Science.gov

Sample records for magnetron sputter deposition

  1. Simulation of sputter deposition in dc magnetrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evstatiev, Evstati; Cluggish, Brian

    2010-11-01

    Material sputter deposition has a multitude of industrial applications. Our goal at FAR-TECH, Inc., is a complete numerical simulation of a dc magnetron device. We intend to modify existing FAR-TECH, Inc. code to include flexible geometry manipulation, the most current atomic physics data, add transport of neutral atoms across the device, and model deposition on the substrate. Currently, dc magnetron simulation codes have limited geometry manipulation capabilities; however, this is important if design optimization is intended. Another uncommon feature in dc magnetron simulation codes is parallel performance. Since PIC simulations may take extremely long times (weeks), we are parallelizing our codes to achieve shorter run times. (Codes based on hybrid models perform faster, but have the disadvantage of having to know accurately the diffusion coefficients of electrons across the magnetic field lines.) We report preliminary results of this effort.

  2. On the evolution of film roughness during magnetron sputtering deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Turkin, A. A.; Pei, Y. T.; Shaha, K. P.; Chen, C. Q.; Vainshtein, D. I.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2010-11-15

    The effect of long-range screening on the surface morphology of thin films grown with pulsed-dc (p-dc) magnetron sputtering is studied. The surface evolution is described by a stochastic diffusion equation that includes the nonlocal shadowing effects in three spatial dimensions. The diffusional relaxation and the angular distribution of the incident particle flux strongly influence the transition to the shadowing growth regime. In the magnetron sputtering deposition the shadowing effect is essential because of the configuration of the magnetron system (finite size of sputtered targets, rotating sample holder, etc.). A realistic angular distribution of depositing particles is constructed by taking into account the cylindrical magnetron geometry. Simulation results are compared with the experimental data of surface roughness evolution during 100 and 350 kHz p-dc deposition, respectively.

  3. Deposition and characterization of magnetron sputtered bcc tantalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Anamika

    The goal of this thesis was to provide scientific and technical research results for developing and characterizing tantalum (Ta) coatings on steel substrates deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. Deposition of tantalum on steel is of special interest for the protection it offers to surfaces, e.g. the surfaces of gun barrels against the erosive wear of hot propellant gases and the mechanical damage caused by the motion of launching projectiles. Electro-plated chromium is presently most commonly used for this purpose; however, it is considered to be carcinogenic in its hexavalent form. Tantalum is being investigated as non-toxic alternative to chromium and also because of its superior protective properties in these extreme environments. DC magnetron sputtering was chosen for this investigation of tantalum coatings on steel substrates because it is a versatile industrial proven process for deposition of metals. Sputter deposited Ta films can have two crystallographic structures: (1) body center cubic (bcc) phase, characterized by high toughness and high ductility and (2) a tetragonal beta phase characterized by brittleness and a tendency to fail under stress. It was found in this work that the bcc Ta coatings on steel can be obtained reliably by either of two methods: (1) depositing Ta on a submicron, stoichiometric TaN seed layer reactively sputtered on unheated steel and (2) depositing Ta directly on steel heated above a critical temperature. For argon sputtering gas this critical temperature was found to be 400°C at a pressure of 5 mtorr. With the heavier krypton gas, this critical temperature is reduced to 350°C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the structure of tantalum and nitride films, and the composition of the nitride films was measured by nuclear reaction analyses (NRA), which were used to study in detail the enhancement of the bcc phase of Ta on steel. The scratch adhesion tests performed with a diamond hemispherical tip of radius 200 mum

  4. Effect of sputtering power on the growth of Ru films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Jhanwar, Prachi; Kumar, Arvind; Rangra, K. J.; Verma, Seema

    2016-04-13

    Ruthenium is deposited by DC magnetron sputtering at different powers and is characterized. The effect of sputtering power on the electrical and structural properties of the film is investigated experimentally. High resolution X-ray diffraction is used to characterize the microstructure of Ru films deposited on SiO{sub 2} surface. The peak (002) is more sharp and intense with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.37° at 250W. The grain size increases with increase in sputtering power improving the crystallinity of the film. The film deposited at high sputtering power also showed lower resistivity (12.40 µΩ-cm) and higher mobility (4.82 cm{sup 2}/V.s) as compared to the film deposited at low power. The surface morphology of the film is studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  5. Effect of sputtering power on the growth of Ru films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhanwar, Prachi; Kumar, Arvind; Verma, Seema; Rangra, K. J.

    2016-04-01

    Ruthenium is deposited by DC magnetron sputtering at different powers and is characterized. The effect of sputtering power on the electrical and structural properties of the film is investigated experimentally. High resolution X-ray diffraction is used to characterize the microstructure of Ru films deposited on SiO2 surface. The peak (002) is more sharp and intense with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.37° at 250W. The grain size increases with increase in sputtering power improving the crystallinity of the film. The film deposited at high sputtering power also showed lower resistivity (12.40 µΩ-cm) and higher mobility (4.82 cm2/V.s) as compared to the film deposited at low power. The surface morphology of the film is studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  6. BN coatings deposition by magnetron sputtering of B and BN targets in electron beam generated plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenetskikh, A. S.; Gavrilov, N. V.; Koryakova, O. V.; Cholakh, S. O.

    2017-05-01

    Boron nitride coatings were deposited by reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering of B and BN targets (50 kHz, 10 µs for B; 13.56 MHz for BN) at 2-20 mA/cm2 ion current density on the substrate. The effect of electron beam generated plasma on characteristics of magnetron discharge and phase composition of coatings was studied.

  7. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1998-06-16

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

  8. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  9. [Spectrum diagnostics for optimization of experimental parameters in thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering].

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing-Lin; Cui, Yong-Liang; Chen, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Huai, Su-Fang; Liu, Bao-Ting; Chen, Jin-Zhong

    2010-12-01

    The plasma emission spectra generated during the deposition process of Si-based thin films by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering using Cu and Al targets in an argon atmosphere were acquired by the plasma analysis system, which consists of a magnetron sputtering apparatus, an Omni-lambda300 series grating spectrometer, a CCD data acquisition system and an optical fiber transmission system. The variation in Cu and Al plasma emission spectra intensity depending on sputtering conditions, such as sputtering time, sputtering power, the target-to-substrate distance and deposition pressure, was studied by using the analysis lines Cu I 324. 754 nm, Cu I 327. 396 nm, Cu I 333. 784 nm, Cu I 353. 039 nm, Al I 394. 403 nm and Al I 396. 153 nm. Compared with the option of experimental parameters of thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering, it was shown that emission spectra analysis methods play a guiding role in optimizing the deposition conditions of thin films in RF magnetron sputtering.

  10. Studies of aluminium coatings deposited by vacuum evaporation and magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Garbacz, H; Wieciński, P; Adamczyk-Cieślak, B; Mizera, J; Kurzydłowski, K J

    2010-03-01

    The paper presents the results of investigations of the microstructures and properties of the aluminium coatings deposited by vacuum evaporation and magnetron sputtering. These coatings generally have a very refined microstructure with elongated nano-grains. However, the surface topography of the aluminium coating deposited by vacuum evaporation is more developed, its microstructure is less homogeneous and more porous. The residual tensile stresses in the aluminium coating deposited by magnetron sputtering are close to 130 MPa, and the texture is relatively pronounced. Vacuum evaporation does not induce residual stresses in the coatings and the texture is very weak. The results obtained indicate that the aluminium coatings produced by magnetron sputtering are more suitable for the diffusive Ti-Al intermetallic layers.

  11. Modular deposition chamber for in situ X-ray experiments during RF and DC magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Krause, Bärbel; Darma, Susan; Kaufholz, Marthe; Gräfe, Hans Hellmuth; Ulrich, Sven; Mantilla, Miguel; Weigel, Ralf; Rembold, Steffen; Baumbach, Tilo

    2012-03-01

    A new sputtering system for in situ X-ray experiments during DC and RF magnetron sputtering is described. The outstanding features of the system are the modular design of the vacuum chamber, the adjustable deposition angle, the option for plasma diagnostics, and the UHV sample transfer in order to access complementary surface analysis methods. First in situ diffraction and reflectivity measurements during RF and DC deposition of vanadium carbide demonstrate the performance of the set-up.

  12. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.; Grabner, R.F.; Ramsey, P.B.

    1994-08-02

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal. 12 figs.

  13. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; McKernan, Mark A.; Grabner, R. Fred; Ramsey, Philip B.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal.

  14. A high power impulse magnetron sputtering model to explain high deposition rate magnetic field configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Priya; Weberski, Justin; Cheng, Matthew; Shchelkanov, Ivan; Ruzic, David N.

    2016-10-01

    High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) is one of the recent developments in the field of magnetron sputtering technology that is capable of producing high performance, high quality thin films. Commercial implementation of HiPIMS technology has been a huge challenge due to its lower deposition rates compared to direct current Magnetron Sputtering. The cylindrically symmetric "TriPack" magnet pack for a 10 cm sputter magnetron that was developed at the Center for Plasma Material Interactions was able to produce higher deposition rates in HiPIMS compared to conventional pack HiPIMS for the same average power. The "TriPack" magnet pack in HiPIMS produces superior substrate uniformity without the need of substrate rotation in addition to producing higher metal ion fraction to the substrate when compared to the conventional pack HiPIMS [Raman et al., Surf. Coat. Technol. 293, 10 (2016)]. The films that are deposited using the "TriPack" magnet pack have much smaller grains compared to conventional pack DC and HiPIMS films. In this paper, the reasons behind the observed increase in HiPIMS deposition rates from the TriPack magnet pack along with a modified particle flux model is discussed.

  15. Deposition Rates of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Physics and Economics

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2009-11-22

    Deposition by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is considered by some as the new paradigm of advanced sputtering technology, yet this is met with skepticism by others for the reported lower deposition rates, if compared to rates of more conventional sputtering of equal average power. In this contribution, the underlying physical reasons for the rate changes are discussed, including (i) ion return to the target and self-sputtering, (ii) the less-than-linear increase of the sputtering yield with increasing ion energy, (iii) yield changes due to the shift of species responsible for sputtering, (iv) changes to due to greater film density, limited sticking, and self-sputtering on the substrate, (v) noticeable power losses in the switch module, (vi) changes of the magnetic balance and particle confinement of the magnetron due to self-fields at high current, and (vii) superposition of sputtering and sublimation/evaporation for selected materials. The situation is even more complicated for reactive systems where the target surface chemistry is a function of the reactive gas partial pressure and discharge conditions. While most of these factors imply a reduction of the normalized deposition rate, increased rates have been reported for certain conditions using hot targets and less poisoned targets. Finally, some points of economics and HIPIMS benefits considered.

  16. Deposition rates of high power impulse magnetron sputtering: Physics and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2010-07-15

    Deposition by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is considered by some as the new paradigm of advanced sputtering technology, yet this is met with skepticism by others for the reported lower deposition rates, if compared to rates of more conventional sputtering of equal average power. In this contribution, the underlying physical reasons for the rate changes are discussed, including (i) ion return to the target and self-sputtering, (ii) the less-than-linear increase in the sputtering yield with increasing ion energy, (iii) yield changes due to the shift of species responsible for sputtering, (iv) changes due to greater film density, limited sticking, and self-sputtering on the substrate, (v) noticeable power losses in the switch module, (vi) changes in the magnetic balance and particle confinement of the magnetron due to self-fields at high current, and (vii) superposition of sputtering and sublimation/evaporation for selected materials. The situation is even more complicated for reactive systems where the target surface chemistry is a function of the reactive gas partial pressure and discharge conditions. While most of these factors imply a reduction in the normalized deposition rate, increased rates have been reported for certain conditions using hot targets and less poisoned targets. Finally, some points of economics and HIPIMS benefits are considered.

  17. RF magnetron sputter deposition and analysis of strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriram, Sharath; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Holland, Anthony S.; Fardin, Ernest; Kandasamy, Sasikaran

    2006-01-01

    The paper investigates conditions for depositing perovskite-oriented strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PSZT) thin films using RF magnetron sputtering. PSZT is a material that can exhibit high piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties. The deposition was conducted using an 8/65/35 PSZT sputtering target. The effects of sputtering conditions and the deposition rates for films sputtered onto several surfaces (including gold and platinum coated substrates) were studied. Combinations of in-situ heating during sputtering and post-deposition Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) were performed and resulting phases determined. RTA was carried out in argon to observe their effects. The sputtered films were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Results show dramatic differences in the grain structure of the deposited films on the different surfaces. The stoichiometry of the sputtered films is demonstrated using XPS. In the case of gold and platinum coated substrates, sputtering was also carried out for different durations, to establish the growth rate of the film, and to observe the variation in grain size with sputtering duration. The deposited thin films were resistant to most chemical wet etchants and were Ion Beam Etched (IBE) at 19 nm/min.

  18. Initial deposition of calcium phosphate ceramic on polystyrene and polytetrafluoroethylene by rf magnetron sputtering deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddes, B.; Wolke, J. G. C.; Jansen, J. A.; Vredenberg, A. M.

    2003-03-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings can be applied to improve the biological performance of polymeric medical implants. A strong interfacial bond between ceramic and polymer is required for clinical applications. Because the chemical structure of an interface plays an important role in the adhesion of a coating, we studied the formation of the interface between CaP and polystyrene (PS) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The coating was deposited in a radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering deposition system. Prior to the deposition, some samples received an oxygen plasma pretreatment. We found that the two substrates show a strongly different reactivity towards CaP. On PS a phosphorus and oxygen enrichment is present at the interface. This is understood from POx complexes that are able to bind to the PS. The effects of the plasma pretreatment are overruled by the deposition process itself. On PTFE, a calcium enrichment and an absence of phosphorus is found at the interface. The former is the result of CaF2-like material being formed at the interface. The latter may be the result of phosphorus reacting with escaping fluorine to a PF3 molecule, which than escapes from the material as a gas molecule. We found that the final structure of the interface is mostly controlled by the bombardment of energetic particles escaping either from the plasma or from the sputtering target. The work described here can be used to understand and improve the adhesion of CaP coatings deposited on medical substrates.

  19. Microstructural evaluation of NiTi-based films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Crăciunescu, Corneliu M. Mitelea, Ion Budău, Victor; Ercuţa, Aurel

    2014-11-24

    Shape memory alloy films belonging to the NiTi-based systems were deposited on heated and unheated substrates, by magnetron sputtering in a custom made system, and their structure and composition was analyzed using electron microscopy. Several substrates were used for the depositions: glass, Cu-Zn-Al, Cu-Al-Ni and Ti-NiCu shape memory alloy ribbons and kapton. The composition of the Ti-Ni-Cu films showed limited differences, compared to the one of the target and the microstructure for the DC magnetron sputtering revealed crystallized structure with features determined on peel off samples from a Si wafer. Both inter and transcrystalline fractures were observed and related to the interfacial stress developed on cooling from deposition temperature.

  20. Investigation of Optical and Electrochromic Properties of Tungsten Oxide Deposited with Horizontal DC and DC Pulse Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Jan, Der-Jun; Chen, Chien-Han

    2012-04-01

    The proposal of this research was to compare the optical and electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films deposited with a horizontal direct current (DC) and DC pulse magnetron sputtering. These WO3 thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO) glass and p-type silicon substrate at different gas ratios of oxygen and argon. The variation in the transmittance between the coloring and bleaching was important for the smart window. WO3 thin films have good electrochromic properties at gas ratios of oxygen/argon (O2/Ar) of 0.7 and 0.6 for DC and DC pulse magnetron sputtering, respectively. However, WO3 thin films deposited by DC pulse magnetron sputtering have better optical and electrochromic properties than the films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering.

  1. Evaluation of thin amorphous calcium phosphate coatings on titanium dental implants deposited using magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Sou; Nishiwaki, Naruhiko; Ueda, Kyosuke; Narushima, Takayuki; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Tetsu

    2014-06-01

    Calcium phosphate is used for dental material because of its biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering can control their thickness and absorbability. This study aimed to evaluate and characterize ACP coatings deposited via magnetron sputtering. It was hypothesized that ACP coatings would enhance bone formation and be absorbed rapidly in vivo. ACP coatings that are 0.5 μm in thickness were deposited via magnetron sputtering on dental implants. Uncoated implants served as controls. The effect of the ACP coatings in vivo was investigated in New Zealand white rabbit. To evaluate the effect of the ACP coatings on the bone response of the implants, the removal torque, implant stability quotient, and histomorphometric analysis were performed on the implants at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after implantation. Results of the x-ray diffraction analyses confirmed the deposition of ACP coatings. Images from the scanning electron microscopy revealed that the coatings were dense, uniform, and 0.5 μm in thickness and that they were absorbed completely. Mechanical stability and bone formation in the case of the ACP-coated implants were higher than those of control. These results suggest that implants coated with thin ACP layers improve implant fixation and accelerate bone response.

  2. ZrN coatings deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Purandare, Yashodhan Ehiasarian, Arutiun; Hovsepian, Papken; Santana, Antonio

    2014-05-15

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) coatings were deposited on 1 μm finish high speed steel and 316L stainless steel test coupons. Cathodic Arc (CA) and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) + Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering (UBM) techniques were utilized to deposit coatings. CA plasmas are known to be rich in metal and gas ions of the depositing species as well as macroparticles (droplets) emitted from the arc sports. Combining HIPIMS technique with UBM in the same deposition process facilitated increased ion bombardment on the depositing species during coating growth maintaining high deposition rate. Prior to coating deposition, substrates were pretreated with Zr{sup +} rich plasma, for both arc deposited and HIPIMS deposited coatings, which led to a very high scratch adhesion value (L{sub C2}) of 100 N. Characterization results revealed the overall thickness of the coatings in the range of 2.5 μm with hardness in the range of 30–40 GPa depending on the deposition technique. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and tribological experiments such as dry sliding wear tests and corrosion studies have been utilized to study the effects of ion bombardment on the structure and properties of these coatings. In all the cases, HIPIMS assisted UBM deposited coating fared equal or better than the arc deposited coatings, the reasons being discussed in this paper. Thus H+U coatings provide a good alternative to arc deposited where smooth, dense coatings are required and macrodroplets cannot be tolerated.

  3. Comparison of DC and RF magnetron sputtering systems for Electrochromic W/Ti Thin Film Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teke, Erdogan; Kiristi, Melek; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul; Bozduman, Ferhat; Gulec, Ali; Oksuz, Lutfi; Hala, Ahmed M.

    2013-10-01

    In this study electrochromic tungsten-titanium thin films were deposited on ITO (indium thin oxide) glasses by using both DC and RF magnetron sputtering techniques. The discharges have been operated in same discharge power, geometry and argon/oxygen mixture pressure for comparison. The voltage and current characteristics and optical emission spectrums of both plasma systems will be given. The plasma parameters are determined by a double probe. ITO thin films coating electrical, optical and morphological characteristics will be compared.

  4. Composition control of PZT thin films by varying technological parameters of RF magnetron sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronin, V. P.; Dolgintsev, D. M.; Pronin, I. P.; Senkevich, S. V.; Kaptelov, E. Yu; Sergienko, A. Yu

    2017-07-01

    The article presents the effect of technological parameters of RF magnetron sputtering on the concentration of components of thin-film ferroelectric structures based on lead zirconate titanate PZT in the region of the morphotropic phase boundary. It is shown that by changing the distance from the target to the substrate and the pressure of the working gas mixture Ar + O2, it is possible to vary the composition of the deposited thin layers.

  5. Measuring the energy flux at the substrate position during magnetron sputter deposition processes

    SciTech Connect

    Cormier, P.-A.; Thomann, A.-L.; Dussart, R.; Semmar, N.; Mathias, J.; Balhamri, A.; Snyders, R.; Konstantinidis, S.

    2013-01-07

    In this work, the energetic conditions at the substrate were investigated in dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS), pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (pDCMS), and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges by means of an energy flux diagnostic based on a thermopile sensor, the probe being set at the substrate position. Measurements were performed in front of a titanium target for a highly unbalanced magnetic field configuration. The average power was always kept to 400 W and the probe was at the floating potential. Variation of the energy flux against the pulse peak power in HiPIMS was first investigated. It was demonstrated that the energy per deposited titanium atom is the highest for short pulses (5 {mu}s) high pulse peak power (39 kW), as in this case, the ion production is efficient and the deposition rate is reduced by self-sputtering. As the argon pressure is increased, the energy deposition is reduced as the probability of scattering in the gas phase is increased. In the case of the HiPIMS discharge run at moderate peak power density (10 kW), the energy per deposited atom was found to be lower than the one measured for DCMS and pDCMS discharges. In these conditions, the HiPIMS discharge could be characterized as soft and close to a pulsed DCMS discharge run at very low duty cycle. For the sake of comparison, measurements were also carried out in DCMS mode with a balanced magnetron cathode, in the same working conditions of pressure and power. The energy flux at the substrate is significantly increased as the discharge is generated in an unbalanced field.

  6. Deposition of Tungsten Thin Films on Flexible Polymer Substrates by Direct-Current Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Huo, Zhenxuan; Jiao, Xiangquan; Zhong, Hui; Shi, Yu

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated thin tungsten films deposited on polymer substrates by direct-current magnetron sputtering under different conditions. Unlike tungsten films deposited on rigid substrates, films on polymer substrates grew at appropriate sputtering power, low sputtering pressure, and low substrate temperature. High sputtering power results in tungsten films with good crystal orientation, compact microstructure, and low electrical resistivity. However, high-power sputtering damages the polymer substrates. Enhancing sputtering pressure substantially degrades tungsten orientation and increases electrical resistivity. Furthermore, a slight increase in substrate temperature results in tungsten films with good crystal orientation, a dense microstructure, and low electrical resistivity. Nonetheless, a high substrate temperature results in soft and deformed polymer substrates; this degrades tungsten crystal orientation and substantially roughens tungsten films. On the basis of this study, compact and flat tungsten films with low electrical resistivity can be obtained at a sputtering power of 69 W, a sputtering pressure of 1 Pa, a substrate temperature of 100°C, and a distance between target and substrate of 60 mm.

  7. High power pulsed magnetron sputtering: A method to increase deposition rate

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, Priya McLain, Jake; Ruzic, David N; Shchelkanov, Ivan A.

    2015-05-15

    High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) is a state-of-the-art physical vapor deposition technique with several industrial applications. One of the main disadvantages of this process is its low deposition rate. In this work, the authors report a new magnetic field configuration, which produces deposition rates twice that of conventional magnetron's dipole magnetic field configuration. Three different magnet pack configurations are discussed in this paper, and an optimized magnet pack configuration for HPPMS that leads to a higher deposition rate and nearly full-face target erosion is presented. The discussed magnetic field produced by a specially designed magnet assembly is of the same size as the conventional magnet assembly and requires no external fields. Comparison of deposition rates with different power supplies and the electron trapping efficiency in complex magnetic field arrangements are discussed.

  8. Texture evolution in nanocrystalline iron films deposited using biased magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Vetterick, G.; Taheri, M. L.; Baldwin, J. K.; Misra, A.

    2014-12-21

    Fe thin films were deposited on sodium chloride (NaCl) substrates using magnetron sputtering to investigate means of texture control in free standing metal films. The Fe thin films were studied using transmission electron microscopy equipped with automated crystallographic orientation microscopy. Using this technique, the microstructure of each film was characterized in order to elucidate the effects of altering deposition parameters. The natural tendency for Fe films grown on (100) NaCl is to form a randomly oriented nanocrystalline microstructure. By careful selection of substrate and deposition conditions, it is possible to drive the texture of the film toward a single (100) orientation while retaining the nanocrystalline microstructure.

  9. Study on mixed vanadium oxide thin film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Zhang; Jianhui, Tu; Hao, Feng; Jingzhong, Cui

    Vanadium oxide (VOx) thin films were deposited on fused quartz using a pure metal vanadium target by RF reactive magnetron sputtering technique. Film microstructure, valence state, optical transmittance properties were studied. The mixed valence VOx thin films deposited with different thickness were found to be amorphous. And the optical transmittance curves are flatness in certain wavelength region. These films can be used to control the relative light intensity of the rubidium light beam between the rubidium lamp and the vapor cell, in order to optimize the working parameters of the rubidium frequency standard (RAFS).

  10. Integration of in situ RHEED with magnetron sputter deposition for atomic layer controlled growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podkaminer, Jacob P.

    Epitaxial thin films continue to be one of the most promising topics within electronic materials research. Sputter deposition is one process by which these films can be formed and is a widely used growth technique for a large range of technologically important material systems. Epitaxial films of carbides, nitrides, metals, oxides and more can all be formed during the sputter process which offers the ability to deposit smooth and uniform films from the research level up to an industrial scale. This tunable kinematic deposition process excels in easily adapting for a large range of environments and growth procedures. Despite the vast advantages associated with sputter deposition, there is a significant lack of in situ analysis options during sputtering. In particular, the area of real time atomic layer control is severely deficient. Atomic layer controlled growth of epitaxial thin films and artificially layered superlattices is critical for both understanding their emergent phenomena and engineering novel material systems and devices. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is one of the most common in situ analysis techniques during thin film deposition that is rarely used during sputtering due to the strong permanent magnets in magnetron sputter sources and their effect on the RHEED electron beam. In this work we have solved this problem and designed a novel way to deter the effect of the magnets for a wide range of growth geometries and demonstrate the ability for the first time to have layer by layer control during sputter deposition by in situ RHEED. A novel growth chamber that can seamlessly change between pulsed laser deposition and sputtering with RHEED for the growth of complex heterostructures has been designed and implemented. Epitaxial thin films of LaAlO3, La1-xSrxMnO3, and SrRuO3 have all been deposited by sputtering and shown to exhibit clear and extended RHEED oscillations. To solve the magnet issue, a finite element model has been

  11. Structural and optical properties of CdO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, G. Anil Reddy, M. V. Ramana; Reddy, Katta Narasimha

    2014-04-24

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate by r.f. magnetron sputtering technique using a high purity (99.99%) Cd target of 2-inch diameter and 3 mm thickness in an Argon and oxygen mixed atmosphere with sputtering power of 50W and sputtering pressure of 2×10{sup −2} mbar. The prepared films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD analysis reveals that the films were polycrystalline with cubic structure. The visible range transmittance was found to be over 70%. The optical band gap increased from 2.7 eV to2.84 eV with decrease of film thickness.

  12. Zinc Oxide Thin Films Fabricated with Direct Current Magnetron Sputtering Deposition Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hoon, Jian-Wei; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Krishnasamy, Jegenathan; Tou, Teck-Yong

    2011-03-30

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a very promising material for emerging large area electronic applications including thin-film sensors, transistors and solar cells. We fabricated ZnO thin films by employing direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering deposition technique. ZnO films with different thicknesses ranging from 100 nm to 1020 nm were deposited on silicon (Si) substrate. The deposition pressure was varied from 12 mTorr to 25 mTorr. The influences of the film thickness and the deposition pressure on structural properties of the ZnO films were investigated using Mahr surface profilometer and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The experimental results reveal that the film thickness and the deposition pressure play significant role in the structural formation of the deposited ZnO thin films. ZnO films deposited on Si substrates are promising for variety of thin-film sensor applications.

  13. Structural and nanomechanical characterization of niobium films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Cao, W. H.; Tao, X. F.; Ren, L. L.; Zhou, L. Q.; Xu, G. F.

    2016-05-01

    Nb thin films were deposited onto Si wafers by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering at different deposition pressures. The microstructure and nanomechanical properties of Nb films were investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscope, atomic force microscope and nanoindenter. The results revealed that the grain size, thickness, surface roughness, the reduced elastic modulus ( Er) and hardness ( H) values of Nb thin films increased at the pressure range of 0.61-0.68 Pa. Meanwhile, the porosity of Nb films decreased with the increase in deposition pressure. The lattice deformation of Nb thin films changed from negative to positive with the increase in deposition pressure. It is concluded that deposition pressure influences the microstructure and nanomechanical properties of Nb films.

  14. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of diamondlike carbon films deposited by dc magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broitman, E.; Lindquist, O. P. A.; Hellgren, N.; Hultman, L.; Holloway, B. C.

    2003-11-01

    The electrical and optical properties of diamondlike carbon films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering on Si substrates at room temperature have been measured as a function of the ion energy (Eion) and ion-to-carbon flux (Jion/JC). The results show that, in the ranges of 5 eV<=Eion<=85 eV and 1.1<=Jion/JC<=6.8, the presence of defective graphite formed by subplanted C and Ar atoms, voids, and the surface roughness, are the dominant influences on the resistivity and optical absorption.

  15. Hall mobility of cuprous oxide thin films deposited by reactive direct-current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yun Seog; Winkler, Mark T.; Siah, Sin Cheng; Brandt, Riley; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2011-05-09

    Cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for photovoltaic applications. We report Hall mobilities of polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}O thin films deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. High substrate growth temperature enhances film grain structure and Hall mobility. Temperature-dependent Hall mobilities measured on these films are comparable to monocrystalline Cu{sub 2}O at temperatures above 250 K, reaching 62 cm{sup 2}/V s at room temperature. At lower temperatures, the Hall mobility appears limited by carrier scattering from ionized centers. These observations indicate that sputtered Cu{sub 2}O films at high substrate growth temperature may be suitable for thin-film photovoltaic applications.

  16. Fabrication and physico-mechanical properties of thin magnetron sputter deposited silver-containing hydroxyapatite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, A. A.; Surmeneva, M. A.; Tyurin, A. I.; Pirozhkova, T. S.; Shuvarin, I. A.; Prymak, O.; Epple, M.; Chaikina, M. V.; Surmenev, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    As a measure of the prevention of implant associated infections, a number of strategies have been recently applied. Silver-containing materials possessing antibacterial activity as expected might have wide applications in orthopedics and dentistry. The present work focuses on the physico-chemical characterization of silver-containing hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) coating obtained by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Mechanochemically synthesized Ag-HA powder (Ca10⿿xAgx(PO4)6(OH)2⿿x, x = 1.5) was used as a precursor for sputtering target preparation. Morphology, composition, crystallinity, physico-mechanical features (Young's modulus and nanohardness) of the deposited Ag-HA coatings were investigated. The sputtering of the nanostructured multicomponent target at the applied process conditions allowed to deposit crystalline Ag-HA coating which was confirmed by XRD and FTIR data. The SEM results revealed the formation of the coating with the grain morphology and columnar cross-section structure. The EDX analysis confirmed that Ag-HA coating contained Ca, P, O and Ag with the Ca/P ratio of 1.6 ± 0.1. The evolution of the mechanical properties allowed to conclude that addition of silver to HA film caused increase of the coating nanohardness and elastic modulus compared with those of pure HA thin films deposited under the same deposition conditions.

  17. Optical and electrical properties of thin NiO films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering and spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkhomenko, H. P.; Solovan, M. N.; Mostovoi, A. I.; Orletskii, I. G.; Parfenyuk, O. A.; Maryanchuk, P. D.

    2017-06-01

    Thin NiO films are deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering and spray pyrolysis. The main optical constants, i.e., refractive index n(λ), absorption coefficient α(λ), extinction coefficient k(λ), and thickness d, are determined. The temperature dependence of the resistance of thin films is found, and the activation energy of films deposited by different methods is determined.

  18. Resputtering effect during MgO buffer layer deposition by magnetron sputtering for superconducting coated conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Shaozhu; Shi, Kai; Deng, Shutong; Han, Zhenghe; Feng, Feng Lu, Hongyuan; Qu, Timing; Zhu, Yuping; Huang, Rongxia

    2015-07-15

    In this study, MgO thin films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The film thickness in the deposition area directly facing the target center obviously decreased compared with that in other areas. This reduction in thickness could be attributed to the resputtering effect resulting from bombardment by energetic particles mainly comprising oxygen atoms and negative oxygen ions. The influences of deposition position and sputtering pressure on the deposition rate were investigated. Resputtering altered the orientation of the MgO film from (111) to (001) when the film was deposited on a single crystal yttria-stabilized zirconia substrate. The density distribution of energetic particles was calculated on the basis of the measured thicknesses of the MgO films deposited at different positions. The divergence angle of the energetic particle flux was estimated to be approximately 15°. The energetic particle flux might be similar to the assisting ion flux in the ion beam assisted deposition process and could affect the orientation of the MgO film growth.

  19. Substrate Frequency Effects on Cr x N Coatings Deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrosov, Aleksei; Naveed, Muhammad; Volinsky, Alex A.; Weiß, Sabine

    2016-11-01

    Controlled ion bombardment is a popular method to fabricate desirable coating structures and modify their properties. Substrate biasing at high frequencies is a possible technique, which allows higher ion density at the substrate compared with DC current bias. Moreover, high ion energy along with controlled adatom mobility would lead to improved coating growth. This paper focuses on a similar type of study, where effects of coating growth and properties of DC magnetron-sputtered chromium nitride (Cr x N) coatings at various substrate bias frequencies are discussed. Cr x N coatings were deposited by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering on Inconel 718 and (100) silicon substrates at 110, 160 and 280 kHz frequency at low duty cycle. Coating microstructure and morphology were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scratch adhesion testing and nanoindentation. Results indicate a transformation of columnar into glassy structure of Cr x N coatings with the substrate bias frequency increase. This transformation is attributed to preferential formation of the Cr2N phase at high frequencies compared with CrN at low frequencies. Increase in frequency leads to an increase in deposition rate, which is believed to be due to increase in plasma ion density and energy of the incident adatoms. An increase in coating hardness along with decrease in elastic modulus was observed at high frequencies. Scratch tests show a slight increase in coating adhesion, whereas no clear increase in coating roughness can be found with the substrate bias frequency.

  20. Substrate Frequency Effects on Cr x N Coatings Deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrosov, Aleksei; Naveed, Muhammad; Volinsky, Alex A.; Weiß, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Controlled ion bombardment is a popular method to fabricate desirable coating structures and modify their properties. Substrate biasing at high frequencies is a possible technique, which allows higher ion density at the substrate compared with DC current bias. Moreover, high ion energy along with controlled adatom mobility would lead to improved coating growth. This paper focuses on a similar type of study, where effects of coating growth and properties of DC magnetron-sputtered chromium nitride (Cr x N) coatings at various substrate bias frequencies are discussed. Cr x N coatings were deposited by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering on Inconel 718 and (100) silicon substrates at 110, 160 and 280 kHz frequency at low duty cycle. Coating microstructure and morphology were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scratch adhesion testing and nanoindentation. Results indicate a transformation of columnar into glassy structure of Cr x N coatings with the substrate bias frequency increase. This transformation is attributed to preferential formation of the Cr2N phase at high frequencies compared with CrN at low frequencies. Increase in frequency leads to an increase in deposition rate, which is believed to be due to increase in plasma ion density and energy of the incident adatoms. An increase in coating hardness along with decrease in elastic modulus was observed at high frequencies. Scratch tests show a slight increase in coating adhesion, whereas no clear increase in coating roughness can be found with the substrate bias frequency.

  1. Nanoscale and macroscale aluminum nitride deposition via reactive magnetron sputtering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guanghai

    The growth of group III nitrides is receiving a great deal of attention due to their potential as materials for optoelectronic devices in the blue to ultraviolet spectral range. This dissertation is primarily focused on deposition of aluminum nitride thin films on both nanofibers and macroscale silicon substrates via reactive magnetron sputtering. The objectives include investigating the feasibility of coating nanofibers to prepare high quality (smooth and crystalline) nanotubes, nanofiber hetero structures and using buffer layers to improve the quality of macroscale AlN thin films. To satisfy the need of nanoscale semiconductor materials, deposition of AlN on poly (meta-phenylene isophthalamide) MPD-I nano-fiber (template) was investigated via reactive magnetron sputtering. The electrospun high-temperature nanofibers with uniform dimensions were heated up to 300°C or higher. The coatings on the fibers were continuous and their morphology and crystal structure (either hexagonal wurtzite structure or cubic zinc-blende structure) were controlled by changing the deposition conditions. After removing the fiber core with organic solvent or by pyrolysis, AlN nanotubes (hollow structures) with inner diameter of 50--100 nm were achieved. As the nanoscale building blocks, nanoscale semiconductor heterostructures with modulated composition can facilitate the generation of devices with various functions. In this work, SiO2-AlN core-shell nanofiber heterostructures with SiO2 core and AlN shell were created by electro-spinning and reactive magnetron sputtering methods. Also the AlN coating (shell) was designed with different morphologies and crystalline properties by controlling the deposition conditions. The critical operating parameters for the formation of different morphologies of AlN shells were investigated. In practice, AlN thin film materials are still widely used for microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. To investigate and develop semiconducting AlN films, the

  2. Bioactive glass thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering technique: The role of working pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, G. E.; Marcov, D. A.; Pasuk, I.; Miculescu, F.; Pina, S.; Tulyaganov, D. U.; Ferreira, J. M. F.

    2010-09-01

    Bioglass coatings were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering deposition at low temperature (150 °C) onto silicon substrates. The influence of argon pressure values used during deposition (0.2 Pa, 0.3 Pa and 0.4 Pa) on the short-range structure and biomineralization potential of the bioglass coatings was studied. The biomineralization capability was evaluated after 30 days of immersion in simulated body fluid. SEM-EDS, XRD and FTIR measurements were performed. The tests clearly showed strong biomineralization features for the bioglass films. The thickness of the chemically grown hydroxyapatite layers was more than twice greater for the BG films deposited at the highest working pressure, in comparison to those grown on the films obtained at lower working pressures. The paper attempts to explain this experimental fact based on structural and compositional considerations.

  3. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of Multilayer X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broadway, David; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The proposal objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for x-ray, neutron, and EUV optic applications through the development of a magnetron sputtering deposition system. A specific goal of this endeavor is to combine multilayer deposition technology with the replication process in order to enhance the MSFC's position as a world leader in the design of innovative X-ray instrumentation through the development of full shell replicated multilayer optics. The development of multilayer structures is absolutely necessary in order to advance the field of X-ray astronomy by pushing the limit for observing the universe to ever increasing photon energies (i. e. up to 200 keV or higher); well beyond Chandra (approx. 10 keV) and NuStar's (approx. 75 keV) capability. The addition of multilayer technology would significantly enhance the X-ray optics capability at MSFC and allow NASA to maintain its world leadership position in the development, fabrication and design of innovative X-ray instrumentation which would be the first of its kind by combining multilayer technology with the mirror replication process. This marriage of these technologies would allow astronomers to see the universe in a new light by pushing to higher energies that are out of reach with today's instruments.To this aim, a magnetron vacum sputter deposition system for the deposition of novel multilayer thin film X-ray optics is proposed. A significant secondary use of the vacuum deposition system includes the capability to fabricate multilayers for applications in the field of EUV optics for solar physics, neutron optics, and X-ray optics for a broad range of applications including medical imaging.

  4. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of X-Ray Multilayer Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broadway, David

    2015-01-01

    The project objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for x-ray, neutron, and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optic applications through the development of a magnetron sputtering deposition system. A specific goal of this endeavor is to combine multilayer deposition technology with the replication process in order to enhance NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) position as a world leader in the design of innovative x-ray instrumentation through the development of full shell replicated multilayer optics. The development of multilayer structures are absolutely necessary in order to advance the field of x-ray astronomy by pushing the limit for observing the universe to ever-increasing photon energies (i.e., up to 200 keV or higher), well beyond Chandra's (approx.10 keV) and NuStar's (approx.75 keV) capability. The addition of multilayer technology would significantly enhance the x-ray optics capability at MSFC and allow NASA to maintain its world leadership position in the development, fabrication, and design of innovative x-ray instrumentation, which would be the first of its kind by combining multilayer technology with the mirror replication process. This marriage of these technologies would allow astronomers to see the universe in a new light by pushing to higher energies that are out of reach with today's instruments. To this aim, a magnetron vacuum sputter deposition system for the deposition of novel multilayer thin film x-ray optics is proposed. A significant secondary use of the vacuum deposition system includes the capability to fabricate multilayers for applications in the field of EUV optics for solar physics, neutron optics, and x-ray optics for a broad range of applications including medical imaging.

  5. Method to control deposition rate instabilities—High power impulse magnetron sputtering deposition of TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Kossoy, Anna E-mail: anna.kossoy@gmail.com; Magnusson, Rögnvaldur L.; Tryggvason, Tryggvi K.; Leosson, Kristjan; Olafsson, Sveinn

    2015-03-15

    The authors describe how changes in shutter state (open/closed) affect sputter plasma conditions and stability of the deposition rate of Ti and TiO{sub 2} films. The films were grown by high power impulse magnetron sputtering in pure Ar and in Ar/O{sub 2} mixture from a metallic Ti target. The shutter state was found to have an effect on the pulse waveform for both pure Ar and reactive sputtering of Ti also affecting stability of TiO{sub 2} deposition rate. When the shutter opened, the shape of pulse current changed from rectangular to peak-plateau and pulse energy decreased. The authors attribute it to the change in plasma impedance and gas rarefaction originating in geometry change in front of the magnetron. TiO{sub 2} deposition rate was initially found to be high, 1.45 Å/s, and then dropped by ∼40% during the first 5 min, while for Ti the change was less obvious. Instability of deposition rate poses significant challenge for growing multilayer heterostructures. In this work, the authors suggest a way to overcome this by monitoring the integrated average energy involved in the deposition process. It is possible to calibrate and control the film thickness by monitoring the integrated pulse energy and end growth when desired integrated pulse energy level has been reached.

  6. High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: scalable plasma sources for plasma-based ion implantation and deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2009-09-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) and related self-sputtering techniques are reviewed from a viewpoint of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D). HIPIMS combines the classical, scalable sputtering technology with pulsed power, which is an elegant way of ionizing the sputtered atoms. Related approaches, such as sustained self-sputtering, are also considered. The resulting intense flux of ions to the substrate consists of a mixture of metal and gas ions when using a process gas, or of metal ions only when using `gasless? or pure self-sputtering. In many respects, processing with HIPIMS plasmas is similar to processing with filtered cathodic arc plasmas, though the former is easier to scale to large areas. Both ion implantation and etching (high bias voltage, without deposition) and thin film deposition (low bias, or bias of low duty cycle) have been demonstrated.

  7. Metal-AlN cermet solar selective coatings deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi-Chu

    1998-02-01

    A series of metal-aluminium nitride (M-AlN) cermet materials for solar selective coatings was deposited by a novel direct current (d.c.) magnetron sputtering technology. Aluminium nitride was used as the ceramic component in the cermets, and stainless steel (SS), nickel-based alloy 0022-3727/31/4/003/img1 (NiCr), molybdenum-based alloy 0022-3727/31/4/003/img2 (TZM) and tungsten were used as the metallic components. The aluminium nitride ceramic and metallic components of the cermets were deposited by simultaneously running both an aluminium target and another metallic target in a gas mixture of argon and nitrogen. The ceramic component was deposited by d.c. reactive sputtering and the metallic component by d.c. non-reactive sputtering. The total sputtering gas pressure was 0.8-1.0 Pa and the partial pressure of reactive nitrogen gas was set at 0.020-0.025 Pa which is sufficiently high to ensure that a nearly pure AlN ceramic sublayer was deposited by d.c. reactive sputtering. Because of the excellent nitriding resistance of stainless steel and the other alloys and metal, a nearly pure metallic sublayer was deposited by d.c. sputtering at this low nitrogen partial pressure. A multilayered system, consisting of alternating metallic and AlN ceramic sublayers, was deposited by substrate rotation. This multisublayer system can be considered as a macrohomogeneous cermet layer with metal volume fraction determined by controlling the thicknesses of metallic and ceramic sublayers. Following this procedure, M-AlN cermet solar selective coatings with a double cermet layer structure were deposited. The films of these selective surfaces have the following structure: a low metal volume fraction cermet layer is placed on a high metal volume fraction cermet layer which in turn is placed on an aluminium metal infrared reflection layer. The top surface layer consists of an aluminium nitride antireflection layer. A solar absorptance of 0.92-0.96 and a normal emittance of 0.03-0.05 at

  8. Structure and morphology of magnetron sputter deposited ultrathin ZnO films on confined polymeric template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajaib; Schipmann, Susanne; Mathur, Aakash; Pal, Dipayan; Sengupta, Amartya; Klemradt, Uwe; Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna

    2017-08-01

    The structure and morphology of ultra-thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films with different film thicknesses on confined polymer template were studied through X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Using magnetron sputter deposition technique ZnO thin films with different film thicknesses (<10 nm) were grown on confined polystyrene with ∼2Rg film thickness, where Rg ∼ 20 nm (Rg is the unperturbed radius of gyration of polystyrene, defined by Rg = 0.272 √M0, and M0 is the molecular weight of polystyrene). The detailed internal structure, along the surface/interfaces and the growth direction of the system were explored in this study, which provides insight into the growth procedure of ZnO on confined polymer and reveals that a thin layer of ZnO, with very low surface and interface roughness, can be grown by DC magnetron sputtering technique, with approximately full coverage (with bulk like electron density) even in nm order of thickness, in 2-7 nm range on confined polymer template, without disturbing the structure of the underneath template. The resulting ZnO-polystyrene hybrid systems show strong ZnO near band edge (NBE) and deep-level (DLE) emissions in their room temperature photoluminescence spectra, where the contribution of DLE gets relatively stronger with decreasing ZnO film thickness, indicating a significant enhancement of surface defects because of the greater surface to volume ratio in thinner films.

  9. Surface properties and biocompatibility of nanostructured TiO2 film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Asif; He, Jie; Jiao, Lingrui; Zhong, Xiaoxia; Sheng, Zhengming

    2015-02-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 films are deposited on a silicon substrate using 150-W power from the RF magnetron sputtering at working pressures of 3 to 5 Pa, with no substrate bias, and at 3 Pa with a substrate bias of -50 V. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that TiO2 films deposited on unbiased as well as biased substrates are all amorphous. Surface properties such as surface roughness and wettability of TiO2 films, grown in a plasma environment, under biased and unbiased substrate conditions are reported according to the said parameters of RF power and the working pressures. Primary rat osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) cells have been cultured on nanostructured TiO2 films fabricated at different conditions of substrate bias and working pressures. The effects of roughness and hydrophilicity of nanostructured TiO2 films on cell density and cell spreading have been discussed.

  10. High-frequency magnetic properties of Zn ferrite films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Dangwei; Zhu Jingyi; Yang Yuancai; Fan Xiaolong; Chai Guozhi; Sui Wenbo; Zhang Zhengmei; Xue Desheng

    2010-02-15

    The effect of thermal annealing on structural and magnetic properties has been investigated for Zn ferrite films deposited on Si (111) substrates using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The saturation magnetization at room temperature was enhanced upto 303 emu/cm{sup 3} by annealing at relatively low temperature of 200 deg. C and decreased at higher temperatures. The complex permeability {mu}={mu}{sup '}-i{mu}{sup ''} values of the ferrite films as-deposited and annealed at 200 and 400 deg. C were measured at frequency upto 5 GHz. These films exhibited better high-frequency properties, especially, the film annealed at 200 deg. C had a large {mu}{sup '} of 19.5 and high resonance frequency f{sub r} of 1.61 GHz. And the reason was investigated preliminarily based on the bianisotropy model.

  11. Deposition of vanadium oxide films by direct-current magnetron reactive sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusano, E.; Theil, J. A.; Thornton, John A.

    1988-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that thin films of vanadium oxide can be deposited at modest substrate temperatures by dc reactive sputtering from a vanadium target in an O2-Ar working gas using a planar magnetron source. Resistivity ratios of about 5000 are found between a semiconductor phase with a resistivity of about 5 Ohm cm and a metallic phase with a resistivity of about 0.001 Ohm cm for films deposited onto borosilicate glass substrates at about 400 C. X-ray diffraction shows the films to be single-phase VO2 with a monoclinic structure. The VO2 films are obtained for a narrow range of O2 injection rates which correspond to conditions where cathode poisoning is just starting to occur.

  12. Direct current magnetron sputtering deposition of InN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xing-Min; Hao, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ping; Fan, Ping

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, InN thin films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) and K9 glass by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering. The target was In metal with the purity of 99.999% and the gases were Ar (99.999%) and N 2 (99.999%). The properties of InN thin films were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the film surface is very rough and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) shows that the film contains In, N and very little O. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering reveal that the film mainly contains hexagonal InN. The four-probe measurement shows that InN film is conductive. The transmission measurement demonstrates that the transmission of InN deposited on K9 glass is as low as 0.5% from 400 nm to 800 nm.

  13. Surface properties and biocompatibility of nanostructured TiO2 film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Asif; He, Jie; Jiao, Lingrui; Zhong, Xiaoxia; Sheng, Zhengming

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 films are deposited on a silicon substrate using 150-W power from the RF magnetron sputtering at working pressures of 3 to 5 Pa, with no substrate bias, and at 3 Pa with a substrate bias of -50 V. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that TiO2 films deposited on unbiased as well as biased substrates are all amorphous. Surface properties such as surface roughness and wettability of TiO2 films, grown in a plasma environment, under biased and unbiased substrate conditions are reported according to the said parameters of RF power and the working pressures. Primary rat osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) cells have been cultured on nanostructured TiO2 films fabricated at different conditions of substrate bias and working pressures. The effects of roughness and hydrophilicity of nanostructured TiO2 films on cell density and cell spreading have been discussed.

  14. Surface treatment effect on Si (111) substrate for carbon deposition using DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, A. S.; Sahdan, M. F.; Hendra, I. B.; Dinari, P.; Darma, Y.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we studied the effect of HF treatment in silicon (111) substrate surface for depositing thin layer carbon. We performed the deposition of carbon by using DC Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering with carbon pallet (5% Fe) as target. From SEM characterization results it can be concluded that the carbon layer on HF treated substrate is more uniform than on substrate without treated. Carbon deposition rate is higher as confirmed by AFM results if the silicon substrate is treated by HF solution. EDAX characterization results tell that silicon (111) substrate with HF treatment have more carbon fraction than substrate without treatment. These results confirmed that HF treatment on silicon Si (111) substrates could enhance the carbon deposition by using DC sputtering. Afterward, the carbon atomic arrangement on silicon (111) surface is studied by performing thermal annealing process to 900 °C. From Raman spectroscopy results, thin film carbon is not changing until 600 °C thermal budged. But, when temperature increase to 900 °C, thin film carbon is starting to diffuse to silicon (111) substrates.

  15. Surface treatment effect on Si (111) substrate for carbon deposition using DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Aji, A. S. Sahdan, M. F.; Hendra, I. B.; Dinari, P.; Darma, Y.

    2015-04-16

    In this work, we studied the effect of HF treatment in silicon (111) substrate surface for depositing thin layer carbon. We performed the deposition of carbon by using DC Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering with carbon pallet (5% Fe) as target. From SEM characterization results it can be concluded that the carbon layer on HF treated substrate is more uniform than on substrate without treated. Carbon deposition rate is higher as confirmed by AFM results if the silicon substrate is treated by HF solution. EDAX characterization results tell that silicon (111) substrate with HF treatment have more carbon fraction than substrate without treatment. These results confirmed that HF treatment on silicon Si (111) substrates could enhance the carbon deposition by using DC sputtering. Afterward, the carbon atomic arrangement on silicon (111) surface is studied by performing thermal annealing process to 900 °C. From Raman spectroscopy results, thin film carbon is not changing until 600 °C thermal budged. But, when temperature increase to 900 °C, thin film carbon is starting to diffuse to silicon (111) substrates.

  16. Structure and properties of uranium oxide thin films deposited by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jianliang; Dahan, Isaac; Valderrama, Billy; Manuel, Michele V.

    2014-05-01

    Crystalline uranium oxide thin films were deposited in an unbalanced magnetron sputtering system by sputtering from a depleted uranium target in an Ar + O2 mixture using middle frequency pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. The substrate temperature was constantly maintained at 500 °C. Different uranium oxide phases (including UO2-x, UO2, U3O7 and U3O8) were obtained by controlling the percentage of the O2 flow rate to the total gas flow rate (f) in the chamber. The crystal structure of the films was characterized using X-ray diffraction and the microstructure of the films was studied using transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. When the f was below 10%, the film contains a mixture of metallic uranium and UO2-x phases. As the f was controlled in the range of 10-13%, UO2 films with a (2 2 0) preferential orientation were obtained. The oxide phase rapidly changed to a mixture of U3O7 and U3O8 as the f was increased to the range of 15-18%. Further increasing the f to 20% and above, polycrystalline U3O8 thin films with a (0 0 1) preferential orientation were formed. The hardness and Young's modulus of the uranium oxide films were evaluated using nanoindentation. The film containing a single UO2 phase exhibited the maximum hardness of 14.3 GPa and a Young's modulus of 195 GPa. The UO2 thin film also exhibited good thermal stability in that no phase change was observed after annealing at 600 °C in vacuum for 104 h.

  17. Electrostatic quadrupole plasma mass spectrometer measurements during thin film depositions using simultaneous matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation and magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C. N.; Check, M. H.; Muratore, C.; Voevodin, A. A.

    2010-05-15

    A hybrid plasma deposition process, combining matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) of carbon nanopearls (CNPs) with magnetron sputtering of gold was investigated for growth of composite films, where 100 nm sized CNPs were encapsulated into a gold matrix. Composition and morphology of such composite films was characterized with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Carbon deposits on a gold magnetron sputter target and carbon impurities in the gold matrices of deposited films were observed while codepositing from gold and frozen toluene-CNP MAPLE targets in pure argon. Electrostatic quadrupole plasma analysis was used to determine that a likely mechanism for generation of carbon impurities was a reaction between toluene vapor generated from the MAPLE target and the argon plasma originating from the magnetron sputtering process. Carbon impurities of codeposited films were significantly reduced by introducing argon-oxygen mixtures into the deposition chamber; reactive oxygen species such as O and O+ effectively removed carbon contamination of gold matrix during the codeposition processes. Increasing the oxygen to argon ratio decreased the magnetron target sputter rate, and hence hybrid process optimization to prevent gold matrix contamination and maintain a high sputter yield is needed. High resolution TEM with energy dispersive spectrometry elemental mapping was used to study carbon distribution throughout the gold matrix as well as embedded CNP clusters. This research has demonstrated that a hybrid MAPLE and magnetron sputtering codeposition process is a viable means for synthesis of composite thin films from premanufactured nanoscale constituents, and that cross-process contaminations can be overcome with understanding of hybrid plasma process interaction mechanisms.

  18. Three-Dimensional, Fibrous Lithium Iron Phosphate Structures Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Bünting, Aiko; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Sebold, Doris; Buchkremer, H P; Vaßen, R

    2015-10-14

    Crystalline, three-dimensional (3D) structured lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) thin films with additional carbon are fabricated by a radio frequency (RF) magnetron-sputtering process in a single step. The 3D structured thin films are obtained at deposition temperatures of 600 °C and deposition times longer than 60 min by using a conventional sputtering setup. In contrast to glancing angle deposition (GLAD) techniques, no tilting of the substrate is required. Thin films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrospcopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic charging and discharging. The structured LiFePO4+C thin films consist of fibers that grow perpendicular to the substrate surface. The fibers have diameters up to 500 nm and crystallize in the desired olivine structure. The 3D structured thin films have superior electrochemical properties compared with dense two-dimensional (2D) LiFePO4 thin films and are, hence, very promising for application in 3D microbatteries.

  19. Control over the preferred orientation of CIGS films deposited by magnetron sputtering using a wetting layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yong; Jiang, Fan; Liu, Lian; Yu, Zhou; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    A growth method is presented to control the preferred orientation in chalcopyrite CuIn x Ga1- x Se2 (CIGS) thin films grown by magnetron sputtering. Films with (220/204) and (112) preferred orientation as well as randomly oriented films were prepared. The effects of an In2Se3 wetting layer and the working pressure on the texture transition phenomena were examined. A large-grained CIGS film with (220/204) texture was formed at 400°C with the inclusion of a thin (80 nm) In2Se3 layer and liquid phase (excess copper selenide phase) formation, and the reaction mechanism is proposed. The device deposited at 2.0 Pa on an In2Se3 layer exhibited the optimal electrical properties. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Optical properties study of silicon oxynitride films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yong; Gu, Peifu; Ye, Hui; Shen, Weidong

    2004-12-01

    Graded refractive index Silicon Oxy-nitride thin films were deposited by RF magnetron reactive sputtering at different N2/O2 flow ratio. The effects of gas flow ratio on the refractive index, extinction coefficient and composition were studied using UV-VIS spectrophotometer, XPS and FTIR characterization methods. A simple and accurate method is presented for determination of the optical constants and physical thickness of thin films. Which was consisted in fitting the experimental transmission curve with the help of the physical model. The relationship between composition and optical gap and dispersion energy was analyzed using Wemple DiDomenico single-oscillator model. As a result, the samples" refractive index can be controlled from 1.92 to 1.46 by adjusting the gas flow ratio, and the optical gap lies between 5eV~6.5eV.

  1. HRTEM Microstructural Characterization of β-WO3 Thin Films Deposited by Reactive RF Magnetron Sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Faudoa-Arzate, A.; Arteaga-Durán, A.; Saenz-Hernández, R.J.; Botello-Zubiate, M.E.; Realyvazquez-Guevara, P.R.; Matutes-Aquino, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Though tungsten trioxide (WO3) in bulk, nanosphere, and thin film samples has been extensively studied, few studies have been dedicated to the crystallographic structure of WO3 thin films. In this work, the evolution from amorphous WO3 thin films to crystalline WO3 thin films is discussed. WO3 thin films were fabricated on silicon substrates (Si/SiO2) by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. Once a thin film was deposited, two successive annealing treatments were made: an initial annealing at 400 °C for 6 h was followed by a second annealing at 350 °C for 1 h. Film characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution electron transmission microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The β-WO3 final phase grew in form of columnar crystals and its growth plane was determined by HRTEM. PMID:28772559

  2. HRTEM Microstructural Characterization of β-WO3 Thin Films Deposited by Reactive RF Magnetron Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Faudoa-Arzate, A; Arteaga-Durán, A; Saenz-Hernández, R J; Botello-Zubiate, M E; Realyvazquez-Guevara, P R; Matutes-Aquino, J A

    2017-02-17

    Though tungsten trioxide (WO3) in bulk, nanosphere, and thin film samples has been extensively studied, few studies have been dedicated to the crystallographic structure of WO3 thin films. In this work, the evolution from amorphous WO3 thin films to crystalline WO3 thin films is discussed. WO3 thin films were fabricated on silicon substrates (Si/SiO2) by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. Once a thin film was deposited, two successive annealing treatments were made: an initial annealing at 400 °C for 6 h was followed by a second annealing at 350 °C for 1 h. Film characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution electron transmission microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The β-WO3 final phase grew in form of columnar crystals and its growth plane was determined by HRTEM.

