transients.

  15. Burst Memory and Event Trigger System for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletzing, C. A.; Ergun, R. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Bounds, S. R.; Hesse, M.; Mauk, B.; Moore, T. E.; Young, D. T.

    2005-12-01

    To achieve the highest resolution measurement of the physics of magnetic reconnection, the MMS SMART measurements will utilize a high data rate burst storage system for capturing those intervals when the MMS spacecraft traverse important regions of interest. Two basic modes of data taking are planned, Slow Survey and Fast Survey. Fast Survey mode is targeted at the broad regions of the magnetosphere where reconnection can occur. Slow Survey is aimed an regions of secondary science importance. In Fast Survey, all instruments in the SMART suite continually send high rate data to the Central Instrument Data Processor (CIDP) which holds this data in a circular buffer. Along with this data, each instrument sends a burst data quality (BDQ) flag which represents the scientific "quality" of the preceding period for consideration as a burst interval. The CIDP on each spacecraft collects the individual BDQ's and combines them via a predetermined algorithm into a spacecraft data quality (SDQ) flag. Each spacecraft then sends its individual SDQ to the other three spacecraft via the Interspacecraft Ranging and Alarm System (IRAS). After a short latency period all four spacecraft have all four SDQ values and compute a mission data quality (MDQ) flag. If this flag is above the appropriate threshold then all spacecraft save identical data intervals from from the circular buffer for transmission to the ground during the next downlink. If This flexible scheme will yield optimized science data collection and allows the evolution of the burst data criteria as the best burst triggers are identified.

  16. Periodicities of Interplanetary Solar Type III radio bursts occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimovic, Milan; Navrer-Agasson, Anyssa; Sperone-Longin, Damien; Bonnin, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    We have analyzed 15 years of solar radio observations by the Wind spacecraft in order to detect automatically the Interplanetary Solar Type III radio bursts occurrence. We then compare the daily number of type III radio emissions with the daily number of sunspots. We find, as expected, a very good correlation between the two quantities. We investigate then for periodicities in the daily occurrence of type III bursts by applying a wavelet analysis and compare these periodicities to the ones obtained with the sunspots. We observe a typical Rieger-Type period of about 150 days for both the Type IIIs and the sunspots, with a temporal location of the maximum of this periodicity which is however different for the two data sets. We discuss this difference and compare our results to previous similar studies applied on ground based observations of Type III activity.

  17. Low frequency spectra of type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Flux density spectra have been determined for 91 simple type III solar bursts observed by the Goddard Space Flight Center radio astronomy experiment on the IMP-6 spacecraft during 1971 and 1972. Spectral peaks were found to occur at frequencies ranging from 44 kHz up to 2500 kHz. Half of the bursts peaked between 250 kHz and 900 kHz, corresponding to emission at solar distances of about 0.3 to 0.1 AU. Maximum burst flux density sometimes exceeds 10 to the -14th W/sq m/Hz. The primary factor controlling the spectral peak frequency of these bursts appears to be a variation in intrinsic power radiated by the source as the exciter moves outward from the sun, rather than radio propagation effects between the source and IMP-6. Thus, a burst spectrum strongly reflects the evolution of the properties of the exciting electron beam, and according to current theory, beam deceleration could help account for the observations.

  18. TWO POPULATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURST RADIO AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, P. J.; Gaensler, B. M.; Murphy, T.

    2013-10-20

    The detection rate of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows is ∼30% at radio wavelengths, much lower than in the X-ray (∼95%) or optical (∼70%) bands. The cause of this low radio detection rate has previously been attributed to limited observing sensitivity. We use visibility stacking to test this idea, and conclude that the low detection rate is instead due to two intrinsically different populations of GRBs: radio-bright and radio-faint. We calculate that no more than 70% of GRB afterglows are truly radio-bright, leaving a significant population of GRBs that lack a radio afterglow. These radio-bright GRBs have higher gamma-ray fluence, isotropic energies, X-ray fluxes, and optical fluxes than the radio-faint GRBs, thus confirming the existence of two physically distinct populations. We suggest that the gamma-ray efficiency of the prompt emission is responsible for the difference between the two populations. We also discuss the implications for future radio and optical surveys.

  19. Radio Bursts as Diagnostics of Relative Abundances in Solar Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cane, H. V.; Richardson, I. G.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    2008-05-01

    Based solely on the presence of associated low frequency type III radio bursts with specific characteristics, Cane et al. (2002) suggested that large solar energetic particle events are likely to include contributions from particles accelerated in the associated flares. Studies using ACE/SIS observations of O and Fe intensity-time profiles have supported this suggestion. Nevertheless, some researchers have argued that particles cannot be flare accelerated if the relative abundances differ from those in the small particle events that are widely accepted to be composed of flare particles. However, based on the radio data, the flare particles in large events are not released at the time of the flare soft X-ray onset but are delayed, either because they are accelerated later or released later. These changed conditions are expected to alter the relative abundances (electrons to protons, heavy to light ions) compared to those associated with small flares. From a comprehensive analysis of the characteristics of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares and radio bursts (at metric and longer wavelengths) associated with the ~340 proton events at >25 MeV that occurred during solar cycle 23, we confirm earlier results (Cane et al. 1986) that the timing of the type III bursts is a reasonable discriminator for the relative abundances at the start of solar particle events. In contrast, the speeds of the associated CMEs do not discriminate events, nor does the presence of meter wavelength type II bursts. Cane, H. V., R. E. McGuire, and T. T. von Rosenvinge (1986), Two classes of solar energetic particle events associated with impulsive and long-duration soft X-ray flares, Astrophys. J., 301, 448. Cane, H. V., W. C. Erickson, and N. P. Prestage (2002), Solar flares, type III radio bursts, coronal mass ejections, and energetic particles, J. Geophys. Res., 107(A10), 1315, doi:10.1029/2001JA000320.

  20. A Search for Fast Radio Bursts in GALFACTS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Tyler; Salter, Christopher J.; Ghosh, Tapasi

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are transient radio sources whose high dispersion measures suggest they are of extra-galactic origin. They are particularly difficult to detect because, unlike other fast radio transients, they are non-recurring events. At present, 11 such bursts have been detected, 10 by the Parkes Radio Telescope and one by Arecibo Observatory. The G-ALFA Continuum Transit Survey (GALFACTS) is the highest resolution, full-Stokes, radio-continuum survey of the foreground sky. The Arecibo radio telescope is the largest single-aperture telescope in the world, offering the superior point-source sensitivity necessary to detect additional FRBs. GALFACTS utilizes Arecibo's ALFA receiver, an L-band 7-beam feed array, to produce a high-time (1 ms), low-spectral (MHz) resolution (HTLS) data stream between 1225 and 1525 MHz. We used ``Red_Transient", a robust search pipeline developed by A.A. Deshpande, to de-disperse the HTLS data with the intention of detecting FRBs in the ~30% of the total sky surveyed by GALFACTS. Concurrently, the student produced a similar search pipeline to calibrate HTLS data and validate detections by ``Red_Transient". Here, we present the results of initial processing runs on the first several days of GALFACTS observations. Currently, no FRB detections have been found. However, the detection of pulses from the known pulsar J1916+1312 indicates that ``Red_Transient" is capable of detecting fast transient signals present in the data stream.

  1. Solar type III radio burst emission process

    SciTech Connect

    Wentzel, D.G.

    1982-05-01

    The interplanetary type III radio emission has been explained by two qualitatively different nonlinear plasma processes, invoking respectively one- and two-dimensional evolution of plasma wave packets. This paper asks: Is solar coronal type III emission consistent with plasma solitons evolving in one dimension. Although the answer is at best a qualified yes, the theory suggests observational questions that have attracted little attention so far.

  2. Stabilization of electron streams in type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Goldstein, M. L.; Smith, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    We show that the electron streams that give rise to type III solar radio bursts are stable and will not be decelerated while propagating out of the solar corona. The stabilization mechanism depends on the parametric oscillating two-stream instability. Radiation is produced near the fundamental and second harmonic of the local electron plasma frequency. Estimates of the emission at the second harmonic indicate that the wave spectra created by the oscillating two-stream instability can account for the observed intensities of type III bursts.

  3. Coronas Mass Ejections, Shocks, and Type II Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2010-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most energetic phenomena in the interplanetary medium. Type II radio bursts are the earliest indicators of particle acceleration by CME-driven shocks. There is one-to-one correspondence between large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and long wavelength type II bursts because the same CME-driven shock is supposed to accelerate electrons and ions. However, there are some significant deviations: some CMEs lacking type II bursts (radio-quiet or RQ CMEs) are associated with small SEP events while some radioloud (RL) CMEs are not associated with SEP events, suggesting subtle differences in the acceleration of electrons and protons. Not all CME-driven shocks are radio loud: more than one third of the interplanetary shocks during solar cycle 23 were radio quiet. Some RQ shocks were associated with energetic storm particle (ESP) events, which are detected when the shocks arrive at the observing spacecraft. This paper attempts to explain these contradictory results in terms of the properties of CMEs, shocks, and the ambient medium.

  4. Near-Relativistic Solar Electrons and Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    Recently it has been found that the inferred injection times of greater than 25 keV electrons are up to 30 minutes later than the start times of the associated type III radio bursts at the Sun. Thus it has been suggested that the electrons that produce type III bursts do not belong to the same population as those observed above 25 keV. This paper examines the characteristics and circumstances of 79 solar electron beam events measured on the ACE spacecraft. Particular attention is paid to the very low frequency emissions of the associated radio bursts and the ambient conditions at the arrival times of the electrons at the spacecraft. It is found that the inferred greater than 25 keV electron injection delays are correlated with the times required for the associated radio bursts to drift to the lowest frequencies. This suggests that the electrons responsible for the radio emission and those observed above 25 keV are part of a single population, and that the electrons both above and below 25 keV are delayed in the interplanetary medium. Further evidence for a single population is the general correspondence between electron and local radio intensities and temporal profiles. It is found that the delays increase with the ambient solar wind density consistent with the propagation times of the electrons being determined by the characteristics of the interplanetary medium. However it is known that particle arrival times at 1 AU are a linear function of inverse particle speed. Conventionally such a relationship is taken to indicate scatter-free propagation when inferred path lengths lie close to 1.2 AU, as they do for the electron events studied here. These conflicting interpretations require further investigation.

  5. Demonstration of a viable quantitative theory for interplanetary type II radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. M.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2016-03-01

    Between 29 November and 1 December 2013 the two widely separated spacecraft STEREO A and B observed a long lasting, intermittent, type II radio burst for the extended frequency range ≈ 4 MHz to 30 kHz, including an intensification when the shock wave of the associated coronal mass ejection (CME) reached STEREO A. We demonstrate for the first time our ability to quantitatively and accurately simulate the fundamental (F) and harmonic (H) emission of type II bursts from the higher corona (near 11 solar radii) to 1 AU. Our modeling requires the combination of data-driven three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations for the CME and plasma background, carried out with the BATS-R-US code, with an analytic quantitative kinetic model for both F and H radio emission, including the electron reflection at the shock, growth of Langmuir waves and radio waves, and the radiations propagation to an arbitrary observer. The intensities and frequencies of the observed radio emissions vary hugely by factors ≈ 106 and ≈ 103, respectively; the theoretical predictions are impressively accurate, being typically in error by less than a factor of 10 and 20 %, for both STEREO A and B. We also obtain accurate predictions for the timing and characteristics of the shock and local radio onsets at STEREO A, the lack of such onsets at STEREO B, and the z-component of the magnetic field at STEREO A ahead of the shock, and in the sheath. Very strong support is provided by these multiple agreements for the theory, the efficacy of the BATS-R-US code, and the vision of using type IIs and associated data-theory iterations to predict whether a CME will impact Earth's magnetosphere and drive space weather events.

  6. Interplanetary baseline observations of type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, R. R.; Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Novaco, J. C.; Fainberg, J.

    1977-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of type III radio bursts from spacecraft separated by 0.43 AU have been made using the solar orbiters Helios-A and Helios-B. The burst beginning at 19:22 UT on March 28, 1976, has been located from the intersection of the source directions measured at each spacecraft and from burst arrival-time differences. The source positions range from 0.03 AU from the sun at 3000 kHz to 0.08 AU at 585 kHz. The electron density along the burst trajectory and the exciter velocity (0.13c) were determined directly without the need to assume a density model, as has been done with single-spacecraft observations. The separation of Helios-A and -B has also provided measurements of burst directivity at low frequencies. For the March 28 burst the intensity observed from near the source longitude (Helios-B) was 3-10dB greater than that from 60 deg west of the source (Helios-A)

  7. Study of spatial and energy characteristics of relativistic electron bursts in magnetosphere with robust methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharaspayev, T. R.; Aleksandrin, S. Yu; Koldashov, S. V.

    2016-02-01

    Electron bursts are well-known phenomena of fast increase in particle fluxes in near-Earth space. Powerful local geophysical events like earthquakes or thunderstorms can induce precipitation of electrons with defined energy spectrum from the radiation belt, which would be registered as fast increase in particle count rate on board the low orbit satellite. Using particle burst energy spectrum evolution in time one can detect the area of particles precipitation. Background particles are registered by instruments too and can't be separated from burst particles. High level of background particles can have large impact on detection of the area of particles precipitation. A robust regression method to solve problem of background particles is introduced and compared with standard method of linear regression. Results of comparison between various data analysis methods in application to study of spatial and energy characteristics of relativistic electron bursts in the Earth magnetosphere are presented in this work. Robust method proved to be optimal for data analysis of energy spectrum evolution in time for search of zones of local radiation belt disturbances.

  8. MULTI-WAVELENGTH AFTERGLOWS OF FAST RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Shuang-Xi; Gao, He; Zhang, Bing

    2014-09-01

    The physical origin of fast radio bursts (FRBs) is unknown. Detecting electromagnetic counterparts to FRBs in other wavelengths is essential to measure their distances and to determine their physical origin. Assuming that at least some of them are of cosmological origin, we calculate their afterglow light curves in multiple wavelengths (X-rays, optical, and radio) by assuming a range of total kinetic energies and redshifts. We focus on forward shock emission, but also consider the possibility that some of the FRBs might have bright reverse shock emission. In general, FRB afterglows are too faint to be detected by current detectors. Only if an FRB has a very low radiative efficiency in radio (hence, a very large kinetic energy), and when it is close enough to observe can its afterglow be detected in the optical and radio bands. We discuss observational strategies for detecting these faint afterglows using future telescopes such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and Expanded Very Large Array.

  9. Magnetospherically driven optical and radio aurorae at the end of the stellar main sequence.

    PubMed

    Hallinan, G; Littlefair, S P; Cotter, G; Bourke, S; Harding, L K; Pineda, J S; Butler, R P; Golden, A; Basri, G; Doyle, J G; Kao, M M; Berdyugina, S V; Kuznetsov, A; Rupen, M P; Antonova, A

    2015-07-30

    Aurorae are detected from all the magnetized planets in our Solar System, including Earth. They are powered by magnetospheric current systems that lead to the precipitation of energetic electrons into the high-latitude regions of the upper atmosphere. In the case of the gas-giant planets, these aurorae include highly polarized radio emission at kilohertz and megahertz frequencies produced by the precipitating electrons, as well as continuum and line emission in the infrared, optical, ultraviolet and X-ray parts of the spectrum, associated with the collisional excitation and heating of the hydrogen-dominated atmosphere. Here we report simultaneous radio and optical spectroscopic observations of an object at the end of the stellar main sequence, located right at the boundary between stars and brown dwarfs, from which we have detected radio and optical auroral emissions both powered by magnetospheric currents. Whereas the magnetic activity of stars like our Sun is powered by processes that occur in their lower atmospheres, these aurorae are powered by processes originating much further out in the magnetosphere of the dwarf star that couple energy into the lower atmosphere. The dissipated power is at least four orders of magnitude larger than what is produced in the Jovian magnetosphere, revealing aurorae to be a potentially ubiquitous signature of large-scale magnetospheres that can scale to luminosities far greater than those observed in our Solar System. These magnetospheric current systems may also play a part in powering some of the weather phenomena reported on brown dwarfs. PMID:26223623

  10. Magnetospherically driven optical and radio aurorae at the end of the stellar main sequence.

    PubMed

    Hallinan, G; Littlefair, S P; Cotter, G; Bourke, S; Harding, L K; Pineda, J S; Butler, R P; Golden, A; Basri, G; Doyle, J G; Kao, M M; Berdyugina, S V; Kuznetsov, A; Rupen, M P; Antonova, A

    2015-07-30

    Aurorae are detected from all the magnetized planets in our Solar System, including Earth. They are powered by magnetospheric current systems that lead to the precipitation of energetic electrons into the high-latitude regions of the upper atmosphere. In the case of the gas-giant planets, these aurorae include highly polarized radio emission at kilohertz and megahertz frequencies produced by the precipitating electrons, as well as continuum and line emission in the infrared, optical, ultraviolet and X-ray parts of the spectrum, associated with the collisional excitation and heating of the hydrogen-dominated atmosphere. Here we report simultaneous radio and optical spectroscopic observations of an object at the end of the stellar main sequence, located right at the boundary between stars and brown dwarfs, from which we have detected radio and optical auroral emissions both powered by magnetospheric currents. Whereas the magnetic activity of stars like our Sun is powered by processes that occur in their lower atmospheres, these aurorae are powered by processes originating much further out in the magnetosphere of the dwarf star that couple energy into the lower atmosphere. The dissipated power is at least four orders of magnitude larger than what is produced in the Jovian magnetosphere, revealing aurorae to be a potentially ubiquitous signature of large-scale magnetospheres that can scale to luminosities far greater than those observed in our Solar System. These magnetospheric current systems may also play a part in powering some of the weather phenomena reported on brown dwarfs.

  11. Emission Patterns of Solar Type III Radio Bursts: Stereoscopic Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R.; Bergamo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of solar type III radio bursts obtained by the STEREO A, B, and WIND spacecraft at low frequencies from different vantage points in the ecliptic plane are used to determine their directivity. The heliolongitudes of the sources of these bursts, estimated at different frequencies by assuming that they are located on the Parker spiral magnetic field lines emerging from the associated active regions into the spherically symmetric solar atmosphere, and the heliolongitudes of the spacecraft are used to estimate the viewing angle, which is the angle between the direction of the magnetic field at the source and the line connecting the source to the spacecraft. The normalized peak intensities at each spacecraft Rj = Ij /[Sigma]Ij (the subscript j corresponds to the spacecraft STEREO A, B, and WIND), which are defined as the directivity factors are determined using the time profiles of the type III bursts. It is shown that the distribution of the viewing angles divides the type III bursts into: (1) bursts emitting into a very narrow cone centered around the tangent to the magnetic field with angular width of approximately 2 deg and (2) bursts emitting into a wider cone with angular width spanning from [approx] -100 deg to approximately 100 deg. The plots of the directivity factors versus the viewing angles of the sources from all three spacecraft indicate that the type III emissions are very intense along the tangent to the spiral magnetic field lines at the source, and steadily fall as the viewing angles increase to higher values. The comparison of these emission patterns with the computed distributions of the ray trajectories indicate that the intense bursts visible in a narrow range of angles around the magnetic field directions probably are emitted in the fundamental mode, whereas the relatively weaker bursts visible to a wide range of angles are probably emitted in the harmonic mode.

  12. A universal EDF for repeating fast radio bursts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenbin; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-09-01

    We make three assumptions: fast radio bursts (FRBs) are produced by neutron stars at cosmological distances; FRB rate tracks the core-collapse supernova rate; and all FRBs repeat with a universal energy distribution function (EDF) ddot{N}/dE ∝ E^{-β } with a cutoff at burst energy Emax. We then find that observations so far are consistent with a universal EDF with 1.5 ≲ β ≲ 2.2, high-end cutoff Emax/E0 ≳ 30 and normalization dot{N}_0 ≲ 2 d^{-1}; where dot{N}_0 is the integrated rate above the reference energy E_0 ˜eq 1.2× 10^{39} f_r^{-1} erg (fr is the radio emission efficiency). Implications of such an EDF are discussed.

  13. A follow-up campaign for fast radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, Emily; Possenti, Andrea; Johnston, Simon; Kramer, Michael; Bailes, Matthew; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; van Straten, Willem; Keane, Evan; Champion, David; Jameson, Andrew; Ng, Cherry; Barr, Ewan; Flynn, Chris; Caleb, Manisha

    2014-04-01

    Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are bright, millisecond-duration radio pulses hypothesized to originate at cosmological distances. To date, no counterpart sources have been associated with FRBs and their origins remain a puzzling mystery. Some have proposed FRBs come from Crab-like pulsar giant pulses or rare bursts from main sequence flare stars in our Galaxy. Both mechanisms would generate observable subsequent FRB-like events. In this proposal we directly test this hypothesis by conducting several follow-up observations on the eight FRBs from the High Time Resolution Universe Survey. This sample represents the majority of the dozen or so known FRB sources. With these observations we will set strict limits on any repetition of FRBs while using the 12 off-source beams of the multi-beam receiver as real-time FRB and transient detectors.

  14. Gamma-ray bursts and radio pulsar glitches

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, D.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M. California University, Berkeley Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse, )

    1992-03-01

    Upper limits to gamma-ray fluxes produced in conjunction with a radio pulsar glitch are presented. The glitch occurred on the Vela pulsar on December 24, 1988 and was the first to be observed as it occurred. Sensitive gamma-ray burst detectors aboard the Phobos 2 spacecraft were operating at this time, but recorded no significant burst at the time of the glitch. It is concluded that if a gamma-ray burst was generated in the energy range to which the Phobos detectors were sensitive, and if it was not beamed away from the spacecraft, the efficiency of glitch energy conversion into gamma-rays could not have exceeded 10 exp -4. 27 refs.

  15. Fast radio burst discovered in the Arecibo pulsar ALFA survey

    SciTech Connect

    Spitler, L. G.; Freire, P. C. C.; Lazarus, P.; Lee, K. J.; Cordes, J. M.; Chatterjee, S.; Wharton, R. S.; Brazier, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Lorimer, D. R.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Kaspi, V. M.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Allen, B.; Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F.; Jenet, F. A.; Knispel, B.; and others

    2014-08-01

    Recent work has exploited pulsar survey data to identify temporally isolated, millisecond-duration radio bursts with large dispersion measures (DMs). These bursts have been interpreted as arising from a population of extragalactic sources, in which case they would provide unprecedented opportunities for probing the intergalactic medium; they may also be linked to new source classes. Until now, however, all so-called fast radio bursts (FRBs) have been detected with the Parkes radio telescope and its 13-beam receiver, casting some concern about the astrophysical nature of these signals. Here we present FRB 121102, the first FRB discovery from a geographic location other than Parkes. FRB 121102 was found in the Galactic anti-center region in the 1.4 GHz Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) survey with the Arecibo Observatory with a DM = 557.4 ± 2.0 pc cm{sup –3}, pulse width of 3.0 ± 0.5 ms, and no evidence of interstellar scattering. The observed delay of the signal arrival time with frequency agrees precisely with the expectation of dispersion through an ionized medium. Despite its low Galactic latitude (b = –0.°2), the burst has three times the maximum Galactic DM expected along this particular line of sight, suggesting an extragalactic origin. A peculiar aspect of the signal is an inverted spectrum; we interpret this as a consequence of being detected in a sidelobe of the ALFA receiver. FRB 121102's brightness, duration, and the inferred event rate are all consistent with the properties of the previously detected Parkes bursts.

  16. Terrestrial Myriametric Radio Burst Observed by IMAGE and Geotail Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Shing F.; Hashimoto, Kozo; Boardsen, Scott A.; Garcia, Leonard N.; Green, James L.; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Reinisch, Bodo W.

    2010-01-01

    We report IMAGE and Geotail simultaneous observations of a terrestrial myriametric radio burst (TMRB) detected on August 19, 2001. The TMRB was confined in time (0830-1006 UT) and frequency (12-50 kHz), suggesting a fan beam-like emission pattern from a single discrete source. Analysis and comparisons with existing TMR radiations strongly suggest that the TMRB is a distinct emission perhaps resulting from dayside magnetic reconnection instigated by northward interplanetary field condition.

  17. Simultaneous observations of earthward flow bursts and plasmoid ejection during magnetospheric substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, J. A.; Fairfield, D. H.; Lepping, R. P.; Hesse, M.; Ieda, A.; Tanskanen, E.; Østgaard, N.; Mukai, T.; Nagai, T.; Singer, H. J.; Sutcliffe, P. R.

    2002-07-01

    Examination of observations taken by radially aligned International Solar Terrestrial Physics spacecraft in the nightside magnetosphere on 9 July 1997 has revealed close temporal correlations between earthward flow bursts in the plasma sheet and the ejection of plasmoids. A one-dimensional model of plasma sheet flow is applied to these observations to determine the time and location for the initiation of lobe flux tube reconnection. For the single clear flow burst-plasmoid pair observed during the first substorm and the three pairs produced by the second substorm, lobe flux reconnection was inferred to have started at X ~ -15 to -18 RE, respectively, about 2-5 min prior to the observations of substorm expansion phase onset. These time delays and propagation speeds are shown to be consistent with the measured plasma sheet bulk flow speeds. Substorm expansion phase onset was essentially coincident with the arrival of the flow bursts at Geotail, which was located near the inner edge of the plasma sheet at X ~ -9 RE. The dipolarization of the magnetic field at geosynchronous orbit, auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) emissions, Pi2 pulsations, high-latitude negative magnetic bays, and auroral breakup marking substorm expansion onset are all coincident within the +/-1 min resolution of the measurements. Accordingly, it appears that earthward of the inner edge of the plasma sheet, where Geotail was located, substorm effects propagated at speeds comparable to the Alfven speed characteristic of the high-latitude inner magnetosphere, ~103 km s-1. In summary, the results of our investigation strongly support the modern near-Earth neutral line (NENL) model of substorms in which the onset of lobe flux tube reconnection in the near tail is followed ~2-5 min later by the braking of earthward flow bursts as they encounter the inner magnetosphere and within ~1 min, by Pi2s generations, current wedge development, and AKR and auroral expansion, and finally, ~10-20 min later, by the

  18. TYPE III RADIO BURSTS PERTURBED BY WEAK CORONAL SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2012-07-10

    Some type III bursts are observed to undergo sudden flux modifications, e.g., reductions and intensifications, when type III beams cross shocks in the upper corona or solar wind. First simulations are presented for type III bursts perturbed by weak coronal shocks, which type III beams traverse. The simulations incorporate spatially localized jumps in plasma density and electron and ion temperatures downstream of a shock. A shock is predicted to produce significant modulations to a type III burst: (1) a broadband flux reduction or frequency gap caused by the shock's density jump, (2) a narrowband flux intensification originating from where the downstream plasma density locally has a small gradient, (3) a possible intensification from the shock front or just upstream, and (4) changes in the frequency drift rate profile and the temporal evolution of radiation flux at frequencies corresponding to the shocked plasma. The modulations are caused primarily by fundamental modifications to the radiation processes in response to the shocked density and temperatures. The predicted intensifications and reductions appear qualitatively consistent with the available small number of reported observations, although it is unclear how representative these observations are. It is demonstrated that a weak shock can cause an otherwise radio-quiet type III beam to produce observable levels of narrowband radio emission. The simulations suggest that type III bursts with frequency-time fine structures may provide a tool to probe shocks in the corona and solar wind, especially for weak shocks that do not radiate by themselves.

  19. Solar Radio Bursts and Their Effects on Wireless Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, D. E.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Nita, G. M.; Thomson, D. J.

    2002-05-01

    We review the state of current understanding of the potential for interference and interruption of service of wireless communications systems due to solar radio bursts. There have been several reported instances of an enhanced rate of dropped cell-phone calls during solar bursts, and the design of current base station systems make them vulnerable to problems near sunrise and sunset for antennas facing in the direction of the Sun during outbursts. It is likely that many cases of interference have gone unreported and perhaps unrecognized. We determine the level of radio noise that can cause potential problems, and then discuss how often bursts of the required magnitude might happen. We find that bursts that can cause potential problems occur on average once every 3.5 days at solar maximum, but also occur at a reduced rate of 18.5 days between events at solar minimum. We investigate the rate of occurrence as a function of frequency, which is relevant for future wireless systems that will operate at higher frequencies than the present systems. This work is supported by NSF grant ATM-0077273 to New Jersey Institute of Technology.

  20. Stellar wind-magnetosphere interaction at exoplanets: computations of auroral radio powers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Milan, S. E.

    2016-09-01

    We present calculations of the auroral radio powers expected from exoplanets with magnetospheres driven by an Earth-like magnetospheric interaction with the solar wind. Specifically, we compute the twin cell-vortical ionospheric flows, currents, and resulting radio powers resulting from a Dungey cycle process driven by dayside and nightside magnetic reconnection, as a function of planetary orbital distance and magnetic field strength. We include saturation of the magnetospheric convection, as observed at the terrestrial magnetosphere, and we present power-law approximations for the convection potentials, radio powers and spectral flux densities. We specifically consider a solar-age system and a young (1 Gyr) system. We show that the radio power increases with magnetic field strength for magnetospheres with saturated convection potential, and broadly decreases with increasing orbital distance. We show that the magnetospheric convection at hot Jupiters will be saturated, and thus unable to dissipate the full available incident Poynting flux, such that the magnetic Radiometric Bode's Law (RBL) presents a substantial overestimation of the radio powers for hot Jupiters. Our radio powers for hot Jupiters are ˜5-1300 TW for hot Jupiters with field strengths of 0.1-10 BJ orbiting a Sun-like star, while we find that competing effects yield essentially identical powers for hot Jupiters orbiting a young Sun-like star. However, in particular, for planets with weaker magnetic fields, our powers are higher at larger orbital distances than given by the RBL, and there are many configurations of planet that are expected to be detectable using SKA.

  1. Solar Flares, Type III Radio Bursts, CMEs, and Energetic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the fact that it has been well known since the earliest observations that solar energetic particle events are well associated with solar flares it is often considered that the association is not physically significant. Instead, in large events, the particles are considered to be only accelerated at a shock driven by the coronal mass ejection (CME) that is also always present. If particles are accelerated in the associated flare, it is claimed that such particles do not find access to open field lines and therefore do not escape from the low corona. However recent work has established that long lasting type III radio bursts extending to low frequencies are associated with all prompt solar particle events. Such bursts establish the presence of open field lines. Furthermore, tracing the radio bursts to the lowest frequencies, generated near the observer, shows that the radio producing electrons gain access to a region of large angular extent. It is likely that the electrons undergo cross field transport and it seems reasonable that ions do also. Such observations indicate that particle propagation in the inner heliosphere is not yet fully understood. They also imply that the contribution of flare particles in major particle events needs to be properly addressed.

  2. A powerful bursting radio source towards the Galactic Centre.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Scott D; Lazio, T Joseph W; Kassim, Namir E; Ray, Paul S; Markwardt, Craig B; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2005-03-01

    Transient astronomical sources are typically powered by compact objects and usually signify highly explosive or dynamic events. Although high-time-resolution observations are often possible in radio astronomy, they are usually limited to quite narrow fields of view. The dynamic radio sky is therefore poorly sampled, in contrast to the situation in the X-ray and gamma-ray bands in which wide-field instruments routinely detect transient sources. Here we report a transient radio source, GCRT J1745-3009, which was detected during a moderately wide-field monitoring programme of the Galactic Centre region at 0.33 GHz. The characteristics of its bursts are unlike those known for any other class of radio transient. If located in or near the Galactic Centre, its brightness temperature (approximately 10(16) K) and the implied energy density within GCRT J1745-3009 vastly exceed those observed in most other classes of radio astronomical sources, and are consistent with coherent emission processes that are rarely observed. We conclude that it represents a hitherto unknown class of transient radio sources, the first of possibly many new classes that may be discovered by emerging wide-field radio telescopes.

  3. Observing Solar Radio Bursts from the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowall, R. J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Lazio, T. J.; Jones, D. L.; Bale, S. D.; Burns, J.; Kasper, J. C.; Weiler, K. W.

    2011-01-01

    Locating low frequency radio observatories on the lunar surface has a number of advantages, including fixes locations for the antennas and no terrestrial interference on the far side of the moon. Here, we describe the Radio Observatory for Lunar Sortie Science (ROLSS), a concept for a low frequency, radio imaging interferometric array designed to study particle acceleration in the corona and inner heliosphere. ROLSS would be deployed during an early lunar sortie or by a robotic rover as part of an unmanned landing. The prime science mission is to image type II and type III solar radio bursts with the aim of determining the sites at and mechanisms by which the radiating particles are accelerated. Secondary science goals include constraining the density of the lunar ionosphere by searching for a low radio frequency cutoff of the solar radio emissions and constraining the low energy electron population in astrophysical sources. Furthermore, ROLSS serves a pathfinder function for larger lunar radio arrays designed for faint sources.

  4. A powerful bursting radio source towards the Galactic Centre.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Scott D; Lazio, T Joseph W; Kassim, Namir E; Ray, Paul S; Markwardt, Craig B; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2005-03-01

    Transient astronomical sources are typically powered by compact objects and usually signify highly explosive or dynamic events. Although high-time-resolution observations are often possible in radio astronomy, they are usually limited to quite narrow fields of view. The dynamic radio sky is therefore poorly sampled, in contrast to the situation in the X-ray and gamma-ray bands in which wide-field instruments routinely detect transient sources. Here we report a transient radio source, GCRT J1745-3009, which was detected during a moderately wide-field monitoring programme of the Galactic Centre region at 0.33 GHz. The characteristics of its bursts are unlike those known for any other class of radio transient. If located in or near the Galactic Centre, its brightness temperature (approximately 10(16) K) and the implied energy density within GCRT J1745-3009 vastly exceed those observed in most other classes of radio astronomical sources, and are consistent with coherent emission processes that are rarely observed. We conclude that it represents a hitherto unknown class of transient radio sources, the first of possibly many new classes that may be discovered by emerging wide-field radio telescopes. PMID:15744294

  5. Two Strong Radio Bursts at High and Medium Galactic Latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kida, Sumiko; Daishido, Tsuneaki

    2008-04-01

    We constructed eight 20m elements in Nasu, and are observing radio transients over a wide-field at 1400 MHz. We report on two radio transients detected on consecutive drift scanning observations at declination 32 degrees over about two months. One of the two transients "WJN J1039+3200" appeared at α=10h39m40s ±10s, δ = 32° ±0.4° on March 4, 2005 and the other one "WJN J0645+3200" appeared at α=06h45m25s ± 10s, δ = 32° ±0.4° on March 24, 2005DBoth exhibited flux densities in excess of 1 Jy. The burst duration was within two days. There are few examples of radio transients outside the Galactic plane. Therefore, these are very important observations. We have already reported on four radio transients with features that looks like the two transients detected this time. The duration of five transients is within two days, and one transient is within three days. Four transients of six transients were detected at a high galactic latitude of b>30°. Counterparts of six WJN Transients were included X-ray sources in four events, and had a consistency of 66%. The consistency of γ-ray, PGC Galaxy, NVSS and FIRST source was concentrated at about 50%. We were not able to find a special feature in the counterpart The distribution was verified by making a logN-logS plot using those data and the newly detected data. As a result, the distribution of the radio transients that we observed might have an isotropic distribution not dependent on Galactic longitude and Galactic latitude. We cannot yet clarify these two radio transients, because their features are different from any radio burst observed in the past.

  6. A search for fast radio bursts associated with gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Palaniswamy, Divya; Wayth, Randall B.; Trott, Cathryn M.; Tingay, Steven J.; Reynolds, Cormac; McCallum, Jamie N.

    2014-07-20

    The detection of seven fast radio bursts (FRBs) has recently been reported. FRBs are short duration (∼1 ms), highly dispersed radio pulses from astronomical sources. The physical interpretation for the FRBs remains unclear but is thought to involve highly compact objects at cosmological distance. It has been suggested that a fraction of FRBs could be physically associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Recent radio observations of GRBs have reported the detection of two highly dispersed short duration radio pulses using a 12 m radio telescope at 1.4 GHz. Motivated by this result, we have performed a systematic and sensitive search for FRBs associated with GRBs. We have observed five GRBs at 2.3 GHz using a 26 m radio telescope located at the Mount Pleasant Radio Observatory, Hobart. The radio telescope was automated to rapidly respond to Gamma-ray Coordination Network notifications from the Swift satellite and slew to the GRB position within ∼140 s. The data were searched for pulses up to 5000 pc cm{sup –3} in dispersion measure and pulse widths ranging from 640 μs to 25.60 ms. We did not detect any events ≥6σ. An in depth statistical analysis of our data shows that events detected above 5σ are consistent with thermal noise fluctuations only. A joint analysis of our data with previous experiments shows that previously claimed detections of FRBs from GRBs are unlikely to be astrophysical. Our results are in line with the lack of consistency noted between the recently presented FRB event rates and GRB event rates.

  7. A POSSIBLE CONNECTION BETWEEN FAST RADIO BURSTS AND GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-10

    The physical nature of fast radio bursts (FRBs), a new type of cosmological transient discovered recently, is not known. It has been suggested that FRBs can be produced when a spinning supra-massive neutron star loses centrifugal support and collapses to a black hole. Here, we suggest that such implosions can happen in supra-massive neutron stars shortly (hundreds to thousands of seconds) after their births, and an observational signature of such implosions may have been observed in the X-ray afterglows of some long and short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Within this picture, a small fraction of FRBs would be physically connected to GRBs. We discuss possible multi-wavelength electromagnetic signals and gravitational wave signals that might be associated with FRBs, and propose an observational campaign to unveil the physical nature of FRBs. In particular, we strongly encourage a rapid radio follow-up observation of GRBs starting from 100 s after a GRB trigger.

  8. Fast Radio Bursts: The Search for Their Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke Spolaor, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are millisecond-duration radio signals whose swept-frequency signals indicate a non-local origin.FRB science has been building rapidly since the first discovery of an FRB in 2007; proof of an FRB population in 2013 (Thornton et al.) was quickly followed by further evidence of their likely, although not yet definite, extragalactic origin (e.g. Kulkarni et al. 2014, Burke-Spolaor & Bannister 2014). Until recently, only circumstantial evidence allowed statements on what progenitors FRBs might arise from, and whether they are local, Galactic, or extragalactic. However, we are now able to detect FRB events in real-time, and have the capability to detect FRBs with radio interferometers. This has opened up the possibility to understand their origins through arcsecond localization and the identification of multi-wavelength counterparts. I will describe what we currently know about FRBs, and the status of the FRB hunt for their enigmatic origins.

  9. Clumpy Langmuir waves in type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melrose, D. B.; Cairns, I. H.; Dulk, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    A model is developed for type III radio emission in the interplanetary medium based on recent data on Langmuir waves, associated with ion sound waves, density fluctuations in the interplanetary plasma, streaming electrons and radio emission. In this model, Langmuir wave growth is suppressed by refraction in field-aligned density irregularities except near density minima where clumps of Langmuir waves form. Quasi-linear relaxation limits the growth of the Langmuir waves in the clumps. The radio emission, which is attributed to coalescence of the Langmuir waves with associated ion sound waves, saturates at a brightness temperature equal to the effective temperature of the Langmuir waves, estimated to be between 10 to the 15th and 10 to the 16th K from obserrvational data. The model is consistent with all the relevant data on type III events. In particular, it accounts naturally for observed brightness temperatures of type III bursts.

  10. Antenna system characteristics and solar radio burst observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sha; Yan, Yi-Hua; Chen, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Dong-Hao

    2015-11-01

    The Chinese Spectral Radio Heliograph (CSRH) is an advanced aperture synthesis solar radio heliograph, independently developed by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It consists of 100 reflector antennas, which are grouped into two antenna arrays (CSRH-I and CSRH-II) for low and high frequency bands respectively. The frequency band of CSRH-I is 0.4-2 GHz and that for CSRH-II is 2-15 GHz. In the antenna and feed system, CSRH uses eleven feeds to receive signals coming from the Sun. The radiation pattern has a lower side lobe and the back lobe of the feed is well illuminated. The characteristics of gain G and antenna noise temperature T affect the quality of solar radio imaging. For CSRH, the measured G is larger than 60 dBi and T is less than 120 K. After CSRH-I was established, we successfully captured a solar radio burst between 1.2-1.6 GHz on 2010 November 12 using this instrument and this event was confirmed through observations with the Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at 2.84 GHz and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite. In addition, an image obtained from CSRH-I clearly revealed the profile of the solar radio burst. The other observational work involved the imaging the Fengyun-2E geosynchronous satellite which is assumed to be a point source. Results indicate that the data processing method applied in this study for deleting errors in a noisy image could be used for processing images from other sources.

  11. Synchronous x-ray and radio mode switches: a rapid global transformation of the pulsar magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Hermsen, W; Hessels, J W T; Kuiper, L; van Leeuwen, J; Mitra, D; de Plaa, J; Rankin, J M; Stappers, B W; Wright, G A E; Basu, R; Alexov, A; Coenen, T; Grießmeier, J-M; Hassall, T E; Karastergiou, A; Keane, E; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Noutsos, A; Serylak, M; Pilia, M; Sobey, C; Weltevrede, P; Zagkouris, K; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Batejat, F; Bell, M E; Bell, M R; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bîrzan, L; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Falcke, H; Fender, R; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Gunst, A W; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Horneffer, A; Iacobelli, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Macario, G; Markoff, S; McKean, J P; Mevius, M; Miller-Jones, J C A; Morganti, R; Munk, H; Orrú, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pandey, V N; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Rawlings, S; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Schoenmakers, A; Shulevski, A; Sluman, J; Steinmetz, M; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; ter Veen, S; Vermeulen, R; van de Brink, R H; van Weeren, R J; Wijers, R A M J; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P

    2013-01-25

    Pulsars emit from low-frequency radio waves up to high-energy gamma-rays, generated anywhere from the stellar surface out to the edge of the magnetosphere. Detecting correlated mode changes across the electromagnetic spectrum is therefore key to understanding the physical relationship among the emission sites. Through simultaneous observations, we detected synchronous switching in the radio and x-ray emission properties of PSR B0943+10. When the pulsar is in a sustained radio-"bright" mode, the x-rays show only an unpulsed, nonthermal component. Conversely, when the pulsar is in a radio-"quiet" mode, the x-ray luminosity more than doubles and a 100% pulsed thermal component is observed along with the nonthermal component. This indicates rapid, global changes to the conditions in the magnetosphere, which challenge all proposed pulsar emission theories. PMID:23349288

  12. Synchronous X-ray and Radio Mode Switches: A Rapid Global Transformation of the Pulsar Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermsen, W.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kuiper, L.; van Leeuwen, J.; Mitra, D.; de Plaa, J.; Rankin, J. M.; Stappers, B. W.; Wright, G. A. E.; Basu, R.; Alexov, A.; Coenen, T.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Hassall, T. E.; Karastergiou, A.; Keane, E.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Noutsos, A.; Serylak, M.; Pilia, M.; Sobey, C.; Weltevrede, P.; Zagkouris, K.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, I. M.; Batejat, F.; Bell, M. E.; Bell, M. R.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bîrzan, L.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Falcke, H.; Fender, R.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Gunst, A. W.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Horneffer, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Kuper, G.; Maat, P.; Macario, G.; Markoff, S.; McKean, J. P.; Mevius, M.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Morganti, R.; Munk, H.; Orrú, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Rawlings, S.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schoenmakers, A.; Shulevski, A.; Sluman, J.; Steinmetz, M.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; ter Veen, S.; Vermeulen, R.; van de Brink, R. H.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wise, M. W.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2013-01-01

    Pulsars emit from low-frequency radio waves up to high-energy gamma-rays, generated anywhere from the stellar surface out to the edge of the magnetosphere. Detecting correlated mode changes across the electromagnetic spectrum is therefore key to understanding the physical relationship among the emission sites. Through simultaneous observations, we detected synchronous switching in the radio and x-ray emission properties of PSR B0943+10. When the pulsar is in a sustained radio-"bright" mode, the x-rays show only an unpulsed, nonthermal component. Conversely, when the pulsar is in a radio-"quiet" mode, the x-ray luminosity more than doubles and a 100% pulsed thermal component is observed along with the nonthermal component. This indicates rapid, global changes to the conditions in the magnetosphere, which challenge all proposed pulsar emission theories.

  13. Synchronous x-ray and radio mode switches: a rapid global transformation of the pulsar magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Hermsen, W; Hessels, J W T; Kuiper, L; van Leeuwen, J; Mitra, D; de Plaa, J; Rankin, J M; Stappers, B W; Wright, G A E; Basu, R; Alexov, A; Coenen, T; Grießmeier, J-M; Hassall, T E; Karastergiou, A; Keane, E; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Noutsos, A; Serylak, M; Pilia, M; Sobey, C; Weltevrede, P; Zagkouris, K; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Batejat, F; Bell, M E; Bell, M R; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bîrzan, L; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Falcke, H; Fender, R; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Gunst, A W; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Horneffer, A; Iacobelli, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Macario, G; Markoff, S; McKean, J P; Mevius, M; Miller-Jones, J C A; Morganti, R; Munk, H; Orrú, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pandey, V N; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Rawlings, S; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Schoenmakers, A; Shulevski, A; Sluman, J; Steinmetz, M; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; ter Veen, S; Vermeulen, R; van de Brink, R H; van Weeren, R J; Wijers, R A M J; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P

    2013-01-25

    Pulsars emit from low-frequency radio waves up to high-energy gamma-rays, generated anywhere from the stellar surface out to the edge of the magnetosphere. Detecting correlated mode changes across the electromagnetic spectrum is therefore key to understanding the physical relationship among the emission sites. Through simultaneous observations, we detected synchronous switching in the radio and x-ray emission properties of PSR B0943+10. When the pulsar is in a sustained radio-"bright" mode, the x-rays show only an unpulsed, nonthermal component. Conversely, when the pulsar is in a radio-"quiet" mode, the x-ray luminosity more than doubles and a 100% pulsed thermal component is observed along with the nonthermal component. This indicates rapid, global changes to the conditions in the magnetosphere, which challenge all proposed pulsar emission theories.

  14. Observing Solar Radio Bursts from the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowall, R. J.; Lazio, T. J.; Bale, S. D.; Burns, J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Jones, D. L.; Kaiser, M. L.; Kasper, J.; Weiler, K. W.

    2010-01-01

    Locating low frequency radio observatories on the lunar surface has a number of advantages. Here, we describe the Radio Observatory for Lunar Sortie Science (ROLSS), a concept for a low frequency, radio imaging interferometric array designed to study particle acceleration in the corona and inner heliosphere. ROLSS would be deployed during an early lunar sortie or by a robotic rover as part of an unmanned landing. The prime science mission is to image type II and type III solar radio bursts with the aim of determining the sites at and mechanisms by which the radiating particles are accelerated. Secondary science goals include constraining the density of the lunar ionosphere by searching for a low radio frequency cutoff of the solar radio emissions and constraining the low energy electron population in astrophysical sources. Furthermore, ROLSS serves a pathfinder function for larger lunar radio arrays. Key design requirements on ROLES include the operational frequency and angular resolution. The electron densities in the solar corona and inner heliosphere are such that the relevant emission occurs below 10 MHz, essentially unobservable from Earth's surface due to the terrestrial ionospheric cutoff. Resolving the potential sites of particle acceleration requires an instrument with an angular resolution of at least 2 deg, equivalent to a linear array size of approximately 500 meters. Operations would consist of data acquisition during the lunar day, with regular data downlinks. The major components of the ROLSS array are 3 antenna arms arranged in a Y shape, with a central electronics package (CEP). Each antenna arm is a linear strip of polyimide film (e.g., Kapton (TM)) on which 16 single polarization dipole antennas are located by depositing a conductor (e.g., silver). The arms also contain transmission lines for carrying the radio signals from the science antennas to the CEP.

  15. AN ABSENCE OF FAST RADIO BURSTS AT INTERMEDIATE GALACTIC LATITUDES

    SciTech Connect

    Petroff, E.; Van Straten, W.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Coster, P.; Flynn, C.; Keane, E. F.; Johnston, S.; Bates, S. D.; Keith, M. J.; Kramer, M.; Stappers, B. W.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; Tiburzi, C.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Champion, D.; Ng, C.; Levin, L.; and others

    2014-07-10

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are an emerging class of bright, highly dispersed radio pulses. Recent work by Thornton et al. has revealed a population of FRBs in the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey at high Galactic latitudes. A variety of progenitors have been proposed, including cataclysmic events at cosmological distances, Galactic flare stars, and terrestrial radio frequency interference. Here we report on a search for FRBs at intermediate Galactic latitudes (–15° bursts.

  16. Short-duration Radio Bursts with Apparent Extragalactic Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Hilaire, P.; Benz, A. O.; Monstein, C.

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of the longest yet undertaken search for apparently extragalactic radio bursts at the Bleien Radio Observatory covering 21,000 hr (898 days). The data were searched for events of less than 50 ms FWHM duration showing a ν-2 drift in the spectrogram characteristic of the delay of radio waves in plasma. We have found five cases suggesting dispersion measures between 350 and 400 cm-3 pc while searching in the range of 75-2000 cm-3 pc. Four of the five events occurred between 10:27 and 11:24 a.m. local civil time. The only exception occurred at night with the full Moon in the beam. It was an event that poorly fits plasma dispersion, but had the characteristics of a solar Type III burst. However, we were not able to confirm that it was a lunar reflection. All events were observed with a log-periodic dipole within 6800 hr, but none with a more directional horn antenna observing the rest of the time. These properties suggest a terrestrial origin of the "peryton" type reported before. However, the cause of these events remains ambiguous.

  17. Short-duration radio bursts with apparent extragalactic dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Saint-Hilaire, P.; Benz, A. O.; Monstein, C.

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of the longest yet undertaken search for apparently extragalactic radio bursts at the Bleien Radio Observatory covering 21,000 hr (898 days). The data were searched for events of less than 50 ms FWHM duration showing a ν{sup –2} drift in the spectrogram characteristic of the delay of radio waves in plasma. We have found five cases suggesting dispersion measures between 350 and 400 cm{sup –3} pc while searching in the range of 75-2000 cm{sup –3} pc. Four of the five events occurred between 10:27 and 11:24 a.m. local civil time. The only exception occurred at night with the full Moon in the beam. It was an event that poorly fits plasma dispersion, but had the characteristics of a solar Type III burst. However, we were not able to confirm that it was a lunar reflection. All events were observed with a log-periodic dipole within 6800 hr, but none with a more directional horn antenna observing the rest of the time. These properties suggest a terrestrial origin of the 'peryton' type reported before. However, the cause of these events remains ambiguous.

  18. Fundamental and harmonic radiation in type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, I. H.

    1994-01-01

    Type III solar radio bursts are investigated by modeling the propagation of the electron beam and the generation and subsequent propagation of waves to the observer. Predictions from this model are compared in detail with particle, Langmuir wave, and radio data from the International Sun Earth Explorer-3 (ISSE-3) spacecraft and with other observations to clarify the roles of fundamental and harmonic emission in type III radio bursts. Langmuir waves are seen only after the arrival of the beam, in accord with the standard theory. These waves persist after a positive beam slope is last resolved, implying that sporadic positive slopes persist for some time, unresolved but in accord with the predictions of stochastic growth theory. Local electromagnetic emission sets in only after Langmuir waves are seen, in accord with the standard theory, which relies on nonlinear processes involving Langmuir waves. In the events investigated here, fundamental radiation appears to dominate early in the event, followed and/or accompanied by harmonic radiation after the peak, with a long-lived tail of multiply scattered fundamental or harmonic emission extending long afterwards. These results are largely independent of, but generally consistent with, the conclusions of earlier works.

  19. An Absence of Fast Radio Bursts at Intermediate Galactic Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, E.; van Straten, W.; Johnston, S.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Bates, S. D.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Champion, D.; Coster, P.; Flynn, C.; Keane, E. F.; Keith, M. J.; Kramer, M.; Levin, L.; Ng, C.; Possenti, A.; Stappers, B. W.; Tiburzi, C.; Thornton, D.

    2014-07-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are an emerging class of bright, highly dispersed radio pulses. Recent work by Thornton et al. has revealed a population of FRBs in the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey at high Galactic latitudes. A variety of progenitors have been proposed, including cataclysmic events at cosmological distances, Galactic flare stars, and terrestrial radio frequency interference. Here we report on a search for FRBs at intermediate Galactic latitudes (-15° bursts.

  20. A study of eruptive solar events with negative radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuz'menko, I. V.; Grechnev, V. V.; Uralov, A. M.

    2009-11-01

    Solar events of June 15/16, 2000, June 1/2, 2002, February 6, 2002, and February 7, 2002, have been studied. These events probably belong to a poorly studied class of explosive eruptions. In such events disintegration of the magnetic structure of an eruptive filament and dispersing of its fragments as a cloud over a considerable part of the solar surface are possible. The analysis of SOHO/EIT extreme ultraviolet images obtained in the 195 Å and 304 Å channels has revealed the appearance of dimmings of various shapes and propagation of a coronal wave for June 1/2, 2002. In all the events the Nobeyama, Learmonth, and Ussuriysk observatories recorded negative radio bursts at several frequencies in the 1-10 GHz range. Most likely, these bursts were due to absorption of solar radio emission in clouds produced by fragments of filaments. Absorption of the solar background radiation can be observed as a depression of the emission in the 304 Å channel. A model has been developed, which permits one to estimate parameters of absorbing plasma such as temperature, optical thickness, area of the absorbing cloud, and its height above the chromosphere from the radio absorption observed at several frequencies. The obtained values of the temperature, 8000-9000 K, demonstrate that the absorber was the material of an erupted cool filament. The model estimate of the masses of the ejecta in the considered events were ˜1015 g, which is comparable to masses of typical filaments and coronal mass ejections.

  1. A population of fast radio bursts at cosmological distances.

    PubMed

    Thornton, D; Stappers, B; Bailes, M; Barsdell, B; Bates, S; Bhat, N D R; Burgay, M; Burke-Spolaor, S; Champion, D J; Coster, P; D'Amico, N; Jameson, A; Johnston, S; Keith, M; Kramer, M; Levin, L; Milia, S; Ng, C; Possenti, A; van Straten, W

    2013-07-01

    Searches for transient astrophysical sources often reveal unexpected classes of objects that are useful physical laboratories. In a recent survey for pulsars and fast transients, we have uncovered four millisecond-duration radio transients all more than 40° from the Galactic plane. The bursts' properties indicate that they are of celestial rather than terrestrial origin. Host galaxy and intergalactic medium models suggest that they have cosmological redshifts of 0.5 to 1 and distances of up to 3 gigaparsecs. No temporally coincident x- or gamma-ray signature was identified in association with the bursts. Characterization of the source population and identification of host galaxies offers an opportunity to determine the baryonic content of the universe.

  2. Importance of Kappa Background Electron Distributions to Solar Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Schmidt, J. M.; Li, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Sun produces intense radio emissions by collective processes and by incoherent single-particle processes, both of which depend sensitively on the electron distribution function present. Examples of the former include metric type II and III bursts produced by the so-called plasma emission processes, while examples of the latter include decametric and metric continua produced by the bremstrahlung and gyrosynchrotron processes. Kappa electron distributions, which appear power-law at high energies, qualitatively alter the spectral shape for the incoherent processes and increase the total flux (due to the increased number of high energy electrons). Kappa distributions are also vital for collective processes, due to the increased number of fast electrons (and so energy available) again and also due to the greatly ncreased level of the nonthermal background distribution onto which is superposed the distribution function of fast particles responsible for the collectively-produced waves and radio emissions. Two examples are presented, one for each reason. For type II bursts the level and frequency-time structures (above background) of predicted radio emission change qualitatively when kappa rather than Maxwellian background electrons are assumed, due to the increased numbers of fast electrons reflected by the type II shock. While this effect is also important for type III bursts produced by fast electron beams, our simulations show that the crucial qualitative change is that beam speeds above 0.3 c only develop in the simulations when kappa background electrons are present, due to the high level of the kappa tail preventing quasilinear relaxation of the beam electrons to smaller speeds.

  3. A theory of solar type III radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Papadopoulos, K.; Smith, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A theory of type III bursts is reviewed. Energetic electrons propagating through the interplanetary medium are shown to excite the one dimensional oscillating two stream instability (OTSI). The OTSI is in turn stabilized by anomalous resistivity which completes the transfer of long wavelength Langmuir waves to short wavelengths, out of resonance with the electrons. The theory explains the small energy losses suffered by the electrons in propagating to 1 AU, the predominance of second harmonic radiation, and the observed correlation between radio and electron fluxes.

  4. Generation mechanism of the slowly drifting narrowband structure in the type IV solar radio bursts observed by AMATERAS

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Y.; Nishimura, Y.; Kumamoto, A.; Ono, T.; Iwai, K.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.

    2014-05-20

    We investigate the type IV burst event observed by AMATERAS on 2011 June 7, and reveal that the main component of the burst was emitted from the plasmoid eruption identified in the EUV images of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/AIA. We show that a slowly drifting narrowband structure (SDNS) appeared in the burst's spectra. Using statistical analysis, we reveal that the SDNS appeared for a duration of tens to hundreds of milliseconds and had a typical bandwidth of 3 MHz. To explain the mechanism generating the SDNS, we propose wave-wave coupling between Langmuir waves and whistler-mode chorus emissions generated in a post-flare loop, which were inferred from the similarities in the plasma environments of a post-flare loop and the equatorial region of Earth's inner magnetosphere. We assume that a chorus element with a rising tone is generated at the top of a post-flare loop. Using the magnetic field and plasma density models, we quantitatively estimate the expected duration of radio emissions generated from coupling between Langmuir waves and chorus emissions during their propagation in the post-flare loop, and we find that the observed duration and bandwidth properties of the SDNS are consistently explained by the proposed generation mechanism. While observations in the terrestrial magnetosphere show that the chorus emissions are a group of large-amplitude wave elements generated naturally and intermittently, the mechanism proposed in the present study can explain both the intermittency and the frequency drift in the observed spectra.