  3. The physical properties of AZO films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering in hydrogen-diluted argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jwayeon; Han, Jungsu; Jin, Hyunjoon; Kim, Youhyuk; Park, Kyeongsoon

    2014-08-01

    The properties of AZO (98-wt% ZnO, 2-wt% Al2O3) films produced in pure Ar and Ar (98%) + H2 (2%) (H2-diluted Ar) by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering were investigated as functions of the substrate temperatures. H2-diluted Ar improved the electrical properties of the AZO films fabricated at low substrate temperatures, but this benefit gradually diminished with increasing substrate temperature. This phenomenon was explained by O-H stretching in the Zn-O bond at low temperatures and by the formation of oxygen vacancies at high temperatures. The average optical transmission was over ~85%, and the orientation of the AZO films deposited both in pure Ar and in H2-diluted Ar was in the [002] direction.

  4. RF Magnetron Sputtering Deposited W/Ti Thin Film For Smart Window Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksuz, Lutfi; Kiristi, Melek; Bozduman, Ferhat; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2014-10-01

    Electrochromic (EC) devices can change reversible and persistent their optical properties in the visible region (400-800 nm) upon charge insertion/extraction according to the applied voltage. A complementary type EC is a device containing two electrochromic layers, one of which is anodically colored such as vanadium oxide (V2 O5) while the other cathodically colored such as tungsten oxide (WO3) which is separated by an ionic conduction layer (electrolyte). The use of a solid electrolyte such as Nafion eliminates the need for containment of the liquid electrolyte, which simplifies the cell design, as well as improves safety and durability. In this work, the EC device was fabricated on a ITO/glass slide. The WO3-TiO2 thin film was deposited by reactive RF magnetron sputtering using a 2-in W/Ti (9:1%wt) target with purity of 99.9% in a mixture gas of argon and oxygen. As a counter electrode layer, V2O5 film was deposited on an ITO/glass substrate using V2O3 target with the same conditions of reactive RF magnetron sputtering. Modified Nafion was used as an electrolyte to complete EC device. The transmittance spectra of the complementary EC device was measured by optical spectrophotometry when a voltage of +/-3 V was applied to the EC device by computer controlled system. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Fig. 2). The cyclic voltammetry (CV) for EC device was performed by sweeping the potential between +/-3 V at a scan rate of 50 mV/s.

  5. Properties of a-C:H:Si thin films deposited by middle-frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jinlong; Wang, Yubao; Du, Jinfang; Yang, Hua; Hao, Junying

    2016-08-01

    The silicon doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H:Si) films were prepared on silicon substrates by middle-frequency magnetron sputtering silicon target in an argon and methane gas mixture atmosphere. The deposition rate, chemical composition, structure, surface properties, stress, hardness and tribological properties in the ambient air of the films were systemically investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), nanoindentation and tribological tester. The results show that doped silicon content in the films is controlled in the wide range from 39.7 at.% to 0.2 at.% by various methane gas flow rate, and methane flow rate affects not only the silicon content but also its chemical bonding structure in the films due to the transformation of sputtering modes. Meanwhile, the sp3 carbon component in the films linearly increases with increasing of methane flow rate. The film deposited at moderate methane flow rate of 40-60 sccm exhibits the very smooth surface (RMS roughness 0.4 nm), low stress (0.42 GPa), high hardness (21.1 GPa), as well as low friction coefficient (0.038) and wear rate (1.6 × 10-7 mm3/Nm). The superior tribological performance of the films could be attributed to the formation and integral covering of the transfer materials on the sliding surface and their high hardness.

  6. Thermochromic VO2 thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering for smart window applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, Jean-Philippe

    "Smart" windows are a perfect innovative example of technology that reduces our energy dependence and our impact on the environment while saving on the economical point of view. With the use of vanadium dioxide (VO2), a thermochromic compound, and this, as a thin coating, it would in fact be possible to control the sun's transmission of infrared light (heat) as a function of the surrounding environment temperature. In other words, its optical behavior would allow a more effective management of heat exchanges between a living venue and the outdoor environment. However, this type of window is still in a developmental stage. First, the oxide's deposition is not simple in nature. Based on a conventional deposition technique called magnetron sputtering mainly used in the fenestration industry, several factors such as the oxygen concentration and the substrate temperature during deposition can affect the coating's thermochromic behavior, and this, by changing its composition and crystallinity. Other control parameters such as the deposition rate, the pressure in the sputtering chamber and the choice of substrate may also modify the film microstructure, thereby varying its optical and electrical properties. In addition, several issues still persist as to its commercial application. For starters, the material's structural transition, related to the change of its optical properties, only occurs around 68°C. In addition, its low transparency and natural greenish colour are not visually appealing. Then, to this day, the deposition temperature required to crystallize and form the thermochromic oxide remains an obstacle for a possible large-scale application. Ultimately, although the material's change in temperature has been shown to be advantageous in situations of varying climate, the existing corrective solutions to these issues generate a deterioration of the thermochromic behavior. With no practical expertise on the material, this project was undertaken with certain

  7. Adhesion analysis for chromium nitride thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, F. M.; Merie, V. V.; Pintea, I. M.; Molea, A.

    2016-08-01

    The thin film industry is continuously growing due to the wide range of applications that require the fabrication of advanced components such as sensors, biological implants, micro-electromechanical devices, optical coatings and so on. The selection regarding the deposition materials, as well as the deposition technology influences the properties of the material and determines the suitability of devices for certain real-world applications. This paper is focused on the adhesion force for several chromium nitride thin films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering. All chromium nitride thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate, the discharge current and the argon flow being kept constant. The main purpose of the paper is to determine the influence of deposition parameters on the adhesion force. Therefore some of the deposition parameters were varied in order to study their effect on the adhesion force. Experimentally, the values of the adhesion force were determined in multiple points for each sample using the spectroscopy in point mode of the atomic force microscope. The obtained values were used to estimate the surface energy of the CrN thin films based on two existing mathematical models for the adhesion force when considering the contact between two bodies.

  8. Nanoscale compositional analysis of NiTi shape memory alloy films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S. K.; Mohan, S.; Bysakh, S.; Kumar, A.; Kamat, S. V.

    2013-11-15

    The formation of surface oxide layer as well as compositional changes along the thickness for NiTi shape memory alloy thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering at substrate temperature of 300 °C in the as-deposited condition as well as in the postannealed (at 600 °C) condition have been thoroughly studied by using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy techniques. Formation of titanium oxide (predominantly titanium dioxide) layer was observed in both as-deposited and postannealed NiTi films, although the oxide layer was much thinner (8 nm) in as-deposited condition. The depletion of Ti and enrichment of Ni below the oxide layer in postannealed films also resulted in the formation of a graded microstructure consisting of titanium oxide, Ni{sub 3}Ti, and B2 NiTi. A uniform composition of B2 NiTi was obtained in the postannealed film only below a depth of 200–250 nm from the surface. Postannealed film also exhibited formation of a ternary silicide (Ni{sub x}Ti{sub y}Si) at the film–substrate interface, whereas no silicide was seen in the as-deposited film. The formation of silicide also caused a depletion of Ni in the film in a region ∼250–300 nm just above the film substrate interface.

  9. Microstructure, hydrogenation and optical behavior of Mg-Ni multilayer films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Wang, X. L.; Qiao, Y. Q.; Xia, X. H.; Tu, J. P.

    2011-04-01

    Mg-Ni multilayer films with sequential Mg and Ni layers were prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering. The substrate temperature influences the microstructure of the films greatly. The film deposited at 298 K exhibits multilayered structure, while the film shows nanocrystalline/amorphous composite structure at the deposition temperature of 473 K. The optical properties between hydrogenation/dehydrogenation states of the films were performed using spectrophotometer in visible light region. The film deposited at 473 K can switch from mirror-like metallic state towards brownish yellow transparent state under 0.6 MPa H2 at 298 K, and the optical transmittance modulation reaches up to 20% both at a wavelength of 770 nm and IR region, while the film deposited at 298 K exhibits low optical change, and the optical switching behavior can hardly be found. The extra free energy stored in the boundary of the nanocrystallines benefits the formation of magnesium-based hydride, resulting in the enhancement of the optical switching properties of the Mg-Ni film deposited at 473 K.

  10. Magnetron-Sputtered Amorphous Metallic Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Mehra, M.; Khanna, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous coatings of refractory metal/metalloid-based alloys deposited by magnetron sputtering provide extraordinary hardness and wear resistance. Sputtering target fabricated by thoroughly mixing powders of tungsten, rhenium, and boron in stated proportions and pressing at 1,200 degrees C and 3,000 lb/in. to second power (21 MPa). Substrate lightly etched by sputtering before deposition, then maintained at bias of - 500 V during initial stages of film growth while target material sputtered onto it. Argon gas at pressure used as carrier gas for sputter deposition. Coatings dense, pinhole-free, extremely smooth, and significantly resistant to chemical corrosion in acidic and neutral aqueous environments.

  11. Surface roughness and interface width scaling of magnetron sputter deposited Ni/Ti multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Maidul Haque, S.; Biswas, A.; Tokas, R. B.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K.; Bhattacharya, Debarati

    2013-09-14

    Using an indigenously built r.f. magnetron sputtering system, several single layer Ti and Ni films have been deposited at varying deposition conditions. All the samples have been characterized by Grazing Incidence X-ray Reflectivity (GIXR) and Atomic Force Microscopy to estimate their thickness, density, and roughness and a power law dependence of the surface roughness on the film thickness has been established. Subsequently, at optimized deposition condition of Ti and Ni, four Ni/Ti multilayers of 11-layer, 21-layer, 31-layer, and 51-layer having different bilayer thickness have been deposited. The multilayer samples have been characterized by GIXR and neutron reflectivity measurements and the experimental data have been fitted assuming an appropriate sample structure. A power law correlation between the interface width and bilayer thickness has been observed for the multilayer samples, which was explained in the light of alternate roughening/smoothening of multilayers and assuming that at the interface the growth “restarts” every time.

  12. Deposition and characterization of molybdenum thin films using dc-plasma magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Majid; Islam, Mohammad

    2013-12-15

    Molebdenum (Mo) thin films were deposited on well-cleaned soda-lime glass substrates using DC-plasma magnetron sputtering. In the design of experiment deposition was optimized for maximum beneficial characteristics by monitoring effect of process variables such as deposition power (100–200 W). Their electrical, structural and morphological properties were analyzed to study the effect of these variables. The electrical resistivity of Mo thin films could be reduced by increasing deposition power. Within the range of analyzed deposition power, Mo thin films showed a mono crystalline nature and the crystallites were found to have an orientation along [110] direction. The surface morphology of thin films showed that a highly dense micro structure has been obtained. The surface roughness of films increased with deposition power. The adhesion of Mo thin films could be improved by increasing the deposition power. Atomic force microscopy was used for the topographical study of the films and to determine the roughness of the films. X-ray diffractrometer and scanning electron microscopy analysis were used to investigate the crystallinity and surface morphology of the films. Hall effect measurement system was used to find resistivity, carrier mobility and carrier density of deposited films. The adhesion test was performed using scotch hatch tape adhesion test. Mo thin films prepared at deposition power of 200 W, substrate temperature of 23°C and Ar pressure of 0.0123 mbar exhibited a mono crystalline structure with an orientation along (110) direction, thickness of ∼550 nm and electrical resistivity value of 0.57 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm.

  13. Deposition and characterization of TiZrV-Pd thin films by dc magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Yan-Hui; Wei, Wei; Fan, Le; Pei, Xiang-Tao; Hong, Yuan-Zhi; Wang, Yong

    2015-12-01

    TiZrV film is mainly applied in the ultra-high vacuum pipes of storage rings. Thin film coatings of palladium, which are added onto the TiZrV film to increase the service life of nonevaporable getters and enhance H2 pumping speed, were deposited on the inner face of stainless steel pipes by dc magnetron sputtering using argon gas as the sputtering gas. The TiZrV-Pd film properties were investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The grain size of TiZrV and Pd films were about 0.42-1.3 nm and 8.5-18.25 nm respectively. It was found that the roughness of TiZrV films is small, about 2-4 nm, but for Pd film it is large, about 17-19 nm. The PP At. % of Pd in TiZrV/Pd films varied from 86.84 to 87.56 according to the XPS test results. Supported by National Natural Science Funds of China (11205155) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (WK2310000041)

  14. Properties of All-Solid Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries Deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, R. J.; Ren, Y.; Geng, L. Q.; Chen, T.; Li, L. X.; Yuan, C. R.

    2013-08-01

    Amorphous V2O5, LiPON and Li2Mn2O4 thin films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering methods and the morphology of thin films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Then with these three materials deposited as the anode, solid electrolyte, cathode, and vanadium as current collector, a rocking-chair type of all-solid-state thin-film-type Lithium-ion rechargeable battery was prepared by using the same sputtering parameters on stainless steel substrates. Electrochemical studies show that the thin film battery has a good charge-discharge characteristic in the voltage range of 0.3-3.5 V, and after 30 cycles the cell performance turned to become stabilized with the charge capacity of 9 μAh/cm2, and capacity loss of single-cycle of about 0.2%. At the same time, due to electronic conductivity of the electrolyte film, self-discharge may exist, resulting in approximately 96.6% Coulombic efficiency.

  15. Carbon film deposition on SnO2/Si(111) using DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, A. S.; Darma, Y.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, carbon deposition on SnO2 layer using DC unbalanced magnetron-sputtering technique at low temperature has been systematically studied. Sputtering process were carried out at pressure of 4.6×10-2 Torr by keeping the substrate temperature at 300 °C. SnO2 were growth on silicon (111) substrate using thermal evaporation and continuing with dry oxidation of Sn at 225 °C. Thermal evaporation for high purity Sn was conducted by maintain the current source as high as 40 ampere. The quality of SnO2 on Si(111) and the characteristic of carbon thin film on SnO2 were analized by mean XRD, FTIR and Raman spectra. XRD analysis shows that SnO2 film is growth uniformly on Si(111). FTIR and Raman spectra confirm the formation of thin film carbon on SnO2. Additionally, thermal annealing for some sample series have been performed to study their structural stability. The change of atomic structure due to thermal annealing were analized by Raman and XRD spectra.

  16. Carbon film deposition on SnO{sub 2}/Si(111) using DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Aji, A. S.; Darma, Y.

    2013-09-09

    In this paper, carbon deposition on SnO{sub 2} layer using DC unbalanced magnetron-sputtering technique at low temperature has been systematically studied. Sputtering process were carried out at pressure of 4.6×10{sup −2} Torr by keeping the substrate temperature at 300 °C. SnO{sub 2} were growth on silicon (111) substrate using thermal evaporation and continuing with dry oxidation of Sn at 225 °C. Thermal evaporation for high purity Sn was conducted by maintain the current source as high as 40 ampere. The quality of SnO{sub 2} on Si(111) and the characteristic of carbon thin film on SnO{sub 2} were analized by mean XRD, FTIR and Raman spectra. XRD analysis shows that SnO{sub 2} film is growth uniformly on Si(111). FTIR and Raman spectra confirm the formation of thin film carbon on SnO{sub 2}. Additionally, thermal annealing for some sample series have been performed to study their structural stability. The change of atomic structure due to thermal annealing were analized by Raman and XRD spectra.

  17. Deposition of Visible Light Active Photocatalytic Bismuth Molybdate Thin Films by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Ratova, Marina; Kelly, Peter J; West, Glen T; Xia, Xiaohong; Gao, Yun

    2016-01-22

    Bismuth molybdate thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering from two metallic targets in an argon/oxygen atmosphere, reportedly for the first time. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis showed that the ratio of bismuth to molybdenum in the coatings can be effectively controlled by varying the power applied to each target. Deposited coatings were annealed in air at 673 K for 30 min. The crystalline structure was assessed by means of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Oxidation state information was obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Photodegradation of organic dyes methylene blue and rhodamine B was used for evaluation of the photocatalytic properties of the coatings under a visible light source. The photocatalytic properties of the deposited coatings were then compared to a sample of commercial titanium dioxide-based photocatalytic product. The repeatability of the dye degradation reactions and photocatalytic coating reusability are discussed. It was found that coatings with a Bi:Mo ratio of approximately 2:1 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity of the coatings studied; its efficacy in dye photodegradation significantly outperformed a sample of commercial photocatalytic coating.

  18. Deposition of Visible Light Active Photocatalytic Bismuth Molybdate Thin Films by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Ratova, Marina; Kelly, Peter J.; West, Glen T.; Xia, Xiaohong; Gao, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth molybdate thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering from two metallic targets in an argon/oxygen atmosphere, reportedly for the first time. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis showed that the ratio of bismuth to molybdenum in the coatings can be effectively controlled by varying the power applied to each target. Deposited coatings were annealed in air at 673 K for 30 min. The crystalline structure was assessed by means of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Oxidation state information was obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Photodegradation of organic dyes methylene blue and rhodamine B was used for evaluation of the photocatalytic properties of the coatings under a visible light source. The photocatalytic properties of the deposited coatings were then compared to a sample of commercial titanium dioxide-based photocatalytic product. The repeatability of the dye degradation reactions and photocatalytic coating reusability are discussed. It was found that coatings with a Bi:Mo ratio of approximately 2:1 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity of the coatings studied; its efficacy in dye photodegradation significantly outperformed a sample of commercial photocatalytic coating. PMID:28787867

  19. Effect of amorphous C films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on smoothing K9 glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Songwen; Qi, Hongji; Wei, Chaoyang; Yi, Kui; Fan, Zhengxiu; Shao, Jianda

    2009-12-01

    Soft X-ray multilayer reflectors must be deposited on super-smooth surface such as super-polished silicon wafers or glasses, which are complicate, time-consuming and expensive to produce. To overcome this shortage, C films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering were considered to smooth the K9 glass substrates' surface in the present paper. The structure of C films was systematically studied by XRD and Raman spectrum. The surface morphology and rms-roughness were obtained by AFM. Then, we calculated the impact of the C layers on the reflectivity curve of Mo/Si soft X-ray multilayer reflector around 13.5 nm. The C films exhibit typical amorphous state. With the increasing of power and thickness, the content of sp3 hybrid bonding decreases while the amount or size of well-organized graphite clusters increases. The surface rms-roughness decreases from 2.4 nm to 0.62 nm after smoothed by an 80 nm thick C layer deposited in 500 W, which is the smoothest C layer surface we have obtained. The calculation results show that the theoretical normal incidence reflectivity of Mo/Si multilayer at 13.5 nm increases from 7% to 63%.

  20. Photocatalytic activity of bipolar pulsed magnetron sputter deposited TiO2/TiWOx thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Ko-Wei; Hu, Chung-Hsuan; Hua, Li-Yu; Lee, Chin-Tan; Zhao, Yu-Xiang; Chang, Julian; Yang, Shu-Yi; Han, Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Titanium oxide films were formed by sputtering and then TiWOx films were deposited by bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering with pure titanium and tungsten metal targets. The sputtering of titanium oxide with tungsten enhanced the orientation of the TiO2 (1 0 1) plane of the specimen assemblies. The main varying parameter was the tungsten pulse power. Titanium oxide sputtered with tungsten using a pulsing power of 50 W exhibited a superior hydrophilic property, and a contact angle of 13.1°. This fabrication conditions maximized the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue solution. The mechanism by which the titanium oxide was sputtered with tungsten involves the photogeneration of holes and electron traps, inhibiting the hole-electron recombination, enhancing hydrophilicity and reducing the contact angle.

  1. Magnetic field strength influence on the reactive magnetron sputter deposition of Ta2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollerweger, R.; Holec, D.; Paulitsch, J.; Rachbauer, R.; Polcik, P.; Mayrhofer, P. H.

    2013-08-01

    Reactive magnetron sputtering enables the deposition of various thin films to be used for protective as well as optical and electronic applications. However, progressing target erosion during sputtering results in increased magnetic field strengths at the target surface. Consequently, the glow discharge, the target poisoning, and hence the morphology, crystal structure and stoichiometry of the prepared thin films are influenced. Therefore, these effects were investigated by varying the cathode current Im between 0.50 and 1.00 A, the magnetic field strength B between 45 and 90 mT, and the O2/(Ar + O2) flow rate ratio Γ between 0% and 100%. With increasing oxygen flow ratio a substoichiometric TaOx oxide forms at the metallic Ta target surface which further transfers to a non-conductive tantalum pentoxide Ta2O5, impeding a stable dc glow discharge. These two transition zones (from Ta to TaOx and from TaOx to Ta2O5) shift to higher oxygen flow rates for increasing target currents. In contrast, increasing the magnetic field strength (e.g., due to sputter erosion) mainly shifts the TaOx to Ta2O5 transition to lower oxygen flow rates while marginally influencing the Ta to TaOx transition. To allow for a stable dc glow discharge (and to suppress the formation of non-conductive Ta2O5 at the target) even at Γ = 100% either a high target current (Im ⩾ 1 A) or a low magnetic field strength (B ⩽ 60 mT) is necessary. These conditions are required to prepare stoichiometric and fully crystalline Ta2O5 films.

  2. Stress anisotropy and stress gradient in magnetron sputtered films with different deposition geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Z.B.; Yalisove, S.M.; Bilello, J.C.

    2006-03-15

    Mo films were deposited via magnetron sputtering with two different deposition geometries: dynamic deposition (moving substrate) and static deposition (fixed substrate). The residual stress and structural morphologies of these films were investigated, with particular focus on in-plane anisotropy of the biaxial stress and stress gradient across the film thickness. The results revealed that the Mo films developed distinct states of residual stress, which depended on both deposition geometry and film thickness. With the dynamic geometry, the Mo films generally exhibited anisotropic stress. Both the degree of anisotropy and the magnitude of stress varied as functions of film thickness. The variation of stress was linked to the evolution of anisotropic microstructures in the films. The Mo films from the static geometry developed isotropic residual stress, which was more compressive and noticeably larger in magnitude than that of the Mo films from the dynamic geometry. Aside from these disparities, the two types of Mo films (i.e., anisotropic and isotropic) exhibited notably similar trends of stress variation with film thickness. Depth profiling indicated the presence of large stress gradients for the Mo films, irrespective of the deposition geometries. This observation seems to be consistent with the premise that Mo films develop a zone T structure, which is inherently inhomogeneous along the film thickness. Moreover, the largest stress gradient for both types of deposition geometries arises at roughly the same film depth ({approx}240 nm from substrate), where the stresses sharply transits from highly compressive to less compressive or even tensile. This appears to correspond to the boundary region that separates two distinct stages of microstructural evolution, a feature unique to zone T-type structure.

  3. Reactive magnetron sputtering deposition of bismuth tungstate onto titania nanoparticles for enhancing visible light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratova, Marina; Kelly, Peter J.; West, Glen T.; Tosheva, Lubomira; Edge, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide - bismuth tungstate composite materials were prepared by pulsed DC reactive magnetron sputtering of bismuth and tungsten metallic targets in argon/oxygen atmosphere onto anatase and rutile titania nanoparticles. The use of an oscillating bowl placed beneath the two magnetrons arranged in a co-planar closed field configuration enabled the deposition of bismuth tungstate onto loose powders, rather than a solid substrate. The atomic ratio of the bismuth/tungsten coatings was controlled by varying the power applied to each target. The effect of the bismuth tungstate coatings on the phase, optical and photocatalytic properties of titania was investigated by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and an acetone degradation test. The latter involved measurements of the rate of CO2 evolution under visible light irradiation of the photocatalysts, which indicated that the deposition of bismuth tungstate resulted in a significant enhancement of visible light activity, for both anatase and rutile titania particles. The best results were achieved for coatings with a bismuth to tungsten atomic ratio of 2:1. In addition, the mechanism by which the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanoparticles was enhanced by compounding it with bismuth tungstate was studied by microwave cavity perturbation. The results of these tests confirmed that such enhancement of the photocatalytic properties is due to more efficient photogenerated charge carrier separation, as well as to the contribution of the intrinsic photocatalytic properties of Bi2WO6.

  4. Development of mid-frequency AC reactive magnetron sputtering for fast deposition of Y2O3 buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jie; Xia, Yudong; Xue, Yan; Zhang, Fei; Guo, Pei; Zhao, Xiaohui; Tao, Bowan

    2014-02-01

    A reel-to-reel magnetron sputtering system with mid-frequency alternating current (AC) power supply was used to deposit double-sided Y2O3 seed layer on biaxially textured Ni-5 at.%W tape for YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors. A reactive sputtering process was carried out using two opposite symmetrical sputtering guns with metallic yttrium targets and water vapor for oxidizing the sputtered metallic atoms. The voltage control mode of the power supply was used and the influence of the cathode voltage and ArH2 pressure were systematically investigated. Subsequently yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) barrier and CeO2 cap layers were deposited on the Y2O3 buffered substrates in sequence, indicating high quality and uniform double-sided structure and surface morphology of such the architecture.

  5. Characterization and Performance of Magnetron-Sputtered Zirconium Coatings Deposited on 9Cr-1Mo Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Akash; Murugesan, Somasundaram; Parameswaran, P.; Priya, R.; Thirumurugessan, R.; Muthukumar, N.; Mohandas, E.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Krishnamurthi, J.

    2016-11-01

    Zirconium coatings of different thicknesses have been deposited at 773 K on 9Cr-1Mo steel substrate using pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. These coatings were heat treated in vacuum at two different temperatures (1173 and 1273 K) for one hour. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of Zr-coated samples revealed the formation of α-phase (HCP structure) of Zr. XRD analysis of heat-treated samples show the presence of Zr3Fe and Zr2Fe intermetallics. The lattice parameter of these coatings was calculated, and it matches with the bulk values when the thickness reached 2µm. In order to understand this, crystallite size and strain values of these coatings were calculated from XRD plots employing Williamson-Hall method. In order to assess the performance of the coatings, systematic corrosion tests were carried out. The corrosion current density calculated from the polarization behavior showed that the corrosion current density of the uncoated 9Cr-1Mo steel was higher than the coated sample before and after the heat treatment. Studies using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirmed that the coated steel has higher impedance than the uncoated steel. The corrosion resistance of 9Cr1Mo steel had improved after Zr coating. However, the corrosion resistance of the coating after heat treatment decreased when compared to the as-deposited coating. The microstructure and composition of the surface oxide film influence the corrosion resistance of the Zr-coated 9Cr1Mo steel.

  6. C-axis orientated AlN films deposited using deep oscillation magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jianliang; Chistyakov, Roman

    2017-02-01

    Highly <0001> c-axis orientated aluminum nitride (AlN) films were deposited on silicon (100) substrates by reactive deep oscillation magnetron sputtering (DOMS). No epitaxial favored bond layer and substrate heating were applied for assisting texture growth. The effects of the peak target current density (varied from 0.39 to 0.8 Acm-2) and film thickness (varied from 0.25 to 3.3 μm) on the c-axis orientation, microstructure, residual stress and mechanical properties of the AlN films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction rocking curve methodology, transmission electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and nanoindentation. All AlN films exhibited a <0001> preferred orientation and compressive residual stresses. At similar film thicknesses, an increase in the peak target current density to 0.53 Acm-2 improved the <0001> orientation. Further increasing the peak target current density to above 0.53 Acm-2 showed limited contribution to the texture development. The study also showed that an increase in the thickness of the AlN films deposited by DOMS improved the c-axis alignment accompanied with a reduction in the residual stress.

  7. Highly phosphorus-doped crystalline Si layers grown by pulse-magnetron sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenske, Frank; Gorka, Benjamin

    2009-04-01

    The electrical properties of highly phosphorus-doped crystalline silicon films deposited by pulse-magnetron sputtering were studied. The films were grown, 450 nm thick, on Si(100) and Si(111) wafers at low substrate temperatures Ts of 450-550 °C and post-treated by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and plasma hydrogenation (PH). In the case of films grown on Si(100), at all values of Ts postgrowth treatment by RTA resulted in an increase in the dopant activation up to 100% and of the Hall mobility to about bulklike values of 50 cm2 V-1 s-1. This result suggests high structural quality of the films on Si(100). The Si(111) films, which are typically more defective, exhibit a completely different behavior with a strong dependence of the electrical dopant activation and the Hall mobility on Ts. By post-treatment a maximum P donor activation level of 22% could be obtained. The variation in the post-treatment procedure (RTA+PH and PH+RTA) for the films deposited at high Ts showed that PH results only in minor changes in the film properties. The different influence of RTA and PH is discussed in terms of the different defect structure of the films. These investigations reveal that high Ts and after-treatment by RTA are the main preconditions for optimal electrical film properties.

  8. Structure evolution of zinc oxide thin films deposited by unbalance DC magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Aryanto, Didik; Marwoto, Putut; Sugianto; Sudiro, Toto; Birowosuto, Muhammad D.

    2016-04-19

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films are deposited on corning glass substrates using unbalanced DC magnetron sputtering. The effect of growth temperature on surface morphology and crystallographic orientation of ZnO thin film is studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The surface morphology and crystallographic orientation of ZnO thin film are transformed against the increasing of growth temperature. The mean grain size of film and the surface roughness are inversely and directly proportional towards the growth temperature from room temperature to 300 °C, respectively. The smaller grain size and finer roughness of ZnO thin film are obtained at growth temperature of 400 °C. The result of AFM analysis is in good agreement with the result of XRD analysis. ZnO thin films deposited in a series of growth temperatures have hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline structures and they exhibit transformations in the crystallographic orientation. The results in this study reveal that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and crystallographic orientation of ZnO thin film.

  9. Biocompatibility and Surface Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    PubMed Central

    López-Huerta, Francisco; Cervantes, Blanca; González, Octavio; Hernández-Torres, Julián; García-González, Leandro; Vega, Rosario; Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Soto, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    We present the study of the biocompatibility and surface properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering. These films are deposited on a quartz substrate at room temperature and annealed with different temperatures (100, 300, 500, 800 and 1100 °C). The biocompatibility of the TiO2 thin films is analyzed using primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of Wistar rats, whose neurons are incubated on the TiO2 thin films and on a control substrate during 18 to 24 h. These neurons are activated by electrical stimuli and its ionic currents and action potential activity recorded. Through X-ray diffraction (XRD), the surface of TiO2 thin films showed a good quality, homogeneity and roughness. The XRD results showed the anatase to rutile phase transition in TiO2 thin films at temperatures between 500 and 1100 °C. This phase had a grain size from 15 to 38 nm, which allowed a suitable structural and crystal phase stability of the TiO2 thin films for low and high temperature. The biocompatibility experiments of these films indicated that they were appropriated for culture of living neurons which displayed normal electrical behavior. PMID:28788667

  10. Rapidly switched wettability of titania films deposited by dc magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirolkar, Mandar; Kazemian Abyaneh, Majid; Singh, Akanksha; Tomer, Anju; Choudhary, Ram; Sathe, Vasant; Phase, Deodatta; Kulkarni, Sulabha

    2008-08-01

    Rapid switching (5-15 minutes) in the wettability of titania (TiO2) thin films in the anatase phase has been observed after UV irradiation. The film surface becomes superhydrophilic when exposed to UV radiation. The relationship between wettability, thickness and crystallinity of TiO2 films has been investigated. Amorphous and anatase TiO2 thin films have been deposited by varying the argon to oxygen gas ratio, using the reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique. It was found that the gas ratio primarily affects thickness, crystallinity, morphology and wettability of the films. The highest contact angle that has been reported so far, namely, 170°-176°, has been observed for film thickness varying from 112-500 nm in the case of pristine anatase TiO2 films. On the other hand, amorphous films show a variation in the contact angle from 120° to 140° as the thickness varied from 70 to 145 nm. The deposition is extremely robust and has an ultralow hysteresis in the contact angle. The films exhibit a morphology similar to the lotus leaf and the water hyacinth.

  11. Room temperature deposition of crystalline indium tin oxide films by cesium-assisted magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Deuk Yeon; Baik, Hong-Koo

    2008-08-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on a Si (1 0 0) substrate at room temperature by cesium-assisted magnetron sputtering. Including plasma characteristics, the structural, electrical, and optical properties of deposited films were investigated as a function of cesium partial vapor pressure controlled by cesium reservoir temperature. We calculated the cesium coverage on the target surface showing maximum formation efficiency of negative ions by means of the theoretical model. Cesium addition promotes the formation efficiency of negative ions, which plays important role in enhancing the crystallinity of ITO films. In particular, the plasma density was linearly increased with cesium concentrations. The resultant decrease in specific resistivity and increase in transmittance (82% in the visible region) at optimum cesium concentration (4.24 × 10 -4 Ω cm at 80 °C of reservoir temperature) may be due to enhanced crystallinity of ITO films. Excess cesium incorporation into ITO films resulted in amorphization of its microstructure leading to degradation of ITO crystallinity. We discuss the cesium effects based on the growth mechanism of ITO films and the plasma density.

  12. Studies on Nanostructure Aluminium Thin Film Coatings Deposited using DC magnetron Sputtering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh M, Muralidhar; G, Vijaya; MS, Krupashankara; Sridhara, B. K.; Shridhar, T. N.

    2016-09-01

    Nanostructured thin film metallic coatings has become an area of intense research particularly in applications related solar, sensor technologies and many other optical applications such as laser windows, mirrors and reflectors. Thin film metallic coatings were deposited using DC magnetron sputtering process. The deposition rate was varied to study its influence on optical behavior of Aluminum thin films at a different argon flow rate. Studies on the optical response of these nanostructure thin film coatings were characterized using UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer with integrating sphere in the wavelength range of (250-2500nm) and Surface morphology were carried out using atomic force microscope with roughness ranging from 2 to 20nm and thickness was measured using Dektak measuring instrument. The reflection behavior of aluminium coatings on polycarbonate substrates has been evaluated. UV-VIS-NIR Spectrophotometer analysis indicates higher reflectance of 96% for all the films in the wavelength range of 250 nm to 2500 nm. Nano indentation study revealed that there was a considerable change in hardness values of the films prepared at different conditions.

  13. Tribological and structural properties of titanium nitride and titanium aluminum nitride coatings deposited with modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Logan

    The demand for economical high-performance materials has brought attention to the development of advanced coatings. Recent advances in high power magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) have shown to improve tribological properties of coatings. These coatings offer increased wear and oxidation resistance, which may facilitate the use of more economical materials in harsh applications. This study demonstrates the use of novel forms of HPPMS, namely modulated pulsed-power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) and deep oscillation magnetron sputtering (DOMS), for depositing TiN and Ti1-xAlxN tribological coatings on commonly used alloys, such as Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718. Both technologies have been shown to offer unique plasma characteristics in the physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. High power pulses lead to a high degree of ionization compared to traditional direct-current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and pulsed magnetron sputtering (PMS). Such a high degree of ionization was previously only achievable by cathodic arc deposition (CAD); however, CAD can lead to increased macroparticles that are unfavorable in high friction and corrosive environments. MPPMS, DOMS, and other HPPMS techniques offer unique plasma characteristics and have been shown to produce coatings with refined grain structure, improved density, hardness, adhesion, and wear resistance. Using DOMS and MPPMS, TiN and Ti1-xAlxN coatings were deposited using PMS to compare microstructures and tribological performance. For Ti1-xAlxN, two sputtering target compositions, Ti 0.5Al0.5 and Ti0.3Al0.7, were used to evaluate the effects of MPPMS on the coating's composition and tribological properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize microstructure and crystallographic texture. Several tribological properties were evaluated including: wear rate, coefficient of friction, adhesion, and nanohardness. Results show that substrate

  14. Thermal conductivity of nitride films of Ti, Cr, and W deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Jagannadham, Kasichainula

    2015-05-15

    Nitride films of Ti, Cr, and W were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering from metal targets in argon and nitrogen plasma. TiN films with (200) orientation were achieved on silicon (100) at the substrate temperature of 500 and 600 °C. The films were polycrystalline at lower temperature. An amorphous interface layer was observed between the TiN film and Si wafer deposited at 600 °C. TiN film deposited at 600 °C showed the nitrogen to Ti ratio to be near unity, but films deposited at lower temperature were nitrogen deficient. CrN film with (200) orientation and good stoichiometry was achieved at 600 °C on Si(111) wafer but the film deposited at 500 °C showed cubic CrN and hexagonal Cr{sub 2}N phases with smaller grain size and amorphous back ground in the x-ray diffraction pattern. An amorphous interface layer was not observed in the cubic CrN film on Si(111) deposited at 600 °C. Nitride film of tungsten deposited at 600 °C on Si(100) wafer was nitrogen deficient, contained both cubic W{sub 2}N and hexagonal WN phases with smaller grain size. Nitride films of tungsten deposited at 500 °C were nonstoichiometric and contained cubic W{sub 2}N and unreacted W phases. There was no amorphous phase formed along the interface for the tungsten nitride film deposited at 600 °C on the Si wafer. Thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance of all the nitride films of Ti, Cr, and W were determined by transient thermoreflectance technique. The thermal conductivity of the films as function of deposition temperature, microstructure, nitrogen stoichiometry and amorphous interaction layer at the interface was determined. Tungsten nitride film containing both cubic and hexagonal phases was found to exhibit much higher thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance. The amorphous interface layer was found to reduce effective thermal conductivity of TiN and CrN films.

  15. Ti-Nb thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering on stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, E. David; Niemeyer, Terlize C.; Afonso, Conrado R. M.; Nascente, Pedro A. P.

    2016-03-15

    Thin films of Ti-Nb alloys were deposited on AISI 316L stainless steel substrate by magnetron sputtering, and the structure, composition, morphology, and microstructure of the films were analyzed by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD), (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thin films of four compositions were produced: Ti{sub 85}Nb{sub 15} (Ti-26 wt. % Nb), Ti{sub 80}Nb{sub 20} (Ti-33 wt. % Nb), Ti{sub 70}Nb{sub 30} (Ti-45 wt. % Nb), and Ti{sub 60}Nb{sub 40} (Ti-56 wt. % Nb). Structural characterization by XRD indicated that only the β phase was present in the thin films and that the increase in the Nb content modified the alloy film texture. These changes in the film texture, also detected by TEM analysis, were attributed to different growth modes related to the Nb content in the alloy films. The mean grain sizes measured by AFM increased with the Nb amount (from 197 to 222 nm). XPS analysis showed a predominance of oxidized Ti and Nb on the film surfaces and an enrichment of Ti.

  16. Structural and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broitman, E.; Hellgren, N.; Czigány, Zs.; Twesten, R. D.; Luning, J.; Petrov, I.; Hultman, L.; Holloway, B. C.

    2003-07-01

    The microstructure, morphology, and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering were investigated for microelectromechanical systems applications. Film properties were found to vary markedly with the ion energy (Eion) and ion-to-carbon flux ratio (Jion/JC). Cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed an amorphous microstructure. However, the presence of nanometer-sized domains at Eion~85 eV was detected. Film stresses, σ, which were compressive in all cases, ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 GPa and depended on the flux ratio as well as ion energy. The hardness (H), Young's moduli (ɛ), and elastic recovery (R) increased with Eion to maximum values of H=27 GPa, ɛ=250 GPa, and R=68% at Eion=85 eV and Jion/JC=4.4. However, near edge x-ray absorption fine structure and electron energy-loss spectrum analysis showed that the sp2/sp3 content of the films does not change with Eion or Jion/JC. The measured change in mechanical properties without a corresponding change in sp2/sp3 ratio is not consistent with any previously published models. We suggest that, in the ranges 5 eV <=Eion<=85 eV and 1.1 <=Jion/JC<=6.8, the presence of defective graphite formed by subplanted C and Ar atoms has the dominant influence on the mechanical properties of DLC films.

  17. Microstructure and tribological properties of Ti-contained amorphous carbon film deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Li, R. L.; Tu, J. P.; Hong, C. F.; Liu, D. G.; Zhou, D. H.; Sun, H. L.

    2009-12-15

    Pure amorphous carbon (a-C) film and that with a small amount of Ti were deposited on high speed steel (W18Cr4V) substrates by means of dc closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The chemical composition and microstructure of the a-C films were performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated using a nanoindentor, Rockwell and scratch tests, and a conventional ball-on-disk tribometer, respectively. The pure a-C film showed the high hardness (53 GPa), elastic modulus (289 GPa), but the poor adhesive strength. When adding a small amount of Ti to the a-C film, both the adhesive strength and the tribological properties were improved. The Ti contained a-C film had the low wear rate (1.9x10{sup -17} m{sup 3} N{sup -1} m{sup -1}) and friction coefficient in humid air.

  18. Structural and optical properties of ZnS thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Zinc sulfide [ZnS] thin films were deposited on glass substrates using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The substrate temperature was varied in the range of 100°C to 400°C. The structural and optical properties of ZnS thin films were characterized with X-ray diffraction [XRD], field emission scanning electron microscopy [FESEM], energy dispersive analysis of X-rays and UV-visible transmission spectra. The XRD analyses indicate that ZnS films have zinc blende structures with (111) preferential orientation, whereas the diffraction patterns sharpen with the increase in substrate temperatures. The FESEM data also reveal that the films have nano-size grains with a grain size of approximately 69 nm. The films grown at 350°C exhibit a relatively high transmittance of 80% in the visible region, with an energy band gap of 3.79 eV. These results show that ZnS films are suitable for use as the buffer layer of the Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells. PMID:22221917

  19. Study of magnetic thin films deposited by closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormston, M. W.; Petford-Long, A. K.; Teer, D. G.

    1999-04-01

    Closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering, developed by TEER Coatings Ltd., uses a novel plasma confinement system, which allows controllable high-rate deposition from a wide range of target materials. We report the first use of this technique using ferromagnetic target materials to grow films of nanometer thickness. A study was carried out on a series of Py/Cu/Py and Py/Au/Py magnetic multilayer films, with and without underlayers of Ti or Ta. High-resolution electron microscopy showed that 5 nm of Ti or 15 nm of Ta did not change the structure of the trilayers. The use of Au as a spacer layer induced a texture in the upper Py layer, which decreased its saturation field by half. In situ experiments to observe the effects of an applied field on the domain structure of the films were carried out using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. Variations in the switching field of the Py layers and of the coupling strength between the Py layers were observed when the thicknesses of the three layers were varied. Double domain wall structures with different wall intensities were observed in some cases. The roughness of the interfaces were increased by ion bombardment; this increased the saturation field of the Py layers.

  20. Comparative analysis of Cr-B coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering in DC and HIPIMS modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph. V.; Horwat, D.; Pierson, J. F.; Levashov, E. A.

    2014-07-01

    Surface coatings of the Cr-B system have been obtained by magnetron sputtering in the DC and high-power impulse (HIPIMS) regimes. It is established that the passage from the DC regime to HIPIMS leads to suppression of the columnar grain growth and a twofold increase in the resistance of coatings to plastic deformation, while the plasticity index and hardness of coatings increase by 29 and 18%, respectively.

  1. Silicon oxynitride films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering using nitrous oxide as a single-source precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Hänninen, Tuomas Schmidt, Susann; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Högberg, Hans

    2015-09-15

    Silicon oxynitride thin films were synthesized by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of silicon in argon/nitrous oxide plasmas. Nitrous oxide was employed as a single-source precursor supplying oxygen and nitrogen for the film growth. The films were characterized by elastic recoil detection analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, scanning electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Results show that the films are silicon rich, amorphous, and exhibit a random chemical bonding structure. The optical properties with the refractive index and the extinction coefficient correlate with the film elemental composition, showing decreasing values with increasing film oxygen and nitrogen content. The total percentage of oxygen and nitrogen in the films is controlled by adjusting the gas flow ratio in the deposition processes. Furthermore, it is shown that the film oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio can be tailored by the high power impulse magnetron sputtering-specific parameters pulse frequency and energy per pulse.

  2. STEM-EELS analysis reveals stable high-density He in nanopores of amorphous silicon coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Schierholz, Roland; Lacroix, Bertrand; Godinho, Vanda; Caballero-Hernández, Jaime; Duchamp, Martial; Fernández, Asunción

    2015-02-20

    A broad interest has been showed recently on the study of nanostructuring of thin films and surfaces obtained by low-energy He plasma treatments and He incorporation via magnetron sputtering. In this paper spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope is used to locate and characterize the He state in nanoporous amorphous silicon coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering. A dedicated MATLAB program was developed to quantify the helium density inside individual pores based on the energy position shift or peak intensity of the He K-edge. A good agreement was observed between the high density (∼35-60 at nm(-3)) and pressure (0.3-1.0 GPa) values obtained in nanoscale analysis and the values derived from macroscopic measurements (the composition obtained by proton backscattering spectroscopy coupled to the macroscopic porosity estimated from ellipsometry). This work provides new insights into these novel porous coatings, providing evidence of high-density He located inside the pores and validating the methodology applied here to characterize the formation of pores filled with the helium process gas during deposition. A similar stabilization of condensed He bubbles has been previously demonstrated by high-energy He ion implantation in metals and is newly demonstrated here using a widely employed methodology, magnetron sputtering, for achieving coatings with a high density of homogeneously distributed pores and He storage capacities as high as 21 at%.

  3. High power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmundsson, J. T.; Brenning, N.; Lundin, D.; Helmersson, U.

    2012-05-15

    The high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge is a recent addition to plasma based sputtering technology. In HiPIMS, high power is applied to the magnetron target in unipolar pulses at low duty cycle and low repetition frequency while keeping the average power about 2 orders of magnitude lower than the peak power. This results in a high plasma density, and high ionization fraction of the sputtered vapor, which allows better control of the film growth by controlling the energy and direction of the deposition species. This is a significant advantage over conventional dc magnetron sputtering where the sputtered vapor consists mainly of neutral species. The HiPIMS discharge is now an established ionized physical vapor deposition technique, which is easily scalable and has been successfully introduced into various industrial applications. The authors give an overview of the development of the HiPIMS discharge, and the underlying mechanisms that dictate the discharge properties. First, an introduction to the magnetron sputtering discharge and its various configurations and modifications is given. Then the development and properties of the high power pulsed power supply are discussed, followed by an overview of the measured plasma parameters in the HiPIMS discharge, the electron energy and density, the ion energy, ion flux and plasma composition, and a discussion on the deposition rate. Finally, some of the models that have been developed to gain understanding of the discharge processes are reviewed, including the phenomenological material pathway model, and the ionization region model.

  4. Physical properties of rf magnetron sputter deposited NiO:WO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usha, K. S.; Sivakumar, R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Ichimura, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study describes various physical properties of mixed nickel-tungsten oxide (NiO:WO3) (95:5) thin films prepared on glass substrate by rf magnetron sputtering due to the variation in rf power (100, 150, and 200 W). X-ray diffraction study shows that all the deposited films are amorphous in nature. The maximum transmittance of 97% in the infrared region was observed for the film deposited at 100 W rf power. A systematic reduction in the optical band gap is observed with increasing rf power, which is associated with the rf power induced effect leading to the production of localized states near the band edges of NiO:WO3. The Urbach energy (EU) value was found to increase with rf power, which may be due to the increased defects in the NiO matrix. From the optical study, we have evaluated various parameters such as refractive index, packing density, lattice dielectric constant, ratio between free carrier density and free carrier effective mass, plasma frequency, and dispersion energy parameters, etc. These results are discussed and correlated well with the light of possible mechanisms underlying the phenomena. The compositional purity of the film was confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX) and Auger electron spectroscopic (AES) measurements. The Raman spectra of NiO:WO3 films show two peaks corresponding to one-phonon LO mode at 560 cm-1 and two-phonon LO mode at 1100 cm-1 due to the vibrations of Ni-O bonds and a strong peak at 860 cm-1 corresponds to the stretching vibration of W-O pair in the WO6 group. The band edge emission at 369 nm was observed in photoluminescence spectra.

  5. Experimental investigation on photoelectric properties of ZAO thin film deposited on flexible substrate by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ming; Liu, Kun; Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Dongyang; Ba, Dechun; Xie, Yuanhua; Du, Guangyu; Ba, Yaoshuai

    2016-12-01

    Transparent conductive ZAO (Zinc Aluminum Oxide) films on flexible substrates have a great potential for low-cost mass-production solar cells. ZAO thin films were achieved on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technology. The surface morphology and element content, the transmittance and the sheet resistance of the films were measured to determine the optical process parameters. The results show that the ZAO thin film shows the best parameters in terms of photoelectric performance including sputtering power, working pressure, sputtering time, substrate temperature (100 W, 1.5 Pa, 60 min, 125 °C). The sheet resistance of 510 Ω and transmittance in visible region of 92% were obtained after characterization. Surface morphology was uniform and compact with a good crystal grain.

  6. [Spectrum diagnostics for the time of pre-sputtering in thin films deposited by magnetron puttering].

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing-Lin; Fan, Qing; Cui, Yong-Liang; Dong, Kai-Hu; Zhang, Lei; Li, Xu; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Chen, Jin-Zhong

    2013-03-01

    Abstract A plasma analysis system comprised of Omni-X300 series grating spectrometer, CCD data acquisition system and optical fiber transmission system was utilized in the present paper to realize the real-time acquisition of plasma emission spectra during the process of radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The plasma emission spectra produced by NiTa, TiAl ceramic targets and NiA1, TiA1 alloy targets were monitored respectively, in addition, the behavior of analysis lines of Ta I 333.991 nm, Ni I 362.473 nm, Al I 396.153 nm and Ti I 398.176 nm with time was obtained, according to which the time of pre-sputtering of the four kinds of target materials was fixed. At the same time, for the TiAl alloy target as the research object, the influence of different powers and pressures on the time of pre-sputtering was studied.

  7. Deuterium Retention in the Co-Deposition Carbon Layers Deposited by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering in D2 Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei-Yuan; Shi, Li-Qun; Zhang, Bin; Hu, Jian-Sheng

    2014-05-01

    Carbon is deposited on C and Si substrates by rf magnetron plasma sputtering in a D2 atmosphere. The deposited layers are examined with ion beam analysis and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The growth rates of the layers deposited on Si decrease with increasing substrate temperature, while increase significantly with the increase of D2 pressure. Meanwhile, the deuterium concentrations in the layers deposited on the Si substrates decrease from 30% to 2% and from 31% to 1% on the C substrates, respectively, when the substrate temperature varies from 350K to 900 K. Similarly, the D concentration in the layer on the Si substrates increases from 3.4% to 47%, and from 8% to 35% on the C substrates when the D2 pressure increases from 0.3Pa to 8.0Pa. D desorption characterized by TDS is mainly in the forms of D2, HD, HDO, CD4, and C2D4, and a similar release peak occurs at 645 K. The release peak of D2 molecules at 960K can be attributed to the escaped gas from the thin co-deposited deuterium-rich carbon layer in the form of C-D bonding.

  8. Time dependence of carbon film deposition on SnO{sub 2}/Si using DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Alfiadi, H. Aji, A. S. Darma, Y.

    2014-02-24

    Carbon deposition on SnO{sub 2} layer has been demonstrated at low temperature using DC unbalanced magnetron-sputtering technique for various time depositions. Before carbon sputtering process, SnO{sub 2} thin layer is grown on silicon substrate by thermal evaporation method using high purity Sn wire and then fully oxidizes by dry O{sub 2} at 225°C. Carbon sputtering process was carried out at pressure of 4.6×10{sup −2} Torr by keeping the substrate temperature of 300 °C for sputtering deposition time of 1 to 4 hours. The properties of SnO{sub 2}/Si structure and carbon thin film on SnO{sub 2} is characterized using SEM, EDAX, XRD, FTIR, and Raman Spectra. SEM images and XRD spectra show that SnO2 thin film has uniformly growth on Si substrate and affected by annealing temperature. Raman and FTIR results confirm the formation of carbon-rich thin film on SnO{sub 2}. In addition, XRD spectra indicate that some structural change occur by increasing sputtering deposition time. Furthermore, the change of atomic structure due to the thermal annealing is analized by XRD spectra and Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Photocatalytic property of titanium dioxide thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering in argon and water vapour plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirghi, L.; Hatanaka, Y.; Sakaguchi, K.

    2015-10-01

    The present work is investigating the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films deposited by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering of a pure TiO2 target in Ar and Ar/H2O (pressure ratio 40/3) plasmas. Optical absorption, structure, surface morphology and chemical structure of the deposited films were comparatively studied. The films were amorphous and included a large amount of hydroxyl groups (about 5% of oxygen atoms were bounded to hydrogen) irrespective of the intentional content of water in the deposition chamber. Incorporation of hydroxyl groups in the film deposited in pure Ar plasma is explained as contamination of the working gas with water molecules desorbed by plasma from the deposition chamber walls. However, intentional input of water vapour into the discharge chamber decreased the deposition speed and roughness of the deposited films. The good photocatalytic activity of the deposited films could be attributed hydroxyl groups in their structures.

  10. Pulsed dc self-sustained magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Wiatrowski, A.; Posadowski, W. M.; Radzimski, Z. J.

    2008-09-15

    The magnetron sputtering has become one of the commonly used techniques for industrial deposition of thin films and coatings due to its simplicity and reliability. At standard magnetron sputtering conditions (argon pressure of {approx}0.5 Pa) inert gas particles (necessary to sustain discharge) are often entrapped in the deposited films. Inert gas contamination can be eliminated during the self-sustained magnetron sputtering (SSS) process, where the presence of the inert gas is not a necessary requirement. Moreover the SSS process that is possible due to the high degree of ionization of the sputtered material also gives a unique condition during the transport of sputtered particles to the substrate. So far it has been shown that the self-sustained mode of magnetron operation can be obtained using dc powering (dc-SSS) only. The main disadvantage of the dc-SSS process is its instability related to random arc formation. In such case the discharge has to be temporarily extinguished to prevent damaging both the magnetron source and power supply. The authors postulate that pulsed powering could protect the SSS process against arcs, similarly to reactive pulsed magnetron deposition processes of insulating thin films. To put this concept into practice, (i) the high enough plasma density has to be achieved and (ii) the type of pulsed powering has to be chosen taking plasma dynamics into account. In this article results of pulsed dc self-sustained magnetron sputtering (pulsed dc-SSS) are presented. The planar magnetron equipped with a 50 mm diameter and 6 mm thick copper target was used during the experiments. The maximum target power was about 11 kW, which corresponded to the target power density of {approx}560 W/cm{sup 2}. The magnetron operation was investigated as a function of pulse frequency (20-100 kHz) and pulse duty factor (50%-90%). The discharge (argon) extinction pressure level was determined for these conditions. The plasma emission spectra (400-410 nm range

  11. Composition and structure variation for magnetron sputtered tantalum oxynitride thin films, as function of deposition parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, D.; Pătru, M.; Crisan, A.; Munteanu, D.; Crăciun, D.; Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E.; Apreutesei, M.; Moura, C.; Cunha, L.

    2015-12-01

    Tantalum oxynitride thin films were produced by magnetron sputtering. The films were deposited using a pure Ta target and a working atmosphere with a constant N2/O2 ratio. The choice of this constant ratio limits the study concerning the influence of each reactive gas, but allows a deeper understanding of the aspects related to the affinity of Ta to the non-metallic elements and it is economically advantageous. This work begins by analysing the data obtained directly from the film deposition stage, followed by the analysis of the morphology, composition and structure. For a better understanding regarding the influence of the deposition parameters, the analyses are presented by using the following criterion: the films were divided into two sets, one of them produced with grounded substrate holder and the other with a polarization of -50 V. Each one of these sets was produced with different partial pressure of the reactive gases P(N2 + O2). All the films exhibited a O/N ratio higher than the N/O ratio in the deposition chamber atmosphere. In the case of the films produced with grounded substrate holder, a strong increase of the O content is observed, associated to the strong decrease of the N content, when P(N2 + O2) is higher than 0.13 Pa. The higher Ta affinity for O strongly influences the structural evolution of the films. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction showed that the lower partial pressure films were crystalline, while X-ray reflectivity studies found out that the density of the films depended on the deposition conditions: the higher the gas pressure, the lower the density. Firstly, a dominant β-Ta structure is observed, for low P(N2 + O2); secondly a fcc-Ta(N,O) structure, for intermediate P(N2 + O2); thirdly, the films are amorphous for the highest partial pressures. The comparison of the characteristics of both sets of produced TaNxOy films are explained, with detail, in the text.

  12. Indium tin oxide films deposited by thermionic-enhanced DC magnetron sputtering on unheated polyethylene terephthalate polymer substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Y.F.; Peng, W.C.; Lo, Y.H.; He, J.L.

    2009-08-05

    Indium tin oxide thin films were deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate substrates via thermionic enhanced DC magnetron sputtering at low substrate temperatures. The structural, optical and electrical properties of these films are methodically investigated. The results show that compared with traditional sputtering, the films deposited with thermionic emission exhibit higher crystallinity, and their optical and electrical properties are also improved. Indium tin oxide films deposited by utilizing thermionic emission exhibit an average visible transmittance of 80% and an electrical resistivity of 4.5 x 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm, while films made without thermionic emission present an average visible transmittance of 74% and an electrical resistivity of 1.7 x 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm.

  13. The influence of discharge power and heat treatment on calcium phosphate coatings prepared by RF magnetron sputtering deposition.

    PubMed

    Yonggang, Yan; Wolke, J G C; Yubao, Li; Jansen, J A

    2007-06-01

    Ca-P coatings with different Ca/P ratio and composition were successfully prepared by RF magnetron sputtering deposition. The Ca/P ratio, phase composition, structure and morphological properties were characterized by XRD, FTIR, EDS and SEM analyses. All the as-sputtered coatings were amorphous and after IR-irradiation the coatings altered into a crystalline phase. The obtained coatings had a Ca/P ratio that varied from 0.55 to 2.10 and different phase compositions or mixtures of apatite, beta-pyrophosphate and beta-tricalciumphosphate structures were formed. Evidently, the phase compositions of the sputtered coatings are determined not only by the discharge power ratio of the hydroxylapatite and calcium pyrophosphate targets but also by the annealing temperature.

  14. Influence of the composition of BCN films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on their properties.

    PubMed

    Martínez, C; Kyrsta, S; Cremer, R; Neuschütz, D

    2002-10-01

    Compounds of the B--C--N system are very promising to produce superhard coatings with good tribological, chemical, and thermal properties. To investigate the influence of the composition of BCN films on their properties, films with five different compositions at nearly constant nitrogen content were deposited on silicon wafers by magnetron sputtering from hexagonal boron nitride and graphite targets operated in RF and DC mode, respectively. The compositions and binding states of the films were determined by XPS. The nitrogen content was found to be almost constant for all films at about a 40 at-%, whereas boron and carbon compositions ranged between 15-35 and 25-50 at-%, respectively. The electronic and bonding structure of the coatings were analyzed by REELS using three different electron beam energies to obtain information at different depths. An increase of the carbon content of the films resulted in a significant shift of the pi-pi* interband transition with respect to the energy loss corresponding to h-BN. The absence of the pi-pi* transition in the energy loss spectra acquired at a beam energy of 1900 eV indicates the existence of a very thin overlayer mostly sp(2) bonded and probably with a distorted hexagonal structure. The position of the bulk plasmon losses corresponded to the hexagonal phase for the overlayer and presented a shift of more than 1.5 eV to the higher energy loss direction for the spectra obtained at 1900 eV beam energy. This shift and the absence of the sp(2)-bond fingerprint induced the possibility of an underlying disordered structure with a majority of sp(3) bonds.

  15. Microstructure and Electrical Properties of Antimony Telluride Thin Films Deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering on Flexible Substrate Using Different Sputtering Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khumtong, T.; Sukwisute, P.; Sakulkalavek, A.; Sakdanuphab, R.

    2017-05-01

    The microstructural, electrical, and thermoelectric properties of antimony telluride (Sb2Te3) thin films have been investigated for thermoelectric applications. Sb2Te3 thin films were deposited on flexible substrate (polyimide) by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering from a Sb2Te3 target using different sputtering pressures in the range from 4 × 10-3 mbar to 1.2 × 10-2 mbar. The crystal structure, [Sb]:[Te] ratio, and electrical and thermoelectric properties of the films were analyzed by grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Hall effect and Seebeck measurements, respectively. The XRD spectra of the films demonstrated polycrystalline structure with preferred orientation of (015), (110), and (1010). A high-intensity spectrum was found for the film deposited at lower sputtering pressure. EDS analysis of the films revealed the effects of the sputtering pressure on the [Sb]:[Te] atomic ratio, with nearly stoichiometric films being obtained at higher sputtering pressure. The stoichiometric Sb2Te3 films showed p-type characteristics with electrical conductivity, carrier concentration, and mobility of 35.7 S cm-1, 6.38 × 1019 cm-3, and 3.67 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. The maximum power factor of 1.07 × 10-4 W m-1 K-2 was achieved for the film deposited at sputtering pressure of 1.0 × 10-2 mbar.

  16. Microstructure and Electrical Properties of Antimony Telluride Thin Films Deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering on Flexible Substrate Using Different Sputtering Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khumtong, T.; Sukwisute, P.; Sakulkalavek, A.; Sakdanuphab, R.

    2017-02-01

    The microstructural, electrical, and thermoelectric properties of antimony telluride (Sb2Te3) thin films have been investigated for thermoelectric applications. Sb2Te3 thin films were deposited on flexible substrate (polyimide) by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering from a Sb2Te3 target using different sputtering pressures in the range from 4 × 10-3 mbar to 1.2 × 10-2 mbar. The crystal structure, [Sb]:[Te] ratio, and electrical and thermoelectric properties of the films were analyzed by grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Hall effect and Seebeck measurements, respectively. The XRD spectra of the films demonstrated polycrystalline structure with preferred orientation of (015), (110), and (1010). A high-intensity spectrum was found for the film deposited at lower sputtering pressure. EDS analysis of the films revealed the effects of the sputtering pressure on the [Sb]:[Te] atomic ratio, with nearly stoichiometric films being obtained at higher sputtering pressure. The stoichiometric Sb2Te3 films showed p-type characteristics with electrical conductivity, carrier concentration, and mobility of 35.7 S cm-1, 6.38 × 1019 cm-3, and 3.67 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. The maximum power factor of 1.07 × 10-4 W m-1 K-2 was achieved for the film deposited at sputtering pressure of 1.0 × 10-2 mbar.

  17. Particle contamination formation in magnetron sputtering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Selwyn, G.S.; Sequeda, F.; Huang, C.

    1997-07-01

    Defects caused by particulate contamination are an important concern in the fabrication of thin film products. Often, magnetron sputtering processes are used for this purpose. Particle contamination generated during thin film processing can be detected using laser light scattering, a powerful diagnostic technique which provides real-time, {ital in situ} imaging of particles {gt}0.3 {mu}m on the target, substrate, or in the plasma. Using this technique, we demonstrate that the mechanisms for particle generation, transport, and trapping during magnetron sputter deposition are different from the mechanisms reported in previously studied plasma etch processes, due to the inherent spatial nonuniformity of magnetically enhanced plasmas. During magnetron sputter deposition, one source of particle contamination is linked to portions of the sputtering target surface exposed to weaker plasma density. There, film redeposition induces filament or nodule growth. Sputter removal of these features is inhibited by the dependence of sputter yield on angle of incidence. These features enhance trapping of plasma particles, which then increases filament growth. Eventually the growths effectively {open_quotes}short-circuit{close_quotes} the sheath, causing high currents to flow through these features. This, in turn, causes mechanical failure of the growth resulting in fracture and ejection of the target contaminants into the plasma and onto the substrate. Evidence of this effect has been observed in semiconductor fabrication and storage disk manufacturing. Discovery of this mechanism in both technologies suggests it may be universal to many sputter processes. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Vacuum Society.}

  18. Effects of nitrogen ion implantation time on tungsten films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Malau, Viktor Ilman, Mochammad Noer Iswanto, Priyo Tri Jatisukamto, Gaguk

    2016-03-29

    Nitrogen ion implantation time on tungsten thin film deposited on surface of AISI 410 steel has been performed. Tungsten thin film produced by dc magnetron sputtering method was deposited on AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel substrates, and then the nitrogen ions were implanted on tungsten thin film. The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of implantation deposition time on surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate of nitrogen implanted on tungsten film. Magnetron sputtering process was performed by using plasma gas of argon (Ar) to bombardier tungsten target (W) in a vacuum chamber with a pressure of 7.6 x 10{sup −2} torr, a voltage of 300 V, a sputter current of 80 mA for sputtered time of 10 minutes. Nitrogen implantation on tungsten film was done with an initial pressure of 3x10{sup −6} mbar, a fluence of 2 x 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}, an energy of 100 keV and implantation deposition times of 0, 20, 30 and 40 minutes. The surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate of the films were evaluated by surfcorder test, Vickers microhardness test, wear test and potentiostat (galvanostat) test respectively. The results show that the nitrogen ions implanted deposition time on tungsten film can modify the surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate. The minimum surface roughness, specific wear and corrosion rate can be obtained for implantation time of 20 minutes and the maximum microhardness of the film is 329 VHN (Vickers Hardness Number) for implantation time of 30 minutes. The specific wear and corrosion rate of the film depend directly on the surface roughness.

  19. Effects of nitrogen ion implantation time on tungsten films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malau, Viktor; Ilman, Mochammad Noer; Iswanto, Priyo Tri; Jatisukamto, Gaguk

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen ion implantation time on tungsten thin film deposited on surface of AISI 410 steel has been performed. Tungsten thin film produced by dc magnetron sputtering method was deposited on AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel substrates, and then the nitrogen ions were implanted on tungsten thin film. The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of implantation deposition time on surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate of nitrogen implanted on tungsten film. Magnetron sputtering process was performed by using plasma gas of argon (Ar) to bombardier tungsten target (W) in a vacuum chamber with a pressure of 7.6 x 10-2 torr, a voltage of 300 V, a sputter current of 80 mA for sputtered time of 10 minutes. Nitrogen implantation on tungsten film was done with an initial pressure of 3x10-6 mbar, a fluence of 2 x 1017 ions/cm2, an energy of 100 keV and implantation deposition times of 0, 20, 30 and 40 minutes. The surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate of the films were evaluated by surfcorder test, Vickers microhardness test, wear test and potentiostat (galvanostat) test respectively. The results show that the nitrogen ions implanted deposition time on tungsten film can modify the surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate. The minimum surface roughness, specific wear and corrosion rate can be obtained for implantation time of 20 minutes and the maximum microhardness of the film is 329 VHN (Vickers Hardness Number) for implantation time of 30 minutes. The specific wear and corrosion rate of the film depend directly on the surface roughness.

  20. Structural and optical characterization of terbium doped ZnGa2O4 thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somasundaram, K.; Girija, K. G.; Sudarsan, V.; Selvin, P. Christopher; Vatsa, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Tb3+ doped ZnGa2O4 nanophosphor (21 nm) has been synthesized via low temperature polyol route and subsequently thin films of the same were deposited on glass and ITO substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The films were characterized by X-ray Diffraction and luminescence measurements. The XRD pattern showed that Tb3+ doped ZnGa2O4 nanophosphor has a cubic spinel phase. Luminescence behavior of the nanophosphor and as deposited sputtered film was investigated. The PL emission spectra of nanophosphor gave a broad ZnGa2O4 host emission band along with a strong terbium emission and the thin films showed only broad host emission band and there was no terbium ion emission.

  1. Characterization of ZnO:SnO{sub 2} (50:50) thin film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    SciTech Connect

    Cynthia, S. R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Ponmudi, S.; Sivakumar, R.

    2016-05-06

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films have attracted significant interest recently for use in optoelectronic application such as solar cells, flat panel displays, photonic devices, laser diodes and gas sensors because of their desirable electrical and optical properties and wide band gap. In the present study, thin films of ZnO:SnO{sub 2} (50:50) were deposited on pre-cleaned microscopic glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The substrate temperature and RF power induced changes in structural, surface morphological, compositional and optical properties of the films have been studied.

  2. Structural disordering studies of Cu6PS5I-based thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenyak, Ihor; Rybak, Stefan; Bendak, Andrii; Izai, Vitalii; Guranich, Pavlo; Kúš, Peter; Mikula, Marian

    2016-12-01

    Cu6PS5I-based thin films were deposited onto silicate glass substrates by magnetron sputtering. With Cu content increase, a red shift of the optical transmission spectra as well as increase of the total electric conductivity are observed. A typical Urbach bundle are revealed, the temperature behaviour of the Urbach absorption edge in thin films are explained by strong electron-phonon interaction. Temperature dependences of the absorption edge energy position and the Urbach energy for thin film are well described in Einstein model. The influence of different type of disordering on the Urbach tail is studied.

  3. RF magnetron sputtering deposition of NiO/Ni bilayer and approach of the Magnetic behavior using the Preisach model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendjerad, A.; Boukhtache, S.; Benhaya, A.; Lahmar, A.; Zergoug, M.; Luneau, D.

    2017-04-01

    Bilayer of nickel and nickel oxide were deposited on glass substrates using RF magnetron sputtering technique. The magnetic properties of the prepared thin films were carried out at room temperature in both parallel and perpendicular magnetic field to the sample. The Preisach model was applied to provide a mathematical model of the magnetic hysteresis loop in the case of parallel geometry, along the easy axis of the bi-layer NiO / Ni. Good agreement was obtained between the theoretical and experimental results.

  4. DEPOSITION OF NIOBIUM AND OTHER SUPERCONDUCTING MATERIALS WITH HIGH POWER IMPULSE MAGNETRON SPUTTERING: CONCEPT AND FIRST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    High Current Electronics Institute, Tomsk, Russia; Anders, Andre; Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Lim, Sunnie; Mentink, Matthijs; Slack, Jonathan L.; Wallig, Joseph G.; Nollau, Alexander V.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.

    2011-07-24

    Niobium coatings on copper cavities have been considered as a cost-efficient replacement of bulk niobium RF cavities, however, coatings made by magnetron sputtering have not quite lived up to high expectations due to Q-slope and other issues. High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is a promising emerging coatings technology which combines magnetron sputtering with a pulsed power approach. The magnetron is turned into a metal plasma source by using very high peak power density of ~ 1 kW/cm{sup 2}. In this contribution, the cavity coatings concept with HIPIMS is explained. A system with two cylindrical, movable magnetrons was set up with custom magnetrons small enough to be inserted into 1.3 GHz cavities. Preliminary data on niobium HIPIMS plasma and the resulting coatings are presented. The HIPIMS approach has the potential to be extended to film systems beyond niobium, including other superconducting materials and/or multilayer systems.

  5. Evaluation of structure and material properties of RF magnetron sputter-deposited yttria-stabilized zirconia thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piascik, Jeffrey Robert

    Over the past several decades, research has focused on utilizing ceramic materials in new technological applications. Their uses have been primarily in applications that involve high temperatures or corrosive environments. Unfortunately, ceramic materials have been limited especially since they can be brittle, failing in a sudden and catastrophic manner. A strong emphasis on understanding mechanical properties of ceramics and ways to improving their strength and toughness, has led to many new technologies. The present work is part of a larger research initiative that is aimed at using RF magnetron sputter deposition of yttria-stabilized zirconia to improve the fracture toughness of brittle substrates (more specifically dental ceramics). Partially-stabilized zirconia (PSZ) has been studied extensively, due to its high temperature stability and stress-induced tetragonal to monoclinic (T⇒M) martensitic phase transformation. RF magnetron sputtering was chosen as the deposition method because of its versatility, especially the ability to deposit oxides at low temperatures. Initial investigations focused on the development of process-structure-properties of YSZ sputtered deposited thin films. The YSZ thin films were deposited over a range of temperatures (22--300°C), pressures (5--25 mTorr), and gas compositions (Ar:O2 ratio). Initial studies characterized a select set of properties in relation to deposition parameters including: refractive index, structure, and film stress. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) showed that the films are comprised of mainly monoclinic and tetragonal crystal phases. The film refractive index determined by prism coupling, depends strongly on deposition conditions and ranged from 1.959 to 2.223. Wafer bow measurements indicate that the sputtered YSZ films can have initial stress ranging from 86 MPa tensile to 192 MPa compressive, depending on the deposition parameters. Exposure to ambient conditions (25°C, 75% relative humidity) led to large increase

  6. In vitro enhancement of SAOS-2 cell calcified matrix deposition onto radio frequency magnetron sputtered bioglass-coated titanium scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Saino, Enrica; Maliardi, Valentina; Quartarone, Eliana; Fassina, Lorenzo; Benedetti, Laura; De Angelis, Maria Gabriella Cusella; Mustarelli, Piercarlo; Facchini, Alessandro; Visai, Livia

    2010-03-01

    In bone tissue engineering, bioglass coating of titanium (Ti) scaffolds has drawn attention as a method to improve osteointegration and implant fixation. In this in vitro study, bioactive glass layers with an approximate thickness of 1 microm were deposited at 200 degrees C onto a three-dimensional Ti-6Al-4V scaffold using a radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering system. After incubation with SAOS-2 human osteoblasts, in comparison with the uncoated scaffolds, the bioglass-coated scaffolds showed a twofold increase in cell proliferation (p < 0.05) up to 68.4 x 10(6), and enhanced the deposition of extracellular matrix components such as decorin, fibronectin, osteocalcin, osteonectin, osteopontin, and type-I and -III collagens (p < 0.05). Calcium deposition was twofold greater on the bioglass-coated scaffolds (p < 0.05). The immunofluorescence related to the preceding bone matrix proteins and calcium showed their colocalization to the cell-rich areas. Alkaline phosphatase activity increased twofold (p < 0.001) and its protein content was threefold higher with respect to the uncoated sample. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed upregulated transcription specific for type-I collagen and osteopontin (p < 0.001). All together, these results demonstrate that the bioglass coating of the three-dimensional Ti scaffolds by the r.f. magnetron sputtering technique determines an in vitro increase of the bone matrix elaboration and may potentially have a clinical benefit.

  7. Electrical and optical properties of Ta-Si-N thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Oezer, D.; Sanjines, R.; Ramirez, G.; Rodil, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    The electrical and optical properties of Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering from individual Ta and Si targets were studied in order to investigate the effects of nitrogen and silicon contents on both properties and their correlation to the film microstructure. Three sets of fcc-Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} thin films were prepared: sub-stoichiometric Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub 0.44}, nearly stoichiometric Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub 0.5}, and over-stoichiometric Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub 0.56}. The optical properties were investigated by near-normal-incidence reflectivity and ellipsometric measurements in the optical energy range from 0.375 eV to 6.8 eV, while the d.c. electrical resistivity was measured in the van der Pauw configuration from 20 K to 300 K. The optical and electrical measurements were interpreted using the standard Drude-Lorentz model and the so-called grain boundary scattering model, respectively. The electronic properties were closely correlated with the compositional and structural modifications of the Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} films due to variations in the stoichiometry of the fcc-TaN{sub z} system and the addition of Si atoms. According to the nitrogen and silicon contents, fcc-Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} films can exhibit room temperature resistivity values ranging from 10{sup 2} {mu}{Omega} cm to about 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} {mu}{Omega} cm. The interpretation of the experimental temperature-dependent resistivity data within the Grain Boundary Scattering model, combined with the results from optical investigations, showed that the mean electron transmission probability G and the free carriers concentration, N, are the main parameters that control the transport properties of these films. The results indicated that the correlation between electrical and optical measurements with the chemical composition and the nanostructure of the Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} thin films provides a pertinent and

  8. Effects of the duty ratio on the niobium oxide film deposited by pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering methods.

    PubMed

    Eom, Ji Mi; Oh, Hyun Gon; Cho, Il Hwan; Kwon, Sang Jik; Cho, Eou Sik

    2013-11-01

    Niobium oxide (Nb2O5) films were deposited on p-type Si wafers and sodalime glasses at a room temperature using in-line pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering system with various duty ratios. The different duty ratio was obtained by varying the reverse voltage time of pulsed DC power from 0.5 to 2.0 micros at the fixed frequency of 200 kHz. From the structural and optical characteristics of the sputtered NbOx films, it was possible to obtain more uniform and coherent NbOx films in case of the higher reverse voltage time as a result of the cleaning effect on the Nb2O5 target surface. The electrical characteristics from the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) fabricated with the NbOx films shows the leakage currents are influenced by the reverse voltage time and the Schottky barrier diode characteristics.

  9. Structural and optical properties of gold-incorporated diamond-like carbon thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Shahbaz; Siraj, K.; Naseem, S.; Khan, Muhammad F.; Irshad, M.; Faiz, H.; Mahmood, A.

    2017-07-01

    Pure and gold-doped diamond-like carbon (Au-DLC) thin films are deposited at room temperature by using RF magnetron sputtering in an argon gas-filled chamber with a constant flow rate of 100 sccm and sputtering time of 30 min for all DLC thin films. Single-crystal silicon (1 0 0) substrates are used for the deposition of pristine and Au-DLC thin films. Graphite (99.99%) and gold (99.99%) are used as co-sputtering targets in the sputtering chamber. The optical properties and structure of Au-DLC thin films are studied with the variation of gold concentration from 1%-5%. Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Vickers hardness measurement (VHM), and spectroscopic ellipsometry are used to analyze these thin films. Raman spectroscopy indicates increased graphitic behavior and reduction in the internal stresses of Au-DLC thin films as the function of increasing gold doping. AFM is used for surface topography, which shows that spherical-like particles are formed on the surface, which agglomerate and form larger clusters on the surface by increasing the gold content. Spectroscopy ellipsometry analysis elucidates that the refractive index and extinction coefficient are inversely related and the optical bandgap energy is decreased with increasing gold content. VHM shows that gold doping reduces the hardness of thin films, which is attributed to the increase in sp2-hybridization.

  10. Characteristics of DLC containing Ti and Zr films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guojia; Lin, Guoqiang; Sun, Gang; Zhang, Huafang; Wu, Hongchen

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate metal doping effects on micro-structural, mechanical and corrosive behavior of the DLC film. Ti and Zr doped DLC films were prepared on NiTi alloys by reactive magnetron sputtering combined with plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technology used to improve the coherent strength, respectively. The mechanical properties of the doped DLC films were investigated by means of nano-indentation technique, microscratch and frictional wear testing. The potentiodynamic polarization measurement was employed to value the corrosion resistance of DLC with Ti and Zr films in Hank's simulated body fluid. It was found that Ti-doped DLC films embraced higher nano-hardness, somewhat lower coefficient of friction and better corrosion resistance than Zr-doped DLC films.

  11. Deposition of a conductive near-infrared cutoff filter by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Hyu; Yoo, Kwang-Lim; Kim, Nam-Young; Hwangbo, Chang Kwon

    2002-06-01

    We have designed a conductive near-infrared (NIR) cutoff filter for display application, i.e., a modified low-emissivity filter based on the three periods of the basic design of [TiO2[Ti]Ag] TiO2] upon a glass substrate and investigated the optical, structural, chemical, and electrical properties of the conductive NIR cutoff filter prepared by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. The results show that the average transmittance is 61.1% in the visible, that the transmittance in the NIR is less than 6.6%, and that the sheet resistance and emissivity are 0.9 ohms/square (where square stands for a square film) and 0.012, respectively, suggesting that the conductive NIR cutoff filter can be employed as a shield against the hazard of electromagnetic waves as well as to cut off the NIR.

  12. Dielectric properties of tetragonal tungsten bronze films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodeux, Romain; Michau, Dominique; Josse, Michaël; Maglione, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) films have been synthesised on Pt(111)/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates from Ba2LnFeNb4O15 ceramics (Ln = La, Nd, Eu) by RF magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction measurements evidenced the multi-oriented nature of films with some degrees of preferential orientation along (111). The dependence of the dielectric properties on temperature and frequency has been investigated. The dielectric properties of the films are similar to those of the bulk, i.e., ɛ ˜150 and σ ˜10-6 Ω-1 cm-1 at 1 MHz and room temperature. The films exhibit two dielectric anomalies which are attributed to Maxwell Wagner polarization mechanism and relaxor behaviour. Both anomalies are sensitive to post-annealing under oxygen atmosphere and their activation energies are similar Ea ˜0.30 eV. They are explained in terms of electrically heterogeneous contributions in the films.

  13. Annealing induced morphological modifications in PTFE films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, S.; De, Rajnarayan; Rao, K. Divakar; Haque, S. Maidul; Misal, J. S.; Prathap, C.; Das, S. C.; Ganesan, V.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2017-05-01

    As grown RF magnetron sputtered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thin films were subjected to vacuum annealing at optimized elevated temperature of 200° C for varying time duration and corresponding surface morphological changes were recorded. The columnar structures appearing after an annealing duration of 2 hours are interesting for fabrication of rough PTFE surfaces towards possible applications in hydrophobicity along with high transmission. Supported by transmission data, the AFM images show a transformation of smooth PTFE surface with less than 2 nm rms roughness to a very rough surface. The results are interpreted in terms of thermal energy induced modifications only at the surface without any change in the original bonding structure on the surface and inside the sample. Preliminary studies indicate that the optimization of roughness and transmission together on such surfaces may lead to high water contact angles.

  14. C/CrC nanocomposite coating deposited by magnetron sputtering at high ion irradiation conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Z.; Rainforth, W. M.; Gass, M. H.; Bleloch, A.; Ehiassarian, A. P.; Hovsepian, P. Eh.

    2011-10-01

    CrC with the fcc NaCl (B1) structure is a metastable phase that can be obtained under the non-equilibrium conditions of high ion irradiation. A nano-composite coating consisting of amorphous carbon embedded in a CrC matrix was prepared via the unbalanced magnetron sputtering of graphite and Cr metal targets in Ar gas with a high ionized flux (ion-to-neutral ratio Ji/Jn = 6). The nanoscale amorphous carbon clusters self-assembled into layers alternated by CrC, giving the composite a multilayer structure. The phase, microstructure, and composition of the coating were characterized using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy. The interpretation of the true coating structure, in particular the carbide type, is discussed.

  15. Structural and nanomechanical properties of BiFeO3 thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Sheng-Rui; Chang, Huang-Wei; Tseng, Yu-Chin; Chen, Ping-Han; Juang, Jenh-Yih

    2013-06-01

    The nanomechanical properties of BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films are subjected to nanoindentation evaluation. BFO thin films are grown on the Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering with various deposition temperatures. The structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, and the results confirmed the presence of BFO phases. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the average film surface roughness increased with increasing of the deposition temperature. A Berkovich nanoindenter operated with the continuous contact stiffness measurement option indicated that the hardness decreases from 10.6 to 6.8 GPa for films deposited at 350°C and 450°C, respectively. In contrast, Young's modulus for the former is 170.8 GPa as compared to a value of 131.4 GPa for the latter. The relationship between the hardness and film grain size appears to follow closely with the Hall-Petch equation.

  16. Structural and nanomechanical properties of BiFeO3 thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Jian, Sheng-Rui; Chang, Huang-Wei; Tseng, Yu-Chin; Chen, Ping-Han; Juang, Jenh-Yih

    2013-06-25

    The nanomechanical properties of BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films are subjected to nanoindentation evaluation. BFO thin films are grown on the Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering with various deposition temperatures. The structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, and the results confirmed the presence of BFO phases. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the average film surface roughness increased with increasing of the deposition temperature. A Berkovich nanoindenter operated with the continuous contact stiffness measurement option indicated that the hardness decreases from 10.6 to 6.8 GPa for films deposited at 350°C and 450°C, respectively. In contrast, Young's modulus for the former is 170.8 GPa as compared to a value of 131.4 GPa for the latter. The relationship between the hardness and film grain size appears to follow closely with the Hall-Petch equation.

  17. Optical characterization of Mg-doped ZnO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Shweta; Hazra, Purnima; Chakrabarti, P.

    2016-05-06

    This paper reports the in-depth analysis on optical characteristics of magnesium (Mg) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films grown on p-silicon (Si) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The variable angle ellipsometer is used for the optical characterization of as-deposited thin films. The optical reflectance, transmission spectra and thickness of as-deposited thin films are measured in the spectral range of 300-800 nm with the help of the spectroscopic ellipsometer. The effect of Mg-doping on optical parameters such as optical bandgap, absorption coefficient, absorbance, extinction coefficient, refractive Index and dielectric constant for as-deposited thin films are extracted to show its application in optoelectronic and photonic devices.

  18. Hybrid biocomposite with a tunable antibacterial activity and bioactivity based on RF magnetron sputter deposited coating and silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, A. A.; Surmenev, R. A.; Surmeneva, M. A.; Mukhametkaliyev, T.; Loza, K.; Prymak, O.; Epple, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we describe fabrication techniques used to prepare a multifunctional biocomposite based on a hydroxyapatite (HA) coating and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). AgNPs synthesized by a wet chemical reduction method were deposited on Ti substrates using a dripping/drying method followed by deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) coating via radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputter-deposition. The negatively charged silver nanoparticles (zeta potential -21 mV) have a spherical shape with a metallic core diameter of 50 ± 20 nm. The HA coating was deposited as a dense nanocrystalline film over a surface of AgNPs. The RF-magnetron sputter deposition of HA films on the AgNPs layer did not affect the initial content of AgNPs on the substrate surface as well as NPs size and shape. SEM cross-sectional images taken using the backscattering mode revealed a homogeneous layer of AgNPs under the CaP layer. The diffraction patterns from the coatings revealed reflexes of crystalline HA and silver. The concentration of Ag ions released from the biocomposites after 7 days of immersion in phosphate and acetate buffers was estimated. The obtained results revealed that the amount of silver in the solutions was 0.27 ± 0.02 μg mL-1 and 0.54 ± 0.02 μg mL-1 for the phosphate and acetate buffers, respectively, which corresponded well with the minimum inhibitory concentration range known for silver ions in literature. Thus, this work establishes a new route to prepare a biocompatible layer using embedded AgNPs to achieve a local antibacterial effect.

  19. BiVO{sub 4} photoanodes for water splitting with high injection efficiency, deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Haibo; Freudenberg, Norman; Nie, Man; Krol, Roel van de; Ellmer, Klaus

    2016-04-15

    Photoactive bismuth vanadate (BiVO{sub 4}) thin films were deposited by reactive co-magnetron sputtering from metallic Bi and V targets. The effects of the V-to-Bi ratio, molybdenum doping and post-annealing on the crystallographic and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the BiVO{sub 4} films were investigated. Phase-pure monoclinic BiVO{sub 4} films, which are more photoactive than the tetragonal BiVO{sub 4} phase, were obtained under slightly vanadium-rich conditions. After annealing of the Mo-doped BiVO{sub 4} films, the photocurrent increased 2.6 times compared to undoped films. After optimization of the BiVO{sub 4} film thickness, the photocurrent densities (without a catalyst or a blocking layer or a hole scavenger) exceeded 1.2 mA/cm{sup 2} at a potential of 1.23 V{sub RHE} under solar AM1.5 irradiation. The surprisingly high injection efficiency of holes into the electrolyte is attributed to the highly porous film morphology. This co-magnetron sputtering preparation route for photoactive BiVO{sub 4} films opens new possibilities for the fabrication of large-scale devices for water splitting.

  20. BiVO4 photoanodes for water splitting with high injection efficiency, deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Haibo; Freudenberg, Norman; Nie, Man; van de Krol, Roel; Ellmer, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Photoactive bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin films were deposited by reactive co-magnetron sputtering from metallic Bi and V targets. The effects of the V-to-Bi ratio, molybdenum doping and post-annealing on the crystallographic and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the BiVO4 films were investigated. Phase-pure monoclinic BiVO4 films, which are more photoactive than the tetragonal BiVO4 phase, were obtained under slightly vanadium-rich conditions. After annealing of the Mo-doped BiVO4 films, the photocurrent increased 2.6 times compared to undoped films. After optimization of the BiVO4 film thickness, the photocurrent densities (without a catalyst or a blocking layer or a hole scavenger) exceeded 1.2 mA/cm2 at a potential of 1.23 VRHE under solar AM1.5 irradiation. The surprisingly high injection efficiency of holes into the electrolyte is attributed to the highly porous film morphology. This co-magnetron sputtering preparation route for photoactive BiVO4 films opens new possibilities for the fabrication of large-scale devices for water splitting.

  1. Deposition and characterization of titanium carbide thin films by magnetron sputtering using Ti and TiC targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Djafer, Amina Zouina; Saoula, Nadia; Madaoui, Noureddine; Zerizer, Abdellatif

    2014-09-01

    In this study we present the effect of negative bias applied to substrate and the pressure on the properties of TiC films (i.e. structure, Raman spectroscopy, electrical resistivity and hardness). The elaboration of our films has been carried out by RF-Magnetron Sputtering, 13.56 MHz, using two targets: titanium carbide and pure titanium. The film depositions have been done on silicon, glass and steel substrates. The total pressure was 10-60 mTorr. The attention was given to study the influence of different parameters, pressure and substrate-bias, on the properties of TiC layers. In this paper, a comparison between the properties of TiC prepared using pure titanium target and titanium carbide target is made. The deposited layers were characterized by XRD analysis, nanoindentation, four probe technique and Raman spectroscopy.

  2. Effect of growth rate on crystallization of HfO{sub 2} thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanunjaya, M.; Manikanthababu, N.; Pathak, A. P.; Rao, S. V. S. Nageswara

    2016-05-23

    Hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) is the potentially useful dielectric material in both; electronics to replace the conventional SiO{sub 2} as gate dielectric and in Optics as anti-reflection coating material. In this present work we have synthesized polycrystalline HfO{sub 2} thin films by RF magnetron sputtering deposition technique with varying target to substrate distance. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and transmission and Reflection (T&R) measurements to study the growth behavior, microstructure and optical properties. XRD measurement shows that the samples having mixed phase of monoclinic, cubic and tetragonal crystal structure. RBS measurements suggest the formation of Inter Layer (IL) in between Substrate and film.

  3. The nanocrystalline structure of TiO2 film deposited by DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jindong; Ding, Wanyu; Wang, Hualin; Liu, Shimin; Jiang, Weiwei; Liu, Chaoqian; Wang, Nan; Chai, Weiping

    2014-10-01

    At room temperature, titanium dioxide (TiO2) films were deposited by the direct current pulse magnetron sputtering technique. Varying O2/Ar flow ratio, TiO2 films with different nanocrystalline structures were obtained. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy results show that with O2/Ar = 6/14, the nanocrystalline in rutile phase appears in as-deposited film. Then X-ray diffraction patterns of annealed films revealed that with O2/Ar = 6/14, the higher weight fractions of rutile TiO2 appear in films. The optical emission spectroscopy results show that with O2/Ar < 6/14, O element was mainly existed as O-/O+ ions, instead of excited state of O atoms.

  4. On the target surface cleanness during magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelfhout, R.; Strijckmans, K.; Boydens, F.; Depla, D.

    2015-11-01

    The thickness of the chemisorbed oxide layer on a tantalum target surface was determined from sputter cleaning experiments. These measurements show a clear logarithmic growth behaviour as a function of the oxygen exposure. By extrapolating this result towards other sputter conditions, the target cleanness during magnetron sputter deposition can be estimated.

  5. Structure, optical properties and thermal stability of HfErO films deposited by simultaneous RF and VHF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. Y.; He, H. J.; Zhang, Z.; Jin, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y. Y.; Zhuge, L. J.; Ye, C.; Wu, X. M.

    2015-05-01

    HfErO films are deposited on Si substrates by simultaneous radio frequency (RF) and very high frequency (VHF) magnetron sputtering technique. The content of the doped ingredient of Er and the body composition of HfO x are, respectively, controlled through the VHF and RF powers. Low content of Er doping in the HfErO films can be achieved, because the VHF source of 27.12 MHz has higher ion energy and lower ion flux than the RF source resulting in low sputtering rate in the magnetron sputtering system. The structure, optical properties and thermal stability of the HfErO films are investigated in this work. Results show that the doped content of Er is independently controlled by the VHF power. The oxygen vacancies are created by the Er incorporation. The hafnium in the HfErO films forms mixed valence of Hf2+ and Hf4+. The HfErO films are composed with the structures of HfO2, HfO and ErO x , which can be optimized through the VHF power. At high VHF power, the Hf-Er-O bonds are formed, which demonstrates that the Er atoms are doped into the lattice of HfO2 in the HfErO films. The HfErO films have bad thermal stability as the crystallization temperature decreases from 900 to 800 °C. After thermal annealing, cubic phase of HfO2 are stabilized, which is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies creation by the Er incorporation. The optical properties such as the refractive index and the optical band gap of the HfErO films are optimized by the VHF power.

  6. Effect of duty cycle on the electrical and optical properties of VOx film deposited by pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiang; Wu, Zhiming; Xu, Xiangdong; Wei, Xiongbang; Jiang, Yadong

    2013-12-01

    Vanadium oxide (VOx) films were deposited onto well cleaned glass substrates by bipolar pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Dependence of the structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the films on the pulsed power's duty cycle has been investigated. The results from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis show that there was no remarkable change in the amorphous structure in the films with duty cycle can be observed. But chemical analysis of the surface evaluated with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates that decrease the duty cycle favors to enhance the oxidation of the vanadium. The optical and electrical properties of the films were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry and temperature dependent resistivity measurements, respectively. The evolution of the transmittance, optical band gap, optical constants, resistivity and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the deposited films with duty cycle was analyzed and discussed. In comparison with conventional DC sputtering, under the same discharge atmosphere and power level, these parameters of the VOx films can be modified over a broad range by duty cycle. Therefore adjusting the duty cycle during deposition, which is an effective way to control and optimize the performances of the VOx film for various optoelectronic devices applications.

  7. Submicrometer Hollow Bioglass Cones Deposited by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering: Formation Mechanism, Properties, and Prospective Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Popa, A C; Stan, G E; Besleaga, C; Ion, L; Maraloiu, V A; Tulyaganov, D U; Ferreira, J M F

    2016-02-01

    This work reports on the unprecedented magnetron sputtering deposition of submicrometric hollow cones of bioactive glass at low temperature in the absence of any template or catalyst. The influence of sputtering conditions on the formation and development of bioglass cones was studied. It was shown that larger populations of well-developed cones could be achieved by increasing the argon sputtering pressure. A mechanism describing the growth of bioglass hollow cones is presented, offering the links for process control and reproducibility of the cone features. The composition, structure, and morphology of the as-synthesized hollow cones were investigated by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), grazing incidence geometry X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The in vitro biological performance, assessed by degradation tests (ISO 10993-14) and cytocompatibility assays (ISO 10993-5) in endothelial cell cultures, was excellent. This allied with resorbability and the unique morphological features make the submicrometer hollow cones interesting candidate material devices for focal transitory permeabilization of the blood-brain barrier in the treatment of carcinoma and neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Exchange bias effect in NiMnSb/CrN heterostructures deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma Akkera, Harish; Barman, Rahul; Kaur, Navjot; Choudhary, Nitin; Kaur, Davinder

    2013-05-01

    Exchange bias has been studied in various Ni50Mn36.8Sb13.2/CrN heterostructures with different CrN thicknesses (15 nm-80 nm), grown on Si (100) substrate using magnetron sputtering. The shift in hysteresis loop up to 51 Oe from the origin was observed at 10 K for Ni-Mn-Sb film without CrN layer. On the other hand, a significant shifting of hysteresis loop was observed with antiferromagnetic (AFM) CrN layer in Ni50Mn36.8Sb13.2/CrN heterostructure. The exchange coupled 140 nm Ni50Mn36.8Sb13.2/35 nm CrN heterostructure exhibited a relatively large exchange coupling field of 148 Oe at 10 K compared to other films, which may be related to uncompensated and pinned AFM spins at FM-AFM interface and different AFM domain structures for different thicknesses of CrN layer. Further nanoindentation measurements revealed the higher values of hardness and elastic modulus of about 12.7 ± 0.38 GPa and 179.83 ± 1.24 GPa in Ni50Mn36.8Sb13.2/CrN heterostructures making them promising candidate for various multifunctional MEMS devices.

  9. Fabrication and Electrical Characterization of the Si/ZnO/ZnO:Al Structure Deposited by RF-Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaya, A.; Djessas, K.; El Mir, L.; Khirouni, K.

    2016-10-01

    The electrical transport properties of the structures of Si(p)/ZnO(i)/ZnO: Al(3%) and Si(p)/PS/ZnO(i)/ZnO: Al(3%) deposited by radio-frequency-magnetron sputtering were investigated and compared by using current-voltage and impedance spectroscopy measurements in a wide temperature range of 80-300 K. Aluminum-doped ZnO is considered to be one of the most important transparent conducting oxide materials due to its high conductivity, good transparency and low cost. From the current-voltage-temperature ( I- V- T) characteristics, it was found that both structures had a good rectifying behavior. This behavior decreases according to the porous silicon layer. The variation of the conductance with frequency indicates the semiconducting behavior and superposition of different conduction mechanisms. The insertion of the porous silicon layer results in a decrease of conductivity, which is attributed to reduced conductivity of defect-rich porous silicon.

  10. [Stimulated emission characteristics of ZnO thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering on SiO2 substrates].

    PubMed

    Jing, Wang; Xi-qing, Zhang; Xiao-ying, Teng; De-ping, Xiong; Peng, Lin; Li, Wang; Shi-hua, Huang

    2004-07-01

    ZnO thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on SiQ2 substrates. The temperature dependence of the absorption spectra and the photoluminescence spectra was studied for ZnO thin film. The absorption of the longitudinal optical (LO) phonons and the free-excitons was observed at room temperature. The free-exciton emission was only observed in PL spectra at room temperature, the results indicate that ZnO thin films have excellent quality and low density of defects. The stimulated emission properties of ZnO thin films were investigated. When excitation intensity is above threshold, the FWHM o f stimulated emission peak increases and stimulated emission peak shows red shift with increasing excitation intensity. Our analysis shows that the optical gain is due to electronhole plasma emission.

  11. Bimodal substrate biasing to control γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition during reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Prenzel, Marina; Kortmann, Annika; Stein, Adrian; Keudell, Achim von; Nahif, Farwah; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2013-09-21

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films have been deposited at substrate temperatures between 500 °C and 600 °C by reactive magnetron sputtering using an additional arbitrary substrate bias to tailor the energy distribution of the incident ions. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The film structure being amorphous, nanocrystalline, or crystalline was correlated with characteristic ion energy distributions. The evolving crystalline structure is connected with different levels of displacements per atom (dpa) in the growing film as being derived from TRIM simulations. The boundary between the formation of crystalline films and amorphous or nanocrystalline films was at 0.8 dpa for a substrate temperature of 500 °C. This threshold shifts to 0.6 dpa for films grown at 550 °C.

  12. Influences of annealing temperature on microstructure and properties for TiO2 films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Jie-Ting; Chen, Chih-Ming; Cheng, Ta-Chih; Lee, Ying-Chieh

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide films were deposited at 100 °C of substrate temperature with a DC magnetron sputtering system. The crystalline structures, morphological features, and photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 films were systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. To obtain the crystalline structure of TiO2 film at a low annealing temperature, high-level DC power (600 W) was applied. The effect of the annealing treatments on the microstructure of the TiO2 films was investigated. The results indicated that the annealing process at 200 °C clearly caused the formation of a nanocrystalline anatase phase that directly affected photocatalytic activity. The dye removal efficiency of the nanostructured anatase attained 53 and 31% for UV and visible light radiation, respectively.

  13. Effect of negative bias on the composition and structure of the tungsten oxide thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meihan; Lei, Hao; Wen, Jiaxing; Long, Haibo; Sawada, Yutaka; Hoshi, Yoichi; Uchida, Takayuki; Hou, Zhaoxia

    2015-12-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films were deposited at room temperature under different negative bias voltages (Vb, 0 to -500 V) by DC reactive magnetron sputtering, and then the as-deposited films were annealed at 500 °C in air atmosphere. The crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical composition and transmittance of the tungsten oxide thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis spectrophotometer. The XRD analysis reveals that the tungsten oxide films deposited at different negative bias voltages present a partly crystallized amorphous structure. All the films transfer from amorphous to crystalline (monoclinic + hexagonal) after annealing 3 h at 500 °C. Furthermore, the crystallized tungsten oxide films show different preferred orientation. The morphology of the tungsten oxide films deposited at different negative bias voltages is consisted of fine nanoscale grains. The grains grow up and conjunct with each other after annealing. The tungsten oxide films deposited at higher negative bias voltages after annealing show non-uniform special morphology. Substoichiometric tungsten oxide films were formed as evidenced by XPS spectra of W4f and O1s. As a result, semi-transparent films were obtained in the visible range for all films deposited at different negative bias voltages.

  14. Physics of Plasma-Based Ion Implantation&Deposition (PBIID)and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS): A Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2007-08-28

    The emerging technology of High Power Impulse MagnetronSputtering (HIPIMS) has much in common with the more establishedtechnology of Plasma Based Ion Implantation&Deposition (PBIID):both use pulsed plasmas, the pulsed sheath periodically evolves andcollapses, the plasma-sheath system interacts with the pulse-drivingpower supply, the plasma parameters are affected by the power dissipated,surface atoms are sputtered and secondary electrons are emitted, etc.Therefore, both fields of science and technology could learn from eachother, which has not been fully explored. On the other hand, there aresignificant differences, too. Most importantly, the operation of HIPIMSheavilyrelies on the presence of a strong magnetic field, confiningelectrons and causing their ExB drift, which is closed for typicalmagnetron configurations. Second, at the high peak power levels used forHIPIMS, 1 kW/cm2 or greater averaged over the target area, the sputteredmaterial greatly affects plasma generation. For PBIID, in contrast,plasma generation and ion processing of the surface (ion implantation,etching, and deposition) are considered rela-tively independentprocesses. Third, secondary electron emission is generally considered anuisance for PBIID, especially at high voltages, whereas it is a criticalingredient to the operation of HIPIMS. Fourth, the voltages in PBIID areoften higher than in HIPIMS. For the first three reasons listed above,modelling of PBIID seems to be easier and could give some guidance forfuture HIPIMS models, which, clearly, will be more involved.

  15. Influence of deposition temperature and amorphous carbon on microstructure and oxidation resistance of magnetron sputtered nanocomposite Crsbnd C films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygren, Kristian; Andersson, Matilda; Högström, Jonas; Fredriksson, Wendy; Edström, Kristina; Nyholm, Leif; Jansson, Ulf

    2014-06-01

    It is known that mechanical and tribological properties of transition metal carbide films can be tailored by adding an amorphous carbon (a-C) phase, thus making them nanocomposites. This paper addresses deposition, microstructure, and for the first time oxidation resistance of magnetron sputtered nanocomposite Crsbnd C/a-C films with emphasis on studies of both phases. By varying the deposition temperature between 20 and 700 °C and alternating the film composition, it was possible to deposit amorphous, nanocomposite, and crystalline Crsbnd C films containing about 70% C and 30% Cr, or 40% C and 60% Cr. The films deposited at temperatures below 300 °C were X-ray amorphous and 500 °C was required to grow crystalline phases. Chronoamperometric polarization at +0.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl (sat. KCl) in hot 1 mM H2SO4 resulted in oxidation of Crsbnd C, yielding Cr2O3 and C, as well as oxidation of C. The oxidation resistance is shown to depend on the deposition temperature and the presence of the a-C phase. Physical characterization of film surfaces show that very thin C/Cr2O3/Crsbnd C layers develop on the present material, which can be used to improve the oxidation resistance of, e.g. stainless steel electrodes.

  16. Effects of various deposition times and RF powers on CdTe thin film growth using magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorannevis, Z.; Akbarnejad, E.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a p-type II-VI compound semiconductor, which is an active component for producing photovoltaic solar cells in the form of thin films, due to its desirable physical properties. In this study, CdTe film was deposited using the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system onto a glass substrate. To improve the properties of the CdTe film, effects of two experimental parameters of deposition time and RF power were investigated on the physical properties of the CdTe films. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometer were used to study the structural, morphological and optical properties of the CdTe samples grown at different experimental conditions, respectively. Our results suggest that film properties strongly depend on the experimental parameters and by optimizing these parameters, it is possible to tune the desired structural, morphological and optical properties. From XRD data, it is found that increasing the deposition time and RF power leads to increasing the crystallinity as well as the crystal sizes of the grown film, and all the films represent zinc blende cubic structure. Roughness values given from AFM images suggest increasing the roughness of the CdTe films by increasing the RF power and deposition times. Finally, optical investigations reveal increasing the film band gaps by increasing the RF power and the deposition time.

  17. Titanium dioxide fine structures by RF magnetron sputter method deposited on an electron-beam resist mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiba, Hideomi; Miyazaki, Yuta; Matsushita, Sachiko

    2013-09-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been draw attention for wide range of applications from photonic crystals for visible light range by its catalytic characteristics to tera-hertz range by its high refractive index. We present an experimental study of fabrication of fine structures of TiO2 with a ZEP electron beam resist mask followed by Ti sputter deposition techniques. A TiO2 thin layer of 150 nm thick was grown on an FTO glass substrate with a fine patterned ZEP resist mask by a conventional RF magnetron sputter method with Ti target. The deposition was carried out with argon-oxygen gases at a pressure of 5.0 x 10 -1 Pa in a chamber. During the deposition, ratio of Ar-O2 gas was kept to the ratio of 2:1 and the deposition ratio was around 0.5 Å/s to ensure enough oxygen to form TiO2 and low temperature to avoid deformation of fine pattern of the ZPU resist mask. Deposited TiO2 layers are white-transparent, amorphous, and those roughnesses are around 7 nm. Fabricated TiO2 PCs have wider TiO2 slabs of 112 nm width leaving periodic 410 x 410 nm2 air gaps. We also studied transformation of TiO2 layers and TiO2 fine structures by baking at 500 °C. XRD measurement for TiO2 shows that the amorphous TiO2 transforms to rutile and anatase forms by the baking while keeping the same profile of the fine structures. Our fabrication method can be one of a promising technique to optic devices on researches and industrial area.

  18. Corrosion resistance of zirconium oxynitride coatings deposited via DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering and spray pyrolysis-nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubillos, G. I.; Bethencourt, M.; Olaya, J. J.

    2015-02-01

    ZrOxNy/ZrO2 thin films were deposited on stainless steel using two different methods: ultrasonic spray pyrolysis-nitriding (SPY-N) and the DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering technique (UBMS). Using the first method, ZrO2 was initially deposited and subsequently nitrided in an anhydrous ammonia atmosphere at 1023 K at atmospheric pressure. For UBMS, the film was deposited in an atmosphere of air/argon with a Φair/ΦAr flow ratio of 3.0. Structural analysis was carried out through X-ray diffraction (XRD), and morphological analysis was done through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Chemical analysis was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). ZrOxNy rhombohedral polycrystalline film was produced with spray pyrolysis-nitriding, whereas using the UBMS technique, the oxynitride films grew with cubic Zr2ON2 crystalline structures preferentially oriented along the (2 2 2) plane. Upon chemical analysis of the surface, the coatings exhibited spectral lines of Zr3d, O1s, and N1s, characteristic of zirconium oxynitride/zirconia. SEM analysis showed the homogeneity of the films, and AFM showed morphological differences according to the deposition technique of the coatings. Zirconium oxynitride films enhanced the stainless steel's resistance to corrosion using both techniques. The protective efficacy was evaluated using electrochemical techniques based on linear polarization (LP). The results indicated that the layers provide good resistance to corrosion when exposed to chloride-containing media.

  19. Structure and mechanical properties of Ti-Si-N films deposited by combined DC/RF reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, X. Z.; Zeng, X. T.; Liu, Y. C.; Yang, Q.; Zhao, L. R.

    2004-11-01

    Ti-Si-N nanocomposite films with Si content between 0 and 13.5 at. % were deposited by combined DC/RF reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The composition, structure, and mechanical properties of the as-deposited Ti-Si-N films were measured by energy dispersive analysis of x rays, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and nanoindentation experiments, respectively. All of the Ti-Si-N films exhibited a higher hardness than pure TiN films deposited under similar conditions. The highest hardness (~41 GPa) was obtained in the film with Si content of about 8 at. %. Ti-Si-N films also exhibited a higher resistance to plastic deformation (i.e., higher ratio H3/E*2) than pure TiN. XRD patterns revealed that the as-deposited films were composed of cubic TiN crystallites with a preferential orientation of (111). With increase of RF power applied to the Si targets, the TiN (111) peak intensity or TiN crystallite size increased in the lower RF power range but decreased in the higher RF power range, showing a maximum at an RF power of 500 W (power density ~1.14 W/cm2), corresponding to a Si content of about 5 at. % in the film.

  20. A global plasma model for reactive deposition of compound films by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, B. C.; Wu, Z. L.; Wu, B.; Li, Y. G.; Lei, M. K.

    2017-05-01

    A spatially averaged, time-dependent global plasma model has been developed to describe the reactive deposition of a TiAlSiN thin film by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) discharges in Ar/N2 mixture gas, based on the particle balance and the energy balance in the ionization region, and considering the formation and erosion of the compound at the target surface. The modeling results show that, with increasing the N2 partial pressure from 0% to 40% at a constant working pressure of 0.3 Pa, the electron temperature during the strongly ionized period increases from 4 to 7 eV and the effective power transfer coefficient, which represents the power fraction that effectively heats the electrons and maintains the discharge, increases from about 4% to 7%; with increasing the working pressure from 0.1 to 0.7 Pa at a constant N2 partial pressure of 25%, the electron temperature decreases from 10 to 4 eV and the effective power transfer coefficient decreases from 8% to 5%. Using the modeled plasma parameters to evaluate the kinetic energy of arriving ions, the ion-to-neutral flux ratio of deposited species, and the substrate heating, the variations of process parameters that increase these values lead to an enhanced adatom mobility at the target surface and an increased input energy to the substrate, corresponding to the experimental observation of surface roughness reduction, the microstructure transition from the columnar structure to the dense featureless structure, and the enhancement of phase separation. At higher N2 partial pressure or lower working pressure, the modeling results demonstrate an increase in electron temperature, which shifts the discharge balance of Ti species from Ti+ to Ti2+ and results in a higher return fraction of Ti species, corresponding to the higher Al/Ti ratio of deposited films at these conditions. The modeling results are well correlated with the experimental observation of the composition variation and the microstructure

  1. Double layer structure of ZnO thin films deposited by RF-magnetron sputtering on glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besleaga, C.; Stan, G. E.; Galca, A. C.; Ion, L.; Antohe, S.

    2012-09-01

    Transparent ZnO films are synthesized by RF-magnetron sputtering (1.78 MHz) onto glass substrates, using a mild-pressed ZnO powder target. The depositions were carried at three inert argon pressures (0.25 Pa, 0.30 Pa, and 0.45 Pa) at two substrate temperatures (100 °C and 400 °C). The role of the sputtering conditions on ZnO thin films nanostructuring, optical properties and morphology is investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectometry (XRR) and Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). XRD investigations revealed that ZnO films show a (0 0 l) texture with nanosized crystallites. Right-angle asymmetry of the (0 0 2) diffraction peak is observed. The peak profile analysis using pseudo-Voigt functions unveils a double overlapped peak structure with different coherent zone size values. A double layer structure is evidenced by analyzing the XRR data. Samples prepared at 0.3 Pa at a temperature of 400 °C have a ˜4 nm bottom layer consisting of highly depleted in oxygen ZnO1-x structure, continued by a 53 nm top layer of textured ZnO. Electrical measurements show that the temperature dependence of the conductivity is well described by the Mott variable range hopping (VRH) law. The samples obtained at 400 °C have a significantly lower resistivity.

  2. Study of Electrical and Optical Properties of Cu-ASSISTED Amorphous Carbon Thin Films Deposition by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassannia, Sara; Elahi, Seyed Mohammad; Boochani, Arash

    2013-09-01

    Cu incorporated amorphous carbon thin films have been prepared by DC-magnetron sputtering using a bi-component Cu-C composite target. The properties of the films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic force microscopy, FTIR, Raman and UV-vis spectroscopies. The results show that the films are amorphous with major distorted sp2 graphite bonds as well as carbon nanotubes. Sputtering simulation shows that the chemical composition of the films is Cu0.066C0.934. Cu addition results in the formation of new type of carbon nanotubes (CNT) with new radial Breathing mode located at 236 cm-1. Cu induces an increase in the density of defects due to bundles of CNT's. Moreover the films are transparent in visible range and highly reflective in mid-infrared region. Electrical characterization shows that the pure carbon deposited films are semiconductor while the copper assisted thin films behave like metal and their sheet resistance is comparable with sheet resistance of conventional conductive electrodes.

  3. Magnetron sputtered boron films and TI/B multilayer structures

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  4. Magnetron sputtered boron films and TI/B multilayer structures

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1993-04-20

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  5. Magnetron sputtered boron films and Ti/B multilayer structures

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  6. Magnetron sputtered boron films and Ti/B multilayer structures

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1995-02-14

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 6 figs.

  7. Morphology and structure evolution of tin-doped indium oxide thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering: The role of the sputtering atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Man Mete, Tayfun; Ellmer, Klaus

    2014-04-21

    The microstructure and morphology evolution of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering in different sputtering atmospheres were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy. The surface roughness w increases with increasing film thickness d{sub f}, and exhibits a power law behavior w ∼ d{sub f}{sup β}. The roughness decreases with increasing O{sub 2} flow, while it increases with increasing H{sub 2} flow. The growth exponent β is found to be 0.35, 0.75, and 0.98 for depositions in Ar/10%O{sub 2}, pure Ar, and Ar/10%H{sub 2} atmospheres, respectively. The correlation length ξ increases with film thickness also with a power law according to ξ ∼ d{sub f}{sup z} with exponents z = 0.36, 0.44, and 0.57 for these three different gas atmospheres, respectively. A combination of local and non-local growth modes in 2 + 1 dimensions is discussed for the ITO growth in this work.

  8. MoO x thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering as an anode for aqueous micro-supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Can; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2013-12-01

    In order to examine the potential application of non-stoichiometric molybdenum oxide as anode materials for aqueous micro-supercapacitors, conductive MoO x films (2 ⩽ x ⩽ 2.3) deposited via RF magnetron sputtering at different temperatures were systematically studied for composition, structure and electrochemical properties in an aqueous solution of Li2SO4. The MoO x (x ≈ 2.3) film deposited at 150 °C exhibited a higher areal capacitance (31 mF cm(-2) measured at 5 mV s(-1)), best rate capability and excellent stability at potentials below -0.1 V versus saturated calomel electrode, compared to the films deposited at room temperature and at higher temperatures. These superior properties were attributed to the multi-valence composition and mixed-phase microstructure, i.e., the coexistence of MoO2 nanocrystals and amorphous MoO x (2.3 < x ⩽ 3). A mechanism combining Mo(IV) oxidation/reduction on the hydrated MoO2 grain surfaces and cation intercalation/extrusion is proposed to illustrate the pseudo-capacitive process.

  9. MoOx thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering as an anode for aqueous micro-supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Can; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2013-12-01

    In order to examine the potential application of non-stoichiometric molybdenum oxide as anode materials for aqueous micro-supercapacitors, conductive MoOx films (2 ⩽ x ⩽ 2.3) deposited via RF magnetron sputtering at different temperatures were systematically studied for composition, structure and electrochemical properties in an aqueous solution of Li2SO4. The MoOx (x ≈ 2.3) film deposited at 150 °C exhibited a higher areal capacitance (31 mF cm-2 measured at 5 mV s-1), best rate capability and excellent stability at potentials below -0.1 V versus saturated calomel electrode, compared to the films deposited at room temperature and at higher temperatures. These superior properties were attributed to the multi-valence composition and mixed-phase microstructure, i.e., the coexistence of MoO2 nanocrystals and amorphous MoOx (2.3 < x ⩽ 3). A mechanism combining Mo(IV) oxidation/reduction on the hydrated MoO2 grain surfaces and cation intercalation/extrusion is proposed to illustrate the pseudo-capacitive process.

  10. Room temperature deposition of zinc oxide thin films by rf-magnetron sputtering for application in solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanal, K. C.; Trujillo, R. R.; Nair, P. K.; Nair, M. T. S.

    2016-09-01

    Recent reports indicate that thin films of oxides of zinc: ZnO, Zn(O,S), or Zn-Mg-O, could be a better buffer component than CdS to provide an adequate band alignment with orthorhombic tin sulphide in thin lm solar cells. Thin films of ZnO were grown by rf-magnetron sputtering on different substrates at room temperature. Thin films of ZnO obtained by different deposition methods show hexagonal crystal structure, usually with a preferential orientation of (002) crystallographic planes parallel to the substrate surface. However, in the present study XRD patterns indicate that thicker ZnO films on glass substrates have preferential growth of (103) planes, while that on chemically deposited CdS or ZnS films preferential orientation of (002) planes persists. Bandgap of ZnO films increases from 3.2 eV to 3.4 eV when the chamber pressure used for deposition varies from 2.3 mTorr to 6 mTorr. ZnO films were incorporated in a solar cell structure stainless steel/SnS(cubic)/SnS(orthorhombic)/SnS(cubic)/CdS/ZnO/ZnO:Al. It showed open-circuit voltage of 0.318 V, short-circuit current density of 3.6 mA/cm2 and conversion efficiency of 0.82%.

  11. MoOx thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering as an anode for aqueous micro-supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Can; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2013-01-01

    In order to examine the potential application of non-stoichiometric molybdenum oxide as anode materials for aqueous micro-supercapacitors, conductive MoOx films (2 ⩽ x ⩽ 2.3) deposited via RF magnetron sputtering at different temperatures were systematically studied for composition, structure and electrochemical properties in an aqueous solution of Li2SO4. The MoOx (x ≈ 2.3) film deposited at 150 °C exhibited a higher areal capacitance (31 mF cm−2 measured at 5 mV s−1), best rate capability and excellent stability at potentials below −0.1 V versus saturated calomel electrode, compared to the films deposited at room temperature and at higher temperatures. These superior properties were attributed to the multi-valence composition and mixed-phase microstructure, i.e., the coexistence of MoO2 nanocrystals and amorphous MoOx (2.3 < x ⩽ 3). A mechanism combining Mo(IV) oxidation/reduction on the hydrated MoO2 grain surfaces and cation intercalation/extrusion is proposed to illustrate the pseudo-capacitive process. PMID:27877625

  12. Effect of sputtering power on Cd/Zn atomic ratio and optical properties of Cu2ZnxCd1-xSnS4 thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering: An experimental and first-principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Na; Li, Pingting; Hao, Yunxing; Wang, Xin; Meng, Lei

    2016-09-01

    Cu2ZnxCd1-xSnS4 (CZCTS) thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass (SLG) substrates by rf magnetron sputtering. It is found that the Cd/Zn atomic ratio of kesterite CZCTS increases with the enhancement of sputtering power. The structural, surface morphology and optical properties of the CZCTS thin films deposited at different sputtering power were systemically investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicate that all CZCTS thin films are polycrystalline with kesterite structure and no impurity phase is observed. The variation of Cd/Zn atomic ratio in CZCTS results in the shift of the optical bandgap.