  5. Two strong radio bursts at high and medium Galactic latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kida, S.; Niinuma, K.; Suzuki, S.; Tanaka, T.; Nakanura, R.; Takefuji, K.; Matsumura, N.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Daishido, T.

    2008-10-01

    The Nasu Observatory, which is composed of eight 20 m elements, was constructed for observing radio transients over a wide field at 1400 MHz. We report on two radio transients detected in consecutive drift scanning observations at declination 32° over a period of about two months. One of the two transients, WJN J1039+3200, appeared at α=103940±10, δ=32°±0.4° on March 4, 2005, and the other one, WJN J0645+3200, appeared at α=064525±10, δ=32°±0.4° on March 24, 2005. Both exhibited flux densities in excess of 1 Jy, and the burst durations were up to two days. Since there are few examples of radio transients outside the Galactic plane, these are very important observations. We have previously reported on four radio transients with features that look like the two transients detected this time. Of these six WJN transients in total, five had a duration of up to two days, and one up to three days. Four of the transients were detected at high Galactic latitude of b > 30°. Counterparts of the six WJN transients included X-ray sources in four events and had a consistency of 66%. The consistency of γ-ray, PGC Galaxy, NVSS, and FIRST sources was concentrated at about 50%. We were not able to find any special features in the counterparts. The distribution was verified by making a log N-log S plot using data for the four previously detected transients and the new ones. As a result, the distribution of the radio transients that we observed might have an isotropic distribution not dependent on Galactic longitude and Galactic latitude. The detection probability was calculated based on the assumption of an isotropic distribution. The 2 σ upper probability limit for detection of transients of 1000 mJy or more is 0.0049 [deg -2 yr -1]. We cannot yet identify these two radio transients, because their features are different from any radio bursts observed in the past.

  6. PEAK FLUX DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOLAR RADIO TYPE-I BURSTS FROM HIGHLY RESOLVED SPECTRAL OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, K.; Masuda, S.; Miyoshi, Y.; Tsuchiya, F.; Morioka, A.; Misawa, H.

    2013-05-01

    Solar radio type-I bursts were observed on 2011 January 26 by high resolution observations with the radio telescope AMATERAS in order to derive their peak flux distributions. We have developed a two-dimensional auto burst detection algorithm that can distinguish each type-I burst element from complex noise storm spectra that include numerous instances of radio frequency interference (RFI). This algorithm removes RFI from the observed radio spectra by applying a moving median filter along the frequency axis. Burst and continuum components are distinguished by a two-dimensional maximum and minimum search of the radio dynamic spectra. The analysis result shows that each type-I burst element has one peak flux without double counts or missed counts. The peak flux distribution of type-I bursts derived using this algorithm follows a power law with a spectral index between 4 and 5.

  7. LOFAR Search for Magnetospheric Radio Emissions from Exoplanet HD 80606b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterhalter, D.; Lazio, J.; Hartman, J.; Majid, W.; Farrell, W. M.; Splitter, L.; Kuiper, T.

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes observations (LOFAR Cycle 0) targeting magnetospheric radio emission from the exoplanet HD 80606b during a periastron passage. Its orbit is among the most eccentric known, meaning that it is naturally exposed to a wide range of stellar wind strengths, which should modulate its radio emission. Further, the high orbital eccentricity suggests that it is in a state of pseudo-synchronous rotation, leading to a relatively robust estimate of its characteristic emission frequency. It may be among the most promising planets for the direct detection of radio emission.

  8. Solar flares associated coronal mass ejections in case of type II radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Beena; Prasad, Lalan; Chandra, Harish; Garia, Suman

    2016-08-01

    We have statistically studied 220 events from 1996 to 2008 (i.e. solar cycle 23). Two set of flare-CME is examined one with Deca-hectometric (DH) type II and other without DH type II radio burst. Out of 220 events 135 (flare-halo CME) are accompanied with DH type II radio burst and 85 are without DH type II radio burst. Statistical analysis is performed to examine the distribution of solar flare-halo CME around the solar disk and to investigate the relationship between solar flare and halo CME parameters in case of with and without DH type II radio burst. In our analysis we have observed that: (i) 10-20° latitudinal belt is more effective than the other belts for DH type II and without DH type II radio burst. In this belt, the southern region is more effective in case of DH type II radio burst, whereas in case of without DH type II radio burst dominance exits in the northern region. (ii) 0-10° longitudinal belt is more effective than the other belts for DH type II radio burst and without DH type II radio burst. In this belt, the western region is more effective in case of DH type II radio burst, while in case of without DH type II radio burst dominance exits in the eastern region. (iii) Mean speed of halo CMEs (1382 km/s) with DH type II radio burst is more than the mean speed of halo CMEs (775 km/s) without DH type II radio burst. (iv) Maximum number of M-class flares is found in both the cases. (v) Average speed of halo CMEs in each class accompanied with DH type II radio burst is higher than the average speed of halo CMEs in each class without DH type II radio burst. (vi) Average speed of halo CMEs, associated with X-class flares, is greater than the other class of solar flares in both the cases.

  9. Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle With Fast Radio Bursts.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Gao, He; Wu, Xue-Feng; Mészáros, Peter

    2015-12-31

    The accuracy of Einstein's equivalence principle (EEP) can be tested with the observed time delays between correlated particles or photons that are emitted from astronomical sources. Assuming as a lower limit that the time delays are caused mainly by the gravitational potential of the Milky Way, we prove that fast radio bursts (FRBs) of cosmological origin can be used to constrain the EEP with high accuracy. Taking FRB 110220 and two possible FRB/gamma-ray burst (GRB) association systems (FRB/GRB 101011A and FRB/GRB 100704A) as examples, we obtain a strict upper limit on the differences of the parametrized post-Newtonian parameter γ values as low as [γ(1.23  GHz)-γ(1.45  GHz)]<4.36×10(-9). This provides the most stringent limit up to date on the EEP through the relative differential variations of the γ parameter at radio energies, improving by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude the previous results at other energies based on supernova 1987A and GRBs. PMID:26764982

  10. Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle With Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Gao, He; Wu, Xue-Feng; Mészáros, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The accuracy of Einstein's equivalence principle (EEP) can be tested with the observed time delays between correlated particles or photons that are emitted from astronomical sources. Assuming as a lower limit that the time delays are caused mainly by the gravitational potential of the Milky Way, we prove that fast radio bursts (FRBs) of cosmological origin can be used to constrain the EEP with high accuracy. Taking FRB 110220 and two possible FRB/gamma-ray burst (GRB) association systems (FRB/GRB 101011A and FRB/GRB 100704A) as examples, we obtain a strict upper limit on the differences of the parametrized post-Newtonian parameter γ values as low as [γ (1.23 GHz )-γ (1.45 GHz )] <4.36 ×10-9. This provides the most stringent limit up to date on the EEP through the relative differential variations of the γ parameter at radio energies, improving by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude the previous results at other energies based on supernova 1987A and GRBs.

  11. Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle With Fast Radio Bursts.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Gao, He; Wu, Xue-Feng; Mészáros, Peter

    2015-12-31

    The accuracy of Einstein's equivalence principle (EEP) can be tested with the observed time delays between correlated particles or photons that are emitted from astronomical sources. Assuming as a lower limit that the time delays are caused mainly by the gravitational potential of the Milky Way, we prove that fast radio bursts (FRBs) of cosmological origin can be used to constrain the EEP with high accuracy. Taking FRB 110220 and two possible FRB/gamma-ray burst (GRB) association systems (FRB/GRB 101011A and FRB/GRB 100704A) as examples, we obtain a strict upper limit on the differences of the parametrized post-Newtonian parameter γ values as low as [γ(1.23  GHz)-γ(1.45  GHz)]<4.36×10(-9). This provides the most stringent limit up to date on the EEP through the relative differential variations of the γ parameter at radio energies, improving by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude the previous results at other energies based on supernova 1987A and GRBs.

  12. Wave-wave interactions in solar type III radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2014-02-11

    The high time resolution observations from the STEREO/WAVES experiment show that in type III radio bursts, the Langmuir waves often occur as localized magnetic field aligned coherent wave packets with durations of a few ms and with peak intensities well exceeding the strong turbulence thresholds. Some of these wave packets show spectral signatures of beam-resonant Langmuir waves, down- and up-shifted sidebands, and ion sound waves, with frequencies, wave numbers, and tricoherences satisfying the resonance conditions of the oscillating two stream instability (four wave interaction). The spectra of a few of these wave packets also contain peaks at f{sub pe}, 2f{sub pe} and 3 f{sub pe} (f{sub pe} is the electron plasma frequency), with frequencies, wave numbers and bicoherences (computed using the wavelet based bispectral analysis techniques) satisfying the resonance conditions of three wave interactions: (1) excitation of second harmonic electromagnetic waves as a result of coalescence of two oppositely propagating Langmuir waves, and (2) excitation of third harmonic electromagnetic waves as a result of coalescence of Langmuir waves with second harmonic electromagnetic waves. The implication of these findings is that the strong turbulence processes play major roles in beam stabilization as well as conversion of Langmuir waves into escaping radiation in type III radio bursts.

  13. SUPERB - A SUrvey for Pulsars & Extragalactic Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, Evan; Possenti, Andrea; Johnston, Simon; Kramer, Michael; Burgay, Marta; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Keith, Michael; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Eatough, Ralph; van Straten, Willem; Stappers, Benjamin; Bates, Samuel; Levin, Lina; Champion, David; Jameson, Andrew; Ng, Cherry; Tiburzi, Caterina; Petroff, Emily; Barr, Ewan; Flynn, Chris; Jankowski, Fabian; Caleb, Manisha; Lyon, Robert; Morello, Vincent; Bhandari, Shivani

    2014-10-01

    SUPERB is a large-scale survey for pulsars and extragalactic radio bursts. It will uses optimised GPU codes to search for pulsars and fast radio bursts (FRBs), making discoveries in real time. Handling our data as it comes in is essential for the SKA Phase I era so this work applies directly to the high-data rates of next generation telescopes. The pulsars discovered will enable studies of the interstellar medium, allow us to more accurately constrain the MSP luminosity function (which informs estimates of the SKA yield of MSPs), tests of theories of gravity and several will contribute to the precision timing projects of the PPTA. The FRBs discovered will have much more associated information than all previous detections. Firstly the discovery lag will be ~1 second, rather than months/years. The Parkes observations will be shadowed by the Molonglo telescope to allow, for the first time, localisation of FRBs, and a host of optical and high-energy telescopes will then be triggered as appropriate. This is key for identifying FRB host galaxies, so as to solve the mystery of their progenitors. The survey will discover ~20 MSPs, ~100 slower pulsars and ~10 FRBs.

  14. SUPERB - A SUrvey for Pulsars & Extragalactic Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, Evan; Possenti, Andrea; Johnston, Simon; Kramer, Michael; Burgay, Marta; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Keith, Michael; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Eatough, Ralph; van Straten, Willem; Stappers, Benjamin; Bates, Samuel; Levin, Lina; Champion, David; Jameson, Andrew; Ng, Cherry; Tiburzi, Caterina; Petroff, Emily; Barr, Ewan; Flynn, Chris; Jankowski, Fabian; Caleb, Manisha; Lyon, Robert; Morello, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    SUPERB is a large-scale survey for pulsars and extragalactic radio bursts. It will use highly optimised GPU codes to search for pulsars and fast radio bursts (FRBs), making discoveries in real time. Handling our data as it comes in is essential for the SKA Phase I era so this work applies directly to the high-data rates of next generation telescopes. The pulsars discovered will enable studies of the interstellar medium, allow us to more accurately constrain the MSP luminosity function (which informs estimates of the SKA yield of MSPs), tests of theories of gravity and several will contribute to the precision timing projects of the PPTA. The FRBs discovered will have much more associated information than all previous detections. Firstly the discovery lag will be ~1 second, rather than months/years. The Parkes observations will be shadowed by the Molonglo telescope to allow, for the first time, localisation of FRBs, and a host of optical and high-energy telescopes will then be triggered as appropriate. This is key for identifying FRB host galaxies, so as to solve the mystery of their progenitors. The survey will discover ~20 MSPs, ~100 slower pulsars and ~10 FRBs.

  15. SOLAR RADIO BURSTS WITH SPECTRAL FINE STRUCTURES IN PREFLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yin; Tan, Baolin; Huang, Jing; Tan, Chengming; Karlický, Marian; Mészárosová, Hana; Simões, Paulo J.A.

    2015-01-20

    Good observations of preflare activities are important for us to understand the origin and triggering mechanism of solar flares, and to predict the occurrence of solar flares. This work presents the characteristics of microwave spectral fine structures as preflare activities of four solar flares observed by the Ondřejov radio spectrograph in the frequency range of 0.8-2.0 GHz. We found that these microwave bursts which occurred 1-4 minutes before the onset of flares have spectral fine structures with relatively weak intensities and very short timescales. They include microwave quasi-periodic pulsations with very short periods of 0.1-0.3 s and dot bursts with millisecond timescales and narrow frequency bandwidths. Accompanying these microwave bursts are filament motions, plasma ejection or loop brightening in the EUV imaging observations, and non-thermal hard X-ray emission enhancements observed by RHESSI. These facts may reveal certain independent, non-thermal energy releasing processes and particle acceleration before the onset of solar flares. They may help us to understand the nature of solar flares and to predict their occurrence.

  16. Radio and Plasma Waves in the Magnetosphere of Saturn: Similarities to Earth and Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, D.; Kurth, W.; Hospodarsky, G.; Persoon, A.; Cecconi, B.; Desch, M.; Farrell, W.; Kaiser, M.; Kellogg, P.; Goetz, K.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Harvey, C.; Louarn, P.; Canu, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Galopeau, P.; Roux, A.; Fischer, G.; Ladreiter, H.; Rucker, H.; Alleyne, H.; Bostrom, R.; Gustafsson, G.; Wahlund, J.; Pedersen, A.

    2005-05-01

    With a few notable exceptions, most of the radio and plasma waves observed in the magnetosphere of Saturn are remarkably similar to those observed in the magnetospheres of Earth and Jupiter. For example, Saturn kilometric radiation, terrestrial kilometric radiation, and Jovian decametric radiation have many characteristics in common and are all generated by the same basic plasma mechanism, namely the cyclotron maser instability. Similar statements can be made about a broad range of other radio and plasma wave phenomena, for example, electrostatic emissions at the upper hybrid frequency, electrostatic waves near odd half-integral harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency, and various whistler-mode electromagnetic emissions. What is different at these various planets are the plasma parameters and the types of interactions that lead to the plasma instabilities. Thus, the frequencies of the cyclotron maser radiation at Saturn, Earth and Jupiter are all different because the magnetic field strengths are different. And, there is no terrestrial analog of the Io-controlled Jovian decametric radiation, since there is no moon orbiting in the inner region of the terrestrial magnetosphere. In this talk, we will review the radio and plasma wave observations obtained by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) instrument in the vicinity of Saturn, and compare these to similar observations at Earth and Jupiter with the objective of contrasting and understanding the physical processes involved.

  17. Study of interacting CMEs and DH type II radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna Subramanian, S.; Shanmugaraju, A.

    2013-04-01

    The subject of interaction between the Corona Mass Ejections (CMEs) is important in the concept of space-weather studies. In this paper, we analyzed a set of 15 interacting events taken from the list compiled by Manoharan et al. (in J. Geophys. Res. 109:A06109, 2004) and their associated DH type II radio bursts. The pre and primary CMEs, and their associated DH type II bursts are identified using the SOHO/LASCO catalog and Wind/WAVES catalog, respectively. All the primary CMEs are associated with shocks and interplanetary CMEs. These CMEs are found to be preceded by secondary slow CMEs. Most of primary CMEs are halo type CME and much faster (Mean speed = 1205 km s-1) than the pre CME (Mean speed = 450 km s-1). The average delay between the pre and primary CMEs, drift rate of DH type IIs and interaction height are found to be 211 min, 0.878 kHz/s and 17.87 Ro, respectively. The final observed distance (FOD) of all pre CMEs are found to be less than 15 Ro and it is seen that many of the pre CMEs got merged with the primary CMEs, and, they were not traced as separate CMEs in the LASCO field of view. Some radio signatures are identified for these events in the DH spectrum around the time of interaction. The interaction height obtained from the height-time plots of pre and primary CMEs is found to have correlations with (i) the time delay between the two CMEs and (ii) the central frequency of emission in the radio signatures in the DH spectrum around the time of interaction. The centre frequency of emission in the DH spectrum around the time of interaction seems to decrease when the interaction height increases. This result is compared with an interplanetary density model of Saito et al. (in Solar Phys. 55:121, 1977).

  18. A comparison of type III solar radio burst theories using satellite radio observations and particle measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, L. G.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1971-01-01

    The required electron density to excite a type III solar burst can be predicted from different theories, using the low frequency radio observations of the RAE-1 satellite. Electron flux measurements by satellite in the vicinity of 1 AU then give an independent means of comparing these predicted exciter electron densities to the measured density. On this basis, one theory predicts the electron density in closest agreement with the measured values.

  19. Type 2 solar radio bursts recorded at Weissenau, 1966-1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbarz, H. W.

    1990-02-01

    The type 2 solar radio bursts are an improved list of the Weissenau Observatory Bulletin data. The list was obtained by carefully reinspecting the film records. A list of solar cycle 20 type 2 bursts was by Krivsky and Lukac (1980). A list containing the events of solar cycle 21 was published by Robinson et. al. (1983). The shock velocities were derived from the frequency drift assuming a proper density law. Included are the list of type 2 radio bursts and associated bursts and a list of supplementary type 2 bursts.

  20. Solar longitude dependence of some characteristics of type III radio bursts from metric to hectometric wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, K.

    1974-01-01

    Using the observed data for metric and hectometric type III radio bursts, the dependence of burst characteristics on the solar longitude has been examined over a wide frequency range. It is found that there exists and east-west asymmetry for the extension of metric type III bursts into the hectometric wavelength range. In particular, hectometric bursts are rarely observed for solar flares associated with metric bursts east of 60 E solar longitude. Furthermore, for east longitudes, the low-frequency radio observations show a large dispersion in drift time interval.

  1. Local Circumnuclear Magnetar Solution to Extragalactic Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pen, Ue-Li; Connor, Liam

    2015-07-01

    We synthesize the known information about fast radio bursts (FRBs) and radio magnetars, and describe an allowed origin near nuclei of external, but non-cosmological, galaxies. This places them at z\\ll 1, within a few hundred megaparsecs. In this scenario, the high dispersion measure (DM) is dominated by the environment of the FRB, modeled on the known properties of the Milky Way center, whose innermost 100 pc provides 1000 pc cm-3. A radio loud magnetar is known to exist in our galactic center, within ˜2 arcsec of Sgr A*. Based on the polarization, DM, and scattering properties of this known magnetar, we extrapolate its properties to those of Crab-like giant pulses and SGR flares and point out their consistency with observed FRBs. We conclude that galactic center magnetars could be the source of FRBs. This scenario is readily testable with very long baseline interferometry measurements as well as with flux count statistics from large surveys such as CHIME or UTMOST.

  2. Type II Radio Bursts as an Indicator of CME Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirk, C. A.; St Cyr, O. C.; Henning, C.; Xie, H.; Gilbert, H. R.; Orlove, M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Odstrcil, D.

    2011-12-01

    We examined a subset of nine low-frequency radio events with type II radio bursts that drifted below 2 megahertz and were detected by the WAVES investigation on the WIND spacecraft. For each event, we identified the associated coronal mass ejection (CME) and derived the electron density using a model of solar wind plasma frequency (fp ≈ 9 * ne1/2, where fp is plasma frequency in kHz and ne is electron density in cm-3) . We also used the pb_inverter program in SolarSoft developed by Howard and Hayes to examine the electron density structure. Expanding on the Van De Hulst process of inverting polarized brightness measurements, the program inverts total brightness measurements from SOHO LASCO images to extract electron density information. From the electron density inferred from radio spectra, we derived the location of the CME using five standard electron density to height models (Leblanc, 1996; Saito, 1977; Bougeret, 1984; Alvarez, 1973; and Fainberg, 1971). Using images from the LASCO instrument on SOHO and the SECCHI instrument on STEREO, we extracted locations of the leading edge of the CME and compared the heights and velocities to those found using the frequency data. For the lowest frequency events, we also compared our results to the outputs of ENLIL, a time-dependent, three-dimensional, MHD model of the heliosphere hosted by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  3. Type II and Type III Radio Bursts and their Correlation with Solar Energetic Proton Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, L. M.; Ledbetter, K.

    2015-08-01

    Using the Wind/WAVES radio observations from 2010 to 2013, we present an analysis of the 123 decametric–hectometric (DH) type II solar radio bursts during this period, the associated type III burst properties, and their correlation with solar energetic proton (SEP) properties determined from analysis of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations. We present a useful catalog of the type II burst, type III burst, Langmuir wave, and proton flux properties for these 123 events, which we employ to develop a statistical relationship between the radio properties and peak proton flux that can be used to forecast SEP events. We find that all SEP events with a peak \\gt 10 MeV flux above 15 protons cm‑2 s‑1 sr‑1 are associated with a type II burst and virtually all SEP events, 92%, are also associated with a type III radio burst. Based on a principal component analysis, the radio burst properties that are most highly correlated with the occurrence of gradual SEP events and account for the most variance in the radio properties are the type III burst intensity and duration. Further, a logistic regression analysis with the radio-derived principal component (dominated by the type III and type II radio burst intensity and type III duration) obtains SEP predictions approaching the human forecaster rates, with a false alarm rate of 22%, a probability of detection of 62%, and with 85% of the classifications correct. Therefore, type III radio bursts that occur along with a DH type II burst are shown to be an important diagnostic that can be used to forecast SEP events.

  4. Type II and Type III Radio Bursts and their Correlation with Solar Energetic Proton Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, L. M.; Ledbetter, K.

    2015-08-01

    Using the Wind/WAVES radio observations from 2010 to 2013, we present an analysis of the 123 decametric-hectometric (DH) type II solar radio bursts during this period, the associated type III burst properties, and their correlation with solar energetic proton (SEP) properties determined from analysis of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations. We present a useful catalog of the type II burst, type III burst, Langmuir wave, and proton flux properties for these 123 events, which we employ to develop a statistical relationship between the radio properties and peak proton flux that can be used to forecast SEP events. We find that all SEP events with a peak \\gt 10 MeV flux above 15 protons cm-2 s-1 sr-1 are associated with a type II burst and virtually all SEP events, 92%, are also associated with a type III radio burst. Based on a principal component analysis, the radio burst properties that are most highly correlated with the occurrence of gradual SEP events and account for the most variance in the radio properties are the type III burst intensity and duration. Further, a logistic regression analysis with the radio-derived principal component (dominated by the type III and type II radio burst intensity and type III duration) obtains SEP predictions approaching the human forecaster rates, with a false alarm rate of 22%, a probability of detection of 62%, and with 85% of the classifications correct. Therefore, type III radio bursts that occur along with a DH type II burst are shown to be an important diagnostic that can be used to forecast SEP events.

  5. Controlled stimulation of magnetospheric electrons by radio waves Experimental model for lightning effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.; Curtis, S. A.; Barcus, J. R.; Siefring, C. L.; Kelley, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetospheric electrons precipitated by ground-based coded very low frequency radio transmissions have been detected by rocket measurement of bremsstrahlung X-rays, caused by impact of the electrons with the upper atmosphere. The direct correlations obtained between the very low frequency signals and the X-rays demonstrate the limits of sensitivity required and indicate that this remote sensing technique would be useful for future study of very low frequency effects induced by single lightning strokes.

  6. Radio Nondetection of the SGR 1806–20 Giant Flare and Implications for Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Patel, Chitrang

    2016-08-01

    We analyze archival data from the Parkes radio telescope, which was observing a location 35.°6 away from SGR 1806‑20 during its giant γ-ray flare of 2004 December 27. We show that no fast radio burst (FRB)-like burst counterpart was detected, and set a radio limit of 110 MJy at 1.4 GHz, including the estimated 70 dB suppression of the signal due to its location in the far sidelobe of Parkes and the predicted scattering from the interstellar medium. The upper limit for the ratio of magnetar giant flare radio to γ-ray fluence is η SGR ≲ 107 Jy ms erg‑1 cm2. Based on the nondetection of a short and prompt γ-ray counterpart of 15 FRBs in γ-ray transient monitors, we set a lower limit on the fluence ratios of FRBs to be η FRB ≳ 107–9 Jy ms erg‑1 cm2. The fluence ratio limit for SGR 1806‑20 is inconsistent with all but one of the 15 FRBs. We discuss possible variations in the magnetar-FRB emission mechanism and observational caveats that may reconcile the theory with observations.

  7. Radio Nondetection of the SGR 1806-20 Giant Flare and Implications for Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Patel, Chitrang

    2016-08-01

    We analyze archival data from the Parkes radio telescope, which was observing a location 35.°6 away from SGR 1806-20 during its giant γ-ray flare of 2004 December 27. We show that no fast radio burst (FRB)-like burst counterpart was detected, and set a radio limit of 110 MJy at 1.4 GHz, including the estimated 70 dB suppression of the signal due to its location in the far sidelobe of Parkes and the predicted scattering from the interstellar medium. The upper limit for the ratio of magnetar giant flare radio to γ-ray fluence is η SGR ≲ 107 Jy ms erg-1 cm2. Based on the nondetection of a short and prompt γ-ray counterpart of 15 FRBs in γ-ray transient monitors, we set a lower limit on the fluence ratios of FRBs to be η FRB ≳ 107-9 Jy ms erg-1 cm2. The fluence ratio limit for SGR 1806-20 is inconsistent with all but one of the 15 FRBs. We discuss possible variations in the magnetar-FRB emission mechanism and observational caveats that may reconcile the theory with observations.

  8. Probing the intergalactic medium with fast radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Z.; Ofek, E. O.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Neill, J. D.; Juric, M.

    2014-12-10

    The recently discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs), presumably of extragalactic origin, have the potential to become a powerful probe of the intergalactic medium (IGM). We point out a few such potential applications. We provide expressions for the dispersion measure and rotation measure as a function of redshift, and we discuss the sensitivity of these measures to the He II reionization and the IGM magnetic field. Finally, we calculate the microlensing effect from an isolated, extragalactic stellar-mass compact object on the FRB spectrum. The time delays between the two lensing images will induce constructive and destructive interference, leaving a specific imprint on the spectra of FRBs. With a high all-sky rate, a large statistical sample of FRBs is expected to make these applications feasible.

  9. Fast radio bursts counterparts in the scenario of supergiant pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, S. B.; Pshirkov, M. S.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss identification of possible counterparts and persistent sources related to fast radio bursts (FRBs) in the framework of the model of supergiant pulses from young neutron stars with large spin-down luminosities. In particular, we demonstrate that at least some of the sources of FRBs can be observed as ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). At the moment no ULXs are known to be coincident with localization areas of FRBs. We searched for a correlation of FRB positions with galaxies in the 2MASS Redshift survey catalogue. Our analysis produced statistically insignificant overabundance (p-value ≈ 4 per cent) of galaxies in error boxes of FRBs. In the very near future with even modestly increased statistics of FRBs and with the help of dedicated X-ray observations and all-sky X-ray surveys it will be possible to decisively prove or falsify the supergiant pulses model.

  10. Searching for Correlated Radio Transients & Gravitational Wave Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavic, Michael; Shawhan, P. S.; Yancey, C.; Cutchin, S.; Simonetti, J. H.; Bear, B.; Tsai, J.

    2013-01-01

    We will discuss an ongoing multi-messenger search for transient radio pulses and gravitational wave bursts. This work is being conducted jointly by the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) and the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC). A variety of astrophysical sources can produce simultaneous emission of gravitational waves and coherent low-frequency electromagnetic radiation. The primary common source motivating this work is the merger of neutron star binaries for which the LWA and LSC instruments have comparable sensitivity. Additional common sources include supernovae, long timescale GRBs and cosmic string cusp events. Data taken by both instruments can be compared to search for correlated signals. Identification of correlated signals can be used to increase the sensitivity of both instruments. We will summarize the coincident observations which have already been conducted and outline plans for future work. We will describe the process being used for synthesizing these data set and present preliminary results.

  11. Laboratory Reproduction of Auroral Magnetospheric Radio Wave Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald, K.; Speirs, D. C.; McConville, S. L.; Gillespie, K. M.; Phelps, A. D. R.; Cross, A. W.; Robertson, C. W.; Whyte, C. G.; He, W.; Bingham, R.; Vorgul, I.; Cairns, R. A.; Kellett, B. J.

    2008-10-15

    Auroral Kilometric Radiation, AKR, occurs naturally in the polar regions of the Earth's magnetosphere where electrons are accelerated by electric fields into the increasing planetary magnetic dipole. Here conservation of the magnetic moment converts axial to rotational momentum forming a horseshoe distribution in velocity phase space. This distribution is unstable to cyclotron emissions and radiation is emitted in the X-mode. In the laboratory a 75-85kV electron beam of 5-40A was magnetically compressed by a system of solenoids. Results are presented for an electron beam gyrating at cyclotron frequencies of 4.42GHz and 11.7GHz resonating with near cut-off TE01 and TE03 modes respectively. Measurements of the electron transport combined with numerical simulations demonstrated that a horseshoe distribution function was formed in electron velocity space. Analysis of the experimental measurements allowed the inference of the 1D number density as a function of the electron beam pitch angle. The total power emitted experimentally was {approx}19-35 kW with a maximum RF emission efficiency of {approx}2%. These results were compared to those obtained numerically using a 2D PiC code KARAT with a maximum efficiency of 2% predicted for the same mode and frequency, consistent with astrophysical and theoretical results.

  12. Theories of radio emissions and plasma waves. [in Jupiter magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Goertz, C. K.

    1983-01-01

    The complex region of Jupiter's radio emissions at decameter wavelengths, the so-called DAM, is considered, taking into account the basic theoretical ideas which underly both the older and newer theories and models. Linear theories are examined, giving attention to direct emission mechanisms, parallel propagation, perpendicular propagation, and indirect emission mechanisms. An investigation of nonlinear theories is also conducted. Three-wave interactions are discussed along with decay instabilities, and three-wave up-conversio. Aspects of the Io and plasma torus interaction are studied, and a mechanism by which Io can accelerate electrons is reviewed.

  13. The Fluence and Distance Distributions of Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedantham, H. K.; Ravi, V.; Hallinan, G.; Shannon, R. M.

    2016-10-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRB) are millisecond-duration radio pulses with apparent extragalactic origins. All but two of the FRBs have been discovered using the Parkes dish, which employs multiple beams formed by an array of feed horns on its focal plane. In this paper, we show that (i) the preponderance of multiple-beam detections and (ii) the detection rates for varying dish diameters can be used to infer the index α of the cumulative fluence distribution function (the logN–logF function: α = 1.5 for a non-evolving population in a Euclidean universe). If all detected FRBs arise from a single progenitor population, multiple-beam FRB detection rates from the Parkes telescope yield the constraint 0.52 < α < 1.0 with 90% confidence. Searches at other facilities with different dish sizes refine the constraint to 0.5 < α < 0.9. Our results favor FRB searches with smaller dishes, because for α < 1 the gain in field of view for a smaller dish is more important than the reduction in sensitivity. Further, our results suggest that (i) FRBs are not standard candles, and (ii) the distribution of distances to the detected FRBs is weighted toward larger distances. If FRBs are extragalactic, these results are consistent with a cosmological population, which would make FRBs excellent probes of the baryonic content and geometry of the universe.

  14. Interstellar Scintillation and the Radio Counterpart of the Fast Radio Burst FRB 150418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Kazunori; Johnson, Michael D.

    2016-06-01

    Keane et al. have recently reported the discovery of a new fast radio burst (FRB), FRB 150418, with a promising radio counterpart at 5.5 and 7.5 GHz—a rapidly decaying source, falling from 200-300 μJy to 100 μJy on timescales of ˜6 days. This transient source may be associated with an elliptical galaxy at redshift z = 0.492, providing the first firm spectroscopic redshift for an FRB and the ability to estimate the density of baryons in the intergalactic medium via the combination of known redshift and radio dispersion of the FRB. An alternative explanation, first suggested by Williams & Berger, is that the identified counterpart may instead be a compact active galactic nucleus (AGN). The putative counterpart’s variation may then instead be extrinsic, caused by refractive scintillation in the ionized interstellar medium of the Milky Way, which would invalidate the association with FRB 150418. We examine this latter explanation in detail and show that the reported observations are consistent with scintillating radio emission from the core of a radio-loud AGN having a brightness temperature T b ≳ 109 K. Using numerical simulations of the expected scattering for the line of sight to FRB 150418, we provide example images and light curves of such an AGN at 5.5 and 7.5 GHz. These results can be compared with continued radio monitoring to conclusively determine the importance of scintillation for the observed radio variability, and they show that scintillation is a critical consideration for continued searches for FRB counterparts at radio wavelengths.

  15. Interstellar Scintillation and the Radio Counterpart of the Fast Radio Burst FRB 150418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Kazunori; Johnson, Michael D.

    2016-06-01

    Keane et al. have recently reported the discovery of a new fast radio burst (FRB), FRB 150418, with a promising radio counterpart at 5.5 and 7.5 GHz—a rapidly decaying source, falling from 200–300 μJy to 100 μJy on timescales of ˜6 days. This transient source may be associated with an elliptical galaxy at redshift z = 0.492, providing the first firm spectroscopic redshift for an FRB and the ability to estimate the density of baryons in the intergalactic medium via the combination of known redshift and radio dispersion of the FRB. An alternative explanation, first suggested by Williams & Berger, is that the identified counterpart may instead be a compact active galactic nucleus (AGN). The putative counterpart’s variation may then instead be extrinsic, caused by refractive scintillation in the ionized interstellar medium of the Milky Way, which would invalidate the association with FRB 150418. We examine this latter explanation in detail and show that the reported observations are consistent with scintillating radio emission from the core of a radio-loud AGN having a brightness temperature T b ≳ 109 K. Using numerical simulations of the expected scattering for the line of sight to FRB 150418, we provide example images and light curves of such an AGN at 5.5 and 7.5 GHz. These results can be compared with continued radio monitoring to conclusively determine the importance of scintillation for the observed radio variability, and they show that scintillation is a critical consideration for continued searches for FRB counterparts at radio wavelengths.

  16. COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF FAST RADIO BURST/GAMMA-RAY BURST ASSOCIATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Wei; Zhang, Bing E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-03-10

    If a small fraction of fast radio bursts (FRBs) are associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), as recently suggested by Zhang, the combination of redshift measurements of GRBs and dispersion measure (DM) measurements of FRBs opens a new window to study cosmology. At z < 2 where the universe is essentially fully ionized, detections of FRB/GRB pairs can give an independent measurement of the intergalactic medium portion of the baryon mass fraction, Ω {sub b} f {sub IGM}, of the universe. If a good sample of FRB/GRB associations are discovered at higher redshifts, the free electron column density history can be mapped, which can be used to probe the reionization history of both hydrogen and helium in the universe. We apply our formulation to GRBs 101011A and 100704A that each might have an associated FRB, and constrained Ω {sub b} f {sub IGM} to be consistent with the value derived from other methods. The methodology developed here is also applicable, if the redshifts of FRBs not associated with GRBs can be measured by other means.

  17. ORIGIN OF ELECTRON CYCLOTRON MASER INDUCED RADIO EMISSIONS AT ULTRACOOL DWARFS: MAGNETOSPHERE-IONOSPHERE COUPLING CURRENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, J. D.; Burleigh, M. R.; Casewell, S. L.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Wynn, G. A.; Clarke, J. T.; West, A. A.

    2012-11-20

    A number of ultracool dwarfs emit circularly polarized radio waves generated by the electron cyclotron maser instability. In the solar system such radio is emitted from regions of strong auroral magnetic-field-aligned currents. We thus apply ideas developed for Jupiter's magnetosphere, being a well-studied rotationally dominated analog in our solar system, to the case of fast-rotating UCDs. We explain the properties of the radio emission from UCDs by showing that it would arise from the electric currents resulting from an angular velocity shear in the fast-rotating magnetic field and plasma, i.e., by an extremely powerful analog of the process that causes Jupiter's auroras. Such a velocity gradient indicates that these bodies interact significantly with their space environment, resulting in intense auroral emissions. These results strongly suggest that auroras occur on bodies outside our solar system.

  18. A New Class of Weak Radio Bursts: Nanoflares and Coronal Heating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, C.; Oberoi, D.; S, A.; Timar, B.; Pankratius, V.

    2014-12-01

    The newly commissioned Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) has revealed the presence of a numerous weak and short lived low frequency radio solar bursts. These emission features have duration of order a second, have relatively narrow spectral widths and are surprisingly numerous even during quiet solar conditions. Their appearance in the time-frequency plane is unlike that of the any of the known classes of radio bursts, and they at least an order of magnitude weaker than the weakest type III bursts routinely monitored and reported (e.g. by Automated Radio Burst Identification System operational at the Learmonth Radioheliograph in Australia). For the few bursts which have been studied in detail, we have not found a counterpart at X-Ray or EUV bands. There is an exciting possibility that these bursts are associated with the widely hypothesized "nanoflares" thought to play a role in coronal heating through magnetic reconnection on small scales in coronal loops. A systematic and detailed characterization of the statistical properties of these bursts over large temporal and spectral spans is necessary for investigating the role these bursts might play in coronal heating. To enable this, we have developed a novel system using region-growing, wavelet decompositions, and thresholding techniques for event recognition and parameter extraction in an automated manner for the voluminous MWA interferometric data. We will present and describe the statistical properties of these weak radio bursts based on a large number of events detected and parameterized by these automated methods.

  19. Energetic electrons, Type III radio bursts, and impulsive solar flare X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of impulsive hard X-ray and type III radio bursts made during the maximum of the last solar activity cycle are analyzed. Spectral measurements of 10-68 keV X-rays were made with the University of California (Berkeley) experiment aboard the OGO 5 satellite. About 20% of impulsive hard X-ray bursts are correlated with type III radio bursts, whereas only about 3% of the reported type III radio bursts are correlated with impulsive X-ray bursts. The location of the associated H gamma flare on the solar disk has little effect on the X-ray-type III burst correlation. The magnitude of the X-ray-type III burst correlation increases systematically with an increase in the intensity and starting frequency of the radio burst, the peak energy and hardness of the X-ray burst, and the peak nonthermal emission measure and spectral hardness of the electron spectrum not less than 20 keV inside the X-ray source. Observations are consistent with the electron populations responsible for both the X-ray and type III emissions accelerated in a single acceleration process; they also suggest a flare model where the primary instability causing electron acceleration during the impulsive phase occurs in the corona.

  20. Radio emission observed by Galileo in the inner Jovian magnetosphere during orbit A-34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menietti, J. Douglas; Gurnett, Donald A.; Groene, Joseph B.

    2005-10-01

    The Galileo spacecraft encountered the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter on its way to a flyby of Amalthea on November 5, 2002. During this encounter, the spacecraft observed distinct spin modulation of plasma wave emissions. The modulations occurred in the frequency range from a few hundred hertz to a few hundred kilohertz and probably include at least two distinct wave modes. Assuming transverse EM radiation, we have used the swept-frequency receivers of the electric dipole antenna to determine the direction to the source of these emissions. Additionally, with knowledge of the magnetic field some constraints are placed on the wave mode of the emission based on a comparative analysis of the wave power versus spin phase of the different emissions. The emission appears in several bands separated by attenuation lanes. The analysis indicates that the lanes are probably due to blockage of the freely propagating emission by high density regions of the Io torus near the magnetic equator. Radio emission at lower frequencies (<40 kHz) appears to emanate from sources at high latitude and is not attenuated. Emission at f>80kHz is consistent with O-mode and Z-mode. Lower frequency emissions could be a mixture of O-mode, Z-mode and whistler mode. Emission for f<5kHz shows bands that are similar to upper hybrid resonance bands observed near the terrestrial plasmapause, and also elsewhere in Jovian magnetosphere. Based on the observations and knowledge of similar terrestrial emissions, we hypothesize that radio emission results from mode conversion near the strong density gradient of the inner radius of the cold plasma torus, similar to the generation of nKOM and continuum emission observed in the outer Jovian magnetosphere and in the terrestrial magnetosphere from source regions near the plasmapause.

  1. Localising fast radio bursts and other transients using interferometric arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrocka, M.; Stappers, B.; Wilkinson, P.

    2015-07-01

    A new population of sources emitting fast and bright transient radio bursts (FRBs) has recently been identified. Their observed high dispersion measures suggests an extragalactic origin, and accurately determining their positions and distances will provide an opportunity to study the magneto-ionic properties of the intergalactic medium. So far, FRBs have all been found using large dishes equipped with multi-pixel arrays. While these dishes are well-suited to discovering transient sources, they are poor at providing accurate localisations. A 2D snapshot image of the sky, made with a correlation interferometer array, can accurately localise many compact radio sources simultaneously. However, the required time resolution and the need to detect them in real time makes this currently impractical. In a beam-forming approach many narrow tied-array beams (TABs) are produced and the advantages of single dishes and interferometers can be combined. We present a proof-of-concept analysis of a new non-imaging method that utilises the additional spectral and comparative spatial information obtained from multiply overlapping TABs to estimate a transient source location with up to arcsecond accuracy in almost real time. We demonstrate this for a variety of interferometric configurations, that is LOFAR and MeerKAT, and show that the estimated angular position may be sufficient for identifying a host galaxy or other related object, without reference to other simultaneous or follow-up observations. In cases where the position is less accurately determined, we can still significantly reduce the area that needs to be searched for associated emission at other wavelengths and from potential host galaxies.

  2. The effect of solar radio bursts on the GNSS radio occultation signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xinan; Schreiner, William S.; Kuo, Ying-Hwa; Zhao, Biqiang; Wan, Weixing; Ren, Zhipeng; Liu, Libo; Wei, Yong; Lei, Jiuhou; Solomon, Stan; Rocken, Christian

    2013-09-01

    radio burst (SRB) is the radio wave emission after a solar flare, covering a broad frequency range, originated from the Sun's atmosphere. During the SRB occurrence, some specific frequency radio wave could interfere with the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals and therefore disturb the received signals. In this study, the low Earth orbit- (LEO-) based high-resolution GNSS radio occultation (RO) signals from multiple satellites (COSMIC, CHAMP, GRACE, SAC-C, Metop-A, and TerraSAR-X) processed in University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) were first used to evaluate the effect of SRB on the RO technique. The radio solar telescope network (RSTN) observed radio flux was used to represent SRB occurrence. An extreme case during 6 December 2006 and statistical analysis during April 2006 to September 2012 were studied. The LEO RO signals show frequent loss of lock (LOL), simultaneous decrease on L1 and L2 signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) globally during daytime, small-scale perturbations of SNR, and decreased successful retrieval percentage (SRP) for both ionospheric and atmospheric occultations during SRB occurrence. A potential harmonic band interference was identified. Either decreased data volume or data quality will influence weather prediction, climate study, and space weather monitoring by using RO data during SRB time. Statistically, the SRP of ionospheric and atmospheric occultation retrieval shows ~4% and ~13% decrease, respectively, while the SNR of L1 and L2 show ~5.7% and ~11.7% decrease, respectively. A threshold value of ~1807 SFU of 1415 MHz frequency, which can result in observable GNSS SNR decrease, was derived based on our statistical analysis.

  3. On the Methods of Determining the Radio Emission Geometry in Pulsar Magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyks, J.; Rudak, B.; Harding, Alice K.

    2004-01-01

    We present a modification of the relativistic phase shift method of determining the radio emission geometry from pulsar magnetospheres proposed by Gangadhara & Gupta (2001). Our modification provides a method of determining radio emission altitudes which does not depend on the viewing geometry and does not require polarization measurements. We suggest application of the method to the outer edges of averaged radio pulse profiles to identify magnetic field lines associated with'the edges of the pulse and, thereby, to test the geometric method based on the measurement of the pulse width at the lowest intensity level. We show that another relativistic method proposed by Blaskiewicz et al. (1991) provides upper limits for emission altitudes associated with the outer edges of pulse profiles. A comparison of these limits with the altitudes determined with the geometric method may be used to probe the importance of rotational distortions of magnetic field and refraction effects in the pulsar magnetosphere. We provide a comprehensive discussion of the assumptions used in the relativistic methods.

  4. RADIO SIGNATURES OF CORONAL-MASS-EJECTION-STREAMER INTERACTION AND SOURCE DIAGNOSTICS OF TYPE II RADIO BURST

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, S. W.; Chen, Y.; Kong, X. L.; Li, G.; Song, H. Q.; Feng, X. S.; Liu Ying

    2012-07-01

    It has been suggested that type II radio bursts are due to energetic electrons accelerated at coronal shocks. Radio observations, however, have poor or no spatial resolutions to pinpoint the exact acceleration locations of these electrons. In this paper, we discuss a promising approach to infer the electron acceleration location by combining radio and white light observations. The key assumption is to relate specific morphological features (e.g., spectral bumps) of the dynamic spectra of type II radio bursts to imaging features (e.g., coronal mass ejection (CME) going into a streamer) along the CME (and its driven shock) propagation. In this study, we examine the CME-streamer interaction for the solar eruption dated on 2003 November 1. The presence of spectral bump in the relevant type II radio burst is identified, which is interpreted as a natural result of the shock-radio-emitting region entering the dense streamer structure. The study is useful for further determinations of the location of type II radio burst and the associated electron acceleration by CME-driven shock.

  5. COSMOLOGICAL FAST RADIO BURSTS FROM BINARY WHITE DWARF MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiyama, Kazumi; Mészáros, Peter; Ioka, Kunihito E-mail: nnp@psu.edu

    2013-10-20

    Recently, Thornton et al. reported the detection of four fast radio bursts (FRBs). The dispersion measures indicate that the sources of these FRBs are at cosmological distance. Given the large full sky event rate ∼10{sup 4} sky{sup –1} day{sup –1}, the FRBs are a promising target for multi-messenger astronomy. Here we propose double degenerate, binary white-dwarf (WD) mergers as the source of FRBs, which are produced by coherent emission from the polar region of a rapidly rotating, magnetized massive WD formed after the merger. The basic characteristics of the FRBs, such as the energetics, emission duration and event rate, can be consistently explained in this scenario. As a result, we predict that some FRBs can accompany type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) or X-ray debris disks. Simultaneous detection could test our scenario and probe the progenitors of SNe Ia, and moreover would provide a novel constraint on the cosmological parameters. We strongly encourage future SN and X-ray surveys that follow up FRBs.

  6. Directivity Patterns of Complex Solar Type III Radio Bursts: Stereoscopic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golla, T.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Complex solar type III-like radio bursts are a group of type III bursts that occur in association with slowly drifting type II radio bursts excited by coronal mass ejection (CME) driven shock waves. We presentsimultaneous observations of these radio bursts from the STEREO A, B and WIND spacecraft at low frequencies, located at different vantage points in the ecliptic plane. Using these stereoscopic observations, wedetermine the directivity of these complex radio bursts. We estimate the angles between the directions of the magnetic field at the sources and the lines connecting the source to the spacecraft (viewing angles) by assuming that the sources are located on the Parker spiral magnetic field lines emerging from the associated active regions into the spherically symmetric solar atmosphere. We estimate the normalized peak intensities of these bursts (directivity factors) at each spacecraft using their time profiles at each spacecraft. These observations indicate that the complex type III bursts can be divided into two groups: (1) bursts emitting into a very narrow cone centered around the tangent to the magnetic field, and (2) bursts emitting into a wider cone. We show that the bursts , which are emitted along the tangent to the spiral magnetic field lines at the source are very intense, and their intensities steadily fall as the viewing angles increase to higher values. We have developed a ray tracing code and computed the distributions of the trajectories of rays emitted at the fundamental and second harmonic of the electron plasma frequency. The comparison of the observed emission patterns with the computed distributions of the ray trajectories indicate that the intense bursts visible in a narrow range of angles around the magnetic field directions probably are emitted in the fundamental mode, whereas the relativelyweaker bursts visible to a wide range of angles are probably emitted in the harmonic mode.

  7. Correlations Between Narrowband Radio Emissions and Transient Rotating Plasma Clouds in Saturn's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Mitchell, D. G.

    2007-12-01

    The RPWS (Radio and Plasma Wave Science) instrument onboard the Cassini spacecraft has frequently detected a series of narrowband electromagnetic emissions from the inner magnetosphere of Saturn from May 2005 to July 2007. Frequency-time spectrograms show that the strongest narrowband emissions tend to occur at frequencies near 5 kHz with bandwidths of about 2 to 3 kHz. Other apparently associated bands also occur at higher frequencies, sometimes as high as 30 kHz. Analysis of all the events detected over a two-year period shows that the emissions tend to be observed more frequently on the night side of the planet, as well as at latitudes away from the equator. The longitude of the Sun using a longitude system recently developed by Kurth et al. organizes the narrowband radio emissions better than the longitude of the spacecraft, indicating that the modulation of the radio emissions is acting more like a flashing light than a rotating beacon. The narrowband radio emissions are believed to be produced by mode conversion from electrostatic waves near the upper hybrid frequency at about L ~ 7 to 8 and latitudes of ±30 degrees. Our studies show that the transient hot plasma clouds rotating around the planet inside the orbit of Titan, may be the source for narrowband radio emissions for three reasons. First, the hot plasma clouds are produced by ENA (energetic neutral atom) emissions, which are detected by MIMI (INCA), through charge exchange. ENA images of Saturn's magnetosphere show that the hot plasma clouds rotate around the planet in the region from 7 to 8 RS, and this agrees with the source location required by the above mode conversion model. Second, ENA emissions tend to show stronger intensities on the night side of Saturn, consistent with the narrowband radio emissions that are also observed more frequently on the night side. Third, the narrowband radio emissions and ENA emissions are well correlated in time. In most cases (20 out of 30), narrowband radio

  8. Instrument technology for magnetosphere plasma imaging from high Earth orbit. Design of a radio plasma sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, D. Mark; Reinisch, Bodo W.

    1995-01-01

    The use of radio sounding techniques for the study of the ionospheric plasma dates back to G. Briet and M. A. Tuve in 1926. Ground based swept frequency sounders can monitor the electron number density (N(sub e)) as a function of height (the N(sub e) profile). These early instruments evolved into a global network that produced high-resolution displays of echo time delay vs frequency on 35-mm film. These instruments provided the foundation for the success of the International Geophysical Year (1958). The Alouette and International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) programs pioneered the used of spaceborne, swept frequency sounders to obtain N(sub e) profiles of the topside of the ionosphere, from a position above the electron density maximum. Repeated measurements during the orbit produced an orbital plane contour which routinely provided density measurements to within 10%. The Alouette/ISIS experience also showed that even with a high powered transmitter (compared to the low power sounder possible today) a radio sounder can be compatible with other imaging instruments on the same satellite. Digital technology was used on later spacecraft developed by the Japanese (the EXOS C and D) and the Soviets (Intercosmos 19 and Cosmos 1809). However, a full coherent pulse compression and spectral integrating capability, such as exist today for ground-based sounders (Reinisch et al., 1992), has never been put into space. NASA's 1990 Space Physics Strategy Implementation Study "The NASA Space Physics Program from 1995 to 2010" suggested using radio sounders to study the plasmasphere and the magnetopause and its boundary layers (Green and Fung, 1993). Both the magnetopause and plasmasphere, as well as the cusp and boundary layers, can be observed by a radio sounder in a high-inclination polar orbit with an apogee greater than 6 R(sub e) (Reiff et al., 1994; Calvert et al., 1995). Magnetospheric radio sounding from space will provide remote density measurements of

  9. Revisiting the dispersion measure of fast radio bursts associated with gamma-ray burst afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yun-Wei

    2014-12-01

    Some fast radio bursts (FRBs) are expected to be associated with the afterglow emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), while a short-lived, supermassive neutron star (NS) forms during the GRBs. I investigate the possible contributions to the dispersion measure (DM) of the FRBs from the GRB ejecta and the wind blown from the precollapsing NS. On the one hand, sometimes an internal X-ray plateau afterglow could be produced by the NS wind, which indicates that a great number of electron-positron pairs are carried by the wind. If the pair-generation radius satisfies a somewhat rigorous condition, the relativistic and dense wind would contribute a high DM to the associated FRB, which can be comparable to and even exceed the DM contributed by the intergalactic medium. On the other hand, if the wind only carries a Goldreich-Julian particle flux, its DM contribution would become negligible; meanwhile, the internal plateau afterglow would not appear. Alternatively, the FRB should be associated with a GRB afterglow produced by the GRB external shock, i.e., an energy-injection-caused shallow-decay afterglow or a normal single-power-law afterglow if the impulsive energy release of the GRB is high enough. In the latter case, the DM contributed by the high-mass GRB ejecta could be substantially important, in particular, for an environment of main-sequence stellar wind. In summary, a careful assessment on the various DM contributors could be required for the cosmological application of the expected FRB-GRB association. The future DM measurements of GRB-associated FRBs could provide a constraint on the physics of NS winds.

  10. A search for the radio counterpart to the 1994 March 1 gamma-ray burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frail, D. A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Hurley, K. C.; Fishman, G. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C. A.; Sommer, M.; Boer, M.; Niel, M.; Cline, T.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the results of a search for the radio counterpart to the bright gamma-ray burst of 1994 March 1. Using the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory Synthesis Telescope sensitive, wide-field radio images at 1.4 GHz and 0.4 GHz were made of a region around GRB 940301. A total of 15 separate radio images were obtained at each frequency, sampling a near-continuous range of post-burst timescales between 3 and 15 days, as well as 26, 47, and 99 days. We place an upper limit of 3.5 mJy on a fading/flaring radio counterpart at 1.4 GHz and 55 mJy at 0.4 GHz. Unlike past efforts our counterpart search maintains high sensitivity over two decades of post-burst time durations. Time-variable radio emission after the initial gamma-ray burst is a prediction of all fireball models, currently the most popular model for gamma-ray bursts. Our observations allow us to put significant constraints on the fireball parameters for cosmological models of gamma-ray bursts.

  11. Radio Imaging of a Type IVM Radio Burst on the 14th of August 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, H. M.; Krucker, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Raftery, C. L.

    2014-02-01

    Propagating coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are often accompanied by burst signatures in radio spectrogram data. We present Nançay Radioheliograph observations of a moving source of broadband radio emission, commonly referred to as a type IV radio burst (type IVM), which occurred in association with a CME on the 14th of August 2010. The event was well observed at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths by SDO/AIA and PROBA2/SWAP, and by the STEREO SECCHI and SOHO LASCO white light (WL) coronagraphs. The EUV and WL observations show the type IVM source to be cospatial with the CME core. The observed spectra is well fitted by a power law with a negative slope, which is consistent with optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission. The spectrum shows no turn over at the lowest Nançay frequencies. By comparing simulated gyrosynchrotron spectra with Nançay Radioheliograph observations, and performing a rigorous parameter search we are able to constrain several key parameters of the underlying plasma. Simulated spectra found to fit the data suggest a nonthermal electron distribution with a low energy cutoff of several tens to 100 keV, with a nonthermal electron density in the range 100-102 cm-3, in a magnetic field of a few Gauss. The nonthermal energy content of the source is found to contain 0.001%-0.1% of the sources thermal energy content. Furthermore, the energy loss timescale for this distribution equates to several hours, suggesting that the electrons could be accelerated during the CME initiation or early propagation phase and become trapped in the magnetic structure of the CME core without the need to be replenished.

  12. Radio imaging of a type IVM radio burst on the 14th of August 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, H. M.; Krucker, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Raftery, C. L.

    2014-02-10

    Propagating coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are often accompanied by burst signatures in radio spectrogram data. We present Nançay Radioheliograph observations of a moving source of broadband radio emission, commonly referred to as a type IV radio burst (type IVM), which occurred in association with a CME on the 14th of August 2010. The event was well observed at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths by SDO/AIA and PROBA2/SWAP, and by the STEREO SECCHI and SOHO LASCO white light (WL) coronagraphs. The EUV and WL observations show the type IVM source to be cospatial with the CME core. The observed spectra is well fitted by a power law with a negative slope, which is consistent with optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission. The spectrum shows no turn over at the lowest Nançay frequencies. By comparing simulated gyrosynchrotron spectra with Nançay Radioheliograph observations, and performing a rigorous parameter search we are able to constrain several key parameters of the underlying plasma. Simulated spectra found to fit the data suggest a nonthermal electron distribution with a low energy cutoff of several tens to 100 keV, with a nonthermal electron density in the range 10{sup 0}-10{sup 2} cm{sup –3}, in a magnetic field of a few Gauss. The nonthermal energy content of the source is found to contain 0.001%-0.1% of the sources thermal energy content. Furthermore, the energy loss timescale for this distribution equates to several hours, suggesting that the electrons could be accelerated during the CME initiation or early propagation phase and become trapped in the magnetic structure of the CME core without the need to be replenished.

  13. Magnetotail Flow Bursts: Association to Global Magnetospheric Circulation, Relationship to Ionospheric Activity and Direct Evidence for Localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelopoulos, V.; Phan, T. D.; Larson, D. E.; Mozer, F. S.; Lin, R. P.; Parks, G. K.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Germany, G. A.; Spann, J. F., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    A series of bursty bulk flow events (BBFs) were observed by GEOTAIL and WIND in the geomagnetotail. IMP8 at the solar wind showed significant energy coupling into the magnetosphere, while the UVI instrument of POALR evidenced significant energy transfer to the ionosphere during two substorms. There was good correlation between BBFs and ionospheric activity observed by UVI even when ground magnetic signatures were absent, suggesting that low ionospheric conductivity at the active sector may be responsible for this observation. During the second substorm no significant flux transport was evidenced past WIND in stark contrast to GEOTAIL and despite the small intersatellite separation ((3.54, 2.88, -0.06) Re). Throughout the intervals studied there were significant differences in the individual flow bursts at the two satellites, even during longitudinally extended ionospheric activations. We conclude that the half-scale-size of transport bearing flow bursts is less than 3 Re.