  13. SiNx coatings deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering: Process parameters influencing the residual coating stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, S.; Hänninen, T.; Wissting, J.; Hultman, L.; Goebbels, N.; Santana, A.; Tobler, M.; Högberg, H.

    2017-05-01

    The residual coating stress and its control is of key importance for the performance and reliability of silicon nitride (SiNx) coatings for biomedical applications. This study explores the most important deposition process parameters to tailor the residual coating stress and hence improve the adhesion of SiNx coatings deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (rHiPIMS). Reactive sputter deposition and plasma characterization were conducted in an industrial deposition chamber equipped with pure Si targets in N2/Ar ambient. Reactive HiPIMS processes using N2-to-Ar flow ratios of 0 and 0.28-0.3 were studied with time averaged positive ion mass spectrometry. The coatings were deposited to thicknesses of 2 μm on Si(001) and to 5 μm on polished CoCrMo disks. The residual stress of the X-ray amorphous coatings was determined from the curvature of the Si substrates as obtained by X-ray diffraction. The coatings were further characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and nanoindentation in order to study their elemental composition, morphology, and hardness, respectively. The adhesion of the 5 μm thick coatings deposited on CoCrMo disks was assessed using the Rockwell C test. The deposition of SiNx coatings by rHiPIMS using N2-to-Ar flow ratios of 0.28 yield dense and hard SiNx coatings with Si/N ratios <1. The compressive residual stress of up to 2.1 GPa can be reduced to 0.2 GPa using a comparatively high deposition pressure of 600 mPa, substrate temperatures below 200 °C, low pulse energies of <2.5 Ws, and moderate negative bias voltages of up to 100 V. These process parameters resulted in excellent coating adhesion (ISO 0, HF1) and a low surface roughness of 14 nm for coatings deposited on CoCrMo.

  14. Improvement of adhesion and barrier properties of biomedical stainless steel by deposition of YSZ coatings using RF magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez-Hernández, Z.E.; Domínguez-Crespo, M.A.; Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Onofre-Bustamante, E.; Andraca Adame, J.; Dorantes-Rosales, H.

    2014-05-01

    The AISI 316L stainless steel (SS) has been widely used in both artificial knee and hip joints in biomedical applications. In the present study, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ, ZrO{sub 2} + 8% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films were deposited on AISI 316L SS by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering using different power densities (50–250 W) and deposition times (30–120 min) from a YSZ target. The crystallographic orientation and surface morphology were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of the surface modification on the corrosion performance of AISI 316L SS were evaluated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution using an electrochemical test on both the virgin and coated samples. The YSZ coatings have a (111) preferred orientation during crystal growth along the c-axis for short deposition times (30–60 min), whereas a polycrystalline structure forms during deposition times from 90 to 120 min. The corrosion protective character of the YSZ coatings depends on the crystal size and film thickness. A significant increase in adhesion and corrosion resistance by at least a factor of 46 and a higher breakdown potential were obtained for the deposited coatings at 200 W (120 min). - Highlights: • Well-formed and protective YSZ coatings were achieved on AISI 316L SS substrates. • Films grown at high power and long deposition time have polycrystalline structures. • The crystal size varies from ∼ 5 to 30 nm as both power and deposition time increased. • The differences of corrosion resistance are attributed to internal film structure.

  15. Preparation, characterization and post-deposition modification of pulsed-dc magnetron sputtered Vanadium Oxide thin films for microbolometer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatasubramanian, Chandrasekaran

    Vanadium Oxide (VOx) thin films have been at the heart of uncooled microbolometers for several years, however very little is known about their structure and material properties. Also, process control remains an issue because the films are formed under oxygen-starved conditions resulting in films with "x" less than 2.0 in VOx. Hence it is desirable to optimize the film deposition conditions so as to obtain the required properties (high temperature coefficient of resistance [TCR], low resistivity and low noise) for the microbolometer application. In this work, the parameter space for pulsed-dc magnetron sputtering was explored to arrive at optimum deposition conditions. A metallic vanadium target was used in a reactive environment under different Ar/O2 ratios. The gas flow rates and oxygen partial pressures were varied systematically, and the corresponding changes in the cathode (target) current were monitored. The cathode current was found to exhibit a hysteresis behavior between forward and reverse directions for changes in the oxygen percentage as well as the total flow rate. The width and position of the hysteresis curve depended on the relative values of the gas flow rates and the oxygen partial pressures. Films were deposited along various points in the hysteresis curve, and their structural and electrical properties were evaluated. The resistivity and the TCR of the films were also found to exhibit a hysteretic behavior similar to that of the cathode current. The film microstructure changed from columnar at low flow rates to multi-grained features at higher flow rates. Also, the TCR of the films exhibited a linear relation with log of resistivity -- the higher the resistivity, the higher the TCR. The current read-out circuitry for VOx microbolometer arrays requires a material with high TCR but low resistivity. Post-deposition modification was investigated to see if the combination of resistivity and TCR could be improved from the as-deposited properties. The

  16. Spatial distribution of electrical properties for Al-doped ZnO films deposited by dc magnetron sputtering using various inert gases

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Yasushi; Ishihara, Keita; Oka, Nobuto; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2010-07-15

    Spatial distribution of electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films deposited by magnetron sputtering was investigated. To adjust the intensity of bombardment by high-energy particles, the AZO films were deposited using Ar, Kr, or Xe gas with varying plasma impedance. The spatial distribution of the electrical properties clearly depends on the sputtering gas. In the case of using Kr or Xe, the resistivity of the films in front of the target center and erosion areas was significantly enhanced, in contrast with Ar. This was attributed to an enhancement in bombardment damage due to the increased sputtering voltages required for Kr or Xe discharges. The increase in plasma impedance was due to the smaller coefficients for secondary-electron emission of the target surface by Kr or Xe impingements, which leads to the larger sputtering voltage.

  17. Study of transparent conducting ZnO:Al films deposited on organic substrate by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Wang, Z. Y.

    2009-03-01

    A Zn-Al metallic target (Al 2 wt.%)has been used to prepare conductive and transparent aluminium-doped Zinc oxide(ZnOAl) films on PI substrate by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering.The structure, crystallinity, optical properties, electrical properties and adhesion were investigated using a range of techniques, including AFM, XRD, spectrophotometry, four-point probe and adhesion tester.The optimal films were prepared with a substrate temperature of 150°C, O2/Ar ration of 2:38 and sputtering power of 80W.The infrared emission properties of films and the feasibility for military application were also discussed in this paper. All the results to date demonstrate that magnetron sputtering is a cost-effective and easy to fabricating technique.

  18. AlN thin films deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering: effect of oxygen on film growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Molleja, Javier; José Gómez, Bernardo; Ferrón, Julio; Gautron, Eric; Bürgi, Juan; Abdallah, Bassam; Abdou Djouadi, Mohamed; Feugeas, Jorge; Jouan, Pierre-Yves

    2013-11-01

    Aluminum nitride is a ceramic compound with many technological applications in many fields, for example optics, electronics and resonators. Contaminants play a crucial role in the AlN performance. This paper focuses mainly in the effect of oxygen when AlN, with O impurities in its structure, is grown on oxidized layers. In this study, AlN thin films have been deposited at room temperature and low residual vacuum on SiO2/Si (1 0 0) substrates. AlN films were grown by DC reactive magnetron sputtering (aluminum target) and atmosphere composed by an argon/nitrogen mixture. Working pressure was 3 mTorr. Film characterization was performed by AES, XRD, SEM, EDS, FTIR, HRTEM, SAED and band-bending method. Our results show that oxidized interlayer imposes compressive stresses to AlN layer, developing a polycrystalline deposition. Indeed, when film thickness is over 900 nm, influence of oxidized interlayer diminishes and crystallographic orientation changes to the (0 0 0 2) one, i.e., columnar structure, and stress relief is induced (there is a transition from compressive to tensile stress). Also, we propose a growth scenario to explain this behaviour.

  19. Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films and Their Perovskite Solar Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cong; Cheng, Yu; Dai, Qilin; Song, Hongwei

    2015-12-03

    In this work, we report a physical deposition based, compact (cp) layer synthesis for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Typical solution-based synthesis of cp layer for perovskite solar cells involves low-quality of thin films, high-temperature annealing, non-flexible devices, limitation of large-scale production and that the effects of the cp layer on carrier transport have not been fully understood. In this research, using radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS), TiO2 cp layers were fabricated and the thickness could be controlled by deposition time; CH3NH3PbI3 films were prepared by evaporation &immersion (E &I) method, in which PbI2 films made by thermal evaporation technique were immersed in CH3NH3I solution. The devices exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.1% and the photovoltaic performance can maintain 77% of its initial PCE after 1440 h. The method developed in this study has the capability of fabricating large active area devices (40 × 40 mm(2)) showing a promising PCE of 4.8%. Low temperature and flexible devices were realized and a PCE of 8.9% was obtained on the PET/ITO substrates. These approaches could be used in thin film based solar cells which require high-quality films leading to reduced fabrication cost and improved device performance.

  20. Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films and Their Perovskite Solar Cell Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cong; Cheng, Yu; Dai, Qilin; Song, Hongwei

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we report a physical deposition based, compact (cp) layer synthesis for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Typical solution-based synthesis of cp layer for perovskite solar cells involves low-quality of thin films, high-temperature annealing, non-flexible devices, limitation of large-scale production and that the effects of the cp layer on carrier transport have not been fully understood. In this research, using radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS), TiO2 cp layers were fabricated and the thickness could be controlled by deposition time; CH3NH3PbI3 films were prepared by evaporation & immersion (E & I) method, in which PbI2 films made by thermal evaporation technique were immersed in CH3NH3I solution. The devices exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.1% and the photovoltaic performance can maintain 77% of its initial PCE after 1440 h. The method developed in this study has the capability of fabricating large active area devices (40 × 40 mm2) showing a promising PCE of 4.8%. Low temperature and flexible devices were realized and a PCE of 8.9% was obtained on the PET/ITO substrates. These approaches could be used in thin film based solar cells which require high-quality films leading to reduced fabrication cost and improved device performance.

  1. Effects of argon pressure on the properties of ZnO:Ga thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marwoto, Putut; Fatiatun, Sulhadi, Sugianto, Aryanto, Didik

    2016-03-01

    Gallium (Ga)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Ga) thin films were deposited on corning glass substrates by homemade DC magnetron sputtering. Effects of argon gas pressure on the structural and optical properties of ZnO:Ga thin films were investigated by XRD, SEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The argon gas pressure was adjusted at 450, 500 and 550 mtorr. All the films exhibit a strong (002) peak and a weak (004) peaks. The XRD pattern demonstrated that crystallinity of the film improved with increasing of the argon pressure. ZnO:Ga thin films deposited have polycrystalline structure. It was shown that the argon pressure has a great influence on ZnO:Ga film surface structures. The grain size of the films was increased with the increases of argon pressure. The grains shape of the film change from an equiaxed rough grain to a longish grain with the argon pressure. The average of transmittance of the films is about 80% in the visible range. It is shown that the argon pressure has no effect significantly on optical bandgap of ZnO:Ga, but in general it can be explained that increasing of the argon pressure can reduce the bandgap. The optical bandgap of ZnO:Ga thin films in the range of 3.25 - 3.3 eV.

  2. Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films and Their Perovskite Solar Cell Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cong; Cheng, Yu; Dai, Qilin; Song, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report a physical deposition based, compact (cp) layer synthesis for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Typical solution-based synthesis of cp layer for perovskite solar cells involves low-quality of thin films, high-temperature annealing, non-flexible devices, limitation of large-scale production and that the effects of the cp layer on carrier transport have not been fully understood. In this research, using radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS), TiO2 cp layers were fabricated and the thickness could be controlled by deposition time; CH3NH3PbI3 films were prepared by evaporation & immersion (E & I) method, in which PbI2 films made by thermal evaporation technique were immersed in CH3NH3I solution. The devices exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.1% and the photovoltaic performance can maintain 77% of its initial PCE after 1440 h. The method developed in this study has the capability of fabricating large active area devices (40 × 40 mm2) showing a promising PCE of 4.8%. Low temperature and flexible devices were realized and a PCE of 8.9% was obtained on the PET/ITO substrates. These approaches could be used in thin film based solar cells which require high-quality films leading to reduced fabrication cost and improved device performance. PMID:26631493

  3. Control of the stabilization of cubic boron nitride thin films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering and dc pulsed substrate biasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otano-Rivera, Wilfredo

    The formation of cubic boron nitride (cBN) thin films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering and dc pulsed substrate biasing has been studied. Thin films were deposited at different pressures and negative bias voltages to study the effect of the energetic bombardment on the stabilization conditions of the cubic phase of BN thin films. It is shown that it is possible to clearly define a stabilization window for cBN by controlling the sputtering deposition process parameters of pressure and negative substrate bias. It is also shown that at higher deposition pressures charge exchange and momentum transfer collisions in the plasma sheath reduce the bombardment energy of the particles. These collisional processes result in the use of a higher substrate bias voltages for increasing gas pressures in order to maintain the momentum per arriving boron atom, P/a, imparted to the growing film inside the stabilization window for the cubic phase. The end result is a trend where the substrate bias voltage for the formation of cBN increases negatively as a function of pressure times sheath thickness. A series of films were also deposited on different types of substrates in order to study the effects of chemistry and epitaxy on the nucleation of cBN. It was possible to nucleate the BN cubic phase on a wide variety of substrates. Diamond coated silicon substrates were the only ones that showed a marked effect on the nucleation of the cBN, where the FWHM of the FTIR signal was reduced two-fold as compared to the FTIR signal of films deposited on silicon under similar deposition conditions. The experimental results suggest that there is a threshold energy for the bombarding ions below which it is not possible to nucleate cBN. This result, in combination with the fact that P/a controls the cBN stabilization during the nucleation stage and other reported observations pertinent to the cBN thin film formation, leads to a proposed mechanism for the nucleation and growth stages of cBN.

  4. Process monitoring during AlN{sub x}O{sub y} deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering and correlation with the film's properties

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, Joel Vaz, Filipe; Marques, Luis; Martin, Nicolas

    2014-03-15

    In this work, AlN{sub x}O{sub y} thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering, using an aluminum target and an Ar/(N{sub 2}+O{sub 2}) atmosphere. The direct current magnetron discharge parameters during the deposition process were investigated by optical emission spectroscopy and a plasma floating probe was used. The discharge voltage, the electron temperature, the ion flux, and the optical emission lines were recorded for different reactive gas flows, near the target and close to the substrate. This information was correlated with the structural features of the deposits as a first step in the development of a system to control the structure and properties of the films during reactive magnetron sputtering. As the target becomes poisoned, the discharge voltage suffers an important variation, due to the modification of the secondary electron emission coefficient of the target, which is also supported by the evolution of the electron temperature and ion flux to the target. The sputtering yield of the target was also affected, leading to a reduction of the amount of Al atoms arriving to the substrate, according to optical emission spectroscopy results for Al emission line intensity. This behavior, together with the increase of nonmetallic elements in the films, allowed obtaining different microstructures, over a wide range of compositions, which induced different electrical and optical responses of films.

  5. Dielectric, optical and electric studies on nanocrystalline Ba5Nb4O15 thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anil Kumar, C.; Pamu, D.

    2015-06-01

    We report the fabrication of nanocrystalline Ag/BNO/Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si thin film capacitors by RF magnetron sputtering with different film thicknesses. The effect of Ba5Nb4O15 (BNO) thickness on structural, microstructural, electrical, optical and dielectric properties is investigated for the first time. BNO sputtering target prepared is by mechanochemical synthesis method to eliminate the subordinate phases. As deposited thin films were X-ray amorphous and crystallinity is induced after annealing at 700 °C. Upon annealing, refractive indices of the films enhanced whereas the bandgap is decreased and are in the range of 1.89-2.16 and 4.07-4.24, respectively. With an increase in thickness, the dielectric properties improved substantially, which is described by the representation of a dead layer connected in series with a bulk region of the BNO film. The extracted values of thickness and dielectric constant for the dead layer found to be 15.21 nm and 37.03, correspondingly. The activation energy of the mobile charge carriers obtained using the Arrhenius relation are found to be 0.254, 0.036 and 0.027 eV, for the films with 150, 250 and 450 nm, respectively. The leakage current density found to decrease with thickness and found to be 2.5 × 10-6 A/cm2 at applied voltage of 50 kV/cm. The J-E characteristics of the BNO films show a combined response of grain, grain boundaries and film-electrode interfaces. It is interesting to note that in the negative electric field region, conduction is ohmic in nature whereas in the positive field region BNO films exhibit both ohmic and the space charge-limited current mechanisms. The achieved dielectric, electrical and optical properties make these films suitable for MIC, CMOS and optoelectronic applications.

  6. Influence of low-energy plasma annealing on structural and optical properties of silver nanoclusters grown by magnetron sputtering deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antad, V.; Simonot, L.; Babonneau, D.

    2014-03-01

    Structural and optical modifications induced by low-energy (≤80 eV) bias-plasma annealing of silver nanoclusters (2-25 nm) grown by magnetron sputtering deposition are reported. By combining postmortem structural characterizations and real-time optical measurements, we show that etching effects associated with enhanced Ag mobility result in progressive and irreversible changes of both the morphology and organization of the nanoclusters (i.e., decrease of the cluster size and intercluster distance as well as increase of their out-of-plane aspect ratio). Surface plasmon resonance bands of the nanoclusters are also modified by plasma treatment, which causes a blue-shift together with an amplitude decrease and a narrowing of the band. In addition, the kinetics of plasma-induced modifications can be easily controlled by varying the applied bias voltage. Therefore, plasma annealing could emerge as an efficient alternative to more traditional thermal annealing treatments for tuning the plasmonic properties of noble metal nanoclusters with great flexibility.

  7. Electrical and optical properties of CNx(0<=x<=0.25) films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broitman, E.; Hellgren, N.; Järrendahl, K.; Johansson, M. P.; Olafsson, S.; Radnóczi, G.; Sundgren, J.-E.; Hultman, L.

    2001-01-01

    The electrical and optical properties of carbon-nitride CNx films (0⩽x⩽0.25) deposited by unbalanced reactive magnetron sputtering from a graphite target in mixed Ar/N2 discharges at a substrate temperature of 350 °C have been investigated. Pure C films exhibit a dark conductivity at room temperature of 25 Ω-1 cm-1, which grows up to 250 Ω-1 cm-1 for CNx films with N content of 20%. For CNx films, temperature-dependent conductivity measurements suggest that two electron conduction processes exist in the investigated temperature range 130

  8. Surface and optical properties of indium tin oxide layer deposition by RF magnetron sputtering in argon atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudar, H. Hakan; Korkmaz, Şadan; Özen, Soner; Şenay, Volkan; Pat, Suat

    2016-08-01

    This study focused on the characterization and properties of transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited in argon atmosphere. ITO thin films were coated onto glass substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique at 75 and 100 W RF powers. Structural characteristics of producing films were investigated through X-ray diffraction analysis. UV-Vis spectrophotometer and interferometer were used to determine transmittance, absorbance and reflectance values of samples. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by atomic force microscope. The calculated band gaps were 3.8 and 4.1 eV for the films at 75 and 100 W, respectively. The effect of RF power on crystallinity of prepared films was explored using mentioned analysis methods. The high RF power caused higher poly crystallinity in the produced samples. The thickness and refractive index values for all samples increased respect to an increment of RF power and were calculated as 20, 50 nm and 1.71, 1.86 for samples at 75 and 100 W, respectively. Finally, the estimated grain sizes for all prepared films decreased with increasing of 2 θ degrees, and the number of crystallite per unit volume was calculated. It was found that nearly all properties including sheet resistance and resistivity depend on the RF power.

  9. Photocatalytic hydroxyapatite/titanium dioxide multilayer thin film deposited onto glass using an rf magnetron sputtering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, K.; Janurudin, Juliana M.; Aoki, H.; Fukui, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)/titanium dioxide (TiO 2) thin film was deposited on glass using a radio frequency magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and measurement of its photocatalytic activity by the decomposition of formaldehyde gas and the bacterial survival test of Escherichia coli ( E. coli) cells were applied to characterize the film. After heat treatment (at 500 °C), XRD analysis of the HA/TiO 2 film showed a crystalline TiO 2 crystal structure with anatase phase. The transmittance of the HA/TiO 2 film decreased after the heat treatment, however, the average transmittance remained at 87% in the visible light range. In the decomposition of formaldehyde gas, the HA/TiO 2 film showed a higher decomposition rate than either the TiO 2 or the HA film alone. However, in the bacterial survival test, survival of cells on the HA/TiO 2 film was higher than that on the TiO 2 film, which indicates the HA/TiO 2 film has a lower bactericidal effect than the TiO 2 film alone.

  10. Structures and Properties of C-Doped NiCr Thin Film Deposited by Closed-Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Lifei; Wang, Jinxia; Wang, Hongtao; Bao, Mingdong

    2017-01-01

    The structures and properties of C-doped NiCr thin film as embedded thin film resistor (ETFR) materials were studied by closed-field, unbalanced magnetron sputtering method. The C-doped NiCr (NiCrC1) thin film had more stable electrical performance, better corrosion resistance, and higher hardness than NiCr thin film. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of NiCrC1 thin film deposited at room temperature (from 19.73 ppm/K to 173.7 ppm/K) was lower than that of NiCr thin film (from 157.8 ppm/K to 378.9 ppm/K), and the sheet resistor (154.25 Ω/Sq) was higher than that of NiCr thin film (62.84 Ω/Sq). The preferred orientations of C-doped NiCr thin film was Ni (111), while that of NiCr thin film was Ni (011). The carbon-doped NiCr thin film can reduce the defects and stress and change the preferred orientations. The dominant carbon in C-doped NiCr thin film had a graphite-like structure.

  11. Mechanical and tribological properties of a-GeC{sub x} films deposited by dc-magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsohn, L.G.; Reigada, D.C.; Freire, F.L. Jr.; Prioli, R.; Zanette, S.I.; Caride, A.O.; Nascimento, F.C.; Lepienski, C.M.

    1998-12-31

    Amorphous carbon-germanium films were grown by dc-magnetron sputtering at different argon plasma pressures ranging from 0.17 and 1.4 Pa. The water-cooled sample holder was grounded. The film thickness were typically 0.5 {micro}m. The ratio between germanium and carbon atomic concentration ranges up to 2.8, as measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Elastic recoil detection technique was used to measure hydrogen contamination. The film hardness was measured by nanoindentation techniques and the internal stress was determined by the bending of the substrate. The incorporation of Ge reduces both the film hardness and the internal stress. Hardness and internal stress increases when the films are deposited in lower pressures. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to measure the surface roughness, which was found to be insensitive to the pressure and to the Ge content. A possible influence of the thickness on the morphology of pure carbon films is discussed. The friction coefficient measured by AFM is independent on the film composition within experimental errors.

  12. Electrical properties of SrTiO3 thin films on Si deposited by magnetron sputtering at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongchun; Kugler, Veronika; Helmersson, Ulf; Konofaos, N.; Evangelou, E. K.; Nakao, Setsuo; Jin, Ping

    2001-09-01

    Deposition of SrTiO3 (STO) thin films by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering in an ultrahigh vacuum system at a low substrate temperature (˜200 °C) was performed in order to produce high-quality STO/p-Si (100) interfaces and STO insulator layers with dielectric constants of high magnitude. The STO films were identified as polycrystalline by x-ray diffraction, and were approximated with a layered structure according to the best fitting results of raw data from both Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. Room-temperature current-voltage and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements on Al/STO/p-Si diodes clearly revealed metal-insulator-semiconductor behavior, and the STO/p-Si interface state densities were of the order of 1011eV-1 cm-2. The dielectric constant of the STO film was 65, and the dielectric loss factor varied between 0.05 and 0.55 for a frequency range of 1 kHz-10 MHz. For a 387 nm thick STO film, the dielectric breakdown field was 0.31 MV cm-1, and the charge storage capacity was 2.1 μC cm-2. These results indicate that STO films are suitable for applications as insulator layers in dynamic random access memories or as cladding layers in electroluminescent devices.

  13. High-rate deposition of MgO by reactive ac pulsed magnetron sputtering in the transition mode

    SciTech Connect

    Kupfer, H.; Kleinhempel, R.; Richter, F.; Peters, C.; Krause, U.; Kopte, T.; Cheng, Y.

    2006-01-15

    A reactive ac pulsed dual magnetron sputtering process for MgO thin-film deposition was equipped with a closed-loop control of the oxygen flow rate (F{sub O2}) using the 285 nm magnesium radiation as input. Owing to this control, most of the unstable part of the partial pressure versus flowrate curve became accessible. The process worked steadily and reproducible without arcing. A dynamic deposition rate of up to 35 nm m/min could be achieved, which was higher than in the oxide mode by about a factor of 18. Both process characteristics and film properties were investigated in this work in dependence on the oxygen flow, i.e., in dependence on the particular point within the transition region where the process is operated. The films had very low extinction coefficients (<5x10{sup -5}) and refractive indices close to the bulk value. They were nearly stoichiometric with a slight oxygen surplus (Mg/O=48/52) which was independent of the oxygen flow. X-ray diffraction revealed a prevailing (111) orientation. Provided that appropriate rf plasma etching was performed prior to deposition, no other than the (111) peak could be detected. The intensity of this peak increased with increasing F{sub O{sub 2}}, indicating an even more pronounced (111) texture. The ion-induced secondary electron emission coefficient (iSEEC) was distinctly correlated with the markedness of the (111) preferential orientation. Both refractive index and (111) preferred orientation (which determines the iSEEC) were found to be improved in comparison with the MgO growth in the fully oxide mode. Consequently, working in the transition mode is superior to the oxide mode not only with respect to the growth rate, but also to most important film properties.

  14. Process- and optoelectronic-control of NiOx thin films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keraudy, Julien; Delfour-Peyrethon, Brice; Ferrec, Axel; Garcia Molleja, Javier; Richard-Plouet, Mireille; Payen, Christophe; Hamon, Jonathan; Corraze, Benoît; Goullet, Antoine; Jouan, Pierre-Yves

    2017-05-01

    In this contribution, based on the analyses of the discharge behavior as well as final properties of the deposited Ni-O films during reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge, we have demonstrated that monitoring the oxygen flow rate leads to 4 different regimes of discharge. Tuning the oxygen partial pressure allows deposition of a large range of chemical compositions from pure nickel to nickel-deficient NiOx (x > 1) in the poisoned mode. Investigation of the plasma dynamics by time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy suggests that the discharge behavior in the poisoned mode principally comes from the higher contribution of both oxygen and argon ions in the total ionic current, leading to a change in the ion induced secondary electron emission coefficient. Additionally, material characterizations have revealed that optoelectronic properties of NiOx films can be easily tuned by adjusting the O/Ni ratio, which is influenced by the change of the oxygen flow rate. Stoichiometric NiO films (O/Ni ratio ˜ 1) are transparent in the visible range with a transmittance ˜80% and insulating as expected with an electrical resistivity ˜106 Ω cm. On the other hand, increasing the O/Ni > 1 leads to the deposition of more conductive coating (ρ ˜ 10 Ω cm) films with a lower transmittance ˜ 50%. These optoelectronic evolutions are accompanied by a band-gap narrowing 3.65 to 3.37 eV originating from the introduction of acceptor states between the Fermi level and the valence band maximum. In addition, our analysis has demonstrated that nickel vacancies are homogeneously distributed over the film thickness, explaining the p-type of the films.

  15. Comparative study of RF reactive magnetron sputtering and sol-gel deposition of UV induced superhydrophilic TiOx thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrakatseli, V. E.; Amanatides, E.; Mataras, D.

    2016-03-01

    TiOx and TiOx-like thin films were deposited on PEEK (Polyether ether ketone) substrates by low-temperature RF reactive magnetron sputtering and the sol-gel method. The resulting films were compared in terms of their properties and photoinduced hydrophilicity. Both techniques resulted in uniform films with good adhesion that can be switched to superhydrophilic after exposure to UVA radiation for similar time periods. In addition, the sputtered films can also be activated and switched to superhydrophilic by natural sunlight due to the higher absorption in the visible spectrum compared to the sol-gel films. On the other hand, the as deposited sol-films remain relatively hydrophilic for a longer time in dark compared to the sputtered film due to the differences in the morphology and the porosity of the two materials. Thus, depending on the application, either method can be used in order to achieve the desirable TiOx properties.

  16. Angular dependence of plasma parameters and film properties during high power impulse magnetron sputtering for deposition of Ti and TiO2 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippler, R.; Hubicka, Z.; Cada, M.; Ksirova, P.; Wulff, H.; Helm, C. A.; Stranak, V.

    2017-05-01

    Angular distribution measurements have been carried out during High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) of a titanium target and deposition of titanium and titanium oxide films. The HiPIMS system was operated at a repetition frequency f = 100 Hz with a duty cycle of 1%. Langmuir probe diagnostics has been carried out at a distance of 7.5 cm from the target at four different angles with respect to the surface normal of the target. Film properties were investigated by means of SEM, XR, and GIXD, and a dependence of film thickness and crystalline structure on the deposition angle is observed.

  17. Deposition profile of Ti film inside a trench and its correlation with gas-phase ionization in high-pressure magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Nafarizal, N.; Takada, N.; Nakamura, K.; Sago, Y.; Sasaki, K.

    2006-11-15

    This article reports the relationship between the degree of ionization of Ti in the gas phase and the thickness profile of Ti film inside a trench in magnetron sputtering deposition. A conventional magnetron sputtering plasma source was used for depositing Ti films inside trenches formed on rf-biased SiO{sub 2} substrates. It was found that a high bottom coverage was obtained when a high gas pressure and a long distance between the target and the substrate were employed for the deposition. On the other hand, at a short distance between the target and the substrate, the bottom coverage was small and was almost independent of the gas pressure. The deposition profile was compared with the spatial distributions of Ti and Ti{sup +} densities measured by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging spectroscopy. The LIF results revealed that the density ratio of Ti{sup +} to Ti in the downstream region increased with the gas pressure up to 0.3, while in the upstream region, it was small (<0.05) and was roughly constant with the gas pressure. In the case with the enhanced density ratio of 0.3, the flux ratio of Ti{sup +} to Ti was estimated to be 4.4. Hence, it was concluded that, with a high gas pressure and a long distance between the target and substrate, the deposition profile with a high bottom coverage was obtained by accelerating Ti{sup +} toward the bottom of the trench. The high-pressure magnetron sputtering discharge is useful for enhancing the degree of ionization and the bottom coverage.

  18. Study of the crystalline and optical properties of lithium tantalate thin films deposited by high power RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Dong; Wang, Jun; Sun, Binwei; Gou, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) thin films were deposited by high power (250 W) RF magnetron sputtering on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates and were annealed from 600 °C-700 °C in an O2 or N2 environment. The crystallinity of those films were examined by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectra to study the effects of annealing temperature and annealing gas on the crystal properties of LiTaO3 thin films. LiTaO3 thin films annealing at 650 °C in O2 have a better crystalline quality in a (012) preferential orientation. However, LiTaO3 thin films annealed at 700 °C in O2 contain impurities with titanium oxide (Ta2O5). This is attributable to the fact that the crystal structure is unstable above the Curie temperature and the tantalum reacts with oxygen in the annealing process. At the same time, the result of the Raman spectra suggests that LiTaO3 thin films annealed at 600 °C and 650 °C are closer to near-stoichiometric LiTaO3 and have less Li diffusivity and Li-deficient phases. Finally, optical constants of LiTaO3 films are also primarily probed by spectroscopic ellipsometry. For LiTaO3 thin films annealed at 650 °C in O2, the refractive index is 2.33, the extinction coefficient is 0.002 34 and the direct optical band gap energy is estimated to be minimal at 3.66 eV.

  19. Surface free energy of non-stick coatings deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chen-Cheng; Lee, Shih-Chin; Dai, Shyue-Bin; Tien, Shein-Long; Chang, Chung-Chih; Fu, Yaw-Shyan

    2007-02-01

    Semiconductor IC packaging molding dies require wear resistance, corrosion resistance and non-sticking (with a low surface free energy). The molding releasing capability and performance are directly associated with the surface free energy between the coating and product material. The serious sticking problem reduces productivity and reliability. Depositing TiN, TiMoS, ZrN, CrC, CrN, NiCr, NiCrN, CrTiAlN and CrNiTiAlN coatings using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating, and characterizing their surface free energy are the main object in developing a non-stick coating system for semiconductor IC molding tools. The contact angle of water, diiodomethane and ethylene glycol on the coated surfaces were measured at temperature in 20 °C using a Dataphysics OCA-20 contact angle analyzer. The surface free energy of the coatings and their components (dispersion and polar) were calculated using the Owens-Wendt geometric mean approach. The surface roughness was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adhesion force of these coatings was measured using direct tensile pull-off test apparatus. The experimental results showed that NiCrN, CrN and NiCrTiAlN coatings outperformed TiN, ZrN, NiCr, CiTiAlN, CrC and TiMoS coatings in terms of non-sticking, and thus have the potential as working layers for injection molding industrial equipment, especially in semiconductor IC packaging molding applications.

  20. Excellent vacuum tribological properties of Pb/PbS film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and ion sulfurizing.

    PubMed

    Guozheng, Ma; Binshi, Xu; Haidou, Wang; Shuying, Chen; Zhiguo, Xing

    2014-01-08

    Soft metal Pb film of 3 μm in thickness was deposited on AISI 440C steel by RF magnetron sputtering, and then some of the Pb film samples were treated by low-temperature ion sulfurizing (LTIS) and formed Pb/PbS composite film. Tribological properties of the Pb and Pb/PbS films were tested contrastively in vacuum and air condition using a self-developed tribometer (model of MSTS-1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were adopted to analyze the microstructure and chemical construction of the films and their worn surfaces. The results show that a mass of Pb was changed to PbS during the process of LTIS. In air condition, owing to the severe oxidation effect, pure Pb film showed relatively high friction coefficients (0.6), and Pb/PbS composite film also lost its friction-reduction property after sliding for a short time. In a vacuum, the average friction coefficients of Pb film were about 0.1, but the friction coefficient curve fluctuated obviously. And the Pb/PbS composite film exhibited excellent tribological properties in vacuum condition. Its friction coefficients keep stable at a low value of about 0.07 for a long time. If takes the value of friction coefficients exceeding 0.2 continuously as a criterion of lubrication failure, the sliding friction life of Pb/PbS film was as long as 3.2 × 10(5) r, which is 8 times of that of the Pb film. It can be concluded that the Pb/PbS film has excellent vacuum tribological properties and important foreground for applying in space solid lubrication related fields.

  1. Impurity-free vacancy disordering of quantum heterostructures with SiOxNy encapsulants deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKerracher, I. R.; Fu, L.; Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C.

    2008-08-01

    Post-growth techniques such as impurity-free vacancy disordering (IFVD) are simple and effective avenues to monolithic integration of optoelectonic components. Sputter deposition of encapsulant films can enhance quantum well intermixing through IFVD and an additional mechanism involving surface damage during the sputtering process. In this study, these two mechanisms were compared in a multi-quantum well structure. The compositions of different silicon oxy-nitride films were controlled by sputter deposition in different ambient gases. These different encapsulants were used to initiate IFVD in the same heterostructure and the observed intermixing is compared to the film properties.

  2. Combinatorial study of WInZnO films deposited by rf magnetron co-sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Byeong-Yun; Park, Jae-Cheol; Lee, Young-Jun; Cha, Sang-Jun; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Kim, Kwang-Young; Kim, Tae-Won; Heo, Gi-Seok

    2011-09-15

    The compositional dependence of co-sputtered tungsten indium zinc oxide (WInZnO) film properties was first investigated by means of a combinatorial technique. Indium zinc oxide (IZO) and WO{sub 3} targets were used with different target power. W composition ratio [W/(In+Zn+W)] was varied between 3 and 30 at% and film thickness was reduced as the sample position moved toward WO{sub 3} target. Furthermore, the optical bandgap energy increased gradually, which might be affected by the reduction in film thickness. All the WInZnO films showed an amorphous phase regardless of the W/(In+Zn+W) ratio. As the W/(In+Zn+W) ratio in WInZnO films increased, the carrier concentration was restricted, causing the increase in electrical resistivity. W cations worked as oxygen binders in determining the electronic properties, resulting in suppressing the formation of oxygen vacancies. Consequentially, W metal cations were effectively incorporated into the WInZnO films as a suppressor against the oxygen vacancies and the carrier generation by employing the combinatorial technique. - Graphical abstract: The film thickness and the sheet resistance (R{sub s}) with respect to the sample position of WInZnO films, which is compositionally graded by rf power for each target, are exhibited. Highlights: > The compositional dependence of co-sputtered WInZnO film properties is first investigated. > W cations work as oxygen binders in determining the electronic properties. > All the WInZnO films show an amorphous phase regardless of the W/(In+Zn+W) ratio. > W metal cations are effectively incorporated into the WInZnO films by the combinatorial technique.

  3. Nanostructural and mechanical properties of nanocomposite nc-TiC/a-C:H films deposited by reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehnder, T.; Schwaller, P.; Munnik, F.; Mikhailov, S.; Patscheider, J.

    2004-04-01

    Thin films of nc-TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite have been deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering at substrate bias values of -240 and -91 V. The grain size and grain separation, which together define the nanostructure, are correlated to the amount of the amorphous phase. From the size of the TiC grains measured by x-ray diffraction and the amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) phase content determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the mean grain separation is estimated using a simple model for the nanostructure. Films deposited at -240 V show a hardness enhancement for a-C:H phase contents in the range 10% to 30% with TiC grain sizes around 5 nm. The mean grain separation for such films was estimated to be 0.3 nm. Films with higher a-C:H phase contents still have 5 nm small grains, but their mean grain separation is larger than 0.5 nm; their hardness is thus determined by the properties of the amorphous matrix. A less pronounced hardness enhancement is observed for films deposited at -91 V. They have larger grains and larger mean gain separations and show smaller hardness values. The hardness of the films, among other mechanical properties, is controlled by the nanostructure. Raman measurements have shown that a-C:H is present in films with mean grain separation down to 0.2 nm. Coefficients of friction against steel lower than 0.3, independent of the substrate bias, are found for films with mean grain separations as low as 0.15 nm. Self-lubrication due to a-C:H can explain the observed friction behavior, although the presence of a-C:H cannot be proved by Raman spectroscopy for films with mean grain separations smaller than 0.2 nm. It is shown that the substrate bias is crucial in obtaining increased hardness of nc-TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite thin films. In contrast to the hardness of the coatings, their friction behavior is not affected by the substrate bias.

  4. Structural, chemical and nanomechanical investigations of SiC/polymeric a-C:H films deposited by reactive RF unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomastik, C.; Lackner, J. M.; Pauschitz, A.; Roy, M.

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous carbon (or diamond-like carbon, DLC) films have shown a number of important properties usable for a wide range of applications for very thin coatings with low friction and good wear resistance. DLC films alloyed with (semi-)metals show some improved properties and can be deposited by various methods. Among those, the widely used magnetron sputtering of carbon targets is known to increase the number of defects in the films. Therefore, in this paper an alternative approach of depositing silicon-carbide-containing polymeric hydrogenated DLC films using unbalanced magnetron sputtering was investigated. The influence of the C2H2 precursor concentration in the deposition chamber on the chemical and structural properties of the deposited films was investigated by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and elastic recoil detection analysis. Roughness, mechanical properties and scratch response of the films were evaluated with the help of atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation. The Raman spectra revealed a strong correlation of the film structure with the C2H2 concentration during deposition. A higher C2H2 flow rate results in an increase in SiC content and decrease in hydrogen content in the film. This in turn increases hardness and elastic modulus and decreases the ratio H/E and H3/E2. The highest scratch resistance is exhibited by the film with the highest hardness, and the film having the highest overall sp3 bond content shows the highest elastic recovery during scratching.

  5. Structural and optical characterization of terbium doped ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaram, K.; Girija, K. G. Sudarsan, V.; Vatsa, R. K.; Selvin, P. Christopher

    2016-05-23

    Tb{sup 3+} doped ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanophosphor (21 nm) has been synthesized via low temperature polyol route and subsequently thin films of the same were deposited on glass and ITO substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The films were characterized by X-ray Diffraction and luminescence measurements. The XRD pattern showed that Tb{sup 3+} doped ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanophosphor has a cubic spinel phase. Luminescence behavior of the nanophosphor and as deposited sputtered film was investigated. The PL emission spectra of nanophosphor gave a broad ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} host emission band along with a strong terbium emission and the thin films showed only broad host emission band and there was no terbium ion emission.

  6. Development of a highly transparent, low-resistance lithium-doped nickel oxide triple-layer film deposited by magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Ching; Shih, Wei-Chen

    2017-01-31

    This research presents a triple-layer transparent conductive oxide thin film, with a lithium-doped nickel oxide/silver/lithium-doped nickel oxide (L-NiO/Ag/L-NiO) structure using radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. The high transmittance L-NiO thin films were deposited using the sputtering method with Ar/H2 as the reaction gases. The triple-layer structure, L-NiO/Ag/L-NiO, showed impressive electrical conductivity. The figure of merit (FOM) results indicated that the L-NiO/Ag/L-NiO triple-layer thin films with Ag deposition times of 2 min possessed satisfactory optical and electrical properties for potential applications.

  7. Magnetron sputtering for the production of EUV mask blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Patrick; Ngai, Tat; Karumuri, Anil; Yum, Jung; Lee, Hojune; Gilmer, David; Vo, Tuan; Goodwin, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Ion Beam Deposition (IBD) has been the primary technique used to deposit EUV mask blanks since 1995 when it was discovered it could produce multilayers with few defects. Since that time the IBD technique has been extensively studied and improved and is finally approaching usable defectivities. But in the intervening years, the defectivity of magnetron sputtering has been greatly improved. This paper evaluates the suitability of a modern magnetron tool to produce EUV mask blanks and the ability to support HVM production. In particular we show that the reflectivity and uniformity of these tools are superior to current generation IBD tools, and that the magnetron tools can produce EUV films with defect densities comparable to recent best IBD tool performance. Magnetron tools also offer many advantages in manufacturability and tool throughput; however, challenges remain, including transitioning the magnetron tools from the wafer to mask formats. While work continues on quantifying the capability of magnetron sputtering to meet the mask blank demands of the industry, for the most part the remaining challenges do not require any fundamental improvements to existing technology. Based on the recent results and the data presented in this paper there is a clear indication that magnetron deposition should be considered for the future of EUV mask blank production.

  8. Influence of the deposition conditions on radiofrequency magnetron sputtered MoS2 films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinmann, Pierre A.; Spalvins, Talivaldis

    1990-01-01

    By varying the radiofrequency (RF) power, the Ar pressure, and the potential on the substrates, MoS(x) films of various stoichiometry, density, adhesion, and morphology were produced. An increase of RF power increased the deposition rate and density of the MoS2 films as well as improved adhesion. However, the stoichiometry remained constant. An increase of Ar pressure increased the deposition rate but decreased the density, wheras both stoichiometry and adhesion were maximized at around 20 mtorr Ar pressure. Furthermore, a transition from compact film growth to columnar film growth was observed when the pressure was varied from 5 to 15 mtorr. Substoichiometric films were grown when a negative (bias) voltage was applied to the substrates.

  9. Dependence of the specific features of two PAPVD methods: Impulse Plasma Deposition (IPD) and Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering (PMS) on the structure of Fe-Cu alloy layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowska-Langier, Katarzyna; Chodun, Rafal; Nietubyc, Robert; Minikayev, Roman; Zdunek, Krzysztof

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the study of the structural properties of the alloy layers prepared by two different, impulsively working PAPVD methods: the Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering (PMS) and the Impulse Plasma Deposition (IPD). The Fe-Cu alloy layers were synthesized. The results of our investigation revealed a nanocrystalline structure of the layers. The differences in the phase composition of the Fe-Cu alloy layers produced by these two methods were observed. The synthesis of the Fe-Cu layers by using the Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering method resulted in obtaining the two-phase, polycrystalline structures (fcc-Cu and bcc-Fe). In this case the clear evidence of mixing between the iron and copper atoms was not observed. The Fe-Cu layers deposited by the Impulse Plasma Deposition method were characterized by the non-equilibrium phase composition - the presence of one-phase supersaturated solid solution (fcc-Cu(Fe) or bcc-Fe(Cu)) was formed in immiscible systems. These results suggest a short-distance diffusion between the neighboring nanoparticles of the two metals (Cu and Fe) occurring during the IPD layers growth.

  10. High rate reactive magnetron sputter deposition of Al-doped ZnO with unipolar pulsing and impedance control system

    SciTech Connect

    Nishi, Yasutaka; Hirohata, Kento; Tsukamoto, Naoki; Sato, Yasushi; Oka, Nobuto; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2010-07-15

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films were deposited on quartz glass substrates, unheated and heated to 200 deg. C, using reactive sputtering with a special feedback system of discharge impedance combined with midfrequency pulsing. A planar Zn-Al alloy target was connected to the switching unit, which was operated in a unipolar pulse mode. The oxidation of the target surface was precisely controlled by a feedback system for the entire O{sub 2} flow ratio including ''the transition region''. The deposition rate was about 10-20 times higher than that for films deposited by conventional sputtering using an oxide target. A deposition rate of AZO films of 390 nm/min with a resistivity of 3.8x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm and a transmittance in the visible region of 85% was obtained when the films were deposited on glass substrates heated to 200 deg. C with a discharge power of 4 kW.

  11. The TCR of Ni24.9Cr72.5Si2.6 thin films deposited by DC and RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Bing; Yin, Yijun; Han, Jianqiang; Zhang, Jie

    2017-06-01

    The temperature coefficient of resistance (abbreviated as TCR) of thin film resistors on some sensor chips, such as thermal converters, should be less than several ppm/°C. However, the TCR of reported thin films is larger than 5 ppm/°C. In this paper, Ni24.9Cr72.5Si2.6 films are deposited on silicon dioxide film by DC and RF magnetron sputtering. Then as-deposited films are annealed at 450 °C under different durations in N2 atmosphere. The sheet resistance of thin films with various thickness and annealing time are measured by the four probe resistivity test system at temperature of 20, 50, 100, 150, and 200 °C and then the TCR of thin films are calculated. Experimental results show that the film with the TCR of only -0.86 ppm/°C can be achieved by RF magnetron sputtering and appropriate annealing conditions. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51377025, 61376114)

  12. Characterization of nanostructured VO2 thin films grown by magnetron controlled sputtering deposition and post annealing method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sihai; Lai, Jianjun; Dai, Jun; Ma, Hong; Wang, Hongchen; Yi, Xinjian

    2009-12-21

    By magnetron controlled sputtering system, a new nanostructured metastable monoclinic phase VO2 (B) thin film has been fabricated. The testing result shows that this nanostructured VO2 (B) thin film has high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of -7%/K. Scanning electron microscopy measurement shows that the average grain diameter of the VO2 (B) crystallite is between 100 and 250 nm. After post annealed, VO2 (B) crystallite is changed into monoclinic (M) phase VO2 (M) crystallite with the average grain diameter between 20 and 50 nm. A set up of testing the thin film switching time is established. The test result shows the switching time is about 50 ms. With the nanostructured VO2 (B) and VO2 (M) thin films, optical switches and high sensitivity detectors will be presented.

  13. Characteristics of TiNi Thin Films Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering System with Optical Emission Spectroscopy Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Erqiang; Bao, Mingdong; Yuan, Guozheng; Xiao, Gesheng; Jin, Tao; Li, Zhigang; Shu, Xuefeng

    2015-07-01

    TiNi composite thin films were fabricated using a closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system equipped with optical emission spectroscopy monitor (OEM). The thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and nanoindentation. Results show that the TiNi films are amorphous, and their composition varies approximately linearly with the OEM value. Thus, the film composition could be controlled by in situ real-time OEM. The structure of the single B2 parent phase was observed in the annealed TiNi film. The hardness and elastic modulus of the films increased because of the precipitation of the Ti3Ni4 phase in the single B2 parent phase.

  14. High-responsivity UV-Vis Photodetector Based on Transferable WS2 Film Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Longhui; Tao, Lili; Tang, Chunyin; Zhou, Bo; Long, Hui; Chai, Yang; Lau, Shu Ping; Tsang, Yuen Hong

    2016-01-01

    The two-dimensional layered semiconducting tungsten disulfide (WS2) film exhibits great promising prospects in the photoelectrical applications because of its unique photoelectrical conversion property. Herein, in this paper, we report the simple and scalable fabrication of homogeneous, large-size and transferable WS2 films with tens-of-nanometers thickness through magnetron sputtering and post annealing process. The produced WS2 films with low resistance (4.2 kΩ) are used to fabricate broadband sensitive photodetectors in the ultraviolet to visible region. The photodetectors exhibit excellent photoresponse properties, with a high responsivity of 53.3 A/W and a high detectivity of 1.22 × 1011 Jones at 365 nm. The strategy reported paves new way towards the large scale growth of transferable high quality, uniform WS2 films for various important applications including high performance photodetectors, solar cell, photoelectrochemical cell and so on.

  15. Microstructure and magnetic properties of [FePt/AlN] n multilayers deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-Hong; Li, Xiao-Li; Wu, Hai-Shun

    2004-10-01

    FePt(50 nm) and [FePt(2,3,5 nm)/AlN(1 nm)]n films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering technique, then annealed at 550°C for 30 min. This work investigates the effect of the number of bilayer repetitions (n) and AlN concentration on structures and magnetic properties of various [FePt/AlN]n multilayers. The highest coercivities of [FePt/AlN]n multilayers were obtained when n was given as 8. The grain sizes of [FePt/AlN]n films were increased with increasing n. Introducing the non-magnetic AlN not only hindered the growth of FePt particles, but also reduced the intergrain exchange interactions of the [FePt/AlN]n films. And the intergrain interactions were decreased with increasing AlN concentration.

  16. High-responsivity UV-Vis Photodetector Based on Transferable WS2 Film Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Longhui; Tao, Lili; Tang, Chunyin; Zhou, Bo; Long, Hui; Chai, Yang; Lau, Shu Ping; Tsang, Yuen Hong

    2016-01-01

    The two-dimensional layered semiconducting tungsten disulfide (WS2) film exhibits great promising prospects in the photoelectrical applications because of its unique photoelectrical conversion property. Herein, in this paper, we report the simple and scalable fabrication of homogeneous, large-size and transferable WS2 films with tens-of-nanometers thickness through magnetron sputtering and post annealing process. The produced WS2 films with low resistance (4.2 kΩ) are used to fabricate broadband sensitive photodetectors in the ultraviolet to visible region. The photodetectors exhibit excellent photoresponse properties, with a high responsivity of 53.3 A/W and a high detectivity of 1.22 × 1011 Jones at 365 nm. The strategy reported paves new way towards the large scale growth of transferable high quality, uniform WS2 films for various important applications including high performance photodetectors, solar cell, photoelectrochemical cell and so on. PMID:26822972

  17. Multi-cathode unbalanced magnetron sputtering systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sproul, William D.

    1991-01-01

    Ion bombardment of a growing film during deposition is necessary in many instances to ensure a fully dense coating, particularly for hard coatings. Until the recent advent of unbalanced magnetron (UBM) cathodes, reactive sputtering had not been able to achieve the same degree of ion bombardment as other physical vapor deposition processes. The amount of ion bombardment of the substrate depends on the plasma density at the substrate, and in a UBM system the amount of bombardment will depend on the degree of unbalance of the cathode. In multi-cathode systems, the magnetic fields between the cathodes must be linked to confine the fast electrons that collide with the gas atoms. Any break in this linkage results in electrons being lost and a low plasma density. Modeling of the magnetic fields in a UBM cathode using a finite element analysis program has provided great insight into the interaction between the magnetic fields in multi-cathode systems. Large multi-cathode systems will require very strong magnets or many cathodes in order to maintain the magnetic field strength needed to achieve a high plasma density. Electromagnets offer the possibility of independent control of the plasma density. Such a system would be a large-scale version of an ion beam enhanced deposition (IBED) system, but, for the UBM system where the plasma would completely surround the substrate, the acronym IBED might now stand for Ion Blanket Enhanced Deposition.

  18. Thick beryllium coatings by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H; Nikroo, A; Youngblood, K; Moreno, K; Wu, D; Fuller, T; Alford, C; Hayes, J; Detor, A; Wong, M; Hamza, A; van Buuren, T; Chason, E

    2011-04-14

    Thick (>150 {micro}m) beryllium coatings are studied as an ablator material of interest for fusion fuel capsules for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). As an added complication, the coatings are deposited on mm-scale spherical substrates, as opposed to flats. DC magnetron sputtering is used because of the relative controllability of the processing temperature and energy of the deposits. We used ultra small angle x-ray spectroscopy (USAXS) to characterize the void fraction and distribution along the spherical surface. We investigated the void structure using a combination focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results show a few volume percent of voids and a typical void diameter of less than two hundred nanometers. Understanding how the stresses in the deposited material develop with thickness is important so that we can minimize film cracking and delamination. To that end, an in-situ multiple optical beam stress sensor (MOSS) was used to measure the stress behavior of thick Beryllium coatings on flat substrates as the material was being deposited. We will show how the film stress saturates with thickness and changes with pressure.

  19. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shailesh; Gahan, David; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K; Daniels, Stephen; Hopkins, M B

    2016-04-01

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  20. Surface modification of tantalum pentoxide coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering and correlation with cell adhesion and proliferation in in vitro tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykova, A.; Safonov, V.; Goltsev, A.; Dubrava, T.; Rossokha, I.; Donkov, N.; Yakovin, S.; Kolesnikov, D.; Goncharov, I.; Georgieva, V.

    2016-03-01

    The effect was analyzed of surface treatment by argon ions on the surface properties of tantalum pentoxide coatings deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. The structural parameters of the as-deposited coatings were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction profiles and X-ray photoelectron spectra were also acquired. The total surface free energy (SFE), the polar, dispersion parts and fractional polarities, were estimated by the Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaeble method. The adhesive and proliferative potentials of bone marrow cells were evaluated for both Ta2O5 coatings and Ta2O5 coatings deposited by simultaneous bombardment by argon ions in in vitro tests.

  1. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Shailesh; Gahan, David Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Hopkins, M. B.; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K.; Daniels, Stephen

    2016-04-15

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  2. Design and capabilities of an experimental setup based on magnetron sputtering for formation and deposition of size-selected metal clusters on ultra-clean surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, H.; Popok, V. N.; Barke, I.; von Oeynhausen, V.; Meiwes-Broer, K.-H.

    2012-07-01

    The design and performance of an experimental setup utilizing a magnetron sputtering source for production of beams of ionized size-selected clusters for deposition in ultra-high vacuum is described. For the case of copper cluster formation the influence of different source parameters is studied and analyzed. Size-selected clusters are deposited on substrates and the efficiency of an electrostatic quadrupole mass selector is tested. Height analysis using atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrates relative standard size deviations of 7%-10% for the particles of various sizes between 6 nm and 19 nm. Combined analysis by AFM and transmission electron microscopy reveals that the clusters preserve almost spherical shape after the deposition on amorphous carbon substrates. Supported nanoparticles of a few nanometres in diameter have crystalline structure with a face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice.

  3. Design and capabilities of an experimental setup based on magnetron sputtering for formation and deposition of size-selected metal clusters on ultra-clean surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, H; Popok, V N; Barke, I; von Oeynhausen, V; Meiwes-Broer, K-H

    2012-07-01

    The design and performance of an experimental setup utilizing a magnetron sputtering source for production of beams of ionized size-selected clusters for deposition in ultra-high vacuum is described. For the case of copper cluster formation the influence of different source parameters is studied and analyzed. Size-selected clusters are deposited on substrates and the efficiency of an electrostatic quadrupole mass selector is tested. Height analysis using atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrates relative standard size deviations of 7%-10% for the particles of various sizes between 6 nm and 19 nm. Combined analysis by AFM and transmission electron microscopy reveals that the clusters preserve almost spherical shape after the deposition on amorphous carbon substrates. Supported nanoparticles of a few nanometres in diameter have crystalline structure with a face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice.

  4. REACTIVE SPUTTER DEPOSITION OF CHROMIUM NITRIDE COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of substrate temperature and sputtering gas compositon on the structure and properties of chromium-chromium nitride films deposited on C-1040 steel using r.f. magnetron sputter deposition was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine the structure ...

  5. REACTIVE SPUTTER DEPOSITION OF CHROMIUM NITRIDE COATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of substrate temperature and sputtering gas compositon on the structure and properties of chromium-chromium nitride films deposited on C-1040 steel using r.f. magnetron sputter deposition was investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine the structure ...

  6. Analysis of the properties of functional titanium dioxide thin films deposited by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering with various O2:Ar ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Michal

    2017-07-01

    For the purpose of thin film preparation, pulsed DC magnetron sputtering process was performed and various O2:Ar gas ratios were applied during deposition. Structural properties of thin films deposited with various sputtering atmospheres were determined based on the results of the x-ray diffraction method and Raman spectroscopy, which revealed that all coatings were nanocrystalline and had anatase or rutile structure. The surface morphology of the coatings were investigated with the aid of a scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Surface properties were evaluated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and wettability measurements. It was revealed that an increase of Ar amount in the sputtering gas atmosphere caused as a result an increase of thin film water contact angle and enhanced ability of the surface to adsorb water molecules and hydroxyl radicals. Optical properties evaluated on the basis of transmission and reflection measurements showed that all coatings were transparent in the visible wavelength range, but had different refractive index, porosity and packing density. The mechanical properties of the obtained coatings were determined on the basis of nanoindentation tests. Prepared TiO2 thin films had different surface, optical and mechanical properties depending on the gas atmosphere during deposition.

  7. Evolution of film temperature during magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Shaginyan, L.R.; Han, J.G.; Shaginyan, V.R.; Musil, J.

    2006-07-15

    We report on the results of measurements of the temperature T{sup F}{sub surf} which developed on the surface of films deposited by magnetron sputtering of chromium and copper targets on cooling and non-cooling silicon substrates. The T{sup F}{sub surf} and substrate temperature (T{sub s}) were simultaneously measured using high-resolution IR camera and thermocouple, respectively. We revealed that the T{sup F}{sub surf} steeply grows, keeps constant when it achieves saturation level, and rapidly drops to the value of the T{sub s} after stopping the deposition. At the same time, the T{sub s} either does not change for the case of cooling substrate or increases to a certain level for noncooling substrate. However, in both cases the T{sub s} remains several times lower than the T{sup F}{sub surf}. The T{sup F}{sub surf} is proportional to the flux of energy delivered to the growth surface by sputtered atoms and other fast particles, weakly depends on the depositing metal and can achieve several hundreds of deg. C. This phenomenon is explained by a model assuming formation of a hot thin surface layer (HTSL) on the top of the growing film, which exists only during film deposition and exhibits extremely low thermal conductivity. Due to this unique property the temperature T{sup F}{sub surf} of HTSL is several times higher than the T{sub s}. Variations in the T{sup F}{sub surf} fairly correlate with structure changes of Cr films along thickness investigated in detail previously.

  8. Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering: combining simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, Tomas; Vlcek, Jaroslav

    2016-09-01

    Reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has recently been used for preparation of various oxide films with high application potential, such as TiO2, ZrO2, Ta2O5, HfO2, VO2. Using our patented method of pulsed reactive gas flow control with an optimized reactive gas inlet, we achieved significantly higher deposition rates compared to typical continuous dc magnetron depositions. We have developed a time-dependent model of the reactive HiPIMS. The model includes a depth-resolved description of the sputtered target (featuring sputtering, implantation and knock-on implantation processes) and a parametric description of the discharge plasma (dissociation of reactive gas, ionization and return of sputtered atoms and gas rarefaction). The model uses a combination of experimental and simulation data as input. We have calculated the composition of the target and substrate for several deposition conditions. The simulations predict a reduced compound coverage of the target in HiPIMS compared to the continuous dc sputtering regime which explains the increased deposition rate. The simulations show that an increased dissociation of oxygen in a HiPIMS discharge is beneficial to achieve stoichiometric films on the substrate at high deposition rates.

  9. Electrical and optical properties of near UV transparent conductive ITO/Ga2O3 multilayer films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Ji-Myon

    2016-10-01

    Ga2O3/ITO co-sputtering and alternating multilayer films were deposited on the Corning glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron technique at room temperature. We investigated the effects of the thickness and period of Ga2O3 interlayer on the microstructure. We also elucidated the electrical and the optical properties of Ga2O3/indium tin oxide (ITO) multilayer films and co-sputtered the Ga2O3/ITO mixed films (co-IGTO). One-period Ga2O3/ITO films, which exhibited the lowest sheet resistance of 58.6 Ω/sq and the highest transmittance of 80.94% at a wavelength of 380 nm, were deposited on the Corning glass. The sheet resistance of co-sputtered Ga2O3/ITO film was rapidly increased to 189.2 Ω/sq., while the Hall mobility of the same film was rapidly decreased to 12.53 cm2/(V s). Although the carrier concentration of the multilayer films was lower than that of the ITO single layer, the figure of merit of the Ga2O3/ITO one-period alternating multilayer films was higher than those of single ITO and co-IGTO films.

  10. Investigation of structural, optical and electrical properties of (Ti,Nb)Ox thin films deposited by high energy reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Michal; Kaczmarek, Danuta; Prociow, Eugeniusz; Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Wojcieszak, Damian; Bocheński, Jakub

    2014-09-01

    In this work the results of investigations of the titanium-niobium oxides thin films have been reported. The thin films were manufactured with the aid of a modified reactive magnetron sputtering process. The aim of the research was the analysis of structural, optical and electrical properties of the deposited thin films. Additionally, the influence of post-process annealing on the properties of studied coatings has been presented. The as-deposited coatings were amorphous, while annealing at 873 K caused a structural change to the mixture of TiO2 anatase-rutile phases. The prepared thin films exhibited good transparency with transmission level of ca. 50 % and low resistivity varying from 2 Ωcm to 5×10-2 Ωcm, depending on the time and temperature of annealing. What is worth to emphasize, the sign of Seebeck coefficient changed after the annealing process from the electron to hole type electrical conduction.

  11. Substrate Heating Effect on c-Axis Texture and Piezoelectric Properties of AlN Thin Films Deposited by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasheminiasari, Masood; Lin, Jianliang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films with highly preferred (002) orientations have been reactively deposited by a pulsed-closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system using TiN/Ti as the seed/adhesion layer with various substrate temperatures. The texture, orientation and piezoelectric properties of AlN films were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, rocking curves and laser interferometry. A Michelson laser interferometer was designed and built to obtain the converse piezoelectric response of the deposited AlN thin films. It was found that a slight substrate temperature increase would significantly affect the (002) orientation and the piezoelectric coefficient of AlN thin films compared to the coating obtained with no intentional substrate heating, while higher temperature applications on substrate deteriorated the c-axis texture of the coatings without significant improvement in the piezoelectric response of AlN films.

  12. Deposition and characterization of high temperature superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ films obtained by DC magnetron sputtering and thermal annealing modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshkova, M.; Blagoev, B.; Kovacheva, D.; Mladenov, G.; Nurgaliev, T.

    2008-05-01

    C-axis oriented 100-nm thick YBCO films were deposited on LaAlO3 (100) substrates at substrate temperature of 780°C in a mixed oxygen/argon atmosphere (1:3) of 0.3 Torr by DC off-axis magnetron sputtering. The samples deposited were thermally annealed in oxygen ambient of 600 Torr at 530°C for 40 min. Superconductivity with zero resistance 89.1K was observed for the YBCO films after annealing. These results show that thermal annealing is an important technique for improving the parameters of thin superconducting films. A correlation between the YBCO layers properties before and after annealing was established.

  13. Microstructure and chemical wet etching characteristics of AlN films deposited by ac reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, S. M.; Felmetsger, V. V.

    2010-01-15

    The influence of the surface morphology of a molybdenum underlayer on the crystallinity and etchability of reactively sputtered c-axis oriented aluminum nitride thin films was investigated. Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution x-ray diffraction, and defect selective chemical etching were used to characterize the microstructure of the Mo and AlN films. 1000 nm thick films of AlN with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the x-ray rocking curve ranging from 1.1 deg. to 1.9 deg. were deposited on 300 nm thick Mo underlayers with a FWHM of around 1.5 deg. The Ar pressure during the Mo deposition had a critical effect on the Mo film surface morphology, affecting the structure of the subsequently deposited AlN films and, hence, their wet etching characteristics. AlN films deposited on Mo sputtered at a relatively high pressure could not be etched completely, while AlN films deposited on low pressure Mo etched more easily. Postdeposition etching of the Mo surface in Ar rf discharge prior to deposition of the AlN film was found to influence the formation of AlN residuals that were difficult to etch. Optimal rf plasma etching conditions were found, which minimized the formation of these residuals.

  14. Electrical and optical properties of nitrogen doped SnO{sub 2} thin films deposited on flexible substrates by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Feng; Zhang, Yeyu; Wu, Xiaoqin; Shao, Qiyue; Xie, Zonghan

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: The best SnO{sub 2}:N TCO film: about 80% transmittance and 9.1 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm. - Highlights: • Nitrogen-doped tin oxide film was deposited on PET by RF-magnetron sputtering. • Effects of oxygen partial pressure on the properties of thin films were investigated. • For SnO{sub 2}:N film, visible light transmittance was 80% and electrical resistivity was 9.1 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}:N) thin films were deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates at room temperature by RF-magnetron sputtering. Effects of oxygen partial pressure (0–4%) on electrical and optical properties of thin films were investigated. Experimental results showed that SnO{sub 2}:N films were amorphous state, and O/Sn ratios of SnO{sub 2}:N films were deviated from the standard stoichiometry 2:1. Optical band gap of SnO{sub 2}:N films increased from approximately 3.10 eV to 3.42 eV as oxygen partial pressure increased from 0% to 4%. For SnO{sub 2}:N thin films deposited on PET, transmittance was about 80% in the visible light region. The best transparent conductive oxide (TCO) deposited on flexible PET substrates was SnO{sub 2}:N thin films preparing at 2% oxygen partial pressure, the transmittance was about 80% and electrical conductivity was about 9.1 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm.

  15. Microstructured Nickel-Titanium Thin Film Leaflets for Hybrid Tissue Engineered Heart Valves Fabricated by Magnetron Sputter Deposition.

    PubMed

    Loger, K; Engel, A; Haupt, J; Lima de Miranda, R; Lutter, G; Quandt, E

    2016-03-01

    Heart valves are constantly exposed to high dynamic loading and are prone to degeneration. Therefore, it is a challenge to develop a durable heart valve substitute. A promising approach in heart valve engineering is the development of hybrid scaffolds which are composed of a mechanically strong inorganic mesh enclosed by valvular tissue. In order to engineer an efficient, durable and very thin heart valve for transcatheter implantations, we developed a fabrication process for microstructured heart valve leaflets made from a nickel-titanium (NiTi) thin film shape memory alloy. To examine the capability of microstructured NiTi thin film as a matrix scaffold for tissue engineered hybrid heart valves, leaflets were successfully seeded with smooth muscle cells (SMCs). In vitro pulsatile hydrodynamic testing of the NiTi thin film valve leaflets demonstrated that the SMC layer significantly improved the diastolic sufficiency of the microstructured leaflets, without affecting the systolic efficiency. Compared to an established porcine reference valve model, magnetron sputtered NiTi thin film material demonstrated its suitability for hybrid tissue engineered heart valves.

  16. Comparison of gate dielectric plasma damage from plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited and magnetron sputtered TiN metal gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Christopher J.; Neumann, Christopher M.; Vitale, Steven A.

    2015-07-01

    Fully depleted silicon-on-insulator transistors were fabricated using two different metal gate deposition mechanisms to compare plasma damage effects on gate oxide quality. Devices fabricated with both plasma-enhanced atomic-layer-deposited (PE-ALD) TiN gates and magnetron plasma sputtered TiN gates showed very good electrostatics and short-channel characteristics. However, the gate oxide quality was markedly better for PE-ALD TiN. A significant reduction in interface state density was inferred from capacitance-voltage measurements as well as a 1200× reduction in gate leakage current. A high-power magnetron plasma source produces a much higher energetic ion and vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) photon flux to the wafer compared to a low-power inductively coupled PE-ALD source. The ion and VUV photons produce defect states in the bulk of the gate oxide as well as at the oxide-silicon interface, causing higher leakage and potential reliability degradation.

  17. Comparison of gate dielectric plasma damage from plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited and magnetron sputtered TiN metal gates

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Christopher J.; Neumann, Christopher M.; Vitale, Steven A.

    2015-07-28

    Fully depleted silicon-on-insulator transistors were fabricated using two different metal gate deposition mechanisms to compare plasma damage effects on gate oxide quality. Devices fabricated with both plasma-enhanced atomic-layer-deposited (PE-ALD) TiN gates and magnetron plasma sputtered TiN gates showed very good electrostatics and short-channel characteristics. However, the gate oxide quality was markedly better for PE-ALD TiN. A significant reduction in interface state density was inferred from capacitance-voltage measurements as well as a 1200× reduction in gate leakage current. A high-power magnetron plasma source produces a much higher energetic ion and vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) photon flux to the wafer compared to a low-power inductively coupled PE-ALD source. The ion and VUV photons produce defect states in the bulk of the gate oxide as well as at the oxide-silicon interface, causing higher leakage and potential reliability degradation.

  18. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF N-DOPED Cu2O THIN FILMS DEPOSITED BY RF-MAGNETRON SPUTTERING Cu2O TARGET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Guozhong; Wu, Yangwei; Lin, Limei; Qu, Yan; Lai, Fachun

    2014-05-01

    N-doped Cu2O films were deposited on quartz substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering a Cu2O target. The optical constants and thicknesses of the films with different nitrogen partial pressure (NPP) were retrieved from transmittance data by an optical model which combines the Forouhi-Bloomer model with modified Drude model. The results show that when NPP increases from 0.0 to 0.033 Pa, the optical gap decreases from 2.14 to 1.95 eV. Additionally, an optical absorption process in the infrared region below the optical band gap was observed for N-doped Cu2O films, which was not found in the pure Cu2O film. This is because an intermediate band (IB) in the band gap results from nitrogen doping. It is believed that N-doped Cu2O film with suitable NPP could be used to enhance the energy conversion efficiency for photovoltaic cells.

  19. Optical and local structural study of Gd doped ZrO{sub 2} thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    SciTech Connect

    Haque, S. Maidul Shinde, D. D.; Misal, J. S.; Jha, S. N.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2015-06-24

    ZrO{sub 2} samples with 0, 7, 9, 11, 13 % Gd doping have been prepared by RF magnetron sputtering deposition technique for solid oxide fuel cell application. The optical properties of the samples have been studied by transmission spectrophotometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry while the local structure surrounding Zr sites has been characterized by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurement at Zr K edge with synchrotron radiation. It has been observed that beyond 11% Gd doping, band gap decreases and refractive index increases significantly and also oxygen and Zr coordinations surrounding Zr sites increase which indicates the formation of Gd clustering in ZrO{sub 2} matrix beyond this doping concentration.

  20. Optical properties of SrTiO3 thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at various substrate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J. H.; Huang, Z. M.; Meng, X. J.; Liu, S. J.; Zhang, X. D.; Sun, J. L.; Xue, J. Q.; Chu, J. H.; Li, J.

    2006-02-01

    SrTiO3 thin films were deposited on vitreous silica substrates at various substrate temperatures (300-700 °C) by rf magnetron sputtering technique. The transition from amorphous phase to polycrystalline phase for the films occurred at the substrate temperatures of 300-400 °C. Their optical properties were investigated by transmittance measurements. The fitting method was used to calculate the refractive index and the film thickness from the transparent region of the transmittance spectra. The refractive index increased and the film thickness decreased with the substrate temperatures increasing. The dispersion of the refractive index was studied by considering a single electronic oscillator model. The band gaps of the films were estimated from Tauc's law and showed a decreasing tendency to that of the bulk SrTiO3 with the substrate temperatures increasing. These results provide some useful references for the potential application of SrTiO3 films in integrated optics devices.

  1. Magnetron sputtering in rigid optical solar reflectors production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asainov, O. Kh; Bainov, D. D.; Krivobokov, V. P.; Sidelev, D. V.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetron sputtering was applied to meet the growing need for glass optical solar reflectors. This plasma method provided more uniform deposition of the silver based coating on glass substrates resulted in decrease of defective reflectors fraction down to 5%. For instance, such parameter of resistive evaporation was of 30%. Silver film adhesion to glass substrate was enhanced with indium tin oxide sublayer. Sunlight absorption coefficient of these rigid reflectors was 0.081-0.083.

  2. Characterisation of Mg biodegradable stents produced by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmrabet, N.; Botterill, N.; Grant, D. M.; Brown, P. D.

    2015-10-01

    Novel Mg-minitubes for biodegradable stent applications have been produced using PVD magnetron sputtering. The minitubes were characterised, as a function of annealing temperature, using a combination of SEM/EDS, XRD and hardness testing. The as-deposited minitubes exhibited columnar grain structures with high levels of porosity. Slight alteration to the crystal structure from columnar to equiaxed grain growth was demonstrated at elevated temperature, along with increased material densification, hardness and corrosion resistance.

  3. Cu2O/ZnO Heterojunction Solar Cells Fabricated by Magnetron-Sputter Deposition Method Films Using Sintered Ceramics Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, S.; Shima, H.; Akinaga, H.

    2013-04-01

    Cu2O/ZnO heterojucntion solar cells were successfully obtained by a magnetron-sputter deposition method. The Cu2O thin film was deposited by the method using a sintered Cu2O ceramics target. Crystalline phases of the films were controlled by adjusting an O2 flow rate ratio (O2/(Ar+O2)) precisely during the sputtering process and Cu2O single phase polycrystalline films were obtained at room temperature. The Cu2O films qualities were improved by a rapid thermal annealing for 30 s in an Ar atmosphere of 1 atm. Hall mobility, carrier density, and resistivity of annealed films reached the values of 16.6 cm2/V/s, 3.5×1015 cm-3, and 107 Ωcm at 600 °C, respectively. The conversion efficiency of the Cu2O/ZnO heterojucntion solar cell was 0.24 % with the open circuit voltage of 0.69 V.

  4. Lateral variation of target poisoning during reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güttler, D.; Grötzschel, R.; Möller, W.

    2007-06-01

    The reactive gas incorporation into a Ti sputter target has been investigated using laterally resolving ion beam analysis during dc magnetron deposition of TiN in an Ar /N2 atmosphere. At sufficiently low reactive gas flow, the nitrogen incorporation exhibits a pronounced lateral variation, with a lower areal density in the target racetrack compared to the target center and edge. The findings are reproduced by model calculations. In the racetrack, the balance of reactive gas injection and sputter erosion is shifted toward erosion. The injection of nitrogen is dominated by combined molecular adsorption and recoil implantation versus direct ion implantation.

  5. Near zero temperature coefficient of resistance in Ti:Si:O thin films deposited by magnetron co-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mireles, Marcela; Quevedo Lopez, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    Thin films of titanium/silicon/oxygen (Ti:Si:O) deposited by sputtering were evaluated as thin film resistors and the resulting resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) was studied. The films were deposited in an Argon atmosphere at room temperature with 1% oxygen and their electrical properties evaluated before and after forming gas (5% H2: 95% N2) annealing at 325 and 450 °C for 1 h. The physical structure was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental composition and depth profile by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and film composition by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Carrier mobility, type and concentration were evaluated by Hall effect measurements. Thin films with a Ti:Si ratio of 1.6 exhibited a near zero TCR (-405 ppm °C-1) and sheet resistance (Rsh) at 25 °C of 1 kOhm sq-1.

  6. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and structural study of HfO{sub 2} thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Cantas, Ayten; Aygun, Gulnur; Basa, Deepak Kumar

    2014-08-28

    We have investigated the reduction of unwanted interfacial SiO{sub 2} layer at HfO{sub 2}/Si interface brought about by the deposition of thin Hf metal buffer layer on Si substrate prior to the deposition of HfO{sub 2} thin films for possible direct contact between HfO{sub 2} thin film and Si substrate, necessary for the future generation devices based on high-κ HfO{sub 2} gate dielectrics. Reactive rf magnetron sputtering system along with the attached in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was used to predeposit Hf metal buffer layer as well as to grow HfO{sub 2} thin films and also to undertake the in-situ characterization of the high-κ HfO{sub 2} thin films deposited on n-type 〈100〉 crystalline silicon substrate. The formation of the unwanted interfacial SiO{sub 2} layer and its reduction due to the predeposited Hf metal buffer layer as well as the depth profiling and also structure of HfO{sub 2} thin films were investigated by in-situ SE, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, and Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction. The study demonstrates that the predeposited Hf metal buffer layer has played a crucial role in eliminating the formation of unwanted interfacial layer and that the deposited high-κ HfO{sub 2} thin films are crystalline although they were deposited at room temperature.

  7. Improving optical properties of silicon nitride films to be applied in the middle infrared optics by a combined high-power impulse/unbalanced magnetron sputtering deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Liao, Bo-Huei; Hsiao, Chien-Nan

    2014-02-01

    Silicon nitride films are prepared by a combined high-power impulse/unbalanced magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS/UBMS) deposition technique. Different unbalance coefficients and pulse on/off ratios are applied to improve the optical properties of the silicon nitride films. The refractive indices of the Si3N4 films vary from 2.17 to 2.02 in the wavelength ranges of 400-700 nm, and all the extinction coefficients are smaller than 1×10(-4). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffractometry measurements reveal the amorphous structure of the Si3N4 films with extremely low hydrogen content and very low absorption between the near IR and middle IR ranges. Compared to other deposition techniques, Si3N4 films deposited by the combined HIPIMS/UBMS deposition technique possess the highest refractive index, the lowest extinction coefficient, and excellent structural properties. Finally a four-layer coating is deposited on both sides of a silicon substrate. The average transmittance from 3200 to 4800 nm is 99.0%, and the highest transmittance is 99.97% around 4200 nm.

  8. Optical and electrical properties of Ti(Cr)O2:N thin films deposited by magnetron co-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollbek, K.; Szkudlarek, A.; Marzec, M. M.; Lyson-Sypien, B.; Cecot, M.; Bernasik, A.; Radecka, M.; Zakrzewska, K.

    2016-09-01

    The paper deals with TiO2-based thin films, doped with Cr and N, obtained by magnetron co-sputtering from titanium dioxide ceramic and chromium targets in Ar + N2 atmosphere. Co-doped samples of Ti(Cr)O2:N are investigated from the point of view of morphological, crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties. Characterization techniques such as: X-ray diffraction, XRD, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, atomic force microscopy, AFM, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, EDX, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS, optical spectrophotometry as well as impedance spectroscopy are applied. XRD reveals TiO2 and TiO2:N thin films are well crystallized as opposed to those of TiO2:Cr and Ti(Cr)O2:N. XPS spectra confirm that co-doping has been successfully performed with the biggest contribution from the lower binding energy component of N 1s peak at 396 eV. SEM analysis indicates uniform and dense morphology without columnar growth. Comparison between the band gaps indicates a significant shift of the absorption edge towards visible range from 3.69 eV in the case of non-stoichiometric Ti(Cr)O2-x:N to 2.78 eV in the case of stoichiometric Ti(Cr)O2:N which should be attributed to the incorporation of both dopants at substitutional positions in TiO2 lattice. Electrical conductivity of stoichiometric Ti(Cr)O2:N increases in comparison to co-doped nonstoichiometric TiO2-x thin film and reaches almost the same value as that of TiO2 stoichiometric film.

  9. Development of magnetron sputtering simulator with GPU parallel computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Ilyoup; Kim, Jihun; Bae, Junkyeong; Lee, Jinpil

    2014-12-01

    Sputtering devices are widely used in the semiconductor and display panel manufacturing process. Currently, a number of surface treatment applications using magnetron sputtering techniques are being used to improve the efficiency of the sputtering process, through the installation of magnets outside the vacuum chamber. Within the internal space of the low pressure chamber, plasma generated from the combination of a rarefied gas and an electric field is influenced interactively. Since the quality of the sputtering and deposition rate on the substrate is strongly dependent on the multi-physical phenomena of the plasma regime, numerical simulations using PIC-MCC (Particle In Cell, Monte Carlo Collision) should be employed to develop an efficient sputtering device. In this paper, the development of a magnetron sputtering simulator based on the PIC-MCC method and the associated numerical techniques are discussed. To solve the electric field equations in the 2-D Cartesian domain, a Poisson equation solver based on the FDM (Finite Differencing Method) is developed and coupled with the Monte Carlo Collision method to simulate the motion of gas particles influenced by an electric field. The magnetic field created from the permanent magnet installed outside the vacuum chamber is also numerically calculated using Biot-Savart's Law. All numerical methods employed in the present PIC code are validated by comparison with analytical and well-known commercial engineering software results, with all of the results showing good agreement. Finally, the developed PIC-MCC code is parallelized to be suitable for general purpose computing on graphics processing unit (GPGPU) acceleration, so as to reduce the large computation time which is generally required for particle simulations. The efficiency and accuracy of the GPGPU parallelized magnetron sputtering simulator are examined by comparison with the calculated results and computation times from the original serial code. It is found that

  10. Initial deposition of calcium phosphate ceramic on polyethylene and polydimethylsiloxane by rf magnetron sputtering deposition: the interface chemistry.

    PubMed

    Feddes, B; Wolke, J G C; Vredenberg, A M; Jansen, J A

    2004-02-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings are well known for their bioactive nature. CaP coated polymeric materials can be used as implant material. For this, a strong adhesion between the coating and substrate is necessary. Because the chemical structure of the interface plays an important role in the coating adhesion, we studied the interface between CaP and the polymers polyethylene (PE) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS/silicone rubber). Both untreated and plasma pretreated polymers were used. On PE, a low Ca/P ratio nearby the interface and a high amount of C-O bonds were found on both untreated and plasma pretreated PE. This is the result of phosphate-like groups that are able to bind to the carbon of the PE. PDMS reacts towards the plasma pretreatment by losing CH(3) side groups. Compared to PE, a low amount of C-O bonds is found nearby the interface. Besides, a low Ca/P ratio is found nearby the interface. This is the result of phosphate groups that connect to Si atoms of the PDMS, thereby replacing the CH(3) side groups. The bombardment by negatively charged oxygen ions that are accelerated from the target during the deposition process makes the chemical interaction between the coating and the substrates possible.

  11. Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, J. T.; Magnus, F.; Tryggvason, T. K.; Sveinsson, O. B.; Olafsson, S.

    2012-10-01

    Here we discuss reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering sputtering (HiPIMS) [1] of Ti target in an Ar/N2 and Ar/O2 atmosphere. The discharge current waveform is highly dependent on both the pulse repetition frequency and discharge voltage. The discharge current increases with decreasing frequency or voltage. This we attribute to an increase in the secondary electron emission yield during the self-sputtering phase of the pulse, as nitride [2] or oxide [3] forms on the target. We also discuss the growth of TiN films on SiO2 at temperatures of 22-600 ^oC. The HiPIMS process produces denser films at lower growth temperature and the surface is much smoother and have a significantly lower resistivity than dc magnetron sputtered films on SiO2 at all growth temperatures due to reduced grain boundary scattering [4].[4pt] [1] J. T. Gudmundsson, N. Brenning, D. Lundin and U. Helmersson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 30 030801 (2012)[0pt] [2] F. Magnus, O. B. Sveinsson, S. Olafsson and J. T. Gudmundsson, J. Appl. Phys., 110 083306 (2011)[0pt] [3] F. Magnus, T. K. Tryggvason, S. Olafsson and J. T. Gudmundsson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., submitted 2012[0pt] [4] F. Magnus, A. S. Ingason, S. Olafsson and J. T. Gudmundsson, IEEE Elec. Dev. Lett., accepted 2012

  12. In situ deposition of MgB 2 thin films by magnetron cosputtering and sputtering combined with thermal evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, R.; Geerk, J.; Linker, G.; Ratzel, F.; Zaitsev, A. G.; Obst, B.

    2005-07-01

    We report on two approaches to the in situ synthesis of superconducting MgB2 thin films. In the first approach, Mg and B were simultaneously sputtered from two separate planar targets. The substrate temperature Ts was limited to a small range of 290-320 °C. The resulting films on sapphire substrates were c-axis textured with low growth quality. Their transition temperature Tc reached a maximum of 24 K with a transition width of 0.6 K. A short-time in situ annealing at 600 °C improved Tc to 28 K. In the second approach, the Mg sputter source was replaced by a specially designed Mg evaporator. Due to this intense Mg source Ts could be increased to 440 °C, and Tc of the "as-grown" films rose to 33 K. Short-time in situ annealing after the film deposition enhanced Tc to 36 K. For these films we also measured a high critical current density of 15 MA/cm2 at 6 K.

  13. Comprehensive computer model for magnetron sputtering. II. Charged particle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Francisco J. Dew, Steven K.; Field, David J.

    2014-11-01

    Discharges for magnetron sputter thin film deposition systems involve complex plasmas that are sensitively dependent on magnetic field configuration and strength, working gas species and pressure, chamber geometry, and discharge power. The authors present a numerical formulation for the general solution of these plasmas as a component of a comprehensive simulation capability for planar magnetron sputtering. This is an extensible, fully three-dimensional model supporting realistic magnetic fields and is self-consistently solvable on a desktop computer. The plasma model features a hybrid approach involving a Monte Carlo treatment of energetic electrons and ions, along with a coupled fluid model for thermalized particles. Validation against a well-known one-dimensional system is presented. Various strategies for improving numerical stability are investigated as is the sensitivity of the solution to various model and process parameters. In particular, the effect of magnetic field, argon gas pressure, and discharge power are studied.

  14. Effect of annealing treatment on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films deposited by dc reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, L. M. Franco; Arias Duran, A.; Cardona, D.; Camps, E.; Gómez, M. E.; Zambrano, G.

    2015-07-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films have been deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering on silicon and quartz substrates with different Ar/O2 ratios in the gas mixture. Substrate temperature was kept constant at 400 °C during the deposition process, and the TiO2 thin films were later annealed at 700 °C for 3 h. The effect of the Ar/O2 ratio in the gas flow and the annealing treatment on the phase composition, deposition rate, crystallinity, surface morphology and the resulting photocatalytic properties were investigated. For photocatalytic measurements, the variation of the concentration of the methylene blue (MB) dye under UV irradiation was followed by a change in the intensity of the characteristic MB band in the UV- Vis transmittance spectra. We report here that the as-grown TiO2 films showed only the anatase phase, whereas after annealing, the samples exhibited both the anatase and rutile phases in proportions that varied with the Ar/O2 ratio in the mixture of gases used during growth. In particular, the annealed TiO2 thin film deposited at a 50/50 ratio of Ar/O2, composed of both anatase (80%) and rutile phases (20%), exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity (30% of MB degradation) compared with the samples without annealing and composed of only the anatase phase.

  15. Change of scattering mechanism and annealing out of defects on Ga-doped ZnO films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nulhakim, Lukman; Makino, Hisao

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the change of carrier scattering mechanism and defects states in Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering as a function of the substrate temperature (Ts) during deposition. The GZO films deposited at room temperature exhibited a high defect density that resulted in a lower carrier concentration, lower Hall mobility, and optical absorption in visible wavelength range. Such defects were created by ion bombardment and were eliminated by increasing the Ts. The defects related to the optical absorption disappeared at a Ts of 125 °C. The defects responsible for the suppression of the carrier concentration gradually decreased with increasing Ts up to 200 °C. As a result, the carrier concentration and in-grain carrier mobility gradually increased. The Hall mobility was also influenced by film structural properties depending on the Ts. In addition to the c-axis preferred orientation, other oriented grains such as the (10 1 ¯ 1 ) plane parallel to the substrate surface appeared below 150 °C. This orientation of the (10 1 ¯ 1 ) plane significantly reduced the Hall mobility via grain boundary scattering. The films deposited at a Ts higher than 175 °C exhibited perfect c-axis orientation and grain boundary scattering was thus negligible in these films. The appearance of the 10 1 ¯ 1 peak in x-ray diffraction profile was correlated with the contribution of grain boundary scattering in heavily doped GZO films.

  16. Characterization of Ba(Zr 0.2Ti 0.8)O 3 thin films deposited by RF-magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Won Seok; Jang, Bum Sik; Lim, Dong-Gun; Yi, Junsin; Hong, Byungyou

    2002-04-01

    We investigated the structural and electrical properties of the Ba(Zr xTi 1- x)O 3 (BZT) thin films with a mole fraction of x=0.2 and thickness 150 nm for application in a multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC ). BZT films were prepared on Pt/SiO 2/Si substrates at various substrate temperatures using an RF-magnetron sputtering system. When the substrate temperature was above 500°C, we could obtain multi-crystalline BZT films oriented in <1 1 0>, <1 1 1>, and <2 0 0> directions. Crystallization of the film and a high dielectric constant were observed with increase of substrate temperature. Capacitance of the film deposited at high temperature is more sensitive to the applied voltage than that of the film deposited at low temperature. This paper reports surface morphology, dielectric constant, dissipation factor, and C- V characteristics for BZT films deposited at three different temperatures. The BZT film deposited at 400°C shows stable electrical properties but a small dielectric constant for MLCC applications.

  17. Effect of film thickness on structural and mechanical properties of AlCrN nanocompoite thin films deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Ravi; Kaur, Davinder

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the influence of film thickness on the structural, surface morphology and mechanical properties of Aluminum chromium nitride (AlCrN) thin films has been successfully investigated. The AlCrN thin films were deposited on silicon (100) substrate using dc magnetron reactive co-sputtering at substrate temperature 400° C. The structural, surface morphology and mechanical properties were studied using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and nanoindentation techniques respectively. The thickness of these thin films was controlled by varying the deposition time therefore increase in deposition time led to increase in film thickness. X-ray diffraction pattern of AlCrN thin films with different deposition time shows the presence of (100) and (200) orientations. The crystallite size varies in the range from 12.5 nm to 36.3 nm with the film thickness due to surface energy minimization with the higher film thickness. The hardness pattern of these AlCrN thin films follows Hall-Petch relation. The highest hardness 23.08 Gpa and young modulus 215.31 Gpa were achieved at lowest grain size of 12.5 nm.

  18. Effect of film thickness on structural and mechanical properties of AlCrN nanocompoite thin films deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, Ravi; Kaur, Davinder

    2016-05-06

    In this study, the influence of film thickness on the structural, surface morphology and mechanical properties of Aluminum chromium nitride (AlCrN) thin films has been successfully investigated. The AlCrN thin films were deposited on silicon (100) substrate using dc magnetron reactive co-sputtering at substrate temperature 400° C. The structural, surface morphology and mechanical properties were studied using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and nanoindentation techniques respectively. The thickness of these thin films was controlled by varying the deposition time therefore increase in deposition time led to increase in film thickness. X-ray diffraction pattern of AlCrN thin films with different deposition time shows the presence of (100) and (200) orientations. The crystallite size varies in the range from 12.5 nm to 36.3 nm with the film thickness due to surface energy minimization with the higher film thickness. The hardness pattern of these AlCrN thin films follows Hall-Petch relation. The highest hardness 23.08 Gpa and young modulus 215.31 Gpa were achieved at lowest grain size of 12.5 nm.

  19. High-power sputtering employed for film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapovalov, V. I.

    2017-07-01

    The features of high-power magnetron sputtering employed for the films’ deposition are reviewed. The main physical phenomena accompanying high-power sputtering including ion-electron emission, gas rarefaction, ionization of sputtered atoms, self-sputtering, ion sound waves and the impact of the target heating are described.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of He-charged ODS-FeCrNi films deposited by a radio-frequency plasma magnetron sputtering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, SONG; Xianping, WANG; Le, WANG; Ying, ZHANG; Wang, LIU; Weibing, JIANG; Tao, ZHANG; Qianfeng, FANG; Changsong, LIU

    2017-04-01

    He-charged oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrNi films were prepared by a radio-frequency (RF) plasma magnetron sputtering method in a He and Ar mixed atmosphere at 150 °C. As a comparison, He-charged FeCrNi films were also fabricated at the same conditions through direct current (DC) plasma magnetron sputtering. The doping of He atoms and Y2O3 in the FeCrNi films was realized by the high backscattered rate of He ions and Y2O3/FeCrNi composite target sputtering method, respectively. Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the existence of Y2O3 in FeCrNi films, and Y2O3 content hardly changed with sputtering He/Ar ratio. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the FeCrNi films were composed of dense columnar nanocrystallines and the thickness of the films was obviously dependent on He/Ar ratio. Nanoindentation measurements revealed that the FeCrNi films fabricated through DC/RF plasma magnetron sputtering methods exhibited similar hardness values at each He/Ar ratio, while the dispersion of Y2O3 apparently increased the hardness of the films. Elastic recoil detection (ERD) showed that DC/RF magnetron sputtered FeCrNi films contained similar He amounts (∼17 at.%). Compared with the minimal change of He level with depth in DC-sputtered films, the He amount decreases gradually in depth in the RF-sputtered films. The Y2O3-doped FeCrNi films were shown to exhibit much smaller amounts of He owing to the lower backscattering possibility of Y2O3 and the inhibition effect of nano-sized Y2O3 particles on the He element.

  1. Properties of transparent conductive boron-doped ZnO thin films deposited by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering from Zn1- x B x O targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, B.; Liu, C. Q.; Wang, N.; Wang, H. L.; Liu, S. M.; Ren, Y. H.; Chai, W. P.

    2017-03-01

    Transparent conducting B-doped ZnO thin films were deposited on normal soda-lime glass substrate by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering from homemade Zn1- x B x O ceramic targets. All the Zn1- x B x O targets are single-phase hexagonal wurtzite structure. After introducing B dopant into ZnO, the targets have a slight c-axis orientation and show more compact than the undoped target. The effect of B doping concentration on the crystallization behaviors, morphological, electrical, and optical properties of the Zn1- x B x O films was systematically investigated. XRD patterns reveal that both the B-doped and undoped films exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure with strong c-axis orientation. With increasing the B doping concentration, the c-axis orientation and the calculated grain size of the Zn1- x B x O films based on the XRD data decrease. The surface morphologies of the films are very flat, and the transmittance spectra of the films show mean values higher than 90% in the visible range. The B-doped ZnO film with the lowest resistivity of 2.1 × 10-3 Ω cm was achieved by sputtering the Zn0.99B0.01O ceramic target.

  2. Influence of Oxygen Concentration on the Performance of Ultra-Thin RF Magnetron Sputter Deposited Indium Tin Oxide Films as a Top Electrode for Photovoltaic Devices.

    PubMed

    Gwamuri, Jephias; Marikkannan, Murugesan; Mayandi, Jeyanthinath; Bowen, Patrick K; Pearce, Joshua M

    2016-01-20

    The opportunity for substantial efficiency enhancements of thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar photovoltaic (PV) cells using plasmonic absorbers requires ultra-thin transparent conducting oxide top electrodes with low resistivity and high transmittances in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Fabricating ultra-thin indium tin oxide (ITO) films (sub-50 nm) using conventional methods has presented a number of challenges; however, a novel method involving chemical shaving of thicker (greater than 80 nm) RF sputter deposited high-quality ITO films has been demonstrated. This study investigates the effect of oxygen concentration on the etch rates of RF sputter deposited ITO films to provide a detailed understanding of the interaction of all critical experimental parameters to help create even thinner layers to allow for more finely tune plasmonic resonances. ITO films were deposited on silicon substrates with a 98-nm, thermally grown oxide using RF magnetron sputtering with oxygen concentrations of 0, 0.4 and 1.0 sccm and annealed at 300 °C air ambient. Then the films were etched using a combination of water and hydrochloric and nitric acids for 1, 3, 5 and 8 min at room temperature. In-between each etching process cycle, the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, 4-point probe (electrical conductivity), and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. All the films were polycrystalline in nature and highly oriented along the (222) reflection. Ultra-thin ITO films with record low resistivity values (as low as 5.83 × 10(-4) Ω·cm) were obtained and high optical transparency is exhibited in the 300-1000 nm wavelength region for all the ITO films. The etch rate, preferred crystal lattice growth plane, d-spacing and lattice distortion were also observed to be highly dependent on the nature of growth environment for RF sputter deposited ITO films. The structural, electrical, and optical

  3. Influence of Oxygen Concentration on the Performance of Ultra-Thin RF Magnetron Sputter Deposited Indium Tin Oxide Films as a Top Electrode for Photovoltaic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Gwamuri, Jephias; Marikkannan, Murugesan; Mayandi, Jeyanthinath; Bowen, Patrick K.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    The opportunity for substantial efficiency enhancements of thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar photovoltaic (PV) cells using plasmonic absorbers requires ultra-thin transparent conducting oxide top electrodes with low resistivity and high transmittances in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Fabricating ultra-thin indium tin oxide (ITO) films (sub-50 nm) using conventional methods has presented a number of challenges; however, a novel method involving chemical shaving of thicker (greater than 80 nm) RF sputter deposited high-quality ITO films has been demonstrated. This study investigates the effect of oxygen concentration on the etch rates of RF sputter deposited ITO films to provide a detailed understanding of the interaction of all critical experimental parameters to help create even thinner layers to allow for more finely tune plasmonic resonances. ITO films were deposited on silicon substrates with a 98-nm, thermally grown oxide using RF magnetron sputtering with oxygen concentrations of 0, 0.4 and 1.0 sccm and annealed at 300 °C air ambient. Then the films were etched using a combination of water and hydrochloric and nitric acids for 1, 3, 5 and 8 min at room temperature. In-between each etching process cycle, the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, 4-point probe (electrical conductivity), and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. All the films were polycrystalline in nature and highly oriented along the (222) reflection. Ultra-thin ITO films with record low resistivity values (as low as 5.83 × 10−4 Ω·cm) were obtained and high optical transparency is exhibited in the 300–1000 nm wavelength region for all the ITO films. The etch rate, preferred crystal lattice growth plane, d-spacing and lattice distortion were also observed to be highly dependent on the nature of growth environment for RF sputter deposited ITO films. The structural, electrical, and optical

  4. Polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiaohong; Xu, Wenzheng; Huang, Fenglin; Chen, Dongsheng; Wei, Qufu

    2016-12-01

    Ag/ZnO composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabric by using direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering and radio frequency (RF) magnetron reaction sputtering techniques with pure silver (Ag) and zinc (Zn) targets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the deposited film on the fabric. It was found that the zinc film coated on Ag film before RF reactive sputtering could protect the silver film from oxidation. Anti-ultraviolet property and antistatic property of the coated samples using different magnetron sputtering methods were also investigated. The experimental results showed that Ag film was oxidized into in Ag2O film in high vacuum oxygen environment. The deposition of Zn film on the surface of the fabric coated with Ag film before RF reactive sputtering, could successfully obtained Ag/ZnO composite film, and also generated structural color on the polyester fabric.

  5. Particle contamination formation and detection in magnetron sputtering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Selwyn, G.S.; Weiss, C.A.; Sequeda, F.; Huang, C.

    1996-10-01

    Defects caused by particulate contamination are an important concern in the fabrication of thin film products. Often, magnetron sputtering processes are used for this purpose. Particle contamination can cause electrical shorting, pin holes, problems with photolithography, adhesion failure, as well as visual and cosmetic defects. Particle contamination generated during thin film processing can be detected using laser light scattering, a powerful diagnostic technique that provides real-time, {ital in-situ} imaging of particles > 0.3 {mu}m in diameter. Using this technique, the causes, sources and influences on particles in plasma and non-plasma and non-plasma processes may be independently evaluated and corrected. Several studies employing laser light scattering have demonstrated both homogeneous and heterogeneous causes of particle contamination. In this paper, we demonstrate that the mechanisms for particle generation, transport and trapping during magnetron sputter deposition are different from the mechanisms reported in previously studied plasma etch processes. During magnetron sputter deposition, one source of particle contamination is linked to portions of the sputtering target surface exposed to weaker plasma density. In this region, film redeposition is followed by filament or nodule growth and enhanced trapping which increases filament growth. Eventually the filaments effectively ``short circuit`` the sheath, causing high currents to flow through these features. This, in turn, causes heating failure of the filament fracturing and ejecting the filaments into the plasma and onto the substrate. Evidence of this effect has been observed in semiconductor (IC) fabrication and storage disk manufacturing. Discovery of this mechanism in both technologies suggests that this mechanism may be universal to many sputtering processes.

  6. Synthesis and properties of CS x F y thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an Ar/SF6 discharge.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chung-Chuan; Goyenola, Cecilia; Broitman, Esteban; Näslund, Lars-Åke; Högberg, Hans; Hultman, Lars; Gueorguiev, Gueorgui K; Rosen, Johanna

    2017-05-17

    A theoretical and experimental study on the growth and properties of a ternary carbon-based material, CS x F y , synthesized from SF6 and C as primary precursors is reported. The synthetic growth concept was applied to model the possible species resulting from the fragmentation of SF6 molecules and the recombination of S-F fragments with atomic C. The possible species were further evaluated for their contribution to the film growth. Corresponding solid CS x F y thin films were deposited by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering from a C target in a mixed Ar/SF6 discharge with different SF6 partial pressures ([Formula: see text]). Properties of the films were determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray reflectivity, and nanoindentation. A reduced mass density in the CS x F y films is predicted due to incorporation of precursor species with a more pronounced steric effect, which also agrees with the low density values observed for the films. Increased [Formula: see text] leads to decreasing deposition rate and increasing density, as explained by enhanced fluorination and etching on the deposited surface by a larger concentration of F/F2 species during the growth, as supported by an increment of the F relative content in the films. Mechanical properties indicating superelasticity were obtained from the film with lowest F content, implying a fullerene-like structure in CS x F y compounds.

  7. Mixed-mode high-power impulse magnetron sputter deposition of tetrahedral amorphous carbon with pulse-length control of ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, M. D.; Marks, N. A.; Ganesan, R.; Bilek, M. M. M.; McKenzie, D. R.; McCulloch, D. G.; Partridge, J. G.; Stueber, M.; Ulrich, S.

    2016-04-21

    High-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is used to deposit amorphous carbon thin films with sp{sup 3} fractions of 13% to 82%. Increasing the pulse length results in a transition from conventional HiPIMS deposition to a “mixed-mode” in which an arc triggers on the target surface, resulting in a large flux of carbon ions. The films are characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, nanoindentation, elastic recoil detection analysis, and measurements of stress and contact angle. All properties vary in a consistent manner, showing a high tetrahedral character only for long pulses, demonstrating that mixed-mode deposition is the source of the high carbon ion flux. Varying the substrate bias reveals an “energy window” effect, where the sp{sup 3} fraction of the films is greatest for a substrate bias around −100 V and decreases for higher or lower bias values. In the absence of bias, the films' properties show little dependence on the pulse length, showing that energetic ions are the origin of the highly tetrahedral character.

  8. Mixed-mode high-power impulse magnetron sputter deposition of tetrahedral amorphous carbon with pulse-length control of ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, M. D.; Ganesan, R.; McCulloch, D. G.; Partridge, J. G.; Stueber, M.; Ulrich, S.; Bilek, M. M. M.; McKenzie, D. R.; Marks, N. A.

    2016-04-01

    High-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is used to deposit amorphous carbon thin films with sp3 fractions of 13% to 82%. Increasing the pulse length results in a transition from conventional HiPIMS deposition to a "mixed-mode" in which an arc triggers on the target surface, resulting in a large flux of carbon ions. The films are characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, nanoindentation, elastic recoil detection analysis, and measurements of stress and contact angle. All properties vary in a consistent manner, showing a high tetrahedral character only for long pulses, demonstrating that mixed-mode deposition is the source of the high carbon ion flux. Varying the substrate bias reveals an "energy window" effect, where the sp3 fraction of the films is greatest for a substrate bias around -100 V and decreases for higher or lower bias values. In the absence of bias, the films' properties show little dependence on the pulse length, showing that energetic ions are the origin of the highly tetrahedral character.

  9. Deposition of Visible Light-Active C-Doped Titania Films via Magnetron Sputtering Using CO₂ as a Source of Carbon.

    PubMed

    Klaysri, Rachan; Ratova, Marina; Praserthdam, Piyasan; Kelly, Peter J

    2017-05-16

    Doping of titanium dioxide with p-block elements is typically described as an efficient pathway for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. However, the properties of the doped titania films depend greatly on the production method, source of doping, type of substrate, etc. The present work describes the use of pulsed direct current (pDC) magnetron sputtering for the deposition of carbon-doped titania coatings, using CO₂ as the source of carbon; ratios of O₂/CO₂ were varied through variations of CO₂ flow rates and oxygen flow control setpoints. Additionally, undoped Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) coatings were prepared under identical deposition conditions for comparison purposes. Coatings were post-deposition annealed at 873 K and analysed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffreaction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic properties of the thin films were evaluated under ultraviolet (UV) and visible light irradiation using methylene blue and stearic acid decomposition tests. Photoinduced hydrophilicity was assessed through measurements of the water contact angle under UV and visible light irradiation. It was found that, though C-doping resulted in improved dye degradation compared to undoped TiO₂, the UV-induced photoactivity of Carbon-doped (C-doped) photocatalysts was lower for both model pollutants used.

  10. Deposition of Visible Light-Active C-Doped Titania Films via Magnetron Sputtering Using CO2 as a Source of Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Klaysri, Rachan; Ratova, Marina; Praserthdam, Piyasan; Kelly, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Doping of titanium dioxide with p-block elements is typically described as an efficient pathway for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. However, the properties of the doped titania films depend greatly on the production method, source of doping, type of substrate, etc. The present work describes the use of pulsed direct current (pDC) magnetron sputtering for the deposition of carbon-doped titania coatings, using CO2 as the source of carbon; ratios of O2/CO2 were varied through variations of CO2 flow rates and oxygen flow control setpoints. Additionally, undoped Titanium dioxide (TiO2) coatings were prepared under identical deposition conditions for comparison purposes. Coatings were post-deposition annealed at 873 K and analysed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffreaction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic properties of the thin films were evaluated under ultraviolet (UV) and visible light irradiation using methylene blue and stearic acid decomposition tests. Photoinduced hydrophilicity was assessed through measurements of the water contact angle under UV and visible light irradiation. It was found that, though C-doping resulted in improved dye degradation compared to undoped TiO2, the UV-induced photoactivity of Carbon-doped (C-doped) photocatalysts was lower for both model pollutants used. PMID:28509883

  11. Synthesis and properties of CS x F y thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an Ar/SF6 discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chung-Chuan; Goyenola, Cecilia; Broitman, Esteban; Näslund, Lars-Åke; Högberg, Hans; Hultman, Lars; Gueorguiev, Gueorgui K.; Rosen, Johanna

    2017-05-01

    A theoretical and experimental study on the growth and properties of a ternary carbon-based material, CS x F y , synthesized from SF6 and C as primary precursors is reported. The synthetic growth concept was applied to model the possible species resulting from the fragmentation of SF6 molecules and the recombination of S-F fragments with atomic C. The possible species were further evaluated for their contribution to the film growth. Corresponding solid CS x F y thin films were deposited by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering from a C target in a mixed Ar/SF6 discharge with different SF6 partial pressures ({{P}\\text{S{{\\text{F}}\\text{6}}}} ). Properties of the films were determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray reflectivity, and nanoindentation. A reduced mass density in the CS x F y films is predicted due to incorporation of precursor species with a more pronounced steric effect, which also agrees with the low density values observed for the films. Increased {{P}\\text{S{{\\text{F}}\\text{6}}}} leads to decreasing deposition rate and increasing density, as explained by enhanced fluorination and etching on the deposited surface by a larger concentration of F/F2 species during the growth, as supported by an increment of the F relative content in the films. Mechanical properties indicating superelasticity were obtained from the film with lowest F content, implying a fullerene-like structure in CS x F y compounds.

  12. Effect of radio-frequency electric power applied to a boron nitride unbalanced magnetron sputter target on the deposition of cubic boron nitride thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Ji-Sun; Park, Jong-Keuk; Lee, Wook-Seong; Huh, Joo-Youl; Baik, Young-Joon

    2013-11-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) films were deposited by an unbalanced magnetron sputtering method. A (100) Si wafer with a nanocrystalline diamond thin film as a surface coating layer or that without it was used as a substrate. The target power was varied from 100 to 400 W. A boron nitride target was used, which was connected to a radio frequency power supply. High frequency power connected to a substrate holder was used for self-biasing. The deposition pressure was 0.27 MPa with a flow of Ar (18 sccm) — N2 (2 sccm) mixed gas. The existence of threshold bias voltages for c-BN formation and resputtering were observed irrespective of target power. The bias voltage window for c-BN formation broadened with increased target power. The deposition rate decreased with enhanced bias voltage and decreased target power. Residual stresses of the films did not vary noticeably with target power within the target power range of c-BN formation. A parameter space for c-BN formation according to the target power and the bias voltage, as two variables, was suggested.

  13. Effect of substrate temperature on the magnetic properties and internal stresses of CoPt/AlN multilayer deposited by dc magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hongyu; Takada, Susumu; Sannomiya, Takumi; Muraishi, Shinji; Shi, Ji; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2013-10-01

    Magnetic properties and internal stresses of AlN(20 nm)/[CoPt(2 nm)/AlN(20 nm)]5 multilayer structure deposited at different substrate temperatures by dc magnetron sputtering have been studied. It is found that with increasing the substrate temperature from room temperature to 400 °C, in-plane magnetic anisotropy field of the film becomes smaller, and the out-of-plane magnetization becomes stronger. Especially when the film is deposited at substrate temperature of 400 °C, the out-of-plane magnetization becomes as strong as the in-plane magnetization. On the other hand, the total in-plane residual stress of the film changes gradually from compressive to tensile. The compressive intrinsic stress is generated during deposition process and decreases with increasing the substrate temperature. After annealing at high temperatures, the films show strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. With increasing the annealing temperature, the in-plane thermal stress also increases and becomes dominant, which is considered to result in the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the films.

  14. Effects of substrate heating on the photovoltaic characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells during two-step Ti film deposition by RF magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Woo; Park, Seon-Hee; Kwak, Dong-Joo; Sung, Youl-Moon

    2012-04-01

    Nanoporous Ti metal film electrodes for use as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were deposited directly on the nanoporous TiO2 layer using the two-step RF magnetron sputtering technique. The Ti film electrode replaces the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer. The effect of substrate heating during the deposition of the Ti film was studied to improve the porosity and columnar array of the film pores and the resulting cell efficiency. The porous Ti layer (-41 microm) with low sheet resistance (-1.7 omega/sq) was obtained by deposition at 250 degrees C. The porous Ti layer collects electrons from the TiO2 layer and allows the diffusion of I-/I3(-) through the holes. The DSSC efficiency (eta) using porous Ti layers with highly columnar structures was measured with the highest conversion efficiency of -5.77%; the other photovoltaic properties were ff: 0.76, V(oc): 0.72 V, and J(sc): 10.6 mA/cm2.

  15. Influence of oxygen on characteristics of Zn(O,S) thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Ji Hyun; Garay, Adrian Adalberto; Hwang, Su Min; Chung, Chee Won

    2015-07-15

    Zn(O,S) thin films were successfully deposited by reactive sputtering using Ar and O{sub 2} gas mixtures at 473 K. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the well crystallized Zn(O,S) films were deposited with increasing oxygen concentration in O{sub 2}/Ar, resulting in a shift of the Zn peak of 28.5° to a higher angle, closer to the ZnO peak of 34.4°. Zn(O,S) films were composed of grains agglomerated from small particles, which grew gradually with increasing oxygen concentration. The depth profiles and energy dispersive spectroscopy results of the films indicated that the O/(O+S) ratio increased from 0.04 to 0.81, and all Zn(O,S) films were Zn rich with uniform concentrations of each component. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that, as the oxygen concentration increased to 2%, the ZnS films were transformed to Zn(O,S) films via substitution of oxygen for sulfur.

  16. Solid oxide fuel cells with (La,Sr)(Ga,Mg)O3-δ electrolyte film deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sea-Fue; Lu, His-Chuan; Hsu, Yung-Fu; Hu, Yi-Xuan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) containing a high quality La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGM) film deposited on anode supported substrate using RF magnetron sputtering are successfully prepared. The anode substrate is composed of two functional NiO/Sm0.2Ce0.8O2-δ (SDC) composite layers with ratios of 60/40 wt% and 50/50 wt% and a current collector layer of pure NiO. The as-deposited LSGM film appears to be amorphous in nature. After post-annealing at 1000 °C, a uniform and dense polycrystalline film with a composition of La0.87Sr0.13Ga0.85Mg0.15O3-δ and a thickness of 3.8 μm is obtained, which was well adhered to the anode substrate. A composite LSGM/La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) layer, with a ratio of 30/70 wt%, is used as the cathode. The SOFC prepared reveals a good mechanical integrity with no sign of cracking, delamination, or discontinuity among the interfaces. The total cell resistance of a single cell with LSGM electrolyte film declines from 0.60 to 0.10 Ω cm2 as the temperature escalates from 600 to 800 °C and the open circuit voltage (OCV) ranges from 0.85 to 0.95 V. The maximum power density (MPD) of the single cell is reported as 0.65, 1.02, 1.30, 1.42, and 1.38 W cm-2 at 600, 650, 700, 750, and 800 °C, respectively. The good cell performance leads to the conclusion that RF magnetron sputtering is a feasible deposition method for preparing good quality LSGM films in SOFCs.

  17. A study of Ta xC 1 -x coatings deposited on biomedical 316L stainless steel by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, M. H.; Wang, B. L.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y. F.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, Ta xC 1 -x coatings were deposited on 316L stainless steel (316L SS) by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at various substrate temperatures ( Ts) in order to improve its corrosion resistance and hemocompatibility. XRD results indicated that Ts could significantly change the microstructure of Ta xC 1 -x coatings. When Ts was <150 °C, the Ta xC 1 -x coatings were in amorphous condition, whereas when Ts was ≥150 °C, TaC phase was formed, exhibiting in the form of particulates with the crystallite sizes of about 15-25 nm ( Ts = 300 °C). Atomic force microscope (AFM) results showed that with the increase of Ts, the root-mean-square (RMS) values of the Ta xC 1 -x coatings decreased. The nano-indentation experiments indicated that the Ta xC 1 -x coating deposited at 300 °C had a higher hardness and modulus. The scratch test results demonstrated that Ta xC 1 -x coatings deposited above 150 °C exhibited good adhesion performance. Tribology tests results demonstrated that Ta xC 1 -x coatings exhibited excellent wear resistance. The results of potentiodynamic polarization showed that the corrosion resistance of the 316L SS was improved significantly because of the deposited Ta xC 1 -x coatings. The platelet adhesion test results indicated that the Ta xC 1 -x coatings deposited at Ts of 150 °C and 300 °C possessed better hemocompatibility than the coating deposited at Ts of 25 °C. Additionally, the hemocompatibility of the Ta xC 1 -x coating on the 316L SS was found to be influenced by its surface roughness, hydrophilicity and the surface energy.

  18. Magnetron Sputtered Molybdenum Oxide for Application in Polymers Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendova-Vassileva, M.; Dikov, Hr; Vitanov, P.; Popkirov, G.; Gergova, R.; Grancharov, G.; Gancheva, V.

    2016-10-01

    Thin films of molybdenum oxide were deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering in Ar from a MoO3 target at different deposition power on glass and silicon substrates. The thickness of the films was determined by profilometer measurements and by ellipsometry. The films were annealed in air at temperatures between 200 and 400°C in air. The optical transmission and reflection spectra were measured. The conductivity of the as deposited and annealed films was determined. The crystal structure was probed by Raman spectroscopy. The oxidation state of the surface was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectroscopy. The deposition technique described above was used to experiment with MoOx as a hole transport layer (HTL) in polymer solar cells with bulk hetrojunction active layer, deposited by spin coating. The performance of these layers was compared with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), which is the standard material used in this role. The measured current-voltage characteristics of solar cells with the structure glass/ITO/HTL/Poly(3-hexyl)thiophene (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61- butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)/Al demonstrate that the studied MoOx layer is a good HTL and leads to comparable characteristics to those with PEDOT:PSS. On the other hand the deposition by magnetron sputtering guarantees reliable and repeatable HTLs.

  19. Morphology and structure evolution of Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} films deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering with electron cyclotron resonance plasma assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Man Ellmer, Klaus

    2014-02-28

    Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} (CIGS) films were deposited on Mo coated soda lime glass substrates using an electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced one-step reactive magnetron co-sputtering process (ECR-RMS). The crystalline quality and the morphology of the Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescence. We also compared these CIGS films with films previously prepared without ECR assistance and find that the crystallinity of the CIGS films is correlated with the roughness evolution during deposition. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the surface topography and to derive one-dimensional power spectral densities (1DPSD). All 1DPSD spectra of CIGS films exhibit no characteristic peak which is typical for the scaling of a self-affine surface. The growth exponent β, characterizing the roughness R{sub q} evolution during the film growth as R{sub q} ∼ d{sup β}, changes with film thickness. The root-mean-square roughness at low temperatures increases only slightly with a growth exponent β = 0.013 in the initial growth stage, while R{sub q} increases with a much higher exponent β = 0.584 when the film thickness is larger than about 270 nm. Additionally, we found that the H{sub 2}S content of the sputtering atmosphere and the Cu- to-(In + Ga) ratio has a strong influence of the morphology of the CIGS films in this one-step ECR-RMS process.