  14. Directivity of low frequency solar type III radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Fainberg, J.; Bundy, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    The occurrence rate of type III solar bursts in the frequency range 4.9 MHz to 30 kHz is analyzed as a function of burst intensity and burst arrival direction. We find that (1) the occurrence rate of bursts varies inversely with the 1.5 power of the flux, and (2) the distribution of burst arrival directions at each frequency shows a significantly larger number of bursts observed west of the earth-sun line than east of it. This western excess in occurrence rate appears to be correlated with the direction of the average interplanetary magnetic field, and is interpreted as beaming of the observed burst radiation along the magnetic field direction.

  15. Simultaneous Radio and EUV Imaging of a Multi-lane Coronal Type II Radio Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, S. W.; Du, G. H.; Chen, Y.; Kong, X. L.; Li, G.; Guo, F.

    2015-04-01

    A multi-lane solar type II radio burst was observed by several solar spectrographs on 16 February 2011. The event was also recorded by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH) at several metric wavelengths, by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) onboard the Solar TErrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) in a number of EUV passbands. These multi-wavelength data provide a rare opportunity to reveal the emission source of the multiple type II lanes. Our study shows that all lanes are associated with a single EUV wave, presumably the radio-emitting shock. The EUV wave was driven by a coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with an M1.6 flare and a filament eruption. With the NRH data and the three-dimensional (3D) bow-shock reconstruction that we built using the multi-viewpoint data of the EUV wave, we are able to deduce the 3D coordinates of the radio sources. We conclude that all the three type II lanes originated from the western flank of the shock, with two of them from closely adjacent locations on the southern part, the other one from a distinct location on the northern part. This case study demonstrates how the type II origin can be pinpointed by combining analyses of different data sets.

  16. Prediction of radio frequency power generation of Neptune's magnetosphere from generalized radiometric Bode's law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Million, M. A.; Goertz, C. K.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetospheric radio frequency emission power has been shown to vary as a function of both solar wind and planetary values such as magnetic field by Kaiser and Desch (1984). Planetary magnetic fields have been shown to scale with planetary variables such as density and angular momentum by numerous researchers. This paper combines two magnetic scaling laws with the radiometric law to yield 'Bode's'-type laws governing planetary radio emissions. Further analysis allows the reduction of variables to planetary mass and orbital distance. These generalized laws are then used to predict the power otuput of Neptune to be about 1.6 x 10 to the 7th W; with the intensity peaking at about 3 MHz.

  17. Prediction of radio frequency power generation of Neptune's magnetosphere from generalized radiometric Bode's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millon, M. A.; Goertz, C. K.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetospheric radio frequency emission power has been shown to vary as a function of both solar wind and planetary values such as magnetic field by Kaiser and Desch. Planetary magnetic fields have been shown to scale with planetary variables such as density and angular momentum by numerous researchers. This paper combines two magnetic scaling laws (Busse's and Curtis Ness') with the radiometric law to yield "Bode's"-type laws governing planetary radio emission. Further analysis allows the reduction of variables to planetary mass and orbital distance. These generalized laws are then used to predict the power output of Neptune to be about 1.6×107W; with the intensity peaking at about 3 MHz.

  18. FERMI/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor upper limits assuming a magnetar origin for the repeating Fast Radio Burst source, FRB 121102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, George; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Huppenkothen, Daniela; Gogus, Ersin; Kaneko, Yuki; van der Horst, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Spitler et al. (2016, 10.1038/nature17168) reported a repeating Fast Radio Burst source, FRB 121102, with a rate of about 3 bursts/hr. We searched the FERMI/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) for possible gamma-ray counterparts for these events.

  19. PREDICTION OF TYPE II SOLAR RADIO BURSTS BY THREE-DIMENSIONAL MHD CORONAL MASS EJECTION AND KINETIC RADIO EMISSION SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J. M.; Cairns, Iver H.; Hillan, D. S.

    2013-08-20

    Type II solar radio bursts are the primary radio emissions generated by shocks and they are linked with impending space weather events at Earth. We simulate type II bursts by combining elaborate three-dimensional MHD simulations of realistic coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the Sun with an analytic kinetic radiation theory developed recently. The modeling includes initialization with solar magnetic and active region fields reconstructed from magnetograms of the Sun, a flux rope of the initial CME dimensioned with STEREO spacecraft observations, and a solar wind driven with averaged empirical data. We demonstrate impressive accuracy in time, frequency, and intensity for the CME and type II burst observed on 2011 February 15. This implies real understanding of the physical processes involved regarding the radio emission excitation by shocks and supports the near-term development of a capability to predict and track these events for space weather prediction.

  20. Investigating the Conditions of the Formation of a Type II Radio Burst on 2014 January 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, W.; Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.; Ning, Z. J.; Ji, H. S.

    2016-10-01

    It is believed that type II radio bursts are generated by shock waves. In order to understand the generation conditions of type II radio bursts, we analyze the physical parameters of a shock front. The type II radio burst we selected was observed by the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT) and Learmonth radio station and was associated with a limb coronal mass ejection (CME) occurring on 2014 January 8 observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The evolution of the CME in the inner corona presents a double-layered structure that propagates outward. We fit the outer layer (OL) of the structure with a partial circle and divide it into seven directions from ‑45° to 45° with an angular separation of 15°. We measure the OL speed along the seven directions and find that the speed in the direction of ‑15° with respect to the central direction is the fastest. We use the differential emission measure method to calculate the physical parameters at the OL at the moment when the type II radio burst was initiated, including the temperature (T), emission measure (EM), temperature ratio ({T}d/{T}{{u}}), compression ratio (X), and Alfvén Mach number (M A). We compare the quantities X and M A to those obtained from band-splitting in the radio spectrum, and find that this type II radio burst is generated at a small region of the OL that is located at the sector in the 45° direction. The results suggest that the generation of type II radio bursts (shocks) requires larger values of X and M A rather than simply a higher speed of the disturbance.

  1. The electromagnetic interaction of a planet with a rotation-powered pulsar wind: an explanation to fast radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottez, F.; Zarka, P.

    2015-12-01

    The pulsars PSR B1257+12 and PSR B1620-26 are known to host planets, and other pulsars are suspected to host asteroids or comets. We investigate the electromagnetic interaction of a relativistic and magnetized pulsar wind with a planet or a smaller body in orbit. Many models predict that, albeit highly relativistic, pulsar winds are slower than Alfven waves. In that case, a pair of stationary Alfven waves, called Alfven wings (AW), is expected to form on the sides of the body. They form a magnetic wake into the plasma flow, and they carry a strong electric current. The theory of Alfven wings was initially developed in the context of the electrodynamic interaction between spacecraft and the Earth's magnetosphere, and then of the Io-Jupiter interaction. We have extended it to relativistic winds, and we have studied the possible consequences on radio emissions from pulsar companions. We predict the existence of very collimated radio beams that are seen by an observer as very rare and brief signals. But they are intense enough to be observed from sources at cosmological distances. Thus they could be an explanation to fast radio bursts (FRB). We discuss the properties (polarisation, recurrence) that could make the difference between this model of FRB and others.

  2. Spectral structures and their generation mechanisms for solar radio type-I bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Masuda, S.; Tsuchiya, F.; Morioka, A.; Misawa, H.

    2014-07-01

    The fine spectral structures of solar radio type-I bursts were observed by the solar radio telescope AMATERAS. The spectral characteristics, such as the peak flux, duration, and bandwidth, of the individual burst elements were satisfactorily detected by the highly resolved spectral data of AMATERAS with the burst detection algorithm that is improved in this study. The peak flux of the type-I bursts followed a power-law distribution with a spectral index of 2.9-3.3, whereas their duration and bandwidth were distributed more exponentially. There were almost no correlations between the peak flux, duration, and bandwidth. That means there was no similarity in the shapes of the burst spectral structures. We defined the growth rate of a burst as the ratio between its peak flux and duration. There was a strong correlation between the growth rate and peak flux. These results suggest that the free energy of type-I bursts that is originally generated by nonthermal electrons is modulated in the subsequent stages of the generation of nonthermal electrons, such as plasma wave generation, radio wave emissions, and propagation. The variation of the timescale of the growth rate is significantly larger than that of the coronal environments. These results can be explained by the situation wherein the source region may have the inhomogeneity of an ambient plasma environment, such as the boundary of open and closed field lines, and the superposition of entire emitted bursts was observed by the spectrometer.

  3. High-resolution observations of solar radio bursts at 2, 6, and 20 CM wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, R. F.

    1983-03-01

    Synthesis maps of eight solar bursts are constructed at 2, 6, and 20 cm wavelength with second-of-arc angular resolution using observations obtained by the Very Large Array and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The impulsive phase of the radio bursts is found to be located near the magnetic neutral line of the active regions, and between the flaring H-alpha kernels which mark the footpoint of magnetic loops. The impulsive phase of one 6 cm burst was determined to be smaller and spatially separated from both the preburst radio emission and the gradual decay phase of the burst, while another 6 cm burst exhibited preburst heating of the coronal loop in which the burst occurred. It is suggested that the plasma was heated at a lower level in the loop, while the burst energy was released several minutes later at a higher level. The rapid changes in circular polarization exhibited by a multiple-spike 20 cm burst can be attributed to either a magnetically complex region or the emission of new magnetic flux at coronal heights where magnetic field strengths were approximately equal to 300-400 G.

  4. Source location of the narrowbanded radio bursts at Uranus - Evidence of a cusp source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Kurth, W. S.

    1990-03-01

    While Voyager 2 was inbound to Uranus, radio bursts of narrow bandwidth (less than 5 kHz) were detected between 17-116 kHz. These R-X mode bursts, designated n-bursts, were of short duration, tended to occur when the north magnetic pole tipped toward the spacecraft, and increased in occurrence with increasing solar wind density. An explicit determination of the burst source location is presented, based upon fitting the region of detection at high and low frequencies to field-aligned, symmetric cones. The region of good fits was located between the north magnetic pole and the rotational pole, corresponding approximately to the northern polar cusp.

  5. Evidence of a blast shock in observations of type II radio burst and coronal mass ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eselevich, Victor; Zimovets, Ivan; Eselevich, Maxim; Sadykov, Viacheslav

    We have analysed a coronal mass ejection (CME) that occurred on the Sun during solar flare of 16 February 2011. Observations made by the AIA/SDO, EUVI/STEREO, COR1/STEREO were used. Additionally, we have analysed radio observations made by the Nancay Radioheliograph as well as by some CALLISTO and RSTN spectrometers. It is found that sources of a decimetric-metric type II radio burst, which accompanied the event, propagated much faster than the CME. This gives an evidence that the radio burst was caused by a blast shock wave. The possible causes of this shock are discussed.

  6. Radio Sounding Techniques for the Galilean Icy Moons and their Jovian Magnetospheric Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Markus, Thursten; Fung, Shing F.; Benson, Robert F.; Reinich, Bodo W.; Song, Paul; Gogineni, S. Prasad; Cooper, John F.; Taylor, William W. L.; Garcia, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    Radio sounding of the Earth's topside ionosphere and magnetosphere is a proven technique from geospace missions such as the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) and the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE). Application of this technique to Jupiter's icy moons and the surrounding Jovian magnetosphere will provide unique remote sensing observations of the plasma and magnetic field environments and the subsurface conductivities, of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Spatial structures of ionospheric plasma above the surfaces of the moons vary in response to magnetic-field perturbations from (1) magnetospheric plasma flows, (2) ionospheric currents from ionization of sputtered surface material, and (3) induced electric currents in salty subsurface oceans and from the plasma flows and ionospheric currents themselves. Radio sounding from 3 kHz to 10 MHz can provide the global electron densities necessary for the extraction of the oceanic current signals and supplements in-situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. While radio sounding requires high transmitter power for subsurface sounding, little power is needed to probe the electron density and magnetic field intensity near the spacecraft. For subsurface sounding, reflections occur at changes in the dielectric index, e.g., at the interfaces between two different phases of water or between water and soil. Variations in sub-surface conductivity of the icy moons can be investigated by radio sounding in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 50 MHz, allowing the determination of the presence of density and solid-liquid phase boundaries associated with oceans and related structures in overlying ice crusts. The detection of subsurface oceans underneath the icy crusts of the Jovian moons is one of the primary objectives of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission. Preliminary modeling results show that return signals are clearly distinguishable be&een an ice crust with a thickness of

  7. Type III-L Solar Radio Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffin, R. T.; White, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Kaiser, M. L.

    2015-09-01

    A radio-selected sample of fast drift radio bursts with complex structure occurring after the impulsive phase of the associated flare (“Type III-L bursts”) is identified by inspection of radio dynamic spectra from 1 to 180 MHz for over 300 large flares in 2001. An operational definition that takes into account previous work on these radio bursts starting from samples of solar energetic particle (SEP) events is applied to the data, and 66 Type III-L bursts are found in the sample. In order to determine whether the presence of these radio bursts can be used to predict the occurrence of SEP events, we also develop a catalog of all SEP proton events in 2001 using data from the ERNE detector on the SOHO satellite. 68 SEP events are found, for 48 of which we can identify a solar source and hence look for associated Type III-L emission. We confirm previous work that found that most (76% in our sample) of the solar sources of SEP events exhibit radio emission of this type. However, the correlation in the opposite direction is not as strong: starting from a radio-selected sample of Type III-L events, around 64% of the bursts that occur at longitudes magnetically well-connected to the Earth, and hence favorable for detection of SEPs, are associated with SEP events. The degree of association increases when the events have durations over 10 minutes at 1 MHz, but in general Type III-L bursts do not perform any better than Type II bursts in our sample as predictors of SEP events. A comparison of Type III-L timing with the arrival of near-relativistic electrons at the ACE spacecraft is not inconsistent with a common source for the accelerated electrons in both phenomena.

  8. Tracking Type III Radio Burst Sources in the Solar Corona by Heliographic Means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, A. A.; Stanislavsky, A. A.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Volvach, Ya. S.

    We present the preliminary results of heliographic measurements of solar type III radio bursts in the low-frequency range (16.5-33 MHz) using the UTR-2 radio heliograph. The radio astronomy tools permit us to obtain two-dimensional spatial structures of burst sources in dependence of frequency and time. Each heliogram consists of 40 pixels (beams) as a result of the serial sweep in UV-plane wherein signals of each beam are recorded in a dynamic spectrum with both high temporal (˜ 2.482 ms) and top spectral (˜ 4 kHz) resolutions. The rate of output heliograph is one image per 3 seconds. Over a session in April, 2013 many type III radio and IIIb-III bursts were observed. On the heliograms the source motion direction in the upper corona is clearly detectable. The heliogram features are discussed.

  9. Satellite observations of type 3 solar radio bursts at low frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Type III solar radio bursts were observed from 10 MHz to 10 KHz by satellite experiments above the terrestrial plasmasphere. Solar radio emission in this frequency range results from excitation of the interplanetary plasma by energetic particles propagating outward along open field lines over distances from 5 solar radii to at least 1 AU from the sun. This review summarizes the morphology, characteristics and analysis of individual as well as storms of bursts. Burst rise times are interpreted in terms of exciter length and dispersion while decay times refer to the radiation damping process. The combination of radio observations at the lower frequencies and in-situ measurements on nonrelativistic electrons at 1 AU provide data on the energy range and efficiency of the wave-particle interactions responsible for the radio emission.

  10. Characteristics of coronal shock waves and solar type 2 radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, G.; Classen, H.-T.

    1995-01-01

    In the solar corona shock waves generated by flares and/or coronal mass ejections can be observed by radio astronomical methods in terms of solar type 2 radio bursts. In dynamic radio spectra they appear as emission stripes slowly drifting from high to low frequencies. A sample of 25 solar type 2 radio bursts observed in the range of 40 - 170 MHz with a time resolution of 0.1 s by the new radiospectrograph of the Astrophvsikalisches Institut Potsdam in Tremsdorf is statistically investigated concerning their spectral features, i.e, drift rate, instantaneous bandwidth, and fundamental harmonic ratio. In-situ plasma wave measurements at interplanetary shocks provide the assumption that type 2 radio radiation is emitted in the vicinity of the transition region of shock waves. Thus, the instantaneous bandwidth of a solar type 2 radio burst would reflect the density jump across the associated shock wave. Comparing the inspection of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations of shock waves under coronal circumstances with those obtained from the observational study, solar type 2 radio bursts should be regarded to be generated by weak supercritical, quasi-parallel, fast magnetosonic shock waves in the corona.

  11. 2800 MHz Solar Radio Bursts: A Statistical Analysis of 40 years of Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, B.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Gary, D. E.

    2001-12-01

    The daily values of solar flux and radio bursts at 2800 MHz (10.7 cm wavelength) are known to be closely related to various manifestations of solar activity. The flux values, which vary slowly with time, have long been used as indicators of solar activity. Also, the number of radio bursts shows a variation with the phase of the solar cycle. The close relationships between the 2800 MHz bursts, the associated flares and geophysical phenomena such as shortwave fadeouts have been studied extensively and were established as early as the 1960s. Therefore, a constant monitoring of the Sun at this frequency would enable us to forecast the terrestrial disturbances following the solar activity. Moreover, a detailed study based on past data would help understand solar activity phenomena as well as the origin of these burst events. In the present analysis, we are revisiting some of these points by carrying out an analysis of 40 year data of solar radio bursts with special emphasis on 2800 MHz bursts. A scatter plot of the intensity vs duration shows that the distribution is not completely random but is double--pronged. This result is consistent with earlier works (e.g., Covington, 1959). The two-pronged distribution suggests the existence of two distinct types of burst events: impulsive and gradual rise and fall. The mechanisms that cause the emission of the two types of bursts are also different: the former due to nonthermal processes and the latter due to thermal processes. Our present analysis shows that the intensity--duration plot has a significant variation with the phase of the solar cycle. In addition to this, we present the behaviour of risetime vs duration as well as the frequency distribution of peak flux of these events. The analysis has also been extended to high frequency (> 10 GHz) bursts and the behaviour is contrasted to that of 2800 MHz bursts.

  12. Electron cyclotron maser emission in coronal arches and solar radio type V bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, J. F.; Wu, D. J.; Tan, C. M.

    2013-12-10

    Solar radio type V bursts were classified as a special spectral class based on their moderately long duration, wide bandwidth, and sense of polarization opposite of associated type III bursts. However, type V bursts are also closely related to the preceding type III bursts. They have an approximately equal source height and the same dispersion of position with frequency. Electron cyclotron maser (ECM) instability driven by beam electrons has been used to explain type III bursts in recent years. We propose ECM emission as the physical process of type V solar radio bursts. According to the observed properties of type V and III bursts, we propose that energetic electrons in excited type V continuum are trapped in coronal loops, which are adjacent to the open field lines traced by type III electrons. With the proposed magnetic field configuration and the ECM emission mechanism, the observed properties of type V bursts, such as long duration, wide bandwidth, and opposite sense of polarization can be reasonably explained by our model.

  13. Solar type III radio bursts modulated by homochromous Alfvén waves

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, G. Q.; Chen, L.; Wu, D. J.

    2013-12-10

    Solar type III radio bursts and their production mechanisms have been intensively studied in both theory and observation and are believed to be the most important signatures of electron acceleration in active regions. Recently, Wu et al. proposed that the electron-cyclotron maser emission (ECME) driven by an energetic electron beam could be responsible for producing type III bursts and pointed out that turbulent Alfvén waves can greatly influence the basic process of ECME via the oscillation of these electrons in the wave fields. This paper investigates effects of homochromous Alfvén waves (HAWs) on ECME driven by electron beams. Our results show that the growth rate of the O-mode wave will be significantly modulated by HAWs. We also discuss possible application to the formation of fine structures in type III bursts, such as so-called solar type IIIb radio bursts.

  14. Solar Type III Radio Bursts Modulated by Homochromous Alfvén Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G. Q.; Chen, L.; Wu, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Solar type III radio bursts and their production mechanisms have been intensively studied in both theory and observation and are believed to be the most important signatures of electron acceleration in active regions. Recently, Wu et al. proposed that the electron-cyclotron maser emission (ECME) driven by an energetic electron beam could be responsible for producing type III bursts and pointed out that turbulent Alfvén waves can greatly influence the basic process of ECME via the oscillation of these electrons in the wave fields. This paper investigates effects of homochromous Alfvén waves (HAWs) on ECME driven by electron beams. Our results show that the growth rate of the O-mode wave will be significantly modulated by HAWs. We also discuss possible application to the formation of fine structures in type III bursts, such as so-called solar type IIIb radio bursts.

  15. Source location of the narrowbanded radio bursts at Uranus: Evidence of a cusp source

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, W.M.; Desch, M.D.; Kaiser, M.L. ); Kurth, W.S. )

    1990-03-01

    While Voyager 2 was inbound to Uranus, radio bursts of narrow bandwidth (< 5 kHz) were detected between 17-116 kHz by both the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) and Plasma Wave (PWS) experiments. These R-X mode bursts, designated n-bursts, were of short duration (about 250 msec), tended to occur when the north magnetic pole tipped toward the spacecraft, and increased in occurrence with increasing solar wind density. In this report, the authors present an explicit determination of the burst source location based upon fitting the region of detection at high and low frequencies to field-aligned, symmetric cones. The region of good fits was located between the north magnetic pole an the rotational pole, corresponding approximately to the northern polar cusp. Based upon the emission power, it is suspected that at certain times large amounts of auroral input power may originate in this cusp.

  16. Jupiter's Dynamic Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, M. F.; Bunce, E. J.; Kronberg, E. A.; Jackman, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Jupiter's magnetosphere is a highly dynamic environment. Hundreds of reconnection events have been identified in Jupiter's magnetotail through analysis of magnetic field and particle measurements collected by the Galileo spacecraft. Quasi-periodic behavior, suggestive of reconnection, has been intermittently observed on a ~2-3 day time scale in several data sets, including magnetic field dipolarizations, flow bursts, auroral polar dawn spots, and the hectometric radio emission. In this paper we review the present state of knowledge of Jovian magnetospheric dynamics. Throughout the discussion, we highlight similarities and differences to Saturn's magnetosphere. For example, recent analysis of plasmoid signatures at both Jupiter and Saturn has established the role of tail reconnection in the overall mass and flux transport in the outer planet magnetospheres. The results for both Jupiter and Saturn suggest that the observed mass loss rate due to tail reconnection and plasmoid release is insufficient to account for the mass input rate from the moons Io and Enceladus, respectively. We also present new analysis in which we use the Michigan mSWiM propagated solar wind MHD model to estimate the solar wind conditions upstream of Jupiter. This information allows us to determine whether reconnection events occur preferentially during certain solar wind conditions, or whether there is evidence that the solar wind modulates the quasi-periodicity seen in the field dipolarizations and flow bursts.

  17. The heliocentric radial variation of plasma oscillations associated with type III radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Anderson, R. R.; Scarf, F. L.; Kurth, W. S.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is presented of all of the electron plasma oscillation events found to date in association with low-frequency type III solar radio bursts using approximately 9 years of observations from the Imp 6 and 8, Helios 1 and 2, and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Plasma oscillation events associated with type III radio bursts show a pronounced increase in both the intensity and the frequency of occurrence with decreasing heliocentric radial distance. This radial dependence explains why intense electron plasma oscillations are seldon observed in association with type III radio bursts at the orbit of the earth. Possible interpretations of the observed radial variation in the plasma oscillation intensity are considered.

  18. Fast radio bursts — A brief review: Some questions, fewer answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, J. I.

    2016-04-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond bursts of radio radiation at frequencies of about 1 GHz, recently discovered in pulsar surveys. They have not yet been definitively identified with any other astronomical object or phenomenon. The bursts are strongly dispersed, indicating passage through a high column density of low density plasma. The most economical interpretation is that this is the intergalactic medium, indicating that FRB are at “cosmological” distances with redshifts in the range 0.3-1.3. Their inferred brightness temperatures are as high as 1037 K, implying coherent emission by “bunched” charges, as in radio pulsars. I review the astronomical sites, objects and emission processes that have been proposed as the origin of FRB, with particular attention to soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) and giant pulsar pulses.

  19. Effect of the 24 September 2011 solar radio burst on precise point positioning service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, V.; Aquino, M.; Jong, Kees; Visser, Hans

    2014-03-01

    An intense solar radio burst occurred on 24 September 2011, which affected the tracking of Global Navigation Satellite Systems' (GNSS) signals by receivers located in the sunlit hemisphere of the Earth. This manuscript presents for the first time the impacts of this radio burst on the availability of Fugro's real-time precise point positioning service for GNSS receivers and on the quality of the L band data link used to broadcast this service. During the peak of the radio burst (12:50-13:20 UT), a reduction in the L band signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is observed. For some receiver locations, a reset in the position filter is observed, which can be either due to the reduction in the L band SNR or the reduction in the number of tracked GNSS satellites. This reset in the position filter is accompanied by degradation in the positioning accuracy, which is also discussed herein.

  20. A comparison of Type III metric radio bursts and global solar potential field models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, B. V.; Levine, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Evidence of coronal magnetic fields from polarized metric type III radio bursts is compared with (1) global potential field models, (2) direct averages of the observed photospheric magnetic field, and (3) H-alpha synoptic charts. The comparison clearly indicates both that the principal aspects of type III burst radiation are understood and that global potential field models are a significantly more accurate representation of coronal magnetic field structure than either the large-scale photospheric field or H-alpha synoptic charts.

  1. Stratification in the electron beams exciting type III solar radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Eremin, A.B.; Zaitsev, V.V.

    1982-07-01

    The opportunities for stratifying the fast-electron beams that generate type III solar radio bursts are discussed. Stratification can result from the growth of electromagnetic instability in a direction normal to the beam velocity, and it will cause the plasma-wave energy density to develop an oscillating space distribution. Analysis of the problem furnishes an explanation of the direct measurements of plasma waves in type III burst sources.

  2. RIEGER-TYPE PERIODICITY IN THE OCCURRENCE OF SOLAR TYPE III RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lobzin, V. V.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    2012-08-01

    This Letter presents the first observations of a Rieger-type periodicity with the period of 156{sub -9}{sup +19} days in the occurrence rate of solar coronal type III radio bursts. The periodicity was detected during the time interval from 2000 June 22 to 2003 December 31. This interval partially contains the maximum and the declining phase of solar cycle 23. The radio spectra were provided by the Learmonth Solar Radio Observatory in Western Australia, part of the USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network.

  3. Gamma-ray bursts from massive Population-III stars: clues from the radio band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlon, D.; Murphy, T.; Ghirlanda, G.; Hancock, P. J.; Parry, R.; Salvaterra, R.

    2016-07-01

    Current models suggest gamma-ray bursts could be used as a way of probing Population-III stars - the first stars in the early Universe. In this paper, we use numerical simulations to demonstrate that late-time radio observations of gamma-ray burst afterglows could provide a means of identifying bursts that originate from Population-III stars, if these were highly massive, independently from their redshift. We then present the results from a pilot study using the Australia Telescope Compact Array at 17 GHz, designed to test the hypothesis that there may be Population-III gamma-ray bursts amongst the current sample of known events. We observed three candidates plus a control gamma-ray burst, and make no detections with upper limits of 20-40 μJy at 500-1300 d post-explosion.

  4. Type III solar radio bursts and the fundamental-harmonic hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, H.

    1975-01-01

    The observational evidence is reviewed for the occurrence of type III solar radio bursts in pairs with frequency ratio two to one. We show that the observations can be explained under the hypothesis that there is a tendency for a type III burst to be followed by a second burst within approximately one second. This explanation leads to fewer difficulties than the hypothesis that type III bursts occur in pairs, one member being emitted at the fundamental of the local coronal plasma frequency, the other at its second harmonic. We conclude that in general, type III bursts are emitted at the second harmonic of the plasma frequency and that type III theories should account for this and only under very special circumstances (which are rare) for the emission at the fundamental and the second harmonic.

  5. Features of the duration frequency dependence for type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsybko, Y. G.

    1989-11-01

    Averaged data on type III solar radio bursts at fixed frequencies in the 12.5-25 MHz range and beyond are examined, showing that there are two branches of the burst duration dependence on frequency. This splitting is used to distinguish between bursts occurring at the fundamental and the second harmonics of the plasma frequency. Type IIIb radiation is characterized by a diagram of the mean duration vs frequency of the stria bursts at the fundamental harmonic. Type III bursts at meter and decameter wavelengths are compared, showing a change in the behavior of the duration frequency dependence. It is suggested that this change may be associated with the initial acceleration and the subsequent expansion of the source along its path in the lower and intermediate corona.

  6. Interaction between pulsed discharge and radio frequency discharge burst at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Ying; Shi, Yuncheng; Zhang, Jing; Shi, J. J.

    2015-08-15

    The atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD) with dual excitations in terms of pulsed voltage and pulse-modulation radio frequency (rf) power are studied experimentally between two parallel plates electrodes. Pulse-modulation applied in rf APGD temporally separates the discharge into repetitive discharge bursts, between which the high voltage pulses are introduced to ignite sub-microsecond pulsed discharge. The discharge characteristics and spatio-temporal evolution are investigated by means of current voltage characteristics and time resolved imaging, which suggests that the introduced pulsed discharge assists the ignition of rf discharge burst and reduces the maintain voltage of rf discharge burst. Furtherly, the time instant of pulsed discharge between rf discharge bursts is manipulated to study the ignition dynamics of rf discharge burst.

  7. Multiwavelength Analysis of a Moving Type-IV Radio Burst on 4th March 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veluchamy, V.; Chen, Y.; Feng, S.; Du, G.; Song, H.; Kong, X.

    2015-12-01

    We performed a multiwavelength analysis of a moving Type-IV radio burst on 4th march 2012. The Type-IV radio burst is observed between 10:39 - 11:00 UT in the frequency range of 300 - 20 MHz. From the radio heliographic observation, the radio source of the type-IV burst is traced and their sky plane speed is estimated as ~ 370 km/s. A plasmoid structure is ejected during the impulsive phase of the flare, at the same time of the type-IV burst and the structure is clearly observed at SDO/AIA 131 Å channel. From this, we find that the radio source moves with the plasmoid. The high brightness temperature profile in the range of 108 - 109 K and the moderate polarization between -50 - 30 % supports the plasma emission mechanism. Further the differential emission measure (DEM) analysis will be carried out and their results will be presented to provide more evidence of the emission mechanism.

  8. On the solar type III radio burst emission process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentzel, D. G.

    1982-05-01

    The application of a version of the nonlinear plasma theories involving plasma solitons to the corona is investigated. A fairly compact beam is assumed in order to initiate nonlinear plasma phenomena in the corona. The beam's survival is favored by open magnetic fields, and the solitons occur in a front about 1 km thick. The fundamental is emitted at this front and depends strongly on the beam energy through its dependence on the narrow angle of emission. The variability of the fundamental indicates the beam evolution at the beam's front. Observations addressed by the theory include correlations of type III bursts with coronal structure and temperature, the emission of fundamental and harmonic from different source volumes, the polarization of the fundamental, and the starting and disappearance of bursts in the corona, especially type IIIb bursts.

  9. Generation of type III solar radio bursts: the role of induced scattering of plasma waves by ions

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, B.N.; Lerner, A.M.; Rapoport, V.O.

    1984-01-01

    The plasma waves in type III solar radio-burst sources might have a spectrum which can explain why, in the quasilinear burst generation model, nonlinear scattering of the waves by ions is so weak. The agent exciting a burst would travel through the corona at velocities limited to a definite range.

  10. A computer simulation study of type III radio burst propagation through the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itkina, M. A.; Levin, B. N.

    1992-01-01

    Type III solar radio burst propagation through large-scale coronal structure is numerically simulated. It is shown that radio wave refraction in an overdense streamer results in an increase of the apparent radial distance of the type III fundamental source and produces a broadening of the radiation polar diagram in agreement with the observations. It is also verified that the well-known fine frequency structure of type IIIb emission can be due to the fibrous character of the streamer.

  11. Performance assessment of GPS receivers during the September 24, 2011 solar radio burst event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Bilal; Alberti, Valentina; Marassi, Alessandro; Cianca, Ernestina; Messerotti, Mauro

    2015-10-01

    The sudden outburst of in-band solar radio noise from the Sun is recognized as one of the potential Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) sources that directly impact the performance of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. On September 24, 2011, the solar active region 1302 unleashed a moderate M7.1 soft X-ray flare associated with a very powerful radio burst at 1415 MHz. The Solar Radio Burst (SRB) event spanned over three distinct episodes of solar radio noise emission that reached the maximum radio flux density of 114,144 Solar Flux Units (SFU) at 13:04:46 UTC. This paper analyzes the impact of September 24, 2011 SRB event on the performance of a significant subset of NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers located in the sunlit hemisphere. The performance assessment is carried out in terms of Carrier-to-Noise power spectral density ratio (C/N0) degradation, dual-frequency pseudorange measurements availability, pseudorange residual errors, and dual-frequency positioning errors in the horizontal and vertical dimensions. We observed that during the SRB event the GPS C/N0 is reduced at most by 13 dB on L1 and 24 dB on L2. The C/N0 degradation caused the loss of lock on GPS L1 and L2 signals and significant code-tracking errors. We noticed that many stations experienced less than four satellite measurements, which are the minimum required number of measurements for position estimation. The deteriorated satellite-receiver geometry due to loss of signal lock and significant code-tracking errors during the solar radio burst event introduced large positioning errors in both the horizontal and vertical dimensions. Rise in vertical positioning error of 303 m and rise in horizontal positioning of 55 m could be noticed during the solar radio burst event.

  12. Experimental tests of the generation mechanism of auroral medium frequency burst radio emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunch, N. L.; Labelle, J.; Weatherwax, A. T.; Hughes, J. M.; Lummerzheim, D.

    2009-09-01

    Medium frequency (MF) burst is an impulsive auroral radio emission at 1.3-4.5 MHz commonly detected by ground-based instruments for a few minutes at substorm onsets. It is thought to arise from mode conversion radiation. The Dartmouth College MF radio interferometer at Toolik Field Station, Alaska (68.51° invariant latitude), measured spectra, amplitudes, and directions of arrival (DOA) of 47 MF burst events during 2006-2007 and 49 events during 2007-2008. Statistical analysis of these events shows that they come predominantly from the south and east of Toolik, as expected because propagation conditions are more favorable poleward and westward of the active auroral arcs than equatorward or eastward during premidnight (westward moving) substorm onset activity. Case studies of a selected MF burst event on 20 November 2007 show that motions of the radio emissions qualitatively track the motions of auroral arcs simultaneously observed with all-sky camera. Case studies of DOA data of selected MF burst events on 31 January and 20 November 2007 show that higher-frequency components of MF burst arrive at higher elevation angles than lower-frequency components. Statistical studies confirm this trend. Ray-tracing analysis shows that this trend implies that sources of the higher-frequency components of the MF burst are at higher altitudes than those of the lower-frequency components. The analysis also shows that the MF burst comes from the bottomside F region ionosphere. These observations are consistent with a mechanism of MF burst emission whereby the emissions originate from mode conversion of Langmuir or upper hybrid waves excited over a range of altitudes in the bottomside F region.

  13. Solar Cycle Variations of the Occurrence of Coronal Type III Radio Bursts and a New Solar Activity Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, V. V.; Cairns, I. H.; Robinson, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    The results of studies of solar cycle variations of the occurrence rate of coronal type III radio bursts are presented. The radio spectra are provided by the Learmonth Solar Radio Observatory (Western Australia), part of the USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN). It is found that the occurrence rate of type III bursts strongly correlates with solar activity. However, the profiles for the smoothed type III burst occurrence rate differ considerably from those for the sunspot number, 10.7 cm solar radio flux, and solar flare index. The type III burst occurrence rate (T3BOR) is proposed as a new index of solar activity. T3BOR provides complementary information about solar activity and should be useful in different studies including solar cycle predictions and searches for different periodicities in solar activity. This index can be estimated from daily results of the Automated Radio Burst Identification System (ARBIS). Access to data from other RSTN sites will allow processing 24-hour radio spectra in near-real time and estimating true daily values of this index. It is also shown that coronal type III bursts can even occur when there are no visible sunspots on the Sun. However, no evidence is found that the bursts are not associated with active regions. It is also concluded that the type III burst productivity of active regions exhibits solar cycle variations.

  14. SOLAR CYCLE VARIATIONS OF THE OCCURRENCE OF CORONAL TYPE III RADIO BURSTS AND A NEW SOLAR ACTIVITY INDEX

    SciTech Connect

    Lobzin, Vasili; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.

    2011-07-20

    This Letter presents the results of studies of solar cycle variations of the occurrence rate of coronal type III radio bursts. The radio spectra are provided by the Learmonth Solar Radio Observatory (Western Australia), part of the USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN). It is found that the occurrence rate of type III bursts strongly correlates with solar activity. However, the profiles for the smoothed type III burst occurrence rate differ considerably from those for the sunspot number, 10.7 cm solar radio flux, and solar flare index. The type III burst occurrence rate (T3BOR) is proposed as a new index of solar activity. T3BOR provides complementary information about solar activity and should be useful in different studies including solar cycle predictions and searches for different periodicities in solar activity. This index can be estimated from daily results of the Automated Radio Burst Identification System. Access to data from other RSTN sites will allow processing 24 hr radio spectra in near-real time and estimating true daily values of this index. It is also shown that coronal type III bursts can even occur when there are no visible sunspots on the Sun. However, no evidence is found that the bursts are not associated with active regions. It is also concluded that the type III burst productivity of active regions exhibits solar cycle variations.

  15. Impact of the 24 September 2011 solar radio burst on the performance of GNSS receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, V.; Aquino, M.; Jong, Kees

    2013-05-01

    Intense solar radio bursts occurring at the L-band frequencies can significantly impact the performance of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers in the sunlit hemisphere of the Earth. An intense solar radio burst occurred on 24 September 2011, with a maximum power of 110,000 solar flux units (10-22 W/m2/Hz) at 1.415 GHz. This manuscript aims to contribute insight on the impact of this solar radio burst on the performance of the GNSS receivers in the European and Latin American sectors. Maximum reductions of 11.0, 22.0, and 10.0 dB Hz in the carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N0) of the GPS L1C/A, L2P, and L2C signals, respectively, were observed. The C/N0 reduction is modulated by the local solar incidence angle for the GPS L1C/A and L2P signals, whereas such modulation was not observed for the GPS L2C signal. The solar radio burst also had an adverse effect on the recorded GNSS pseudorange and carrier phase data, thereby causing positioning errors, which are also presented herein.

  16. Energetic electrons, type III radio bursts, and impulsive solar flare X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, S.R.

    1981-08-01

    Observations of impulsive hard X-ray and type III radio bursts made during the maximum of the last solar activity cycle have been analyzed for a statistical study of the relationship between these two solar flare phenomena. Spectral measurements of 10--68 keV X-rays, which covered 7068 hr of observation time and the range 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -5/ ergs cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ of flux of X-rays > or approx. =20 keV, were made with the University of California (Berkeley) experiment aboard the OGO 5 satellite. The radio data consisted of copies of the original spectral records as well as tabulated data. The principle findings are: (1) about 20% of impulsive hard X-ray bursts are correlated with type III radio bursts; conversely, only approx.3% of the reported type III radio bursts are correlated with impulsive X-rays bursts; (2) the location of the associated H..cap alpha.. flare on the solar disk has little or no effect on the X-ray--type III burst correlation; (3) the magnitude of the X-ray--type III burst correlation increases systematically with the increase in the following quantities: intensity and starting frequency of the type III burst, peak energy flux and spectral hardness of the X-ray burst, and the peak nonthermal emission measure and spectral hardness of the ''instantaneous'' electron spectrum > or approx. =20 keV inside the x-ray source; (4) the observations are consistent with the electron populations responsible for both the X-ray and type III emissions being accelerated in a single acceleration process; (5) the observations suggest a flare model where the primary instability responsible for electron acceleration during the impulsive phase occurs in the corona. The exact location of this instability varies from one flare to another as well as during the impulsive phase of a single flare and determines the hardness of the accelerated electron spectrum and the characteristics of associated X-ray, EUV, optical, and radio emissions.

  17. A Solar Type II Radio Burst from Coronal Mass Ejection-Coronal Ray Interaction: Simultaneous Radio and Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui; Feng, Li; Feng, Shiwei; Kong, Xiangliang; Guo, Fan; Wang, Bing; Li, Gang

    2014-05-01

    Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radio burst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct the three-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II-emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the two Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft. It is then combined with the Nançay radio imaging data to infer the three-dimensional position of the type II source. It is found that the type II source coincides with the interface between the coronal mass ejection (CME) EUV wave front and a nearby coronal ray structure, providing evidence that the type II emission is physically related to the CME-ray interaction. This result, consistent with those of previous studies, is based on simultaneous radio and EUV imaging data for the first time.

  18. Very Long Baseline Interferometry Experiment on Giant Radio Pulses of Crab Pulsar toward Fast Radio Burst Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takefuji, K.; Terasawa, T.; Kondo, T.; Mikami, R.; Takeuchi, H.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kita, H.; Sekido, M.

    2016-08-01

    We report on a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiment on giant radio pulses (GPs) from the Crab pulsar in the radio 1.4-1.7 GHz range to demonstrate a VLBI technique for searching for fast radio bursts (FRBs). We carried out the experiment on 2014 July 26 using the Kashima 34 m and Usuda 64 m radio telescopes of the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN) with a baseline of about 200 km. During the approximately 1 hr observation, we could detect 35 GPs by high-time-resolution VLBI. Moreover, we determined the dispersion measure (DM) to be 56.7585 ± 0.0025 on the basis of the mean DM of the 35 GPs detected by VLBI. We confirmed that the sensitivity of a detection of GPs using our technique is superior to that of a single-dish mode detection using the same telescope.

  19. A solar type II radio burst from coronal mass ejection-coronal ray interaction: Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui; Feng, Shiwei; Kong, Xiangliang; Wang, Bing; Feng, Li; Guo, Fan; Li, Gang

    2014-05-20

    Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radio burst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct the three-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II-emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the two Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft. It is then combined with the Nançay radio imaging data to infer the three-dimensional position of the type II source. It is found that the type II source coincides with the interface between the coronal mass ejection (CME) EUV wave front and a nearby coronal ray structure, providing evidence that the type II emission is physically related to the CME-ray interaction. This result, consistent with those of previous studies, is based on simultaneous radio and EUV imaging data for the first time.

  20. Very Long Baseline Interferometry Experiment on Giant Radio Pulses of Crab Pulsar toward Fast Radio Burst Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takefuji, K.; Terasawa, T.; Kondo, T.; Mikami, R.; Takeuchi, H.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kita, H.; Sekido, M.

    2016-08-01

    We report on a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiment on giant radio pulses (GPs) from the Crab pulsar in the radio 1.4–1.7 GHz range to demonstrate a VLBI technique for searching for fast radio bursts (FRBs). We carried out the experiment on 2014 July 26 using the Kashima 34 m and Usuda 64 m radio telescopes of the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN) with a baseline of about 200 km. During the approximately 1 hr observation, we could detect 35 GPs by high-time-resolution VLBI. Moreover, we determined the dispersion measure (DM) to be 56.7585 ± 0.0025 on the basis of the mean DM of the 35 GPs detected by VLBI. We confirmed that the sensitivity of a detection of GPs using our technique is superior to that of a single-dish mode detection using the same telescope.

  1. Auroral Radio Emission Direction of Arrival Studies of Simultaneous Medium Frequency Burst and Auroral Hiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broughton, M.; Labelle, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    The auroral zone is the source of multiple kinds of radio emissions that can be observed on the ground. The study of radio emissions offers a way to remotely sense space plasma processes and, in the case of auroral emissions, to use the auroral ionosphere as a large-scale plasma physics laboratory. Medium frequency (MF) burst is an impulsive radio emission at 1.5-4.5 MHz observed on the ground. Its generation mechanism is unknown, and it is often associated with the onset of substorms. Auroral hiss is an impulsive emission observed on the ground at frequencies up to 1 MHz and is also associated with substorm onset. LaBelle et al. [1997] reported a temporal relationship between MF burst and auroral hiss. Multiple impulses of both MF burst and auroral hiss occurred simultaneously over a time period that in certain cases lasted tens of minutes. While the temporal relationship on the timescale of seconds is well established, the spatial relationship between MF burst and auroral hiss has yet to be investigated. Dartmouth College currently operates a broadband (0-5 MHz) four-element radio interferometer at Toolik Field Station in Alaska (68° 38' N, 149° 36' W, 68.5° magnetic latitude) in order to study the direction of arrival (DOA) of radio emissions. Since the antenna spacing is 50 meters, the interferometer is optimized for DOA measurements of MF bursts. However, in certain cases, it can provide the DOA for the high-frequency portion of impulsive auroral hiss. We present two case studies that represent the first simultaneous DOA measurements of impulsive auroral hiss and MF burst. On March 4, 2010, the DOA of MF burst was predominantly from 30 degrees south of east, an observation consistent with the statistical work performed by Bunch et al. [2009]. Simultaneous DOA measurements of the high-frequency portion of auroral hiss also showed the DOA as approximately 30 degrees south of east but with greater scatter in the data. The second case study, which involved an

  2. Evidence for nonlinear wave-wave interactions in solar type III radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.; Levedahl, W. K.; Lotko, W.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    Evidence is presented that nonlinear wave-wave interactions occur in type III solar radio bursts. Intense, spiky Langmuir waves are observed to be driven by electron beams associated with type III solar radio bursts in the interplanetary medium. Bursts of 30-300 Hz (in the spacecraft frame) waves are often observed coincident in time with the most intense spikes of the Langmuir waves. These low-frequency waves appear to be long-wavelength ion acoustic waves, with wavenumber approximately equal to the beam resonant Langmuir wavenumber. Three possible interpretations of these observations are considered: modulational instability, parametric decay of the parent Langmuir waves to daughter ion acoustic and Langmuir waves, and decay to daughter electromagnetic waves and ion acoustic waves.

  3. TEMPORAL SPECTRAL SHIFT AND POLARIZATION OF A BAND-SPLITTING SOLAR TYPE II RADIO BURST

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Guohui; Chen, Yao; Lv, Maoshui; Kong, Xiangliang; Feng, Shiwei; Guo, Fan; Li, Gang

    2014-10-01

    In many type II solar radio bursts, the fundamental and/or the harmonic branches of the bursts can split into two almost parallel bands with similar spectral shapes and frequency drifts. However, the mechanisms accounting for this intriguing phenomenon remain elusive. In this study, we report a special band-splitting type II event in which spectral features appear systematically earlier on the upper band (with higher frequencies) than on the lower band (with lower frequencies) by several seconds. Furthermore, the emissions carried by the splitting band are moderately polarized with the left-hand polarized signals stronger than the right-hand ones. The polarization degree varies in a range of –0.3 to –0.6. These novel observational findings provide important constraints on the underlying physical mechanisms of band-splitting of type II radio bursts.

  4. Solar Flares, Type III Radio Bursts, Coronal Mass Ejections, and Energetic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, Hilary V.; Erickson, W. C.; Prestage, N. P.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this correlative study between greater than 20 MeV solar proton events, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and radio bursts it is found that essentially all of the proton events are preceded by groups of type III bursts and all are preceded by CMEs. These type III bursts (that are a flare phenomenon) usually are long-lasting, intense bursts seen in the low-frequency observations made from space. They are caused by streams of electrons traveling from close to the solar surface out to 1 AU. In most events the type III emissions extend into, or originate at, the time when type II and type IV bursts are reported (some 5 to 10 minutes after the start of the associated soft X-ray flare) and have starting frequencies in the 500 to approximately 100 MHz range that often get lower as a function of time. These later type III emissions are often not reported by ground-based observers, probably because of undue attention to type II bursts. It is suggested to call them type III-1. Type III-1 bursts have previously been called shock accelerated (SA) events, but an examination of radio dynamic spectra over an extended frequency range shows that the type III-1 bursts usually start at frequencies above any type II burst that may be present. The bursts sometimes continue beyond the time when type II emission is seen and, furthermore, sometimes occur in the absence of any type II emission. Thus the causative electrons are unlikely to be shock accelerated and probably originate in the reconnection regions below fast CMEs. A search did not find any type III-1 bursts that were not associated with CMEs. The existence of low-frequency type III bursts proves that open field lines extend from within 0.5 radius of the Sun into the interplanetary medium (the bursts start above 100 MHz, and such emission originates within 0.5 solar radius of the solar surface). Thus it is not valid to assume that only closed field lines exist in the flaring regions associated with CMEs and some

  5. Indication of radio frequency interference (RFI) sources for solar burst monitoring in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidi, Z. S.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Shariff, N. N. M.

    2012-06-01

    Apart of monitoring the Sun project, the Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) surveying in the region of (1-1200) MHz has been conducted. The main objective of this surveying is to test and qualify the potential of monitoring a continuous radio emission of Solar in Malaysia. This work is also an initiative of International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) project where Malaysia is one of the country that participate a e-Callisto Spectrometer network in order to study the behavior of Solar radio burst in frequency of (45-800) MHz region which will be install in this October. Detail results will indicate the potential of monitoring a solar in Malaysia.

  6. Motion of metric type 4 radio sources and its relation to shock waves responsible for type 2 radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, K.

    1973-01-01

    The relation of the motion of type 4mA sources with shock waves responsible for type 2 bursts were considered using the observed data for these two radio sources. The difference of the emission mechanism between type 2 and type 4mA bursts suggest that the moving speed of the shock waves mentioned above is not necessarily equal to the metric type 4 sources. By analyzing the observed data on the speeds for both type 2 and type 4 sources., it was found that type 4 bursts decelerate and often cease to move in the solar envelop and that type 2 sources move at higher speeds than type 4 sources.

  7. LOFAR tied-array imaging of Type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morosan, D. E.; Gallagher, P. T.; Zucca, P.; Fallows, R.; Carley, E. P.; Mann, G.; Bisi, M. M.; Kerdraon, A.; Konovalenko, A. A.; MacKinnon, A. L.; Rucker, H. O.; Thidé, B.; Magdalenić, J.; Vocks, C.; Reid, H.; Anderson, J.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, I. M.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Bregman, J.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; Conway, J. E.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Deller, A.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hassall, T. E.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Maat, P.; Markoff, S.; McKean, J. P.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Norden, M. J.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pietka, G.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schwarz, D.; Serylak, M.; Smirnov, O.; Stappers, B. W.; Stewart, A.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, C.; Vermeulen, R.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The Sun is an active source of radio emission which is often associated with energetic phenomena such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), the Sun has not been imaged extensively because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio telescopes. Aims: Here, the combined high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) was used to study solar Type III radio bursts at 30-90 MHz and their association with CMEs. Methods: The Sun was imaged with 126 simultaneous tied-array beams within ≤5 R⊙ of the solar centre. This method offers benefits over standard interferometric imaging since each beam produces high temporal (~83 ms) and spectral resolution (12.5 kHz) dynamic spectra at an array of spatial locations centred on the Sun. LOFAR's standard interferometric output is currently limited to one image per second. Results: Over a period of 30 min, multiple Type III radio bursts were observed, a number of which were found to be located at high altitudes (~4 R⊙ from the solar center at 30 MHz) and to have non-radial trajectories. These bursts occurred at altitudes in excess of values predicted by 1D radial electron density models. The non-radial high altitude Type III bursts were found to be associated with the expanding flank of a CME. Conclusions: The CME may have compressed neighbouring streamer plasma producing larger electron densities at high altitudes, while the non-radial burst trajectories can be explained by the deflection of radial magnetic fields as the CME expanded in the low corona. Movie associated to Fig. 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. The stimulation of auroral kilometric radiation by type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1981-01-01

    It has been found that the onset of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) frequently coincides with the arrival of type III solar radio bursts. Although the AKR onsets are usually abrupt and appear to be spontaneous, they sometimes develop from a discrete frequency near the leading edge of a type III burst or sometimes occur at progressively lower frequencies following that edge. From this, and the absence of the related solar electrons in specific cases, it was concluded that the incoming type III waves were sometimes responsible for stimulating auroral kilometric radiation. It was estimated that intense, isolated type III bursts were capable of stimulating AKR roughly one third of the time, and that at least ten percent of the observed AKR onsets could be attributed to these and weaker bursts, including some barely detectable by the ISEE plasma wave receivers.

  9. Stimulation of auroral kilometric radiation by type III solar radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Calvert, W.

    1981-10-01

    It has been found that the onset of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) frequently coincides with the arrival of type III solar radio bursts. Although the AKR onsets are usually abrupt and appear to be spontaneous, they sometimes develop from a discrete frequency near the leading edge of a type III burst or sometimes occur at progressively lower frequencies following that edge. From this, and the absence of the related solar electrons in specific cases, it was concluded that the incoming type III waves were sometimes responsible for stimulating auroral kilometric radiation. It was estimated that intense, isolated type III bursts were capable of stimulating AKR roughly one third of the time, and that at least ten percent of the observed AKR onsets could be attributed to these and weaker bursts, including some barely detectable by the ISEE plasma wave receivers.

  10. ``Drifting tadpoles'' in wavelet spectra of decimetric radio emission of fiber bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészárosová, H.; Karlický, M.; Rybák, J.; Jiřička, K.

    2009-08-01

    Aims: The solar decimetric radio emission of fiber bursts was investigated searching for the “drifting tadpole” structures proposed by theoretical studies. Methods: Characteristic periods with the tadpole pattern were searched for in the radio flux time series by wavelet analysis methods. Results: For the first time, we have found drifting tadpoles in the wavelet spectra of the decimetric radio emission associated with the fiber bursts observed in July 11, 2005. These tadpoles were detected at all radio frequencies in the 1602-1780 MHz frequency range. The characteristic period of the wavelet tadpole patterns was found to be 81.4 s and the frequency drift of the tadpole heads is -6.8 MHz s-1. These tadpoles are interpreted as a signature of the magnetoacoustic wave train moving along a dense flare waveguide and their frequency drift as a motion of the wave train modulating the radio emission produced by the plasma emission mechanism. Using the Aschwanden density model of the solar atmosphere, only low values of the Alfvén speed and the magnetic field strength in the loop guiding this wave train were derived which indicates a neutral current sheet as the guiding structure. The present analysis supports the model of fiber bursts based on whistler waves.

  11. Satellite observations of type III solar radio bursts at low frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    Type III solar radio bursts have been observed from 10 MHz to 10 kHz by satellite experiments above the terrestrial plasmasphere. Solar radio emission in this frequency range results from excitation of the interplanetary plasma by energetic particles propagating outward along open field lines over distances from 5 earth radii to at least 1 AU from the sun. This review summarizes the morphology, characteristics, and analysis of individual as well as storms of bursts. Substantial evidence is available to show that the radio emission is observed at the second harmonic instead of the fundamental of the plasma frequency. This brings the density scale derived by radio observations into better agreement with direct solar wind density measurements at 1 AU and relaxes the requirement for type III propagation along large density-enhanced regions. This density scale with the measured direction of arrival of the radio burst allows the trajectory of the exciter path to be determined from 10 earth radii to 1 AU.

  12. THE UNUSUAL RADIO AFTERGLOW OF THE ULTRA-LONG GAMMA-RAY BURST GRB 130925A

    SciTech Connect

    Horesh, Assaf; Cenko, S. Bradley; Perley, Daniel A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Hallinan, Gregg; Bellm, Eric

    2015-10-10

    GRB 130925A is one of the recent additions to the growing family of ultra-long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; T90 ≳1000 s). While the X-ray emission of ultra-long GRBs have been studied extensively in the past, no comprehensive radio data set has been obtained so far. We report here the early discovery of an unusual radio afterglow associated with the ultra-long GRB 130925A. The radio emission peaks at low-frequencies (∼7 GHz) at early times, only 2.2 days after the burst occurred. More notably, the radio spectrum at frequencies above 10 GHz exhibits a rather steep cut-off, compared to other long GRB radio afterglows. This cut-off can be explained if the emitting electrons are either mono-energetic or originate from a rather steep, dN/dE ∝ E{sup −4}, power-law energy distribution. An alternative electron acceleration mechanism may be required to produce such an electron energy distribution. Furthermore, the radio spectrum exhibits a secondary underlying and slowly varying component. This may hint that the radio emission we observed is comprised of emission from both a reverse and a forward shock. We discuss our results in comparison with previous works that studied the unusual X-ray spectrum of this event and discuss the implications of our findings on progenitor scenarios.

  13. Analysis of type 3 solar radio bursts observed at kilometric wavelengths from the OGO-5 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, H.

    1971-01-01

    Research was conducted to analyze the data on solar radio bursts obtained by the OGO-5 satellite. Since the wavelengths corresponding to the three lowest frequencies of observations exceeded one kilometer, the bursts detected in those channels were designated as kilometer-waves. The data search covered approximately 9200 hours between March 1968 and February 1970, and included the maximum of solar cycle No. 20. The study concentrated on 64 Type 3 solar radio events reaching frequencies equal or lower than 0.35 MHz. This selection criteria led to the choice of the most intense radio events. Measurements included: times of start, times of decay, and amplitudes of the 64 events. The consistency of the results, within the accuracy of the measurements, lends support to some of the assumptions made for the analysis, notably, the validity of the local plasma hypothesis, the constancy of the exciter particles velocity, and spiral shape of their trajectory.

  14. On Speeds of Exciter Beams of Interplanetary Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupar, V.; Kontar, E.; Soucek, J.; Santolik, O.; Maksimovic, M.; Kruparova, O.

    2014-12-01

    Type III radio bursts are intense radio emissions triggered by beams of energetic electrons often associated with solar flares. These exciter beams propagate outward the Sun along an open magnetic field line in the corona and the interplanetary medium at large distances beyond 1 AU, where energetic electrons can be detected in situ by spacecraft. We performed a statistical survey of 20 simple and isolated interplanetary Type III radio bursts observed by STEREO/Waves between January 2013 and June 2014. We investigated time - frequency profiles to derive speeds of exciter electron beams. We present evidence that these beams decelerate in the solar wind. Obtained beam speeds range from 0.05c up to 0.55c depending on initial assumptions. It corresponds to electron energies between tens of eV and hundreds of keV.