  20. Spectroscopy analysis of graphene like deposition using DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering on γ‐Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layer

    SciTech Connect

    Aji, A. S. Darma, Y.

    2014-02-24

    In this work, graphene-like deposition using DC unbalanced magnetron-sputtering technique on γ‐Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer at low temperature has been systematically studied. The γ‐Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was growth on silicon substrate using thermal evaporation of Al wire and continuing with dry oxidation of Al at 550 °C. Sputtering process were carried out using Fe-doped carbon pellet as a target by maintain the chamber pressure of 4.6×10{sup −2} Torr at substrate temperature of 300 °C for time deposition range of 1 to 4 hours. The quality of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on Si(100) and the characteristic of carbon thin film on γ‐Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were analized by mean XRD, opctical microscopy, EDAX, FTIR, and Raman spectra. XRD and optical microscopy analysis shows that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film is growth uniformly on Si substrate and forming the γ phase of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Raman and FTIR spectra confirm the formation of graphene like carbon layer on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Additionally, thermal annealing for some sample series have been performed to study their structural stability. The change of atomic structure due to thermal annealing were analized by XRD spectra. The quality and the number of graphene layers are investigated by using Raman spectra peaks analysis.

  1. Low substrate temperature deposition of transparent and conducting ZnO:Al thin films by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waykar, Ravindra; Amit, Pawbake; Kulkarni, Rupali; Jadhavar, Ashok; Funde, Adinath; Waman, Vaishali; Dewan, Rupesh; Pathan, Habib; Jadkar, Sandesh

    2016-04-01

    Transparent and conducting Al-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) films were prepared on glass substrate using the RF sputtering method at different substrate temperatures from room temperature (RT) to 200 °C. The structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties of these films were investigated using a variety of characterization techniques such as low angle XRD, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Hall measurement and UV-visible spectroscopy. The electrical properties showed that films deposited at RT have the lowest resistivity and it increases with an increase in the substrate temperature whereas carrier mobility and concentration decrease with an increase in substrate temperature. Low angle XRD and Raman spectroscopy analysis reavealed that films are highly crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and a preferred orientation along the c-axis. The FE-SEM analysis showed that the surface morphology of films is strongly dependent on the substrate temperature. The band gap decreases from 3.36 to 3.29 eV as the substrate temperature is increased from RT to 200 °C. The fundamental absorption edge in the UV region shifts towards a longer wavelength with an increase in substrate temperature and be attributed to the Burstein-Moss shift. The synthesized films showed an average transmission (> 85%) in the visible region, which signifies that synthesized ZnO:Al films can be suitable for display devices and solar cells as transparent electrodes.

  2. Deposition of undoped and Al doped ZnO thin films using RF magnetron sputtering and study of their structural, optical and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvathy Venu, M.; Shrisha B., V.; Balakrishna, K. M.; Naik, K. Gopalakrishna

    2017-05-01

    Undoped ZnO and Al doped ZnO thin films were deposited on glass and p-Si(100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature using homemade targets. ZnO target containing 5 at% of Al2O3 as doping source was used for the growth of Al doped ZnO thin films. XRD revealed that the films have hexagonal wurtzite structure with high crystallinity. Morphology and chemical composition of the films have been indicated by FESEM and EDAX studies. A blue shift of the band gap energy and higher optical transmittance has been observed in the case of Al doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) thin films with respect to the ZnO thin films. The as deposited films on p-Si were used to fabricate n-ZnO/p-Si(100) and n-ZnO:Al/p-Si(100) heterojunction diodes and their room temperature current-voltage characteristics were studied.

  3. Effects of post-deposition annealing ambient on band alignment of RF magnetron-sputtered Y2O3 film on gallium nitride

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different post-deposition annealing ambients (oxygen, argon, forming gas (95% N2 + 5% H2), and nitrogen) on radio frequency magnetron-sputtered yttrium oxide (Y2O3) films on n-type gallium nitride (GaN) substrate were studied in this work. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to extract the bandgap of Y2O3 and interfacial layer as well as establishing the energy band alignment of Y2O3/interfacial layer/GaN structure. Three different structures of energy band alignment were obtained, and the change of band alignment influenced leakage current density-electrical breakdown field characteristics of the samples subjected to different post-deposition annealing ambients. Of these investigated samples, ability of the sample annealed in O2 ambient to withstand the highest electric breakdown field (approximately 6.6 MV/cm) at 10−6 A/cm2 was related to the largest conduction band offset of interfacial layer/GaN (3.77 eV) and barrier height (3.72 eV). PMID:23360596

  4. Thick c-BN films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering in argon/nitrogen gas mixture with additional hydrogen gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan; Gao, Wei; Xu, Bo; Li, Ying-Ai; Li, Hong-Dong; Gu, Guang-Rui; Yin, Hong

    2016-10-01

    The excellent physical and chemical properties of cubic boron nitride (c-BN) film make it a promising candidate for various industry applications. However, the c-BN film thickness restricts its practical applications in many cases. Thus, it is indispensable to develop an economic, simple and environment-friend way to synthesize high-quality thick, stable c-BN films. High-cubic-content BN films are prepared on silicon (100) substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering from an h-BN target at low substrate temperature. Adhesions of the c-BN films are greatly improved by adding hydrogen to the argon/nitrogen gas mixture, allowing the deposition of a film up to 5-μm thick. The compositions and the microstructure morphologies of the c-BN films grown at different substrate temperatures are systematically investigated with respect to the ratio of H2 gas content to total working gas. In addition, a primary mechanism for the deposition of thick c-BN film is proposed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51572105, 61504046, and 51272224), the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry, China, the Development and Reform Commission of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 2015Y050), and the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas of Jilin Province, China.

  5. Enhancement of adhesion by a transition layer: Deposition of a-C film on ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, F. F.; Bai, W. Q.; Li, L. L.; Wang, X. L.; Xie, Y. J.; Jin, G.; Tu, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    An amorphous carbon (a-C) film is deposited on the plasma-treated UHMWPE substrate using a closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering to improve its tribological properties. During the plasma treatment period, a transition layer is prepared by high energy ion bombardment at a bias voltage of -500 V to enhance the adhesion between the a-C film and the substrate. The mechanical and tribological properties of the a-C film were evaluated by nano-indentation and ball-on-disk tribometer. After deposition of a-C film with a thickness 900 nm, the nano-hardness of UHMWPE significantly increases from 47 MPa to 720 MPa and the wear rate decreases from 9.82 × 10-15 m3 N-1 m-1 to 4.78 × 10-15 m3 N-1 m-1 in bovine calf serum solution. The formation of the transition layer is believed to be the reason why the vertical adhesion between the a-C film and the UHMWPE substrate is enhanced.

  6. Amorphous indium-tin-zinc oxide films deposited by magnetron sputtering with various reactive gases: Spatial distribution of thin film transistor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Junjun; Torigoshi, Yoshifumi; Shigesato, Yuzo; Kawashima, Emi; Utsuno, Futoshi; Yano, Koki

    2015-01-12

    This work presents the spatial distribution of electrical characteristics of amorphous indium-tin-zinc oxide film (a-ITZO), and how they depend on the magnetron sputtering conditions using O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and N{sub 2}O as the reactive gases. Experimental results show that the electrical properties of the N{sub 2}O incorporated a-ITZO film has a weak dependence on the deposition location, which cannot be explained by the bombardment effect of high energy particles, and may be attributed to the difference in the spatial distribution of both the amount and the activity of the reactive gas reaching the substrate surface. The measurement for the performance of a-ITZO thin film transistor (TFT) also suggests that the electrical performance and device uniformity of a-ITZO TFTs can be improved significantly by the N{sub 2}O introduction into the deposition process, where the field mobility reach to 30.8 cm{sup 2} V{sup –1} s{sup –1}, which is approximately two times higher than that of the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide TFT.

  7. Influence of deposition temperature on the growth of rutile TiO2 nanostructures by CBD method on seed layer prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selman, Abbas M.; Hassan, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructures were successfully fabricated using the simple chemical bath deposition method at various deposition temperatures. These nanostructures were fabricated on (100 ± 10 nm) TiO2 seed layer coated glass, which was prepared via radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at a substrate temperature of 350 °C. The synthesized TiO2 nanostructures were annealed at 550 °C for 2 h and examined via X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), photoluminescence (PL), and Raman spectroscopy. The XRD patterns showed the presence of the peaks characteristic of rutile phase. The band gap of the TiO2 nanostructures was calculated using the UV-vis absorption spectrum and was determined to be between 3.15 and 3.24 eV. The Raman spectra contained three characteristic bands at 232, 446 and 612 cm-1, which correspond to the tetragonal TiO2 rutile. The results showed good quality of nanocrystalline TiO2 rutile phase.

  8. Effect of deposition conditions on YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ thin films by inverted cylindrical magnetron sputtering and substrate effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avci, İlbeyi; Tepe, Mustafa; Abukay, Doğan

    2004-05-01

    The dependence of YBCO thin film properties on the deposition conditions was studied for different substrates. The deposition conditions were optimized for the epitaxial growth of high quality YBCO thin films of 1500 Å thickness onto single crystal (100-oriented) SrTiO 3 (STO), MgO and LaAlO 3 (LAO) substrates by DC Inverted Cylindrical Magnetron Sputtering (ICMS). The samples were investigated in detail by means of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), EDX, AFM, ρ- T, magnetic susceptibility and current-voltage ( I- V) characterizations. The samples show strong diamagnetic behavior and sharp transition temperatures of 89-91 K with Δ T<0.5 K. XRD of the samples exhibited highly c-axis orientation. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the rocking curves were ranging typically from 0.22 to 0.28°. The samples have smooth surfaces as shown from AFM micrographs. The surface roughness, Ra, changed between 5-7 nm. I- V characteristics were obtained from the 20 μm-wide microbridges, which were patterned by a laser writing technique. The critical current densities ( Jc, 1.06×10 6 for LAO-based YBCO, 1.39×10 6 for MgO-based YBCO, 1.67×10 6 A/cm 2 for STO based YBCO) of the microbridges were evaluated from I- V curves at 77 K.

  9. Effects of post-deposition annealing ambient on band alignment of RF magnetron-sputtered Y2O3 film on gallium nitride.

    PubMed

    Quah, Hock Jin; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2013-01-29

    The effects of different post-deposition annealing ambients (oxygen, argon, forming gas (95% N2 + 5% H2), and nitrogen) on radio frequency magnetron-sputtered yttrium oxide (Y2O3) films on n-type gallium nitride (GaN) substrate were studied in this work. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to extract the bandgap of Y2O3 and interfacial layer as well as establishing the energy band alignment of Y2O3/interfacial layer/GaN structure. Three different structures of energy band alignment were obtained, and the change of band alignment influenced leakage current density-electrical breakdown field characteristics of the samples subjected to different post-deposition annealing ambients. Of these investigated samples, ability of the sample annealed in O2 ambient to withstand the highest electric breakdown field (approximately 6.6 MV/cm) at 10-6 A/cm2 was related to the largest conduction band offset of interfacial layer/GaN (3.77 eV) and barrier height (3.72 eV).

  10. Spatial resistivity distribution of transparent conducting impurity-doped ZnO thin films deposited on substrates by dc magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Oda, Jun-ichi; Nomoto, Jun-ichi; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2010-07-15

    In transparent conducting impurity-doped ZnO thin films prepared by a conventional dc magnetron sputtering deposition (dc-MSD), the key factors in the deposition conditions that are necessary for practical use in transparent electrode applications were investigated. It was found that impurity-doped ZnO targets with a resistivity higher than approximately 3 m{Omega} cm are unsuitable for practical use in the preparation of transparent conducting Al-doped ZnO and Ga-doped ZnO thin films by conventional dc-MSD. Improvements of both the resulting resistivity distribution and resistivity can be sufficiently obtained only by using targets with a resistivity lower than about 0.5 m{Omega} cm. Using a low oxygen content target having a lower resistivity was found to reduce both the amount of oxygen in the chamber and the amount of oxygen reaching the substrate surface. As a result, it was demonstrated that sintered impurity-doped ZnO targets optimized for the preparation of thin films with lower resistivity as well as more uniform resistivity distribution on the substrate surface tended to exhibit a resistivity lower than about 0.5 m{Omega} cm.

  11. Plasma properties of RF magnetron sputtering system using Zn target

    SciTech Connect

    Nafarizal, N.; Andreas Albert, A. R.; Sharifah Amirah, A. S.; Salwa, O.; Riyaz Ahmad, M. A.

    2012-06-29

    In the present work, we investigate the fundamental properties of magnetron sputtering plasma using Zn target and its deposited Zn thin film. The magnetron sputtering plasma was produced using radio frequency (RF) power supply and Argon (Ar) as ambient gas. A Langmuir probe was used to collect the current from the plasma and from the current intensity, we calculate the electron density and electron temperature. The properties of Zn sputtering plasma at various discharge conditions were studied. At the RF power ranging from 20 to 100 W and gas pressure 5 mTorr, we found that the electron temperature was almost unchanged between 2-2.5 eV. On the other hand, the electron temperature increased drastically from 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm{sup -3} when the discharge gas pressure increased from 5 to 10 mTorr. The electron microscope images show that the grain size of Zn thin film increase when the discharge power is increased. This may be due to the enhancement of plasma density and sputtered Zn density.

  12. Preparation and characterization of RF magnetron sputtered calcium pyrophosphate coatings.

    PubMed

    Yonggang, Yan; Wolke, J G C; Yubao, Li; Jansen, J A

    2006-03-15

    CaP ceramic has been widely used as coating on metals in orthopedics and oral dentistry. Variations in CaP composition can lead to different dissolution/precipitation behavior and may also affect the bone response. In the present study calcium pyrophosphate and hydroxylapatite coatings were successfully prepared by RF magnetron sputtering deposition. The phase composition, morphological properties, and the dissolution in SBF were characterized by using XRD, FTIR, EDS, SEM, and spectrophotometry. The results showed that all the sputtered coatings were amorphous and changed into a crystal structure after IR-radiation. The temperature for the crystallization of the amorphous coatings is lower for the hydroxylapatite coating (550 degrees C), compared to the calcium pyrophosphate coating (650 degrees C). All sputtered amorphous coatings were instable in SBF and dissolved partially within 4 wks of incubation. The heat-treated coatings appeared to be stable after incubation. These results showed that magnetron sputtering of calcium pyrophosphate coating is a promising method for forming a biocompatible ceramic coating.

  13. On the pressure effect in energetic deposition of Cu thin films by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering: A global plasma model and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, B. C.; Meng, D.; Che, H. L.; Lei, M. K.

    2015-05-01

    The modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) discharge processes are numerically modeled and experimentally investigated, in order to explore the effect of the pressure on MPPMS discharges as well as on the microstructure of the deposited thin films. A global plasma model has been developed based on a volume-averaged global description of the ionization region, considering the loss of electrons by cross-B diffusion. The temporal variations of internal plasma parameters at different pressures from 0.1 to 0.7 Pa are obtained by fitting the model to duplicate the experimental discharge data, and Cu thin films are deposited by MPPMS at the corresponding pressures. The surface morphology, grain size and orientation, and microstructure of the deposited thin films are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. By increasing the pressure from 0.1 to 0.7 Pa, both the ion bombardment energy and substrate temperature which are estimated by the modeled plasma parameters decrease, corresponding to the observed transition of the deposited thin films from a void free structure with a wide distribution of grain size (zone T) into an underdense structure with a fine fiber texture (zone 1) in the extended structure zone diagram (SZD). The microstructure and texture transition of Cu thin films are well-explained by the extended SZD, suggesting that the primary plasma processes are properly incorporated in the model. The results contribute to the understanding of the characteristics of MPPMS discharges, as well as its correlation with the microstructure and texture of deposited Cu thin films.

  14. Dynamics of processes during the deposition of ZrO2 films by controlled reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering: A modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozák, Tomáš; Vlček, Jaroslav

    2017-07-01

    A time-dependent parametric model was applied to controlled reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) depositions of stoichiometric ZrO2 films, carried out in our laboratories, (i) to clarify the complicated dynamics of the processes on the target and substrate surfaces during voltage pulses, and (ii) to corroborate the importance of the O2 inlet configuration (position and direction) which strongly affects the O2 dissociation in the discharge and the chemisorption flux of oxygen atoms and molecules onto the substrate. The repetition frequency was 500 Hz at the deposition-averaged target power densities of 25 Wcm-2, being close to a target power density applicable in industrial HiPIMS systems, and 50 Wcm-2 with a pulse-averaged target power density up to 2 kWcm-2. The pulse duration was 50 μs. For the experimental conditions with the to-substrate O2 inlets, the deposition-averaged target power density of 50 Wcm-2, and the oxygen partial pressure of 0.05 Pa (being close to the mean value during controlled depositions), our model predicts a low compound fraction, changing between 8% and 12%, in the target surface layer at an almost constant high compound fraction, changing between 92% and 93%, in the substrate surface layer during the pulse period (2000 μs). The calculated deposition rate of 89 nm/min for these films is in good agreement with the measured value of 80 nm/min achieved for optically transparent stoichiometric ZrO2 films prepared under these conditions.

  15. On the pressure effect in energetic deposition of Cu thin films by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering: A global plasma model and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, B. C.; Meng, D.; Che, H. L.; Lei, M. K.

    2015-05-28

    The modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) discharge processes are numerically modeled and experimentally investigated, in order to explore the effect of the pressure on MPPMS discharges as well as on the microstructure of the deposited thin films. A global plasma model has been developed based on a volume-averaged global description of the ionization region, considering the loss of electrons by cross-B diffusion. The temporal variations of internal plasma parameters at different pressures from 0.1 to 0.7 Pa are obtained by fitting the model to duplicate the experimental discharge data, and Cu thin films are deposited by MPPMS at the corresponding pressures. The surface morphology, grain size and orientation, and microstructure of the deposited thin films are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. By increasing the pressure from 0.1 to 0.7 Pa, both the ion bombardment energy and substrate temperature which are estimated by the modeled plasma parameters decrease, corresponding to the observed transition of the deposited thin films from a void free structure with a wide distribution of grain size (zone T) into an underdense structure with a fine fiber texture (zone 1) in the extended structure zone diagram (SZD). The microstructure and texture transition of Cu thin films are well-explained by the extended SZD, suggesting that the primary plasma processes are properly incorporated in the model. The results contribute to the understanding of the characteristics of MPPMS discharges, as well as its correlation with the microstructure and texture of deposited Cu thin films.

  16. Reactive pulsed magnetron-sputtered tantalum oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Matthew Christian

    Current high speed, advanced packaging applications require the use of integrated capacitors. Tantalum oxide is one material currently being considered for use in the capacitors; however, the deposition technique used to make the thin film dielectric can alter its performance. Pulsed magnetron reactive sputtering was investigated in this thesis as it offers a robust, clean, and low temperature deposition alternative. This is a new deposition technique created to control the negative effects of target poisoning; however, to understand the relationships between the deposition variables and the resultant film properties a thorough investigation is needed. The instantaneous voltage at the target was captured using a high speed digital oscilloscope. Three target oxidation states were imaged and identified to be that of the metallic and oxidized states with an abrupt transition region separating the two. Using high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy the bonding present in the deposited films was correlated to the oxidation state of the target. While operating the target in the metallic mode, a mix of oxidized, sub-oxide and metallic states were discovered. Alternatively, the bonding present in the films deposited when the target was in the oxidized state were that of fully oxidized tantalum pentoxide. The films deposited above the critical partial pressure demonstrated excellent leakage current densities. The exact magnitude of the leakage current density inversely scaled to the relative amount of oxygen included into the sputtering atmosphere. Detailed plot analysis showed that there were two different conduction mechanisms controlling the current flow in the capacitors. High frequency test vehicles were measured up to 10 GHz in order to determine the frequency response of the dielectric material. A circuit equivalent model describing the testing system and samples was created and utilized to fit the collected data. Overall, the technique of pulsed magnetron

  17. Fuzzy tungsten in a magnetron sputtering device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, T. J.; Khan, A.; Heil, T.; Bradley, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    Helium ion induced tungsten nanostructure (tungsten fuzz) has been studied in a magnetron sputtering device. Three parameters were varied, the fluence from 3.4 × 1023-3.0 × 1024 m-2, the He ion energy from 25 to 70 eV, and the surface temperature from 900 to 1200 K. For each sample, SEM images were captured, and measurements of the fuzz layer thickness, surface roughness, reflectivity, and average structure widths are provided. A cross-over point from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is found at 2.4 ± 0.4 × 1024 m-2, and a temperature of 1080 ± 60 K. No significant change was observed in the energy sweep. The fuzz is compared to low fluence fuzz created in the PISCES-A linear plasma device. Magnetron fuzz is less uniform than fuzz created by PISCES-A and with generally larger structure widths. The thicknesses of the magnetron samples follow the original Φ1/2 relation as opposed to the incubation fluence fit.

  18. Magnetron sputtering system for coatings deposition with activation of working gas mixture by low-energy high-current electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, N. V.; Kamenetskikh, A. S.; Men'shakov, A. I.; Bureyev, O. A.

    2015-11-01

    For the purposes of efficient decomposition and ionization of the gaseous mixtures in a system for coatings deposition using reactive magnetron sputtering, a low-energy (100-200 eV) high-current electron beam is generated by a grid-stabilized plasma electron source. The electron source utilizes both continuous (up to 20 A) and pulse-periodic mode of discharge with a self-heated hollow cathode (10-100 A; 0.2 ms; 10-1000 Hz). The conditions for initiation and stable burning of the high-current pulse discharge are studied along with the stable generation of a low-energy electron beam within the gas pressure range of 0.01 - 1 Pa. It is shown that the use of the electron beam with controllable parameters results in reduction of the threshold values both for the pressure of gaseous mixture and for the fluxes of molecular gases. Using such a beam also provides a wide range (0.1-10) of the flux density ratios of ions and sputtered atoms over the coating surface, enables an increase in the maximum pulse density of ion current from plasma up to 0.1 A, ensures an excellent adhesion, optimizes the coating structure, and imparts improved properties to the superhard nanocomposite coatings of (Ti,Al)N/a-Si3N4 and TiC/-a-C:H. Mass-spectrometric measurements of the beam-generated plasma composition proved to demonstrate a twofold increase in the average concentration of N+ ions in the Ar-N2 plasma generated by the high-current (100 A) pulsed electron beam, as compared to the dc electron beam.

  19. Large area precision optical coatings by pulse magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frach, Peter; Gloess, Daniel; Goschurny, Thomas; Drescher, Andy; Hartung, Ullrich; Bartzsch, Hagen; Heisig, Andreas; Grune, Harald; Leischnig, Lothar; Leischnig, Steffen; Bundesmann, Carsten

    2017-05-01

    Pulse magnetron sputtering is very well suited for the deposition of optical coatings. Due to energetic activation during film growth, sputtered films are dense, smooth and show an excellent environmental stability. Films of materials like SiO2, Al2O3, Nb2O5 or Ta2O5 can be produced with very little absorption and scattering losses and are well suited for precision optics. FEP's coating plant PreSensLine, a deposition machine dedicated for the development and deposition of precision optical layer systems will be presented. The coating machine (VON ARDENNE) is equipped with dual magnetron systems (type RM by FEP). Concepts regarding machine design, process technology and process control as well as in situ monitoring are presented to realize the high demands on uniformity, accuracy and reproducibility. Results of gradient and multilayer type precision optical coatings are presented. Application examples are edge filters and special antireflective coatings for the backlight of 3D displays with substrate size up to 300 x 400mm. The machine allows deposition of rugate type gradient layers by rotating a rotary table with substrates between two sources of the dual magnetron system. By combination of the precision drive (by LSA) for the substrate movement and a special pulse parameter variation during the deposition process (available with the pulse unit UBS-C2 of FEP), it is possible to adjust the deposition rate as a function of the substrate position exactly. The aim of a current development is a technology for the uniform coating of 3D-substrates and freeform components as well as laterally graded layers.

  20. Structure Evolution and Electric Properties of TaN Films Deposited on Al2O3-BASED Ceramic and Glass Substrates by Magnetron Reactive Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan Ming; Ma, Yang Zhao; Xie, Zhong; He, Ming Zhi

    2014-03-01

    Structure evolution and electric properties of tantalum nitride (TaN) films deposited on Al2O3-based ceramic and glass substrates by magnetron reactive sputtering were carried out as a function of the N2-to-Ar flow ratio. The TaN thin films on Al2O3-based ceramic substrates grow with micronclusters composed of numerous nanocrystallites, contains from single-phase of Ta2N grains to TaN, and exhibits high defect density, sheet resistance and negative TCR as the N2-to-Ar flow ratio continuously increases. However, the films on the glass substrates grow in the way of sandwich close-stack, contains from single-phase of Ta2N grains to TaN and Ta3N5 phases with the increase of N2-to-Ar flow ratio. These results indicate that the N2-to-Ar flow ratio and surface characteristic difference of substrates play a dominant effect on the structure and composition of the TaN films, resulting in different electrical properties for the films on Al2O3-based ceramic and the samples on glass substrates.

  1. Influence of film thickness on the morphological and electrical properties of epitaxial TiC films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on MgO substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoita, N. C.; Braic, V.; Danila, M.; Vlaicu, A. M.; Logofatu, C.; Grigorescu, C. E. A.; Braic, M.

    2014-03-01

    Epitaxial TiC films were deposited on MgO (001) by DC magnetron sputtering in a reactive atmosphere of Ar and CH4 at 800 °C. The films elemental composition and chemical bonding was investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The crystallographic structure, investigated by X-ray diffraction, exhibited an increased degree of (001) orientation with the film thickness, with a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship with the substrate. The films morphology and electrical properties were determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Hall measurements in Van der Pauw geometry. The influences of the film thickness (57-545 nm) on the morphological and electrical properties were investigated. The thinnest film presented the lowest resistivity, 160 μΩ cm, showing an atomically flat surface, while higher values were obtained for the thicker films, explained by their different morphology dominated by low aspect ratio nanoislands/nanocolumns.

  2. Growth Behavior of Ga-Doped ZnO Thin Films Deposited on Au/SiN/Si(001) Substrates by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Seon Hee; Kang, Hyon Chol

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports the growth behavior of Ga-doped ZnO (ZnO:Ga) thin films deposited on Au/SiN/Si(001) substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The microstructures of the overgrown ZnO:Ga thin films were investigated by performing X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microcopy, and transmission electron microscopy analyses. It was confirmed that the growth process proceeds through three stages. In the first stage, nano-scale ZnO:Ga islands were grown on the SiN layer, while a fairly continuous flat structure was formed on the Au nanoparticles (NPs). In the second stage of the growth process, ZnO:Ga domains with different growth orientations, depending strongly on the crystalline planes of the host Au NPs, were nucleated. These domains then grew at different rates, resulting in a change in the morphology from the initial shape reflecting that of the Au NPs to a sunflower-type shape. In the final stage, columnar growth with a preferred (0002) orientation along the surface normal direction became dominant.

  3. Biaxial stress and optoelectronic properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films deposited on flexible substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Cheng, Po-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Ting

    2017-02-01

    Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polycarbonate (PC) substrates using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The biaxial stress was measured with a double beam shadow moiré interferometer, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the crystal orientation of ZnO. The substrate temperature was varied from room temperature to 150°C in steps of 25°C. The experimental results showed that the residual and shearing stresses increased with the increase in substrate temperature. The residual stress can be separated into principle and shearing stresses by Mohr's circle rule, and the shearing stress (tensile stress) was different from the compressive stress of the residual stress. However, the optimal substrate temperatures for PET and PC were 75°C and 100°C, and the shearing stresses were 424.82 and 543.68 MPa, respectively. AZO/PET and AZO/PC thin films cracked at substrate temperatures of 75°C and 100°C, respectively. AZO/PET thin film at a substrate temperature of 100°C had a resistivity low to the order of 10-3  Ω-cm.

  4. Electrochromic properties of NiOx:H films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering for ITO/NiOx:H/ZrO2/WO3/ITO device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Dongmei; Wang, Wenwen; Dong, Guobo; Zhou, Yuliang; Wu, Zhonghou; Wang, Mei; Liu, Famin; Diao, Xungang

    2015-12-01

    NiOx:H thin films were deposited on ITO-coated glass by DC reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The effects of the hydrogen content on the structure, morphologies, electrochemical properties, the stoichiometry and chemical states of NiOx:H thin films were systematically studied. In X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy analysis, the crystallinity of the films tends to be weakened when the flow amount ratio of Ar:O2:H2 equals 19:1:3 and as confirmed in electrochemical analysis, such relatively weak crystallinity is the main contributing factor to ion transportation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the increase of the hydrogen contents results in a relatively lower binding energy exhibited in the Ni 2p spectra. The proportion of Ni2O3 in NiOx:H films increases from 22% at bleached state to 33% at colored state. A monolithic all-thin-film inorganic electrochromic device was fabricated with complementary configuration as ITO/NiOx:H/ZrO2/WO3/ITO. The electrochromic device with optimized NiOx:H thin films acting both as ion storage layer and proton-providing source displays high modulation efficiency of 68% at a fixed wavelength 550 nm.

  5. ZrB2 thin films deposited on GaN(0001) by magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tengdelius, Lina; Lu, Jun; Forsberg, Urban; Li, Xun; Hultman, Lars; Janzén, Erik; Högberg, Hans

    2016-11-01

    ZrB2 films were deposited on 900 °C-preheated or non-preheated GaN(0001) surfaces by direct current magnetron sputtering from a compound target. Analytical transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed a 0001 fiber textured ZrB2 film growth following the formation of a 2 nm thick amorphous BN layer onto the GaN(0001) at a substrate temperature of 900 °C. The amorphous BN layer remains when the substrate temperature is lowered to 500 °C or when the preheating step is removed from the process and results in the growth of polycrystalline ZrB2 films. The ZrB2 growth phenomena on GaN(0001) is compared to on 4H-SiC(0001), Si(111), and Al2O3(0001) substrates, which yield epitaxial film growth. The decomposition of the GaN surface during vacuum processing during BN interfacial layer formation is found to impede epitaxial growth of ZrB2.

  6. Structural evolution and growth mechanisms of RF-magnetron sputter-deposited hydroxyapatite thin films on the basis of unified principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Anna A.; Surmeneva, Maria A.; Surmenev, Roman A.; Depla, Diederik

    2017-12-01

    The structural features of RF-magnetron sputter-deposited hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are investigated in order to reveal the effect of the working gas composition and the sample position of the substrate relative to the target erosion zone. The film properties were observed to change as a result of bombardment with energetic ions. XRD analysis of the coated substrates indicates that with the increase of the ion-to-atom ratio, the fiber texture changes from a mixed (11 2 bar 2) + (0002) over (0002) orientation, finally reaching a (30 3 bar 0) out-of-plane orientation at high ion-to-atom ratios. TEM reveals that the microstructure of the HA coating consists of columnar grains and differs with the coating texture. The contribution of Ji/Ja to the development of microstructure and texture of the HA coating is schematically represented and discussed. The obtained results may contribute substantially to the progress of research into the development of HA coatings with tailored properties, and these coatings may be applied on the surfaces of metal implants used in bone surgery.

  7. Large-area flexible monolithic ITO/WO3/Nb2O5/NiVOχ/ITO electrochromic devices prepared by using magnetron sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chien-Jen; Ye, Jia-Ming; Yang, Yueh-Ting; He, Ju-Liang

    2016-05-01

    Electrochromic devices (ECDs) have been applied in smart windows to control the transmission of sunlight in green buildings, saving up to 40-50% electricity consumption and ultimately reducing carbon dioxide emissions. However, the high manufacturing costs and difficulty of transportation of conventional massive large area ECDs has limited widespread applications. A unique design replacing the glass substrate commonly used in the ECD windows with inexpensive, light-weight and flexible polymeric substrate materials would accelerate EC adoption allowing them to be supplemented for regular windows without altering window construction. In this study, an ITO/WO3/Nb2O5/NiVOχ/ITO all-solid-state monolithic ECD with an effective area of 24 cm × 18 cm is successfully integrated on a PET substrate by using magnetron sputter deposition. The electrochromic performance and bending durability of the resultant material are also investigated. The experimental results indicate that the ultimate response times for the prepared ECD is 6 s for coloring at an applied voltage of -3 V and 5 s for bleaching at an applied voltage of +3 V, respectively. The optical transmittances for the bleached and colored state at a wavelength of 633 nm are 53% and 11%, respectively. The prepared ECD can sustain over 8000 repeated coloring and bleaching cycles, as well as tolerate a bending radius of curvature of 7.5 cm.

  8. Oleophobic optical coating deposited by magnetron PVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernt, D.; Ponomarenko, V.; Pisarev, A.

    2016-09-01

    Thin oxinitride films of Zn-Sn-O-N and Si-Al-O-N were deposited on glass by reactive magnetron sputtering at various nitrogen-to-oxygen ratios. Nitrogen added to oxygen led to decrease of the surface roughness and increase of oleophobic properties studied by the oil-drop test. The best oleophobity was obtained for Zn-Sn-O-N oxinitride at Zn:Sn=1:1 and N:O=1:2. Improved oleophobic properties were also demonstrated if the oxinitride film was deposited on top of the multilayer coating as the final step in the industrial cycle of production of energy efficient glass.

  9. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Zr-Cu Amorphous Films Prepared by Magnetron Co-sputtering Deposition of Pure Zr and Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Qin; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Li, Gong; Li, Li-Xin; Xu, Zhe; Ma, Ming-Zhen; Liu, Ri-Ping

    2009-08-01

    ZrxCu100-x amorphous films are prepared on Si (111) substrates by magnetron co-sputtering of pure Zr and Cu. It is found that the glass forming ability (GFA) of the films increases with x when x is in the range from 35 to 65 and with the best glass forming ability at x = 65. It is therefore different from the bulk counterparts, for which only x = 35 and 50 were reported to have high glass forming ability during casting. The structure of the films is sensitive to the substrate temperature and the sputtering argon pressure.

  10. Magnetron co-sputtering system for coating ICF targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, E.J.; Meyer, S.F.; Halsey, W.G.; Jameson, G.T.; Wittmayer, F.J.

    1981-12-09

    Fabrication of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets requires deposition of various types of coatings on microspheres. The mechanical strength, and surface finish of the coatings are of concern in ICF experiments. The tensile strength of coatings can be controlled through grain refinement, selective doping and alloy formation. We have constructed a magnetron co-sputtering system to produce variable density profile coatings with high tensile strength on microspheres. The preliminary data on the properties of a Au-Cu binary alloy system by SEM and STEM analysis is presented.

  11. Plasma regimes in high power pulsed magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Los Arcos, Teresa

    2013-09-01

    High Power Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering (HPPMS) is a relatively recent variation of magnetron sputtering where high power is applied to the magnetron in short pulses. The result is the formation of dense transient plasmas with a high fraction of ionized species, ideally leading to better control of film growth through substrate bias. However, the broad range of experimental conditions accessible in pulsed discharges results in bewildering variations in current and voltage pulse shapes, pulse power densities, etc, which represent different discharge behaviors, making it difficult to identify relevant deposition conditions. The complexity of the plasma dynamics is evident. Within each pulse, plasma characteristics such as plasma composition, density, gas rarefaction, spatial distribution, degree of self-sputtering, etc. vary with time. A recent development has been the discovery that the plasma emission can self-organize into well-defined regions of high and low plasma emissivity above the racetrack (spokes), which rotate in the direction given by the E ×B drift and that significantly influence the transport mechanisms in HPPMS. One seemingly universal characteristic of HPPMS plasmas is the existence of well defined plasma regimes for different power ranges. These regimes are clearly differentiated in terms of plasma conductivity, plasma composition and spatial plasma self-organization. We will discuss the global characteristics of these regimes in terms of current-voltage characteristics, energy-resolved QMS and OES analysis, and fast imaging. In particular we will discuss how the reorganization of the plasma emission into spokes is associated only to specific regimes of high plasma conductivity. We will also briefly discuss the role of the target in shaping the characteristics of the HPPMS plasma, since sputtering is a surface-driven process. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within the framework of the SFB-TR87.

  12. Microstructure evolution of Al-doped zinc oxide and Sn-doped indium oxide deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering: A comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Man; Bikowski, Andre; Ellmer, Klaus

    2015-04-21

    The microstructure and morphology evolution of Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) and Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films on borosilicate glass substrates deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature (RT) and 300 °C were investigated by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM). One-dimensional power spectral density (1DPSD) functions derived from the AFM profiles, which can be used to distinguish different growth mechanisms, were used to compare the microstructure scaling behavior of the thin films. The rms roughness R{sub q} evolves with film thickness as a power law, R{sub q} ∼ d{sub f}{sup β}, and different growth exponents β were found for AZO and ITO films. For AZO films, β of 1.47 and 0.56 are obtained for RT and 300 °C depositions, respectively, which are caused by the high compressive stress in the film at RT and relaxation of the stress at 300 °C. While for ITO films, β{sub 1} = 0.14 and β{sub 2} = 0.64 for RT, and β{sub 1} = 0.89 and β{sub 2} = 0.3 for 300 °C deposition are obtained, respectively, which is related to the strong competition between the surface diffusion and shadowing effect and/or grain growth. Electrical properties of both materials as a function of film thickness were also compared. By the modified Fuchs-Sondheimer model fitting of the electrical transport in both materials, different nucleation states are pointed out for both types of films.

  13. Nanostructure evolution of magnetron sputtered hydrogenated silicon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Dipendra; Junda, Maxwell M.; Marsillac, Sylvain X.; Collins, Robert W.; Podraza, Nikolas J.

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogenated silicon (Si:H) thin films have been prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The effect of hydrogen gas concentration during sputtering on the resultant film structural and optical properties has been investigated by real time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD). The analysis of in-situ RTSE data collected during sputter deposition tracks the evolution of surface roughness and film bulk layer thickness with time. Growth evolution diagrams depicting amorphous, nanocrystalline, and mixed-phase regions for low and high deposition rate Si:H are constructed and the effects of process parameter (hydrogen gas concentration, total pressure, and RF power) variations on the deposition rate have been qualified. Virtual interface analysis of RTSE data provides nanocrystalline volume fraction depth profiles in the mixed-phase growth regime. GIXRD measurements show the presence of (111) and (220) oriented crystallites. Vibrational mode absorption features from Si-Hn bonding configurations at 590, 640, 2000, and 2090 cm-1 are obtained by ex-situ infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry. Hydrogen incorporation decreases as films transition from amorphous to nanocrystalline phases with increasing hydrogen gas concentration during sputtering.

  14. Ionized Magnetron Sputtering with a Coupled DC and Microwave Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, D. B.; Green, K. M.; Juliano, D. R.; Ruzic, D. N.; Weiss, C. A.; Lantsman, A.; Ishii, J.

    1996-10-01

    A DC magnetron sputtering system is enhanced via an antenna microwave source. The ability of the microwaves to ionize the metal atoms from the aluminum target though electron impact and Penning ionization is studied as a function of microwave power, magnetron power, and pressure. A bias in the tens of volts (negative) is applied to the substrate and sample. This creates an electric field between the plasma and the substrate which is designed to draw the metal ions into the sample orthogonally for filling increased aspect ratio trenches. A quartz crystal oscillator is placed behind a gridded energy analyzer and embedded in the substrate. It determines the ion-to-neutral ratio and the deposition rate, and the gridded energy analyzer determines the energy spectrum of the ions, the ion current density, and the uniformity. These quantities are compared to the results of a computer simulation.

  15. Continuous Sputter Deposition Coating of Long Monofilaments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    terminal. A length of fishing line, microtubing, or polylactic acid (PLA) coated with copper could be left to cure within an epoxy, and upon removal...inductance, capacitance, resistance min minute MSD magnetron sputter deposition PLA polylactic acid RPM revolutions per minute R resistance (units

  16. The effect of the oxygen ratio control of DC reactive magnetron sputtering on as-deposited non stoichiometric NiO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengying; Thimont, Yohann; Presmanes, Lionel; Diao, Xungang; Barnabé, Antoine

    2017-10-01

    Non-stoichiometric Ni1-xO thin films were prepared on glass substrate by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering in a large range of oxygen partial pressure (0 ≤ pO2 ≤ 1 Pa). The dependence of the deposited film structure and properties on oxygen stoichiometry were systematically analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV-vis measurements and electrical transport properties measurements. The deposition rates, surface morphology and opto-electrical properties are very sensitive to the oxygen partial pressure lower than 0.05 Pa due to the presence of metallic nickel cluster phase determined by X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity and XPS spectroscopy. Presence of nanocrystallized NiO phase was highlighted even for pO2 = 0 Pa. For pO2 > 0.05 Pa, only the NiO phase was detected. Progressive appearance of Ni3+ species is characterized by a fine increase of the lattice parameter and (111) preferred orientation determined by grazing angle X-ray diffraction, fine increase of the X-ray reflectivity critical angle, displacement of the Ni 2p3/2 signal towards lower energy, significant increase of the electrical conductivity and decrease of the total transmittance. Quantification of Ni3+ by XPS method is discussed. We also showed that the use of Raman spectroscopy was relevant for demonstrating the presence of Ni3+ in the Ni1-xO thin films.

  17. Comparison in mechanical and tribological properties of CrTiAlMoN and CrTiAlN nano-multilayer coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Guojun; Jiang, Bailing

    2016-02-01

    CrTiAlN and CrTiAlMoN nano-multilayer coatings were deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering. TiMoN and CrTiMoN nano-multilayer coatings with same Mo2N layer thickness were also prepared for comparison. The structure of these coatings is investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanical and tribological properties were characterized and compared by nano-indentation and ball-on-disc test. It was found that these coatings were structured by fcc metal nitride phases (including CrN, TiN, AlN and Mo2N) and the preferred orientation changed from (1 1 1) to (2 0 0) with the increase of Mo content. The TEM results showed that the coatings exhibited typical columnar structure and nano-multilayer structure with modulation periods ranged from 3.2 nm to 7.6 nm. Among these coatings, CrTiAlMoN coatings presented the highest hardness, lowest coefficient of friction (COF) and wear rate. The hardness of these nano-multilayer coatings were determined by layer interfaces: TiN/Mo2N and AlN/Mo2N layer interface showed benefit on hardness enhancement while CrN/Mo2N layer interface led to a great hardness decrement. In comparison with the other as-deposited coatings, the low COF of CrTiAlMoN coatings was not only affected by Mo addition but also related to its oxidation behaviors.

  18. High Rate Deposition of Thick CrN and Cr2N Coatings Using Modulated Pulse Power (MPP) Magnetron Sputtering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    skilled in the art , can overcome many of the above listed disadvantages for the different coating techniques. Sputtering is a very flexible and...J. Pelleg, L.Z. Zevin, S. Lungo and N. Croitoru Thin Solid Films 197 (1991) 117. [32] C. Nouveau , M.A. Djouadi, O...2004) 1306. [52] A.J. Perry. Thin Solid Films 107 (1983)167. [53] M. -A. Djouadi, C. Nouveau , O. Banakh, R. Sanjinés, F. Lévy and G. Nouet

  19. Effect of deposition parameters and heat-treatment on the microstructure, mechanical and electrochemical properties of hydroxyapatite/titanium coating deposited on Ti6Al4V by RF-magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jianwei; Chen, Zhangbo; Han, Wenjun; He, Danfeng; Yang, Yiming; Wang, Qingliang

    2017-09-01

    Functionally graded HA/Ti coatings were deposited on silicon and Ti6Al4V substrate by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The effect of RF-power, negative bias and heat-treatment on the microstructure, mechanical and electrochemical properties of the coatings were characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, AFM Nanoindentation and electrochemical workstation. The obtained results showed that the as-deposited HA/Ti coatings were characteristic of amorphous structure, which transformed into a crystal structure after heat-treatment, and reformed O–H peak. The content of crystallization was increasing with the increase of negative bias. A dense, homogenous, smooth and featured surface, and columnar cross-section structure was observed in SEM observation. AFM results showed that the surface roughness became higher after heat-treatment, and increased with increasing RF-power. The mechanical test indicated that the coating had a higher nanohardness (9.1 GPa) in the case of  ‑100 V and 250 W than that of Ti6Al4V substrate, and a critical load as high as 17  ±  3.5 N. The electrochemical test confirmed the HA/Ti coating served as a stable protecting barrier in improving the corrosion resistance, which the corrosion current density was 1.3% of Ti6Al4V, but it was significantly influenced by RF-power and negative bias. The contact angle test demonstrated that all the coatings exhibited favorable hydrophilic properties, and it decreased by 20–25% compared to that untreated samples. Thus all results indicated that magnetron sputtering is a promising way for fabricating a better biocompatible ceramic coating by adjusting deposition parameters and post-deposition heat treatments.

  20. Sputter Deposition of Metallic Sponges

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Hayes, J P

    2002-01-18

    Metallic films are grown with a sponge-like morphology in the as-deposited condition using planar magnetron sputtering. The morphology of the deposit is characterized by metallic continuity in three dimensions with continuous porosity on the sub-micron scale. The stabilization of the metallic sponge is directly correlated with a limited range for the sputter deposition parameters of working gas pressure and substrate temperature. This sponge-like morphology augments the features as generally understood in the classic zone models of growth for physical vapor deposits. Nickel coatings are deposited with working gas pressures up to 4 Pa and for substrate temperatures up to 1100 K. The morphology of the deposits is examined in plan and in cross-section with scanning electron microscopy. The parametric range of gas pressure and substrate temperature (relative to absolute melt point) for the deposition processing under which the metallic sponges are produced appear universal for many metals, as for example, including gold, silver, and aluminum.

  1. Gas-phase clusterization of zinc during magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abduev, A. Kh.; Akhmedov, A. K.; Asvarov, A. Sh.; Alikhanov, N. M.-R.; Emirov, R. M.; Muslimov, A. E.; Belyaev, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    The processes of gas-phase clusterization of zinc during dc magnetron sputtering of a zinc target in an argon atmosphere have been investigated. The influence of the working gas pressure and magnetron discharge current on the morphology and structure of the precipitates formed on substrates previously cooled to-50°C is studied. It is shown that dense textured (002)Zn layers with a columnar structure are formed at relatively low argon pressures in the chamber ( P = 0.5 Pa) and low discharge currents (100 mA). X-ray amorphous deposits with a fractal coral-like structure arise on substrates at an extremely high argon pressure in the chamber ( P = 5 Pa). An increase in the magnetron discharge current at an operating gas pressure of 5 Pa leads to the formation of polycrystalline layers on substrates; the intensity of the XRD peaks related to crystalline zinc increases with an increase in the discharge current. Possible mechanisms of the structural transformation of Zn deposits are considered.

  2. Investigation on the electrical properties and inhomogeneous distribution of ZnO:Al thin films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering at low deposition temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. B.; Pei, Z. L.; Gong, J.; Sun, C.

    2007-01-01

    A study of the electrical properties and spatial distribution of the ZnO:Al (AZO) thin films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering at low deposition temperature was presented, with emphasis on the origin of the resistivity inhomogeneity across the substrate. Various growth conditions were obtained by manipulating the growth temperature TS, total pressure PT, and ion-to-neutral ratio Ji/Jn. The plasma characteristics such as radial ion density and floating/plasma potential distribution over the substrate were measured by Langmuir probe, while the flux and energy distribution of energetic species were estimated through Monte Carlo simulations. The crystalline, stress and electrical properties of the films were found to be strongly dependent on TS and Ji/Jn. Under the low Ji/Jn (<0.3) conditions, the TS exerted a remarkable influence on film quality. The films prepared at 90°C were highly compressed, exhibiting poor electrical properties and significant spatial distribution. High quality films with low stress and resistivity were produced at higher TS (200°C). Similarly, at lower TS (90°C), higher Ji/Jn (˜2) dramatically improved the film resistivity as well as its lateral distribution. Moreover, it indicated that the role of ion bombardment is dependent on the mechanism of dissipation of incident species. Ion bombardment is beneficial to the film growth if the energy of incident species Ei is below the penetration threshold Epet (˜33eV for ZnO); on the other hand, the energy subimplant mechanism would work, and the bombardment degrades the film quality when Ei is over the Epet. The energetic bombardment of negative oxygen ions rather than the positives dominated the resistivity distribution of AZO films, while the nonuniform distribution of active oxygen played a secondary role which was otherwise more notable under conditions of lower TS and Ji/Jn.

  3. Friction and Wear Properties of Selected Solid Lubricating Films. Part 3; Magnetron-Sputtered and Plasma-Assisted, Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Diamondlike Carbon Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Iwaki, Masanori; Gotoh, Kenichi; Obara, Shingo; Imagawa, Kichiro

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate commercially developed dry solid film lubricants for aerospace bearing applications, an investigation was conducted to examine the friction and wear behavior of magnetron-sputtered diamondlike carbon (MS DLC) and plasma-assisted, chemical-vapor-deposited diamondlike carbon (PACVD DLC) films in sliding contact with 6-mm-diameter American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 440C stainless steel balls. Unidirectional sliding friction experiments were conducted with a load of 5.9 N (600 g), a mean Hertzian contact pressure of 0.79 GPa (maximum Hertzian contact pressure of L-2 GPa), and a sliding velocity of 0.2 m/s. The experiments were conducted at room temperature in three environments: ultrahigh vacuum (vacuum pressure, 7x10(exp -7) Pa), humid air (relative humidity, approx.20 percent), and dry nitrogen (relative humidity, <1 percent). The resultant films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and surface profilometry. Marked differences in the friction and wear of the DLC films investigated herein resulted from the environmental conditions. The main criteria for judging the performance of the DLC films were coefficient of friction and wear rate, which had to be less than 0.3 and on the order of 10(exp -6) cu mm/N-m or less, respectively. MS DLC films and PACVD DLC films met the criteria in humid air and dry nitrogen but failed in ultrahigh vacuum, where the coefficients of friction were greater than the criterion, 0.3. In sliding contact with 440C stainless steel balls in all three environments the PACVD DLC films exhibited better tribological performance (i.e., lower friction and wear) than the MS DLC films. All sliding involved adhesive transfer of wear materials: transfer of DLC wear debris to the counterpart 440C stainless steel and transfer of 440C stainless steel wear debris to the counterpart DLC film.

  4. Ionized magnetron sputtering of aluminum(,2)oxygen(,3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Patrick Fernando

    2000-10-01

    This dissertation shows a detailed study of the conditions necessary for sputtering alumina using a novel variant of ionized magnetron sputtering (IMS) first demonstrated by Yamashita et. al. The study presented herein leverages concurrent research at our laboratory on high density plasmas, plasma characterization and charged particle beams research to demonstrate a new source capable of sputtering hydrated alumina films at high rates. High quality ceramics such as Al2O3 find uses in a variety of applications, and in particular, for mass storage applications. Consequently, there exists an ever-growing need to provide and improve the capability of growing thick insulating films. Ideally, the insulating film should be stoichiometric and able to be grown at rates high enough to be easily manufacturable. Alumina is a particularly attractive due to its high density, Na barrier properties, and stability and radiation resistance. However, high quality films are often difficult to achieve with conventional RF plasma due to extremely slow deposition rates and difficulties associated with system cooling. The preferred method is to reactively sputter Al from a solid target in an O2 ambient. Nevertheless, this process is inherently unstable and leads to arcing and uneven target wear when magnetrons are used. In this study, we build the sputtering source, evaluate, and maximize the deposition characteristics of alumina films sputtered from a solid target in an Ar/O2 ambient. Semi-crystalline (kappa + theta) alumina has been reported using a similar technique at temperatures as low 370 C. The difference in the system used herein is that RF power is used for both, the inductive and capacitive components. Additionally, we use a solid target made of sintered alumina throughout the experiment. A model is developed using regression analysis and compared to results obtained. Because plasma parameters can interact with each other, we explore ICP/CCP power interactions and gas influence

  5. Surface characterization of Zr/Ti/Nb tri-layered films deposited by magnetron sputtering on Si(111) and stainless steel substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Tallarico, Denise A.; Gobbi, Angelo L.; Filho, Pedro I. Paulin; Galtayries, Anouk; Nascente, Pedro A. P.

    2012-09-15

    Among metallic materials, commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys are very often used as biomaterials for implants. Among these alloys, titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy Ti-6 A-4 V is one of the most commonly used due to its excellent biocompatibility and ability to allow bone-implant integration. A new class of Ti alloys employs Zr for solid-solution hardening and Nb as {beta}-phase stabilizer. Metals such as Ti, Nb, and Zr-known as valve metals-usually have their surfaces covered by a thin oxide film that forms spontaneously in air. This oxide film constitutes a barrier between the metal and the medium. The Ti-Nb-Zr alloys have mechanical and corrosion resistance characteristics which make them suitable for use as implants. Tri-layered films of Ti-Nb-Zr were deposited on both Si(111) and stainless steel (SS) substrates using dc magnetron sputtering equipment, under an argon atmosphere according to the following methodology: a 100 nm thick layer of Nb was deposited on the substrate, followed by a 200 nm thick layer of Ti, and finally a 50 nm thick layer of Zr, on top of the multilayer stack. The morphology and chemical composition of the films were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). AFM images showed that the Zr/Ti/Nb tri-layer films presented nanostructured grains and low roughness. The ToF-SIMS depth profiles confirmed the formation of a three-layered film on Si(111) with well-defined and sharp interfaces between the layers, while the deposition on the stainless steel substrate caused slight intermixing at the different alloy/Nb, Nb/Ti and Ti/Zr interfaces, reflecting the greater roughness of the raw substrate. The XPS results for the Zr/Ti/Nb layers deposited on Si(111) and SS confirmed that the outermost layer consisted of Zr only, with a predominance of ZrO{sub 2}, as the metal layer is passivated in air. An oxidation treatment of 1000 Degree

  6. Magnetron sputtered nanostructured cadmium oxide films for ammonia sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Dhivya, P.; Prasad, A.K.; Sridharan, M.

    2014-06-01

    Nanostructured cadmium oxide (CdO) films were deposited on to glass substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique. The depositions were carried out for different deposition times in order to obtain films with varying thicknesses. The CdO films were polycrystalline in nature with cubic structure showing preferred orientation in (1 1 1) direction as observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) micrographs showed uniform distribution of grains of 30–35 nm size and change in morphology from spherical to elliptical structures upon increasing the film thickness. The optical band gap value of the CdO films decreased from 2.67 to 2.36 eV with increase in the thickness. CdO films were deposited on to interdigitated electrodes to be employed as ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas sensor. The fabricated CdO sensor with thickness of 294 nm has a capacity to detect NH{sub 3} as low as 50 ppm at a relatively low operating temperature of 150 °C with quick response and recovery time. - Highlights: • Nanostructured CdO films were deposited on to glass substrates using magnetron sputtering. • Deposition time was varied in order to obtain films with different thicknesses. • The CdO films were polycrystalline in nature with preferred orientation along (1 1 1) direction. • The optical bandgap values of the films decreased on increasing the thickness of the films. • CdO films with different thickness such as 122, 204, 294 nm was capable to detect NH{sub 3} down to 50 ppm at operating temperature of 150 °C.

  7. Method and apparatus for improved high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre

    2013-11-05

    A high power impulse magnetron sputtering apparatus and method using a vacuum chamber with a magnetron target and a substrate positioned in the vacuum chamber. A field coil being positioned between the magnetron target and substrate, and a pulsed power supply and/or a coil bias power supply connected to the field coil. The pulsed power supply connected to the field coil, and the pulsed power supply outputting power pulse widths of greater that 100 .mu.s.

  8. Deposition and characterization of zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering with linear gas ion source and bias voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Kavitha, A.; Kannan, R.; Subramanian, N. Sankara; Loganathan, S.

    2014-04-24

    Zirconium nitride thin films have been prepared on stainless steel substrate (304L grade) by reactive cylindrical magnetron sputtering method with Gas Ion Source (GIS) and bias voltage using optimized coating parameters. The structure and surface morphologies of the ZrN films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The adhesion property of ZrN thin film has been increased due to the GIS. The coating exhibits better adhesion strength up to 10 N whereas the ZrN thin film with bias voltage exhibits adhesion up to 500 mN.

  9. Magnetron-Sputtered YSZ and CGO Electrolytes for SOFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyev, A. A.; Shipilova, A. V.; Ionov, I. V.; Kovalchuk, A. N.; Rabotkin, S. V.; Oskirko, V. O.

    2016-08-01

    Reactive magnetron sputtering has been used for deposition of yttria-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) and gadolinium-doped CeO2 (CGO) layers on NiO-YSZ commercial anodes for solid oxide fuel cells. To increase the deposition rate and improve the quality of the sputtered thin oxide films, asymmetric bipolar pulse magnetron sputtering was applied. Three types of anode-supported cells, with single-layer YSZ or CGO and YSZ/CGO bilayer electrolyte, were prepared and investigated. Optimal thickness of oxide layers was determined experimentally. Based on the electrochemical characteristics of the cells, it is shown that, at lower operating temperatures of 650°C to 700°C, the cells with single-layer CGO electrolyte are most effective. The power density of these fuel cells exceeds that of the cell based on YSZ single-layer electrolyte at the same temperature. Power densities of 650 mW cm-2 and 500 mW cm-2 at 700°C were demonstrated by cells with single-layer YSZ and CGO electrolyte, respectively. Significantly enhanced maximum power density was achieved in a bilayer-electrolyte single cell, as compared with cells with a single electrolyte layer. Maximum power density of 1.25 W cm-2 at 800°C and 1 W cm-2 at 750°C under voltage of 0.7 V were achieved for the YSZ/CGO bilayer electrolyte cell with YSZ and CGO thickness of about 4 μm and 1.5 μm, respectively. This signifies that the YSZ thin film serves as a blocking layer to prevent electrical current leakage in the CGO layer, leading to the overall enhanced performance. This performance is comparable to the state of the art for cells based on YSZ/CGO bilayer electrolyte.

  10. Corrosion behavior of magnetron sputter-deposited (Mo/0.6/Ru/0.4/)82B18 and Mo82B18 amorphous metal films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.; Johnson, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    Amorphous metallic films of Mo49Ru33B18 and Mo82B18 have been prepared by magnetron sputtering, and their corrosion behavior was investigated and compared with amorphous liquid-quenched Mo49Ru33B18 and crystalline Mo i acidic and basic solutions. Sputtered Mo49Ru33B18 showed lower corrosion rates compared with liquid-quenched Mo49Ru33B18, owing to the superior surface smoothness and uniformity of the former. Amorphous Mo82B18 showed low corrosion rates in both acidic and basic aqueous solutions. Comparison of the corrosion properties of Mo49Ru33B18 with Mo82B18 and Mo demonstrates the roles of the alloys' constituents. Ru significantly extends the passive region to high-anodic potentials, but, at less-anodic potentials, Mo82B18 has the lowest corrosion rate.