  15. Commensal searches for microhertz gravitational waves and fast radio bursts: A pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, Ryan; Hobbs, George; Ravi, Vikram

    2014-04-01

    In this pilot observing programme, we propose to observe at high cadence the transient gravitational-wave and radio-wave Universe. The goals of these observations are threefold: 1) To improve the timing precision of secondary pulsars in the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) to accelerate the detection of gravitational waves; 2) To characterise the gravitational wave universe in the hitherto unexplored microhertz frequency band; and 3) To develop methods and search for fast radio bursts (FRBs) while conducting precision time experiments. To achieve these goals, we request 120 hours of observations with the Parkes multibeam system, divided into 10 epochs comprising 12-hour LST days. This pilot project acts as a feasibility study for modifications to both the PPTA project and the International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA), the consortium coordinating timing array observations in Australia, Europe, and North America, and assess the feasibility of searching for fast radio bursts while conduction precision timing observations.

  16. On the Directivity of Low-Frequency Type IV Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Akiyama, S.; Makela, P.; Yashiro, S.; Cairns, I. H.

    2016-01-01

    An intense type IV radio burst was observed by the STEREO Behind (STB) spacecraft located about 144 deg. behind Earth. The burst was associated with a large solar eruption that occurred on the backside of the Sun (N05E151) close to the disk center in the STB view. The eruption was also observed by the STEREO Ahead (STA) spacecraft (located at 149 deg. ahead of Earth) as an eruption close to the west limb (N05W60) in that view. The type IV burst was complete in STB observations in that the envelope reached the lowest frequency and then receded to higher frequencies. The burst was partial viewed from STA, revealing only the edge coming down to the lowest frequency. The type IV burst was not observed at all near Earth because the source was 61 deg. behind the east limb. The eruption was associated with a low-frequency type II burst observed in all three views, although it was not very intense. Solar energetic particles were also observed at both STEREOs and at SOHO, suggesting that the shock was much extended, consistent with the very high speed of the CME (2048 km/s). These observations suggest that the type IV emission is directed along a narrow cone above the flare site. We confirm this result statistically using the type IV bursts of solar cycle 23.

  17. Spatially resolved observations of a coronal type II radio burst with multiple lanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimovets, I. V.; Sadykov, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    Relative dynamics of the radio sources of the metric type II burst with three emission lanes and coronal mass ejection (CME) occurred in the lower corona (r≲ 1.5R⊙) during the SOL2011-02-16T14:19 event is studied. The observational data of the Nancay Radioheliograph (NRH) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) are used. These observations are also supplemented by the data sets obtained with the STEREO-A and -B, RHESSI, and GOES spacecraft, as well as with the ground-based solar radio spectrometers. It is found that the sources of the radio burst were located ahead of the expanding CME and had a complex spatial structure. The first and the second lanes were both emitted from the "magnetic funnel" - a bundle of open magnetic field lines separated the south and north systems of magnetic loops of the active region. Due to the projection effect and limited angular resolution of the NRH it is not possible to determine, whether the spatial locations of the radio sources of the two first emission lanes differed or not. It is argued that the observations support the hypothesis that the radio sources of the first and second lanes could be emitted respectively ahead of and behind a front of the same weak (the Alfvén Mach number MA ≈ 1.1-1.2), fast mode, quasi-parallel piston MHD shock wave. However, the third lane of the burst was definitely emitted from a different place. Its radio sources were situated ahead of the north-west part of the CME propagated through the north system of magnetic loops. This indicates clearly that different emission lanes of the same type II burst can be a result of propagation of different parts of a single CME through regions with different physical conditions (geometries and plasma densities) in the lower corona.

  18. Gamma-Ray Burst Jets and their Radio Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granot, Jonathan; van der Horst, Alexander J.

    2014-02-01

    Radio observations play a key role in studying the jets that power GRBs, the most luminous cosmic explosions. They are crucial for determining the GRB jet energy, the external density, and the microphysical parameters of relativistic collisionless shocks, from afterglow broadband modeling. Radio image size measurements are rare, but provide extremely useful information. The "radio flare" peaking after ~1 day helps constrain the magnetisation and magnetic-field structure of GRB outflows. This review discusses the current observational and modeling status, focusing on the afterglow and outlining prompt radio emission searches, along with recent theoretical progress in GRB jet dynamics, focusing on magnetic acceleration, jet propagation inside a massive star progenitor (for long GRBs), the reverse shock, and the late afterglow. Great progress has been made in our understanding of magnetic acceleration, collimation and later sideways expansion of GRB jets, with interesting implications for the prompt, reverse shock, and afterglow emission. We outline how theory and observations were combined to study GRB jet physics and their immediate environment. Finally, potential paths are suggested for combining theory and observations to achieve greater progress, and some prospects for the future are discussed in light of the expected improvements in observational capabilities and theoretical advances.

  19. Ionosphere-magnetosphere studies using ground based VLF radio propagation technique: an Indian example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Subhas

    Since IGY period (1957-58), natural and artificially produced Very Low Frequency (VLF) elec-tromagnetic radiations are being recorded at large number of ground stations all over the world and on-board satellites to study various radio wave-thermal/energetic plasma interactive pro-cesses related to earth's ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere environment. The terrestrial propagation of these VLF radio waves are primarily enabled through the earth ionosphere wave guide (EIWG) mode to long horizontal distances around the globe and ducted along the ge-omagnetic field lines into the conjugate hemisphere through the plasmasphere-magnetosphere regions. The time frequency spectra of the received signals indicate presence of dispersion (wave/group velocities changing with frequency) and various cut-off frequencies based on the width of the EIWG, electron gyro and plasma frequencies etc., providing several types of received signals like whistlers, chorus, tweeks, hiss and hisslers which can be heard on loud-speakers/earphones with distinguishing audio structures. While the VLF technique has been a very effective tool for studying middle and high latitude phenomena, the importance of the similar and anomalous observations over the Indian low latitude stations provide potentially new challenges for their scientific interpretation and modelling. The ducted and non-ducted magnetospheric propagation, pro-longitudinal (PL) mode, low latitude TRIMPI/TLE (Tran-sient Luminous Emissions) or other effects of wave-particle/wave-wave interactions, effects due to ionospheric irregularities and electric fields, full wave solutions to D-region ionisation per-turbations due to solar and stellar energetic X-and γ ray emissions during normal and flaring conditions are a few problems which have been addressed in these low latitude studies over India. Since the conjugate points of Indian stations lie over the Indian oceanic region, the VLF propagation effects would be relatively free from

  20. A FAST RADIO BURST IN THE DIRECTION OF THE CARINA DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, V.; Shannon, R. M.; Jameson, A.

    2015-01-20

    We report the real-time discovery of a fast radio burst (FRB 131104) with the Parkes radio telescope in a targeted observation of the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The dispersion measure of the burst is 779 cm{sup –3} pc, exceeding predictions for the maximum line-of-sight Galactic contribution by a factor of 11. The temporal structure of the burst is characterized by an exponential scattering tail with a timescale of 2.0{sub −0.5}{sup +0.8} ms at 1582 MHz that scales as frequency to the power –4.4{sub −1.8}{sup +1.6} (all uncertainties represent 95% confidence intervals). We bound the intrinsic pulse width to be <0.64 ms due to dispersion smearing across a single spectrometer channel. Searches in 78 hr of follow-up observations with the Parkes telescope reveal no additional sporadic emission and no evidence for associated periodic radio emission. We hypothesize that the burst is associated with the Carina dwarf galaxy. Follow-up observations at other wavelengths are necessary to test this hypothesis.

  1. Kilometric type III radio bursts and interplanetary transients

    SciTech Connect

    MacDowall, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The first detailed observations and analysis of interplanetary (IP) type III bursts which undergo sudden intensity changes are presented. Two major even categories are studied: cutoffs in which the type III intensity is abruptly reduced (by a factor of 10 or more) at some frequency and remains at the reduced level for all lower frequencies, and narrowband intensifications which frequently occur on the high-frequency edge of a cutoff. Based on their apparent radial velocities as well as their occurrence at the same frequencies as kilometric type II emission, a subset of the sudden intensity change events are demonstrated to be associated with IP shocks. Consequently, they provide a new tool for shock detection in the inner heliosphere. Two causes proposed for the shock associated type III burst cutoffs are enhanced levels of background electrons and pitch-angle scattering. In the vicinities of IP shocks, the observed background levels of electrons with energies greater than 2 keV are frequently enhanced by up to 2 orders of magnitude over ambient levels. The magnetic field fluctuations observed downstream of many shocks are effective in pitch-angle scattering type III electrons. Either of these mechanisms may reduce the effective height of the bump-on-tail distribution, and thereby influence the Langmuir wave growth and evolution. The pre-cutoff intensifications are shown to arise in regions of radial extent {Delta}R/R {approx} 0.1. Consequently, they are not the result of processes local to the shock.

  2. Automatic Recognition of Type III Solar Radio Bursts in STEREO/WAVES Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, V. V.; Cairns, I. H.; Zaslavsky, A.

    2014-12-01

    Type III radio bursts are produced near the local electron plasma frequency and/or near its harmonic by fast electrons ejected from the solar active regions and moving through the corona and solar wind. These bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency rapidly falling with time. This paper presents two new methods developed to detect type III bursts automatically in the data from High Frequency Receiver (HFR) of the STEREO/WAVES radio instrument onboard the STEREO spacecraft. The first technique is applicable to the low-frequency band (HFR-1: 125 kHz to 1.975 MHz) only. This technique can possibly be implemented in onboard satellite software aimed at preliminary detection of bursts and identification of time intervals with relatively high solar activity. In the second technique the bursts are detected in both the low-frequency band and the high-frequency band (HFR-2: 2.025 MHz to 16.025 MHz), with the computational burden being higher by 1 order of magnitude as compared with that for the first technique. Preliminary tests of the method show that for the first technique the pobability to detect is quite high, Pd L = 72% ± 3%. The performance of the second technique is considerably higher, Pd L+H = 81%±1%, while the number of false alarms does not exceed 10% for one daily spectrum.

  3. A search for rotating radio transients and fast radio bursts in the Parkes high-latitude pulsar survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rane, A.; Lorimer, D. R.; Bates, S. D.; McMann, N.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Rajwade, K.

    2016-01-01

    Discoveries of rotating radio transients and fast radio bursts (FRBs) in pulsar surveys suggest that more of such transient sources await discovery in archival data sets. Here we report on a single-pulse search for dispersed radio bursts over a wide range of Galactic latitudes (|b| < 60°) in data previously searched for periodic sources by Burgay et al. We re-detected 20 of the 42 pulsars reported by Burgay et al. and one rotating radio transient reported by Burke-Spolaor. No FRBs were discovered in this survey. Taking into account this result, and other recent surveys at Parkes, we corrected for detection sensitivities based on the search software used in the analyses and the different back-ends used in these surveys and find that the all-sky FRB event rate for sources with a fluence above 4.0 Jy ms at 1.4 GHz to be R = 4.4^{+5.2}_{-3.1} × 10^3 FRBs d-1 sky-1, where the uncertainties represent a 99 per cent confidence interval. While this rate is lower than inferred from previous studies, as we demonstrate, this combined event rate is consistent with the results of all systematic FRB searches at Parkes to date and does not require the need to postulate a dearth of FRBs at intermediate latitudes.

  4. Imaging of a radio type II burst relative to the CME shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krucker, S.; Dauphin, C.; Vilmer, N. R.

    2006-05-01

    Radio type II emission is thought to be produced by energetic electrons that are accelerated at shocks in the solar corona and in interplanetary space. Simultaneous imaging observations of both, the radio emission and the shock, are rare, especially in the lower corona. Here, we present imaging observations in radio waves and soft X-rays of a type II burst that occurred on November 3, 2003 during a GOES X3 flare. The radio type II burst starts at an unusally high frequency (600 MHz) and can therefore be imaged with the Nancay radio heliograph. Simultaneous soft X-ray observations provided by GOES SXI show a faint, fast moving (~800 km/s) loop-like emission in the lower corona (0.1-0.3 solar radius above the photosphere) that spatially and temporally correlates with the Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) later seen in white-light with SOHO/LASCO. Therefore, the observed SXR front is most likely emitted when the CME shock is in the lower corona. The radio type II emission is observed to occur infront of the SXR emission and is only seen from a single location, but not all along the shock front.

  5. Evolutionary electron beam and MHD two stream instability in solar radio burst models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlicky, M.; Krlin, L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper represents a contribution to the theory of type III and IIIb solar radio bursts. It tries to clarify the role of the MHD two stream instability in the case of the evolutionary electron beam. It is shown that, in this case, the generation of the MHD two stream instability depends on strong depression of quasilinear relaxation (caused by a bump-on-tail instability). The results of this paper are compared with the ideas used in Smith's and de la Noë's (1976) model of type IIIb burst.

  6. Variation of Langmuir wave polarization with electron beam speed in type III radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Malaspina, David M.; Cairns, Iver H.; Ergun, Robert E.

    2013-06-13

    Observations by the twin STEREO spacecraft of in-situ electric field waveforms and radio signatures associated with type III radio bursts have demonstrated that the polarization of electron beam-driven waves near the local plasma frequency depends strongly on the speed of the driving electron beam. We expand upon a previous study by including all radio bursts with in-situ waveforms observed by STEREO in 2011. The expanded data set contains five times more radio bursts (35 up from 7) and three times as many Langmuir waves (663 up from 168). While this expanded study supports the results of the original study, that faster (slower) beam electrons drive waves with strong (weak) electric fields perpendicular to the local magnetic field, the larger data set emphasizes that the observation of strong perpendicular electric fields at high electron beam speeds is probabilistic rather than definite. This property supports the interpretation of wave polarization dependence on beam speed as Langmuir/z-mode waves shifted to small wave number through interaction with turbulent solar wind density fluctuations.

  7. DIAGNOSTICS ON THE SOURCE PROPERTIES OF A TYPE II RADIO BURST WITH SPECTRAL BUMPS

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, S. W.; Chen, Y.; Kong, X. L.; Li, G.; Song, H. Q.; Feng, X. S.; Guo, Fan

    2013-04-10

    In recent studies, we proposed that source properties of type II radio bursts can be inferred through a causal relationship between the special shape of the type II dynamic spectrum (e.g., bump or break) and simultaneous extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white light imaging observations (e.g., CME-shock crossing streamer structures). As a further extension of these studies, in this paper we examine the coronal mass ejection (CME) event on 2007 December 31 associated with a multiple type II radio burst. We identify the presence of two spectral bump features on the observed dynamic spectrum. By combining observational analyses of the radio spectral observations and the EUV-white light imaging data, we conclude that the two spectral bumps result from a CME-shock propagating across dense streamers on the southern and northern sides of the CME. It is inferred that the corresponding two type II emissions originate separately from the two CME-shock flanks where the shock geometries are likely quasi-perpendicular or oblique. Since the emission lanes are bumped as a whole within a relatively short time, it suggests that the type II radio bursts with bumps of this study are emitted from spatially confined sources (with a projected lateral dimension smaller than 0.05-0.1 R{sub Sun} at a fundamental frequency level of 20-30 MHz).

  8. Front-Side Type II Radio Bursts Without Shocks Near Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.

    2011-01-01

    Type II radio bursts are due to shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), so the shocks are expected to arrive at Earth in 2-3 days if the source is on the front-side of the Sun. However, a significant fraction of front-side CMEs producing type II bursts did not result in shocks at 1 AU. On can think of several possibilities for the lack of shocks: (1) CMEs originating at large central meridian distances may be driving a shock, but the shock may not be extended sufficiently to reach to the Sun-Earth line. (2) CME cannibalism results in the merger of shocks so that one observes a single shock at Earth even though there are two type II bursts near the Sun. (3) CME-driven shocks may become weak and dissipate before reaching 1 AU. We examined a set of 30 type II bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES experiment that had the solar sources very close to the disk center (within a CMD of 15 degrees), but did not have shock at Earth. We find that the near-Sun speeds of the associated CMEs average to approx.600 km/s, only slightly higher than the average speed of CM Es associated with radio-quiet shocks. However, the fraction of halo CMEs is only -28%, compared to 40% for radio-quiet shocks and 72% for all radio-loud shocks. We conclude that the disk-center radio loud CMEs with no shocks at 1 AU are generally of lower energy and they drive shocks only close to the Sun.

  9. Nonlinear stability of solar type III radio bursts. I - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.; Goldstein, M. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1979-01-01

    A theory of the excitation of solar type III bursts is presented. Electrons initially unstable to the linear bump-in-tail instability are shown to rapidly amplify Langmuir waves to energy densities characteristic of strong turbulence. The three-dimensional equations which describe the strong coupling (wave-wave) interactions are derived. For parameters characteristic of the interplanetary medium the equations reduce to one-dimension. In that case the oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI) is the dominant nonlinear instability. OTSI is stabilized through the production of nonlinear ion density fluctuations that efficiently scatter Langmuir waves out of resonance with the electron beam. An analytical model of the electron distribution function is also developed which is used to estimate the total energy losses suffered by the electron beam as it propagates from the solar corona to 1 AU and beyond.

  10. Orphan Gamma-Ray Burst Radio Afterglows: Candidates and Constraints on Beaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Amir; Ofek, Eran O.; Waxman, Eli; Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2002-09-01

    The number of orphan radio afterglows associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that should be detected by a flux-limited radio survey is calculated. It is shown that for jetted GRBs, this number is smaller for a smaller jet opening angle θ, contrary to naive expectation. For a beaming factor f-1b≡(θ2/2)- 1~=500, roughly the value inferred by Frail et al. from analysis of afterglow light curves, we predict that between several hundred to several thousand orphan radio afterglows should be detectable (over all sky) above 1 mJy at GHz frequencies at any given time. This orphan population is dominated by sources lying at distances of a few hundred Mpc and having an age of ~1 yr. A search for pointlike radio transients with flux densities greater than 6 mJy was conducted using the FIRST and NVSS surveys, yielding a list of nine orphan candidates. We argue that most of the candidates are unlikely to be radio supernovae. However, the possibility that they are radio-loud active galactic nuclei cannot be ruled out without further observation. Our analysis sets a conservative 95% CL upper limit for the all-sky number of radio orphans, which corresponds to a lower limit f-1b>13 on the beaming factor. Rejection of all candidates found in our search would imply f-1b>80. This, and the possibility that some candidates may indeed be radio afterglows, strongly motivate further observations of these transients.

  11. Kilometric type 3 radio bursts observed from high southern ecliptic latitudes by Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1995-01-01

    The Ulysses URAP experiment has provided the first measurements of remote and in-situ wave phenomena from high southern latitudes. Remote sensing of type 3 solar radio bursts constitute an important component of the Ulysses observations. Type 3 radio emissions, which have never before been viewed from outside the ecplitic plane, have been observed by Ulysses to its maximum southern latitude (approximately 80 deg S), although their frequency of occurrence has generally diminished due to the declining phase of the solar cycle. In addition, the Ulysses radio receiver measures both the direction of arrival and the complete polarization state of incident radiation. These physical parameters provide information on the origin and nature of the radio emission. Preliminary analyses have indicated that kilometric type 3 radiation is often approximately 10-20% circularly polarized at the highest URAP frequencies. New directional information provides crucial information on the effects of beaming and scattering of the radiation in the interplanetary medium.

  12. Multi-instrument study of the Jovian radio emissions triggered by solar wind shocks and inferred magnetospheric subcorotation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, S. L. G.; Echer, E.; Zarka, P.; Lamy, L.; Delamere, P. A.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of solar wind conditions on the Jovian auroral radio emissions has long been debated, mostly because it has always been difficult to get accurate solar wind and radio observations at the same time. We present here a study of Jupiter's radio emissions compared to solar wind conditions using radio (RPWS) and magnetic (MAG) data from the Cassini spacecraft from October to December 2000, just before its flyby of Jupiter. The spacecraft was then in the solar wind and could record both the radio emissions coming from the Jovian magnetosphere and the solar wind magnetic field (IMF). With these data, we found a good correspondence between the arrival of interplanetary shocks at Jupiter and the occurrence of radio storms. Our results confirm those from the previous studies showing that fast forward shocks (FFS) trigger mostly dusk emissions, whereas fast reverse shocks (FRS) trigger both dawn and dusk emissions. FFS-triggered emissions are found to occur 10-30 h after the shock arrival when the IMF is weak (below 2 nT), and quasi-immediately after shock arrival when the IMF is strong (above 2 nT). FRS-triggered emissions are found to occur quasi-immediately even when the IMF is weak. We show and discuss in depth the characteristic morphologies of the radio emissions related to each type of shock and their implications. We also used simultaneous radio observations from the ground-based Nançay decameter array and from the Galileo radio instrument (PWS). From the comparison of these measurements with Cassini's, we deduce the regions where the radio storms occur, as well as the radio source subcorotation rates. We show that FFS-triggered emissions onset happens in a sector of local time centered around 15:00 LT, and that all the shock-triggered radio sources sub-corotate with a subcorotation rate of ~50% when the IMF is below 2 nT and of ~80% when it is above 2 nT. These rates could correspond to the extended and compressed states of the Jovian magnetosphere.

  13. MESSENGER observations of transient bursts of energetic electrons in Mercury's magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Ho, George C; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Gold, Robert E; Baker, Daniel N; Slavin, James A; Anderson, Brian J; Korth, Haje; Starr, Richard D; Lawrence, David J; McNutt, Ralph L; Solomon, Sean C

    2011-09-30

    The MESSENGER spacecraft began detecting energetic electrons with energies greater than 30 kilo-electron volts (keV) shortly after its insertion into orbit about Mercury. In contrast, no energetic protons were observed. The energetic electrons arrive as bursts lasting from seconds to hours and are most intense close to the planet, distributed in latitude from the equator to the north pole, and present at most local times. Energies can exceed 200 keV but often exhibit cutoffs near 100 keV. Angular distributions of the electrons about the magnetic field suggest that they do not execute complete drift paths around the planet. This set of characteristics demonstrates that Mercury's weak magnetic field does not support Van Allen-type radiation belts, unlike all other planets in the solar system with internal magnetic fields. PMID:21960629

  14. MESSENGER observations of transient bursts of energetic electrons in Mercury's magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Ho, George C; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Gold, Robert E; Baker, Daniel N; Slavin, James A; Anderson, Brian J; Korth, Haje; Starr, Richard D; Lawrence, David J; McNutt, Ralph L; Solomon, Sean C

    2011-09-30

    The MESSENGER spacecraft began detecting energetic electrons with energies greater than 30 kilo-electron volts (keV) shortly after its insertion into orbit about Mercury. In contrast, no energetic protons were observed. The energetic electrons arrive as bursts lasting from seconds to hours and are most intense close to the planet, distributed in latitude from the equator to the north pole, and present at most local times. Energies can exceed 200 keV but often exhibit cutoffs near 100 keV. Angular distributions of the electrons about the magnetic field suggest that they do not execute complete drift paths around the planet. This set of characteristics demonstrates that Mercury's weak magnetic field does not support Van Allen-type radiation belts, unlike all other planets in the solar system with internal magnetic fields.

  15. Are the distributions of fast radio burst properties consistent with a cosmological population?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleb, M.; Flynn, C.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Hunstead, R. W.; Keane, E. F.; Ravi, V.; van Straten, W.

    2016-05-01

    High time resolution radio surveys over the last few years have discovered a population of millisecond-duration transient bursts called fast radio bursts (FRBs), which remain of unknown origin. FRBs exhibit dispersion consistent with propagation through a cold plasma and dispersion measures indicative of an origin at cosmological distances. In this paper, we perform Monte Carlo simulations of a cosmological population of FRBs, based on assumptions consistent with observations of their energy distribution, their spatial density as a function of redshift and the properties of the interstellar and intergalactic media. We examine whether the dispersion measures, fluences, derived redshifts, signal-to-noise ratios and effective widths of known FRBs are consistent with a cosmological population. Statistical analyses indicate that at least 50 events at Parkes are required to distinguish between a constant comoving FRB density, and an FRB density that evolves with redshift like the cosmological star formation rate density.

  16. Association of Coronal Mass Ejections and Type II Radio Bursts with Impulsive Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashiro, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Cliver, E. W.; Reames, D. V.; Kaiser, M. L.; Howard, R. A.

    2004-12-01

    We report the association of impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) events with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and metric type II radio bursts. We identified 38 impulsive SEP events using the WIND/EPACT instrument and their CME association was investigated using white light data from SOHO/LASCO. We found that (1) at least ˜ 28--39 % of impulsive SEP events were associated with CMEs, (2) only 8--13 % were associated with metric type II radio bursts. The statistical properties of the associated CMEs were investigated and compared with those of general CMEs and CMEs associated with large gradual SEP events. The CMEs associated with impulsive SEP events were significantly slower (median speed of 613 kmps) and narrower (49 deg) than those of CMEs associated with large gradual SEP events (1336 kmps, 360 deg), but faster than the general CMEs (408 kmps).

  17. Quests for Radio Bursts towards the Extra-Solar Planets (51 Peg and tau Boo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiratori, Y.; Yokoo, H.; Sasao, T.; Kameya, O.; Tamura, Y.; Iwadate, K.; Fujishita, M.; Matsumoto, K.; Yoshikawa, T.; Matsumae, Y.

    We searched for radio bursts towards 51 Peg and /tau Boo, which were found as extra-solar planets in 1995. 51 Peg (G2-3V, its distance is 40 light years) is expected to have a planet with 0.5 Jupiter mass (lower limit) and 4.2308 day period, which is called "Hot Jupiter". Tau Boo is to have that with 3.7 Jupiter mass and 3.31 day period. We made a non-thrmal radio emission model of magnetoelectric environment between the stars and their planets. Since a detection of signals is expected. we made obseravations at 8.6 GHz in Sep. and Nov. of last year for 141 hours and 155 hours each with Mizusawa 10-m telescope. During the November observation, we observaed to 10 Jy as an S/N ratio using a position switching method. And we got a possible burst signals, which might be different from artificial ones.

  18. Correlating Type II and III Radio Bursts with Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledbetter, K.; Winter, L. M.; Quinn, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) are high-energy particles, such as protons, which are accelerated at the Sun and speed outward into the solar system. If they reach Earth, they can be harmful to satellites, ionospheric communications, and humans in space or on polar airline routes. NOAA defines an SEP event as an occasion when the flux of protons with energies higher than 10 MeV exceeds 10 pfu (particle flux units) as measured by the GOES satellites in geosynchronous orbit. The most intense SEP events are associated with shocks, driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which accelerate particles as they move through the corona. However, very few CMEs result in SEP events. To determine what factors are most important in distinguishing the shock waves that will result in SEP acceleration toward Earth, we take into account several variables and perform a principal component analysis (PCA) to examine their correlations. First, we examine Type II radio bursts, which are caused by electrons accelerating in the same CME-driven shocks that can accelerate SEPs. Using data from the WAVES instrument on the WIND satellite, these Type II radio bursts, as well as the Type III bursts that often accompany them, can be characterized by slope in 1/f space and by intensity. In addition, local Langmuir waves detected by WIND, which are caused by electrons speeding through the plasma surrounding the satellite, can be an indicator of the magnetic connectivity between the active region and Earth. Finally, X-ray flares directly preceding the Type II burst are also taken into consideration in the PCA analysis. The accompanying figure illustrates an example of the WAVES solar radio bursts along with the GOES solar proton flux >= 10 MeV during the SEP event on April 11, 2013. Using PCA to determine which of these factors are most relevant to the onset, intensity, and duration of SEP events will be valuable in future work to predict such events. In total, we present the analysis of all type

  19. Type III radio bursts in the interplanetary medium - The role of propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, J. L.; Hoang, S.; Lecacheux, A.; Aubier, M. G.; Dulk, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Interplanetary type III radio burst observations are analyzed in order to ascertain the role played by propagation effects between the true source and the observer. Large source altitudes are noted, together with an increasing angular size of sources with increasing angular distance from the sun's center. These and other observations furnish strong evidence for the theory that propagation effects, group delays, ducting and/or scattering significantly affect the observed heights, sizes, and brightness temperatures of interplanetary type III bursts. This would be true irrespective of whether the bursts are due to plasma radiation at the fundamental or at the harmonic, and the effects would extend to the arrival times of the radiation to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the path from the source to the observer.

  20. Direction of Arrival Measurements of Auroral Medium Frequency Burst Radio Emissions at Toolik Lake, AK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunch, N. L.; Labelle, J. W.; Hughes, J. M.; Weatherwax, A. T.; Ye, S.; Lummerzheim, D.

    2007-12-01

    MF burst is an impulsive radio emission of auroral origin detected by ground-based instruments approximately between 1,300 and 3,700 kHz, and associated with substorm onsets. Its exact generation mechanism is unknown, though it has been speculated that it arises from mode conversion radiation. To discover the generation mechanism and the relation of MF burst to auroral processes, Dartmouth has deployed radio interferometers in Alaska, Northern Canada, Greenland, and Antarctica, including a three-element interferometer deployed at Toolik Lake Field Station in Alaska in 2006. This instrument measured spectra, amplitudes, and directions of arrival (DOA's) of over 47 MF burst events occurring between November 30, 2006 and May 26, 2007. These represent the first DOA measurements ever reported for the impulsive MF burst phenomenon. Preliminary analysis shows that the events originated from a wide range of directions in the sky, with all azimuths represented in the distribution of DOA's. The DOA of each individual event is well-defined, however. Many events show apparent motion, with southward motions more common than northward among the subset of events analyzed so far. Some of the events were detected simultaneously on an interferometer deployed at Kaktovik, Alaska, 400 km away. The all-sky imager at Toolik Lake was also operational for some events. Further analysis of these data promises to reveal first information about the locations and motions of MF burst sources, a first step towards discovering the generation mechanism of this mysterious radio emission and its relation to auroral processes.

  1. Production of fine structures in type III solar radio bursts due to turbulent density profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Loi, Shyeh Tjing; Cairns, Iver H.; Li, Bo

    2014-07-20

    Magnetic reconnection events in the corona release energetic electron beams along open field lines, and the beams generate radio emission at multiples of the electron plasma frequency f{sub p} to produce type III solar radio bursts. Type III bursts often exhibit irregularities in the form of flux modulations with frequency and/or local temporal advances and delays, and a type IIIb burst represents the extreme case where a type III burst is fragmented into a chain of narrowband features called striae. Remote and in situ spacecraft measurements have shown that density turbulence is ubiquitous in the corona and solar wind, and often exhibits a Kolmogorov power spectrum. In this work, we numerically investigate the effects of one-dimensional macroscopic density turbulence (along the beam direction) on the behavior of type III bursts, and find that this turbulence produces stria-like fine structures in the dynamic spectra of both f{sub p} and 2 f{sub p} radiation. Spectral and temporal fine structures in the predicted type III emission are produced by variations in the scattering path lengths and group speeds of radio emission, and in the locations and sizes of emitting volumes. Moderate turbulence levels yield flux enhancements with much broader half-power bandwidths in f{sub p} than 2 f{sub p} emission, possibly explaining the often observed type IIIb-III harmonic pairs as being where intensifications in 2 f{sub p} radiation are not resolved observationally. Larger turbulence levels producing trough-peak regions in the plasma density profile may lead to broader, resolvable intensifications in 2 f{sub p} radiation, which may account for the type IIIb-IIIb pairs that are sometimes observed.

  2. Production of Fine Structures in Type III Solar Radio Bursts Due to Turbulent Density Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loi, Shyeh Tjing; Cairns, Iver H.; Li, Bo

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic reconnection events in the corona release energetic electron beams along open field lines, and the beams generate radio emission at multiples of the electron plasma frequency fp to produce type III solar radio bursts. Type III bursts often exhibit irregularities in the form of flux modulations with frequency and/or local temporal advances and delays, and a type IIIb burst represents the extreme case where a type III burst is fragmented into a chain of narrowband features called striae. Remote and in situ spacecraft measurements have shown that density turbulence is ubiquitous in the corona and solar wind, and often exhibits a Kolmogorov power spectrum. In this work, we numerically investigate the effects of one-dimensional macroscopic density turbulence (along the beam direction) on the behavior of type III bursts, and find that this turbulence produces stria-like fine structures in the dynamic spectra of both fp and 2 fp radiation. Spectral and temporal fine structures in the predicted type III emission are produced by variations in the scattering path lengths and group speeds of radio emission, and in the locations and sizes of emitting volumes. Moderate turbulence levels yield flux enhancements with much broader half-power bandwidths in fp than 2 fp emission, possibly explaining the often observed type IIIb-III harmonic pairs as being where intensifications in 2 fp radiation are not resolved observationally. Larger turbulence levels producing trough-peak regions in the plasma density profile may lead to broader, resolvable intensifications in 2 fp radiation, which may account for the type IIIb-IIIb pairs that are sometimes observed.

  3. Astronomers Detect Powerful Bursting Radio Source Discovery Points to New Class of Astronomical Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Astronomers at Sweet Briar College and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have detected a powerful new bursting radio source whose unique properties suggest the discovery of a new class of astronomical objects. The researchers have monitored the center of the Milky Way Galaxy for several years and reveal their findings in the March 3, 2005 edition of the journal, “Nature”. This radio image of the central region of the Milky Way Galaxy holds a new radio source, GCRT J1745-3009. The arrow points to an expanding ring of debris expelled by a supernova. CREDIT: N.E. Kassim et al., Naval Research Laboratory, NRAO/AUI/NSF Principal investigator, Dr. Scott Hyman, professor of physics at Sweet Briar College, said the discovery came after analyzing some additional observations from 2002 provided by researchers at Northwestern University. “"We hit the jackpot!” Hyman said referring to the observations. “An image of the Galactic center, made by collecting radio waves of about 1-meter in wavelength, revealed multiple bursts from the source during a seven-hour period from Sept. 30 to Oct. 1, 2002 — five bursts in fact, and repeating at remarkably constant intervals.” Hyman, four Sweet Briar students, and his NRL collaborators, Drs. Namir Kassim and Joseph Lazio, happened upon transient emission from two radio sources while studying the Galactic center in 1998. This prompted the team to propose an ongoing monitoring program using the National Science Foundation’s Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which operates the VLA, approved the program. The data collected, laid the groundwork for the detection of the new radio source. “Amazingly, even though the sky is known to be full of transient objects emitting at X- and gamma-ray wavelengths,” NRL astronomer Dr. Joseph Lazio pointed out, “very little has been done to look for radio bursts, which are often easier for astronomical objects to produce

  4. Dynamical structure of solar radio burst type III as evidence of energy of solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidi, Zety Sharizat Binti

    2013-11-01

    Observations of low frequency solar type III radio bursts associated with the ejection of plasma oscillations localized disturbance is due to excitation atoms in the plasma frequency incoherent radiations play a dominant role at the meter and decimeter wavelengths. Here, we report the results of the dynamical structure of solar flare type III that occurred on 9th March 2012 at National Space Centre, Sg Lang, Selangor, Malaysia by using the CALLISTO system. These bursts are associated with solar flare type M6 which suddenly ejected in the active region AR 1429 starting at 03:32 UT and ending at 05:00 UT with the peak at 04:12 UT. The observation showed an initial strong burst occurred due to strong signal at the beginning of the phase. We also found that both solar burst and flares tend to be a numerous on the same day and probability of chance coincidence is high. It is clearly seen that an impulsive lace burst was detected at 4:24 UT and it is more plausible that the energies are confined to the top of the loop when we compared with X-ray results. Associated with this event was type II with velocities 1285 km/s and type IV radio sweeps along with a full halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) first seen in SOHO/LASCO C2 imagery at 09/0426 Z. We concluded that the significance of study solar burst type III lies in the fact that the emission at decimetric wavelength comes from the role of magnetic field in active region that may provide the key to the energy release mechanism in a flare.

  5. Spatially resolved observations of coronal type II radio bursts with multiple lanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimovets, Ivan; Vilmer, Nicole; Sadykov, Viacheslav

    We have analyzed two coronal type II radio bursts occurred during solar flare and CME events of 3 November 2010 and 16 February 2011. Characteristic feature of both these bursts is a separation into three bands (lanes) of emission. Joint analysis of spatially-resolved observations made by the Nancay Radioheliograph and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory have shown that in both cases all three lanes were most probably emitted from above the CMEs. Radio sources of the first and the second lanes of each burst were located very close to each other and it is difficult to say unambiguously whether they were emitted from slightly different parts of a hypothetical shock front or from its upstream and downstream regions. However, emission region of the third lane, at least of the type II burst on 16 February 2011, was significantly different from emission region of the first two lanes. This confirms an old idea that different parts of a spatially extended non-planar shock wave can emit radiowaves from its different parts interacting with different coronal structures. Properties of these coronal structures are discussed.

  6. The speeds of electrons that excite solar radio bursts of type III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, G. A.; Goldman, M. V.; Steinberg, J. L.; Hoang, S.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence is presented that solar type III radio bursts at kilometric wavelengths are excited by electrons with average speeds of 0.14 c; i.e., in good agreement with in situ measurements by Lin et al. (1981; 1986), but considerably lower than the generally accepted values of 0.3 to 0.5 c. A set of 28 bursts for which electrons and/or plasma waves were observed at ISEE-3 is examined, and it is found that the initial parts of all bursts were due to plasma radiation at the fundamental, and that the fastest electrons that produce radio emission range from 0.25 c down to 0.07 c (average 0.14 c). The slower electrons, those that produce fundamental radiation at approximately the time of burst peak, have an average speed of 0.06 c and a range from about 0.10 c down to 0.03 c.There is no evidence in the data for a systematic increase or decrease of exciting electron speed with distance from the sun.

  7. Evaluation of Coronal Shock Wave Velocities from the II Type Radio Bursts Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanin, V. V.; Isaeva, E. A.; Kravetz, R. O.

    The work presents the results of research of connection between the coronal shock waves and the parameters of type II (mII) meter-decameter bursts in 25-180 MHz band for 66 solar proton events. The velocities of coronal shock waves for this two cases where determined. In the first case the velocities of the shock waves was evaluated according to the Newkirck model and in the second case - directly from the type II radio burst parameters. The calculated values of shock waves velocity was compared with the same velocity values that is published on NGDC site. The comparative analysis showed that precision of coronal shock waves velocity estimation which gets directly from type II radio bursts parameters was higher than the same one which used the Newkirck model. Research showed that there is exist the sufficiently strong connection between the shock wave velocity and the delay of type II burst intensity maximum on the second harmonica. Correlation coefficient between the studied parameters was equal to ≍ 0.65.

  8. The galactic position dependence of fast radio bursts and the discovery of FRB011025

    SciTech Connect

    Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Bannister, Keith W.

    2014-09-01

    We report the detection of a dispersed fast radio burst (FRB) in archival intermediate-latitude Parkes Radio Telescope data. The burst appears to be of the same physical origin as the four purported extragalactic FRBs reported by Thornton et al. This burst's arrival time precedes the Thornton et al. bursts by 10 years. We consider that this survey, and many other archival low-latitude (|gb| < 30°) pulsar surveys, have been searched for FRBs but produced fewer detections than the comparatively brief Thornton et al. search. Such a rate dependence on Galactic position could provide critical supporting evidence for an extragalactic origin for FRBs. To test this, we form an analytic expression to account for Galactic position and survey setup in FRB rate predictions. Employing a sky temperature, scattering, and dispersion model of the Milky Way, we compute the expected number of FRBs if they are isotropically distributed on the sky with respect to the Galactic position (i.e., local), and if they are of extragalactic origin. We demonstrate that the relative detection rates reject a local origin with a confidence of 99.96% (∼3.6σ). The extragalactic predictions provide a better agreement; however, there are still strong discrepancies with the low-latitude detection rate at a confidence of 99.69% (∼2.9σ). However, for the extragalactic population, the differences in predicted versus detected population may be accounted for by a number of factors, which we discuss.

  9. Evidence of auroral plasma cavities at Uranus and Neptune from radio burst observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Calvert, W.

    1991-01-01

    Radio bursts originating from the stronger magnetic polar regions of both Uranus and Neptune were detected by the planetary radio astronomy experiment during the Voyager 2 encounters with the planets. It has previously been demonstrated that these bursts are beamed into a broad, hollow emission pattern from their auroral sources. It is now shown that the bursts at both planets also manifest similar detailed patterns, with the waves beamed into two separate and distinct radiation cones at intermediate wave frequencies. This double-cone emission pattern is predicted by relativistic cyclotron resonance theory, and application of this theory to the observed emission pattern yields the plasma density structure within the radio source region. Calculations indicate that at both Uranus and Neptune the plasma-to-cyclotron frequency ratio can drop well below 0.01 within the active region. Such low values indicate that the southern auroral zones at both planets contain an auroral plasma cavity that is similar to that found in earth's nightside auroral zone.

  10. Astronomers Detect Powerful Bursting Radio Source Discovery Points to New Class of Astronomical Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Astronomers at Sweet Briar College and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have detected a powerful new bursting radio source whose unique properties suggest the discovery of a new class of astronomical objects. The researchers have monitored the center of the Milky Way Galaxy for several years and reveal their findings in the March 3, 2005 edition of the journal, “Nature”. This radio image of the central region of the Milky Way Galaxy holds a new radio source, GCRT J1745-3009. The arrow points to an expanding ring of debris expelled by a supernova. CREDIT: N.E. Kassim et al., Naval Research Laboratory, NRAO/AUI/NSF Principal investigator, Dr. Scott Hyman, professor of physics at Sweet Briar College, said the discovery came after analyzing some additional observations from 2002 provided by researchers at Northwestern University. “"We hit the jackpot!” Hyman said referring to the observations. “An image of the Galactic center, made by collecting radio waves of about 1-meter in wavelength, revealed multiple bursts from the source during a seven-hour period from Sept. 30 to Oct. 1, 2002 — five bursts in fact, and repeating at remarkably constant intervals.” Hyman, four Sweet Briar students, and his NRL collaborators, Drs. Namir Kassim and Joseph Lazio, happened upon transient emission from two radio sources while studying the Galactic center in 1998. This prompted the team to propose an ongoing monitoring program using the National Science Foundation’s Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which operates the VLA, approved the program. The data collected, laid the groundwork for the detection of the new radio source. “Amazingly, even though the sky is known to be full of transient objects emitting at X- and gamma-ray wavelengths,” NRL astronomer Dr. Joseph Lazio pointed out, “very little has been done to look for radio bursts, which are often easier for astronomical objects to produce

  11. Observation of quasi-periodic solar radio bursts associated with propagating fast-mode waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, C. R.; Nisticò, G.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Zimovets, I. V.; White, S. M.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: Radio emission observations from the Learmonth and Bruny Island radio spectrographs are analysed to determine the nature of a train of discrete, periodic radio "sparks" (finite-bandwidth, short-duration isolated radio features) which precede a type II burst. We analyse extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging from SDO/AIA at multiple wavelengths and identify a series of quasi-periodic rapidly-propagating enhancements, which we interpret as a fast wave train, and link these to the detected radio features. Methods: The speeds and positions of the periodic rapidly propagating fast waves and the coronal mass ejection (CME) were recorded using running-difference images and time-distance analysis. From the frequency of the radio sparks the local electron density at the emission location was estimated for each. Using an empirical model for the scaling of density in the corona, the calculated electron density was used to obtain the height above the surface at which the emission occurs, and the propagation velocity of the emission location. Results: The period of the radio sparks, δtr = 1.78 ± 0.04 min, matches the period of the fast wave train observed at 171 Å, δtEUV = 1.7 ± 0.2 min. The inferred speed of the emission location of the radio sparks, 630 km s-1, is comparable to the measured speed of the CME leading edge, 500 km s-1, and the speeds derived from the drifting of the type II lanes. The calculated height of the radio emission (obtained from the density) matches the observed location of the CME leading edge. From the above evidence we propose that the radio sparks are caused by the quasi-periodic fast waves, and the emission is generated as they catch up and interact with the leading edge of the CME. The movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  12. Dynamic spectra of radio frequency bursts associated with edge-localized modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatipamula, Shekar G.; Yun, G. S.; Leem, J.; Park, H. K.; Kim, K. W.; Akiyama, T.; Lee, S. G.

    2016-06-01

    Electromagnetic emissions in the radio frequency (RF) range are detected in the high-confinement-mode (H-mode) plasma using a fast RF spectrometer on the KSTAR tokamak. The emissions at the crash events of edge-localized modes (ELMs) are found to occur as strong RF bursts with dynamic features in intensity and spectrum. The RF burst spectra (obtained with frequency resolution better than 10 MHz) exhibit diverse spectral features and evolve in multiple steps before the onset and through the ELM crash: (1) a narrow-band spectral line around 200 MHz persistent for extended duration in the pre-ELM crash times, (2) harmonic spectral lines with spacing comparable to deuterium or hydrogen ion cyclotron frequency at the pedestal, (3) rapid onset (faster than ~1 μs) of intense RF burst with wide-band continuum in frequency which coincides with the onset of ELM crash, and (4) a few additional intense RF bursts with chirping-down narrow-band spectrum during the crash. These observations indicate plasma waves are excited in the pedestal region and strongly correlated with the ELM dynamics such as the onset of the explosive crash. Thus the investigation of RF burst occurrence and their dynamic spectral features potentially offers the possibility of exploring H-mode physics in great detail.

  13. Radio constraints on heavily obscured star formation within dark gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Perley, D. A.; Perley, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Highly dust-obscured starbursting galaxies (submillimeter galaxies and their ilk) represent the most extreme sites of star formation in the distant universe and contribute significantly to overall cosmic star formation beyond z > 1.5. Some stars formed in these environments may also explode as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and contribute to the population of 'dark' bursts. Here we present Very Large Array wideband radio-continuum observations of 15 heavily dust-obscured Swift GRBs to search for radio synchrotron emission associated with intense star formation in their host galaxies. Most of these targets (11) are not detected. Of the remaining four objects, one detection is marginal, and for two others we cannot yet rule out the contribution of a long-lived radio afterglow. The final detection is secure, but indicates a star formation rate (SFR) roughly consistent with the dust-corrected UV-inferred value. Most galaxies hosting obscured GRBs are therefore not forming stars at extreme rates, and the amount of optical extinction seen along a GRB afterglow sightline does not clearly correlate with the likelihood that the host has a sufficiently high SFR to be radio-detectable. While some submillimeter galaxies do readily produce GRBs, these GRBs are often not heavily obscured—suggesting that the outer (modestly obscured) parts of these galaxies overproduce GRBs and the inner (heavily obscured) parts underproduce GRBs relative to their respective contributions to star formation, hinting at strong chemical or initial mass function gradients within these systems.

  14. Spatially resolved observations of a split-band coronal type II radio burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimovets, I.; Vilmer, N.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Sharykin, I.; Struminsky, A.

    2012-11-01

    Context. The origin of coronal type II radio bursts and the nature of their band splitting are still not fully understood, though a number of scenarios have been proposed to explain them. This is largely due to the lack of detailed spatially resolved observations of type II burst sources and of their relations to magnetoplasma structure dynamics in parental active regions. Aims: To make progress in solving this problem on the basis of one extremely well observed solar eruptive event. Methods: The relative dynamics of multithermal eruptive plasmas, observed in detail by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and of harmonic type II burst sources, observed by the Nançay Radioheliograph at ten frequencies from 445 to 151 MHz, was studied for the 3 November 2010 event arising from an active region behind the east solar limb. Special attention was given to the band splitting of the burst. Analysis was supplemented by investigation of coronal hard X-ray (HXR) sources observed by the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager. Results: We found that the flare impulsive phase was accompanied by the formation of a double coronal HXR source, whose upper part coincided with the hot (T ≈ 10 MK) eruptive plasma blob. The leading edge (LE) of the eruptive plasmas (T ≈ 1-2 MK) moved upward from the flare region with a speed of v ≈ 900-1400 km s-1. The type II burst source initially appeared just above the LE apex and moved with the same speed and in the same direction. After ≈ 20 s, it started to move about twice as fast, but still in the same direction. At any given moment, the low-frequency component (LFC) source of the splitted type II burst was situated above the high-frequency component (HFC) source, which in turn was situated above the LE. We also found that at a given frequency the HFC source was located slightly closer to the photosphere than the LFC source. Conclusions: Based on the set of established observational

  15. Energetic electrons from solar flares and associated type 3 radio bursts from metric to hectometric wave frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, K.

    1972-01-01

    Distinct Kev electron events as observed by satellites near the earth are, in general, associated with solar flares which are accompained by the emission of both metric and hectometric type 3 radio bursts. The positions of these flares are mainly on the western hemisphere of the sun. These results show that Kev electrons propagate under the control of the magnetic field in the interplanetary space and that, while propagating through this space, these electrons excite type 3 radio bursts from metric to hectometric wave frequencies. Emission characteristics of hectometric type 3 bursts are briefly considered in relation to the positions of associated flares.

  16. Correlated observations of a spatially resolved type III solar radio burst group and the associated hard X-ray emission

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, S.R.; Pick, M.; Raoult, A.

    1980-10-15

    The first measurements of the spatial structure of a group of type III solar radio bursts associated with an impulsive hard X-ray burst are presented. At 169 MHz the radio source has been found to consist of two principal regions separated by approx.3 x 10/sup 5/ km. The two regions together produced a total of four component bursts in good time correlation with spikes in the hard X-ray emission. The observations indicate that electron acceleration/injection occurs over a region which covers a wide range of magnetic field lines.

  17. Correlated observations of a spatially resolved type III solar radio burst group and the associated hard X-ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, S. R.; Pick, M.; Raoult, A.

    1980-01-01

    The first measurements of the spatial structure of a group of type III solar radio bursts associated with an impulsive hard X-ray burst are presented. At 169 MHz the radio source has been found to consist of two principal regions separated by about 300,000 km. The two regions together produced a total of four component bursts in good time correlation with spikes in the hard X-ray emission. The observations indicate that electron acceleration/injection occurs over a region which covers a wide range of magnetic field lines.

  18. Investigation into solar type II radio bursts recorded by CALLISTO-BR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. D. C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Selhorst, C. L.

    2012-04-01

    This work brings out the outcomes of investigation of two solar type II radio bursts observed on October 16, 2010 (19:12:54 UT) and on February 14, 2011 (15:27:05 UT) by CALLISTO-BR (Compound Astronomical Low frequency Low Cost Instrument for Spectroscopy and Transportable Observatory) spectrometer operating in the frequency range of 45-870 MHz. The first event comprises a burst with typical type II starting frequency and clues of partial reabsorption of the fundamental frequency band. The second one consists of a solar split-band type II radio burst with whole reabsorption of the fundamental frequency band. Both events were preceded by solar type III radio bursts. Among the physical parameters determined for the propagation of the associated shock and its region are: source speed of the order of 1127 ± 76 km s-1 and 889 ± 31 km s-1; electron number density of (5.17 ± 0.33) x 107 cm-3 and (2.46 ± 0.07) x 108cm-3; Alfvén speed of the order of 287 ± 11 km s-1 and 398 ± 911 km s-1; Mach number of 1.05 ± 0.01 and 1.12 ± 0.01; magnetic field strength of 0.95 ± 0.03 G and 2.85 ± 0.07 G; and temperature of (3.79 ± 1.02) x 107 K and (1.69 ± 0.39) x 107 K. The results, compared to those reported in the literature, are consistent. The source speed indeed outdoes the Alfvén speed with a density jump at the shock front which is suitable (< 4) for MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) shocks for both events.

  19. Electron Exciter Speeds Associated with Interplanetary Type III Solar Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, M. J.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2015-10-01

    This article provides a comprehensive quantitative investigation of the kinematics of the electron exciters associated with interplanetary type III solar radio bursts. Detailed multispacecraft analyses of the radio and plasma wave data from the widely separated Wind and STEREO spacecraft are provided for five interplanetary type III bursts that illustrate different aspects of the problems involved in establishing the electron exciter speeds. The exciter kinematics are determined from the observed frequency drift and in-situ radiation characteristics for each type III burst. The analysis assumes propagation of the electron exciters along a Parker spiral, with origin at the associated solar active region, and curvature determined by the measured solar wind speed. The analyses take fully into account the appropriate light-propagation-time corrections from the radio source to the observing spacecraft as the exciters propagate along the Parker spiral path. For the five in-situ type III bursts analyzed in detail here, we found that their initial exciter speeds, near the Sun, ranged from 0.2c to 0.38c, where c is the speed of light. This is significantly higher than the exciter speeds derived from other recent analyses. The results presented here further suggest that the type III electron exciters normally decelerate as they propagate through the interplanetary medium. We argue based on the observations by the widely separated spacecraft that the initial part of the type III radiation usually occurs at the fundamental of the plasma frequency. Finally, we compare the results for the exciter speeds to all previous determinations and provide quantitative arguments to explain the differences.

  20. Statistical Survey of Type III Radio Bursts at Long Wavelengths Observed by the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO)/ Waves Instruments: Goniopolarimetric Properties and Radio Source Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupar, V.; Maksimovic, M.; Santolik, O.; Cecconi, B.; Kruparova, O.

    2014-12-01

    We have performed a statistical analysis of a large number of Type III radio bursts observed by STEREO between May 2007 and February 2013. Only intense, simple, and isolated cases have been included in our data set. We focused on the goniopolarimetric (GP, also referred to as direction-finding) properties at frequencies between 125 kHz and 2 MHz. The apparent source size γ is very extended (≈ 60∘) for the lowest analyzed frequencies. Observed apparent source sizes γ expand linearly with a radial distance from the Sun at frequencies below 1 MHz. We show that Type III radio bursts statistically propagate in the ecliptic plane. The calculated positions of radio sources indicate that scattering of the primary beam pattern plays an important role in the propagation of Type III radio bursts in the interplanetary medium.

  1. Radio Constraints on Long-lived Magnetar Remnants in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, W.; Metzger, B. D.; Berger, E.; Özel, F.

    2016-11-01

    The merger of a neutron star (NS) binary may result in the formation of a rapidly spinning magnetar. The magnetar can potentially survive for seconds or longer as a supramassive NS before collapsing to a black hole if, indeed, it collapses at all. During this process, a fraction of the magnetar’s rotational energy of ∼1053 erg is transferred via magnetic spin-down to the surrounding ejecta. The resulting interaction between the ejecta and the surrounding circumburst medium powers a year-long or greater synchrotron radio transient. We present a search for radio emission with the Very Large Array following nine short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at rest-frame times of ≈1.3–7.6 yr after the bursts, focusing on those events that exhibit early-time excess X-ray emission that may signify the presence of magnetars. We place upper limits of ≲18–32 μJy on the 6.0 GHz radio emission, corresponding to spectral luminosities of ≲(0.05–8.3) × 1039 erg s‑1. Comparing these limits to the predicted radio emission from a long-lived remnant and incorporating measurements of the circumburst densities from broadband modeling of short GRB afterglows, we rule out a stable magnetar with an energy of 1053 erg for half of the events in our sample. A supramassive remnant that injects a lower rotational energy of 1052 erg is ruled out for a single event, GRB 050724A. This study represents the deepest and most extensive search for long-term radio emission following short GRBs to date, and thus the most stringent limits placed on the physical properties of magnetars associated with short GRBs from radio observations.

  2. KiloHertz Radio Burst by GW conversion in Galactic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    The very recent Gravitational Wave detection at several hundreds Hertz by LIGO due to a few tens solar masses binary black hole collapse at 400 Mpc distance imply a much abundant population of a few solar masses BH systems, bounded in a very similar but more rapid collapse event. Their number rate might be much higher than heavier tens Solar masses BH events, but their signal might be below the present LIGO detection threshold. Therefore their few or tens kiloHerts GW might be detected rarely by LIGO only when occurring in a much nearby and smaller (30 Mpc) Universe. However their graviton conversion along their flight by solar and galactic magnetic fields into radio waves may lead to tens KHz sudden radio burst. These radio bangs, foreseen more than tweny years ago, might be observed today at best from r screened radio array antenna on the Moon. If such radio array might be sent at solar system edges (Voyager distances) then the plasma dilution will allow detection even of the KHz radio waves, comparable to the recent rare LIGO frequency.

  3. Observation of local radio emission associated with type III radio bursts and Langmuir waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Stone, R. G.; Fainberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    The first clear detection of fundamental and harmonic radiation from the type III radio source region is presented. This radiation is characterized by its lack of frequency drift, its short rise and decay times, its relative weakness compared to the remotely observed radiation and its temporal coincidence with observed Langmuir waves. The observations were made with the radio and plasma frequency (URAP) receivers on the Ulysses spacecraft between about 1 and 2 AU from the Sun.

  4. A real-time fast radio burst: polarization detection and multiwavelength follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, E.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Barsdell, B. R.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bian, F.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Caleb, M.; Champion, D.; Chandra, P.; Da Costa, G.; Delvaux, C.; Flynn, C.; Gehrels, N.; Greiner, J.; Jameson, A.; Johnston, S.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Keane, E. F.; Keller, S.; Kocz, J.; Kramer, M.; Leloudas, G.; Malesani, D.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Ng, C.; Ofek, E. O.; Perley, D. A.; Possenti, A.; Schmidt, B. P.; Shen, Yue; Stappers, B.; Tisserand, P.; van Straten, W.; Wolf, C.