  11. Characterization on RF magnetron sputtered niobium pentoxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Usha, N.; Sivakumar, R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2014-10-15

    Niobium pentoxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) thin films with amorphous nature were deposited on microscopic glass substrates at 100°C by rf magnetron sputtering technique. The effect of rf power on the structural, morphological, optical, and vibrational properties of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films have been investigated. Optical study shows the maximum average transmittance of about 87% and the optical energy band gap (indirect allowed) changes between 3.70 eV and 3.47 eV. AFM result indicates the smooth surface nature of the samples. Photoluminescence measurement showed the better optical quality of the deposited films. Raman spectra show the LO-TO splitting of Nb-O stretching of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films.

  12. Structural formation and photocatalytic activity of magnetron sputtered titania and doped-titania coatings.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Peter J; West, Glen T; Ratova, Marina; Fisher, Leanne; Ostovarpour, Soheyla; Verran, Joanna

    2014-10-13

    Titania and doped-titania coatings can be deposited by a wide range of techniques; this paper will concentrate on magnetron sputtering techniques, including "conventional" reactive co-sputtering from multiple metal targets and the recently introduced high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). The latter has been shown to deliver a relatively low thermal flux to the substrate, whilst still allowing the direct deposition of crystalline titania coatings and, therefore, offers the potential to deposit photocatalytically active titania coatings directly onto thermally sensitive substrates. The deposition of coatings via these techniques will be discussed, as will the characterisation of the coatings by XRD, SEM, EDX, optical spectroscopy, etc. The assessment of photocatalytic activity and photoactivity through the decomposition of an organic dye (methylene blue), the inactivation of E. coli microorganisms and the measurement of water contact angles will be described. The impact of different deposition technologies, doping and co-doping strategies on coating structure and activity will be also considered.

  13. A Comprehensive Study on Mo/CdTe Metal-Semiconductor Interface Deposited by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Dhar, N; Khan, N A; Chelvanathan, P; Akhtaruzzaman, M; Alam, M M; Alothman, Z A; Sopian, K; Amin, N

    2015-11-01

    Metal-semiconductor (MS) junction between Mo and CdTe, which is one of the fundamental issues for CdTe based solar cell, has been investigated for films deposited on different substrates. XRD pattern of Mo/CdTe films on the polyimide (PI) substrate shows a strong preferential orientation of MoTe2 in (100) at 2θ = 29.44 degrees, which becomes less apparent as deposition time of CdTe increases. However, on soda lime glass (SLG) no such XRD reflection pattern is observed. Moreover, from EDX measurement, Mo-Te compound also identifies MoTe2 at Mo/CdTe interface on PI substrate, which is not present on SLG. Bulk carrier concentration of Mo/CdTe films on PI substrate for lower deposition time of CdTe is found 1.42 x 10(18) cm(-3), which is almost equal to MoTe2. Thereafter, it decreases as CdTe growth time increases. The type of unintentionally formed MoTe2 on PI substrate is found to be n-type in nature. Lattice constants of a = 6.5 Å for CdTe and a = 3.52 Å for MoTe2 are found from nanostructure study by TEM.

  14. Direct observation of spoke evolution in magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, André; Yang, Yuchen

    2017-08-01

    Ionization zones, also known as spokes, are plasma instabilities manifested as locations of intensified excitation and ionization over a sputtering magnetron's racetrack. Using a linear magnetron and a streak camera, we were able to observe and quantify spoke dynamics. The technique allows us to image the onset and changes for both direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). Spokes in dcMS exhibit substructures. Spokes in HiPIMS are not stable as they shift along the racetrack; rather, they tend to grow or diminish, and they may split and merge. Their evolution can be interpreted in the context of localized electric fields and associated electron heating.

  15. Formation of dielectric silicon compounds by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselov, D. S.; Voronov, Yu A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of reactive magnetron sputtering of the silicon target in the ambient of inert argon gas with reactive gas, nitrogen or oxygen. The magnetron was powered by two mid-frequency generators of a rectangular pulse of opposite polarity. The negative polarity pulse provides the sputtering of the target. The positive polarity pulse provides removal of accumulated charge from the surface of the target. This method does not require any special devices of resistances matching and provides continuous sputtering of the target.

  16. Self-sputtering runaway in high power impulse magnetron sputtering: The role of secondary electrons and multiply charged metal ions

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2008-05-19

    Self-sputtering runaway in high power impulse magnetron sputtering is closely related to the appearance of multiply charged ions. This conclusion is based on the properties of potential emission of secondary electrons and energy balance considerations. The effect is especially strong for materials whose sputtering yield is marginally greater than unity. The absolute deposition rate increases {approx}Q{sup 1/2}, whereas the rate normalized to the average power decreases {approx}Q{sup -1/2}, with Q being the mean ion charge state number.

  17. Investigation on the electrical properties and inhomogeneous distribution of ZnO:Al thin films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering at low deposition temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. B.; Pei, Z. L.; Gong, J.; Sun, C.

    2007-01-01

    A study of the electrical properties and spatial distribution of the ZnO:Al (AZO) thin films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering at low deposition temperature was presented, with emphasis on the origin of the resistivity inhomogeneity across the substrate. Various growth conditions were obtained by manipulating the growth temperature T{sub S}, total pressure P{sub T}, and ion-to-neutral ratio J{sub i}/J{sub n}. The plasma characteristics such as radial ion density and floating/plasma potential distribution over the substrate were measured by Langmuir probe, while the flux and energy distribution of energetic species were estimated through Monte Carlo simulations. The crystalline, stress and electrical properties of the films were found to be strongly dependent on T{sub S} and J{sub i}/J{sub n}. Under the low J{sub i}/J{sub n} (<0.3) conditions, the T{sub S} exerted a remarkable influence on film quality. The films prepared at 90 deg. C were highly compressed, exhibiting poor electrical properties and significant spatial distribution. High quality films with low stress and resistivity were produced at higher T{sub S} (200 deg. C). Similarly, at lower T{sub S} (90 deg. C), higher J{sub i}/J{sub n} ({approx}2) dramatically improved the film resistivity as well as its lateral distribution. Moreover, it indicated that the role of ion bombardment is dependent on the mechanism of dissipation of incident species. Ion bombardment is beneficial to the film growth if the energy of incident species E{sub i} is below the penetration threshold E{sub pet} ({approx}33 eV for ZnO); on the other hand, the energy subimplant mechanism would work, and the bombardment degrades the film quality when E{sub i} is over the E{sub pet}. The energetic bombardment of negative oxygen ions rather than the positives dominated the resistivity distribution of AZO films, while the nonuniform distribution of active oxygen played a secondary role which was otherwise more notable under conditions of

  18. Influence of vanadium incorporation on the microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of Nb–V–Si–N films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Hongbo; Xu, Junhua

    2015-09-15

    Composite Nb–V–Si–N films with various V contents (3.7–13.2 at.%) were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering and the effects of V content on the microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of Nb–V–Si–N films were investigated. The results revealed that a three-phase structure, consisting of face-centered cubic (fcc) Nb–V–Si–N, hexagonal close-packed (hcp) Nb–V–Si–N and amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, co-exists in the Nb–V–Si–N films and the cubic phase is dominant. The hardness and critical load (L{sub c}) of Nb–V–Si–N films initially increased gradually and reached a summit, then decreased with the increasing V content in the films and the maximum values were 35 GPa and 9.8 N, respectively, at 6.4 at.% V. The combination of V into Nb–Si–N film led to the fracture toughness linearly increasing from 1.11 MPa·m{sup 1/2} at 3.7 at.% V to 1.67 MPa·m{sup 1/2} at 13.2 at.% V. At room temperature (RT), the average friction coefficient decreased from 0.80 at 3.7 at.% V to 0.55 at 13.2 at.% V for the Nb–V–Si–N films. The wear rate of Nb–V–Si–N films initially decreased and then increased after reaching a minimum value of about 6.35 × 10{sup −} {sup 7} mm{sup 3}/N·mm at 6.4 at.% V. As the rise of testing temperature from 200 °C to 600 °C, the average friction coefficient of Nb–V–Si–N films decreased with the increase of the testing temperature regardless of V content. However, the wear rate gradually increased for all films. The average friction coefficient and wear rate at RT and elevated temperatures were mainly influenced by the vanadium oxides with weakly bonded lattice planes. - Highlight: • Fcc-Nb–V–Si–N, hcp-Nb–V–Si–N and amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} co-existed in the films. • The amount of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} decreased with increasing V content in the films. • Hardness of Nb–V–Si–N film (6.4 at.%) reached a maximum value of 35 GPa. • Addition of V led to the

  19. Anisotropies in magnetron sputtered carbon nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellgren, Niklas; Johansson, Mats P.; Broitman, Esteban; Hultman, Lars; Sundgren, Jan-Eric

    2001-04-01

    Carbon nitride CNx (0⩽x⩽0.35) thin films, deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering in Ar/N2 discharges have been studied with respect to microstructure using electron microscopy, and elastic modulus using nanoindentation and surface acoustic wave analyses. For growth temperature of 100 °C, the films were amorphous, and with an isotropic Young's modulus of ˜170-200 GPa essentially unaffected by the nitrogen fraction. The films grown at elevated temperatures (350-550 °C) show anisotropic mechanical properties due to a textured microstructure with standing basal planes, as observed from measuring the Young's modulus in different directions. The modulus measured in the plane of the film was ˜60-80 GPa, while in the vertical direction the modulus increased considerably from ˜25 to ˜200 GPa as the nitrogen content was increased above ˜15 at. %.

  20. Influence of RF power on magnetron sputtered AZO films

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Mohit; Modi, Pankaj; Dusane, R. O.

    2013-02-05

    Al-doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) transparent conducting films are prepared on glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering under different RF power with a 3 inch diameter target of 2 wt%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in zinc oxide. The effect of RF power on the structural, optical and electrical properties of AZO films was investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Hall measurement and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The XRD data indicates a preferential c-axis orientation for all the films. All films exhibit high transmittance (<90%) in visible region. Films deposited at 60 W power exhibit lowest resistivity of 5.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}{omega}cm. Such low-resistivity and high-transmittance AZO films when prepared using low RF power at room temperature could find important applications in flexible electronics.

  1. Post Magnetron Sputter And Reactive Sputter Coating Of Contoured Glass, Acrylic And Polycarbonate Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Michael P.

    1985-12-01

    A Post Magnetron Sputter concept employing a cylindrical internally cooled target (cathode) is described. The use of an internal, rotating, permanent magnetic field resulting in 360° utilisation of the target material is outlined. Computer controlled horizontal and vertical movement of the cathode assembly facilitates the coating of contoured substrates which may be glass, acrylic or polycarbonate. Deposition of different metals is easily achieved by changing the cathode or covering it with a suitable sheath material. The design of the cathode results in economic utilisation of the target material, which is particularly important when sputtering expensive metals such as gold. In addition to the deposition of metallic films, such as stainless steel or chrome, reactive sputtering may be undertaken by the introduction of a reactive gas into the vacuum chamber. In this way metal oxide, sulphide or nitride layers may be deposited according to the requirements of the layer structure. Specific optically-active oxides such as indium tin oxide are easily deposited in a uniform film and the formation of multilayer coatings for sun protective and heat rejecting applications is practicable. Indeed, a complete process may be undertaken without removing the substrate from the chamber; merely by adding or changing the reactive gas present.

  2. A review comparing cathodic arcs and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS)

    DOE PAGES

    Anders, André

    2014-09-02

    In this study, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has been in the center of attention over the last years as it is an emerging physical vapor deposition (PVD) technology that combines advantages of magnetron sputtering with various forms of energetic deposition of films such as ion plating and cathodic arc plasma deposition. It should not come at a surprise that many extension and variations of HiPIMS make use, intentionally or unintentionally, of previously discovered approaches to film processing such as substrate surface preparation by metal ion sputtering and phased biasing for film texture and stress control. Therefore, in thismore » review, an overview is given on some historical developments and features of cathodic arc and HiPIMS plasmas, showing commonalities and differences. To limit the scope, emphasis is put on plasma properties, as opposed to surveying the vast literature on specific film materials and their properties.« less

  3. Magnetron sputtered boron films for increasing hardness of a metal surface

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    2003-05-27

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  4. A review comparing cathodic arcs and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, André

    2014-09-02

    In this study, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has been in the center of attention over the last years as it is an emerging physical vapor deposition (PVD) technology that combines advantages of magnetron sputtering with various forms of energetic deposition of films such as ion plating and cathodic arc plasma deposition. It should not come at a surprise that many extension and variations of HiPIMS make use, intentionally or unintentionally, of previously discovered approaches to film processing such as substrate surface preparation by metal ion sputtering and phased biasing for film texture and stress control. Therefore, in this review, an overview is given on some historical developments and features of cathodic arc and HiPIMS plasmas, showing commonalities and differences. To limit the scope, emphasis is put on plasma properties, as opposed to surveying the vast literature on specific film materials and their properties.

  5. Study the Hardness Properties of TiAlN Coatings Prepared by Magnetron Co-sputtering Deposited Nanoscale Multi-layered Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Dilip Kumar; Agrawal, Sadhana; Saji, Janita

    2011-11-01

    There is increased industrial usage of modern tools used in cutting operations today that are coated with PVD hard coatings based on TiAlN. Coating properties such as thermal stability, hot hardness, and toughness are of interest when designing their functionality in these applications. Ti1-xAlxN films were synthesized by reactive magnetron co—sputtering with different aluminum compositions. XRD, SIMS, Nano indentation techniques were used to analyze these films. Nanoindentation hardness increases with aluminum and started to decrease beyond 81% of aluminum. Continuous Multi-Cycle indentation technique is used to analyze the failure mode of the film with highest hardness and structural properties and on coating response to high temperature oxidation is presented.

  6. GaAs Films Prepared by RF-Magnetron Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    L.H. Ouyang; D.L. Rode; T. Zulkifli; B. Abraham-Shrauner; N. Lewis; M.R. Freeman

    2001-08-01

    The authors reported on the optical absorption, adhesion, and microstructure of RF-magnetron sputtered films of hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline GaAs films for the 1 to 25 {micro}m infrared wavelength rate. Sputtering parameters which were varied include sputtering power, temperature and pressure, and hydrogen sputtering-gas concentration. TEM results show a sharp transition from purely amorphous GaAs to a mixture of microcrystalline GaAs in an amorphous matrix at 34 {+-} 2 C. By optimizing the sputtering parameters, the optical absorption coefficient can be decreased below 100 cm{sup -1} for wavelengths greater than about 1.25 {micro}m. These results represent the lowest reported values of optical absorption for sputtered films of GaAs directly measured by spectrophotometry for the near-infrared wavelength region.

  7. Extending the photoresponse of TiO2 to the visible light region: photoelectrochemical behavior of TiO2 thin films prepared by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering deposition method.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Hisashi; Kitano, Masaaki; Takeuchi, Masato; Matsuoka, Masaya; Anpo, Masakazu; Kamat, Prashant V

    2006-03-23

    TiO(2) thin films prepared by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RF-MS) deposition method were found to show an enhanced photoelectrochemical response in the visible light region. By controlling the temperature and the gaseous medium during the deposition step, it was possible to control the properties of these films. The photoelectrochemical behavior of the sputtered TiO(2) thin films was compared with that of a commercial TiO(2) sample, and the sputtered films showed higher incident photon to the charge carrier generation efficiency (IPCE of 12.6% at 350 nm) as well as power conversion efficiency (0.33% at 1.84 mW/cm(2)) than the commercial TiO(2) sample. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy experiments have revealed that a major fraction of photogenerated electrons and holes recombine within a few picoseconds, thus limiting photocurrent generation efficiency. The mechanistic insights obtained in the present study should aid in designing semiconductor nanostructures that will maximize the charge separation efficiency and extend the response of the large band gap semiconductor TiO(2) into visible light regions.

  8. A Plasma Lens for Magnetron Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Brown, Jeff

    2010-11-30

    A plasma lens, consisting of a solenoid and potential-defining ring electrodes, has been placed between a magnetron and substrates to be coated. Photography reveals qualitative information on excitation, ionization, and the transport of plasma to the substrate.

  9. Comprehensive computer model for magnetron sputtering. I. Gas heating and rarefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Francisco J.; Dew, Steven K.

    2012-07-15

    The complex interaction between several variables in magnetron sputtering discharges is a challenge in developing engineering design tools for industrial applications. For instance, at high pressures, rarefaction and gas heating should no longer be neglected for determining several parameters of the process. In this article, we use a comprehensive 3D reactor-scale simulator that incorporates most phenomena of interest in a self-consistent manner to simulate the transport of sputtered particles over a wide range of pressures and powers. Calculations of aluminum deposition rates and metal vapor densities are in reasonable agreement with experiments over a wide range of pressures and powers. Of the elements investigated (Al, Ti, and Cu), copper showed the greatest rarefaction (30%) due to its higher sputtering yield. Titanium, despite a slightly lower sputtering yield than Al, shows a greater rarefaction than aluminum as more particles are reflected from the target as high energy neutrals. In this case, a more efficient energy transfer process is responsible for the higher rarefaction observed in Ti sputtering when compared to Al. The authors also observed that by sputtering at a higher pressure, the probability of electron impact ionization of sputtered particles is increased and speculate about the role of this process in contrast to penning ionization, which is believed to be the dominant ionization mechanism in magnetron sputtering.

  10. Synthesis of Alumina Thin Films Using Reactive Magnetron Sputtering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angarita, G.; Palacio, C.; Trujillo, M.; Arroyave, M.

    2017-06-01

    Alumina (Al2O3) thin films were deposited on Si (100) by Magnetron Sputtering in reactive conditions between an aluminium target and oxygen 99.99% pure. The plasma was formed employing Argon with an R.F power of 100 W, the dwelling time was 3 hours. 4 samples were produced with temperatures between 350 and 400 ºC in the substrate by using an oxygen flow of 2 and 8 sccm, the remaining parameters of the process were fixed. The coatings and substrates were characterized using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) in order to compare their properties before and after deposition. The films thicknesses were between 47 and 70 nm. The results show that at high oxygen flow the alumina structure prevails in the coatings while at lower oxygen flow only aluminum is deposited in the coatings. It was shown that the temperature increases grain size and roughness while decreasing the thicknesses of the coatings.

  11. Magnetron sputtering of copper on thermosensitive polymer materials of the gas centrifuge rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisevich, V.; Senchenkov, S.; Titov, D.

    2016-09-01

    Magnetron sputtering is the well-known and widely-used deposition technique for coating versatile high-quality and well-adhered films. However, the technology has some limitations, caused by high temperatures on the coating surface. The paper is devoted to the experimental development of a process of magnetron sputtering of copper on a surface coated with a thermosensitive polymer made of carbon fiber with epoxide binder. This process is applied for balancing a rotor of a gas centrifuge for isotope separation. The optimum operating parameters of the process are found and discussed. They were in quantitative agreement with data obtained by means of non-stationary modeling based on a global description of plasma in the typical geometry of the magnetron discharges obtained in independent research. The structure of the resulting layer is investigated.

  12. Magnetic properties of thin films of samarium-cobalt alloy prepared by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, Gyanendra; Gupta, Mukul; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.

    2016-10-01

    We examine the magnetic properties of samarium-cobalt thin films on quartz and Si(111) substrates grown by dc magnetron sputtering. Both films are deposited on Cr buffer layer and subsequently a capping layer of Cr was also deposited. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy results reveal that Cr diffused in to Sm-Co layer.This lead to local change in magnetocrystalline anisotropy. As the result of this we observed the two coercive behaviors in magnetization of thin film.

  13. Very low pressure high power impulse triggered magnetron sputtering

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim

    2013-10-29

    A method and apparatus are described for very low pressure high powered magnetron sputtering of a coating onto a substrate. By the method of this invention, both substrate and coating target material are placed into an evacuable chamber, and the chamber pumped to vacuum. Thereafter a series of high impulse voltage pulses are applied to the target. Nearly simultaneously with each pulse, in one embodiment, a small cathodic arc source of the same material as the target is pulsed, triggering a plasma plume proximate to the surface of the target to thereby initiate the magnetron sputtering process. In another embodiment the plasma plume is generated using a pulsed laser aimed to strike an ablation target material positioned near the magnetron target surface.

  14. The effect of Si content on structure and mechanical features of silicon-containing calcium-phosphate-based films deposited by RF-magnetron sputtering on titanium substrate treated by pulsed electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmeneva, M.; Tyurin, A.; Mukhametkaliyev, T.; Teresov, A.; Koval, A.; Pirozhkova, T.; Shuvarin, I.; Chudinova, E.; Surmenev, R.

    2015-11-01

    Silicon-containing calcium phosphate (Si-CaP) coatings were fabricated by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering using the targets prepared from hydroxyapatite (HA) powder with different silicon content. A powder of Si-HA (Ca10(PO4)6-x(SiO4)x(OH)2-x, x=0.5 and 1.72) was prepared by mechanochemical activation and then used as a precursor-powder to prepare a target for sputtering. The titanium substrate was acid etched and treated with pulsed electron beam with an energy density of 15 J/cm2. The average crystallite size as determined by XRD was 28 nm for the coatings obtained using the target prepared from the Si-HA powder (x=0.5), whereas Si-CaP (Si-HA powder x=1.72) films showed an amorphous structure. The nanohardness and the Young's modulus of the Si-CaP coating (x=0.5) deposited on titanium treated by pulsed electron beam are enhanced to 4.5 and 113 GPa compared to titanium substrate. Increase of Si content resulted in a dramatic decrease of the nanohardness and Young's modulus of Si-CaP films. However, Si-CaP coatings with the highest Si content revealed significantly lower values of elastic modulus, but slightly higher values of H/E and H3/E2 than did the non-coated specimens. Rf-magnetron sputtering allowed us to produce Si- CaP coatings with higher nanohardness and lower elastic modulus compared to titanium substrate.

  15. The microstructure and properties of titanium dioxide films synthesized by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Y. X.; Chen, J. Y.; Yang, P.; Sun, H.; Huang, N.

    2007-04-01

    In this work, titanium oxide films were deposited on Ti6Al4V and Si (1 0 0) by DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering method at different oxygen pressure. X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness tests, pin-on-disk wear experiments, surface contact angle tests and platelet adhesion investigation were conducted to evaluate the properties of the films. The corrosion behavior of titanium dioxide films was characterized by potentiodynamic polarization. The results showed that titanium oxide films deposited by unbalance magnetron sputtering were compact and could obviously enhance microhardness, wear resistance of titanium alloy substrate. Potentiodynamic polarization curves showed that Ti-6Al-4V deposited with titanium dioxide films had lower dissolution currents than that of the uncoated one. The results of in vitro hemocompatibility analyses indicated that the blood compatibility of the titanium dioxide films with bandgap 3.2 eV have better blood compatibility.

  16. Effect of Sputtering Temperature on Structure and Optical Properties of NiO Films Fabricated by Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Zhao, Yang; Li, Xinzhong; Zhen, Zhiqiang; Li, Hehe; Wang, Jingge; Tang, Miaomiao

    2017-07-01

    NiO thin films were deposited on sapphire and Corning 1737 glass substrates using the radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. The structures, optical and electrical properties of NiO films grown under different sputtering temperatures were thoroughly studied. The NiO films were composed of different-size NiO nano-grains with a strong (111) preferred orientation. The NiO grain size increased with the sputtering temperature increase. The band gap values decreased from 3.69 eV to 3.38 eV on the sputtering temperature increase from 30°C to 450°C. Moreover, the electrical property variations of the NiO samples were studied by the Hall effect in detail.

  17. Effect of Sputtering Temperature on Structure and Optical Properties of NiO Films Fabricated by Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Zhao, Yang; Li, Xinzhong; Zhen, Zhiqiang; Li, Hehe; Wang, Jingge; Tang, Miaomiao

    2017-03-01

    NiO thin films were deposited on sapphire and Corning 1737 glass substrates using the radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. The structures, optical and electrical properties of NiO films grown under different sputtering temperatures were thoroughly studied. The NiO films were composed of different-size NiO nano-grains with a strong (111) preferred orientation. The NiO grain size increased with the sputtering temperature increase. The band gap values decreased from 3.69 eV to 3.38 eV on the sputtering temperature increase from 30°C to 450°C. Moreover, the electrical property variations of the NiO samples were studied by the Hall effect in detail.

  18. Reactive sputter deposition of boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A.F.; Hayes, J.P.; McKernan, M.A.; Makowiecki, D.M.

    1995-10-01

    The preparation of fully dense, boron targets for use in planar magnetron sources has lead to the synthesis of Boron Nitride (BN) films by reactive rf sputtering. The deposition parameters of gas pressure, flow and composition are varied along with substrate temperature and applied bias. The films are characterized for composition using Auger electron spectroscopy, for chemical bonding using Raman spectroscopy and for crystalline structure using transmission electron microscopy. The deposition conditions are established which lead to the growth of crystalline BN phases. In particular, the growth of an adherent cubic BN coating requires 400--500 C substrate heating and an applied {minus}300 V dc bias.

  19. Characteristics of Carrier Transport and Crystallographic Orientation Distribution of Transparent Conductive Al-Doped ZnO Polycrystalline Films Deposited by Radio-Frequency, Direct-Current, and Radio-Frequency-Superimposed Direct-Current Magnetron Sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Nomoto, Junichi; Inaba, Katsuhiko; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Watanabe, Takeshi; Makino, Hisao; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the characteristics of carrier transport and crystallographic orientation distribution in 500-nm-thick Al-doped ZnO (AZO) polycrystalline films to achieve high-Hall-mobility AZO films. The AZO films were deposited on glass substrates at 200 °C by direct-current, radio-frequency, or radio-frequency-superimposed direct-current magnetron sputtering at various power ratios. We used sintered AZO targets with an Al2O3 content of 2.0 wt. %. The analysis of the data obtained by X-ray diffraction, Hall-effect, and optical measurements of AZO films at various power ratios showed that the complex orientation texture depending on the growth process enhanced the contribution of grain boundary scattering to carrier transport and of carrier sinks on net carrier concentration, resulting in the reduction in the Hall mobility of polycrystalline AZO films. PMID:28792439

  20. Characteristics of Carrier Transport and Crystallographic Orientation Distribution of Transparent Conductive Al-Doped ZnO Polycrystalline Films Deposited by Radio-Frequency, Direct-Current, and Radio-Frequency-Superimposed Direct-Current Magnetron Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Junichi; Inaba, Katsuhiko; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Watanabe, Takeshi; Makino, Hisao; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2017-08-09

    We investigated the characteristics of carrier transport and crystallographic orientation distribution in 500-nm-thick Al-doped ZnO (AZO) polycrystalline films to achieve high-Hall-mobility AZO films. The AZO films were deposited on glass substrates at 200 °C by direct-current, radio-frequency, or radio-frequency-superimposed direct-current magnetron sputtering at various power ratios. We used sintered AZO targets with an Al₂O₃ content of 2.0 wt. %. The analysis of the data obtained by X-ray diffraction, Hall-effect, and optical measurements of AZO films at various power ratios showed that the complex orientation texture depending on the growth process enhanced the contribution of grain boundary scattering to carrier transport and of carrier sinks on net carrier concentration, resulting in the reduction in the Hall mobility of polycrystalline AZO films.

  1. Magnetic properties of YIG (Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}) thin films prepared by the post annealing of amorphous films deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Young-Min; Wee, Sung-Hun; Baik, Seong-Il; Min, Seong-Gi; Yu, Seong-Cho; Moon, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Young-Woon; Yoo, Sang-Im

    2005-05-15

    We report magnetic properties of Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YIG) films on thermally oxidized Si (100) and (Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12}) GGG (111) substrates. Amorphous YIG films with the cation ratio Y:Fe=3.04:4.96, deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering at room temperature in pure argon atmosphere, were crystallized by postannealing (600-900 deg. C) of amorphous films in air and in 500 ppm oxygen. While postannealed YIG films on GGG substrates were well textured, those on Si (100) were randomly oriented. High-quality YIG films could be better obtained in the reduced (500 ppm O{sub 2}) oxygen atmosphere than air since more effective YIG growth during annealing process and lower FMR linewidth ({delta}H) of films could be achieved.

  2. Coating multilayer material with improved tribological properties obtained by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateescu, A. O.; Mateescu, G.; Balasoiu, M.; Pompilian, G. O.; Lungu, M.

    2017-02-01

    This work is based on the Patent no. RO 128094 B1, granted by the Romanian State Office for Inventions and Trademarks. The goal of the work is to obtain for investigations tribological coatings with multilayer structure with improved tribological properties, deposited by magnetron sputtering process from three materials (sputtering targets). Starting from compound chemical materials (TiC, TiB2 and WC), as sputtering targets, by deposition in argon atmosphere on polished stainless steel, we have obtained, based on the claims of the above patent, thin films of multilayer design with promising results regarding their hardness, elastic modulus, adherence, coefficient of friction and wear resistance. The sputtering process took place in a special sequence in order to ensure better tribological properties to the coating, comparing to those of the individual component materials. The tribological properties, such as the coefficient of friction, are evaluated using the tribometer test.

  3. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafieian, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, Tom; Lammertink, Rob G. H.

    2015-09-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx<2), obtained by sputtering at relatively low oxygen concentration, formed rutile upon annealing in air, whereas stoichiometric films formed anatase. This route therefore presents a formation route for rutile films via lower (<500 °C) temperature pathways. The dynamics of the annealing process were followed by in situ ellipsometry, showing the optical properties transformation. The final crystal structures were identified by XRD. The anatase film obtained by this deposition method displayed high carriers mobility as measured by time-resolved microwave conductance. This also confirms the high photocatalytic activity of the anatase films.

  4. Magnetron-sputter deposition of Fe{sub 3}S{sub 4} thin films and their conversion into pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) by thermal sulfurization for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hongfei; Chi Dongzhi

    2012-07-15

    The authors report on the fabrication of FeS{sub 2} (pyrite) thin films by sulfurizing Fe{sub 3}S{sub 4} that were deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Under the selected sputtering conditions, Fe{sub 3}S{sub 4} nanocrystal films are obtained and the nanocrystals tend to locally cluster and closely pack into ricelike nanoparticles with an increase in film thickness. Meanwhile, the film tends to crack when the film thickness is increased over {approx}1.3 {mu}m. The film cracking can be effectively suppressed by an introduction of a 3-nm Cu intermediate layer prior to Fe{sub 3}S{sub 4} deposition. However, an introduction of a 3-nm Al intermediate layer tends to enhance the film cracking. By post-growth thermal sulfurization of the Fe{sub 3}S{sub 4} thin films in a tube-furnace, FeS{sub 2} with high phase purity, as determined by using x ray diffraction, is obtained. Optical absorption spectroscopy was employed to characterize the resultant FeS{sub 2} thin films, which revealed two absorption edges at 0.9 and 1.2 eV, respectively. These two absorption edges are assigned to the direct bandgap (0.9 eV) and the indirect allowed transitions (1.2 eV) of FeS{sub 2}, respectively.

  5. Study of Ni{sub 2}-Mn-Ga phase formation by magnetron sputtering film deposition at low temperature onto Si substrates and LaNiO{sub 3}/Pb(Ti,Zr)O{sub 3} buffer

    SciTech Connect

    Figueiras, F.; Rauwel, E.; Amaral, V. S.; Vyshatko, N.; Kholkin, A. L.; Soyer, C.; Remiens, D.; Shvartsman, V. V.; Borisov, P.; Kleemann, W.

    2010-01-15

    Film deposition of Ni{sub 2}MnGa phaselike alloy by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering was performed onto bare Si(100) substrates and LaNiO{sub 3}/Pb(Ti,Zr)O{sub 3} (LNO/PZT) ferroelectric buffer layer near room temperature. The prepared samples were characterized using conventional x-ray diffraction (XRD), superconducting quantum interference device, and electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy from scanning electron microscope observations. The optimized films deposited under high rf power and low argon pressure present good surface quality and highly textured phase crystallization. The positioning distance between the substrate and the target-holder axis has some limited effect on the film's composition due to the specific diffusion behavior of each element in the sputtering plasma. Extended four pole high resolution XRD analysis allowed one to discriminate the intended Ni-Mn-Ga tetragonal martensitic phase induced by the (100) LNO/PZT oriented buffer. This low temperature process appears to be very promising, allowing separate control of the functional layer's properties, while trying to achieve high electromagnetoelastic coupling.

  6. The use of magnetron sputtering for the deposition of thin titanium coatings on the surface of bioresorbable electrospun fibrous scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering: A pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolbasov, E. N.; Antonova, L. V.; Stankevich, K. S.; Ashrafov, A.; Matveeva, V. G.; Velikanova, E. A.; Khodyrevskaya, Yu. I.; Kudryavtseva, Yu. A.; Anissimov, Y. G.; Tverdokhlebov, S. I.; Barbarash, L. S.

    2017-03-01

    The deposition of thin titanium coatings using magnetron spattering on the surface of bioresorbable fibrous scaffolds produced by electrospinning was investigated. Parameters that allow the surface modification without damaging the "macro" structure of scaffolds were determined. Physicochemical properties of the modified scaffolds were described using SEM, EDS, DSC, optical goniometry, and mechanical testing. It was shown that plasma treatment has a significant influence on the scaffolds' fiber surface relief. The modification process leads to a slight decrease of the scaffold mechanical performance mainly caused by polymer crystallization. Increasing the deposition time increases the amount of titanium on the surface. The biocompatibility of the modified scaffolds was studied using hybridoma of the endothelial cells of human umbilical vein and human lung carcinoma (EA.hy 926 cell line). Cell adhesion, viability, and secretion of interleukin-6 (IL6), interleukin-8 (IL8), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were investigated. It was demonstrated that the deposition of thin titanium coatings on the fibrous scaffolds' surface enhances cell adhesion. Additionally, it was determined that modified scaffolds have proangiogenic activity.

  7. Characterization of high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hala, Matej

    Paper I: In the first paper, we present a new approach in the characterization of the high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge evolution—time- and species-resolved plasma imaging—employing a set of band-pass optical interference filters suitable for the isolation of the emission originating from different species populating the plasma. We demonstrate that the introduction of such filters can be used to distinguish different phases of the discharge, and to visualize numerous plasma effects including background gas excitations during the discharge ignition, gas shock waves, and expansion of metal-rich plasmas. In particular, the application of this technique is shown on the diagnostics of the 200 µs long non-reactive HiPIMS discharges using a Cr target. Paper II: In order to gain further information about the dynamics of reactive HiPIMS discharges, both fast plasma imaging and time- and space-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES) are used for a systematic investigation of the 200 µs long HiPIMS pulses operated in Ar, N2 and N 2/Ar mixtures and at various pressures. It is observed that the dense metal plasma created next to the target propagates in the reactor at a speed ranging from 0.7 to 3.5 km s-1, depending on the working gas composition and the pressure. In fact, it increases with higher N 2 concentration and with lower pressure. The visible form of the propagating plasma wave changes from a hemispherical shape in Ar to a drop-like shape extending far from the target with increasing N2 concentration, owing to the significant emission from molecular N2. Interestingly, the evidence of the target self-sputtering is found for all investigated conditions, including pure N2 atmosphere. Paper III: Here, we report on the time- and species-resolved plasma imaging analysis of the dynamics of the 200 µs long HiPIMS discharges above a Cr target ignited in pure O2. It is shown that the discharge emission is dominated solely by neutral and

  8. The bioactivity mechanism of magnetron sputtered bioglass thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbecaru, C.; Stan, G. E.; Pina, S.; Tulyaganov, D. U.; Ferreira, J. M. F.

    2012-10-01

    Smooth and adherent bioactive coatings with ∼0.5 μm thickness were deposited onto Si substrates by the radiofrequency-magnetron sputtering method at 150 °C under 0.4 Pa of Ar atmosphere using a bioglass powder as target with a composition in the SiO2-CaO-MgO-P2O5-CaF2-B2O3-Na2O system. The bioactivity of the as-prepared bioglass samples was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid for different periods of time up to 30 days. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectrometry and energy dispersive spectroscopy revealed that important structural and compositional changes took place upon immersing the samples in SBF. Whilst the excellent biomineralisation capability of the BG thin films was demonstrated by the in vitro induction of extensive and homogenous crystalline hydroxyapatite in-growths on their surfaces, a series of bioactivity process kinetics peculiarities (derogations from the classical model) were emphasised and thoroughly discussed.

  9. Fabrication of oriented hydroxyapatite film by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Keishiro; Kubota, Takafumi; Koyama, Daisuke; Takayanagi, Shinji; Matsukawa, Mami

    2017-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is compatible with bone tissue and is used mainly as a bone prosthetic material, especially as the coating of implants. Oriented HAp film is expected to be a high-quality epitaxial scaffold of the neonatal bone. To fabricate highly oriented HAp thin films via the conventional plasma process, we deposited the HAp film on a Ti coated silica glass substrate using RF magnetron sputtering in low substrate temperature conditions. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the film sample consisted of an intense (002) peak, corresponding to the highly oriented HAp. The (002) peak in XRD diagrams can be attributed either to the monoclinic phase or the hexagonal phase. Pole figure analysis showed that the (002) plane grew parallel to the surface of the substrate, without inclination. Transmission Electron Microscope analysis also showed the fabrication of aligned HAp crystallites. The selected area diffraction patterns indicated the existence of monoclinic phase. The existence of hexagonal phase could not be judged. These results indicate the uniaxial films fabricated by this technique enable to be the epitaxial scaffold of the neonatal bone. This scaffold can be expected to promote connection with the surrounding bone tissue and recovery of the dynamic characteristics of the bone.

  10. EMI shielding using composite materials with two sources magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaja, J.; Jaroszewski, M.; Lewandowski, M.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the preparation composite materials for electromagnetic shields using two sources magnetron sputtering DC-M is presented. A composite material was prepared by coating a nonwoven polypropylene metallic layer in sputtering process of targets Ti (purity 99%) and brass alloy MO58 (58%Cu, 40%Zn, 2%Pb) and ϕ diameter targets = 50 mm, under argon atmosphere. The system with magnetron sputtering sources was powered using switch-mode power supply DPS (Dora Power System) with a maximum power of 16 kW and a maximum voltage of 1.2 kV with group frequency from 50 Hz to 5 kHz. The influence of sputtering time of individual targets on the value of the EM field attenuation SE [dB] was investigated for the following supply conditions: pressure pp = 2x10-3 Torr, sputtering power P = 750 W, the time of applying a layer t = 5 min, group frequency fg = 2 kHz, the frequency of switching between targets fp = 1 Hz.

  11. Heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si by DC magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Steglich, Martin; Schrempel, Frank; Füchsel, Kevin; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Patzig, Christian; Berthold, Lutz; Höche, Thomas; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-07-15

    The growth of Ge on Si(100) by DC Magnetron Sputtering at various temperatures is studied by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Smooth heteroepitaxial Ge films are prepared at relatively low temperatures of 380°C. Typical Stransky-Krastanov growth is observed at 410°C. At lower temperatures (320°C), films are essentially amorphous with isolated nanocrystallites at the Si-Ge interface. A minor oxygen contamination at the interface, developing after ex-situ oxide removal, is not seen to hinder epitaxy. Compensation of dislocation-induced acceptors in Ge by sputtering from n-doped targets is proposed.

  12. Discharge current modes of high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhongzhen Xiao, Shu; Ma, Zhengyong; Cui, Suihan; Ji, Shunping; Pan, Feng; Tian, Xiubo; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-09-15

    Based on the production and disappearance of ions and electrons in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma near the target, the expression of the discharge current is derived. Depending on the slope, six possible modes are deduced for the discharge current and the feasibility of each mode is discussed. The discharge parameters and target properties are simplified into the discharge voltage, sputtering yield, and ionization energy which mainly affect the discharge plasma. The relationship between these factors and the discharge current modes is also investigated.

  13. Sputter deposition of lithium silicate - lithium phosphate amorphous electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Luck, C.F. ); Robertson, J.D. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    Thin films of an amorphous lithium-conducting electrolyte were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of ceramic targets containing Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} and Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The lithium content of the films was found to depend more strongly on the nature and composition of the targets than on many other sputtering parameters. For targets containing Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, most of the lithium was found to segregate away from the sputtered area of the target. Codeposition using two sputter sources achieves a high lithium content in a controlled and reproducible film growth. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Highly adherent bioactive glass thin films synthetized by magnetron sputtering at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Stan, G E; Pasuk, I; Husanu, M A; Enculescu, I; Pina, S; Lemos, A F; Tulyaganov, D U; El Mabrouk, K; Ferreira, J M F

    2011-12-01

    Thin (380-510 nm) films of a low silica content bioglass with MgO, B(2)O(3), and CaF(2) as additives were deposited at low-temperature (150°C) by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering onto titanium substrates. The influence of sputtering conditions on morphology, structure, composition, bonding strength and in vitro bioactivity of sputtered bioglass films was investigated. Excellent pull-out adherence (~73 MPa) was obtained when using a 0.3 Pa argon sputtering pressure (BG-a). The adherence declined (~46 MPa) upon increasing the working pressure to 0.4 Pa (BG-b) or when using a reactive gas mixture (~50 MPa). The SBF tests clearly demonstrated strong biomineralization features for all bioglass sputtered films. The biomineralization rate increased from BG-a to BG-b, and yet more for BG-c. A well-crystallized calcium hydrogen phosphate-like phase was observed after 3 and 15 days of immersion in SBF in all bioglass layers, which transformed monotonously into hydroxyapatite under prolonged SBF immersion. Alkali and alkali-earth salts (NaCl, KCl and CaCO(3)) were also found at the surface of samples soaked in SBF for 30 days. The study indicated that features such as composition, structure, adherence and bioactivity of bioglass films can be tailored simply by altering the magnetron sputtering working conditions, proving that this less explored technique is a promising alternative for preparing implant-type coatings.

  15. Fabrication of Optical Multilayer Devices from Porous Silicon Coatings with Closed Porosity by Magnetron Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Hernández, Jaime; Godinho, Vanda; Lacroix, Bertrand; Jiménez de Haro, Maria C; Jamon, Damien; Fernández, Asunción

    2015-07-01

    The fabrication of single-material photonic-multilayer devices is explored using a new methodology to produce porous silicon layers by magnetron sputtering. Our bottom-up methodology produces highly stable amorphous porous silicon films with a controlled refractive index using magnetron sputtering and incorporating a large amount of deposition gas inside the closed pores. The influence of the substrate bias on the formation of the closed porosity was explored here for the first time when He was used as the deposition gas. We successfully simulated, designed, and characterized Bragg reflectors and an optical microcavity that integrates these porous layers. The sharp interfaces between the dense and porous layers combined with the adequate control of the refractive index and thickness allowed for excellent agreement between the simulation and the experiments. The versatility of the magnetron sputtering technique allowed for the preparation of these structures for a wide range of substrates such as polymers while also taking advantage of the oblique angle deposition to prepare Bragg reflectors with a controlled lateral gradient in the stop band wavelengths.

  16. Study of cobalt mononitride thin films prepared using DC and high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Rachana; Pandey, Nidhi; Behera, Layanta; Gupta, Mukul

    2016-05-23

    In this work we studied cobalt mononitride (CoN) thin films deposited using dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). A Co target was sputtered using pure N{sub 2} gas alone as the sputtering medium. Obtained long-range structural ordering was studies using x-ray diffraction (XRD), short-range structure using Co L{sub 2,3} and N K absorption edges using soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and the surface morphology using atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that HiPIMS deposited films have better long-range ordering, better stoichiometric ratio for mononitride composition and smoother texture as compared to dcMS deposited films. In addition, the thermal stability of HiPIMS deposited CoN film seems to be better. On the basis of different type of plasma conditions generated in HiPIMS and dcMS process, obtained results are presented and discussed.

  17. Hollow target magnetron-sputter-type solid material ion source.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, D; Ieki, S; Kasuya, T; Wada, M

    2012-02-01

    A thin-walled aluminum (Al) hollow electrode has been inserted into an ion source to serve as an electrode for a radio frequency magnetron discharge. The produced plasma stabilized by argon (Ar) gas sputters the Al electrode to form a beam of Al(+) and Ar(+) ions. The total beam current extracted through a 3 mm diameter extraction hole has been 50 μA, with the Al(+) ion beam occupying 30% of the total beam current.

  18. Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2010-10-13

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is pulsed sputtering where the peak power exceeds the time-averaged power by typically two orders of magnitude. The peak power density, averaged over the target area, can reach or exceed 107 W/m2, leading to plasma conditions that make ionization of the sputtered atoms very likely. A brief review of HIPIMS operation is given in a tutorial manner, illustrated by some original data related to the self-sputtering of niobium in argon and krypton. Emphasis is put on the current-voltage-time relationships near the threshold of self-sputtering runaway. The great variety of current pulse shapes delivers clues on the very strong gas rarefaction, self-sputtering runaway conditions, and the stopping of runaway due to the evolution of atom ionization and ion return probabilities as the gas plasma is replaced by metal plasma. The discussions are completed by considering instabilities and the special case of ?gasless? self-sputtering.

  19. Industry-relevant magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc ultra-high vacuum deposition system for in situ x-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth using high energy synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, J L; Thomson, W; Howard, B; Schell, N; Näslund, L-Å; Rogström, L; Johansson-Jõesaar, M P; Ghafoor, N; Odén, M; Nothnagel, E; Shepard, A; Greer, J; Birch, J

    2015-09-01

    We present an industry-relevant, large-scale, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc deposition system purposefully designed for time-resolved in situ thin film deposition/annealing studies using high-energy (>50 keV), high photon flux (>10(12) ph/s) synchrotron radiation. The high photon flux, combined with a fast-acquisition-time (<1 s) two-dimensional (2D) detector, permits time-resolved in situ structural analysis of thin film formation processes. The high-energy synchrotron-radiation based x-rays result in small scattering angles (<11°), allowing large areas of reciprocal space to be imaged with a 2D detector. The system has been designed for use on the 1-tonne, ultra-high load, high-resolution hexapod at the P07 High Energy Materials Science beamline at PETRA III at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron in Hamburg, Germany. The deposition system includes standard features of a typical UHV deposition system plus a range of special features suited for synchrotron radiation studies and industry-relevant processes. We openly encourage the materials research community to contact us for collaborative opportunities using this unique and versatile scientific instrument.

  20. Fabrication of size-selected Pd nanoclusters using a magnetron plasma sputtering source

    SciTech Connect

    Ayesh, A. I.; Qamhieh, N.; Ghamlouche, H.; Thaker, S.; El-Shaer, M.

    2010-02-15

    We report on the fabrication of palladium (Pd) nanoclusters using a dc magnetron sputtering source. Plasma sputtering vaporizes the target's material forming nanoclusters by inert gas condensation. The sputtering source produces ionized nanoclusters that enable the study of the nanoclusters' size distribution using a quadrupole mass filter. In this work, the dependence of Pd nanoclusters' size distribution on various source parameters, such as the sputtering discharge power, inert gas flow rate, and aggregation length have been investigated. This work demonstrates the ability of tuning the palladium nanoclusters' size by proper optimization of the source operation conditions. The experimental nanocluster sizes are compared with a theoretical model that reveals the growth of large nanoclusters from 'embryos' by a two-body collision. The model is valid for a specific range of deposition parameters (low inert gas flow rates and aggregation lengths equal or below 70 mm).

  1. Structural and electronic characterization of antimonide films made by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giulian, R.; Manzo, D. J.; Salazar, J. B.; Just, W.; de Andrade, A. M. H.; Schoffen, J. R.; Niekraszewicz, L. A. B.; Dias, J. F.; Bernardi, F.

    2017-02-01

    AlSb, GaSb and InSb films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on Si and SiO2/Si substrates and their electronic and structural properties were investigated as a function of film thickness and deposition temperature. Elemental composition and thickness were investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and particle induced x-ray emission analysis, while x-ray diffraction provided information about phase and structure. Surface chemical composition was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Here we demonstrate that polycrystalline AlSb films can be produced by magnetron sputtering, where films deposited at 550 °C attain a zincblende phase and exhibit the smallest amount of oxygen (compared to other deposition temperatures). GaSb grown by this technique at room temperature holds an amorphous structure, with excess Sb, but for films deposited at 400 °C the structure is polycrystalline, stoichiometric with a zincblende phase. InSb films with a thickness of 75 nm and thinner, deposited at room temperature, are amorphous and for increasing thickness the films attain a zincblende phase with polycrystalline structure. Sputtering performed at elevated temperatures yields films with improved crystalline quality.

  2. Hysteresis behavior during reactive magnetron sputtering of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using a rotating cylindrical magnetron

    SciTech Connect

    Depla, D.; Haemers, J.; Buyle, G.; Gryse, R. de

    2006-07-15

    Rotating cylindrical magnetrons are used intensively on industrial scale. A rotating cylindrical magnetron on laboratory scale makes it possible to study this deposition technique in detail and under well controlled conditions. Therefore, a small scale rotating cylindrical magnetron was designed and used to study the influence of the rotation speed on the hysteresis behavior during reactive magnetron sputtering of aluminum in Ar/O{sub 2} in dc mode. This study reveals that the hysteresis shifts towards lower oxygen flows when the rotation speed of the target is increased, i.e., target poisoning occurs more readily when the rotation speed is increased. The shift is more pronounced for the lower branch of the hysteresis loop than for the upper branch of the hysteresis. This behavior can be understood qualitatively. The results also show that the oxidation mechanism inside the race track is different from the oxidation mechanism outside the race track. Indeed, outside the race track the oxidation mechanism is only defined by chemisorption while inside the race track reactive ion implantation will also influence the oxidation mechanism.

  3. Elementary surface processes during reactive magnetron sputtering of chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Monje, Sascha; Corbella, Carles Keudell, Achim von

    2015-10-07

    The elementary surface processes occurring on chromium targets exposed to reactive plasmas have been mimicked in beam experiments by using quantified fluxes of Ar ions (400–800 eV) and oxygen atoms and molecules. For this, quartz crystal microbalances were previously coated with Cr thin films by means of high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering. The measured growth and etching rates were fitted by flux balance equations, which provided sputter yields of around 0.05 for the compound phase and a sticking coefficient of O{sub 2} of 0.38 on the bare Cr surface. Further fitted parameters were the oxygen implantation efficiency and the density of oxidation sites at the surface. The increase in site density with a factor 4 at early phases of reactive sputtering is identified as a relevant mechanism of Cr oxidation. This ion-enhanced oxygen uptake can be attributed to Cr surface roughening and knock-on implantation of oxygen atoms deeper into the target. This work, besides providing fundamental data to control oxidation state of Cr targets, shows that the extended Berg's model constitutes a robust set of rate equations suitable to describe reactive magnetron sputtering of metals.

  4. Elementary surface processes during reactive magnetron sputtering of chromium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monje, Sascha; Corbella, Carles; von Keudell, Achim

    2015-10-01

    The elementary surface processes occurring on chromium targets exposed to reactive plasmas have been mimicked in beam experiments by using quantified fluxes of Ar ions (400-800 eV) and oxygen atoms and molecules. For this, quartz crystal microbalances were previously coated with Cr thin films by means of high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering. The measured growth and etching rates were fitted by flux balance equations, which provided sputter yields of around 0.05 for the compound phase and a sticking coefficient of O2 of 0.38 on the bare Cr surface. Further fitted parameters were the oxygen implantation efficiency and the density of oxidation sites at the surface. The increase in site density with a factor 4 at early phases of reactive sputtering is identified as a relevant mechanism of Cr oxidation. This ion-enhanced oxygen uptake can be attributed to Cr surface roughening and knock-on implantation of oxygen atoms deeper into the target. This work, besides providing fundamental data to control oxidation state of Cr targets, shows that the extended Berg's model constitutes a robust set of rate equations suitable to describe reactive magnetron sputtering of metals.

  5. Effect of buffer layer on thermochromic performances of VO2 films fabricated by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Benqin; Tao, Haizheng; Zhao, Xiujian

    2016-03-01

    As a well-developed industrial fabricating method, magnetron sputtering technique has its distinct advantages for the large-scale production. In order to investigate the effect of buffer layer on the formation and thermochromic performances of VO2 films, using RF magnetron sputtering method, we fabricated three kinds of buffer layers SiO2, TiO2 and SnO2 on soda lime float-glass. Then according to the reactive DC magnetron sputtering method, VO2 films were deposited. Due to the restriction of heat treatment temperature when using soda lime float-glass as substrates, dense rutile phase TiO2 cannot be formed, leading to the formation of vanadium oxide compounds containing Na ions. When using SnO2 as buffer layer, we found that relatively high pure VO2 can be deposited more easily. In addition, compared with the effect of SiO2 buffer layer, we observed an enhanced visible transparency, a decreased infrared emissivity, which should be mainly originated from the modified morphology and/or the hetero-structured VO2/SnO2 interface.

  6. Origin of particles during reactive sputtering of oxides using planar and cylindrical magnetrons.

    PubMed

    Rademacher, Daniel; Fritz, Benjamin; Vergöhl, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Particles generated during reactive magnetron sputtering cause defects in optical thin films, which may lead to losses in optical performance, pinholes, loss of adhesion, decreased laser-induced damage thresholds and many more negative effects. Therefore, it is important to reduce the particle contamination during the manufacturing process. In the present paper, the origin of particles during the deposition of various oxide films by midfrequency pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering was investigated. Several steps have been undertaken to decrease the particle contamination during the complete substrate handling procedure. It was found that conditioning of the vacuum chamber can help to decrease the defect level significantly. This level remains low for several hours of sputtering and increases after 100 hours of process time. Particle densities of SiO(2) films deposited with cylindrical and planar dual magnetrons at different process parameters as well as different positions underneath the target were compared. It was observed that the process power influences the particle density significantly in case of planar targets while cylindrical targets have no such strong dependence. In addition, the particle contamination caused by different cylindrical target materials was analyzed. No major differences in particle contamination of different cylindrical target types and materials were found.

  7. Effects of post-annealing on the structural and nanomechanical properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited on glass substrate by rf-magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Szu-Ko; Lin, Ting-Chun; Jian, Sheng-Rui; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Jang, Jason S.-C.; Tseng, Jiun-Yi

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the effects of post-annealing on the structure, surface morphology and nanomechanical properties of ZnO thin films doped with a nominal concentration of 3 at.% Ga (ZnO:Ga) are investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoindentation techniques. The ZnO:Ga thin films were deposited on the glass substrates at room temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Results revealed that the as-deposited ZnO:Ga thin films were polycrystalline albeit the low deposition temperature. Post-annealing carried out at 300, 400 and 500 °C, respectively, has resulted in progressive increase in both the average grain size and the surface roughness of the ZnO:Ga thin film, in addition to the improved thin films crystallinity. Moreover, the hardness and Young's modulus of ZnO:Ga thin films are measured by a Berkovich nanoindenter operated with the continuous contact stiffness measurements (CSM) option. The hardness and Young's modulus of ZnO:Ga thin films increased as the annealing temperature increased from 300 to 500 °C, with the best results being obtained at 500 °C.

  8. Optical Properties of Magnetron sputtered Nickel Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twagirayezu, Fidele; Geerts, Wilhelmus J.; Cui, Yubo

    2015-03-01

    The study of optical properties of Nickel (Ni) is important, given the pivotal role it plays in the semiconductor and nano-electronics technology. Ni films were made by DC and RF magnetron sputtering in an ATC Orion sputtering system of AJA on various substrates. The optical properties were studied ex situ by variable angle spectroscopic (220-1000 nm) ellipsometry at room temperature. The data were modeled and analyzed using the Woollam CompleteEase Software fitting ellipsometric and transmission data. Films sputtered at low pressure have optical properties similar to that of Palik. Films sputtered at higher pressure however have a lower refraction index and extinction coefficient. It is expected from our results that the density of the sputtered films can be determined from the ellipsometric quantities. Our experiments also revealed that Ni is susceptible to a slow oxidation changing its optical properties over the course of several weeks. The optical properties of the native oxide differ from those of reactive sputtered NiO similar as found by. Furthermore the oxidation process of our samples is characterized by at least two different time constants.

  9. In vivo dissolution behavior of various RF magnetron sputtered Ca-P coatings.

    PubMed

    Wolke, J G; de Groot, K; Jansen, J A

    1998-03-15

    Radiofrequency magnetron sputter deposition was used to deposit Ca-P sputter coatings on titanium discs, and these coatings were implanted subcutaneously into the backs of rabbits. Half of the as-sputtered coatings were subjected to additional heat treatment for 2 h at 500 degrees C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated that annealing at 500 degrees C changed the amorphous sputtered coating into an amorphous-crystalline apatite structure. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of the sputtered coatings showed excellent coverage of the substrate surface. Annealing of the 4-microm-thick coatings resulted in the appearance of small cracks. SEM demonstrated that until 4 weeks of implantation, all heat-treated coatings were present and all amorphous coatings were completely or mostly dissolved. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the formation of carbonate apatite (CO3-AP) on these specimens. Furthermore, XRD analysis showed that these CO3-AP precipitated coatings disappeared after 8 weeks of implantation. On the other hand, SEM inspection of these specimens revealed that the 4-microm heat-treated coating was still partially maintained and that small Ca-P crystals were present on the titanium substrate. On the basis of these results, we conclude that apparently 0.1 microm heat-treated Ca-P sputter coating is of sufficient thicknesses to stimulate carbonate apatite deposition under in vivo conditions.

  10. Magnetron sputtering of metallic coatings onto elastomeric substrates for a decrease in fuel permeation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myntti, Matthew F.

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the application of a metallic coating by magnetron sputtering onto elastomeric substrates, as an inhibiting layer to permeation transport. The metallic coatings which were deposited were aluminum, titanium, and copper. The substrates used were NBR, FVMQ, and FKM elastomers. The permeating fluids were ASTM Fuel C, isooctane, and toluene. The magnetron sputtering properties of these metallic elements were unique to each material, with the titanium sputtering rate being very low. The sputtering rates of these materials correlated well with their sublimation temperature. It was found that some of the metallic particles which were sputtered onto the substrates, implanted into the surface of the elastomeric membranes, with the total amount and distance of implantation being related to the density of the substrate material. The permeation of these solvents through the composite materials was reduced by the presence of these coatings with the reduction in permeation rate ranging from 12 to 25% for Fuel C. The pervaporation properties of these substrates were also evaluated. It was found from this analysis that for the FVMQ and NBR substrates, the permeation rate of the permeating solute molecules was proportional to the size of the permeation molecule. The substrate materials were not significantly stiffened by the addition of the thin metallic coatings. The coated materials were cohesive and well adhered, as determined by stretching of the substrate materials with the metallic layer in place. Upon stretching, there was no evidence of damage to the metallic coating.

  11. AZO films prepared by r.f. magnetron sputtering: structural, electrical, and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Maria Luisa; Krasilnikova Sytchkova, Anna; Boycheva, Sylvia; Piegari, Angela

    2008-09-01

    Aluminium-doped zinc oxide films with 91% transmittance in the visible range and electrical resistivity of the order of 10-3 Ωcm were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering in Ar atmosphere starting from a target of ZnO mixed with 2% wt Al2O3. A systematic study of the deposition conditions such as substrate temperature, working gas pressure, radio frequency power, magnetron strength, target to substrate distance, etc., was performed when searching for improved electrical and optical performances of the films. Several deposition conditions govern the film characteristics, so that films with same good optical and electrical properties can be obtained by opportunely combining different deposition parameters.