    2015-02-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are one of the most tantalizing mysteries of the radio sky; their progenitors and origins remain unknown and until now no rapid multiwavelength follow-up of an FRB has been possible. New instrumentation has decreased the time between observation and discovery from years to seconds, and enables polarimetry to be performed on FRBs for the first time. We have discovered an FRB (FRB 140514) in real-time on 2014 May 14 at 17:14:11.06 UTC at the Parkes radio telescope and triggered follow-up at other wavelengths within hours of the event. FRB 140514 was found with a dispersion measure (DM) of 562.7(6) cm-3 pc, giving an upper limit on source redshift of z ≲ 0.5. FRB 140514 was found to be 21 ± 7 per cent (3σ) circularly polarized on the leading edge with a 1σ upper limit on linear polarization <10 per cent. We conclude that this polarization is intrinsic to the FRB. If there was any intrinsic linear polarization, as might be expected from coherent emission, then it may have been depolarized by Faraday rotation caused by passing through strong magnetic fields and/or high-density environments. FRB 140514 was discovered during a campaign to re-observe known FRB fields, and lies close to a previous discovery, FRB 110220; based on the difference in DMs of these bursts and time-on-sky arguments, we attribute the proximity to sampling bias and conclude that they are distinct objects. Follow-up conducted by 12 telescopes observing from X-ray to radio wavelengths was unable to identify a variable multiwavelength counterpart, allowing us to rule out models in which FRBs originate from nearby (z < 0.3) supernovae and long duration gamma-ray bursts.

  5. A SCENARIO FOR THE FINE STRUCTURES OF SOLAR TYPE IIIb RADIO BURSTS BASED ON ELECTRON CYCLOTRON MASER EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C. B.

    2015-06-10

    A scenario based on electron cyclotron maser (ECM) emission is proposed for the fine structures of solar radio emission. It is suggested that under certain conditions modulation of the ratio between the plasma frequency and electron gyro frequency by ultra-low-frequency waves, which is a key parameter for excitation of ECM instability, may lead to the intermittent emission of radio waves. As an example, the explanation for the observed fine-structure components in the solar Type IIIb bursts is discussed in detail. Three primary issues of Type IIIb bursts are addressed: (1) the physical mechanism that results in intermittent emission elements that form a chain in the dynamic spectrum of Type IIIb bursts, (2) the cause of split pairs (or double stria) and triple stria, and (3) why only IIIb–III bursts are observed in the events of fundamental harmonic pair emission whereas IIIb–IIIb or III–IIIb bursts are very rarely observed.

  6. A Scenario for the Fine Structures of Solar Type IIIb Radio Bursts Based on Electron Cyclotron Maser Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. B.

    2015-06-01

    A scenario based on electron cyclotron maser (ECM) emission is proposed for the fine structures of solar radio emission. It is suggested that under certain conditions modulation of the ratio between the plasma frequency and electron gyro frequency by ultra-low-frequency waves, which is a key parameter for excitation of ECM instability, may lead to the intermittent emission of radio waves. As an example, the explanation for the observed fine-structure components in the solar Type IIIb bursts is discussed in detail. Three primary issues of Type IIIb bursts are addressed: (1) the physical mechanism that results in intermittent emission elements that form a chain in the dynamic spectrum of Type IIIb bursts, (2) the cause of split pairs (or double stria) and triple stria, and (3) why only IIIb-III bursts are observed in the events of fundamental harmonic pair emission whereas IIIb-IIIb or III-IIIb bursts are very rarely observed.

  7. On the speed and acceleration of electron beams triggering interplanetary type III radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupar, V.; Kontar, E. P.; Soucek, J.; Santolik, O.; Maksimovic, M.; Kruparova, O.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: Type III radio bursts are intense radio emissions triggered by beams of energetic electrons often associated with solar flares. These exciter beams propagate outwards from the Sun along an open magnetic field line in the corona and in the interplanetary (IP) medium. Methods: We performed a statistical survey of 29 simple and isolated IP type III bursts observed by STEREO/Waves instruments between January 2013 and September 2014. We investigated their time-frequency profiles in order to derive the speed and acceleration of exciter electron beams. Results: We show these beams noticeably decelerate in the IP medium. Obtained speeds range from ~0.02c up to ~0.35c depending on initial assumptions. It corresponds to electron energies between tens of eV and hundreds of keV, and in order to explain the characteristic energies or speeds of type III electrons (~0.1c) observed simultaneously with Langmuir waves at 1 au, the emission of type III bursts near the peak should be predominately at double plasma frequency. Derived properties of electron beams can be used as input parameters for computer simulations of interactions between the beam and the plasma in the IP medium. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Testing for lightning as a source of radio bursts observed on the nightside of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonwalkar, Vikas S.; Carpenter, D. L.; Strangeway, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    In certain previous studies of radio burst events recorded by the Pioneer Venus Orbiting Electric Field Detector (OEFD), data were sorted for statistical purposes according to occurrence at filter band frequencies smaller than or greater than typical values of the ambient electron gyrofrequency. The expectation in making this distinction was that the lowest frequency signals, at 100 Hz, were candidates for propagation through the ionosphere to the spacecraft in the whistler mode, and that the higher frequency signals, if of subionospheric origin, would require some different ionospheric penetration mechanism. On the basis of certain assumptions about the homogeneity and horizontal stratification of the Venusian nightside ionosphere, methods were developed for case-by-case testing of the hypothesis that any particular burst event originated in subionospheric lightning. The tests, which are capable of refinement, allow prediction of the resonance cone angle, refractive index, wave dispersion, and wave polarization. The tests have been applied to data from 11 periods along 7 orbits, and are believed to represent an improved way of categorizing OEFD burst data for purposes of investigating source/propagation mechanisms. Four of the five burst events that were not found consistent with the lightning hypothesis involved receptions at multiple OEFD filter band frequencies.

  9. Fast radio bursts as giant pulses from young rapidly rotating pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Burzawa, Lukasz; Popov, Sergei B.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss possible association of fast radio bursts (FRBs) with supergiant pulses emitted by young pulsars (ages ˜ tens to hundreds of years) born with regular magnetic field but very short - few milliseconds - spin periods. We assume that FRBs are extra-Galactic events coming from distances d ≲ 100 Mpc and that most of the dispersion measure (DM) comes from the material in the freshly ejected SNR shell. We then predict that for a given burst the DM should decrease with time and that FRBs are not expected to be seen below ˜300 MHz due to free-free absorption in the expanding ejecta. A supernova might have been detected years before the burst; FRBs are mostly associated with star-forming galaxies. The model requires that some pulsars are born with very fast spins, of the order of few milliseconds. The observed distribution of spin-down powers dot{E} in young energetic pulsars is consistent with equal birth rate per decade of dot{E}. Accepting this injection distribution and scaling the intrinsic brightness of FRBs with dot{E}, we predict the following properties of a large sample of FRBs: (i) the brightest observed events come from a broad distribution in distances; (ii) for repeating bursts brightness either remains nearly constant (if the spin-down time is longer than the age of the pulsar) or decreases with time otherwise; in the latter case DM ∝ dot{E}.

  10. An investigation of solar flares and associated solar radio bursts on ionospheric total electron content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uwamahoro, Jean

    2016-07-01

    Solar transients events such as Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and solar flares represent are the cause of various aspects of space weather and can impact the modern man made technological system. Such solar transients are often associated with solar radio bursts (SRBs), particularly of type II and III that , at ground level can be detected by the CALLISTO (Compact Astronomical Low-frequency Low-cost Instrument for Spectroscopy and Transportable Observatories) solar spectrometer. The present study aims at investigating solar flares and associated SRBs impact on the ionospheric total electron content (TEC). SRBs data used are dynamic spectra covering the 2014-2015 period and detected by the CALLISTO instrument that is installed at the university of Rwanda, Kigali. To investigate ionospheric impact, we use TEC data from IGS stations located at almost the same universal time zone, and correlate the observed TEC changes to the corresponding observed solar bursts events. Preliminary observations resulting from this study indicate a slight enhancement in TEC during the burst event days. The observed TEC enhancement on the burst day can be associated to increased UV and X-rays radiations and particle acceleration that are associated with SRBs events. This work is a contribution to more understanding of the geo-space impact of solar transients phenomena for modeling and prediction.

  11. An investigation of solar flares and associated solar radio bursts impact on ionospheric total electron content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuyizere, Sarathiel

    2016-07-01

    Solar transients events such as Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and solar flares represent the cause of various aspects of space weather and can impact the modern man made technological system. Such solar transients are often associated with solar radio bursts (SRBs), particularly of type II and III that , at ground level can be detected by the CALLISTO (Compact Astronomical Low-frequency Low-cost Instrument for Spectroscopy and Transportable Observatories) solar spectrometer. The present study aims at investigating solar flares and associated SRBs impact on the ionospheric total electron content (TEC). SRBs data used are dynamic spectra covering the 2014-2015 period and detected by the CALLISTO instrument that is installed at the university of Rwanda, Kigali. To investigate ionospheric impact, we use TEC data from IGS stations located at almost the same universal time zone, and correlate the observed TEC changes to the corresponding observed solar bursts events. Preliminary observations resulting from this study indicate a slight enhancement in TEC during the burst event days. The observed TEC enhancement on the burst day can be associated to increased UV and X-rays radiations and particle acceleration that are associated with SRBs events. This work is a contribution to more understanding of the geo-space impact of solar transients phenomena for modeling and prediction.

  12. Stopping frequency of type III solar radio bursts in expanding magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Hamish A. S.; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: Understanding the properties of type III radio bursts in the solar corona and interplanetary space is one of the best ways to remotely deduce the characteristics of solar accelerated electron beams and the solar wind plasma. One feature of all type III bursts is the lowest frequency they reach (or stopping frequency). This feature reflects the distance from the Sun that an electron beam can drive the observable plasma emission mechanism. The stopping frequency has never been systematically studied before from a theoretical perspective. Methods: Using numerical kinetic simulations, we explore the different parameters that dictate how far an electron beam can travel before it stops inducing a significant level of Langmuir waves, responsible for plasma radio emission. We use the quasilinear approach to model the resonant interaction between electrons and Langmuir waves self-consistently in inhomogeneous plasma, and take into consideration the expansion of the guiding magnetic flux tube and the turbulent density of the interplanetary medium. Results: We find that the rate of radial expansion has a significant effect on the distance an electron beam travels before enhanced levels of Langmuir waves, hence radio waves, cease. Radial expansion of the guiding magnetic flux tube rarefies the electron stream to the extent that the density of non-thermal electrons is too low to drive Langmuir wave production. The initial conditions of the electron beam have a significant effect, where decreasing the beam density or increasing the spectral index of injected electrons would cause higher type III stopping frequencies. We also demonstrate how the intensity of large-scale density fluctuations increases the highest frequency to which Langmuir waves can be driven by the beam and how the magnetic field geometry can be the cause of type III bursts that are only observed at high coronal frequencies.

  13. In Situ Detection of Strong Langmuir Turbulence Processes in Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golla, Thejappa; Macdowall, Robert J.; Bergamo, M.

    2012-01-01

    The high time resolution observations obtained by the WAVES experiment of the STEREO spacecraft in solar type III radio bursts show that Langmuir waves often occur as intense localized wave packets. These wave packets are characterized by short durations of only a few ms and peak intensities, which well exceed the supersonic modulational instability (MI) thresholds. These timescales and peak intensities satisfy the criterion of the solitons collapsed to spatial scales of a few hundred Debye lengths. The spectra of these wave packets consist of primary spectral peaks corresponding to beam-resonant Langmuir waves, two or more sidebands corresponding to down-shifted and up-shifted daughter Langmuir waves, and low frequency enhancements below a few hundred Hz corresponding to daughter ion sound waves. The frequencies and wave numbers of these spectral components satisfy the resonance conditions of the modulational instability (MI). Moreover, the tricoherences, computed using trispectral analysis techniques show that these spectral components are coupled to each other with a high degree of coherency as expected of the MI type of four wave interactions. The high intensities, short scale lengths, sideband spectral structures and low frequency spectral enhancements and, high levels of tricoherences amongst the spectral components of these wave packets provide unambiguous evidence for the supersonic MI and related strong turbulence processes in type III radio bursts. The implication of these observations include: (1) the MI and related strong turbulence processes often occur in type III source regions, (2) the strong turbulence processes probably play very important roles in beam stabilization as well as conversion of Langmuir waves into escaping radiation at the fundamental and second harmonic of the electron plasma frequency, fpe, and (3) the Langmuir collapse probably follows the route of MI in type III radio bursts.

  14. The effect of initial conditions on the electromagnetic radiation generation in type III solar radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, H.; Tsiklauri, D.

    2013-06-15

    Extensive particle-in-cell simulations of fast electron beams injected in a background magnetised plasma with a decreasing density profile were carried out. These simulations were intended to further shed light on a newly proposed mechanism for the generation of electromagnetic waves in type III solar radio bursts [D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas, 18, 052903 (2011)]. The numerical simulations were carried out using different density profiles and fast electron distribution functions. It is shown that electromagnetic L and R modes are excited by the transverse current, initially imposed on the system. In the course of the simulations, no further interaction of the electron beam with the background plasma could be observed.

  15. TYPE III RADIO BURSTS IN CORONAL PLASMAS WITH KAPPA PARTICLE DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2013-02-01

    We present the first simulations of type III bursts produced in the corona with suprathermal non-Maxwellian background particles, as inferred from solar wind data and proposed by theories for the corona and solar wind. The coronal background particles are assumed to follow kappa ({kappa}) distributions. The predicted f{sub p} emission of type III bursts is sensitive via the {kappa} index to the presence of suprathermal background particles, where f{sub p} is the local plasma frequency. The simulations show that (1) the speeds v{sub b} of type III beams are much larger (e.g., v{sub b} Almost-Equal-To 0.58c for {kappa} = 5) and so type III bursts drift much faster for low {kappa} ({<=}5) background plasmas than for Maxwellian backgrounds (producing v{sub b} < 0.3c), and (2) f{sub p} emission generated in a {kappa}-distributed background corona has a larger total bandwidth than in a Maxwellian background, for similar onset frequencies. Type III beams are thus more persistent, i.e., extending over larger distances, in {kappa}-distributed corona. Consequently, observations of fast-drifting coronal type III bursts and associated fast electron beams suggest that the ambient electrons in the corona are {kappa}-distributed, at least when such bursts are observed. These results support, from the new viewpoint of nonthermal radio emission, the occasional presence of suprathermal background electrons in the corona and the associated mechanisms (e.g., 'velocity filtration') for coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. The new results also help resolve longstanding issues regarding the speeds and persistence of type III beams, and the production of remotely observable levels of f{sub p} emission despite severe losses during propagation.

  16. Gravitational-wave Constraints on the Progenitors of Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callister, Thomas; Kanner, Jonah; Weinstein, Alan

    2016-07-01

    The nature of fast radio bursts (FRBs) remains enigmatic. Highly energetic radio pulses of millisecond duration, FRBs are observed with dispersion measures consistent with an extragalactic source. A variety of models have been proposed to explain their origin. One popular class of theorized FRB progenitor is the coalescence of compact binaries composed of neutron stars and/or black holes. Such coalescence events are strong gravitational-wave emitters. We demonstrate that measurements made by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave observatories can be leveraged to severely constrain the validity of FRB binary coalescence models. Existing measurements constrain the binary black hole rate to approximately 5% of the FRB rate, and results from Advanced LIGO’s O1 and O2 observing runs may place similarly strong constraints on the fraction of FRBs due to binary neutron star and neutron star-black hole progenitors.

  17. NONLINEAR WAVE INTERACTIONS AS EMISSION PROCESS OF TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ganse, Urs; Kilian, Patrick; Spanier, Felix; Vainio, Rami

    2012-06-01

    The emission of fundamental and harmonic frequency radio waves of type II radio bursts are assumed to be products of three-wave interaction processes of beam-excited Langmuir waves. Using a particle-in-cell code, we have performed simulations of the assumed emission region, a coronal mass ejection foreshock with two counterstreaming electron beams. Analysis of wavemodes within the simulation shows self-consistent excitation of beam-driven modes, which yield interaction products at both fundamental and harmonic emission frequencies. Through variation of the beam strength, we have investigated the dependence of energy transfer into electrostatic and electromagnetic modes, confirming the quadratic dependence of electromagnetic emission on electron beam strength.

  18. Relationship of Type III Radio Bursts with Quasi-periodic Pulsations in a Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupriyanova, E. G.; Kashapova, L. K.; Reid, H. A. S.; Myagkova, I. N.

    2016-08-01

    We studied a solar flare with pronounced quasi-periodic pulsations detected in the microwave, X-ray, and radio bands. We used correlation, Fourier, and wavelet analyses methods to examine the temporal fine structures and relationships between the time profiles in each wave band. We found that the time profiles of the microwaves, hard X-rays, and type III radio bursts vary quasi-periodically with a common period of 40 - 50 s. The average amplitude of the variations is high, above 30 % of the background flux level, and reaches 80 % after the flare maximum. We did not find this periodicity in either the thermal X-ray flux component or in the source size dynamics. Our findings indicate that the detected periodicity is probably associated with periodic dynamics in the injection of non-thermal electrons, which can be produced by periodic modulation of magnetic reconnection.

  19. Energetic electrons and plasma waves associated with a solar type III radio burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.; Potter, D. W.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    Detailed in situ observations from the ISEE 3 spacecraft of energetic electrons, plasma waves, and radio emission for the type II solar radio burst of February 17, 1979, are presented. The reduced, one-dimensional electron distribution function is constructed as a function of time. Since the faster electrons arrive before the slower ones, a bump on tail distribution forms which is unstable to the growth of Langmuir waves. The plasma wave growth computed from the distribution function agrees well with the observed onset of the Langmuir waves, and there is qualitative agreement between variations in the plasma wave levels and in the development of regions of positive slope in the function. The evolution of the function, however, predicts far higher plasma wave levels than those observed. The maximum levels observed are approximately equal to the threshold for nonlinear wave processes, such as oscillation two-stream instability and soliton collapse.

  20. Pulsars Magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timokhin, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    Current density determines the plasma flow regime. Cascades are non-stationary. ALWAYS. All flow regimes look different: multiple components (?) Return current regions should have particle accelerating zones in the outer magnetosphere: y-ray pulsars (?) Plasma oscillations in discharges: direct radio emission (?)

  1. High Angular Resolution Imaging of Solar Radio Bursts from the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowall, Robert J.; Lazio, Joseph; Bale, Stuart; Burns, Jack O.; Farrell, William M.; Gopalswamy, Nat; Jones, Dayton L.; Kasper, Justin Christophe; Weiler, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Locating low frequency radio observatories on the lunar surface has a number of advantages, including positional stability and a very low ionospheric radio cutoff. Here, we describe the Radio Observatory on the lunar Surface for Solar studies (ROLSS), a concept for a low frequency, radio imaging interferometric array designed to study particle acceleration in the corona and inner heliosphere. ROLSS would be deployed during an early lunar sortie or by a robotic rover as part of an unmanned landing. The preferred site is on the lunar near side to simplify the data downlink to Earth. The prime science mission is to image type II and type III solar radio bursts with the aim of determining the sites at and mechanisms by which the radiating particles are accelerated. Secondary science goals include constraining the density of the lunar ionosphere by measuring the low radio frequency cutoff of the solar radio emissions or background galactic radio emission, measuring the flux, particle mass, and arrival direction of interplanetary and interstellar dust, and constraining the low energy electron population in astrophysical sources. Furthermore, ROLSS serves a pathfinder function for larger lunar radio arrays. Key design requirements on ROLSS include the operational frequency and angular resolution. The electron densities in the solar corona and inner heliosphere are such that the relevant emission occurs below 10 M Hz, essentially unobservable from Earth's surface due to the terrestrial ionospheric cutoff. Resolving the potential sites of particle acceleration requires an instrument with an angular resolution of at least 2 deg at 10 MHz, equivalent to a linear array size of approximately one kilometer. The major components of the ROLSS array are 3 antenna arms, each of 500 m length, arranged in a Y formation, with a central electronics package (CEP) at their intersection. Each antenna arm is a linear strip of polyimide film (e.g., Kapton(TradeMark)) on which 16 single

  2. PROSPECTS FOR THE DETECTION OF FAST RADIO BURSTS WITH THE MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY

    SciTech Connect

    Trott, Cathryn M.; Tingay, Steven J.; Wayth, Randall B.

    2013-10-10

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are short timescale (<<1 s) astrophysical radio signals, presumed to be a signature of cataclysmic events of extragalactic origin. The discovery of six high-redshift events at ∼1400 MHz from the Parkes radio telescope suggests that FRBs may occur at a high rate across the sky. The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) operates at low radio frequencies (80-300 MHz) and is expected to detect FRBs due to its large collecting area (∼2500 m{sup 2}) and wide field-of-view (FOV, ∼ 1000 deg{sup 2} at ν = 200 MHz). We compute the expected number of FRB detections for the MWA assuming a source population consistent with the reported detections. Our formalism properly accounts for the frequency-dependence of the antenna primary beam, the MWA system temperature, and unknown spectral index of the source population, for three modes of FRB detection: coherent; incoherent; and fast imaging. We find that the MWA's sensitivity and large FOV combine to provide the expectation of multiple detectable events per week in all modes, potentially making it an excellent high time resolution science instrument. Deviations of the expected number of detections from actual results will provide a strong constraint on the assumptions made for the underlying source population and intervening plasma distribution.

  3. LIMITS ON PROMPT, DISPERSED RADIO PULSES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, K. W.; Murphy, T.; Gaensler, B. M.; Reynolds, J. E.

    2012-09-20

    We have searched for prompt radio emission from nine gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a 12 m telescope at 1.4 GHz, with a time resolution of 64 {mu}s to 1 s. We detected single dispersed radio pulses with significances >6{sigma} in the few minutes following two GRBs. The dispersion measures of both pulses are well in excess of the expected Galactic values, and the implied rate is incompatible with known sources of single dispersed pulses. The arrival times of both pulses also coincide with breaks in the GRB X-ray light curves. A null trial and statistical arguments rule out random fluctuations as the origin of these pulses with >95% and {approx}97% confidence, respectively, although a simple population argument supports a GRB origin with confidence of only 2%. We caution that we cannot rule out radio frequency interference (RFI) as the origin of these pulses. If the single pulses are not related to the GRBs, we set an upper limit on the flux density of radio pulses emitted between 200 and 1800 s after a GRB of 1.27w {sup -1/2} Jy, where 6.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} s < w < 32 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} s is the pulse width. We set a limit of less than 760 Jy for long timescale (>1 s) variations. These limits are some of the most constraining at high time resolution and GHz frequencies in the early stages of the GRB phenomenon.

  4. Possible gamma-ray burst radio detections by the Square Kilometre Array. New perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Alan Cosimo; Capozziello, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    The next generation interferometric radio telescope, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which will be the most sensitive and largest radio telescope ever constructed, could greatly contribute to the detection, survey and characterization of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). By the SKA, it will be possible to perform the follow up of GRBs even for several months. This approach would be extremely useful to extend the Spectrum Energetic Distribution (SED) from the gamma to the to radio band and would increase the number of radio detectable GRBs. In principle, the SKA could help to understand the physics of GRBs by setting constraints on theoretical models. This goal could be achieved by taking into account multiple observations at different wavelengths in order to obtain a deeper insight of the sources. Here, we present an estimation of GRB radio detections, showing that the GRBs can really be observed by the SKA. The approach that we present consists in determining blind detection rates derived by a very large sample consisting of merging several GRB catalogues observed by current missions as Swift, Fermi, Agile and INTEGRAL and by previous missions as BeppoSAX, CGRO, GRANAT, HETE-2, Ulysses and Wind. The final catalogue counts 7516 distinct sources. We compute the fraction of GRBs that could be observed by the SKA at high and low frequencies, above its observable sky. Considering the planned SKA sensitivity and through an extrapolation based on previous works and observations, we deduce the minimum fluence in the range 15-150 keV. This is the energy interval where a GRB should emit to be detectable in the radio band by the SKA. Results seem consistent with observational capabilities.

  5. Testing radio bursts observed on the nightside of Venus for evidence of whistler mode propagation from lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonwalkar, Vikas S.; Carpenter, D. L.; Strangeway, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from a series of tests of radio bursts on the nightside of Venus (observed by an orbiting electric field detector on board the Pioneer Venus Orbiter), which were conducted as a search for the evidence of whistler mode propagation from lightning. Preliminary results suggest that there are at least two main categories of bursts: one that exhibits one or more properties consistent with whistler mode propagation from subionospheric lightning sources, and another that is not.

  6. SPATIALLY AND SPECTRALLY RESOLVED OBSERVATIONS OF A ZEBRA PATTERN IN A SOLAR DECIMETRIC RADIO BURST

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Bin; Bastian, T. S.; Gary, D. E.; Jing Ju

    2011-07-20

    We present the first interferometric observation of a zebra-pattern radio burst with simultaneous high spectral ({approx}1 MHz) and high time (20 ms) resolution. The Frequency-Agile Solar Radiotelescope Subsystem Testbed (FST) and the Owens Valley Solar Array (OVSA) were used in parallel to observe the X1.5 flare on 2006 December 14. By using OVSA to calibrate the FST, the source position of the zebra pattern can be located on the solar disk. With the help of multi-wavelength observations and a nonlinear force-free field extrapolation, the zebra source is explored in relation to the magnetic field configuration. New constraints are placed on the source size and position as a function of frequency and time. We conclude that the zebra burst is consistent with a double-plasma resonance model in which the radio emission occurs in resonance layers where the upper-hybrid frequency is harmonically related to the electron cyclotron frequency in a coronal magnetic loop.

  7. Solar radio burst and in situ determination of interplanetary electron density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bougeret, J. L.; King, J. H.; Schwenn, R.

    1983-01-01

    A few interplanetary electron density scales which were derived from the analysis of interplanetary solar radio burst are discussed and compared to a model derived from 1974 to 1980 Helios 1 and 2 in situ density observations made in the 0.3 to 1.0 AU range. The Helios densities were normalized to 1976 with the aid of IMP and ISEE data at 1 AU, and were then sorted into 0.1 AU bins and logarithmically averaged within each bin. The best fit to these 1976-normalized, bin averages is N(R(AU)) = 6.1 R(-2.10)/cu cm. This model is in rather good agreement with the solar burst determination if the radiation is assumed to be on the second harmonic of the plasma frequency. This analysis also suggests that the radio emissions tend to be produced in regions denser than the average where the density gradient decreases faster with distance than the observed R(-2.10).

  8. Detailed correlation of type III radio bursts with H alpha activity. I - Active region of 22 May 1970.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Pasachoff, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Comparison of observations of type III impulsive radio bursts made at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory with high-spatial-resolution cinematographic observations taken at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. Use of the log-periodic radio interferometer makes it possible to localize the radio emission uniquely. This study concentrates on the particularly active region close to the limb on May 22, 1970. Sixteen of the 17 groups were associated with some H alpha activity, 11 of them with the start of such activity.

  9. Repeating Fast Radio Bursts from Highly Magnetized Pulsars Traveling through Asteroid Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Z. G.; Wang, J. S.; Wu, X. F.; Huang, Y. F.

    2016-09-01

    Very recently, Spitler et al. and Scholz et al. reported their detections of 16 additional bright bursts in the direction of the fast radio burst (FRB) 121102. This repeating FRB is inconsistent with all of the catastrophic event models put forward previously for hypothetically non-repeating FRBs. Here, we propose a different model, in which highly magnetized pulsars travel through the asteroid belts of other stars. We show that a repeating FRB could originate from such a pulsar encountering a large number of asteroids in the belt. During each pulsar-asteroid impact, an electric field induced outside of the asteroid has such a large component parallel to the stellar magnetic field that electrons are torn off the asteroidal surface and accelerated to ultra-relativistic energies instantaneously. The subsequent movement of these electrons along magnetic field lines will cause coherent curvature radiation, which can account for all of the properties of an FRB. In addition, this model can self-consistently explain the typical duration, luminosity, and repetitive rate of the 17 bursts of FRB 121102. The predicted occurrence rate of repeating FRB sources may imply that our model would be testable in the next few years.

  10. A Neutron Star–White Dwarf Binary Model for Repeating Fast Radio Burst 121102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Wei-Min; Dong, Yi-Ze; Liu, Tong; Ma, Renyi; Wang, Junfeng

    2016-06-01

    We propose a compact binary model for the fast radio burst (FRB) repeaters, where the system consists of a magnetic white dwarf (WD) and a neutron star (NS) with strong bipolar magnetic fields. When the WD fills its Roche lobe, mass transfer will occur from the WD to the NS through the inner Lagrange point. The accreted magnetized materials may trigger magnetic reconnection when they approach the NS surface, and therefore the electrons can be accelerated to an ultra-relativistic speed. In this scenario, the curvature radiation of the electrons moving along the NS magnetic field lines can account for the characteristic frequency and the timescale of an FRB. Owing to the conservation of angular momentum, the WD may be kicked away after a burst, and the next burst may appear when the system becomes semi-detached again through the gravitational radiation. By comparing our analyses with the observations, we show that such an intermittent Roche-lobe overflow mechanism can be responsible for the observed repeating behavior of FRB 121102.

  11. A Neutron Star-White Dwarf Binary Model for Repeating Fast Radio Burst 121102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Wei-Min; Dong, Yi-Ze; Liu, Tong; Ma, Renyi; Wang, Junfeng

    2016-06-01

    We propose a compact binary model for the fast radio burst (FRB) repeaters, where the system consists of a magnetic white dwarf (WD) and a neutron star (NS) with strong bipolar magnetic fields. When the WD fills its Roche lobe, mass transfer will occur from the WD to the NS through the inner Lagrange point. The accreted magnetized materials may trigger magnetic reconnection when they approach the NS surface, and therefore the electrons can be accelerated to an ultra-relativistic speed. In this scenario, the curvature radiation of the electrons moving along the NS magnetic field lines can account for the characteristic frequency and the timescale of an FRB. Owing to the conservation of angular momentum, the WD may be kicked away after a burst, and the next burst may appear when the system becomes semi-detached again through the gravitational radiation. By comparing our analyses with the observations, we show that such an intermittent Roche-lobe overflow mechanism can be responsible for the observed repeating behavior of FRB 121102.

  12. Direction of Arrival Studies of Medium Frequency Burst Radio Emissions at Toolik Lake, AK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunch, N.; Labelle, J.; Weatherwax, A.; Lummerzheim, D.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.

    2008-05-01

    MF burst is an impulsive radio emission of auroral origin, which can be detected by ground-based instruments at frequencies between 1,300 and 4,500kHz. MF burst has been shown to be associated with substorm onset, but its exact generation mechanism remains unknown, although it is thought to arise from mode conversion radiation [see review by LaBelle and Treumann, 2002] . In search of the generation mechanism of this emission, Dartmouth College has deployed radio interferometers in Alaska, Northern Canada, Greenland, and Antarctica, including a three-element interferometer deployed to Toolik Field Station in Alaska during the summer of 2006. This instrument measured spectra, amplitudes and directions of arrival (DOA's) of over 47 MF burst events between November 30, 2006 and May 26, 2007. These data represent the first DOA measurements of impulsive MF burst, of which selected case studies were presented at the Fall 2007 AGU conference. Here we present a statistical survey of all 47 events as well as detailed analysis of three events occurring on: Mar 5, Mar 23, and Nov 20, 2007. For the statistical survey, we present distributions of DOA as a function of local time and frequency. In each case study we analyze the direction of arrival of the emissions as a function of both time and frequency within each event. The time variations will be compared with the time variations of optical auroral forms simultaneously measured with all-sky cameras. The dependence of the arrival direction on frequency enables a significant test of the generation mechanism whereby the waves are emitted at the local plasma or upper hybrid frequency in the topside ionosphere, predicting that higher frequencies should originate at lower altitudes. These three events have been selected because All-Sky camera data are available at these times from Toolik Lake and Fort Yukon, Alaska. These are critical both for identifying which optical features are associated with the radio emissions as well as for

  13. Observational Characteristics of Langmuir Turbulence Associated with Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golla, T.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Solar flares present the most dramatic energy releases from the Sun. The solar flares accelerate electrons, which form bump-on-tail distributions, and excite electrostatic waves called Langmuir waves, which are subsequently converted into escaping radiation at the fundamental and second harmonic of the electron plasma frequency by some nonlinear processes. These radio emissions are called the type III radio bursts. The sources of these bursts represent natural laboratories of beam-plasma systems. The WAVES experiment on the STEREO spacecraft contains an improved Time Domain Sampler (TDS), improved over that of all similar high time resolution receivers flown in earlier spacecraft. It is primarily intended for the study of Langmuir waves. These in situ high time resolution wave measurements enable us to identify and understand the physical processes associated with beam-plasma systems, as well as for conversion of Langmuir waves into escaping radiation at the fundamental and second harmonic of the electron plasma frequency. The waveforms captured by the TDS usually contain a variety of distortions caused by various nonlinear processes. The normalized peak intensities, wave numbers and spectral widths of these wave packets determine the nonlinear processes, which control the evolution of these wave packets. We have analyzed the in situ high time resolution measurements of Langmuir wave packets and determined their three dimensional relative peak intensities, spectral components and spectral widths. Using the frequency drifts of the type III bursts, we have estimated the velocities of the electron beams which in turn yielded the corresponding wave numbers. We will present the distributions of these important physical quantities and their implications for the theoretical models.

  14. Prediction of Type II Radio Bursts Associated with Large CME Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Iver; Schmidt, Joachim

    Type II radio bursts are associated with shocks in the corona and solar wind, either driven by CMEs or else by blast waves. Recently we coupled the advanced 3D MHD BATS-R-US code of Toth, Gombosi, and colleagues with our kinetic ``bolt-on'' theory for type II emission. Initialising the simulation code with event specific coronal and CME data, the combined code can be used to predict the dynamic spectrum of type II emission for a specific radio event. We demonstrate very good agreement with Wind spacecraft observations for three type II bursts, one on 15 February 2011 and two on 7 March 2012 (associated with successive CMEs from different sides of the same active region). The intensities, frequencies, and times of fundamental and harmonic type II emission are predicted very well from the high corona to 1 AU (frequencies ~ 20 MHz - 30 kHz). The islands of increased emission correspond to different regions of the shock interacting with coronal structures, with streamers typically corresponding to reduced emission. The results provide strong evidence that both the type II theory and the BATS-R-US (driven with event-specific data) are accurate. They also provide strong evidence that the observation and detailed theoretical modelling of type II bursts can in principle provide warnings with lead-times of over a day for large and fast CMEs that might produce space weather at Earth. The MHD code can also predict whether the CME will hit Earth's magnetopause and the magnetic field direction at the magnetopause as the shock, sheath, and CME, vital quantities for predicting space weather at Earth.

  15. THE LOCATION OF SOLAR METRIC TYPE II RADIO BURSTS WITH RESPECT TO THE ASSOCIATED CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, R.; Kathiravan, C.; Anna Lakshmi, M.; Umapathy, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2012-06-20

    Forty-one solar type II radio bursts located close to the solar limb (projected radial distance r {approx}> 0.8 R{sub Sun }) were observed at 109 MHz by the radioheliograph at the Gauribidanur observatory near Bangalore during the period 1997-2007. The positions of the bursts were compared with the estimated location of the leading edge (LE) of the associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) close to the Sun. 38/41 of the type II bursts studied were located either at or above the LE of the associated CME. In the remaining 3/41 cases, the burst was located behind the LE of the associated CME at a distance of <0.5 R{sub Sun }. Our results suggest that nearly all the metric type II bursts are driven by the CMEs.

  16. Comparison of interplanetary type 2 radio burst observations by ISEE-3, Ulysses, and WIND with applications to space weather prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowall, R. J.; Klimas, A. J.; Lengyel-Frey, D.; Stone, R. G.; Thejappa, G.

    1997-01-01

    Interplanetary (IP) type 2 radio bursts are produced by IP shocks driven by solar ejecta, presumably involving shock acceleration of electrons that leads to radio emission. These radio bursts, which can be detected remotely by a sensitive spacecraft radio receiver, provide a method of tracking the leading edge of solar ejecta moving outward from the sun. Consequently, observations of these bursts sometimes provide advance warning of one or more days prior to the onset of geomagnetic activity induced by the solar ejecta. A robust lower limit on the fraction of intense geomagnetic storms, that are preceded by IP type 2 bursts, is provided. It is shown that 41 percent of the geomagnetic storms occurring during the interval September 1978 to February 1983 were preceded by type 2 events in this catalog, and reasons why the fraction is not larger are addressed. Differences in the observing capabilities of the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) 3, Ulysses, and WIND, to explain why each of these similar spacecraft radio investigations provides a different perspective of IP type 2 emissions are reviewed.

  17. Gamma-ray Burst Reverse Shock Emission in Early Radio Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resmi, Lekshmi; Zhang, Bing

    2016-07-01

    Reverse shock (RS) emission from gamma-ray bursts is an important tool in investigating the nature of the ejecta from the central engine. If the magnetization of the ejecta is not high enough to suppress the RS, a strong RS emission component, usually peaking in the optical/IR band early on, would provide an important contribution to early afterglow light curve. In the radio band, synchrotron self-absorption may suppress early RS emission and also delay the RS peak time. In this paper, we calculate the self-absorbed RS emission in the radio band under different dynamical conditions. In particular, we stress that the RS radio emission is subject to self-absorption in both RSs and forward shocks (FSs). We calculate the ratio between the RS to FS flux at the RS peak time for different frequencies, which is a measure of the detectability of the RS emission component. We then constrain the range of physical parameters for a detectable RS, in particular the role of magnetization. We notice that unlike optical RS emission which is enhanced by moderate magnetization, moderately magnetized ejecta do not necessarily produce a brighter radio RS due to the self-absorption effect. For typical parameters, the RS emission component would not be detectable below 1 GHz unless the medium density is very low (e.g., n < 10-3 cm-3 for the interstellar medium and A * < 5 × 10-4 for wind). These predictions can be tested using the afterglow observations from current and upcoming radio facilities such as the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, the Low-Frequency Array, the Five Hundred Meter Aperture Spherical Telescope, and the Square Kilometer Array.

  18. FLARE-ASSOCIATED TYPE III RADIO BURSTS AND DYNAMICS OF THE EUV JET FROM SDO/AIA AND RHESSI OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Naihwa; Ip, Wing-Huen; Innes, Davina E-mail: wingip@astro.ncu.edu.tw

    2013-06-01

    We present a detailed description of the interrelation between the Type III radio bursts and energetic phenomena associated with the flare activities in active region AR11158 at 07:58 UT on 2011 February 15. The timing of the Type III radio burst measured by the radio wave experiment on Wind/WAVE and an array of ground-based radio telescopes coincided with an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) jet and hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed by SDO/AIA and RHESSI, respectively. There is clear evidence that the EUV jet shares the same source region as the HXR emission. The temperature of the jet, as determined by multiwavelength measurements by Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, suggests that Type III emission is associated with hot, 7 MK, plasma at the jet's footpoint.

  19. Uranus as a radio source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Zarka, P.; Lecacheux, A.; Leblanc, Y.; Aubier, M.; Ortega-Molina, A.

    1991-01-01

    The complex nature of the Uranus radio emissions, both magnetospheric and atmospheric, is reviewed, with emphasis on the identification of distinct components and the determination of their source locations. Seven radii components were discovered in addition to the RF signature of lightning in the planet's atmosphere. Six of the seven magnetospheric components are freely propagating emissions; one component, the nonthermal continuum, is trapped in the density cavity between the magnetopause and the dense inner magnetosphere. The radio components are divided into two types according to their emission signature: bursty emission and smooth emission. The inferred source location for the dominant nightside emission is above the nightside magnetic pole, largely overlapping the UV auroral region and the magnetic polar cap. The N-burst component appears to be associated with solar-wind enhancements at Uranus, consistent with the idea that the solar wind was triggering magnetospheric substormlike activity during the encounter.

  20. The implication for the presence of a magnetosphere on Uranus in the relationship of EUV and radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemansky, D. E.; Smith, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    A report by Kaiser and Desch (1985) indicates that nonthermal radio emissions from Uranus were not detectable from the Voyager spacecraft at a range of less than 0.7 AU. This observation suggests that the planet may have significantly different magnetospheric characteristics than Jupiter and Saturn. The ratio of atomic to molecular emission in the hydrogenic atmospheres of the outer planets varies over a wide range depending on the nature of the exciting process and the altitude of the sources. The importance of the ratio of atomic to molecular emission is discussed along with the escape of atomic hydrogen. On the basis of an evaluation of the observations, the possibility is raised that the strong EUV radiation from Uranus may not be auroral in origin.

  1. A Machine Learning Classifier for Fast Radio Burst Detection at the VLBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Tang, Benyang; Thompson, David R.; Khudikyan, Shakeh; Wyngaard, Jane; Deller, Adam T.; Palaniswamy, Divya; Tingay, Steven J.; Wayth, Randall B.

    2016-08-01

    Time domain radio astronomy observing campaigns frequently generate large volumes of data. Our goal is to develop automated methods that can identify events of interest buried within the larger data stream. The V-FASTR fast transient system was designed to detect rare fast radio bursts within data collected by the Very Long Baseline Array. The resulting event candidates constitute a significant burden in terms of subsequent human reviewing time. We have trained and deployed a machine learning classifier that marks each candidate detection as a pulse from a known pulsar, an artifact due to radio frequency interference, or a potential new discovery. The classifier maintains high reliability by restricting its predictions to those with at least 90% confidence. We have also implemented several efficiency and usability improvements to the V-FASTR web-based candidate review system. Overall, we found that time spent reviewing decreased and the fraction of interesting candidates increased. The classifier now classifies (and therefore filters) 80%-90% of the candidates, with an accuracy greater than 98%, leaving only the 10%-20% most promising candidates to be reviewed by humans.

  2. Phase Coupling Between Spectral Components of Collapsing Langmuir Solitons in Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Bergamo, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present the high time resolution observations of one of the Langmuir wave packets obtained in the source region of a solar type III radio burst. This wave packet satisfies the threshold condition of the supersonic modulational instability, as well as the criterion of a collapsing Langmuir soliton, i.e., the spatial scale derived from its peak intensity is less than that derived from its short time scale. The spectrum of t his wave packet contains an intense spectral peak at local electron plasma frequency, f(sub pe) and relatively weaker peaks at 2f(sub pe) and 3f(sub pe). We apply the wavelet based bispectral analysis technique on this wave packet and compute the bicoherence between its spectral components. It is found that the bicoherence exhibits two peaks at (approximately f(sub pe), approximately f(sub pe)) and (approximately f(sub pe) approximately 2f(sub pe)), which strongly suggest that the spectral peak at 2f(sub pe) probably corresponds to the second harmonic radio emission, generated as a result of the merging of antiparallel propagating Langmuir waves trapped in the collapsing Langmuir soliton, and, the spectral peak at 3f(sub pe) probably corresponds to the third harmonic radio emission, generated as a result of merging of a trapped Langmuir wave and a second harmonic electromagnetic wave.

  3. A comprehensive radio view of the extremely bright gamma-ray burst 130427A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Horst, A. J.; Paragi, Z.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Granot, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wiersema, K.; Starling, R. L. C.; Curran, P. A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Rowlinson, A.; Anderson, G. A.; Fender, R. P.; Yang, J.; Strom, R. G.

    2014-11-01

    GRB 130427A was extremely bright as a result of occurring at low redshift whilst the energetics were more typical of high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We collected well-sampled light curves at 1.4 and 4.8 GHz of GRB 130427A with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT); and we obtained its most accurate position with the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (EVN). Our flux density measurements are combined with all the data available at radio, optical and X-ray frequencies to perform broad-band modelling in the framework of a reverse-forward shock model and a two-component jet model, and we discuss the implications and limitations of both models. The low density inferred from the modelling implies that the GRB 130427A progenitor is either a very low metallicity Wolf-Rayet star, or a rapidly rotating, low-metallicity O star. We also find that the fraction of the energy in electrons is evolving over time, and that the fraction of electrons participating in a relativistic power-law energy distribution is less than 15 per cent. We observed intraday variability during the earliest WSRT observations, and the source sizes inferred from our modelling are consistent with this variability being due to interstellar scintillation effects. Finally, we present and discuss our limits on the linear and circular polarization, which are among the deepest limits of GRB radio polarization to date.

  4. A Machine Learning Classifier for Fast Radio Burst Detection at the VLBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Tang, Benyang; Thompson, David R.; Khudikyan, Shakeh; Wyngaard, Jane; Deller, Adam T.; Palaniswamy, Divya; Tingay, Steven J.; Wayth, Randall B.

    2016-08-01

    Time domain radio astronomy observing campaigns frequently generate large volumes of data. Our goal is to develop automated methods that can identify events of interest buried within the larger data stream. The V-FASTR fast transient system was designed to detect rare fast radio bursts within data collected by the Very Long Baseline Array. The resulting event candidates constitute a significant burden in terms of subsequent human reviewing time. We have trained and deployed a machine learning classifier that marks each candidate detection as a pulse from a known pulsar, an artifact due to radio frequency interference, or a potential new discovery. The classifier maintains high reliability by restricting its predictions to those with at least 90% confidence. We have also implemented several efficiency and usability improvements to the V-FASTR web-based candidate review system. Overall, we found that time spent reviewing decreased and the fraction of interesting candidates increased. The classifier now classifies (and therefore filters) 80%–90% of the candidates, with an accuracy greater than 98%, leaving only the 10%–20% most promising candidates to be reviewed by humans.

  5. Why do the Solar Type III Burst emit the maximum of their radio energy around 1 MHz ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimovic, Milan; Krupar, Vratislav; Kontar, Eduard; Zaslavsky, Arnaud; Pascal, Louis; Reid, Hamish; Lecacheux, Alain; Bonnin, Xavier; Santolik, Ondrej; Vilmer, Nicole

    2014-05-01

    We present a statistical survey of a few hundred of Type III bursts observed from about 100 KHz up to about 400 MHz. When displayed as a function of the frequency, the radio flux exhibits a clear maximum at about 1 MHz. This property, already reported in previous studies, will be described in more details and possible explanations about its origin will be discussed.

  6. Solar Magnetic Reconnection at Low Altitudes and Associated Type III Solar Radio Bursts and X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Lobzin, V. V.; Donea, A.; Tingay, S. J.; Oberoi, D.; Reiner, M. J.; Melrose, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection events are identified definitively in Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) data on 25 September 2011, with double-sided jets, current sheets and cusp-like geometries on top of loops, and strong outflows at 200 km/s along pairs of open magnetic field lines. Strong type III bursts observed by the Learmonth radio spectrograph and imaged by the MurchisonWidefield Array (MWA) are demonstrated to be in very good temporal and spatial coincidence with specic SDO magnetic reconnection events and with bursts of nonthermal 3-35 keV X-rays observed by the RHESSI spacecraft. The reconnection sites are low, near heights of 5-10 Mm or 0.01 solar radii, alleviating the number problem for producing the energetic electrons and X-rays. These data, especially the images and event timings, provide direct evidence for the long-unproven but standard model for type III bursts: semi-relativistic electrons energized in magnetic reconnection regions produce radio emission as they move away from the Sun and X-rays as they move into the chromosphere. Since not all SDO events produce X-ray or type III events, different special conditions must exist for the production of strong radio, X-ray, or UV bursts by reconnection events. These conditions are both on the production of suitable energetic electrons and on the production of observable radio, X-ray, and UV emissions from these electrons.

  7. Limits on fast radio bursts at 145 MHz with ARTEMIS, a real-time software backend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karastergiou, A.; Chennamangalam, J.; Armour, W.; Williams, C.; Mort, B.; Dulwich, F.; Salvini, S.; Magro, A.; Roberts, S.; Serylak, M.; Doo, A.; Bilous, A. V.; Breton, R. P.; Falcke, H.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Keane, E. F.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Noutsos, A.; Osłowski, S.; Sobey, C.; Stappers, B. W.; Weltevrede, P.

    2015-09-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond radio signals that exhibit dispersion larger than what the Galactic electron density can account for. We have conducted a 1446 h survey for FRBs at 145 MHz, covering a total of 4193 deg2 on the sky. We used the UK station of the low frequency array (LOFAR) radio telescope - the Rawlings Array - accompanied for a majority of the time by the LOFAR station at Nançay, observing the same fields at the same frequency. Our real-time search backend, Advanced Radio Transient Event Monitor and Identification System - ARTEMIS, utilizes graphics processing units to search for pulses with dispersion measures up to 320 cm-3 pc. Previous derived FRB rates from surveys around 1.4 GHz, and favoured FRB interpretations, motivated this survey, despite all previous detections occurring at higher dispersion measures. We detected no new FRBs above a signal-to-noise threshold of 10, leading to the most stringent upper limit yet on the FRB event rate at these frequencies: 29 sky-1 d-1 for five ms-duration pulses above 62 Jy. The non-detection could be due to scatter-broadening, limitations on the volume and time searched, or the shape of FRB flux density spectra. Assuming the latter and that FRBs are standard candles, the non-detection is compatible with the published FRB sky rate, if their spectra follow a power law with frequency (∝ να), with α ≳ +0.1, demonstrating a marked difference from pulsar spectra. Our results suggest that surveys at higher frequencies, including the low frequency component of the Square Kilometre Array, will have better chances to detect, estimate rates and understand the origin and properties of FRBs.

  8. Constraints on the distribution and energetics of fast radio bursts using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolag, K.; Gaensler, B. M.; Beck, A. M.; Beck, M. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present constraints on the origins of fast radio bursts (FRBs) using large cosmological simulations. We calculate contributions to FRB dispersion measures (DMs) from the Milky Way, from the Local Universe, from cosmological large-scale structure, and from potential FRB host galaxies, and then compare these simulations to the DMs of observed FRBs. We find that the Milky Way contribution has previously been underestimated by a factor of ˜2, and that the foreground-subtracted DMs are consistent with a cosmological origin, corresponding to a source population observable to a maximum redshift z ˜ 0.6-0.9. We consider models for the spatial distribution of FRBs in which they are randomly distributed in the Universe, track the star formation rate of their host galaxies, track total stellar mass, or require a central supermassive black hole. Current data do not discriminate between these possibilities, but the predicted DM distributions for different models will differ considerably once we begin detecting FRBs at higher DMs and higher redshifts. We additionally consider the distribution of FRB fluences, and show that the observations are consistent with FRBs being standard candles, each burst producing the same radiated isotropic energy. The data imply a constant isotropic burst energy of ˜7 × 1040 erg if FRBs are embedded in host galaxies, or ˜9 × 1040 erg if FRBs are randomly distributed. These energies are 10-100 times larger than had previously been inferred. Within the constraints of the available small sample of data, our analysis favours FRB mechanisms for which the isotropic radiated energy has a narrow distribution in excess of 1040 erg.

  9. Limits on Fast Radio Bursts from Four Years of the V-FASTR Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke-Spolaor, S.; Trott, Cathryn M.; Brisken, Walter F.; Deller, Adam T.; Majid, Walid A.; Palaniswamy, Divya; Thompson, David R.; Tingay, Steven J.; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Wayth, Randall B.

    2016-08-01

    The V-FASTR experiment on the Very Long Baseline Array was designed to detect dispersed pulses of milliseconds in duration, such as fast radio bursts (FRBs). We use all V-FASTR data through 2015 February to report V-FASTR’s upper limits on the rates of FRBs, and compare these with rederived rates from Parkes FRB detection experiments. V-FASTR’s operation at λ =20 {{cm}} allows direct comparison with the 20 cm Parkes rate, and we derive a power-law limit of γ \\lt -0.4 (95% confidence limit) on the index of FRB source counts, N(\\gt S)\\propto {S}γ . Using the previously measured FRB rate and the unprecedented amount of survey time spent searching for FRBs at a large range of wavelengths (0.3 {{cm}}\\gt λ \\gt 90 cm), we also place frequency-dependent limits on the spectral distribution of FRBs. The most constraining frequencies place two-point spectral index limits of {α }20 {cm}4 {cm}\\lt 5.8 and {α }90 {cm}20 {cm}\\gt -7.6, where fluence F\\propto {f}α if we assume that the burst rate reported by Champion et al. of R(F˜ 0.6 {Jy} {ms})=7× {10}3 {{sky}}-1 {{day}}-1 is accurate (for bursts of ˜3 ms duration). This upper limit on α suggests that if FRBs are extragalactic but noncosmological, on average they are not experiencing excessive free–free absorption due to a medium with high optical depth (assuming temperature ˜8000 K), which excessively inverts their low-frequency spectrum. This in turn implies that the dispersion of FRBs arises in either or both of the intergalactic medium or the host galaxy, rather than from the source itself.

  10. Limits on Fast Radio Bursts from Four Years of the V-FASTR Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke-Spolaor, S.; Trott, Cathryn M.; Brisken, Walter F.; Deller, Adam T.; Majid, Walid A.; Palaniswamy, Divya; Thompson, David R.; Tingay, Steven J.; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Wayth, Randall B.

    2016-08-01

    The V-FASTR experiment on the Very Long Baseline Array was designed to detect dispersed pulses of milliseconds in duration, such as fast radio bursts (FRBs). We use all V-FASTR data through 2015 February to report V-FASTR’s upper limits on the rates of FRBs, and compare these with rederived rates from Parkes FRB detection experiments. V-FASTR’s operation at λ =20 {{cm}} allows direct comparison with the 20 cm Parkes rate, and we derive a power-law limit of γ \\lt -0.4 (95% confidence limit) on the index of FRB source counts, N(\\gt S)\\propto {S}γ . Using the previously measured FRB rate and the unprecedented amount of survey time spent searching for FRBs at a large range of wavelengths (0.3 {{cm}}\\gt λ \\gt 90 cm), we also place frequency-dependent limits on the spectral distribution of FRBs. The most constraining frequencies place two-point spectral index limits of {α }20 {cm}4 {cm}\\lt 5.8 and {α }90 {cm}20 {cm}\\gt -7.6, where fluence F\\propto {f}α if we assume that the burst rate reported by Champion et al. of R(F˜ 0.6 {Jy} {ms})=7× {10}3 {{sky}}-1 {{day}}-1 is accurate (for bursts of ˜3 ms duration). This upper limit on α suggests that if FRBs are extragalactic but noncosmological, on average they are not experiencing excessive free-free absorption due to a medium with high optical depth (assuming temperature ˜8000 K), which excessively inverts their low-frequency spectrum. This in turn implies that the dispersion of FRBs arises in either or both of the intergalactic medium or the host galaxy, rather than from the source itself.

  11. Lensing of Fast Radio Bursts as a Probe of Compact Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Julian B.; Kovetz, Ely D.; Dai, Liang; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2016-08-01

    The possibility that part of the dark matter is made of massive compact halo objects (MACHOs) remains poorly constrained over a wide range of masses, and especially in the 20 - 100 M⊙ window. We show that strong gravitational lensing of extragalactic fast radio bursts (FRBs) by MACHOs of masses larger than ˜20 M⊙ would result in repeated FRBs with an observable time delay. Strong lensing of a FRB by a lens of mass ML induces two images, separated by a typical time delay ˜few×(ML/30 M⊙) msec . Considering the expected FRB detection rate by upcoming experiments, such as canadian hydrogen intensity mapping experiment (CHIME), of 1 04 FRBs per year, we should observe from tens to hundreds of repeated bursts yearly, if MACHOs in this window make up all the dark matter. A null search for echoes with just 1 04 FRBs would constrain the fraction fDM of dark matter in MACHOs to fDM≲0.08 for ML≳20 M⊙ .

  12. Lensing of Fast Radio Bursts as a Probe of Compact Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Julian B; Kovetz, Ely D; Dai, Liang; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2016-08-26

    The possibility that part of the dark matter is made of massive compact halo objects (MACHOs) remains poorly constrained over a wide range of masses, and especially in the 20-100  M_{⊙} window. We show that strong gravitational lensing of extragalactic fast radio bursts (FRBs) by MACHOs of masses larger than ∼20  M_{⊙} would result in repeated FRBs with an observable time delay. Strong lensing of a FRB by a lens of mass M_{L} induces two images, separated by a typical time delay ∼few×(M_{L}/30  M_{⊙})  msec. Considering the expected FRB detection rate by upcoming experiments, such as canadian hydrogen intensity mapping experiment (CHIME), of 10^{4} FRBs per year, we should observe from tens to hundreds of repeated bursts yearly, if MACHOs in this window make up all the dark matter. A null search for echoes with just 10^{4} FRBs would constrain the fraction f_{DM} of dark matter in MACHOs to f_{DM}≲0.08 for M_{L}≳20  M_{⊙}.

  13. Magnetic Reconnection of Solar Flare Detected by Solar Radio Burst Type III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidi, Z. S.; Shariff, N. N. M.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Monstein, C.; Zulkifli, W. N. A. Wan; Ibrahim, M. B.; Arifin, N. S.; Amran, N. A.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun is an ideal object of a blackbody with a large and complex magnetic field. In solar activity specifically solar flare phenomenon, the magnetic reconnection is one of the most significant factors of the Sun that can simplify a better understanding of our nearest star. This factor is due to the motion of the plasma and other particles through the convection mechanism inside the Sun. In our work, we will highlight one of the solar burst events that associated with solar flares. This event occurred on 13th November 2012 from 2:00:03 UT till 2:00:06 UT. It peaked with M2.0 solar flare at 2.04 UT. Within short time intervals of about l02 ~ 103s, large quantities of energy of 1022 ~ 1026J are emancipated. The changing magnetic field converts magnetic potential energy into kinetic energy by accelerating plasmas in the solar corona. It is believed that the plasma is channelled by the magnetic field up and away from the Sun. It is also accelerated back down along the magnetic field into the chromosphere. In conclusion, we showed that the structure of the solar radio burst type III is an indicator of a starting point of magnetic reconnection.

  14. Lensing of Fast Radio Bursts as a Probe of Compact Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Julian B; Kovetz, Ely D; Dai, Liang; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2016-08-26

    The possibility that part of the dark matter is made of massive compact halo objects (MACHOs) remains poorly constrained over a wide range of masses, and especially in the 20-100  M_{⊙} window. We show that strong gravitational lensing of extragalactic fast radio bursts (FRBs) by MACHOs of masses larger than ∼20  M_{⊙} would result in repeated FRBs with an observable time delay. Strong lensing of a FRB by a lens of mass M_{L} induces two images, separated by a typical time delay ∼few×(M_{L}/30  M_{⊙})  msec. Considering the expected FRB detection rate by upcoming experiments, such as canadian hydrogen intensity mapping experiment (CHIME), of 10^{4} FRBs per year, we should observe from tens to hundreds of repeated bursts yearly, if MACHOs in this window make up all the dark matter. A null search for echoes with just 10^{4} FRBs would constrain the fraction f_{DM} of dark matter in MACHOs to f_{DM}≲0.08 for M_{L}≳20  M_{⊙}. PMID:27610840

  15. Large-scale simulations of solar type III radio bursts: flux density, drift rate, duration, and bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratcliffe, H.; Kontar, E. P.; Reid, H. A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Non-thermal electrons accelerated in the solar corona can produce intense coherent radio emission, known as solar type III radio bursts. This intense radio emission is often observed from hundreds of MHz in the corona down to the tens of kHz range in interplanetary space. It involves a chain of physical processes from the generation of Langmuir waves to non-linear processes of wave-wave interaction. We develop a self-consistent model to calculate radio emission from a non-thermal electron population over a large frequency range, including the effects of electron transport, Langmuir wave-electron interaction, the evolution of Langmuir waves due to non-linear wave-wave interactions, Langmuir wave conversion into electromagnetic emission, and finally escape of the electromagnetic waves. For the first time we simulate escaping radio emission over a broad frequency range from 500 MHz down to a few MHz and infer key properties of the radio emission observed: the onset (starting) frequency, identification as fundamental or harmonic emission, peak flux density, instantaneous frequency bandwidth, and timescales for rise and decay. By comparing these large-scale simulations with the observations, we can identify the processes governing the major type III solar radio burst characteristics.

  16. A search for highly dispersed fast radio bursts in three Parkes multibeam surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, F.; Rane, A.; Tran, L.; Rolph, K.; Lorimer, D. R.; Ridley, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    We have searched three Parkes multibeam 1.4 GHz surveys for the presence of fast radio bursts (FRBs) out to a dispersion measure (DM) of 5000 pc cm-3. These surveys originally targeted the Magellanic Clouds (in two cases) and unidentified gamma-ray sources at mid-Galactic latitudes (in the third case) for new radio pulsars. In previous processing, none of these surveys were searched to such a high DM limit. The surveys had a combined total of 719 h of Parkes multibeam on-sky time. One known FRB, 010724, was present in our data and was detected in our analysis but no new FRBs were found. After adding in the on-sky Parkes time from these three surveys to the on-sky time (7512 h) from the five Parkes surveys analysed by Rane et al., all of which have now been searched to high DM limits, we improve the constraint on the all-sky rate of FRBs above a fluence level of 3.8 Jy ms at 1.4 GHz to R = 3.3^{+3.7}_{-2.2} × 103 events per day per sky (at the 99 per cent confidence level). Future Parkes surveys that accumulate additional multibeam on-sky time (such as the ongoing high-resolution Parkes survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud) can be combined with these results to further constrain the all-sky FRB rate.

  17. Energetic electrons and plasma waves associated with a solar type III radio burst

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, R.P.; Potter, D.W.; Gurnett, D.A.; Scarf, F.L.

    1981-12-01

    We present detailed in situ observations from the ISEE 3 spacecraft of energetic electrons, plasma waves, and radio emission for the type III solar radio burst of 1979 February 17. The reduced one-dimensional distribution function f (v) of the electrons is constructed as a function of time. Since the faster electrons arrive before the slower ones, a bump on tail distribution is formed which is unstable on the growth of Langmuir waves. The plasma wave growth computed from f (v) agrees well with the observed onset of the Langmuir waves, and there is qualitative agreement between variations in the plasma wave levels and in the development of regions of positive slope in f (v). The evolution of f (v), however, predicts far higher plasma wave levels than those observed. The maximum levels observed are about equal to the threshold for nonlinear wave processes, such as oscillating two-stream instability and soliton collapse. Also, the lack of obvious plateauing of the distribution suggests that the observed waves have been removed from resonance with the beam electrons. Finally, the plasma waves are observed to be highly impulsive in nature.

  18. General relativistic considerations of the field shedding model of fast radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punsly, Brian; Bini, Donato

    2016-06-01

    Popular models of fast radio bursts (FRBs) involve the gravitational collapse of neutron star progenitors to black holes. It has been proposed that the shedding of the strong neutron star magnetic field (B) during the collapse is the power source for the radio emission. Previously, these models have utilized the simplicity of the Schwarzschild metric which has the restriction that the magnetic flux is magnetic `hair' that must be shed before final collapse. But neutron stars have angular momentum and charge and a fully relativistic Kerr-Newman solution exists in which B has its source inside of the event horizon. In this Letter, we consider the magnetic flux to be shed as a consequence of the electric discharge of a metastable collapsed state of a Kerr-Newman black hole. It has also been argued that the shedding model will not operate due to pair creation. By considering the pulsar death line, we find that for a neutron star with B = 1011-1013 G and a long rotation period, >1s this is not a concern. We also discuss the observational evidence supporting the plausibility of magnetic flux shedding models of FRBs that are spawned from rapidly rotating progenitors.

  19. Homologous Flare-CME Events and Their Metric Type II Radio Burst Association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yashiro, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Akiyama, S.; Uddin, W.; Srivastava, A. K.; Joshi, N. C.; Chandra, R.; Manoharan, P. K.; Mahalakshmi, K.; Dwivedi, V. C.; Jain, R.; Awasthi, A. K.; Nitta, N. V.; Aschwanden, M. J.; Choudhary, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    Active region NOAA 11158 produced many flares during its disk passage. At least two of these flares can be considered as homologous: the C6.6 flare at 06:51 UT and C9.4 flare at 12:41 UT on February 14, 2011. Both flares occurred at the same location (eastern edge of the active region) and have a similar decay of the GOES soft X-ray light curve. The associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) were slow (334 and 337 km/s) and of similar apparent widths (43deg and 44deg), but they had different radio signatures. The second event was associated with a metric type II burst while the first one was not. The COR1 coronagraphs on board the STEREO spacecraft clearly show that the second CME propagated into the preceding CME that occurred 50 min before. These observations suggest that CME-CME interaction might be a key process in exciting the type II radio emission by slow CMEs.

  20. A mechanism for the Fine Structures of Solar Radio Bursts Based on the Electron Cyclotron Maser Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Tong, Z.; Liu, J.

    2015-12-01

    A scenario based on the electron cyclotron maser emission is proposed for the fine structures of solar radio emission in the present discussion. It is suggested that under certain conditions modulation of the ratio between the plasma frequency and electron gyro-frequency by ultra low frequency waves, which is a key parameter for excitation of the maser instability, may lead to the intermittent emission of radio waves. As an example, the explanation of the observed fine-structure components in the solar type IIIb burst is discussed in detail. Three primary issues of the type IIIb bursts are addressed: 1) what is the physical mechanism that results in the intermittent emission elements that form a chain in the dynamic spectrum of type IIIb bursts, 2) what causes the split pair (or double stria) and the triple stria, 3) why in the events of fundamental-harmonic pair emission there is only IIIb-III, but IIIb-IIIb or III-IIIb cases are very rarely observed. The application of the scenario to some other type of solar radio bursts and their fine structures are also discussed.

  1. Time monitoring of radio jets and magnetospheres in the nearby young stellar cluster R Coronae Australis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Takami, Michihiro; Yan, Chi-Hung; Karr, Jennifer; Chou, Mei-Yin; Ho, Paul T.-P.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Costigan, Gráinne; Manara, Carlo Felice; Forbrich, Jan; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Zhang, Qizhou

    2014-01-10

    We report Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array 8-10 GHz (λ = 3.0-3.7 cm) monitoring observations toward the young stellar object (YSO) cluster R Coronae Australis (R CrA), taken from 2012 March 15 to 2012 September 12. These observations were planned to measure the radio flux variabilities in timescales from 0.5 hr to several days, to tens of days, and up to ∼200 days. We found that among the YSOs detectable in individual epochs, in general, the most reddened objects in the Spitzer observations show the highest mean 3.5 cm Stokes I emission, and the lowest fractional variabilities on <200 day timescales. The brightest radio flux emitters in our observations are the two reddest sources IRS7W and IRS7E. In addition, by comparing our observations with observations taken from 1996 to 1998 and 2005, we found that the radio fluxes of these two sources have increased by a factor of ∼1.5. The mean 3.5 cm fluxes of the three Class I/II sources, IRSI, IRS2, and IRS6, appear to be correlated with their accretion rates derived by a previous near-infrared line survey. The weakly accreting Class I/II YSOs, or those in later evolutionary stages, present radio flux variability on <0.5 hr timescales. Some YSOs were detected only during occasional flaring events. The source R CrA went below our detection limit during a few fading events.

  2. Shock-associated kilometric radio emission and solar metric type II bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, S.W.; Cliver, E.W.; Cane, H.V.

    1989-09-06

    Statistics are presented relating shock-associated (SA) kilometric bursts (Cane et al, 1981) to solar metric type bursts. An SA burst is defined here to be any 1980-kHz emission temporally associated with a reported metric type II burst and not temporally associated with a reported metric type III burst. This extends to lower flux densities and shorter durations the original SA concept of Cane et al. About one quarter of 316 metric type II bursts were not accompanied by any 1980 kHz emission, another quarter were accompanied by emission attributable to preceding or simultaneous type III bursts, and nearly half were associated with SA bursts. Time profiles of 32 SA bursts were compared with Culgoora Observatory dynamic spectral records of metric type II bursts, finding that the SA emission is associated with the most intense and structured part of the metric type II burst. On the other hand, the generally poor correlation found between SA burst profiles and Sagamore Hill Observatory 606- and 2695-MHz flux density profiles suggests that most SA emission is not due to energetic electrons escaping from the microwave-emission region. These results support the interpretation that SA bursts are the long-wavelength extension of type II burst herringbone emission, which is presumed due to the shock acceleration of electrons.

  3. Electron trapping in evolving coronal structures during a large gradual hard X-ray/radio burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruggmann, G.; Vilmer, N.; Klein, K.-L.; Kane, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Gradual hard X-ray/radio bursts are characterized by their long duration, smooth time profile, time delays between peaks at different hard X-ray energies and microwaves, and radiation from extended sources in the low and middle corona. Their characteristic properties have been ascribed to the dynamic evolution of the accelerated electrons in coronal magnetic traps or to the separate acceleration of high-energy electrons in a 'second step' process. The information available so far was drawn from quality considerations of time profiles or even only from the common occurrence of emissions in different spectral ranges. This paper presents model computations of the temporal evolution of hard X-ray and microwave spectra, together with a qualitative discussion of radio lightcurves over a wide spectral range, and metric imaging observations. The basis hypothesis investigated is that the peculiar 'gradual' features can be related to the dynamical evolution of electrons injected over an extended time interval in a coronal trap, with electrons up to relativistic energies being injected simultaneously. The analyzed event (26 April. 1981) is particularly challenging to this hypothesis because of the long time delays between peaks at different X-ray energies and microwave frequencies. The observations are shown to be consistent with the hypothesis, provided that the electrons lose their energy by Coulomb collisions and possibly betatron deceleration. The access of the electrons to different coronal structures varies in the course of the event. The evolution and likely destabilization of part of the coronal plasma-magnetic field configuration is of crucial influence in determining the access to these structures and possibly the dynamical evolution of the trapped electrons through betatron deceleration in the late phase of the event.

  4. Ulysses observations of wave activity at interplanetary shocks and implications for type II radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Lengyel-Frey, D. |; Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R.J.; Stone, R.G.; Phillips, J.L. |

    1997-02-01

    We present the first quantitative investigation of interplanetary type II radio emission in which in situ waves measured at interplanetary shocks are used to compute radio wave intensities for comparison with type II observations. This study is based on in situ measurements of 42 in-ecliptic forward shocks as well as 10 intervals of type II emission observed by the Ulysses spacecraft between 1 AU and 5 AU. The analysis involves comparisons of statistical properties of type II bursts and in situ waves. Most of the 42 shocks are associated with the occurrence of electrostatic waves near the time of shock passage at Ulysses. These waves, which are identified as electron plasma waves and ion acoustic-like waves, are typically most intense several minutes before shock passage. This suggests that wave-wave interactions might be of importance in electromagnetic wave generation and that type II source regions are located immediately upstream of the shocks. We use the in situ wave measurements to compute type II brightness temperatures, assuming that emission at the fundamental of the electron plasma frequency is generated by the merging of electron plasma waves and ion acoustic waves or the decay of electron plasma waves into ion acoustic and transverse waves. Second harmonic emission is assumed to be produced by the merging of electron plasma waves. The latter mechanism requires that a portion of the electron plasma wave distribution is backscattered, presumably by density inhomogeneities in regions of observed ion acoustic wave activity. The computed type II brightness temperatures are found to be consistent with observed values for both fundamental and second harmonic emission, assuming that strong ({approx_equal}10{sup {minus}4}V/m) electron plasma waves and ion acoustic waves are coincident and that the electron plasma waves have phase velocities less than about 10 times the electron thermal velocity. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. Solar wind influence on Jupiter's magnetosphere and aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Marissa; Gyalay, Szilard; Withers, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's magnetosphere is often said to be rotationally driven, with strong centrifugal stresses due to large spatial scales and a rapid planetary rotation period. For example, the main auroral emission at Jupiter is not due to the magnetosphere-solar wind interaction but is driven by a system of corotation enforcement currents that arises to speed up outflowing Iogenic plasma. Additionally, processes like tail reconnection are also thought to be driven, at least in part, by processes internal to the magnetosphere. While the solar wind is generally expected to have only a small influence on Jupiter's magnetosphere and aurora, there is considerable observational evidence that the solar wind does affect the magnetopause standoff distance, auroral radio emissions, and the position and brightness of the UV auroral emissions. We will report on the results of a comprehensive, quantitative study of the influence of the solar wind on various magnetospheric data sets measured by the Galileo mission from 1996 to 2003. Using the Michigan Solar Wind Model (mSWiM) to predict the solar wind conditions upstream of Jupiter, we have identified intervals of high and low solar wind dynamic pressure. We can use this information to quantify how a magnetospheric compression affects the magnetospheric field configuration, which in turn will affect the ionospheric mapping of the main auroral emission. We also consider whether there is evidence that reconnection events occur preferentially during certain solar wind conditions or that the solar wind modulates the quasi-periodicity seen in the magnetic field dipolarizations and flow bursts.

  6. The main source of radio emission from the magnetosphere of Uranus.

    PubMed

    Gulkis, S; Carr, T D

    1987-12-30

    Observations of kilometric radiation from Uranus made with the planetary radio astronomy experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft are presented and discussed. Similarities between the auroral kilometric radiation from Earth and the observed Uranus emission are pointed out. A geometrical beaming model is developed in which a single distributed source is located above the darkside auroral region and emits in the extraordinary mode by the cyclotron maser process. The model can account for nearly all the Uranian kilometric radiation from the high-frequency limit near 850 kHz down to about 150 kHz and for much of it down to the lower limit of 20 kHz.

  7. Understanding soft gamma-ray repeaters in the context of the extragalactic radio pulsar origin of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melia, Fulvio; Fatuzzo, Marco

    1993-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) sources and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) may be neutron stars undergoing structural adjustments that produce transient gamma-ray events. A unified scenario is proposed in which young radio pulsars are responsible for SGRs and classical GRB sources. The radiative emission associated with a pulsar 'glitch' is seen as a GRB or an SGR event depending on the direction of our line of sight. Burst spectra, energetics, and statistics of GRBs and SGRs are discussed. It is shown that classical GRB spectra arise from Compton upscattering by charges accelerated along the viewing direction and SGR burst spectra are due to the thermalization of Alfven wave energy away from this direction. If crustal adjustments occur within the first 50,000 years of a pulsar's lifetime, the model predicts two SGR sources within the galaxy, in agreement with current observations.

  8. Fine Structure of Metric Type IV Radio Bursts Observed with the ARTEMIS-IV Radio-Spectrograph: Association with Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouratzis, C.; Hillaris, A.; Alissandrakis, C. E.; Preka-Papadema, P.; Moussas, X.; Caroubalos, C.; Tsitsipis, P.; Kontogeorgos, A.

    2015-01-01

    Fine structures embedded in type IV burst continua may be used as diagnostics of the magnetic-field restructuring and the corresponding energy release associated with the low-corona development of flare or coronal mass ejection (CME) events. A catalog of 36 type IV bursts observed with the SAO receiver of the ARTEMIS-IV solar radio-spectrograph in the 450 - 270 MHz range at high cadence (0.01 sec) was compiled; the fine structures were classified into five basic classes with two or more subclasses each. The time of fine-structure emission was compared with the injection of energetic electrons as recorded by hard X-ray and microwave emission, the soft X-ray (SXR) light curves and the CME onset time. Our results indicate a very tight temporal association between energy release episodes and pulsations, spikes, narrow-band bursts of the type III family, and zebra bursts. Of the remaining categories, the featureless broadband continuum starts near the time of the first energy release, between the CME onset and the SXR peak, but extends for several tens of minutes after that, covering almost the full extent of the flare-CME event. The intermediate drift bursts, fibers in their majority, mostly follow the first energy release, but have a wider distribution than other fine structures.

  9. Testing a theory for type II radio bursts from the Sun to near 0.5 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Schmidt, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    Type II solar radio bursts have resisted detailed explanation for over 60 years despite being the archetype for collective radio emission associated with shocks. Type II bursts are important because they involve fundamental physics and because most large space weather events at Earth are associated with large, fast, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and so with type II bursts. Here we present strong evidence for the accurate and quantitative simulation of a type II burst from the deep corona (near 3 solar radii) to near 0.5 AU. The event was observed by the widely separated STEREO A and B spacecraft between 29 November and 1 December 2013. To do so we combine data-driven three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations (the BATS-R-US code) for the CME and plasma background with an analytic quantitative kinetic model for electron reflection at the shock, transfer of electron energy into Langmuir waves and radio emission, and propagation of radiation to an arbitrary observer. The intensities and frequencies of the radio emissions vary by factors ≈ 104 and ≈ 102, respectively. The theory predicts the intensities, frequencies, and timings of the multiple islands of type II emission very well, with the theory typically in error by less than a factor of 10, 20%, and less than an hour, respectively, for both STEREO A and B. This agreement is strong evidence for the type II theory itself and for accurate prediction by BATS-R-US, when carefully initialised with available data, of the background plasma and magnetic field configurations and of the CME's properties and motion.

  10. A HIGH-FREQUENCY TYPE II SOLAR RADIO BURST ASSOCIATED WITH THE 2011 FEBRUARY 13 CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, K.-S.; Kim, R.-S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kwon, R.-Y.; Yashiro, S.

    2013-03-10

    We examine the relationship between the high-frequency (425 MHz) type II radio burst and the associated white-light coronal mass ejection (CME) that occurred on 2011 February 13. The radio burst had a drift rate of 2.5 MHz s{sup -1}, indicating a relatively high shock speed. From SDO/AIA observations we find that a loop-like erupting front sweeps across high-density coronal loops near the start time of the burst (17:34:17 UT). The deduced distance of shock formation (0.06 Rs) from the flare center and speed of the shock (1100 km s{sup -1}) using the measured density from SDO/AIA observations are comparable to the height (0.05 Rs, from the solar surface) and speed (700 km s{sup -1}) of the CME leading edge observed by STEREO/EUVI. We conclude that the type II burst originates even in the low corona (<59 Mm or 0.08 Rs, above the solar surface) due to the fast CME shock passing through high-density loops.

  11. Extracting Host Galaxy Dispersion Measure and Constraining Cosmological Parameters using Fast Radio Burst Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Zhang, Bing

    2016-10-01

    The excessive dispersion measures (DMs) and high Galactic latitudes of fast radio bursts (FRBs) hint toward a cosmological origin of these mysterious transients. Methods of using measured DM and redshift z to study cosmology have been proposed, but one needs to assume a certain amount of DM contribution from the host galaxy ({{DM}}{HG}) in order to apply those methods. We introduce a slope parameter β (z)\\equiv d{ln}< {{DM}}{{E}}> /d{ln}z (where {{DM}}{{E}} is the observed DM subtracting the Galactic contribution), which can be directly measured when a sample of FRBs have z measured. We show that < {{DM}}{HG}> can be roughly inferred from β and the mean values, \\overline{< {{DM}}{{E}}> } and \\bar{z}, of the sample. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the mean value of local host galaxy DM, < {{DM}}{HG,{loc}}> , along with other cosmological parameters (mass density {{{Ω }}}m in the ΛCDM model, and the IGM portion of the baryon energy density {{{Ω }}}b{f}{IGM}), can be independently measured through Markov Chain Monte Carlo fitting to the data.

  12. A Decade of Solar Type III Radio Bursts Observed by the Nancay Radioheliograph 1998-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Vilmer, N.; Kerdraon, A.

    2013-07-01

    We present a statistical survey of almost 10'000 radio type III bursts observed by the Nancay Radioheliograph from 1998 to 2008, covering nearly a full solar cycle. In particular, sources sizes, positions, and fluxes were examined. We find an east-west asymmetry in source positions that could be attributed to a ~6 degrees eastward tilt of the magnetic field, that source FWHM sizes s roughly follow a solar-cycle-averaged distribution dN/ds = 14 ν-3.3s-4 arcmin-1 day-1, and that source fluxes closely follow a solar-cycle-averaged dN/dS = 0.34 ν-2.9 S-1.7 sfu-1 day-1 distribution (when ν is in GHz, s in arcminutes, and S in sfu). Fitting a barometric density profile yields a temperature of 0.6 MK, while a solar wind-like h-2) density profile yields a density of 1.2 × 106 cm-3 at an altitude of 1 Rs, assuming harmonic emission. Finally, the flux distribution combined with rough radiative efficiency estimates hint at the possibility that escaping electron beams might carry as much energy away from the corona as is introduced into it by nanoflare-accelerated electrons.

  13. FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF POLARIZATION OF ZEBRA PATTERN IN TYPE-IV SOLAR RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneda, Kazutaka; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Obara, T.; Iwai, K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the polarization characteristics of a zebra pattern (ZP) in a type-IV solar radio burst observed with AMATERAS on 2011 June 21 for the purpose of evaluating the generation processes of ZPs. Analyzing highly resolved spectral and polarization data revealed the frequency dependence of the degree of circular polarization and the delay between two polarized components for the first time. The degree of circular polarization was 50%–70% right-handed and it varied little as a function of frequency. Cross-correlation analysis determined that the left-handed circularly polarized component was delayed by 50–70 ms relative to the right-handed component over the entire frequency range of the ZP and this delay increased with the frequency. We examined the obtained polarization characteristics by using pre-existing ZP models and concluded that the ZP was generated by the double-plasma-resonance process. Our results suggest that the ZP emission was originally generated in a completely polarized state in the O-mode and was partly converted into the X-mode near the source. Subsequently, the difference between the group velocities of the O-mode and X-mode caused the temporal delay.

  14. Fast Radio Bursts as Probes of Magnetic Fields in the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akahori, Takuya; Ryu, Dongsu; Gaensler, B. M.

    2016-06-01

    We examine the proposal that the dispersion measures (DMs) and Faraday rotation measures (RMs) of extragalactic linearly polarized fast radio bursts (FRBs) can be used to probe the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) in filaments of galaxies. The DM through the cosmic web is dominated by contributions from the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) in filaments and from the gas in voids. On the other hand, RM is induced mostly by the hot medium in galaxy clusters, and only a fraction of it is produced in the WHIM. We show that if one excludes FRBs whose sightlines pass through galaxy clusters, the line of sight (LOS) strength of the IGMF in filaments, {B}| | , is approximately C(< 1+z> /{f}{DM})({RM}/{DM}), where C is a known constant. Here, the redshift of the FRB is not required to be known; f DM is the fraction of total DM due to the WHIM, while < 1+z> is the redshift of interevening gas weighted by the WHIM gas density, both of which can be evaluated for a given cosmology model solely from the DM of an FRB. Using data on structure formation simulations and a model IGMF, we show that C(< 1+z> /{f}{DM})({RM}/{DM}) closely reproduces the density-weighted LOS strength of the IGMF in filaments of the large-scale structure.

  15. Ion Acoustic Wave Frequencies and Onset Times During Type 3 Solar Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Conflicting interpretations exist for the low-frequency ion acoustic (S) waves often observed by ISEE 3 in association with intense Langmuir (L) waves in the source regions of type III solar radio bursts near 1 AU. Two indirect lines of observational evidence, as well as plasma theory, suggest they are produced by the electrostatic (ES) decay L yields L(PRIME) + S. However, contrary to theoretical predictions, an existing analysis of the wave frequencies instead favors the electromagnetic (EM) decays L yields T + S, where T denotes an EM wave near the plasma frequency. This conflict is addressed here by comparing the observed wave frequencies and onset times with theoretical predictions for the ES and EM decays, calculated using the time-variable electron beam and magnetic field orientation data, rather than the nominal values used previously. Field orientation effects and beam speed variations are shown analytically to produce factor-of-three effects, greater than the difference in wave frequencies predicted for the ES and EM decays; effects of similar magnitude occur in the events analyzed here. The S-wave signals are extracted by hand from a sawtooth noise background, greatly improving the association between S waves and intense L waves. Very good agreement exists between the time-varying predictions for the ES decay and the frequencies of most (but not all) wave bursts. The waves occur only after the ES decay becomes kinematically allowed, which is consistent with the ES decay proceeding and producing most of the observed signals. Good agreement exists between the EM decay's predictions and a significant fraction of the S-wave observations while the EM decay is kinematically allowed. The wave data are not consistent, however, with the EM decay being the dominant nonlinear process. Often the observed waves are sufficiently broadband to overlap simultaneously the frequency ranges predicted for the ES and EM decays. Coupling the dominance of the ES decay with this

  16. Source Regions of the Type II Radio Burst Observed During a CME-CME Interaction on 2013 May 22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, P.; Gopalswamy, N.; Reiner, M. J.; Akiyama, S.; Krupar, V.

    2016-08-01

    We report on our study of radio source regions during the type II radio burst on 2013 May 22 based on direction-finding analysis of the Wind/WAVES and STEREO/WAVES (SWAVES) radio observations at decameter-hectometric wavelengths. The type II emission showed an enhancement that coincided with the interaction of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) launched in sequence along closely spaced trajectories. The triangulation of the SWAVES source directions posited the ecliptic projections of the radio sources near the line connecting the Sun and the STEREO-A spacecraft. The WAVES and SWAVES source directions revealed shifts in the latitude of the radio source, indicating that the spatial location of the dominant source of the type II emission varies during the CME-CME interaction. The WAVES source directions close to 1 MHz frequencies matched the location of the leading edge of the primary CME seen in the images of the LASCO/C3 coronagraph. This correspondence of spatial locations at both wavelengths confirms that the CME-CME interaction region is the source of the type II enhancement. Comparison of radio and white-light observations also showed that at lower frequencies scattering significantly affects radio wave propagation.

  17. Source Regions of the Type II Radio Burst Observed During a CME–CME Interaction on 2013 May 22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, P.; Gopalswamy, N.; Reiner, M. J.; Akiyama, S.; Krupar, V.

    2016-08-01

    We report on our study of radio source regions during the type II radio burst on 2013 May 22 based on direction-finding analysis of the Wind/WAVES and STEREO/WAVES (SWAVES) radio observations at decameter–hectometric wavelengths. The type II emission showed an enhancement that coincided with the interaction of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) launched in sequence along closely spaced trajectories. The triangulation of the SWAVES source directions posited the ecliptic projections of the radio sources near the line connecting the Sun and the STEREO-A spacecraft. The WAVES and SWAVES source directions revealed shifts in the latitude of the radio source, indicating that the spatial location of the dominant source of the type II emission varies during the CME–CME interaction. The WAVES source directions close to 1 MHz frequencies matched the location of the leading edge of the primary CME seen in the images of the LASCO/C3 coronagraph. This correspondence of spatial locations at both wavelengths confirms that the CME–CME interaction region is the source of the type II enhancement. Comparison of radio and white-light observations also showed that at lower frequencies scattering significantly affects radio wave propagation.

  18. Statistical study of the correlation of hard X-ray and type III radio bursts in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Russell J.; Petrosian, Vahe; Benz, A. O.

    1990-01-01

    A large number of hard X-ray events which occurred during the maximum of solar cycle 21 have been analyzed in order to study their correlation with type III bursts. It is found that the distribution of occurrences of hard X-ray bursts correlated with type III radio bursts is significantly different from the distribution of all hard X-ray bursts. This result is consistent with the assumption that the hard X-ray and type III intensities are somewhat correlated. A bivariate distribution function of the burst intensities is fitted to the data and is used to determine that the typical ratio of X-ray intensity to type II intensity is about 10 and that the ratio of the number of X-ray producing-electrons to type III-producing electrons is about 1000. Three models which have been proposed to explain the relation between the accelerated hard X-ray and type III-producing electrons are examined in the context of these observations.

  19. Statistical study of the correlation of hard X-ray and type III radio bursts in solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, R.J.; Petrosian, V.; Benz, A.O. Zuerich Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule )

    1990-08-01

    A large number of hard X-ray events which occurred during the maximum of solar cycle 21 have been analyzed in order to study their correlation with type III bursts. It is found that the distribution of occurrences of hard X-ray bursts correlated with type III radio bursts is significantly different from the distribution of all hard X-ray bursts. This result is consistent with the assumption that the hard X-ray and type III intensities are somewhat correlated. A bivariate distribution function of the burst intensities is fitted to the data and is used to determine that the typical ratio of X-ray intensity to type II intensity is about 10 and that the ratio of the number of X-ray producing-electrons to type III-producing electrons is about 1000. Three models which have been proposed to explain the relation between the accelerated hard X-ray and type III-producing electrons are examined in the context of these observations. 17 refs.

  20. Comparisons of mapped magnetic field lines with the source path of the 7 April 1995 type III solar radio burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Gosling, J. T.; Malaspina, D. M.; Neudegg, D.; Steward, G.; Lobzin, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    Ideally, the sources of type III solar radio bursts, which are produced mainly by flare-accelerated electron beams, trace the magnetic field lines along which the beams propagate from the Sun to interplanetary space. A recently developed 2-D approach for large-scale mapping of magnetic field lines between the Sun and Earth in the solar equatorial plane is applied to the sources of the 7 April 1995 type III radio burst imaged by Ulysses and Wind. The approach uses near-Earth solar wind data and a solar wind model with intrinsic nonradial magnetic field at the source surface of the solar wind. Quantitative agreement is found between the mapped field lines, the observed path of the radio source centroids, and the field configurations inferred from solar wind suprathermal electrons observed by Wind. Moreover, the mapped field lines are consistent with Wind not observing the in situ type III electron beam, Langmuir waves, and local radio emission for this type III event.

  1. Stereoscopic direction finding analysis of a type III solar radio burst - Evidence for emission at 2f/p-/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Baumback, M. M.; Rosenbauer, H.

    1978-01-01

    Stereoscopic direction finding measurements from the Imp 8, Hawkeye 1, and Helios 2 spacecraft over base line distances of a substantial fraction of an astronomical unit are used to directly determine the three-dimensional trajectory of a type III solar radio burst. By comparing the observed source positions with the direct in situ solar wind plasma density measurements obtained by Helios 1 and 2 near the sun, the relationship of the emission frequency to the local plasma frequency can be determined directly without any modeling assumptions. These comparisons show that the type III radio emission occurs near the second harmonic of the local electron plasma frequency. Other characteristics of the type III radio emission, such as the source size, which can be obtained from this type of analysis, are also discussed.

  2. A theory for narrow-banded radio bursts at Uranus - MHD surface waves as an energy driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Curtis, S. A.; Desch, M. D.; Lepping, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    A possible scenario for the generation of the narrow-banded radio bursts detected at Uranus by the Voyager 2 planetary radio astronomy experiment is described. In order to account for the emission burstiness which occurs on time scales of hundreds of milliseconds, it is proposed that ULF magnetic surface turbulence generated at the frontside magnetopause propagates down the open/closed field line boundary and mode-converts to kinetic Alfven waves (KAW) deep within the polar cusp. The oscillating KAW potentials then drive a transient electron stream that creates the bursty radio emission. To substantiate these ideas, Voyager 2 magnetometer measurements of enhanced ULF magnetic activity at the frontside magnetopause are shown. It is demonstrated analytically that such magnetic turbulence should mode-convert deep in the cusp at a radial distance of 3 RU.

  3. On the radio wave group delay in the solar corona for the case of decameter type III bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itkina, M. A.; Levin, B. N.; Tsybko, Ya. G.

    1993-11-01

    The excess time delay of the radio waves during their propagation through inhomogeneous plasma is due to two main reasons: (1) the electromagnetic wave group velocity differs from its vacuum value; (2) the ray path is lengthened by refraction. The group delay of type IIIb-III burst emission is estimated by analyzing observations made with the UTR-2 array (Abranin et al. 1984). Owing to the harmonic origin of the type IIIb-III events it is possible to probe one and the same coronal region at two largely different frequencies. The group delay effect has to be more significant for the fundamental emission (type IIIb burst) than for the second harmonic (type III burst). For the observed type IIIb-III pairs this difference is found smaller than the uncertainties in the data. The group delay time for the fundamental emission in the frequency range 12.5-6.25 MHz does not exceed 1 s and the differential group delay is less than 0.3-0.5 s with a degree of confidence of approximately 70%. Radio wave propagation through the coronal plasma is simulated numerically choosing the scale height of the coronal density which fits the mean frequency drift rate of the observed type IIIb-III bursts. The calculated group delay times are found considerably larger than the observed ones if the mean velocity vs of the burst source is assumed equal to 0.3 c. It is possible to reconcile the experimental and calculated group delay times choosing vs less than or equal to 0.1 c. Another possibility is to assume that the fundamental type III emission is produced by the coalescence of plasma (Langmuir) waves with low frequency waves instead of plasma wave Rayleigh scattering by thermal ions.

  4. On modelling the Fast Radio Burst population and event rate predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Apurba; Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Bhat, N. D. Ramesh; Chengalur, Jayaram N.

    2016-04-01

    Assuming that Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are of extragalactic origin, we have developed a formalism to predict the FRB detection rate and the redshift distribution of the detected events for a telescope with given parameters. We have adopted FRB 110220, for which the emitted pulse energy is estimated to be E0 = 5.4 × 1033 J, as the reference event. The formalism requires us to assume models for (a) pulse broadening due to scattering in the ionized intergalactic medium - we consider two different models for this, (b) the frequency spectrum of the emitted pulse - we consider a power-law model Eν ∝ ν-α with -5 ≤ α ≤ 5, and (c) the comoving number density of the FRB occurrence rate n(E, wi, z) - we ignore the z dependence and assume a fixed intrinsic pulse width wi = 1 ms for all the FRBs. The distribution of the emitted pulse energy E is modelled through (a) a delta function where all the FRBs have the same energy E = E0, and (b) a Schechter luminosity function where the energies have a spread around E0. The models are all normalized using the four FRBs detected by Thornton et al. Our model predictions for the Parkes telescope are all consistent with the inferred redshift distribution of the 14 FRBs detected there to date. We also find that scattering places an upper limit on the redshift of the FRBs detectable by a given telescope; for the Parkes telescope, this is z ˜ 2. Considering the upcoming Ooty Wide Field Array, we predict an FRB detection rate of ˜0.01 to ˜103 d-1.

  5. A DECADE OF SOLAR TYPE III RADIO BURSTS OBSERVED BY THE NANCAY RADIOHELIOGRAPH 1998-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Saint-Hilaire, P.; Vilmer, N.; Kerdraon, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a statistical survey of almost 10,000 radio type III bursts observed by the Nancay Radioheliograph from 1998 to 2008, covering nearly a full solar cycle. In particular, sources sizes, positions, and fluxes were examined. We find an east-west asymmetry in source positions that could be attributed to a 6 Degree-Sign {+-} 1 Degree-Sign eastward tilt of the magnetic field, that source FWHM sizes s roughly follow a solar-cycle-averaged distribution (dN/ds) Almost-Equal-To 14 {nu}{sup -3.3} s {sup -4} arcmin{sup -1} day{sup -1}, and that source fluxes closely follow a solar-cycle-averaged (dN/ds {sub {nu}}) Almost-Equal-To 0.34 {nu}{sup -2.9} S {sup -1.7} {sub {nu}} sfu{sup -1} day{sup -1} distribution (when {nu} is in GHz, s in arcminutes, and S {sub {nu}} in sfu). Fitting a barometric density profile yields a temperature of 0.6 MK, while a solar wind-like ({proportional_to}h {sup -2}) density profile yields a density of 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} cm{sup -3} at an altitude of 1 R{sub S} , assuming harmonic emission. Finally, we found that the solar-cycle-averaged radiated type III energy could be similar in magnitude to that radiated by nanoflares via non-thermal bremsstrahlung processes, and we hint at the possibility that escaping electron beams might carry as much energy away from the corona as is introduced into it by accelerated nanoflare electrons.

  6. LOCALIZATION OF A TYPE III RADIO BURST OBSERVED BY THE STEREO SPACECRAFT

    SciTech Connect

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J. E-mail: Robert.MacDowall@nasa.go

    2010-09-10

    Ray tracing calculations show that (1) emissions from a localized source escape as direct and reflected waves along different paths, (2) the reflected waves experience higher attenuation and group delay because they travel longer path lengths in regions of reduced refractive index, and (3) widely separated spacecraft 'A' and 'B' can detect the direct as well as reflected emissions escaping along different directions. It is proposed that the source of a radio burst observed by twin spacecraft 'A' and 'B' can be localized if at a given frequency the emission at one of them is identified as the direct emission and is identified at the other as the reflected emission by comparing the observed time delays {Delta}T, as well as intensity ratios I{sub B} /I{sub A} with the corresponding values of the direct and reflected emissions obtained for a given coronal model. A type III event observed by the STEREO spacecraft 'A' and 'B' shows that its characteristics are consistent with direct and reflected emissions by being less intense and delayed at 'A' in comparison to that at 'B'. By applying the proposed technique to this event, the location of its source is found to lie between the turning point of the ray and the harmonic layer corresponding to f {sub pe} = f/2, where f and f {sub pe} are the frequency of the emission and the electron plasma frequency, respectively. The comparisons of the widths of the fundamental and harmonic emission cones with the angular separation of spacecraft 'A' and 'B' indicate that the mode of the observed emission is probably the harmonic.

  7. The low-high-low trend of type III radio burst starting frequencies and solar flare hard X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Hamish A. S.; Vilmer, Nicole; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: Using simultaneous X-ray and radio observations from solar flares, we investigate the link between the type III radio burst starting frequency and hard X-ray spectral index. For a proportion of events the relation derived between the starting height (frequency) of type III radio bursts and the electron beam velocity spectral index (deduced from X-rays) is used to infer the spatial properties (height and size) of the electron beam acceleration region. Both quantities can be related to the distance travelled before an electron beam becomes unstable to Langmuir waves. Methods: To obtain a list of suitable events we considered the RHESSI catalogue of X-ray flares and the Phoenix 2 catalogue of type III radio bursts. From the 200 events that showed both type III and X-ray signatures, we selected 30 events which had simultaneous emission in both wavelengths, good signal to noise in the X-ray domain and >20 s duration. Results: We find that >50% of the selected events show a good correlation between the starting frequencies of the groups of type III bursts and the hard X-ray spectral indices. A low-high-low trend for the starting frequency of type III bursts is frequently observed. Assuming a background electron density model and the thick target approximation for X-ray observations, this leads to a correlation between starting heights of the type III emission and the beam electron spectral index. Using this correlation we infer the altitude and vertical extents of the flare acceleration regions. We find heights from 183 Mm down to 25 Mm while the sizes range from 13 Mm to 2 Mm. These values agree with previous work that places an extended flare acceleration region high in the corona. We also analyse the assumptions that are required to obtain our estimates and explore possible extensions to our assumed model. We discuss these results with respect to the acceleration heights and sizes derived from X-ray observations alone. Appendices are available in electronic form

  8. An Eruptive Hot-channel Structure Observed at Metric Wavelength as a Moving Type-IV Solar Radio Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasanth, V.; Chen, Yao; Feng, Shiwei; Ma, Suli; Du, Guohui; Song, Hongqiang; Kong, Xiangliang; Wang, Bing

    2016-10-01

    Hot-channel (HC) structure, observed in the high-temperature passbands of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/Solar Dynamic Observatory, is regarded as one candidate of coronal flux rope that is an essential element of solar eruptions. Here, we present the first radio imaging study of an HC structure in the metric wavelength. The associated radio emission manifests as a moving type-IV (t-IVm) burst. We show that the radio sources co-move outward with the HC, indicating that the t-IV emitting energetic electrons are efficiently trapped within the structure. The t-IV sources at different frequencies present no considerable spatial dispersion during the early stage of the event, while the sources spread gradually along the eruptive HC structure at later stage with significant spatial dispersion. The t-IV bursts are characterized by a relatively high brightness temperature (∼107–109 K), a moderate polarization, and a spectral shape that evolves considerably with time. This study demonstrates the possibility of imaging the eruptive HC structure at the metric wavelength and provides strong constraints on the t-IV emission mechanism, which, if understood, can be used to diagnose the essential parameters of the eruptive structure.

  9. Radio observations of interplanetary magnetic field structures out of the ecliptic. [related to type III solar bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Fainberg, J.; Weber, R. R.; Alvarez, H.; Haddock, F. T.; Potter, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    Observations of the out-of-ecliptic trajectories of type III solar radio bursts have been obtained from simultaneous direction-finding measurements in two independent satellite experiments, IMP-6 with spin plane in the ecliptic and RAE-2 with spin plane normal to the ecliptic. Burst-exciter trajectories were observed which originated at the active region and then crossed the ecliptic plane at about 0.8 AU. A considerable large-scale north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field followed by the exciters is found. The apparent north-south and east-west angular source sizes observed by the two spacecraft are approximately equal, and range from 25 deg at 600 kHz to 110 deg at 80 kHz.

  10. Five new fast radio bursts from the HTRU high-latitude survey at Parkes: first evidence for two-component bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champion, D. J.; Petroff, E.; Kramer, M.; Keith, M. J.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Bates, S. D.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Flynn, C. M. L.; Jameson, A.; Johnston, S.; Ng, C.; Levin, L.; Possenti, A.; Stappers, B. W.; van Straten, W.; Thornton, D.; Tiburzi, C.; Lyne, A. G.

    2016-07-01

    The detection of five new fast radio bursts (FRBs) found in the 1.4-GHz High Time Resolution Universe high-latitude survey at Parkes, is presented. The rate implied is 7^{+5}_{-3}× 10^3 (95 per cent) FRBs sky-1 d-1 above a fluence of 0.13 Jy ms for an FRB of 0.128 ms duration to 1.5 Jy ms for 16 ms duration. One of these FRBs has a two-component profile, in which each component is similar to the known population of single component FRBs and the two components are separated by 2.4 ± 0.4 ms. All the FRB components appear to be unresolved following deconvolution with a scattering tail and accounting for intrachannel smearing. The two-component burst, FRB 121002, also has the highest dispersion measure (1629 pc cm-3) of any FRB to-date. Many of the proposed models to explain FRBs use a single high-energy event involving compact objects (such as neutron-star mergers) and therefore cannot easily explain a two-component FRB. Models that are based on extreme versions of flaring, pulsing, or orbital events, however, could produce multiple component profiles. The compatibility of these models and the FRB rate implied by these detections is discussed.

  11. A blind search for prompt gamma-ray counterparts of fast radio bursts with Fermi-LAT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Shotaro; Totani, Tomonori; Kawanaka, Norita

    2016-08-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are a mysterious flash phenomenon detected in radio wavelengths with a duration of only a few milliseconds, and they may also have prompted gamma-ray flashes. Here, we carry out a blind search for ms-duration gamma-ray flashes using the 7-yr Fermi Large Area Telescope all-sky gamma-ray data. About 100 flash candidates are detected, but after removing those associated with bright steady point sources, we find no flash events at high Galactic latitude region (|b| > 20°). Events at lower latitude regions are consistent with statistical flukes originating from the diffuse gamma-ray background. From these results, we place an upper limit on the GeV gamma-ray to radio flux ratio of FRBs as ξ ≡ (νLν)γ/(νLν)radio ≲ (4.2-12) × 107, depending on the assumed FRB rate evolution index β = 0-4 [cosmic FRB rate ΦFRB ∝ (1 + z)β]. This limit is comparable with the largest value found for pulsars, though ξ of pulsars is distributed in a wide range. We also compare this limit with the spectral energy distribution of the 2004 giant flare of the magnetar SGR 1806-20.

  12. Predictions for Uranus from a radiometric Bode's law. [planetary magnetic moment estimated from radio emission flux density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Determinations by spacecraft of the low-frequency radio spectra and radiation beam geometry of the magnetospheres of earth, Jupiter, and Saturn now permit a reliable assessment of the overall efficiency of the solar wind in stimulating intense, nonthermal radio bursts from these magnetospheres. It is found that earlier estimates of how magnetospheric radio output scales with the solar wind energy input must be greatly revised, with the result that, while the efficiency is much lower than previously thought, it is remarkably uniform from planet to planet. A 'radimetric Bode's law' is formulated from which a planet's magnetic moment can be estimated from its radio emission output. This law is applied to estimate the low-frequency radio power likely to be measured for Uranus by Voyager 2. It is shown how measurements of Uranus's radio flux can be used to estimate the planetary magnetic moment and solar wind stand-off distance before the in situ measurements.

  13. A Solar type-II radio burst from CME-coronal ray interaction: simultaneous radio and EUV imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Du, G.; Feng, L.; Feng, S.; Kong, X.; Guo, F.; Wang, B.; Li, G.

    2014-12-01

    Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radioburst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct thethree-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II-emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the twoSolar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft. It is then combined with the Naņcay radio imaging data toinfer the three-dimensional position of the type II source. It is found that the type II source coincides with theinterface between the coronal mass ejection (CME) EUV wave front and a nearby coronal ray structure, providingevidence that the type II emission is physically related to the CME-ray interaction. This result, consistent withthose of previous studies, is based on simultaneous radio and EUV imaging data for the first time.

  14. EVIDENCE FOR THE OSCILLATING TWO STREAM INSTABILITY AND SPATIAL COLLAPSE OF LANGMUIR WAVES IN A SOLAR TYPE III RADIO BURST

    SciTech Connect

    Thejappa, G.; Bergamo, M.; Papadopoulos, K.; MacDowall, R. J. E-mail: mbergamo@umd.edu E-mail: Robert.MacDowall@nasa.gov

    2012-03-15

    We present observational evidence for the oscillating two stream instability (OTSI) and spatial collapse of Langmuir waves in the source region of a solar type III radio burst. High time resolution observations from the STEREO A spacecraft show that Langmuir waves excited by the electron beam occur as isolated field structures with short durations {approx}3.2 ms and with high intensities exceeding the strong turbulence thresholds. These short duration events are identified as the envelope solitons which have collapsed to spatial scales of a few hundred Debye lengths. The spectra of these wave packets contain an intense peak and two sidebands, corresponding to beam-resonant Langmuir waves, and down-shifted and up-shifted daughter Langmuir waves, respectively, and low-frequency enhancements below a few hundred Hz. The frequencies and wave numbers of these spectral components satisfy the resonance conditions of the OTSI. The observed high intensities, short scale lengths, sideband spectral structures, and low-frequency enhancements strongly suggest that the OTSI and spatial collapse of Langmuir waves probably control the nonlinear beam-plasma interactions in type III radio bursts.

  15. Phase Coupling in Langmuir Wave Packets: Evidence for Four Wave Interactions in Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Bergamo, M.

    2012-01-01

    The four wave interaction process, known as the oscillating two stream instability (OTSI) is considered as one of the mechanisms responsible for stabilizing the electron beams associated with solar type III radio bursts. It has been reported that (1) an intense localized Langmuir wave packet associated with a type III burst contains the spectral characteristics of the OTSI: (a) a resonant peak at the local electron plasma frequency, f(sub pe), (b) a Stokes peak at a frequency slightly lower than f(sub pe), (c) anti-Stokes peak at a frequency slightly higher than f(sub pe), and (d) a low frequency enhancement below a few hundred Hz, (2) the frequencies and wave numbers of these spectral components satisfy the resonance conditions of the OTSI, and (3) the peak intensity of the wave packet is well above the thresholds for the OTSI as well as spatial collapse of envelope solitons. Here, for the first time, applying the trispectral analysis on this wave packet, we show that the tricoherence, which measures the degree of coherent four-wave coupling amongst the observed spectral components exhibits a peak. This provides an additional evidence for the OTSI and related spatial collapse of Langmuir envelope solitons in type III burst sources.

  16. Relationship Between the Radio Bursts from the Sun and Ionospheric Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Mary Lou; Frissell, N.; Papalos, M.

    2006-12-01

    We are monitoring the sun’s radio activity at 20.1 MHz with a Radio Jove rig, and have begun to monitor the Earth’s ionosphere for HF radio propagation using the worldwide network of beacons set up by the Northern California DX Foundation. These 18 beacons transmit at 14.1, 18.11, 21.15, 24.93, and 28.2 MHz on a 3 minute cadence and allow ham radio operators to judge the radio propagation characteristics to distant lands easily. Although the solar activity cycle is now near its bottom, there are occasional outbursts, some spectacular. August 29, 2006, was such a day, prompting the Radio Jove community to post ten times the usual number of reports to the archive at Goddard Space Flight Center. The next day the Earth’s ionosphere suddenly blossomed with HF openings without any X-ray flares reported. The delay time of 26 hours from the most energetic radio event indicated a velocity of 1600 km/s, normal for a coronal mass ejection. Several other events have also shown delays of about 24 hours from the radio sun to the ionosphere, and are especially noticeable at the higher frequency bands and on the events list of the Space Environment Center of NOAA. The 20.1 MHz monitors may serve as a method to predict radio propagation properties of the ionosphere more quickly than previous methods.

  17. Discovery of Low DM Fast Radio Transients: Geminga Pulsar Caught in the Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maan, Yogesh

    2015-12-01

    We report the discovery of several energetic radio bursts at 34 MHz, using the Gauribidanur radio telescope. The radio bursts exhibit two important properties associated with the propagation of astronomical signals through the interstellar medium: (i) frequency dependent dispersive delays across the observing bandwidth and (ii) Faraday rotation of the plane of linear polarization. These bursts sample a range of dispersion measures (DM; 1.4-3.6 pc cm-3) and show DM-variation at timescales of the order of a minute. Using groups of bursts having a consistent DM, we show that the bursts have originated from the radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar Geminga. Detection of these bursts supports the existence of occasional radio emission from Geminga. The rare occurrence of these bursts, and the short timescale variation in their DM (if really caused by the intervening medium or the pulsar magnetosphere), might provide clues as to why the pulsar has not been detected in earlier sensitive searches. We present details of the observations and search procedure used to discover these bursts, a detailed analysis of their properties, and evidences of these bursts being associated with Geminga pulsar, and briefly discuss the possible emission mechanism of these bursts.

  18. DISCOVERY OF LOW DM FAST RADIO TRANSIENTS: GEMINGA PULSAR CAUGHT IN THE ACT

    SciTech Connect

    Maan, Yogesh

    2015-12-20

    We report the discovery of several energetic radio bursts at 34 MHz, using the Gauribidanur radio telescope. The radio bursts exhibit two important properties associated with the propagation of astronomical signals through the interstellar medium: (i) frequency dependent dispersive delays across the observing bandwidth and (ii) Faraday rotation of the plane of linear polarization. These bursts sample a range of dispersion measures (DM; 1.4–3.6 pc cm{sup −3}) and show DM-variation at timescales of the order of a minute. Using groups of bursts having a consistent DM, we show that the bursts have originated from the radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar Geminga. Detection of these bursts supports the existence of occasional radio emission from Geminga. The rare occurrence of these bursts, and the short timescale variation in their DM (if really caused by the intervening medium or the pulsar magnetosphere), might provide clues as to why the pulsar has not been detected in earlier sensitive searches. We present details of the observations and search procedure used to discover these bursts, a detailed analysis of their properties, and evidences of these bursts being associated with Geminga pulsar, and briefly discuss the possible emission mechanism of these bursts.

  19. Nonlinear stability of solar type III radio bursts. II - Application to observations near 1 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Smith, R. A.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1979-01-01

    A set of rate equations including strong turbulence effects and anomalous resistivity are solved using parameters which model several solar type III bursts. Analysis of these bursts has led to quantitative comparisons between several of the observed phenomena and the theory. Through use of an analytic model for the time evolution of the energetic electron exciter, it is found that the exciter distributions observed at 1 AU are unstable to the excitation of the linear bump-in-tail instability, amplifying Langmuir waves above the threshold for the oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI). The OTSI and the attendant anomalous resistivity produce a rapid spectral transfer of Langmuir waves to short wavelengths, out of resonance with the electron exciter. In addition, the various parameters needed to model the bursts are extrapolated inside 1 AU with similar results. Finally, reabsorption of the Langmuir waves by the beam is shown to be unimportant in all cases, even at 0.1 AU.

  20. Theory of type 3b solar radio bursts. [plasma interaction and electron beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.; Delanoee, J.

    1975-01-01

    During the initial space-time evolution of an electron beam injected into the corona, the strong beam-plasma interaction occurs at the head of the beam, leading to the amplification of a quasi-monochromatic large-amplitude plasma wave that stabilizes by trapping the beam particles. Oscillation of the trapped particles in the wave troughs amplifies sideband electrostatic waves. The sidebands and the main wave subsequently decay to observable transverse electromagnetic waves through the parametric decay instability. This process gives rise to the elementary striation bursts. Owing to velocity dispersion in the beam and the density gradient of the corona, the entire process may repeat at a finite number of discrete plasma levels, producing chains of elementary bursts. All the properties of the type IIIb bursts are accounted for in the context of the theory.

  1. The electron-cyclotron maser instability as a source of plasma radiation. [Solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.; Dulk, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    The generation of continuum bursts from the sun at dm and m wavelengths (in particular, type IV bursts) via the electron-cyclotron-maser instability is examined. The maser instability can be driven by an electron distribution with either a loss-cone anisotropy or a peak at large pitch angles. For omega(p)/Omega(e) much greater than 1, the maser emission is produced by electrons interacting through a harmonic (cyclotron) resonance and is electrostatic, being in the upper hybrid mode at frequencies approximately equal to omega(p). Coalescence processes are required to convert the electrostatic waves into transverse radiation which can escape from the source region. Whether the resultant spectrum is nearly a smooth continuum or has a zebra-stripe pattern (both of which occur in type IV bursts) depends on the form of the electron distribution, inhomogeneities in the density and magnetic field, and whether the maser reaches saturation. For at least the case of some type IV dm bursts with fine structure, comparison with observations seems to indicate that the electrons producing the emission are more likely to have a loss-cone distribution, and that the maser instability is not at saturation.

  2. Preliminary data on decameter type IIId bursts with echo components obtained from a two-dimensional radio heliograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abranin, E. P.; Bazelyan, L. L.; Tsybko, Ya. G.

    1998-01-01

    We present for the first time a set of intensity-time records for one solar type IIId radio burst with an echo component obtained as a result of angular selection of the radiation observed using an UTR 2 antenna operating in the mode of a two-dimensional heliograph at f=25 MHz. It is found that in the case of such events, which occur only in the central sector of heliolongitudes |l|≤50°, the apparent pulsating source of narrow-band (˜0.1 MHz) radiation at the second harmonic (f≈2fp) can have a complex, constantly varying angular structure. The coronal source positions determined at the time of the main peak of a two-hump burst and 6.5 s later at the time of its second, relatively low, maximum did not coincide and their divergence was ≈12' in hour angle and ≈0' in declination. During the first pulse (having a steep front) the source did not remain immobile and travelled for 3 s, gradually decaying, predominantly to the west at an average velocity close to the velocity of light. The amazing fact of initial nonstationarity and other properties of the pulsing type IIId source show that a fast imaginary source occurred in the solar corona at the site of short-time (< 1 s) radio wave generation, i.e., well above the normal level of plasma frequencybar f_p {text{ = }}f. The background of the source was obviously an extended opaque or translucent region of disturbed plasma. Operating as a passive retranslator of signals, at the plasma levels fp˜f/2 this strange coronal structure could prevent the radio waves, including those reflected specularly at the plasma levelbar f_p {text{ = }}f deep in the corona, from propagating freely. Most probably, this is exactly the reason why the decay of the echo component is slow and nonmonotonic in the case of type IIId bursts, many of which pulsate rhythmically 3 or 4 times.

  3. Excitation of a magnetospheric maser through modification of the Earth's ionosphere by high-power HF radio emission from a ground-based transmitter

    SciTech Connect

    Markov, G. A. Belov, A. S.; Frolov, V. L.; Rapoport, V. O.; Parrot, M.

    2010-01-15

    A method for controlled excitation of a magnetospheric maser through the production of artificial density ducts by high-power HF radio emission from the Earth's surface has been proposed and implemented in an in-situ experiment. Artificial density ducts allow one to affect the maser resonator system and the excitation and propagation of low-frequency electromagnetic waves in a disturbed magnetic flux tube. The experimental data presented here were obtained at the mid-latitude Sura heating facility. The characteristics of electromagnetic and plasma disturbances at outer-ionosphere altitudes were measured using the onboard equipment of the DEMETER satellite as it passed through the magnetic flux tube rested on the region of intense generation of artificial ionospheric turbulence.

  4. Solar Radio Burst Effects and Meteor Effects: Operational Products Under Development at the Joint SMC-AFRL Rapid Prototyping Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, S.

    2002-05-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/VSB) and Detachment 11, Space & Missile Systems Center (SMC, Det 11/CIT) have combined efforts to design, develop, test, and implement graphical products for the Air Force's space weather operations center. These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense systems and communications. Jointly-developed products that will be added to real-time operations in the near future include a solar radio background and burst effects (SoRBE) product suite, and a meteor effects (ME) product suite. The SoRBE product addresses the effect of background and event-level solar radio output on operational DoD systems. Strong bursts of radio wave emissions given off by the sun during solar ``events'' can detrimentally affect radar and satellite communication systems that have operational receiving geometries within the field of view of the sun. For some systems, even the background radiation from the sun can produce effects. The radio frequency interference (RFI) of interest occurs on VHF, UHF, and SHF frequency bands, usually lasting several minutes during a solar flare. While such effects are limited in time and area (typically a few degrees in viewing angle), they can be quite severe in magnitude. The result can be a significant lack in a radar system's ability to detect and/or track an object, and loss of a communication system's ability to receive satellite signals. The ME product will address the detrimental effects of meteors on operational DoD systems. These include impacts on satellites, visible trail observations, and radar clutter. While certain types of individual meteors can produce system effects, the initial ME product will address the more generalized range of meteor shower activity and associated affects. These effects can result in damage to satellites, incorrect assessment of satellite sensor observations, and false target returns on radar

  5. Radio Observations of the CME-poor region AR2192: a type II burst with no CME driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh; Vilmer, Nicole; Wakeford, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The remarkable sunspot group NOAA AR 2192 (October 2014) produced X-class flares without CMEs, and in general was large and powerful but with little heliospheric interaction. We discuss radio perspectives on the development of this region. In particular there were decametric type II bursts observed in association with jet-like flares SOL2014-10-21T12:28 (C4.4) and SOL2014-10-21T13:38 (M1.2), as first noted in the Glasgow Callisto observatory and confirmed via the Meudon decametric array. In cases such as this, the global coronal wave responsible for the type II emission seems to originate from an ejection of material flowing along a previously established field structure, rather than perpendicular to it as in a CME.

  6. Beat-type Langmuir wave emissions associated with a type III solar radio burst: Evidence of parametric decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Recent measurements from the plasma wave instrument on the Galileo spacecraft have shown that Langmuir waves observed in conjunction with a type III solar radio burst contain many beat-type waveforms, with beat frequencies ranging from about 150 to 650 Hz. Strong evidence exists that the beat pattern is produced by two closely spaced narrowband components. The most likely candidates for these two waves are a beam-generated Langmuir wave and an oppositely propagating Langmuir wave produced by parametric decay. In the parametric decay process, nonlinear interactions cause the beam-driven Langmuir wave to decay into a Langmuir wave and a low-frequency ion sound wave. Comparisons of the observed beat frequency are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for a three-wave parametric decay process. Weak low-frequency emissions are also sometimes observed at the predicted frequency of the ion sound wave.

  7. Constraints on Nonlinear and Stochastic Growth Theories for Type 3 Solar Radio Bursts from the Corona to 1 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    Existing, competing theories for coronal and interplanetary type III solar radio bursts appeal to one or more of modulational instability, electrostatic (ES) decay processes, or stochastic growth physics to preserve the electron beam, limit the levels of Langmuir-like waves driven by the beam, and produce wave spectra capable of coupling nonlinearly to generate the observed radio emission. Theoretical constraints exist on the wavenumbers and relative sizes of the wave bandwidth and nonlinear growth rate for which Langmuir waves are subject to modulational instability and the parametric and random phase versions of ES decay. A constraint also exists on whether stochastic growth theory (SGT) is appropriate. These constraints are evaluated here using the beam, plasma, and wave properties (1) observed in specific interplanetary type III sources, (2) predicted nominally for the corona, and (3) predicted at heliocentric distances greater than a few solar radii by power-law models based on interplanetary observations. It is found that the Langmuir waves driven directly by the beam have wavenumbers that are almost always too large for modulational instability but are appropriate to ES decay. Even for waves scattered to lower wavenumbers (by ES decay, for instance), the wave bandwidths are predicted to be too large and the nonlinear growth rates too small for modulational instability to occur for the specific interplanetary events studied or the great majority of Langmuir wave packets in type III sources at arbitrary heliocentric distances. Possible exceptions are for very rare, unusually intense, narrowband wave packets, predominantly close to the Sun, and for the front portion of very fast beams traveling through unusually dilute, cold solar wind plasmas. Similar arguments demonstrate that the ES decay should proceed almost always as a random phase process rather than a parametric process, with similar exceptions. These results imply that it is extremely rare for

  8. On the spectra of type-III solar radio bursts observed at low frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, H.

    1982-01-01

    The spectra of strong bursts observed at low frequencies by OGO-5 during 1968-1970 are presented. They usually exhibit an intense main peak between 100 kHz and 1 MHz, and sometimes a less intense secondary peak between 1 and 3.5 MHz. Main peaks of 10 to the -12th W per sq m per Hz or more were obtained in very strong events, but because of antenna calibration problems those could be one or two orders of magnitude too high. Recently published work supports the finding that type III bursts at low frequencies can be at least four orders of magnitude more intense than at ground-based frequencies of observation. It is found that the energy received at the earth increases with decreasing frequency approximately as f to the -n, where n is between 3 and 4.

  9. Correlation between terrestrial myriametric and kilometric radio bursts observed with Galileo

    SciTech Connect

    Louarn, P.; Hilgers, A.; Roux, A.

    1994-12-01

    The authors present results from wave measurements made by Galileo on transects of the magnetotail between R{sub e} of 30 and 80. They observe radiation in the myriametric and kilometric range. The myriametric radition has a continuous components, and a burstly component which correlated with the bursty nature of the kilometric radiation, originating on auroral field lines much closer to the earth. They present a mechanism to account for this wave activity, and its frequency dependence.

  10. Flare-generated Shock Wave Propagation through Solar Coronal Arcade Loops and an Associated Type II Radio Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Innes, D. E.; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents multiwavelength observations of a flare-generated type II radio burst. The kinematics of the shock derived from the type II burst closely match a fast extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wave seen propagating through coronal arcade loops. The EUV wave was closely associated with an impulsive M1.0 flare without a related coronal mass ejection, and was triggered at one of the footpoints of the arcade loops in active region NOAA 12035. It was initially observed in the 335 Å images from the Atmospheric Image Assembly with a speed of ˜800 km s‑1 and it accelerated to ˜1490 km s‑1 after passing through the arcade loops. A fan–spine magnetic topology was revealed at the flare site. A small, confined filament eruption (˜340 km s‑1) was also observed moving in the opposite direction to the EUV wave. We suggest that breakout reconnection in the fan–spine topology triggered the flare and associated EUV wave that propagated as a fast shock through the arcade loops.

  11. Flare-generated Shock Wave Propagation through Solar Coronal Arcade Loops and an Associated Type II Radio Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Innes, D. E.; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents multiwavelength observations of a flare-generated type II radio burst. The kinematics of the shock derived from the type II burst closely match a fast extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wave seen propagating through coronal arcade loops. The EUV wave was closely associated with an impulsive M1.0 flare without a related coronal mass ejection, and was triggered at one of the footpoints of the arcade loops in active region NOAA 12035. It was initially observed in the 335 Å images from the Atmospheric Image Assembly with a speed of ˜800 km s-1 and it accelerated to ˜1490 km s-1 after passing through the arcade loops. A fan-spine magnetic topology was revealed at the flare site. A small, confined filament eruption (˜340 km s-1) was also observed moving in the opposite direction to the EUV wave. We suggest that breakout reconnection in the fan-spine topology triggered the flare and associated EUV wave that propagated as a fast shock through the arcade loops.

  12. The source location of Jovian millisecond radio bursts with respect to Jupiter's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Francoise; Calvert, Wynne

    1988-01-01

    The location of the source of the Jovian S bursts was studied by comparing the high-frequency limit of these emissions, recorded in Nancay, to the surface gyrofrequency at the foot of the magnetic field lines which intersect Io's orbit, according to the O4 magnetic field model. For this purpose, the statistical occurrence of the S bursts was examined, both in central meridian longitude versus Io phase and as a function of the relative phase of Io with respect to Jupiter. The S bursts and the Io-dependent L emissions were found to originate from approximately the same locations at Jupiter, and probably under similar conditions of excitation by Io, although the beaming of these S emissions, which is indicated by the compactness of the occurrence patterns, was somewhat narrower than for the corresponding L emissions. Also, like the L emissions, an apparent delay of up to 70 deg was found to occur between the predicted instanteneous Io flux tube and the apparent source field line. The possible origin of this 70 deg delay is discussed.

  13. Automated Discovery of Short Duration Solar Radio Bursts in Murchison-Widefield Array (MWA) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timar, B.; Pankratius, V.; Lonsdale, C.; Oberoi, D.; Cappallo, R. J.; Matthews, L.

    2014-12-01

    Low-frequency radio observations of the Sun with the MWA have revealed a previously unknown class of weak radio events, with durations on the order of 1 second or less, and frequency widths of a few MHz. This radio phenomenon is not well-understood, and insight generation is difficult due to the large volume of data produced by the MWA at rates of several terabytes per hour. To address this situation, we developed a new approach for the detection, characterization, and classification of such events, as well as for the well-known Type III flares. Our technique consists of a pipeline of processing steps that starts with background noise estimation and subtraction. Radio events are then isolated algorithmically using region-growing techniques, wavelet decompositions, and thresholding. Physical parameter metadata for each event are then extracted and stored in a database. Scientists can query these data, filter events based on specified properties, and generate statistics and plots for exploratory studies. Our toolset is the first to empower MWA solar scientists with such computational intelligence in order to enhance their ability to interpret large numbers of short-lived events in voluminous MWA data. Computer vision approaches on solar images obtained from optical, x-ray, and infrared instruments are thus complemented by detections of phenomena in the radio frequency domain.

  14. Numerical simulation of nonlinear beam-plasma interaction for the application to solar radio burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakura, T.

    The Takakura (1977, 1979) semi-analytical method is used in numerical simulations of nonlinear scattering of axially-symmetric plasma waves into both plasma and radio waves, where the initial electron beam has a finite length and one-dimensional velocity distribution power law. The ratio between plasma wave and thermal electron energy densities is of the order of 10 to the -6th, which may be several orders of magnitude lower than the threshold value required for a caviton collapse of the plasma waves to occur. In addition, the second harmonic radio emission attributed to the coalescence of two plasma waves is several orders of magnitude higher than the fundamental radio emission caused by the scattering of plasma waves by thermal ions.

  15. Gamma-ray burst radio afterglows from Population III stars: simulation methods and detection prospects with SKA precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macpherson, D.; Coward, D.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the prospects of detecting radio afterglows from long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) from Population III (Pop III) progenitors using the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) precursor instruments MWA (Murchison Widefield Array) and ASKAP (Australian SKA Pathfinder). We derive a realistic model of GRB afterglows that encompasses the widest range of plausible physical parameters and observation angles. We define the best case scenario of Pop III GRB energy and redshift distributions. Using probability distribution functions fitted to the observed microphysical parameters of long GRBs, we simulate a large number of Pop III GRB afterglows to find the global probability of detection. We find that ASKAP may be able to detect 35 per cent of Pop III GRB afterglows in the optimistic case, and 27 per cent in the pessimistic case. A negligible number will be detectable by MWA in either case. Detections per image for ASKAP, found by incorporating intrinsic rates with detectable time-scales, are as high as ˜6000 and as low as ˜11, which shows the optimistic case is unrealistic. We track how the afterglow flux density changes over various time intervals and find that, because of their very slow variability, the cadence for blind searches of these afterglows should be as long as possible. We also find Pop III GRBs at high redshift have radio afterglow light curves that are indistinguishable from those of regular long GRBs in the more local Universe.

  16. Model-dependent estimate on the connection between fast radio bursts and ultra high energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiang; Zhou, Bei; He, Hao-Ning; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

    2014-12-10

    The existence of fast radio bursts (FRBs), a new type of extragalatic transient, has recently been established, and quite a few models have been proposed. In this work, we discuss the possible connection between the FRB sources and ultra high energy (>10{sup 18} eV) cosmic rays. We show that in the blitzar model and the model of merging binary neutron stars, which includes the huge energy release of each FRB central engine together with the rather high rate of FRBs, the accelerated EeV cosmic rays may contribute significantly to the observed ones. In other FRB models, including, for example, the merger of double white dwarfs and the energetic magnetar radio flares, no significant EeV cosmic ray is expected. We also suggest that the mergers of double neutron stars, even if they are irrelevant to FRBs, may play a nonignorable role in producing EeV cosmic ray protons if supramassive neutron stars are formed in a sufficient fraction of mergers and the merger rate is ≳ 10{sup 3} yr{sup –1} Gpc{sup –3}. Such a possibility will be unambiguously tested in the era of gravitational wave astronomy.

  17. Energetic Particle Propagation in the Inner Heliosphere as Deduced from Low Frequency (less than 100 kHz) Observations of Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) events are well-associated with solar flares. It is observed that the delay between the time of the flare and the first-arriving particles at a spacecraft increases with increasing difference between the flare longitude and the footpoint of the field line on which the spacecraft is located. This difference we call the "connection angle" and can be as large as approximately 120 deg. Recently it has been found that all SEP events are preceded by type III radio bursts. These bursts are plasma emission caused by the propagation of 2-50 keV flare electrons through the solar corona and into the solar wind. The drift of these type III radio bursts to lower and lower frequencies enables the propagation of the flare electrons to be traced from the Sun to about 1 AU. We have made an extensive analysis of the type III bursts associated with greater than 20 MeV proton events and find that, in most cases, the radio emission extends to the local plasma frequency when the energetic particles arrive within a few hours of the flare. We conclude that this emission at the lowest possible frequency is generated close to the spacecraft. We then use the time from when the burst started at the Sun to when it reached the local plasma frequency to infer the time it took the radio producing electrons to travel to the spacecraft. We find that these delay times are organized by the connection angle and correlate with the proton delay times. We also find that the differences between the radio delays at Wind and Ulysses are matched by differences in the relative arrival times of the energetic particles at the two spacecraft. The consistent timing between the relative arrival times of energetic electrons and protons and the start of the lowest frequency radio emissions suggests that the first arriving particles of both species are accelerated as part of the flare process and that they propagate to the spacecraft along trajectories similar to those of the lower

  18. A burst in a wind bubble and the impact on baryonic ejecta: high-energy gamma-ray flashes and afterglows from fast radio bursts and pulsar-driven supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Kohta; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Mészáros, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Tenuous wind bubbles, which are formed by the spin-down activity of central compact remnants, are relevant in some models of fast radio bursts (FRBs) and superluminous supernovae (SNe). We study their high-energy signatures, focusing on the role of pair-enriched bubbles produced by young magnetars, rapidly rotating neutron stars, and magnetized white dwarfs. (i) First, we study the nebular properties and the conditions allowing for escape of high-energy gamma-rays and radio waves, showing that their escape is possible for nebulae with ages of ≳10-100 yr. In the rapidly rotating neutron star scenario, we find that radio emission from the quasi-steady nebula itself may be bright enough to be detected especially at sub-mm frequencies, which is relevant as a possible counterpart of pulsar-driven SNe and FRBs. (ii) Secondly, we consider the fate of bursting emission in the nebulae. We suggest that an impulsive burst may lead to a highly relativistic flow, which would interact with the nebula. If the shocked nebula is still relativistic, pre-existing non-thermal particles in the nebula can be significantly boosted by the forward shock, leading to short-duration (maybe millisecond or longer) high-energy gamma-ray flashes. Possible dissipation at the reverse shock may also lead to gamma-ray emission. (iii) After such flares, interactions with the baryonic ejecta may lead to afterglow emission with a duration of days to weeks. In the magnetar scenario, this burst-in-bubble model leads to the expectation that nearby (≲10-100 Mpc) high-energy gamma-ray flashes may be detected by the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory and the Cherenkov Telescope Array, and the subsequent afterglow emission may be seen by radio telescopes such as the Very Large Array. (iv) Finally, we discuss several implications specific to FRBs, including constraints on the emission regions and limits on soft gamma-ray counterparts.

  19. Saturnian Low-Frequency Drifting Radio Bursts: Statistical Properties and Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubenschuss, U.; Leisner, J. S.; Fischer, G.; Gurnett, D. A.; Nemec, F.

    After Cassini's arrival at planet Saturn, its Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) experiment has performed numerous observations of a new type of planetary radio emissions in the lower kHz frequency range (< 50 kHz). These bursty emissions have time scales of a few to 15 minutes and occur as slowly drifting events in the time-frequency spectrogram. They have neither been detected by the Voyager spacecraft nor by Ulysses. As a first approach to this new phenomenon, results of a statistical study with regard to the observer's position, i.e. Cassini's orbital position, will be presented. Furthermore, aspects of polarization will be highlighted as far as appropriate goniopolarimetric (3-antenna) observations are available.

  20. Observations of the Flux Density of Some Interplanetary Type II and Type III Radio Bursts and Initial Comparisons With Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Mohamed, A. A. A.; Hillan, D.; Robinson, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    The measured intensity of a radio signal depends on the effective antenna length, which may vary with (at least) the plasma properties and radiation frequency. Here the effective antenna lengths are estimated as a function of frequency for the RAD1 and RAD2 instruments on the WIND spacecraft when in SUM mode. This is done by calibrating against the known galactic background radiation spectrum after removal of receiver noise and thermal plasma noise where possible. Flux density spectra and lower limits to the maximum brightness temperature are determined for three type II and three type III radio bursts based on two calibration methods, one of which uses the effective antenna lengths as a function of frequency. The second calibration method uses Wind data for the relative flux in dB to equate the minimum flux observed with the galactic background and receiver noise. The results emphasize that the second method is more successful in obtaining calibrated type II and III fluxes. Calibrated flux densities obtained show that The type IIs have similar maximum flux densities to the type III events in this sample, but the type IIs are much more variable in frequency and time. Theoretical predictions are obtained for shocks moving with a suitable range of initial speeds and accelerations. Dynamic spectra are then predicted for the three selected type II events using the theory of Knock et al. [2001] and a simple, unstructured, solar wind model. Because of the continuous emission of 24-26 August 1998 that is present in a wide range from 100 MHz to 21 kHz, albeit with strongly varying intensity, a comparison between its observed and predicted dynamic spectra is presented. The agreement between theory and data is discussed and the implications described for future modeling.

  1. Current understanding of the physics of type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    1980-01-01

    One of the most exciting plasma physics investigations of recent years has been connected with the understanding of a new strong turbulent plasma state excited by propagating electron beams. This new state is initiated on the linear level by parametric instabilities (OTS, modulational, etc.) and results in a very dynamic state composed of collective clusters of modes called solitons, cavitons, spikons, etc. Introduction of these concepts into the classic beam-plasma interaction problem has rendered quasi-linear and weak turbulence theories inapplicable over most of the interesting parameter range, and helped explain many paradoxes connected with the propagation of beams in the laboratory and space. Following a brief review of these nonlinear notions, the means by which their application to type III solar radiobursts has revolutionized understanding of their propagation, radioemission and scaling properties and has guided the in situ observations towards a more complete understanding are demonstrated. A particular burst (May 16, 1971) is analyzed in detail and compared with numerical predictions.

  2. Electron beams and Langmuir turbulence in solar type III radio bursts observed in the interplanetary medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of in situ observations of electron beams, plasma waves, and associated solar type II radio emission in the interplanetary medium near 1 AU, which were provided by the ISEE-3 spacecraft. It is shown that electron beams are formed by the faster electrons arriving before the slower ones, following an impulsive injection at the sun. The resulting bump-on-tail in the reduced 1D distribution function is unstable to the growth of electrostatic electron plasma (Langmuir) waves. The Langmuir waves are observed to be highly impulsive in nature. The onset and temporal variations of the observed plasma waves are in good qualitative agreement with the wave growth expected from the evolution of the measured 1D distribution function. The lack of obvious plateauing of the bump-on-tail suggests that the waves were removed from resonance with the beam electrons by some wave-wave interaction.

  3. The Class of Type III-L Solar Radio Bursts and Their Associations with Solar Energetic Proton Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffin, Robert Thomas

    2011-05-01

    The source protons of Solar Energetic particle Proton events (defined as "SEP" events for this research) not associated with the Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) shock front are thought to come from either the flare site or the reconnection region beneath the CME. The Type III-L, a new class of solar radio burst has been defined by Cane et al. (2002) and MacDowall et al. (2003) as a sub-set of the Type III burst, beginning after the onset of the soft X-ray (SXR) flare, is long lasting and extends down to at least 1 MHz. The emission source region of Type III-Ls is believed to be at the reconnection region beneath the CME or on the flanks of the CME. Past association studies between SEP events and Type III-Ls began with a biased SEP-selected sample set to see if there can be found support for the emission source region of Type III-Ls and SEPs to come from the same accelerator site at the reconnection region beneath the CME. Unlike previous studies using an SEP-selected sample, I find that when using a radio-selected sample for well-connected SEP events with a solar source in the western hemisphere, the majority of the Type III-L events are associated with SEP events, but not all, and that Type III-L events associated with M- and X- class SXR flares, do not appear to be better predictors of SEP events than do Type II bursts which are associated with the CME shock. Also, I find that the occurrence of Type II events in the radio spectra of SEPs is just as common as the occurrence of Type III-Ls. This indicates that Type III-Ls should not be used as a predictor for SEP events, that the emission source region of Type III-Ls might not be at the reconnection region beneath the CME and reduces the strength of the support found by previous SEP-Type III-L association studies, that the source protons for SEP events necessarily come from the reconnection region beneath the CME. I found that Type III-L events have no strong longitude preference, but SEP events do have a 60

  4. The Beaming Structures of Jupiter’s Decametric Common S-bursts Observed from the LWA1, NDA, and URAN2 Radio Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Masafumi; Lecacheux, Alain; Clarke, Tracy E.; Higgins, Charles A.; Panchenko, Mykhaylo; Dowell, Jayce; Imai, Kazumasa; Brazhenko, Anatolii I.; Frantsuzenko, Anatolii V.; Konovalenko, Alexandr A.

    2016-08-01

    On 2015 February 21, simultaneous observations of Jupiter's decametric radio emission between 10 and 33 MHz were carried out using three powerful low-frequency radio telescopes: the Long Wavelength Array Station One in the USA, the Nançay Decameter Array in France, and the URAN2 telescope in Ukraine. We measured the lag times of short-bursts (S-bursts) for 105 minutes of data over effective baselines of up to 8460 km by using cross-correlation analysis of the spectrograms from each instrument. Of particular interest is the measurement of the beaming thickness of S-bursts, testing if either flashlight- or beacon-like beaming is emanating from Jupiter. We find that the lag times for all pairs drift slightly as time elapses, in agreement with expectations from the flashlight-like beaming model. This leads to a new constraint of the minimum beaming thickness of 2.″66. Also, we find that most of the analyzed data abound with S-bursts, whose occurrence probability peaks at 17-18 MHz.

  5. The Beaming Structures of Jupiter’s Decametric Common S-bursts Observed from the LWA1, NDA, and URAN2 Radio Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Masafumi; Lecacheux, Alain; Clarke, Tracy E.; Higgins, Charles A.; Panchenko, Mykhaylo; Dowell, Jayce; Imai, Kazumasa; Brazhenko, Anatolii I.; Frantsuzenko, Anatolii V.; Konovalenko, Alexandr A.

    2016-08-01

    On 2015 February 21, simultaneous observations of Jupiter's decametric radio emission between 10 and 33 MHz were carried out using three powerful low-frequency radio telescopes: the Long Wavelength Array Station One in the USA, the Nançay Decameter Array in France, and the URAN2 telescope in Ukraine. We measured the lag times of short-bursts (S-bursts) for 105 minutes of data over effective baselines of up to 8460 km by using cross-correlation analysis of the spectrograms from each instrument. Of particular interest is the measurement of the beaming thickness of S-bursts, testing if either flashlight- or beacon-like beaming is emanating from Jupiter. We find that the lag times for all pairs drift slightly as time elapses, in agreement with expectations from the flashlight-like beaming model. This leads to a new constraint of the minimum beaming thickness of 2.″66. Also, we find that most of the analyzed data abound with S-bursts, whose occurrence probability peaks at 17–18 MHz.

  6. A Decade of Solar Type III Radio Bursts Observed by the Nançay Radioheliograph 1998-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Hilaire, P.; Vilmer, N.; Kerdraon, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a statistical survey of almost 10,000 radio type III bursts observed by the Nançay Radioheliograph from 1998 to 2008, covering nearly a full solar cycle. In particular, sources sizes, positions, and fluxes were examined. We find an east-west asymmetry in source positions that could be attributed to a 6° ± 1° eastward tilt of the magnetic field, that source FWHM sizes s roughly follow a solar-cycle-averaged distribution (dN/ds) ≈ 14 ν-3.3 s -4 arcmin-1 day-1, and that source fluxes closely follow a solar-cycle-averaged (dN/ds ν) ≈ 0.34 ν-2.9 S -1.7 ν sfu-1 day-1 distribution (when ν is in GHz, s in arcminutes, and S ν in sfu). Fitting a barometric density profile yields a temperature of 0.6 MK, while a solar wind-like (vproph -2) density profile yields a density of 1.2 × 106 cm-3 at an altitude of 1 RS , assuming harmonic emission. Finally, we found that the solar-cycle-averaged radiated type III energy could be similar in magnitude to that radiated by nanoflares via non-thermal bremsstrahlung processes, and we hint at the possibility that escaping electron beams might carry as much energy away from the corona as is introduced into it by accelerated nanoflare electrons.

  7. Synchrotron Heating by a Fast Radio Burst in a Self-absorbed Synchrotron Nebula and Its Observational Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Zhang, Bing; Dai, Zi-Gao

    2016-03-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are mysterious transient sources. If extragalactic, as suggested by their relative large dispersion measures, their brightness temperatures must be extremely high. Some FRB models (e.g., young pulsar model, magnetar giant flare model, or supra-massive neutron star collapse model) suggest that they may be associated with a synchrotron nebula. Here we study a synchrotron-heating process by an FRB in a self-absorbed synchrotron nebula. If the FRB frequency is below the synchrotron self-absorption frequency of the nebula, electrons in the nebula would absorb FRB photons, leading to a harder electron spectrum and enhanced self-absorbed synchrotron emission. In the meantime, the FRB flux is absorbed by the nebula electrons. We calculate the spectra of FRB-heated synchrotron nebulae, and show that the nebula spectra would show a significant hump in several decades near the self-absorption frequency. Identifying such a spectral feature would reveal an embedded FRB in a synchrotron nebula.

  8. Limits on Fast Radio Bursts and other transient sources at 182 MHz using the Murchison Widefield Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlinson, A.; Bell, M. E.; Murphy, T.; Trott, C. M.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston, S.; Tingay, S. J.; Kaplan, D. L.; Carbone, D.; Hancock, P. J.; Feng, L.; Offringa, A. R.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Deshpande, A. A.; Gaensler, B. M.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Oberoi, D.; Ord, S. M.; Prabu, T.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2016-06-01

    We present a survey for transient and variable sources, on time-scales from 28 s to ˜1 yr, using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) at 182 MHz. Down to a detection threshold of 0.285 Jy, no transient candidates were identified, making this the most constraining low-frequency survey to date and placing a limit on the surface density of transients of <4.1 × 10-7 deg-2 for the shortest time-scale considered. At these frequencies, emission from Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) is expected to be detectable in the shortest time-scale images without any corrections for interstellar or intergalactic dispersion. At an FRB limiting flux density of 7980 Jy, we find a rate of <82 FRBs per sky per day for dispersion measures <700 pc cm-3. Assuming a cosmological population of standard candles, our rate limits are consistent with the FRB rates obtained by Thornton et al. if they have a flat spectral slope. Finally, we conduct an initial variability survey of sources in the field with flux densities ≳0.5 Jy and identify no sources with significant variability in their light curves. However, we note that substantial further work is required to fully characterize both the short-term and low-level variability within this field.

  9. The stability of decametric type III burst parameters over the 11-year solar activity cycle - The frequency drift rate of radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abranin, E. P.; Bazelyan, L. L.; Tsybko, Y. G.

    1990-02-01

    Results are presented from measurements of the frequency drift rates for the maximum of the solar type III and IIIb-III bursts in the 25-12.5 MHz range during the period from 1973 to 1984. In the decameter wavelength range, the frequency drift rate is proportional to the value of observational frequency and has a weak dependence on the type of phase within the 11-yr solar cycle. The results are compared with results for the hectometer range, showing that the hectometer type II burst generation process generally occurs at the first harmonic. Data on the frequency dependence of the drift rates at hectometer and decameter wavelengths are consistent with the generation of type II bursts in the streamer at a burst source speed of about 0.3 s.

  10. Instrument technology for magnetosphere plasma imaging from high Earth orbit. Design of a radio plasma sounder. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, D.M.; Reinisch, B.W.

    1995-01-01

    The use of radio sounding techniques for the study of the ionospheric plasma dates back to G. Briet and M. A. Tuve in 1926. Ground based swept frequency sounders can monitor the electron number density (N{sub e}) as a function of height (the N{sub e} profile). These early instruments evolved into a global network that produced high-resolution displays of echo time delay vs frequency on 35-mm film. These instruments provided the foundation for the success of the International Geophysical Year. The Alouette and International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) programs pioneered the used of spaceborne, swept frequency sounders to obtain N{sub e} profiles of the topside of the ionosphere, from a position above the electron density maximum. Repeated measurements during the orbit produced an orbital plane contour which routinely provided density measurements to within 10%. The Alouette/ISIS experience also showed that even with a high powered transmitter (compared to the low power sounder possible today) a radio sounder can be compatible with other imaging instruments on the same satellite. Digital technology was used on later spacecraft developed by the Japanese (the EXOS C and D) and the Soviets (Intercosmos 19 and Cosmos 1809). However, a full coherent pulse compression and spectral integrating capability, such as exist today for ground-based sounders (Reinisch et al.), has never been put into space. NASA`s 1990 Space Physics Strategy Implementation Study `The NASA Space Physics Program from 1995 to 2010` suggested using radio sounders to study the plasmasphere and the magnetopause and its boundary layers (Green and Fung). Both the magnetopause and plasmasphere, as well as the cusp and boundary layers, can be observed by a radio sounder in a high-inclination polar orbit with an apogee greater than 6 R{sub e} (Reiff et al.; Calvert et al.).

  11. Limits on gamma-ray burst prompt radio emission using the LWA1

    SciTech Connect

    Obenberger, K. S.; Taylor, G. B.; Craig, J.; Dowell, J.; Henning, P. A.; Schinzel, F. K.; Hartman, J. M.; Helmboldt, J. F.; Wilson, T. L.

    2014-04-10

    As a backend to the first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1), the Prototype All Sky Imager has been imaging the sky > –26° declination during 34 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) between 2012 January and 2013 May. Using this data, we were able to put the most stringent limits to date on prompt low-frequency emission from GRBs. While our limits depend on the zenith angle of the observed GRB, we estimate a 1σ rms sensitivity of 68, 65, and 70 Jy for 5 s integrations at 37.9, 52.0, and 74.0 MHz at zenith. These limits are relevant for pulses ≥5 s and are limited by dispersion smearing. For 5 s pulses, we are limited to dispersion measures (DMs) ≤ 220, 570, and 1600 pc cm{sup –3} for the frequencies above. For pulses lasting longer than 5 s, the DM limits increase linearly with the duration of the pulse. We also report two interesting transients, which are, as of yet, of unknown origin and are not coincident with any known GRBs. For general transients, we give rate density limits of ≤7.5 × 10{sup –3}, 2.9 × 10{sup –2}, and 1.4 × 10{sup –2} yr{sup –1} deg{sup –2} with pulse energy densities >1.3 × 10{sup –22}, 1.1 × 10{sup –22}, and 1.4 × 10{sup –22} J m{sup –2} Hz{sup –1} and pulse widths of 5 s at the frequencies given above.

  12. Source mechanism of Saturn drifting bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubenschuss, U.; Schippers, P.; Leisner, J. S.; Fischer, G.; Gurnett, D. A.; Persoon, A. M.; Faden, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Saturn drifting bursts (SDBs) are a new class of Kronian radio emission detected by the Cassini spacecraft in the lower kHz frequency range (< 50 kHz). Their bursty nature and slow drift in the time-frequency spectrogram clearly distinguish them from other types of radio emissions which are observed around Saturn. A statistical analysis of more than 5 years of data (mid 2004 - 2010) constrains source regions to the middle magnetosphere (6 - 15 Rs; 1 Rs = 60268 km). For this region, we show observational evidence of mode conversion, i.e. a conversion from electrostatic upper hybrid resonance oscillations to the electromagnetic O-mode and/or Z-mode. Mode conversion is suggested to be the source for SDBs. Furthermore, the special beaming pattern of the radiation is investigated with ray-tracing studies in the frame of the cold plasma theory.

  13. Possible Role of Coronal Streamer as Magnetically-closed Structure in Shock-induced Energetic Electrons and Metric Type II Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, X.; Chen, Y.; Guo, F.; Li, G.

    2014-12-01

    Solar type II radio bursts are excited by energetic electrons accelerated at coronal eruption-driven shocks. Streamers are quasi-steady and dense, and magnetically-closed structures in the corona, where the Alfven speed is much lower and plasma outflow is much slower than that of the surroundings, therefore are expected to facilitate the formation/enhancement of shocks. In recent studies, streamers have been suspected to be important on the generation of type II radio bursts and the morphology of radio dynamic spectra. In this study, we first present two type II events in which the type II ends upon the CME front (shock) passing by the streamer tip (cusp). The observations lead us to conjecture that the large-scale closed magnetic field of the streamer may be important to electron acceleration at coronal shocks and excitation of type II bursts. To validate this physical implication, we develop a streamer-shock model consisting of a streamer and an outward-propagating shock, and perform a test-particle simulation. It shows that only those electrons that are injected within the closed field regions can be accelerated efficiently, and the trapping effect via closed field lines allows the trapped electrons to return to the shock front multiple times and be repetitively accelerated. We suggest that the scenario may be potentially important to the generation of more metric type IIs considering the fact that most solar eruptions originate from closed field regions. This scenario also provides an explanation to the ending frequencies of many metric type IIs and the long-standing issue of the disconnection between metric and interplanetary type II bursts.

  14. A Search for Fast Radio Bursts at Low Frequencies with Murchison Widefield Array High Time Resolution Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Wayth, R. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Deshpande, A. A.; Feng, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hancock, P. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Murphy, T.; Oberoi, D.; Prabu, T.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of a pilot study search for fast radio bursts (FRBs) using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) at low frequencies (139-170 MHz). We utilized MWA data obtained in a routine imaging mode from observations where the primary target was a field being studied for Epoch of Reionization detection. We formed images with 2 s time resolution and 1.28 MHz frequency resolution for 10.5 hr of observations, over 400 square degrees of the sky. We de-dispersed the dynamic spectrum in each of 372,100 resolution elements of 2 × 2 arcmin2, between dispersion measures of 170 and 675 pc cm-3. Based on the event rate calculations in Trott et al., which assume a standard candle luminosity of 8 × 1037 Js-1, we predict that with this choice of observational parameters, the MWA should detect (˜10, ˜2, ˜0) FRBs with spectral indices corresponding to (-2, -1, 0), based on a 7σ detection threshold. We find no FRB candidates above this threshold from our search, placing an event rate limit of \\lt 700 above 700 Jy ms per day per sky and providing evidence against spectral indices α \\lt -1.2 (S\\propto {ν }α ). We compare our event rate and spectral index limits with others from the literature. We briefly discuss these limits in light of recent suggestions that supergiant pulses from young neutron stars could explain FRBs. We find that such supergiant pulses would have to have much flatter spectra between 150 and 1400 MHz than have been observed from Crab giant pulses to be consistent with the FRB spectral index limit we derive.

  15. Fine Structure in Type IV Solar Radio Bursts during three major Solar Events of October-November 2003 observed by Artemis IV.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitsipis, P.; Kontogeorgos, A.; Caroubalos, C.; Moussas, X.; Hillaris, A.; Preka-Papadema, P.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Alissandrakis, C.; Dumas, G.; Polygiannakis, J.

    The fine structure in three solar type IV radio bursts was studied using the French-Greek ARTEMIS-IV multichannel radio spectrograph. The bursts were recorded during three major solar events, on the 26 and 28 October.and 3 Nov. 2003; these we associated with intense flares and CMEs. The observed fine structure includes intermediate drift bursts (fibers) and pulsations. The complexity and overlapping of the various spectral characteristics necessitated the utilization of certain, 2D-FFT based, filtering processes, aiming firstly at structure detection in the frequency-time plane (ie the dynamic spectrum) and secondly in the separation of fibers and pulsations and the suppression of the type IV continuum. This methodology results also to the fibers frequency drift rate distributions and their evolution in time. These fiber frequency drift distributions may be interpreted as the exciter velocity distributions, using a Newkirk coronal density model; the latter may be used as diagnostics of the magnetic field restructuring and energy release during a solar energetic event (flare and/or CME). Artemis IV will provide complementary data to the STEREO/WAVES experiment.

  16. A comparison of the radio data and model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation. I - The high energy electron distribution in Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. II - East-west asymmetry in the radiation belts as a function of Jovian longitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pater, I.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison has been made between detailed model calculations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation and the radio data at wavelengths of 6, 21, and 50 cm. The calculations were performed for a Jovian longitude of 200 deg and were based on the multipole field configurations as derived from the Pioneer data. The electron distribution in the inner magnetosphere was derived as a function of energy, pitch angle, and spatial coordinates. In addition, the hot region or east-west asymmetry in the radiation belts is investigated. It is suggested that this asymmetry is due to the combined effect of an overabundance of electrons at jovicentric longitudes of 240-360 deg and the existence of a dusk-to-dawn directed electric field over the inner magnetosphere generated by the wind system in the upper atmosphere.

  17. Planetary magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.; Ness, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    A concise overview is presented of our understanding of planetary magnetospheres (and in particular, of that of the Earth), as of the end of 1981. Emphasis is placed on processes of astrophysical interest, e.g., on particle acceleration, collision-free shocks, particle motion, parallel electric fields, magnetic merging, substorms, and large scale plasma flows. The general morphology and topology of the Earth's magnetosphere are discussed, and important results are given about the magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn and Mercury, including those derived from the Voyager 1 and 2 missions and those related to Jupiter's satellite Io. About 160 references are cited, including many reviews from which additional details can be obtained.

  18. GRB 090313 AND THE ORIGIN OF OPTICAL PEAKS IN GAMMA-RAY BURST LIGHT CURVES: IMPLICATIONS FOR LORENTZ FACTORS AND RADIO FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Melandri, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Mundell, C. G.; Guidorzi, C.; Bersier, D.; Steele, I. A.; Smith, R. J.; De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Pooley, G.; Yoshida, M.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Kubanek, P.; Sota, A.; Gomboc, A.; Bremer, M.; Winters, J. M.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; GarcIa-Appadoo, D.

    2010-11-10

    We use a sample of 19 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that exhibit single-peaked optical light curves to test the standard fireball model by investigating the relationship between the time of the onset of the afterglow and the temporal rising index. Our sample includes GRBs and X-ray flashes for which we derive a wide range of initial Lorentz factors (40 < {Gamma} < 450). Using plausible model parameters, the typical frequency of the forward shock is expected to lie close to the optical band; within this low typical frequency framework, we use the optical data to constrain {epsilon}{sub e} and show that values derived from the early time light-curve properties are consistent with published typical values derived from other afterglow studies. We produce expected radio light curves by predicting the temporal evolution of the expected radio emission from forward and reverse shock components, including synchrotron self-absorption effects at early time. Although a number of GRBs in this sample do not have published radio measurements, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in the case of Swift GRB 090313, for which millimetric and centimetric observations were available, and conclude that future detections of reverse-shock radio flares with new radio facilities such as the EVLA and ALMA will test the low-frequency model and provide constraints on magnetic models.

  19. Sawtooth bursts: observations and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlický, M.; Bárta, M.; Klassen, A.; Aurass, H.; Mann, G.

    2002-12-01

    An example of the sawtooth burst observed during the November 3, 1997 flare is shown. Basic parameters of the sawtooth bursts are summarized and compared with those of fibers, fiber chains, zebras, EEL bursts and lace bursts. The sawtooth bursts are found to be most similar to the lace bursts, therefore the lace bursts model is proposed also for them. Then using this model the dynamic spectrum with the sawtooth burst is modelled. The model considers accelerated electrons with an unstable distribution function on the double resonance frequency and quasi-periodic variations of the electron plasma density and/or magnetic field in the radio source.

  20. Effect of solar radio bursts on GNSS signal reception over Europe for the period 1999-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Bergeot, Nicolas; Marqué, Christophe; Aerts, Wim; Bruyninx, Carine

    2015-04-01

    Intense solar radio bursts (SRB) emitted at L-band frequencies can affect the carrier-to-noise C/N0 ratio of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signals by increasing the background noise. Such space weather events can consequently decrease the quality of GNSS-based results especially for kinematic high-precision positioning. It is thus important to develop a method capable to detect such events in near real time on a wide area. For this purpose, the ROB-IONO software was adapted for analysing the effect of SRB on the dense EUREF Permanent GNSS Network (EPN). First, S1 and S2 raw data extracted from RINEX files were converted into the C/N0 unit (dB.Hz) taking into account manufacturer corrections. Then, the differences (ΔC/N0) between all these C/N0observables and their medians of the 7 previous satellite ground track repeat cycles, i.e. their normal quiet state, were computed. The mean of all these well-calibrated ΔC/N0values from different GNSS receivers and satellites offer at each epoch a reliable metric to detect and quantify the impact of a SRB. We investigated the degradation of GPS and GLONASS C/N0 on the entire EPN during 10 intense SRBs occurring at daylight over Europe between 1999 and 2013. The analysis shows that: (1) GPS and GLONASS ΔC/N0 agree at the 0.1±0.2dB.Hz level; (2) The standard deviation of the mean ΔC/N0of the EPN GNSS receivers is below 1dB.Hz 96% of the time, and below 0.6dB.Hz 76% of the time; (3) maximum ΔC/N0 degradation occurs at the epoch of maximum solar peak flux delivered by the solar ground observatories; (4) C/N0 degradation becomes larger with increasing solar zenithal angle. Consequently, the ROB-IONO software is capable to detect the degradation of GNSS signal reception over Europe due to SRBs. In addition, by taking advantage of the increasing number of EPN stations delivering C/N0 data since 2005, even less intense SRB events can now be detected. Finally, the developed method can be completely applied in near

  1. Multi-instrument overview of the 1-hour pulsations in Saturn's magnetosphere and auroral emissions (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmaerts, Benjamin; Roussos, Elias; Radioti, Aikaterini; Krupp, Norbert; Grodent, Denis; Kurth, William S.; Yates, Japheth N.

    2016-04-01

    The in-situ exploration of the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn has revealed different periodic processes which differ from the rotation period. In particular, in the Saturnian magnetosphere, several studies have reported pulsations in the outer magnetosphere with a periodicity of about 1 hour in the measurements of charged particle fluxes, plasma wave, magnetic field strength and auroral emission brightness. We made a 10-year survey of the quasi-periodic 1-hour energetic electron injections observed in the Saturn's outer magnetosphere by the Low-Energy Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI/LEMMS) on board Cassini. The signature of these injections is pulsations in the electron fluxes at energies between a hundred keV up to several MeV. We investigated the topology and the morphology of these pulsations, as well as the signatures of the electron injections in the radio emissions and the magnetic field, respectively, measured by the Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) instrument and the magnetometer (MAG) on board Cassini. The morphology of the pulsations (interpulse period, number of pulsations per event, growth and decay time) shows a weak local time dependence, which suggests a high-latitude source for the pulsed energetic electrons. This suggestion is reinforced by the observation of strong radio bursts in the auroral hiss coincident with the electron pulsations and by the higher growth rate and decay rate magnitudes at high latitudes. Moreover, since the morphological properties of the pulsations are similar at the various locations where the electron injections are observed, the acceleration mechanism of the electrons is likely common for all the events and may be directly or indirectly involving magnetic reconnection. The auroral emissions, which display the ionospheric response to magnetospheric dynamics, exhibit some quasi-periodic 1-hour pulsations as well. Some pulsed auroral brightenings are observed while Cassini detects several electron

  2. Probing geomagnetic storm-driven magnetosphere-ionosphere dynamics in D-region via propagation characteristics of very low frequency radio signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwankwo, Victor U. J.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Ogunmodimu, Olugbenga

    2016-07-01

    The amplitude and phase of VLF/LF radio signals are sensitive to changes in electrical conductivity of the lower ionosphere which imprints its signature on the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. This characteristic makes it useful in studying sudden ionospheric disturbances, especially those related to prompt X-ray flux output from solar flares and gamma ray bursts (GRBs). However, strong geomagnetic disturbance and storm conditions are known to produce large and global ionospheric disturbances, which can significantly affect VLF radio propagation in the D region of the ionosphere. In this paper, using the data of three propagation paths at mid-latitudes (40-54°), we analyse the trend in variation of aspects of VLF diurnal signal under varying solar and geomagnetic space environmental conditions in order to identify possible geomagnetic footprints on the D region characteristics. We found that the trend of variations generally reflected the prevailing space weather conditions in various time scales. In particular, the 'dipping' of mid-day signal amplitude peak (MDP) occurs after significant geomagnetic perturbed or storm conditions in the time scale of 1-2 days. The mean signal amplitude before sunrise (MBSR) and mean signal amplitude after sunset (MASS) also exhibit storm-induced dipping, but they appear to be influenced by event's exact occurrence time and the highly variable conditions of dusk-to-dawn ionosphere. We also observed few cases of the signals rise (e.g., MDP, MBSR or MASS) following a significant geomagnetic event. This effect may be related to storms associated phenomena or effects arising from sources other than solar origin. The magnitude of induced dipping (or rise) significantly depends on the intensity and duration of event(s), as well as the propagation path of the signal. The post-storm day signal (following a main event, with lesser or significantly reduced geomagnetic activity) exhibited a tendency of recovery to pre-storm day level. In the

  3. Radio data transmission for SCADA

    SciTech Connect

    Frasier, W.E. )

    1989-09-01

    Enron has used such wireless systems as meteor burst radio, 952 MHz multiple address radio, VSAT and L-band satellite, cellular radio and ACSB radio. The company's experience with meteor burst radio communications is discussed in this paper. It indicates good system reliability and consequently all back-up telephone lines have been removed from sites using this system.

  4. Height of Shock Formation in the Solar Corona Inferred from Observations of Type II Radio Bursts and Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Makela, P.; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.; Uddin, W.; Srivastava, A. K.; Joshi, N. C.; Chandra, R.; Manoharan, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    Employing coronagraphic and EUV observations close to the solar surface made by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission, we determined the heliocentric distance of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the starting time of associated metric type II bursts. We used the wave diameter and leading edge methods and measured the CME heights for a set of 32 metric type II bursts from solar cycle 24. We minimized the projection effects by making the measurements from a view that is roughly orthogonal to the direction of the ejection. We also chose image frames close to the onset times of the type II bursts, so no extrapolation was necessary. We found that the CMEs were located in the heliocentric distance range from 1.20 to 1.93 solar radii (Rs), with mean and median values of 1.43 and 1.38 Rs, respectively. We conclusively find that the shock formation can occur at heights substantially below 1.5 Rs. In a few cases, the CME height at type II onset was close to 2 Rs. In these cases, the starting frequency of the type II bursts was very low, in the range 25-40 MHz, which confirms that the shock can also form at larger heights. The starting frequencies of metric type II bursts have a weak correlation with the measured CME/shock heights and are consistent with the rapid decline of density with height in the inner corona.

  5. CONNECTING GRBs AND ULIRGs: A SENSITIVE, UNBIASED SURVEY FOR RADIO EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY BURST HOST GALAXIES AT 0 < z < 2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Perley, D. A.; Perley, R. A.; Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D.; Michałowski, M. J.; Cenko, S. B.; Krühler, T.; Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.

    2015-03-10

    Luminous infrared galaxies and submillimeter galaxies contribute significantly to stellar mass assembly and provide an important test of the connection between the gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate and that of overall cosmic star formation. We present sensitive 3 GHz radio observations using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of 32 uniformly selected GRB host galaxies spanning a redshift range from 0 < z < 2.5, providing the first fully dust- and sample-unbiased measurement of the fraction of GRBs originating from the universe's most bolometrically luminous galaxies. Four galaxies are detected, with inferred radio star formation rates (SFRs) ranging between 50 and 300 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Three of the four detections correspond to events consistent with being optically obscured 'dark' bursts. Our overall detection fraction implies that between 9% and 23% of GRBs between 0.5 < z < 2.5 occur in galaxies with S {sub 3GHz} > 10 μJy, corresponding to SFR > 50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at z ∼ 1 or >250 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at z ∼ 2. Similar galaxies contribute approximately 10%-30% of all cosmic star formation, so our results are consistent with a GRB rate that is not strongly biased with respect to the total SFR of a galaxy. However, all four radio-detected hosts have stellar masses significantly lower than IR/submillimeter-selected field galaxies of similar luminosities. We suggest that the GRB rate may be suppressed in metal-rich environments but independently enhanced in intense starbursts, producing a strong efficiency dependence on mass but little net dependence on bulk galaxy SFR.

  6. Broad-band modelling of short gamma-ray bursts with energy injection from magnetar spin-down and its implications for radio detectability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gompertz, B. P.; van der Horst, A. J.; O'Brien, P. T.; Wynn, G. A.; Wiersema, K.

    2015-03-01

    The magnetar model has been proposed to explain the apparent energy injection in the X-ray light curves of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs), but its implications across the full broad-band spectrum are not well explored. We investigate the broad-band modelling of four SGRBs with evidence for energy injection in their X-ray light curves, applying a physically motivated model in which a newly formed magnetar injects energy into a forward shock as it loses angular momentum along open field lines. By performing an order of magnitude search for the underlying physical parameters in the blast wave, we constrain the characteristic break frequencies of the synchrotron spectrum against their manifestations in the available multiwavelength observations for each burst. The application of the magnetar energy injection profile restricts the successful matches to a limited family of models that are self-consistent within the magnetic dipole spin-down framework. We produce synthetic light curves that describe how the radio signatures of these SGRBs ought to have looked given the restrictions imposed by the available data, and discuss the detectability of these signatures with present-day and near-future radio telescopes. Our results show that both the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the upgraded Very Large Array are now sensitive enough to detect the radio signature within two weeks of trigger in most SGRBs, assuming our sample is representative of the population as a whole. We also find that the upcoming Square Kilometre Array will be sensitive to depths greater than those of our lower limit predictions.

  7. Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Among the major discoveries made by the Mariner 10 mission to the inner planets was the existence of an intrinsic magnetic field at Mercury with a dipole moment of approx. 300 nT R(sup 3, sub M). This magnetic field is sufficient to stand off the solar wind at an altitude of about 1 R(sub M) (i.e. approx. 2439 km). Hence, Mercury possesses a 'magnetosphere' from which the so]ar wind plasma is largely excluded and within which the motion of charged particles is controlled by the planetary magnetic field. Despite its small size relative to the magnetospheres of the other planets, a Mercury orbiter mission is a high priority for the space physics community. The primary reason for this great interest is that Mercury unlike all the other planets visited thus far, lacks a significant atmosphere; only a vestigial exosphere is present. This results in a unique situation where the magnetosphere interacts directly with the outer layer of the planetary crust (i.e. the regolith). At all of the other planets the topmost regions of their atmospheres become ionized by solar radiation to form ionospheres. These planetary ionospheres then couple to electrodynamically to their magnetospheres or, in the case of the weakly magnetized Venus and Mars, directly to the solar wind. This magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is mediated largely through field-aligned currents (FACs) flowing along the magnetic field lines linking the magnetosphere and the high-latitude ionosphere. Mercury is unique in that it is expected that FACS will be very short lived due to the low electrical conductivity of the regolith. Furthermore, at the earth it has been shown that the outflow of neutral atmospheric species to great altitudes is an important source of magnetospheric plasma (following ionization) whose composition may influence subsequent magnetotail dynamics. However, the dominant source of plasma for most of the terrestrial magnetosphere is the 'leakage'of solar wind across the magnetopause and more

  8. A Scale Free Solar Wind Interacting With A Characteristic Magnetospheric Scale ? - Disentangling The Dp1 and Dp2 Components By Means of Burst Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, N. W.; Freeman, M. P.; Riley, D. J.

    Takalo [1994] and Consolini [1997] have used the statistics of bursts defined by ex- ceedence of a constant threshold to show the presence of wideband fractal behaviour in the AE index i.e. the absence of preferred magnitude and time scales. Examination of a longer series by Consolini [1998] has however shown an apparent break in this scale invariance, roughly corresponding to typical substorm-related scales. However there is long-standing evidence for solar wind driving of one component of AE [e.g. Kamide and Baumjohann, 1993]. We present the results of a study [Freeman et al., GRL, 2000] which showed the presence of a similar scale free component in the solar wind epsilon function to that seen in AE, and scaling differences between AU and AL. Our results are consistent with the scale free component in AE originating from the solar-wind driven DP2 component, while the scale break would be consistent with the expected properties of the unloading DP1 component. We also discuss the results of a second study extending this methodology to the solar wind Poynting flux [Freeman et al., PRE, 2000] and consider the possible modifications to our picture implied by the work of Uritsky et al. [2001].

  9. THE POSSIBLE ROLE OF CORONAL STREAMERS AS MAGNETICALLY CLOSED STRUCTURES IN SHOCK-INDUCED ENERGETIC ELECTRONS AND METRIC TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Xiangliang; Chen, Yao; Feng, Shiwei; Wang, Bing; Du, Guohui; Guo, Fan; Li, Gang

    2015-01-10

    Two solar type II radio bursts, separated by ∼24 hr in time, are examined together. Both events are associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) erupting from the same active region (NOAA 11176) beneath a well-observed helmet streamer. We find that the type II emissions in both events ended once the CME/shock fronts passed the white-light streamer tip, which is presumably the magnetic cusp of the streamer. This leads us to conjecture that the closed magnetic arcades of the streamer may play a role in electron acceleration and type II excitation at coronal shocks. To examine such a conjecture, we conduct a test-particle simulation for electron dynamics within a large-scale partially closed streamer magnetic configuration swept by a coronal shock. We find that the closed field lines play the role of an electron trap via which the electrons are sent back to the shock front multiple times and therefore accelerated to high energies by the shock. Electrons with an initial energy of 300 eV can be accelerated to tens of keV concentrating at the loop apex close to the shock front with a counter-streaming distribution at most locations. These electrons are energetic enough to excite Langmuir waves and radio bursts. Considering the fact that most solar eruptions originate from closed field regions, we suggest that the scenario may be important for the generation of more metric type IIs. This study also provides an explanation of the general ending frequencies of metric type IIs at or above 20-30 MHz and the disconnection issue between metric and interplanetary type IIs.

  10. Constraints on long-lived remnants of neutron star binary mergers from late-time radio observations of short duration gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Brian D.; Bower, Geoffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    The coalescence of a binary neutron star (NS) system (an `NS merger' or NSM) may in some cases produce a massive NS remnant that is long lived and, potentially, indefinitely stable to gravitational collapse. Such a remnant has been proposed as an explanation for the late-X-ray emission observed following some short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and as possible electromagnetic counterparts to the gravitational wave chirp. A stable NS merger remnant necessarily possesses a large rotational energy ≳1052 erg, the majority of which is ultimately deposited into the surrounding circumburst medium (CBM) at mildly relativistic velocities. We present Very Large Array radio observations of seven short GRBs, some of which possessed temporally extended X-ray emission, on time-scales of ˜1-3 yr following the initial burst. No radio sources were detected, with typical upper limits ˜0.3 mJy at ν = 1.4 GHz. A basic model for the synchrotron emission from the blast wave is used to constrain the presence of a long-lived NSM remnant in each system. Depending on the GRB, our non-detections translate into upper limits on the CBM density n ≲ 3 × 10- 2-3 cm-3 required for consistency with the remnant hypothesis. Our upper limits rule out a long-lived remnant in GRB 050724 and 060505, but cannot rule out such a remnant in other systems due to their lower inferred CMB densities based on afterglow modelling or the lack of such constraints.

  11. Observations of the auroral hectometric radio emission onboard the INTERBALL-1 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuril'Chik, V. N.

    2007-06-01

    The results of five-year (1995 2000) continuous observations of the auroral radio emission (ARE) in the hectometric wavelength range on the high-apogee INTERBALL-1 satellite are presented. Short intense bursts of the auroral hectometric radio emission (AHR) were observed at frequencies of 1463 and 1501 kHz. The bursts were observed predominantly at times when the terrestrial magnetosphere was undisturbed (in the quiet Sun period), and their number decreased rapidly with increasing solar activity. The bursts demonstrated seasonal dependence in the Northern and Southern hemispheres (dominating in the autumn-winter period). Their appearance probably depends on the observation time (UT). A qualitative explanation of the AHR peculiarities is given.

  12. Multi-parameter Correlation of Jovian Radio Emissions with Solar Wind and Interplanetary Magnetic Field Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDowall, R. J.; Golla, T.; Reiner, M. J.; Farrell, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    Variability of the numerous varieties of Jovian radio emission has been associated with aspects of solar wind (SW) and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) parameters outside the magnetosphere. Here we demonstrate multiple-parameter correlations that relate each of several Jovian emissions, including bKOM and quasi-periodic bursts, to the SW and IMF impacting the Jovian magnetosphere. The data used are from the Ulysses spacecraft with radio data from the Unified Radio and Plasma wave (URAP) instrument, which provides high-quality remote radio observations of the Jovian emissions. The URAP observations are correlated with SW and IMF data from the relevant instruments on Ulysses, propagated to the nose of the Jovian magnetosphere with a sophisticated code. Because the aphelion of the Ulysses orbit was at the Jovian distance from the Sun, Ulysses spent ample time near Jupiter in 1991-1992 and 2003-2004, which are the intervals analyzed. Our results can be inverted such that radio observations by a Jovian orbiter, such as Cassini or Juno, are able to identify SW/IMF changes based on the behavior of the radio emissions.

  13. Characterization of X-ray and Type III radio bursts during solar cycle 24 for short-term warning of solar energetic particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Tommaso; Laurenza, Monica; Storini, Marisa; Lepreti, Fabio; Cliver, Edward W.

    2016-04-01

    The empirical model developed by Laurenza et al. (2009), based on data from 1995 to 2005, can provide short-term warnings of solar energetic proton (SEP) events that meet or exceed the Space Weather Prediction Center threshold of J (≥ 10MeV) = 10 p cm-2 s-1 sr-1, within 10 minutes after the maximum of the associated soft X-ray flare. The ≥ M2 X-ray and type III bursts occurred in the period 2006 - 2014 were used to compute the parameters of the model, i.e. the time-integrated soft X-ray intensity and time-integrated intensity of type III radio emission at about 1 MHz. The probability distribution functions associated with both parameters were derived. It was found that both the occurrence and the fluence of X-ray bursts is noticeably reduced in solar cycle 24 (35% and 30%, respectively, compared to solar cycle 23). The radio fluence of type III bursts associated to the considered X-ray events was lower of about 30% as well. Moreover, in order to test the accuracy of the model, the probability of detection (POD) and the False Alarm Rate (FAR) were evaluated by using the new database. The obtained verification measures show a good performance of the model: POD= 59% and FAR= 30%, which are, respectively, comparable and even lower with respect to those obtained from the datset on which the model was developed. Moreover, the performance is very high when major SEP events, having a peak flux ≥ 100 pfu, are considered (POD=79%, FAR=5%), i. e., for the most hazardous Space Weather conditions. Finally, the median warning time (as computed by Nunez (2011)) was estimated to be of about 11 h, highly exceeding that obtained through other competing techniques. References [1] Laurenza, M., E. W. Cliver, J. Hewitt, M. Storini, A. Ling, C. C. Balch, and M. L. Kaiser (2009), Space Weather, 7, S04008, doi:10.1029/2007SW000379. [2] Núñez, M. (2011), Predicting solar energetic proton events (E > 10 MeV), Space Weather, 9, S07003, doi:10.1029/2010SW000640.

  14. Populations III.1 and III.2 gamma-ray bursts: constraints on the event rate for future radio and X-ray surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.; Yoshida, N.; Ioka, K.

    2011-09-01

    Aims: We calculate the theoretical event rate of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from the collapse of massive first-generation (Population III; Pop III) stars. The Pop III GRBs could be super-energetic with the isotropic energy up to Eiso ≳ 1055-57 erg, providing a unique probe of the high-redshift Universe. Methods: We consider both the so-called Pop III.1 stars (primordial) and Pop III.2 stars (primordial but affected by radiation from other stars). We employ a semi-analytical approach that considers inhomogeneous hydrogen reionization and chemical evolution of the intergalactic medium. Results: We show that Pop III.2 GRBs occur more than 100 times more frequently than Pop III.1 GRBs, and thus should be suitable targets for future GRB missions. Interestingly, our optimistic model predicts an event rate that is already constrained by the current radio transient searches. We expect ~10-104 radio afterglows above ~0.3 mJy on the sky with ~1 year variability and mostly without GRBs (orphans), which are detectable by ALMA, EVLA, LOFAR, and SKA, while we expect to observe maximum of N < 20 GRBs per year integrated over at z > 6 for Pop III.2 and N < 0.08 per year integrated over at z > 10 for Pop III.1 with EXIST, and N < 0.2 for Pop III.2 GRBs per year integrated over at z > 6 with Swift.

  15. RESISTIVE SOLUTIONS FOR PULSAR MAGNETOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jason; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2012-02-10

    The current state of the art in the modeling of pulsar magnetospheres invokes either the vacuum or force-free limits for the magnetospheric plasma. Neither of these limits can simultaneously account for both the plasma currents and the accelerating electric fields that are needed to explain the morphology and spectra of high-energy emission from pulsars. To better understand the structure of such magnetospheres, we combine accelerating fields and force-free solutions by considering models of magnetospheres filled with resistive plasma. We formulate Ohm's law in the minimal velocity fluid frame and construct a family of resistive solutions that smoothly bridges the gap between the vacuum and the force-free magnetosphere solutions. The spin-down luminosity, open field line potential drop, and the fraction of open field lines all transition between the vacuum and force-free values as the plasma conductivity varies from zero to infinity. For fixed inclination angle, we find that the spin-down luminosity depends linearly on the open field line potential drop. We consider the implications of our resistive solutions for the spin-down of intermittent pulsars and sub-pulse drift phenomena in radio pulsars.

  16. k-space drift due to the density variation as a cause of electromagnetic emission generation of type III solar radio bursts by a non-gyrotropic electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiklauri, David; Schmitz, Holger

    2013-04-01

    It is widely accepted that there is a correlation between super-thermal electron beams and type III solar radio bursts. Whilst the correlation is an established fact, the actual mechanism that generates the type III burst emission is not yet fully determined. The main source of the uncertainty is current inability to send in-situ probes at distances 0.15 - 1.5Rsun from the solar surface (photosphere). The most widely accepted mechanism, that historically appeared first is the plasma emission. In plasma emission mechanism quasilinear theory, kinetic Fokker-Planck type equation for describing the dynamics of an electron beam is used, in conjunction with the spectral energy density evolutionary equations for Langmuir and ion-sound waves. Further, non-linear wave-wave interactions between Langmuir, ion-acoustic and EM waves produce emission at electron plasma frequency, ?pe or the second harmonic, 2?pe. A variant of the plasma emission mechanism is the stochastic growth theory, where density irregularities produce a random growth, in such a way that Langmuir waves are generated stochastically and quasilinear interactions within the Langmuir clumps cause the beam to fluctuate about marginal stability. The latter models have been used for producing the solar type III burst observable parameters. Other possible mechanisms include: linear mode conversion, antenna radiation and non-gyrotropic electron beam emission [1]. Recent works [2,3] elucidated further the non-gyrotropic electron beam emission, first proposed in Ref.[1]. In particular, the effect of electron beam pitch angle and density gradient on solar type III radio bursts was studied [2] and the role of electron cyclotron maser (ECM) emission with a possible mode coupling to the z-mode was explored [3]. In this contribution and paper [4], using large-scale Particle-In-Cell simulations, we explore the non-gyrotropic electron beam emission mechanism by studying the effects of electron beam kinetics and k-space drift

  17. The Unified Radio and Plasma wave investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. G.; Bougeret, J. L.; Caldwell, J.; Canu, P.; De Conchy, Y.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Desch, M. D.; Fainberg, J.; Goetz, K.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Ulysses Unified Radio and Plasma wave (URAP) experiment are twofold: (1) the determination of the direction, angular size, and polarization of radio sources for remote sensing of the heliosphere and the Jovian magnetosphere and (2) the detailed study of local wave phenomena, which determine the transport coefficients of the ambient plasma. A brief discussion of the scientific goals of the experiment is followed by a comprehensive description of the instrument. The URAP sensors consist of a 72.5 m electric field antenna in the spin plane, a 7.5-m electric field monopole along the spin axis of a pair of orthogonal search coil magnetic antennas. The various receivers, designed to encompass specific needs of the investigation, cover the frequency range from dc to 1 MHz. A relaxation sounder provides very accurate electron density measurements. Radio and plasma wave observations are shown to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the URAP instruments: radio observations include solar bursts, auroral kilometric radiation, and Jovian bursts; plasma waves include Langmuir waves, ion acousticlike noise, and whistlers.

  18. Decameter radio emission of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Abranin, E. P.; Rucker, H.; Lecacheux, A.

    2010-01-01

    The overview of last results obtained on decameter radio emission of the Sun with radio telescope UTR-2 is presented. Due to modern registered facilities new phenomena at frequencies 10-30 MHz were observed. There are fast Type III bursts, fine time structure of usual Type III bursts, solar S-bursts, Type IV bursts, their fine structure in the form of zebra structure, the third harmonics of Type II bursts, bursts in absorption of different time scales. New properties of well-known bursts as Type III bursts, Type IIIb bursts, Type II bursts and drift pairs was obtained also.

  19. Estimating the Height of CMEs Associated with a Major SEP Event at the Onset of the Metric Type II Radio Burst during Solar Cycles 23 and 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, P.; Gopalswamy, N.; Akiyama, S.; Xie, H.; Yashiro, S.

    2015-06-01

    We studied the coronal mass ejection (CME) height at the onset of 59 metric type II radio bursts associated with major solar energetic particle (SEP) events, excluding ground level enhancements (GLEs), during solar cycles 23 and 24. We calculated CME heights using a simple flare-onset method used by Gopalswamy et al. to estimate CME heights at the metric type II onset for cycle 23 GLEs. We found the mean CME height for non-GLE events (1.72 R⊙) to be ˜12% greater than that (1.53 R⊙) for cycle 23 GLEs. The difference could be caused by more impulsive acceleration of the GLE-associated CMEs. For cycle 24 non-GLE events, we compared the CME heights obtained using the flare-onset method and the three-dimensional spherical-shock fitting method and found the correlation to be good (CC = 0.68). We found the mean CME height for cycle 23 non-GLE events (1.79 R⊙) to be greater than that for cycle 24 non-GLE events (1.58 R⊙), but statistical tests do not definitely reject the possibility of coincidence. We suggest that the lower formation height of the shocks during cycle 24 indicates a change in the Alfvén speed profile because solar magnetic fields are weaker and plasma density levels are closer to the surface than usual during cycle 24. We also found that complex type III bursts showing diminution of type III emission in the 7-14 MHz frequency range are more likely associated with events with a CME height at the type II onset above 2 R⊙, supporting suggestions that the CME/shock structure causes the feature.

  20. ESTIMATING THE HEIGHT OF CMEs ASSOCIATED WITH A MAJOR SEP EVENT AT THE ONSET OF THE METRIC TYPE II RADIO BURST DURING SOLAR CYCLES 23 AND 24

    SciTech Connect

    Mäkelä, P.; Akiyama, S.; Xie, H.; Yashiro, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2015-06-10

    We studied the coronal mass ejection (CME) height at the onset of 59 metric type II radio bursts associated with major solar energetic particle (SEP) events, excluding ground level enhancements (GLEs), during solar cycles 23 and 24. We calculated CME heights using a simple flare-onset method used by Gopalswamy et al. to estimate CME heights at the metric type II onset for cycle 23 GLEs. We found the mean CME height for non-GLE events (1.72 R{sub ☉}) to be ∼12% greater than that (1.53 R{sub ☉}) for cycle 23 GLEs. The difference could be caused by more impulsive acceleration of the GLE-associated CMEs. For cycle 24 non-GLE events, we compared the CME heights obtained using the flare-onset method and the three-dimensional spherical-shock fitting method and found the correlation to be good (CC = 0.68). We found the mean CME height for cycle 23 non-GLE events (1.79 R{sub ☉}) to be greater than that for cycle 24 non-GLE events (1.58 R{sub ☉}), but statistical tests do not definitely reject the possibility of coincidence. We suggest that the lower formation height of the shocks during cycle 24 indicates a change in the Alfvén speed profile because solar magnetic fields are weaker and plasma density levels are closer to the surface than usual during cycle 24. We also found that complex type III bursts showing diminution of type III emission in the 7–14 MHz frequency range are more likely associated with events with a CME height at the type II onset above 2 R{sub ☉}, supporting suggestions that the CME/shock structure causes the feature.

  1. Solar energetic particle event and radio bursts associated with the 1996 July 9 flare and coronal mass ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laitinen, T.; Klein, K.-L.; Kocharov, L.; Torsti, J.; Trottet, G.; Bothmer, V.; Kaiser, M. L.; Rank, G.; Reiner, M. J.

    2000-08-01

    Using spaceborne particle and gamma-ray detection and radio diagnostics we study solar energetic particle (SEP) production in the 1996 July 9 event. This event is associated with an impulsive soft X-ray flare (9:10 UT) and a coronal mass ejection (CME). In a global classification the event is considered as mixed-impulsive. A sequence of acceleration processes is identified, starting early in the flare impulsive phase and continuing throughout the period when the CME propagated up to several Rsolar above the photosphere: (1) Gamma-ray, hard X-ray and cm-wave emitting particles seen during the flare impulsive phase in the low corona had no counterpart at the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO) spacecraft. (2) Electrons accelerated at a coronal shock wave were revealed by decimetric- to-metric type II radio emission and by simultaneous radio signatures of beams traveling to 1 AU. (3) Mildly relativistic (>=250 keV) electrons detected by SoHO did not correspond to these shock-accelerated populations, but to later mainly impulsive injection which was associated with radio brightenings over a large range of coronal altitudes. (4) Energetic protons detected by SoHO were accelerated during about 100 min after the flare impulsive phase with a gradually evolving production profile that bore some similarity with the time profile of broadband metric (type IV) emission. (5) While all other particle signatures decayed, a second period of interplanetary proton production took place >=2 hours after flare onset. The first, 100 min period of SEP acceleration, post-impulsive phase coronal acceleration, is definitely dominant in mildly relativistic electrons. Two acceleration periods nearly equally contribute to the production of ~ 20 MeV protons. However, the second period is more productive in low energy, ~ 1 MeV, protons. The timing of the SEP injections indicates that neither the impulsive flare acceleration in the low corona nor the interplanetary CME at >= 10 Rsolar are

  2. Magnetic Reconnection and Associated Transient Phenomena Within the Magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louarn, Philippe; Andre, Nicolas; Jackman, Caitriona M.; Kasahara, Satoshi; Kronberg, Elena A.; Vogt, Marissa F.

    2015-04-01

    We review in situ observations made in Jupiter and Saturn's magnetosphere that illustrate the possible roles of magnetic reconnection in rapidly-rotating magnetospheres. In the Earth's solar wind-driven magnetosphere, the magnetospheric convection is classically described as a cycle of dayside opening and tail closing reconnection (the Dungey cycle). For the rapidly-rotating Jovian and Kronian magnetospheres, heavily populated by internal plasma sources, the classical concept (the Vasyliunas cycle) is that the magnetic reconnection plays a key role in the final stage of the radial plasma transport across the disk. By cutting and closing flux tubes that have been elongated by the rotational stress, the reconnection process would lead to the formation of plasmoids that propagate down the tail, contributing to the final evacuation of the internally produced plasma and allowing the return of the magnetic flux toward the planet. This process has been studied by inspecting possible `local' signatures of the reconnection, as magnetic field reversals, plasma flow anisotropies, energetic particle bursts, and more global consequences on the magnetospheric activity. The investigations made at Jupiter support the concept of an `average' X-line, extended in the dawn/dusk direction and located at 90-120 Jovian radius (RJ) on the night side. The existence of a similar average X-line has not yet been established at Saturn, perhaps by lack of statistics. Both at Jupiter and Saturn, the reconfiguration signatures are consistent with magnetospheric dipolarizations and formation of plasmoids and flux ropes. In several cases, the reconfigurations also appear to be closely associated with large scale activations of the magnetosphere, seen from the radio and auroral emissions. Nevertheless, the statistical study also suggests that the reconnection events and the associated plasmoids are not frequent enough to explain a plasma evacuation that matches the mass input rate from the

  3. Plasma Transport, Acceleration, and Loss in Mercury's Magnetosphere and Comparison with Other Planetary Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schriver, D.; Travnicek, P. M.; Anderson, B. J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Baker, D. N.; Benna, M.; Boardsen, S. A.; Hellinger, P.; Ho, G. C.; Korth, H.; Krimigis, S. M.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Raines, J. M.; Richard, R. L.; Slavin, J. A.; Starr, R. D.; Solomon, S. C.; Zurbuchen, T.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury has the distinction of having the smallest planetary magnetosphere in the solar system, in contrast to the mid-sized magnetosphere of Earth and the very large magnetospheres of the outer planets. Observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury have established that Mercury's magnetosphere has a global structure similar to those found in the other planetary magnetospheres, i.e., a foreshock, bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetopause, cusps, and magnetotail. There are also auroral signatures observed at Mercury associated with the precipitation of electrons; those signatures are not in the visible range, however, but rather appear as nightside X-ray fluorescence. Heavy ions (primarily Na+) from the planet surface mass load Mercury's magnetosphere in a manner analogous to the internal sources of heavy ions in the other planetary magnetospheres, e.g., Earth's ionosphere and moons of the outer planets. One feature not found at Mercury compared with the other planetary magnetospheres is the presence of a high-energy (> hundreds of keV) trapped radiation belt region. Although there are observations of high energy electron bursts within Mercury's magnetosphere, these are not stably trapped and instead Mercury has a quasi-trapped population of ions and electrons with 1-10 keV bulk energies at about 1.5 RM (RM is Mercury's radius = 2440 km) radial distance from the planet center. MESSENGER spacecraft observations and results from a global kinetic simulation model of the solar wind interaction with Mercury's magnetosphere provide a basis for describing the transport, acceleration, and loss of plasma, those features and processes unique to Mercury, as well as those in common with other planetary magnetospheres in the solar system.

  4. Continuum radiation in planetary magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.

    1991-01-01

    With the completion of the Voyager tour of the outer planets, radio and plasma wave instruments have executed the first survey of the wave spectra of Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. One of the most notable conclusions of this survey is that there is a great deal of qualitative similarity in both the plasma wave and radio wave spectra from one magnetosphere to the next. In particular, in spite of detailed differences, most of the radio emissions at each of the planets have been tentatively classified into two primary categories. First, the most intense emissions are generally associated with the cyclotron maser instability. Second, a class of weaker emissions can be found at each of the magnetospheres which appears to be the result of conversion from intense electrostatic emissions at the upper hybrid resonance frequency into (primarily) ordinary mode radio emission. It is this second category, often referred to as nonthermal continuum radiation, which we will discuss in this review. We review the characteristics of the continuum spectrum at each of the planets, discuss the source region and direct observations of the generation of the emissions where available, and briefly describe the theories for the generation of the emissions. Over the past few years evidence has increased that the linear mode conversion of electrostatic waves into the ordinary mode can account for at least some of the continuum radiation observed. There is no definitive evidence which precludes the possibility that a nonlinear mechanism may also be important.

  5. Plasma motions in planetary magnetospheres.

    PubMed

    Hill, T W; Dessler, A J

    1991-04-19

    Before direct exploration by spacecraft, Jupiter was the only planet other than Earth that was known to have a magnetic field, as revealed by its nonthermal radio emissions. The term "magnetosphere" did not exist because there was no clear concept of such an entity. The space age provided the opportunity to explore Earth's neighborhood in space and to send instruments to seven of the other eight planets. It was found that interplanetary space is pervaded by a supersonic "solar wind" plasma and that six planets, including Earth, have magnetic fields of sufficient strength to deflect this solar wind and form a comet-shaped cavity called a magnetosphere. Comparative study of these magnetospheres aims to elucidate both the general principles and characteristics that they share in common, and the specific environmental factors that cause the important, and sometimes dramatic, differences in behavior between any two of them. A general understanding of planetary magnetospheres holds the promise of wide applicability in astrophysics, which, for the indefinite future, must rely solely on remote sensing for experimental data. PMID:17740940

  6. Energetic Charged-Particle Phenomena in the Jovian Magnetosphere: First Results from the Ulysses COSPIN Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J A; Anglin, J D; Balogh, A; Burrows, J R; Cowley, S W; Ferrando, P; Heber, B; Hynds, R J; Kunow, H; Marsden, R G; McKibben, R B; Müller-Mellin, R; Page, D E; Raviart, A; Sanderson, T R; Staines, K; Wenzel, K P; Wilson, M D; Zhang, M

    1992-09-11

    The Ulysses spacecraft made the first exploration of the region of Jupiter's magnetosphere at high Jovigraphic latitudes ( approximately 37 degrees south) on the dusk side and reached higher magnetic latitudes ( approximately 49 degrees north) on the day side than any previous mission to Jupiter. The cosmic and solar particle investigations (COSPIN) instrumentation achieved a remarkably well integrated set of observations of energetic charged particles in the energy ranges of approximately 1 to 170 megaelectron volts for electrons and 0.3 to 20 megaelectron volts for protons and heavier nuclei. The new findings include (i) an apparent polar cap region in the northern hemisphere in which energetic charged particles following Jovian magnetic field lines may have direct access to the interplanetary medium, (ii) high-energy electron bursts (rise times approximately 17 megaelectron volts) on the dusk side that are apparently associated with field-aligned currents and radio burst emissions, (iii) persistence of the global 10-hour relativistic electron "clock" phenomenon throughout Jupiter's magnetosphere, (iv) on the basis of charged-particle measurements, apparent dragging of magnetic field lines at large radii in the dusk sector toward the tail, and (v) consistent outflow of megaelectron volt electrons and large-scale departures from corotation for nucleons.

  7. Massive-Star Magnetospheres: Now in 3-D!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Richard

    Magnetic fields are unexpected in massive stars, due to the absence of a dynamo convection zone beneath their surface layers. Nevertheless, kilogauss-strength, ordered fields were detected in a small subset of these stars over three decades ago, and the intervening years have witnessed the steady expansion of this subset. A distinctive feature of magnetic massive stars is that they harbor magnetospheres --- circumstellar environments where the magnetic field interacts strongly with the star's radiation-driven wind, confining it and channelling it into energetic shocks. A wide range of observational signatures are associated with these magnetospheres, in diagnostics ranging from X-rays all the way through to radio emission. Moreover, these magnetospheres can play an important role in massive-star evolution, by amplifying angular momentum loss in the wind. Recent progress in understanding massive-star magnetospheres has largely been driven by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations. However, these have been restricted to two- dimensional axisymmetric configurations, with three-dimensional configurations possible only in certain special cases. These restrictions are limiting further progress; we therefore propose to develop completely general three-dimensional models for the magnetospheres of massive stars, on the one hand to understand their observational properties and exploit them as plasma-physics laboratories, and on the other to gain a comprehensive understanding of how they influence the evolution of their host star. For weak- and intermediate-field stars, the models will be based on 3-D MHD simulations using a modified version of the ZEUS-MP code. For strong-field stars, we will extend our existing Rigid Field Hydrodynamics (RFHD) code to handle completely arbitrary field topologies. To explore a putative 'photoionization-moderated mass loss' mechanism for massive-star magnetospheres, we will also further develop a photoionization code we have recently

  8. Simulations of Dynamic Relativistic Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfrey, Kyle Patrick

    Neutron stars and black holes are generally surrounded by magnetospheres of highly conducting plasma in which the magnetic flux density is so high that hydrodynamic forces are irrelevant. In this vanishing-inertia—or ultra-relativistic—limit, magnetohydrodynamics becomes force-free electrodynamics, a system of equations comprising only the magnetic and electric fields, and in which the plasma response is effected by a nonlinear current density term. In this dissertation I describe a new pseudospectral simulation code, designed for studying the dynamic magnetospheres of compact objects. A detailed description of the code and several numerical test problems are given. I first apply the code to the aligned rotator problem, in which a star with a dipole magnetic field is set rotating about its magnetic axis. The solution evolves to a steady state, which is nearly ideal and dissipationless everywhere except in a current sheet, or magnetic field discontinuity, at the equator, into which electromagnetic energy flows and is dissipated. Magnetars are believed to have twisted magnetospheres, due to internal magnetic evolution which deforms the crust, dragging the footpoints of external magnetic field lines. This twisting may be able to explain both magnetars' persistent hard X-ray emission and their energetic bursts and flares. Using the new code, I simulate the evolution of relativistic magnetospheres subjected to slow twisting through large angles. The field lines expand outward, forming a strong current layer; eventually the configuration loses equilibrium and a dynamic rearrangement occurs, involving large-scale rapid magnetic reconnection and dissipation of the free energy of the twisted magnetic field. When the star is rotating, the magnetospheric twisting leads to a large increase in the stellar spin-down rate, which may take place on the long twisting timescale or in brief explosive events, depending on where the twisting is applied and the history of the system

  9. Voyager planetary radio astronomy at Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, James W.; Evans, David R.; Peltzer, Gerard R.; Peltzer, Robert G.; Romig, Joseph H.; Sawyer, Constance B.; Riddle, Anthony C.; Schweitzer, Andrea E.; Desch, Michael D.; Kaiser, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Detection of very intense short radio bursts from Neptune was possible as early as 30 days before closest approach and at least 22 days after closest approach. The bursts lay at frequencies in the range 100 to 1300 kilohertz, were narrowband and strongly polarized, and presumably originated in southern polar regions of the planet. Episodes of smooth emissions in the frequency range from 20 to 865 kilohertz were detected during an interval of at least 10 days around closest approach. The bursts and the smooth emissions can be described in terms of rotation in a period of 16.11 + or - 0.05 hours. The bursts came at regular intervals throughout the encounter, including episodes both before and after closest approach. The smooth emissions showed a half-cycle phase shift between the five episodes before and after closest approach. This experiment detected the foreshock of Neptune's magnetosphere and the impacts of dust at the times of ring-plane crossings and also near the time of closest approach. Finally, there is no evidence for Neptunian electrostatic discharges.

  10. Voyager planetary radio astronomy at neptune.

    PubMed

    Warwick, J W; Evans, D R; Peltzer, G R; Peltzer, R G; Romig, J H; Sawyer, C B; Riddle, A C; Schweitzer, A E; Desch, M D; Kaiser, M L; Farrell, W M; Carr, T D; de Pater, I; Staelin, D H; Gulkis, S; Poynter, R L; Boischot, A; Genova, F; Leblanc, Y; Lecacheux, A; Pedersen, B M; Zarka, P

    1989-12-15

    Detection of very intense short radio bursts from Neptune was possible as early as 30 days before closest approach and at least 22 days after closest approach. The bursts lay at frequencies in the range 100 to 1300 kilohertz, were narrowband and strongly polarized, and presumably originated in southern polar regions ofthe planet. Episodes of smooth emissions in the frequency range from 20 to 865 kilohertz were detected during an interval of at least 10 days around closest approach. The bursts and the smooth emissions can be described in terms of rotation in a period of 16.11 +/- 0.05 hours. The bursts came at regular intervals throughout the encounter, including episodes both before and after closest approach. The smooth emissions showed a half-cycle phase shift between the five episodes before and after closest approach. This experiment detected the foreshock of Neptune's magnetosphere and the impacts of dust at the times of ring-plane crossings and also near the time of closest approach. Finally, there is no evidence for Neptunian electrostatic discharges.

  11. GS-3D Simulator: An Interactive IDL Widget Tool for Simulating Spatially Resolved Gyrosynchrotron Spectra Emitted by Solar Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, G. D.; Gary, D. E.

    2009-05-01

    An interactive IDL widget application intended to provide a flexible tool that allows the user to generate spatially resolved gyrosynchrotron spectra is presented. The object-based architecture of this application provides full 3D interaction with a user-specified magnetic loop geometry. Alternatively, the user may define and pass to the same interface arbitrary analytical or numerical models, including those derived from magnetic field extrapolation, provided that they inherit the generic properties of the base class defined in this package. The default code generating the GS emission from the input geometrical model was developed in FORTRAN based on the Petrosian-Klein approximation, and compiled as a DLL callable by IDL. However, the interactive interface allows interchanging this default library with any user-defined callable code. To illustrate the concept, a simple dipole magnetic loop object is analytically defined, and GS radio maps at 100 frequencies in the 1-100 GHz frequency range are produced. Similar maps produced by this tool were used as input test data in a forward-fitting algorithm that makes the subject of another presentation at this meeting (Fleishman et al. 09-D-83-SPD40). This work was supported by NSF grants AST-0607544 and ATM-0707319 and NASA grant NNG06GJ40G to New Jersey Institute of Technology.

  12. Nonlinear, relativistic Langmuir waves in astrophysical magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chian, Abraham C.-L.

    1987-01-01

    Large amplitude, electrostatic plasma waves are relevant to physical processes occurring in the astrophysical magnetospheres wherein charged particles are accelerated to relativistic energies by strong waves emitted by pulsars, quasars, or radio galaxies. The nonlinear, relativistic theory of traveling Langmuir waves in a cold plasma is reviewed. The cases of streaming electron plasma, electronic plasma, and two-streams are discussed.

  13. Ulysses radio and plasma wave observations in the Jupiter environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. G.; Pedersen, B. M.; Harvey, C. C.; Canu, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Desch, M. D.; De Villedary, C.; Fainberg, J.; Farrell, W. M.; Goetz, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment has produced new observations of the Jupiter environment, owing to the unique capabilities of the instrument and the traversal of high Jovian latitudes. Broad-band continuum radio emission from Jupiter and in situ plasma waves have proved valuable in delineating the magnetospheric boundaries. Simultaneous measurements of electric and magnetic wave fields have yielded new evidence of whistler-mode radiation within the magnetosphere. Observations of auroral-like hiss provided evidence of a Jovian cusp. The source direction and polarization capabilities of URAP have demonstrated that the outer region of the Io plasma torus supported at least five separate radio sources that reoccurred during successive rotations with a measurable corotation lag. Thermal noise measurements of the Io torus densities yielded values in the densest portion that are similar to models suggested on the basis of Voyager observations of 13 years ago. The URAP measurements also suggest complex beaming and polarization characteristics of Jovian radio components. In addition, a new class of kilometer-wavelength striated Jovian bursts has been observed.

  14. Ulysses radio and plasma wave observations in the jupiter environment.

    PubMed

    Stone, R G; Pedersen, B M; Harvey, C C; Canu, P; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N; Desch, M D; de Villedary, C; Fainberg, J; Farrell, W M; Goetz, K; Hess, R A; Hoang, S; Kaiser, M L; Kellogg, P J; Lecacheux, A; Lin, N; Macdowall, R J; Manning, R; Meetre, C A; Meyer-Vernet, N; Moncuquet, M; Osherovich, V; Reiner, M J; Tekle, A; Thiessen, J; Zarka, P

    1992-09-11

    The Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment has produced new observations of the Jupiter environment, owing to the unique capabilities of the instrument and the traversal of high Jovian latitudes. Broad-band continuum radio emission from Jupiter and in situ plasma waves have proved valuable in delineating the magnetospheric boundaries. Simultaneous measurements of electric and magnetic wave fields have yielded new evidence of whistler-mode radiation within the magnetosphere. Observations of aurorallike hiss provided evidence of a Jovian cusp. The source direction and polarization capabilities of URAP have demonstrated that the outer region of the lo plasma torus supported at least five separate radio sources that reoccurred during successive rotations with a measurable corotation lag. Thermal noise measurements of the lo torus densities yielded values in the densest portion that are similar to models suggested on the basis of Voyager observations of 13 years ago. The URAP measurements also suggest complex beaming and polarization characteristics of Jovian radio components. In addition, a new class of kilometer-wavelength striated Jovian bursts has been observed.

  15. Simulations of Gamma-Ray Burst Jets in a Stratified External Medium: Dynamics, Afterglow Light Curves, Jet Breaks, and Radio Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Colle, Fabio; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Granot, Jonathan; Lopez-Camara, Diego

    2012-05-01

    The dynamics of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets during the afterglow phase is most reliably and accurately modeled using hydrodynamic simulations. All published simulations so far, however, have considered only a uniform external medium, while a stratified external medium is expected around long duration GRB progenitors. Here, we present simulations of the dynamics of GRB jets and the resulting afterglow emission for both uniform and stratified external media with ρextvpropr -k for k = 0, 1, 2. The simulations are performed in two dimensions using the special relativistic version of the Mezcal code. Common to all calculations is the initiation of the GRB jet as a conical wedge of half-opening angle θ0 = 0.2 whose radial profile is taken from the self-similar Blandford-McKee solution. The dynamics for stratified external media (k = 1, 2) are broadly similar to those derived for expansion into a uniform external medium (k = 0). The jet half-opening angle is observed to start increasing logarithmically with time (or radius) once the Lorentz factor Γ drops below θ-1 0. For larger k values, however, the lateral expansion is faster at early times (when Γ > θ-1 0) and slower at late times with the jet expansion becoming Newtonian and slowly approaching spherical symmetry over progressively longer timescales. We find that, contrary to analytic expectations, there is a reasonably sharp jet break in the light curve for k = 2 (a wind-like external medium), although the shape of the break is affected more by the viewing angle (for θobs <= θ0) than by the slope of the external density profile (for 0 <= k <= 2). Steeper density profiles (i.e., increasing k values) are found to produce more gradual jet breaks while larger viewing angles cause smoother and later appearing jet breaks. The counterjet becomes visible as it becomes sub-relativistic, and for k = 0 this results in a clear bump-like feature in the light curve. However, for larger k values the jet decelerates more

  16. Solar radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, M. V.; Smith, D. F.

    1981-01-01

    Active areas of both observational and theoretical research in which rapid progress is being made are discussed. These include: (1) the dynamic spectrum or frequency versus time plot; (2) physical mechanisms in the development of various types of bursts; (3) microwave type 1, 2, 3, and moving type 4 bursts; (4) bursts caused by trapped electrons; (5) physics of type 3bursts; (6) the physics of type 2 bursts and their related shocks; (7) the physics of both stationary and moving traps and associated type 1 and moving type 4 bursts; and (8) the status of the field of solar radio emission.

  17. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  18. Magnetospheres: Jupiter, Satellite Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, F.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Most of the satellites of Jupiter, notably the large Galilean satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto (see JUPITER: SATELLITES), orbit deep inside the magnetosphere of Jupiter (see JUPITER: MAGNETOSPHERE) and are therefore immersed in the flow of magnetospheric plasma (made of a mixture of electrons and ions) and subjected to an interaction with the strong Jovian magnetic field. These intera...

  19. 47 CFR 90.250 - Meteor burst communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Meteor burst communications. 90.250 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.250 Meteor burst communications. Meteor burst communications may be authorized for the use of private radio stations subject...

  20. 47 CFR 90.250 - Meteor burst communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Meteor burst communications. 90.250 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.250 Meteor burst communications. Meteor burst communications may be authorized for the use of private radio stations subject...

  1. 47 CFR 90.250 - Meteor burst communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Meteor burst communications. 90.250 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.250 Meteor burst communications. Meteor burst communications may be authorized for the use of private radio stations subject...

  2. 47 CFR 90.250 - Meteor burst communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Meteor burst communications. 90.250 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.250 Meteor burst communications. Meteor burst communications may be authorized for the use of private radio stations subject...

  3. 47 CFR 90.250 - Meteor burst communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Meteor burst communications. 90.250 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.250 Meteor burst communications. Meteor burst communications may be authorized for the use of private radio stations subject...

  4. Magnetospheric structure of rotation powered pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Arons, J. California Univ., Livermore, CA . Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics)

    1991-01-07

    I survey recent theoretical work on the structure of the magnetospheres of rotation powered pulsars, within the observational constraints set by their observed spindown, their ability to power synchrotron nebulae and their ability to produce beamed collective radio emission, while putting only a small fraction of their energy into incoherent X- and gamma radiation. I find no single theory has yet given a consistent description of the magnetosphere, but I conclude that models based on a dense outflow of pairs from the polar caps, permeated by a lower density flow of heavy ions, are the most promising avenue for future research. 106 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Connerney, J.E.P.

    1987-04-01

    The results published by U.S. scientists during 1983-1986 from studies related to the magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus are discussed. Consideration is given to the magnetic fields of these planets, charged particle environments, the interactions between the planetary rings and planetary satellites, the solar wind interactions, radio emissions, and auroras. Special attention is given to observations of (1) a small flux of energetic electrons and protons in the otherwise radiation-free environment in the magnetosphere under the rings of Saturn (interpreted as interactions of Galactic cosmic rays with the rings), (2) spokes, and (3) Saturn ring erosion.

  6. On the statistical characteristics of radio-loud and radio-quiet halo coronal mass ejections and their associated flares during solar cycles 23 and 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Nishant; Sharma, Joginder; Verma, Virendar Kumar; Garg, Vijay

    2016-08-01

    We have studied the characteristics of radio-loud (RL) and radio-quiet (RQ) front side halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) (angular width 360°) observed between the time period years 1996-2014. RL-HCMEs are associated with type II radio bursts, while RQ-HCMEs are not associated with type II radio bursts. CMEs near the Sun in the interplanetary medium associated with radio bursts also affect the magnetosphere. The type II radio burst data was observed by WIND/WAVES instrument and HCMEs were observed by LASCO/ SOHO instruments. In our study, we have examined the properties of RL-HCMEs and RQ-HCMEs and found that RL-HCMEs follow the solar cycle variation. Our study also shows that the 26% of slow speed HCMEs and 82% of fast speed HCMEs are RL. The average speed of RL-HCMEs and RQ-HCMEs are 1370 km/s and 727 km/s, respectively. Most of the RQ-HCMEs occur around the solar disc center while most of RL-HCMEs are uniformly distributed across the solar disc. The mean value of acceleration of RL-HCMEs is more than twice that of RQ-HCMEs and mean value of deceleration of RL- HCMEs is very small compare to RQ-HCMEs events. It is also found that RQ-HCMEs events are associated with C- and M-class of SXR flares, while RL-HCMEs events are associated with M and X-class of SXR flares, which indicates that the RQ-HCMEs are less energetic than the RL-HCMEs. We have also discussed the various results obtained in present investigation in view of recent scenario of solar physics.

  7. Decameter Radio Emission of the Sun: Recent Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, V. N.; Rucker, H. O.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Abranin, E. P.; Lecacheux, A.

    We present an overview of the recent results in solar observations obtained at decameter radio waves using the radio telescope UTR-2. Due to up-to-date recording facilities some newly discovered phenomena in the frequency range 10 - 30 MHz are given: fast type III bursts, fine time structures in normal type III bursts, solar S-bursts, type IV bursts with zebra-like fine structures, third harmonic in type II bursts and bursts in absorption of different time scale. Newly discovered properties of well known bursts such as type III bursts, type IIIb bursts, type II bursts and drift pairs were obtained too.

  8. Absorption of gamma-ray photons in a vacuum neutron star magnetosphere: II. The formation of 'lightnings'

    SciTech Connect

    Istomin, Ya. N. Sob'yanin, D. N.

    2011-10-15

    The absorption of a high-energy photon from the external cosmic gamma-ray background in the inner neutron star magnetosphere triggers the generation of a secondary electron-positron plasma and gives rise to a lightning-a lengthening and simultaneously expanding plasma tube. It propagates along magnetic fields lines with a velocity close to the speed of light. The high electron-positron plasma generation rate leads to dynamical screening of the longitudinal electric field that is provided not by charge separation but by electric current growth in the lightning. The lightning radius is comparable to the polar cap radius of a radio pulsar. The number of electron-positron pairs produced in the lightning in its lifetime reaches 10{sup 28}. The density of the forming plasma is comparable to or even higher than that in the polar cap regions of ordinary pulsars. This suggests that the radio emission from individual lightnings can be observed. Since the formation time of the radio emission is limited by the lightning lifetime, the possible single short radio bursts may be associated with rotating radio transients (RRATs).

  9. Harmonic relation of type IIIb-III solar radio bursts in 6.25, 12.5, and 25.0 MHz octaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abranin, E. P.; Bazelian, L. L.; Tsybko, Ia. G.

    1984-04-01

    This study of type IIIb-III events strongly supports their interpretation as fundamental-harmonic burst pairs. Type IIIb chains and the related type III bursts drift from 12.5 to 6.25 MHz and from 25.0 to 12.5 MHz, respectively, during similar time intervals of 11.1 and 11.0 s, on the average. This harmonic similarity is emphasized by the fact that the drift times of type IIIb chains across the upper octave are significantly less than those of type III bursts in the lower octave, the values being around 6 and 19 s.

  10. Magnetar Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2014-01-01

    The Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) was launched in June 2008. During the last five years the instrument has observed several hundreds of bursts from 8 confirmed magnetars and 19 events from unconfirmed sources. I will discuss the results of the GBM magnetar burst catalog, expand on the different properties of their diverse source population, and compare these results with the bursting activity of past sources. I will then conclude with thoughts of how these properties fit the magnetar theoretical models.

  11. A New Standard Pulsar Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2014-01-01

    In view of recent efforts to probe the physical conditions in the pulsar current sheet, we revisit the standard solution that describes the main elements of the ideal force-free pulsar magnetosphere. The simple physical requirement that the electric current contained in the current layer consists of the local electric charge moving outward at close to the speed of light yields a new solution for the pulsar magnetosphere everywhere that is ideal force-free except in the current layer. The main elements of the new solution are as follows: (1) the pulsar spindown rate of the aligned rotator is 23% larger than that of the orthogonal vacuum rotator; (2) only 60% of the magnetic flux that crosses the light cylinder opens up to infinity; (3) the electric current closes along the other 40%, which gradually converges to the equator; (4) this transfers 40% of the total pulsar spindown energy flux in the equatorial current sheet, which is then dissipated in the acceleration of particles and in high-energy electromagnetic radiation; and (5) there is no separatrix current layer. Our solution is a minimum free-parameter solution in that the equatorial current layer is electrostatically supported against collapse and thus does not require a thermal particle population. In this respect, it is one more step toward the development of a new standard solution. We discuss the implications for intermittent pulsars and long-duration gamma-ray bursts. We conclude that the physical conditions in the equatorial current layer determine the global structure of the pulsar magnetosphere.

  12. A new standard pulsar magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2014-01-20

    In view of recent efforts to probe the physical conditions in the pulsar current sheet, we revisit the standard solution that describes the main elements of the ideal force-free pulsar magnetosphere. The simple physical requirement that the electric current contained in the current layer consists of the local electric charge moving outward at close to the speed of light yields a new solution for the pulsar magnetosphere everywhere that is ideal force-free except in the current layer. The main elements of the new solution are as follows: (1) the pulsar spindown rate of the aligned rotator is 23% larger than that of the orthogonal vacuum rotator; (2) only 60% of the magnetic flux that crosses the light cylinder opens up to infinity; (3) the electric current closes along the other 40%, which gradually converges to the equator; (4) this transfers 40% of the total pulsar spindown energy flux in the equatorial current sheet, which is then dissipated in the acceleration of particles and in high-energy electromagnetic radiation; and (5) there is no separatrix current layer. Our solution is a minimum free-parameter solution in that the equatorial current layer is electrostatically supported against collapse and thus does not require a thermal particle population. In this respect, it is one more step toward the development of a new standard solution. We discuss the implications for intermittent pulsars and long-duration gamma-ray bursts. We conclude that the physical conditions in the equatorial current layer determine the global structure of the pulsar magnetosphere.

  13. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the orbits of Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, a Solar-Terrestrial Probe mission comprising of four identically instrumented spacecraft that will study the Earth's magn...

  14. Planet/magnetosphere/satellite couplings: Observations from the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prange, Renee

    1994-06-01

    The general characteristics of planetary magnetospheres depend upon a few key parameters, such as the magnetic dipole strength, the planetary rotation rate, and the strength of the internal plasma sources (satellites, rings, ionosphere). The present knowledge of the acceleration and of the large scale circulation of plasma in these magnetospheres is still rather poor. Plasma and energetic particle losses occur largely through precipitation into the atmosphere along magnetic field lines, giving rise to the planetary aurorae. These losses can be initiated by various kinds of magnetospheric processes, and, if clearly understood, could give major insights into the physics of the global magnetospheric system. After a brief comparative review of the planetary magnetospheres, it will be shown how our understanding of their dynamics could benefit from increased instrumental performances in terms of remote sensing in the X rays, UV to IR, and radio wavelength range, and what breakthroughs could be expected from lunar based observations.

  15. Very Low Frequency Remote Sensing of the Ionosphere and Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M.

    2013-05-01

    This review talk will explore the technique of Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) remote sensing of the ionosphere and magnetosphere, in which ground-based transmitter beacons (nominally for submarine communications) are used as a probe wave to study the D-region of the ionosphere (60-90 km), a layer is too low for satellites and too high for balloons. Guided efficiently by the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, VLF waves can be used on a global level, to sensitively quantify any ionospheric disturbance in the D-region. These include the impacts of solar flares, lightning heating (both the EMP and the quasi-static field changes), electron precipitation from lightning, and cosmic gamma-ray bursts. We will review many experimental and modeling efforts that have been made over the past several decades, including recent work on the transionospheric absorption of VLF waves from transmitters and lightning radio emissions. We will also review recent international efforts to build a global network of VLF receivers under the umbrella of the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative.

  16. A review of extraterrestrial magnetosphere research, 1987-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eviatar, A.

    1990-01-01

    A review of research carried out during the biennium 1987-1989 on the magnetospheres of planets other than the earth is presented. The first part of the review consists of an overview and comparison of the work done in the area of radio astronomy of the two planets, Jupiter and Uranus. The second half of the review is composed of brief summaries of papers published in the literature dealing with the magnetospheres of Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune.

  17. Energetic charged particles in Saturn's magnetosphere: Voyager 2 results

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.E.; Chenette, D.L.; Cummings, A.C.; Garrard, T.L.; Stone, E.C.; Schardt, A.W.; Trainor, J.H.; Lal, N.; McDonald, F.B.

    1982-01-29

    Results from the cosmic-ray system on Voyager 2 in Saturn's magnetosphere are presented. During the inbound pass through the outer magnetosphere, the greater than or equal to 0.43-million-electron-volt proton flux was more intense, and both the proton and electron fluxes were more varible, than previously observed. These changes are attributed to the influence on the magnetosphere of variations in the solar wind conditions. Outbound, beyond 18 Saturn radii, impulsive bursts of 0.14- to > 1.0-million-electron-volt electrons were observed. In the inner magnetosphere, the charged particle absorption signatures of Mimas, Enceladus, and Tethys are used to constrain the possible tilt and offset of Saturn's internal magnetic dipole. At approx. 3 Saturn radii, a transient decrease was observed in the electron flux which was not due to Mimas. Characteristics of this decrease suggest the existence of additional material, perhaps another satellite, in the orbit of Mimas.

  18. Energetic Charged Particles in Saturn's Magnetosphere: Voyager 2 Results.

    PubMed

    Vogt, R E; Chenette, D L; Cummings, A C; Garrard, T L; Stone, E C; Schardt, A W; Trainor, J H; Lal, N; McDonald, F B

    1982-01-29

    Results from the cosmic-ray system on Voyager 2 in Saturn's magnetosphere are presented. During the inbound pass through the outer magnetosphere, the >/= 0.43-million-electron-volt proton flux was more intense, and both the proton and electron fluxes were more variable, than previously observed. These changes are attributed to the influence on the magnetosphere of variations in the solar wind conditions. Outbound, beyond 18 Saturn radii, impulsive bursts of 0.14- to > 1.0- million-electron-volt electrons were observed. In the inner magnetosphere, the charged particle absorption signatures of Mimas, Enceladus, and Tethys are used to constrain the possible tilt and offset of Saturn's internal magnetic dipole. At approximately 3 Saturn radii, a transient decrease was observed in the electron flux which was not due to Mimas. Characteristics of this decrease suggest the existence of additional material, perhaps another satellite, in the orbit of Mimas.

  19. A periodically active pulsar giving insight into magnetospheric physics.

    PubMed

    Kramer, M; Lyne, A G; O'Brien, J T; Jordan, C A; Lorimer, D R

    2006-04-28

    PSR B1931+24 (J1933+2421) behaves as an ordinary isolated radio pulsar during active phases that are 5 to 10 days long. However, when the radio emission ceases, it switches off in less than 10 seconds and remains undetectable for the next 25 to 35 days, then switches on again. This pattern repeats quasi-periodically. The origin of this behavior is unclear. Even more remarkably, the pulsar rotation slows down 50% faster when it is on than when it is off. This indicates a massive increase in magnetospheric currents when the pulsar switches on, proving that pulsar wind plays a substantial role in pulsar spin-down. This allows us, for the first time, to estimate the magnetospheric currents in a pulsar magnetosphere during the occurrence of radio emission.

  20. Peak-flux-density spectra of large radio bursts and proton emission from flares. Environmental research papers, July 1981-July 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cliver, E.W.; McNamara, L.F.; Gentile, L.C.

    1985-08-19

    From this study of the peak-flux-density spectra of nearly 200 large (sp > or = 2 GHz) > or = 800 solar flux units) microwave bursts and their associated proton and sweep-frequency emissions, the authors found the following: (1) There appear to be two basic peak-flux-density spectral types: (a) U-shaped, with two maxima > or = 800 sfu in the range of 200 MHz to > or = 19 GHz (59% of all events) and (b) cutoff, with a spectral maximum > or = 800 sfu at f > or = 2 GHz and Sp(200 MHz) < 100 sfu (18%). (2) If the current NOAA proton-prediction threshold of J (> 10 MeV) > or = 10 protons/sq cm/sec/sr had been in effect during the period covered by the data base (1965-1979), the U-burst yes or no proton event forecast tool would have had a false alarm rate of approx. 50% and would have failed to provide a warning for approx. 50% of the significant prompt proton flares attributable to disk flares during this period. (3) The associations of flare-bursts of different peak flux density spectral type with Type II and/or Type IV bursts and with > 10-MeV proton events of any peak intensity are given. (4) In 74% of the microwave bursts with u-shaped spectra, the 200 MHz emission peak occurred during a Type III event. For 49% of the U-bursts, a Type II was in progress during, or began < or = 0.5 min after, the peak 200-MHz emission. (5) Several (8 of 46) of the proton events with J (> 10 MeV) > or = 10 protons/sq cm/sec/sr (1965-1979) originated in visible hemisphere flares with relatively weak (Sp < or = 300 sfu) and associated 200-MHz emission.

  1. TWISTING, RECONNECTING MAGNETOSPHERES AND MAGNETAR SPINDOWN

    SciTech Connect

    Parfrey, Kyle; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Hui, Lam

    2012-07-20

    We present the first simulations of evolving, strongly twisted magnetar magnetospheres. Slow shearing of the magnetar crust is seen to lead to a series of magnetospheric expansion and reconnection events, corresponding to X-ray flares and bursts. The axisymmetric simulations include rotation of the neutron star and the magnetic wind through the light cylinder. We study how the increasing twist affects the spindown rate of the star, finding that a dramatic increase in spindown occurs. Particularly spectacular are explosive events caused by the sudden opening of large amounts of overtwisted magnetic flux, which may be associated with the observed giant flares. These events are accompanied by a short period of ultrastrong spindown, resulting in an abrupt increase in spin period, such as was observed in the giant flare of SGR 1900+14.

  2. The Transient Radio Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, E. F.

    2010-11-01

    The high time-resolution radio sky represents unexplored astronomical territory where the discovery potential is high. In this thesis I have studied the transient radio sky, focusing on millisecond scales. As such, this work is concerned primarily with neutron stars, the mostpopulous member of the radio transient parameter space. In particular, I have studied the well known radio pulsars and the recently identified group of neutron stars which show erratic radio emission, known as RRATs, which show radio bursts every few minutes to every few hours. When RRATs burst onto the scene in 2006, it was thought that they represented a previously unknown, distinct class of sporadically emitting sources. The difficulty in their identification implies a large underlying population, perhaps larger than the radio pulsars. The first question investigated in this thesis was whether the large projected population of RRATs posed a problem, i.e. could the observed supernova rate account for so many sources. In addition to pulsars and RRATs, the various other known neutron star manifestations were considered, leading to the conclusion that distinct populations would result in a `birthrate problem'. Evolution between the classes could solve this problem -- the RRATs are not a distinct population ofneutron stars.Alternatively, perhaps the large projected population of RRATs is an overestimate. To obtain an improved estimate, the best approach is to find more sources. The Parkes Multi-beam Pulsar Survey, wherein the RRATs were initially identified, offered an opportunity to do just this. Abouthalf of the RRATs showing bursts during the survey were thought to have been missed, due to the deleterious effects of impulsive terrestrial interference signals. To remove these unwanted signals, so that we could identify the previously shrouded RRATs, we developed newinterference mitigation software and processing techniques. Having done this, the survey was completely re-processed, resulting in

  3. Relationship between the Nonstationary Radio-Luminosity Variations of the Crab Nebula and the Activity of Its Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankevich, K. S.; Ivanov, V. P.

    2005-02-01

    Based on the half-century-long history of radio observations of the Crab Nebula, we investigate the evolution of its radio luminosity. We found a secular decrease in the radio luminosity; it has decreased by 9% since the discovery of the radio source in 1948. Apart from the secular decrease in the luminosity of the Crab Nebula, we identified two time intervals, 1981 1987 and 1992 1998, when radio bursts with energy release ˜1041 erg took place. In these years, the spectral indices of the instantaneous spectra decreased significantly due to the increase in the flux densities at short (centimeter and millimeter) wavelengths. These events were preceded by sudden increases in the pulsar’s rotation rates, the largest of which, with an amplitude of ΔΩ/Ω = 3 × 10-8, occurred in 1975 and 1989. We show that the magnetospheric instability mechanism that accompanies strong glitches can provide the energetics of the excess luminosity of the Nebula through the ejection of relativistic electrons with a total energy higher than 6 × 1042 erg from the pulsar’s magnetosphere.

  4. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  5. Magnetospheric Image Unfolding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Grant was a three year grant funded under the Space Physics Supporting Research and Technology and Suborbital Program. Our objective was to develop automated techniques needed to unfold or "invert" global images of the magnetospheric ion populations obtained by the new magnetospheric imaging techniques (ENA, EUV) in anticipation of future missions such as the Magnetospheric Imager and, now, IMAGE. Our focus on the present three year grant is to determine the degree to which such images can quantitatively constrain the global electromagnetic properties of the magnetosphere. In a previous three year grant period we successfully automated a forward modeling inversion algorithm, demonstrated that these inversions are robust in the face of realistic instrumental considerations such as counting statistics and backgrounds, applied error analysis techniques to the extracted parameters using variational procedures, implemented very realistic magnetospheric test images to test the inversion algorithms using the Rice University Magnetospheric Specification Model, and began the process of generating parametric models with the flexibility to handle the realistic magnetospheric images (e.g. Roelof et al, 1992; 1993). Our plan for the present 3 year grant period was to complete the development of the inversion tools needed to handle realistic magnetospheric images, assess the degree to which global electrodynamics is quantitatively constrained by ENA images of the magnetosphere, and bring the inversion of EUV images up to the maturity that we will have achieved for the ENA imaging. Below the accomplishments of our three year effort are present followed by a list of our presentations and publications. The accomplishments of all three years are presented here, and thus some of these items appeared on interim progress reports.

  6. The magnetosphere of Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schardt, A. W.

    1982-01-01

    Information about the magnetosphere of Saturn is provided: the magnetic dipole moment is axisymmetric, the bow shock stand-off distance is about 22 R sub S. The satellites Titan, Dione, and Tethys are probably the primary sources of magnetospheric plasma. Outside of approx. 4 R sub S, energetic particles are energized by diffusing inward while conserving their first and second adiabatic invariants. Particles are lost by satellite sweep-out, absorption byt the E ring and probably also by plasma interactions. The inner magnetosphere is characterized.

  7. Saturn's outer magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schardt, A. W.; Behannon, K. W.; Carbary, J. F.; Eviatar, A.; Lepping, R. P.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like Earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc.

  8. Plasma and magnetospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, R. H.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research and development in plasmas and magnetospheric environments is reported. Topics discussed include: analysis and techniques of software development; data analysis and modeling; spacecraft sheath effects; laboratory plasma flow studies; instrument development.

  9. Magnetospheric polar cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S. I.; Kan, J. R.

    Mount Denali (McKinley), the Alaska Range, and countless glaciers welcomed all 86 participants of the Chapman Conference on the Magnetospheric Polar Cap, which was held on the University of Alaska, Fairbanks campus (UAF), on August 6-9, 1984. The magnetospheric polar cap is the highest latitude region of the earth which is surrounded by the ring of auroras (the auroral oval). This particular region of the earth has become a focus of magnetospheric physicists during the last several years. This is because a number of upper atmospheric phenomena in the polar cap are found to be crucial in understanding the solar wind—magnetosphere interaction. The conference was opened by J. G. Roederer, who was followed by the UAF Chancellor, P. J. O'Rourke, who officially welcomed the participants.

  10. LANL Studies Earth's Magnetosphere

    ScienceCinema

    Daughton, Bill

    2016-07-12

    A new 3-D supercomputer model presents a new theory of how magnetic reconnection works in high-temperature plasmas. This Los Alamos National Laboratory research supports an upcoming NASA mission to study Earth's magnetosphere in greater detail than ever.

  11. Solar and magnetospheric science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, A. F.; Schmerling, E. R.; Chapman, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    The current status of the Solar Physics Program and the Magnetospheric Physics Program is discussed. The scientific context for each of the programs is presented, then the current programs and future plans are outlined.

  12. LANL Studies Earth's Magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Daughton, Bill

    2011-04-15

    A new 3-D supercomputer model presents a new theory of how magnetic reconnection works in high-temperature plasmas. This Los Alamos National Laboratory research supports an upcoming NASA mission to study Earth's magnetosphere in greater detail than ever.

  13. Coronal Shock Waves, EUV Waves, and Their Relation to CMEs. I. Reconciliation of "EIT Waves", Type II Radio Bursts, and Leading Edges of CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechnev, V. V.; Uralov, A. M.; Chertok, I. M.; Kuzmenko, I. V.; Afanasyev, A. N.; Meshalkina, N. S.; Kalashnikov, S. S.; Kubo, Y.

    We show examples of the excitation of coronal waves by flare-related abrupt eruptions of magnetic rope structures. The waves presumably rapidly steepened into shocks and freely propagated afterwards like decelerating blast waves that showed up as Moreton waves and EUV waves. We propose a simple quantitative description for such shock waves to reconcile their observed propagation with drift rates of metric type II bursts and kinematics of leading edges of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Taking account of different plasma density falloffs for propagation of a wave up and along the solar surface, we demonstrate a close correspondence between drift rates of type II bursts and speeds of EUV waves, Moreton waves, and CMEs observed in a few previously studied events.

  14. Coronal Shock Waves, EUV Waves, and Their Relation to CMEs. I. Reconciliation of "EIT Waves", Type II Radio Bursts, and Leading Edge