  12. Facing-target mid-frequency magnetron reactive sputtered hafnium oxide film: Morphology and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Xu, Jun; Wang, You-Nian; Choi, Chi Kyu; Zhou, Da-Yu

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous hafnium dioxide (HfO2) film was prepared on Si (100) by facing-target mid-frequency reactive magnetron sputtering under different oxygen/argon gas ratio at room temperature with high purity Hf target. 3D surface profiler results showed that the deposition rates of HfO2 thin film under different O2/Ar gas ratio remain unchanged, indicating that the facing target midfrequency magnetron sputtering system provides effective approach to eliminate target poisoning phenomenon which is generally occurred in reactive sputtering procedure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) demonstrated that the gradual reduction of oxygen vacancy concentration and the densification of deposited film structure with the increase of oxygen/argon (O2/Ar) gas flow ratio. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis suggested that the surface of the as-deposited HfO2 thin film tends to be smoother, the root-meansquare roughness (RMS) reduced from 0.876 nm to 0.333 nm while O2/Ar gas flow ratio increased from 1/4 to 1/1. Current-Voltage measurements of MOS capacitor based on Au/HfO2/Si structure indicated that the leakage current density of HfO2 thin films decreased by increasing of oxygen partial pressure, which resulted in the variations of pore size and oxygen vacancy concentration in deposited thin films. Based on the above characterization results the leakage current mechanism for all samples was discussed systematically.

  13. Tutorial: Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (R-HiPIMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, André

    2017-05-01

    High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) is a coating technology that combines magnetron sputtering with pulsed power concepts. By applying power in pulses of high amplitude and a relatively low duty cycle, large fractions of sputtered atoms and near-target gases are ionized. In contrast to conventional magnetron sputtering, HiPIMS is characterized by self-sputtering or repeated gas recycling for high and low sputter yield materials, respectively, and both for most intermediate materials. The dense plasma in front of the target has the dual function of sustaining the discharge and providing plasma-assistance to film growth, affecting the microstructure of growing films. Many technologically interesting thin films are compound films, which are composed of one or more metals and a reactive gas, most often oxygen or nitrogen. When reactive gas is added, non-trivial consequences arise for the system because the target may become "poisoned," i.e., a compound layer forms on the target surface affecting the sputtering yield and the yield of secondary electron emission and thereby all other parameters. It is emphasized that the target state depends not only on the reactive gas' partial pressure (balanced via gas flow and pumping) but also on the ion flux to the target, which can be controlled by pulse parameters. This is a critical technological opportunity for reactive HiPIMS (R-HiPIMS). The scope of this tutorial is focused on plasma processes and mechanisms of operation and only briefly touches upon film properties. It introduces R-HiPIMS in a systematic, step-by-step approach by covering sputtering, magnetron sputtering, reactive magnetron sputtering, pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering, HiPIMS, and finally R-HiPIMS. The tutorial is concluded by considering variations of R-HiPIMS known as modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering and deep-oscillation magnetron sputtering and combinations of R-HiPIMS with superimposed dc magnetron sputtering.

  14. Control of growth and structure of Ag films by the driving frequency of magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peifang, YANG; Chao, YE; Xiangying, WANG; Jiamin, GUO; Su, ZHANG

    2017-08-01

    The growth and structural properties of Ag films prepared by radio-frequency (2, 13.56 and 27.12 MHz) and very-high-frequency (40.68 and 60 MHz) magnetron sputtering were investigated. Using 2 MHz sputtering, the Ag film has a high deposition rate, a uniform and smooth surface and a good fcc structure. Using 13.56 and 27.12 MHz sputtering, the Ag films still have a high deposition rate and a good fcc structure, but a non-uniform and coarse surface. Using 40.68 MHz sputtering, the Ag film has a moderate deposition rate and a good fcc structure, but a less smooth surface. Using 60 MHz sputtering, the Ag film has a uniform and smooth surface, but a low deposition rate and a poor fcc structure. The growth and structural properties of Ag films are related to the ions’ energy and flux density. Therefore, changing the driving frequency is a good way to control the growth and structure of the Ag films.

  15. Growth and characterisation of NiAl and N-doped NiAl films deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating using elemental ni and Al targets.

    PubMed

    Said, R; Ahmed, W; Abuain, T; Abuazza, A; Gracio, J

    2010-04-01

    Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering Ion Plating (CFUBMSIP) has been used to deposit undoped and nitrogen doped NiAI thin films onto glass and stainless steel 316 substrates. These films have potential applications in tribological, electronic media and thermal barrier coatings. The surface characteristics, composition, mechanical and structural properties have been investigated using stylus profilometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanoindentation. The average thickness of the films was approximately 1 microm. The X-ray diffraction spectra revealed the presence of the beta NiAl phase. The EDAX results revealed that all of the undoped and nitrogen doped NiAl thin films exhibited the near equiatomic NiAl composition with the best results being achieved using 300 Watts DC power for Ni and 400 Watts DC power for Al targets respectively. AFM results of both types of films deposited on glass samples exhibited a surface roughness of less than 100 nm. The nanoindenter results for coatings on glass substrates displayed hardness and elastic modulus of 7.7 GPa and 100 GPa respectively. The hardest coatings obtained were obtained at 10% of nitrogen.

  16. Simulation of the electric potential and plasma generation coupling in magnetron sputtering discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieschmann, Jan; Krueger, Dennis; Schmidt, Frederik; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Magnetron sputtering typically operated at low pressures below 1 Pa is a widely applied deposition technique. For both, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) as well as direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS) the phenomenon of rotating ionization zones (also referred to as spokes) has been observed. A distinct spatial profile of the electric potential has been associated with the latter, giving rise to low, mid, and high energy groups of ions observed at the substrate. The adherent question of which mechanism drives this process is still not fully understood. This query is approached using Monte Carlo simulations of the heavy particle (i.e., ions and neutrals) transport consistently coupled to a pre-specified electron density profile via the intrinsic electric field. The coupling between the plasma generation and the electric potential, which establishes correspondingly, is investigated. While the system is observed to strive towards quasi-neutrality, distinct mechanisms governing the shape of the electric potential profile are identified. This work is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the frame of the transregional collaborative research centre TRR 87.

  17. ZnO thin film synthesis by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şenay, Volkan; Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan; Aydoğmuş, Tuna; Elmas, Saliha; Özen, Soner; Ekem, Naci; Balbağ, M. Zafer

    2014-11-01

    In this study, ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrates by reactive RF magnetron sputtering method at argon-oxygen gas mixing (1:1) atmosphere. Some properties of the synthesized films were investigated by interferometry, UV-vis spectrophotometer, atomic force microscopy, and tensiometer. Tauc method was adopted to estimate the optical band gaps. The band gaps of the deposited films were affected by film thickness. We concluded that the surface composition plays a substantial role in the values of the band gaps. Nanocrystalline structures were detected in all produced samples.

  18. Biomineralization capability of adherent bio-glass films prepared by magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Stan, G E; Pina, S; Tulyaganov, D U; Ferreira, J M F; Pasuk, I; Morosanu, C O

    2010-04-01

    Radiofrequency magnetron sputtering deposition at low temperature (150 degrees C) was used to deposit bioactive glass coatings onto titanium substrates. Three different working atmospheres were used: Ar 100%, Ar + 7%O(2), and Ar + 20%O(2). The preliminary adhesion tests (pull-out) produced excellent adhesion values (approximately 75 MPa) for the as-deposited bio-glass films. Bioactivity tests in simulated body fluid were carried out for 30 days. SEM-EDS, XRD and FTIR measurements were performed. The tests clearly showed strong bioactive features for all the prepared films. The best biomineralization capability, expressed by the thickest chemically grown carbonated hydroxyapatite layer, was obtained for the bio-glass coating sputtered in a reactive atmosphere with 7% O(2).

  19. Viable route towards large-area 2D MoS2 using magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samassekou, Hassana; Alkabsh, Asma; Wasala, Milinda; Eaton, Miller; Walber, Aaron; Walker, Andrew; Pitkänen, Olli; Kordas, Krisztian; Talapatra, Saikat; Jayasekera, Thushari; Mazumdar, Dipanjan

    2017-06-01

    Structural, interfacial, optical, and transport properties of large-area MoS2 ultra-thin films on BN-buffered silicon substrates fabricated using magnetron sputtering are investigated. A relatively simple growth strategy is demonstrated here that simultaneously promotes superior interfacial and bulk MoS2 properties. Few layers of MoS2 are established using x-ray reflectivity, diffraction, ellipsometry, and Raman spectroscopy measurements. Layer-specific modeling of optical constants show very good agreement with first-principles calculations. Conductivity measurements reveal that few-layer MoS2 films are more conducting than many-layer films. Photo-conductivity measurements reveal that the sputter deposited MoS2 films compare favorably with other large-area methods. Our work illustrates that sputtering is a viable route for large-area device applications using transition metal dichalcogenides.

  20. The influence of N2 flow rate on Ar and Ti Emission in high-pressure magnetron sputtering system plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    How, Soo Ren; Nayan, Nafarizal; Lias, Jais

    2017-03-01

    For ionized physical vapor deposition (known as IPVD) technique, investigation on the ionization mechanism of titanium atoms is very important during the deposition of titanium nitride (TiN) thin film using reactive magnetron sputtering plasma. The introduction of nitrogen gas into the chamber discharge leads to modifications of plasma parameters and ionization mechanism of transition species. In this work, an investigation on the influence of nitrogen flow rate on spectrum properties of argon and titanium during the deposition process have been carried out. The experimental configuration consists of OES and structure of magnetron sputtering device with the turbo molecular pump. A high-pressure magnetron sputtering plasma was used as plasma discharge chamber with various flow rate of nitrogen gas. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements were employed as plasma diagnostics tool in magnetron sputtering plasma operated at relatively high pressure. OES is a non-invasive plasma diagnostics method and that can detect the atomic and ionic emission during plasma discharge. The flow rate of the Ar and N2 gas are controlled by mass flow controller. The changes of relative emission for both neutral and ionic of argon as well as titanium were observed using optical spectrometer when the nitrogen gas is introduced into the discharged chamber. We found that the titanium emission decreased very rapidly with the flow rate of nitrogen. In addition, the argon emission slightly decreased with the flow rate of nitrogen.

  1. Tailoring of antibacterial Ag nanostructures on TiO2 nanotube layers by magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Uhm, Soo-Hyuk; Song, Doo-Hoon; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Sang-Bae; Han, Jeon-Geon; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2014-04-01

    To reduce the incidence of postsurgical bacterial infection that may cause implantation failure at the implant-bone interface, surface treatment of titanium implants with antibiotic materials such as silver (Ag) has been proposed. The purpose of this work was to create TiO2 nanotubes using plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), followed by formation of an antibacterial Ag nanostructure coating on the TiO2 nanotube layer using a magnetron sputtering system. PEO was performed on commercially pure Ti sheets. The Ag nanostructure was added onto the resulting TiO2 nanotube using magnetron sputtering at varying deposition rates. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the surface, and Ag content on the TiO2 nanotube layer was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Scanning probe microscopy for surface roughness and contact angle measurement were used to indirectly confirm enhanced TiO2 nanotube hydrophilicity. Antibacterial activity of Ag ions in solution was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and antibacterial testing against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). In vitro, TiO2 nanotubes coated with sputtered Ag resulted in significantly reduced S. aureus. Cell viability assays showed no toxicity for the lowest sputtering time group in the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. These results suggest that a multinanostructured layer with a biocompatible TiO2 nanotube and antimicrobial Ag coating is a promising biomaterial that can be tailored with magnetron sputtering for optimal performance.

  2. Magnetron deposited TiN coatings for protection of Al-Cu-Ag-Mg-Mn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Tatiana V.; Kaziev, Andrey V.; Atamanov, Mikhail V.; Tumarkin, Alexander V.; Dolzhikova, Svetlana A.; Izmailova, Nelly Ph; Kharkov, Maxim M.; Berdnikova, Maria M.; Mozgrin, Dmitry V.; Pisarev, Alexander A.

    2016-09-01

    TiN coatings were deposited on a new Al super-alloy by magnetron sputtering in argon/nitrogen environment. The deposited layer structure, microhardness, adhesion, corrosion resistance, and fatigue life were investigated and tests demonstrated improved performance of the alloy.

  3. Electrical properties of Mg x Zn1- x O thin films deposited by using RF magnetron co-sputtering with ZnO and Mg0.3Zn0.7O targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Li Li; Yang, Yi Da; Kim, Hong Seung; Jang, Nak Won; Yun, Young

    2016-03-01

    We successfully deposited hexagonal wurtzite Mg x Zn1- x O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.18) films on Si substrates by using RF magnetron co-sputtering with ZnO and Mg0.3Zn0.7O targets. The Mg content was varied by controlling the RF power of the Mg0.3Zn0.7O target while the RF power of the ZnO target was fixed at 100 W. The electrical properties of the Mg x Zn1- x O films were investigated by using a transmission line model (TLM) with Ti/Au electrode and Hall effect measurements. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results demonstrate that some Zn atoms can be replaced by Mg atoms in the Mg x Zn1- x O films. As the Mg content was increased from 0 at.% to 18 at.%, the resistivity of Mg x Zn1- x O films increased and the carrier concentration decreased from 1.17 × 1019 cm-3 to 1.17 × 1017 cm-3, which indicates a decrease in the number of oxygen vacancies. Meanwhile, the Hall mobility increased to 15.3 cm2/Vs. The electrical properties of Mg x Zn1- x O films were tuned by using the Mg content.

  4. The effect of plating on magnetron sputtering: Residual stress and scratch behavior of Au/NiCr/Ta multi-layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wu; Weng, Xiaolong; Deng, Longjiang; Xu, Kewei

    2006-12-01

    Au/NiCr/Ta multi-layers were deposited on Al2O3 substrate by magnetron sputtering and plating. The effect of plating technique on magnetron sputtering film in residual stress, crystal orientation and scratch resistance behavior was investigated. The all magnetron sputtering and plating films were highly textured with dominant Au-(1 1 1) orientation or a mixture of Au-(1 1 1) and Au-(2 0 0) orientation and the (1 1 1)/(2 0 0) intensity ratio were increased after plating. The residual stress in magnetron sputtering films at different substrate temperature was tensile stress with 155-400 MPa and it decreased approximately to 50 MPa after plating. The scratch resistance could be affected by the film thickness, and it increased approximately linearly with the increase of the thickness of metallic films after plating.

  5. Double circular erosion patterns on dielectric target in magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Suzaki, Yoshifumi; Miyagawa, Hayato; Ejima, Seiki

    2009-10-01

    In rf magnetron sputtering, a circular erosion pattern forms on the surface of a circular metal conductor target with permanent magnets on its back. In this case, the theory behind the erosion pattern has been established. However, in the case of a dielectric target, a double circular erosion pattern is formed. So far, this pattern has been phenomenologically recognized by experimenters; however, it has not yet been investigated. In this study, we performed a magnetron sputtering experiment with a SiO2 dielectric target, and confirmed the formation of a double circular erosion pattern. The dimensions of the double circular erosion pattern varied depending on the insulation resistance or the thickness of the SiO2 target. Furthermore, we found that the dimensions of a double circular erosion pattern changed by making a gap between the SiO2 target and guard ring. Based on the experimental results, we have proposed a qualitative model to explain the formation mechanism of double circular erosion patterns.

  6. Double circular erosion patterns on dielectric target in magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzaki, Yoshifumi; Miyagawa, Hayato; Ejima, Seiki

    2009-10-01

    In rf magnetron sputtering, a circular erosion pattern forms on the surface of a circular metal conductor target with permanent magnets on its back. In this case, the theory behind the erosion pattern has been established. However, in the case of a dielectric target, a double circular erosion pattern is formed. So far, this pattern has been phenomenologically recognized by experimenters; however, it has not yet been investigated. In this study, we performed a magnetron sputtering experiment with a SiO2 dielectric target, and confirmed the formation of a double circular erosion pattern. The dimensions of the double circular erosion pattern varied depending on the insulation resistance or the thickness of the SiO2 target. Furthermore, we found that the dimensions of a double circular erosion pattern changed by making a gap between the SiO2 target and guard ring. Based on the experimental results, we have proposed a qualitative model to explain the formation mechanism of double circular erosion patterns.

  7. Spatial and temporal evolution of ion energies in high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecimovic, A.; Ehiasarian, A. P.

    2010-09-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is a novel deposition technology successfully implemented on full scale industrial machines. HIPIMS utilizes short pulses of high power delivered to the target in order to generate high amount of metal ions. The life-span of ions between the pulses and their energy distribution could strongly influence the properties and characteristics of the deposited coating. In modern industrial coating machines the sample rotates on a substrate holder and changes its position and distance with regard to the magnetron. Time resolved measurements of the ion energy distribution function (IEDF) at different distances from the magnetron have been performed to investigate the temporal evolution of ions at various distances from target. The measurements were performed using two pressures, 1 and 3 Pa to investigate the influence of working gas pressure on IEDF. Plasma sampling energy-resolved mass spectroscopy was used to measure the IEDF of Ti1+, Ti2+, Ar1+, and Ar2+ ions in HIPIMS plasma discharge with titanium (Ti) target in Ar atmosphere. The measurements were done over a full pulse period and the distance between the magnetron and the orifice of the mass spectrometer was changed from 25 to 215 mm.

  8. A Proven, Industrial Magnetron Sputtering System With Excellent Expansion And Scale-Up Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, D.

    1987-11-01

    Airco Solar Products began as a business unit of Airco Temescal in the early 1970's. The first large area magnetron sputtering deposition occurred in 1974, and the first large area magnetron sputtering system was built and operated under contract to Guardian Industries in Carleton, Michigan in 1977, and was later sold to Guardian. This system continues in three-shift production today. A smaller development system, designed for use in the architectural glass coating industry, was introduced in parallel with the large area coaters. There are now over seventeen of these systems, called the ILS-1600, in use or on order throughout the world. This is a proven, industrial-style development sputter deposition system and has an excellent field record in the areas of versatility and low maintenance requirements. Airco Solar Products has recently begun to market this system into other applications such as the photovoltaics industry, the flat panel display industry and other specialty industries. The features of this system such as overall design, expandability, process scale-up and available options will be discussed. Expanded versions of this system currently in the field will be reviewed, and future applications will be discussed.

  9. Cleaning of HT-7 Tokamak Exposed First Mirrors by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Rong; Chen, Junling; Chen, Longwei; Ding, Rui; Zhu, Dahuan

    2014-12-01

    The stainless steel (SS) first mirror pre-exposed in the deposition-dominated environment of the HT-7 tokamak was cleaned in the newly built radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering plasma device. The deposition layer on the FM surface formed during the exposure was successfully removed by argon plasma with a RF power of about 80 W and a gas pressure of 0.087 Pa for 30 min. The total reflectivity of the mirrors was recovered up to 90% in the wavelength range of 300-800 nm, while the diffuse reflectivity showed a little increase, which was attributed to the increase of surface roughness in sputtering, and residual contaminants. The FMs made from single crystal materials could help to achieve a desired recovery of specular reflectivity in the future.

  10. Electrical and structural properties of the Ta/Ag thin films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghri Moazzen, M. A.; Taiebyzadeh, P.; Borghei, S. M.

    2017-07-01

    Tantalum on silver (Ta/Ag) thin films have quickly increased into high research for applied science with the promise of suitable for high temperatures environments and microsystems for electronics applications. Ag and Ta/Ag thin films were deposited on silicon substrates by dc magnetron sputtering method. We choose the dc magnetron sputtering method because it has many advantages, such as high growth rate, the possibility of large area deposition, and low cost. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and four point probe (FPP) were used for determining the prepared samples. For Ag thin film deposited in room temperature, there are no peaks corresponding to Ag in the XRD pattern which demonstrates amorphous structure. Also, the XRD pattern of Ta/Ag thin film illustrates that the peak of Ta has grown to the crystal direction (002), which shows that the structure of deposited Ta layer on Ag thin film becomes a crystalline state from amorphous state. The relationship between thin film resistivity and Ta/Ag film thicknesses are investigated in this paper.

  11. Codeposition of amorphous zinc tin oxide using high power impulse magnetron sputtering: characterisation and doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, H. N.; Mayes, E. L. H.; Murdoch, B. J.; McCulloch, D. G.; McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.; Holland, A. S.; Partridge, J. G.

    2017-04-01

    Thin film zinc tin oxide (ZTO) has been energetically deposited at 100 °C using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). Reactive co-deposition from Zn (HiPIMS mode) and Sn (DC magnetron sputtering mode) targets yielded a gradient in the Zn:Sn ratio across a 4-inch diameter sapphire substrate. The electrical and optical properties of the film were studied as a function of composition. As-deposited, the films were amorphous, transparent and semi-insulating. Hydrogen was introduced by post-deposition annealing (1 h, 500 °C, 100 mTorr H2) and resulted in significantly increased conductivity with no measurable structural alterations. After annealing, Hall effect measurements revealed n-type carrier concentrations of ˜1 × 1017 cm-3 and mobilities of up to 13 cm2 V-1 s-1. These characteristics are suitable for device applications and proved stable. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to explore the valence band structure and to show that downward surface band-bending resulted from OH attachment. The results suggest that HiPIMS can produce dense, high quality amorphous ZTO suitable for applications including transparent thin film transistors.

  12. Development of high-vacuum planar magnetron sputtering using an advanced magnetic field geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Takahiro; Yagyu, Daisuke; Saito, Shigeru Ohno, Yasunori; Itoh, Masatoshi; Uhara, Yoshio; Miura, Tsutomu; Nakano, Hirofumi

    2015-11-15

    A permanent magnet in a new magnetic field geometry (namely, with the magnetization in the radial direction) was fabricated and used for high-vacuum planar magnetron sputtering using Penning discharge. Because of the development of this magnet, the discharge current and deposition rate were increased two to three times in comparison with the values attainable with a magnet in the conventional geometry. This improvement was because the available space for effective discharge of the energetic electrons for the ionization increased because the magnetic field distribution increased in both the axial and radial directions of discharge.

  13. Different properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide nanostructured thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Bidmeshkipour, Samina Shahtahmasebi, Nasser

    2013-06-15

    Aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanostructured thin films are prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on glass substrate using specifically designed ZnO target containing different amount of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder as the Al doping source. The optical properties of the aluminium doped zinc oxide films are investigated. The topography of the deposited films were investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Variation of the refractive index by annealing temperature are considered and it is seen that the refractive index increases by increasing the annealing temperature.

  14. Surface functionalization of nanostructured LaB6-coated Poly Trilobal fabric by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Zhang, Lin; Min, Guanghui; Yu, Huashun; Gao, Binghuan; Liu, Huihui; Xing, Shilong; Pang, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Nanostructured LaB6 films were deposited on flexible Poly Trilobal substrates (PET textiles) through direct current magnetron sputtering in order to broaden its applications and realize surface functionalization of polyester fabrics. Characterizations and performances were investigated by employing a scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer. Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) conducted by the integral conversion was employed to measure the ultraviolet protection ability. As expected, the growth of LaB6 film depending on the pressure variation enhanced UV-blocking ability (UPF rating at 30.17) and absorption intensity of the textiles.

  15. In situ preparation of Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting thin films by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. C.; Linker, G.; Ratzel, F.; Smithey, R.; Geerk, J.

    1988-03-01

    Thin superconducting films of YBa2Cu3O7 have been prepared by magnetron sputtering from targets of sintered material in an oxygen-argon atmosphere. The compositional and structural properties were studied by Rutherford backscattering and X-ray diffraction. The films were deposited at substrate temperatures between 580 and 800 C. It was found that the material grows in the oxygen-deficient tetragonal phase. In situ heat treatment at 430 C in pure O2 atmosphere generates the orthorhombic structure, and the films on sapphire and SrTiO3-coated sapphire substrates show the full superconducting transition at 83 K.

  16. Perspective: Is there a hysteresis during reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (R-HiPIMS)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strijckmans, K.; Moens, F.; Depla, D.

    2017-02-01

    This paper discusses a few mechanisms that can assist to answer the title question. The initial approach is to use an established model for DC magnetron sputter deposition, i.e., RSD2013. Based on this model, the impact on the hysteresis behaviour of some typical HiPIMS conditions is investigated. From this first study, it becomes clear that the probability to observe hysteresis is much lower as compared to DC magnetron sputtering. The high current pulses cannot explain the hysteresis reduction. Total pressure and material choice make the abrupt changes less pronounced, but the implantation of ionized metal atoms that return to the target seems to be the major cause. To further substantiate these results, the analytical reactive sputtering model is coupled with a published global plasma model. The effect of metal ion implantation is confirmed. Another suggested mechanism, i.e., gas rarefaction, can be ruled out to explain the hysteresis reduction. But perhaps the major conclusion is that at present, there are too little experimental data available to make fully sound conclusions.

  17. Closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating of Ni/Al thin films: influence of the magnetron power.

    PubMed

    Said, R; Ahmed, W; Gracio, J

    2010-04-01

    In this study NiAl thin films have been deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering Ion plating (CFUBMSIP). The influence of magnetron power has been investigated using dense and humongous NiAl compound targets onto stainless steel and glass substrates. Potential applications include tribological, electronic media and bond coatings in thermal barrier coatings system. Several techniques has been used to characterise the films including surface stylus profilometry, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) Composition analysis of the samples was carried out using VGTOF SIMS (IX23LS) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Scratch tester (CSM) combined with acoustic emission singles during loading in order to compare the coating adhesion. The acoustic emission signals emitted during the indentation process were used to determine the critical load, under which the film begins to crack and/or break off the substrate. The average thickness of the films was approximately 1 um. EDAX results of NiAl thin films coating with various magnetron power exhibited the near equal atomic% Ni:Al. The best result being obtained using 300 W and 400 W DC power for Ni and Al targets respectively. XRD revealed the presence of beta NiAl phase for all the films coatings. AFM analysis of the films deposited on glass substrates exhibited quite a smooth surface with surface roughness values in the nanometre range. CSM results indicate that best adhesion was achieved at 300 W for Ni, and 400 W for Al targets compared to sample other power values. SIMS depth profile showed a uniform distribution of the Ni and Al component from the surface of the film to the interface.

  18. Strong blue light emission from Eu-doped SiOC prepared by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhenxu; Guo, Yanqing; Wang, Xiang; Song, Chao; Song, Jie; Zhang, Yi; Huang, Rui

    2015-08-01

    The Eu-doped SiOC films were prepared by magnetron sputtering technique at a low temperature of 250°C. The effects of the Eu2O3 deposited power and post-thermal annealing temperature on the PL characteristics of the Eu-doped SiOC films were investigated. It is found that the photoluminescence intensity could be enhanced by more than tenfold by increasing the Eu2O3 deposited power from 20W to 80W. Furthermore, very bright blue light emission can be clearly observed with the naked eye in a bright room for the Eu-doped SiOC films prepared at a Eu2O3 deposited power of 80 W. The improved PL intensity is attributed to the increasing number density of europium silicate clusters as a result of the increasing Eu2O3 deposited power as well as high annealing temperatures.

  19. The Gibbs Thomson effect in magnetron-sputtered austenitic stainless steel films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusenza, S.; Borchers, C.; Carpene, E.; Schaaf, P.

    2007-03-01

    Magnetron sputtering of austenitic stainless steel AISI 316, which has a face-centred cubic structure (γ), leads to films exhibiting a body-centred cubic (α) structure or a mixture of α- and γ-phases. The microstructure of the deposited films was studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. With increasing deposition temperature a phase transformation from α- to γ-phase was observed in these films. Instantaneous recording of the electromotive force shows that nickel content and deposition temperature are crucial factors for phase stability and phase formation. In room temperature deposited stainless steel films, the phase transformation after vacuum annealing can be described by the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetic model. These phase transformations in stainless steel films during annealing can be explained with the Gibbs-Thomson effect, where the grain boundary energy raises the Gibbs free energy.

  20. Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Adámek, J.

    2014-10-15

    A feedforward scheme is applied for drift waves control in a magnetized magnetron sputtering plasma. A system of driven electrodes collecting electron current in a limited region of the explored plasma is used to interact with unstable drift waves. Drift waves actually appear as electrostatic modes characterized by discrete wavelengths of the order of few centimeters and frequencies of about 100 kHz. The effect of external quasi-periodic, both in time and space, travelling perturbations is studied. Particular emphasis is given to the role played by the phase relation between the natural and the imposed fluctuations. It is observed that it is possible by means of localized electrodes, collecting currents which are negligible with respect to those flowing in the plasma, to transfer energy to one single mode and to reduce that associated to the others. Due to the weakness of the external action, only partial control has been achieved.

  1. Inverted cylindrical magnetron sputtering for HTSC thin film growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geerk, Jochen; Linker, G.; Meyer, O.; Ratzel, F.; Reiner, J.; Remmel, J.; Kroener, T.; Henn, R.; Massing, S.; Brecht, E.

    1992-03-01

    The conditions and quality of '1-2-3' films manufactured by inverted cylindrical magnetron sputtering (ICMS) are studied with attention given to a-axis films. The geometry of the ICMS technique eliminates ion bombardment of the substrate, and the technique is reproducible allowing systematic studies of film growth as functions of film thickness, substrate materials, and buffer layers. Film-growth direction and quality are studied with X-ray diffraction, ion-beam backscattering, and channeling. Substrate temperature is shown to be the most significant experimental parameter in the manufacture of the 1-2-3 system. Low substrate temperatures insure the growth of the a-axis configuration, and the yttrium-stabilized zirconia buffer layer is found to be of use in developing 1-2-3 films. Also reported in this paper is the growth of thin films of Bi-related HTSC compounds and the conditions for such growth.

  2. RF magnetron sputtering of thick platinum coatings on glass microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, S.F.; Hsieh, E.J.; Burt, R.J.

    1980-05-28

    Thick platinum coatings on glass microspheres are needed for proposed Laser Fusion targets. The spherical nature of these substrates coupled with the small dimensions (approx. 100 ..mu..m OD) make it difficult to achieve a smooth and uniform coating. Coating problems encountered include a rough surface and porous microstructure from the oblique incidence and lack of temperature and bias control, clumping of the microspheres causing non-uniformities, and particle accumulation causing cone defects. Sputtering parameters significantly affecting the coatings include total pressure, DC substrate bias, and the addition of doping gases. Using an ultrasonic vibrating screened cage and RF magnetron Sputtergun, we have successfully batch coated microspheres with up to 6 ..mu..m of Pt, with a surface roughness of 200 nm, thickness non-concentricity of 300 nm, and density greater than 98% of bulk Pt.

  3. Pd-catalysts for DFAFC prepared by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieloshapka, I.; Jiricek, P.; Vorokhta, M.; Tomsik, E.; Rednyk, A.; Perekrestov, R.; Jurek, K.; Ukraintsev, E.; Hruska, K.; Romanyuk, O.; Lesiak, B.

    2017-10-01

    Samples of a palladium catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) applications were prepared on the Elat® carbon cloth by magnetron sputtering. The quantity of Pd was equal to 3.6, 120 and 720 μg/cm2. The samples were tested in a fuel cell for electro-oxidation of formic acid, and were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS measurements revealed a high contribution of PdCx phase formed at the Pd/Elat® surface interface, with carbon concentration in PdCx from x = 9.9-14.6 at.%, resulting from the C substrate and CO residual gases. Oxygen groups, e.g. hydroxyl (-OH), carbonyl (Cdbnd O) and carboxyl (COOH), resulted from the synthesis conditions due to the presence of residual gases, electro-oxidation during the reaction and oxidation in the atmosphere. Because of the formation of CO and CO2 on the catalysts during the reaction, or because of poisoning by impurities containing the -CH3 group, together with the risk of Pd losses due to dissolution in formic acid, there was a negative effect of catalyst degradation on the active area surface. The effect of different loadings of Pd layers led to increasing catalyst efficiency. Current-voltage curves showed that different amounts of catalyst did not increase the DFAFC power to a great extent. One reason for this was the catalyst structure formed on the carbon cloth. AFM and SEM measurements showed a layer-by-layer growth with no significant variations in morphology. The results for electric power recalculated for the Pd loading per 1 mg of catalyst layers in comparison to carbon substrates decorated by Pd nanoparticles showed that there is potential for applying anodes for formic acid fuel cells prepared by magnetron sputtering.

  4. Duty cycle control in reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of hafnium and niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, R.; Treverrow, B.; Murdoch, B.; Xie, D.; Ross, A. E.; Partridge, J. G.; Falconer, I. S.; McCulloch, D. G.; McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.

    2016-06-01

    Instabilities in reactive sputtering have technological consequences and have been attributed to the formation of a compound layer on the target surface (‘poisoning’). Here we demonstrate how the duty cycle of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) can be used to control the surface conditions of Hf and Nb targets. Variations in the time resolved target current characteristics as a function of duty cycle were attributed to gas rarefaction and to the degree of poisoning of the target surface. As the operation transitions from Ar driven sputtering to metal driven sputtering, the secondary electron emission changes and reduces the target current. The target surface transitions smoothly from a poisoned state at low duty cycles to a quasi-metallic state at high duty cycles. Appropriate selection of duty cycle increases the deposition rate, eliminates the need for active regulation of oxygen flow and enables stable reactive deposition of stoichiometric metal oxide films. A model is presented for the reactive HIPIMS process in which the target operates in a partially poisoned mode with different degrees of oxide layer distribution on its surface that depends on the duty cycle. Finally, we show that by tuning the pulse characteristics, the refractive indices of the metal oxides can be controlled without increasing the absorption coefficients, a result important for the fabrication of optical multilayer stacks.

  5. Plasma potential mapping of high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, Albert; Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Sanders, Jason M.; Anders, Andre

    2011-12-20

    Pulsed emissive probe techniques have been used to determine the plasma potential distribution of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges. An unbalanced magnetron with a niobium target in argon was investigated for pulse length of 100 μs at a pulse repetition rate of 100 Hz, giving a peak current of 170 A. The probe data were taken with a time resolution of 20 ns and a spatial resolution of 1 mm. It is shown that the local plasma potential varies greatly in space and time. The lowest potential was found over the target’s racetrack, gradually reaching anode potential (ground) several centimeters away from the target. The magnetic pre-sheath exhibits a funnel-shaped plasma potential resulting in an electric field which accelerates ions toward the racetrack. In certain regions and times, the potential exhibits weak local maxima which allow for ion acceleration to the substrate. Knowledge of the local E and static B fields lets us derive the electrons’ E×B drift velocity, which is about 105 m/s and shows structures in space and time.

  6. Asymmetric particle fluxes from drifting ionization zones in sputtering magnetrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjan, Matjaž; Franz, Robert; Anders, André

    2014-04-01

    Electron and ion fluxes from direct current and high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (dcMS and HiPIMS) plasmas were measured in the plane of the target surface. Biased collector probes and a particle energy and mass analyzer showed asymmetric emission of electrons and of singly and doubly charged ions. For both HiPIMS and dcMS discharges, higher fluxes of all types of particles were observed in the direction of the electrons' E × B drift. These results are put in the context with ionization zones that drift over the magnetron's racetrack. The measured currents of time-resolving collector probes suggest that a large fraction of the ion flux originates from drifting ionization zones, while energy-resolving mass spectrometry indicates that a large fraction of the ion energy is due to acceleration by an electric field. This supports the recently proposed hypothesis that each ionization zone is associated with a negative-positive-negative space charge structure, thereby producing an electric field that accelerates ions from the location where they were formed.

  7. Plasma potential mapping of high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, Albert; Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Sanders, Jason M.; Anders, Andre

    2012-04-15

    Pulsed emissive probe techniques have been used to determine the plasma potential distribution of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges. An unbalanced magnetron with a niobium target in argon was investigated for a pulse length of 100 {mu}s at a pulse repetition rate of 100 Hz, giving a peak current of 170 A. The probe data were recorded with a time resolution of 20 ns and a spatial resolution of 1 mm. It is shown that the local plasma potential varies greatly in space and time. The lowest potential was found over the target's racetrack, gradually reaching anode potential (ground) several centimeters away from the target. The magnetic presheath exhibits a funnel-shaped plasma potential resulting in an electric field which accelerates ions toward the racetrack. In certain regions and times, the potential exhibits weak local maxima which allow for ion acceleration to the substrate. Knowledge of the local E and static B fields lets us derive the electrons'ExB drift velocity, which is about 10{sup 5} m/s and shows structures in space and time.

  8. Chemical mechanical polishing characteristics of ITO thin film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kang-Yeon; Choi, Gwon-Woo; Kim, Yong-Jae; Choi, Youn-Ok; Kim, Nam-Oh

    2012-02-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films have attracted intensive interest because of their unique properties of good conductivity, high optical transmittance over the visible region and easy patterning ability. ITO thin films have found many applications in anti-static coatings, thermal heaters, solar cells, flat panel displays (FPDs), liquid crystal displays (LCDs), electroluminescent devices, sensors and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). ITO thin films are generally fabricated by using various methods, such as spraying, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), evaporation, electron gun deposition, direct current electroplating, high frequency sputtering, and reactive sputtering. In this research, ITO films were grown on glass substrates by using a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. In order to achieve a high transmittance and a low resistivity, we examined the various film deposition conditions, such as substrate temperature, working pressure, annealing temperature, and deposition time. Next, in order to improve the surface quality of the ITO thin films, we performed a chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) with different process parameters and compared the electrical and the optical properties of the polished ITO thin films. The best CMP conditions with a high removal rate, low nonuniformity, low resistivity and high transmittance were as follows: platen speed, head speed, polishing time, and slurry flow rate of 30 rpm, 30 rpm, 60 sec, and 60 ml/min, respectively.

  9. Sputtering. [as deposition technique in mechanical engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1976-01-01

    This paper primarily reviews the potential of using the sputtering process as a deposition technique; however, the manufacturing and sputter etching aspects are also discussed. Since sputtering is not regulated by classical thermodynamics, new multicomponent materials can be developed in any possible chemical composition. The basic mechanism for dc and rf sputtering is described. Sputter-deposition is described in terms of the unique advantageous features it offers such as versatility, momentum transfer, stoichiometry, sputter-etching, target geometry (coating complex surfaces), precise controls, flexibility, ecology, and sputtering rates. Sputtered film characteristics, such as strong adherence and coherence and film morphology, are briefly evaluated in terms of varying the sputtering parameters. Also described are some of the specific industrial areas which are turning to sputter-deposition techniques.

  10. Sputtering. [as deposition technique in mechanical engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1976-01-01

    This paper primarily reviews the potential of using the sputtering process as a deposition technique; however, the manufacturing and sputter etching aspects are also discussed. Since sputtering is not regulated by classical thermodynamics, new multicomponent materials can be developed in any possible chemical composition. The basic mechanism for dc and rf sputtering is described. Sputter-deposition is described in terms of the unique advantageous features it offers such as versatility, momentum transfer, stoichiometry, sputter-etching, target geometry (coating complex surfaces), precise controls, flexibility, ecology, and sputtering rates. Sputtered film characteristics, such as strong adherence and coherence and film morphology, are briefly evaluated in terms of varying the sputtering parameters. Also described are some of the specific industrial areas which are turning to sputter-deposition techniques.

  11. Continuous and nanostructured TiO2 films grown by dc sputtering magnetron.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, O; Vergara, L; Font, A Climent; de Melo, O; Sanz, R; Hernández-Vélez, M

    2012-12-01

    The growth of Anatase nanostructured films using dc reactive magnetron sputtering and post-annealing treatment is reported. TiO2 has been deposited on Porous Anodic Alumina Films used as templates which were previously grown in phosphoric acid solution and etched to modify their pore diameters. This synthesis via results in the formation of vertically aligned and spatially ordered TiO2 nanostructures replicating the underlying template. Previously, the growth optimization of TiO2 thin films deposited by dc magnetron sputtering on flat silicon substrates was done. The crystalline structure and Ti in-depth concentration profile were determined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, respectively. The surface morphology of the samples was explored by mean of a Field Emission Gun scanning electron microscope. Optical properties of the nanostructured samples were studied by using the reflectance spectra received in the UV-visible range. In these spectra different band gap values and complex light absorption features were observed.

  12. Thermal Processes and Emission of Atoms from the Liquid Phase Target Surface of a Magnetron Sputtering System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleykher, G. A.; Krivobokov, V. P.; Yuryeva, A. V.

    2015-08-01

    Mathematical models of thermal and erosion processes in the thermally insulated target of a magnetron sputtering system are constructed. With their help, the special features of forming the emission flux of atoms from the surface of the target whose material experiences first order phase transformations are obtained. The influence of the power density deposited into the magnetron discharge is investigated, the inhomogeneity of its distribution over the target surface is considered, and the special features of atom emission in pulsed-periodic plasma generation regimes are studied. The efficiency of the models is confirmed by a comparison of the calculated results with experimental measurements.

  13. Magnetron sputtered WS2; optical and structural analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koçak, Y.; Akaltun, Y.; Gür, Emre

    2016-04-01

    Remarkable properties of graphene have renewed interest in inorganic, Transition Metal Dichalgogenits (TMDC) due to unique electronic and optical properties. TMDCs such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2 have sizable bandgaps that change from indirect to direct in single layers, allowing applications such as solar cells, transistors, photodetectors and electroluminescent devices in which the graphene is not actively used. So, fabrication and analysis of these films are important for new generation devices. In this work, polycrystalline WS2 films were grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS) on different substrates like n-Si(100), n-Si(111), p-Si(100), glass and fused silica. Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties were investigated as a function of film thickness and RF power. From XRD analysis, signals from planes of (002), (100), (101), (110), (008) belong to the hegzagonal WS2 were obtained. Raman spectra of the WS2 show that there are two dominant peaks at ~351 cm-1 (in-plane phonon mode) and ~417 cm-1 (out-of-plane phonon mode). XPS analysis of the films has shown that binding energy and the intensity of tungsten 4f shells shifts by depending on the depth of the films which might be due to the wellknown preferential sputtering.

  14. Manufacturing of HfOxNy films using reactive magnetron sputtering for ISFET application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firek, Piotr; Wysokiński, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Hafnium Oxide-Nitride films were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering in O2/N2/Ar gas mixture. Deposition was planned according to Taguchi optimization method. Morphology of fabricated layers was tested using AFM technique (Ra=0.2÷1,0 nm). Thickness of HfOXNY films was measured using spectroscopic ellipsometry (t=45÷54 nm). Afterwards MIS structures were created by Al metallization process then layers were electrically characterised using I-V and C-V measurements. This allowed to calculate the electrical parameters of layers such as: flat-band voltage UFB, dielectric constant Ki, interface state trap density Dit and effective charge Qeff. Subsequently, deposited HfOxNy layers were annealed in PDA process (40 min 400 °C 100% N2) after which the electrical characterization was performed again.

  15. Chromium-nanodiamond coatings obtained by magnetron sputtering and their tribological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atamanov, M. V.; Khrushchov, M. M.; Marchenko, E. A.; Shevchenko, N. V.; Levin, I. S.; Petrzhik, M. I.; Miroshnichenko, V. I.; Relianu, M. D.

    2017-07-01

    Peculiarities of structure, chemical and phase composition, micromechanical and tribological properties of chromium-based coatings obtained by magnetron-sputtering of composite and/or compacted chromium-nanodiamond targets have been investigated.

  16. Tutorial: Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (R-HiPIMS)

    DOE PAGES

    Anders, André

    2017-03-21

    High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) is a coating technology that combines magnetron sputtering with pulsed power concepts. Furthermore, by applying power in pulses of high amplitude and a relatively low duty cycle, large fractions of sputtered atoms and near-target gases are ionized. In contrast to conventional magnetron sputtering, HiPIMS is characterized by self-sputtering or repeated gas recycling for high and low sputter yield materials, respectively, and both for most intermediate materials. The dense plasma in front of the target has the dual function of sustaining the discharge and providing plasma-assistance to film growth, affecting the microstructure of growing films.more » Many technologically interesting thin films are compound films, which are composed of one or more metals and a reactive gas, most often oxygen or nitrogen. When reactive gas is added, non-trivial consequences arise for the system because the target may become “poisoned,” i.e., a compound layer forms on the target surface affecting the sputtering yield and the yield of secondary electron emission and thereby all other parameters. It is emphasized that the target state depends not only on the reactive gas' partial pressure (balanced via gas flow and pumping) but also on the ion flux to the target, which can be controlled by pulse parameters. This is a critical technological opportunity for reactive HiPIMS (R-HiPIMS). The scope of this tutorial is focused on plasma processes and mechanisms of operation and only briefly touches upon film properties. It introduces R-HiPIMS in a systematic, step-by-step approach by covering sputtering, magnetron sputtering, reactive magnetron sputtering, pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering, HiPIMS, and finally R-HiPIMS. The tutorial is concluded by considering variations of R-HiPIMS known as modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering and deep-oscillation magnetron sputtering and combinations of R-HiPIMS with superimposed dc magnetron

  17. Effects of Various RF Powers on CdTe Thin Film Growth Using RF Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alibakhshi, Mohammad; Ghorannevis, Zohreh

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) film was deposited using the magnetron sputtering system onto a glass substrate at various deposition times and radio frequency (RF) powers. Ar gas was used to generate plasma to sputter the CdTe atoms from CdTe target. Effects of two experimental parameters of deposition time and RF power were investigated on the physical properties of the CdTe films. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the films exhibited polycrystalline nature of CdTe structure with the (111) orientation as the most prominent peak. Optimum condition to grow the CdTe film was obtained and it was found that increasing the deposition time and RF power increases the crystallinity of the films. From the profilometer and XRD data's, the thicknesses and crystal sizes of the CdTe films increased at the higher RF power and the longer deposition time, which results in affecting the band gap as well. From atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis we found that roughnesses of the films depend on the deposition time and is independent of the RF power.

  18. Transparent conducting Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering with dc and rf powers applied in combination

    SciTech Connect

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Ohtani, Yuusuke; Miyata, Toshihiro; Kuboi, Takeshi

    2007-07-15

    A newly developed Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin-film magnetron-sputtering deposition technique that decreases resistivity, improves resistivity distribution, and produces high-rate depositions has been demonstrated by dc magnetron-sputtering depositions that incorporate rf power (dc+rf-MS), either with or without the introduction of H{sub 2} gas into the deposition chamber. The dc+rf-MS preparations were carried out in a pure Ar or an Ar+H{sub 2} (0%-2%) gas atmosphere at a pressure of 0.4 Pa by adding a rf component (13.56 MHz) to a constant dc power of 80 W. The deposition rate in a dc+rf-MS deposition incorporating a rf power of 150 W was approximately 62 nm/min, an increase from the approximately 35 nm/min observed in dc magnetron sputtering with a dc power of 80 W. A resistivity as low as 3x10{sup -4} {omega} cm and an improved resistivity distribution could be obtained in AZO thin films deposited on substrates at a low temperature of 150 deg. C by dc+rf-MS with the introduction of hydrogen gas with a content of 1.5%. This article describes the effects of adding a rf power component (i.e., dc+rf-MS deposition) as well as introducing H{sub 2} gas into dc magnetron-sputtering preparations of transparent conducting AZO thin films.

  19. Localized traveling ionization zones and their importance for the high power impulse magnetron sputtering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maszl, Christian

    2016-09-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is a technique to deposit thin films with superior quality. A high ionization degree up to 90% and the natural occurence of high energetic metal ions are the reason why HiPIMS exceeds direct current magnetron sputtering in terms of coating quality. On the other hand HiPIMS suffers from a reduced efficiency, especially if metal films are produced. Therefore, a lot of research is done by experimentalists and theoreticians to clarify the transport mechanisms from target to substrate and to identify the energy source of the energetic metal ions. Magnetron plasmas are prone to a wide range of wave phenomena and instabilities. Especially, during HiPIMS at elevated power/current densities, symmetry breaks and self-organization in the plasma torus are observed. In this scenario localized travelling ionization zones with certain quasi-mode numbers are present which are commonly referred to as spokes. Because of their high rotation speed compared to typical process times of minutes their importance for thin film deposition was underestimated at first. Recent investigations show that spokes have a strong impact on particle transport, are probably the source of the high energetic metal ions and are therefore the essence of HiPIMS plasmas. In this contribution we will describe the current understanding of spokes, discuss implications for thin film synthesis and highlight open questions. This project is supported by the DFG (German Science Foundation) within the framework of the Coordinated Research Center SFB-TR 87 and the Research Department ``Plasmas with Complex Interactions'' at Ruhr-University Bochum.

  20. Synthesizing mixed phase titania nanocomposites with enhanced photoactivity and redshifted photoresponse by reactive DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Le

    Recent work points out the importance of the solid-solid interface in explaining the high photoactivity of mixed phase TiO2 catalysts. The goal of this research was to probe the synthesis-structure-function relationships of the solid-solid interfaces created by the reactive direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering of titanium dioxide. I hypothesize that the reactive DC magnetron sputtering is a useful method for synthesizing photo-catalysts with unique structure including solid-solid interfaces and surface defects that are associated with enhanced photoreactivity as well as a photoresponse shifted to longer wavelengths of light. I showed that sputter deposition provides excellent control of the phase and interface formation as well as the stoichiometry of the films. I explored the effects exerted by the process parameters of pressure, oxygen partial pressure, target power, substrate bias (RF), deposition incidence angle, and post annealing treatment on the structural and functional characteristics of the catalysts. I have successfully made pure and mixed phase TiO2 films. These films were characterized with UV-Vis, XPS, AFM, SEM, TEM, XRD and EPR, to determine optical properties, elemental stoichiometry, surface morphology, phase distribution and chemical coordination. Bundles of anatase-rutile nano-columns having high densities of dual-scale of interfaces among and within the columns are fabricated. Photocatalytic performance of the sputtered films as measured by the oxidation of the pollutant, acetaldehyde, and the reduction of CO2 for fuel (CH4) production was compared (normalized for surface area) to that of mixed phase TiO2 fabricated by other methods, including flame hydrolysis powders, and solgel deposited TiO 2 films. The sputtered mixed phase materials were far superior to the commercial standard (Degussa P25) and solgel TiO2 based on gas phase reaction of acetaldehyde oxidation under UV light and CO2 reduction under both UV and visible illuminations. The

  1. Structure of the metallic films deposited on small spheres trapped in the rf magnetron plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, A. V.; Pal, A. F.; Ryabinkin, A. N.; Serov, A. O.

    2016-11-01

    Metallic coatings were deposited onto glass spheres having diameters from several to one hundred micrometers by the magnetron sputtering. Two different experimental schemes were exploited. One of them had the traditional configuration where a magnetron sputter was placed at one hundred millimeters from particles. In this scheme, continuous mechanical agitation in a fluidized bed was used to achieve uniformity of coatings. In the second scheme the treated particles (substrates) levitated in a magnetron rf plasma over a sputtered rf electrode (target) at the distance d of few mm from it and at gas pressure p values of 30-100 mTorr. These parameters are essentially different from those in the traditional sputtering. Agitation due to the features of a particle confinement in dusty plasma was used here to obtain uniform coatings. Thickness and morphology of the obtained coatings were studied. As it is known, film growth rate and structure are determined by the substrate temperature, the densities of ion and neutral atom fluxes to the substrate surface, the radiation flux density, and the heat energy produced due to the surface condensation of atoms and recombination of electrons and ions. These parameters particularly depend on the product of p and d. In the case of magnetron rf dusty plasma, it is possible to achieve the pd value several times lower than the lowest value proper to the first traditional case. Completely different dependencies of the film growth rate and structure on the pd value in these sputtering processes were observed and qualitatively explained.

  2. The dislocation density and twin-boundary frequency determined by X-ray peak profile analysis in cold rolled magnetron-sputter deposited nanotwinned copper

    SciTech Connect

    Csiszar, Gabor; Ungar, Tamas; Balogh, Levente; Misra, Amit; Zhang Xinghang

    2011-08-15

    The dislocation density and the average twin boundary frequency is determined quantitatively in as-deposited and cold-rolled nanotwinned Cu thin films by high-resolution X-ray line profile analysis. After cold-rolling the dislocation density increases considerably, whereas the twin boundary frequency decreases only slightly. The physical parameters of the substructure provided by the quantitative X-ray analysis are in agreement with earlier transmission electron microscopy observations. The flow stress of the as-deposited and the cold-rolled films is directly correlated with the average thickness of twin lamellae and the dislocation density by taking into account the Hall-Petch and Taylor type strengthening mechanisms.

  3. Return of target material ions leads to a reduced hysteresis in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering: Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlec, Stanislav; Čapek, Jiří

    2017-05-01

    A tendency to disappearing hysteresis in reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) has been reported previously without full physical explanation. An analytical model of reactive pulsed sputtering including HiPIMS is presented. The model combines a Berg-type model of reactive sputtering with the global HiPIMS model of Christie-Vlček. Both time and area averaging is used to describe the macroscopic steady state, especially the reactive gas balance in the reactor. The most important effect in the presented model is covering of reacted parts of target by the returning ionized metal, effectively lowering the target coverage by reaction product at a given partial pressure. The return probability of ionized sputtered metal has been selected as a parameter to quantify the degree of HiPIMS effects. The model explains the reasons for reduced hysteresis in HiPIMS. The critical pumping speed was up to a factor of 7 lower in reactive HiPIMS compared to the mid-frequency magnetron sputtering. The model predicts reduced hysteresis in HiPIMS due to less negative slope of metal flux to substrates and of reactive gas sorption as functions of reactive gas partial pressure. Higher deposition rate of reactive HiPIMS compared to standard reactive sputtering is predicted for some parameter combinations. Comparison of the model with experiment exhibits good qualitative and quantitative agreement for three material combinations, namely, Ti-O2, Al-O2, and Ti-N2.

  4. Particle-balance models for pulsed sputtering magnetrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Chunqing; Lundin, D.; Gudmundsson, J. T.; Raadu, M. A.; Bradley, J. W.; Brenning, N.

    2017-09-01

    The time-dependent plasma discharge ionization region model (IRM) has been under continuous development during the past decade and used in several studies of the ionization region of high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges. In the present work, a complete description of the most recent version of the IRM is given, which includes improvements, such as allowing for returning of the working gas atoms from the target, a separate treatment of hot secondary electrons, addition of doubly charged metal ions, etc. To show the general applicability of the IRM, two different HiPIMS discharges are investigated. The first set concerns 400 μs long discharge pulses applied to an Al target in an Ar atmosphere at 1.8 Pa. The second set focuses on 100 μs long discharge pulses applied to a Ti target in an Ar atmosphere at 0.54 Pa, and explores the effects of varying the magnetic field strength. The model results show that Al2+ -ions contribute negligibly to the production of secondary electrons, while Ti2+ -ions effectively contribute to the production of secondary electrons. Similarly, the model results show that for an argon discharge with Al target the contribution of Al+-ions to the discharge current at the target surface is over 90% at 800 V. However, at 400 V the Al+-ions and Ar+-ions contribute roughly equally to the discharge current in the initial peak, while in the plateau region Ar+-ions contribute to roughly \\frac{2}{3} of the current. For high currents the discharge with Al target develops almost pure self-sputter recycling, while the discharge with Ti target exhibits close to a 50/50 combination of self-sputter recycling and working gas-recycling. For a Ti target, a self-sputter yield significantly below unity makes working gas-recycling necessary at high currents. For the discharge with Ti target, a decrease in the B-field strength, resulted in a corresponding stepwise increase in the discharge resistivity.

  5. Highly transparent conducting CdO thin films by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheemadan, Saheer; Rafiudeen, Amiruddin; Santhosh Kumar, Maniyeri Chandroth

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films with low electrical resistivity and higher transparency have been deposited by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on glass substrates. Sputtering process was carried out at RF power of 40 W and with varying substrate temperatures. The structural, morphological, electrical, and optical properties of the deposited films are investigated. The structural properties reveals that the as-deposited CdO films shows preferential orientation along (111) plane exhibiting face centered cubic structure. The surface morphology shows that all the films possess well defined grain boundaries with high uniformity. CdO samples deposited at substrate temperature of 150°C with RF power of 40 W exhibits above 95% transparency within the visible wavelength with lower electrical resistivity value in the order of 10-5 Ω·cm. The Raman spectroscopy analysis reveals the possible modes present in CdO films and its dependence on substrate temperature. The comparatively high value of the figure of merit for the optimum sample of CdO deposited at 150°C indicates that these films are suitable for optoelectronic device applications.

  6. Corrosion and Nano-mechanical Behaviors of Magnetron Sputtered Al-Mo Gradient Coated Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, A.; Srinath, J.; Ramesh Narayanan, P.; Sharma, S. C.; Venkitakrishnan, P. V.

    2017-01-01

    A gradient three-layer Al-Mo coating was deposited on steel using magnetron sputtering method. The corrosion and nano-mechanical properties of the coating were examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and nano-indentation tests and compared with the conventional electroplated cadmium and IVD aluminum coatings. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was performed by immersing the coated specimens in 3.5% NaCl solution, and the impedance behavior was recorded as a function of immersion time. The mechanical properties (hardness and elastic modulus) were obtained from each indentation as a function of the penetration depth across the coating cross section. The adhesion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by scratch tests on the coated surface using nano-indentation method. The results show that the gradient Al-Mo coating exhibits better corrosion resistance than the other coatings in view of the better microstructure. The impedance results were modeled using appropriate electrical equivalent circuits for all the coated systems. The uniform, smooth and dense Al-Mo coating obtained by magnetron sputtering exhibits good adhesion with the steel substrate as per scratch test method. The poor corrosion resistance of the later coatings was shown to be due to the defects/cracks as well as the lesser adhesion of the coatings with steel. The hardness and elastic modulus of the Al-Mo coating are found to be high when compared to the other coatings.

  7. Study on nitrogenated amorphous carbon films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, J.R.

    2006-02-01

    Nitrogenated amorphous carbon (a-CN{sub x}) films were prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBMS) at different N{sub 2}/Ar gas flow rate ratios and different bias voltages. The films were characterized using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman scattering, nanoindenter, atomic force microscopy nanoscratch, and contact angle measurement. It was found that a negative bias of 150 V is the optimal condition for the formation of sp{sup 3} bonded carbon atoms. As the N{sub 2}/Ar flow rate ratio changes from 0 to 0.47, the nitrogen to carbon ratio in deposited films increases from 0 to 0.22, and the sp{sup 3} fraction of carbon atoms decreases from 0.51 to 0.28. The pure carbon film has the highest sp{sup 3} faction of carbon atoms and therefore the highest hardness and the lowest scratching depth. Comparing to the films prepared by conventional magnetron sputtering, all the a-CN{sub x} films prepared by UBMS show a lower scratching depth. The a-CN{sub x} films have a hydrophilic characteristic with a surface free energy from 56.6 to 65.6 mN/m and a predominant polar component.

  8. Tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnetron sputtered titanium-amorphous carbon coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhandapani, Vishnu Shankar; Subbiah, Ramesh; Thangavel, Elangovan; Arumugam, Madhankumar; Park, Kwideok; Gasem, Zuhair M.; Veeraragavan, Veeravazhuthi; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous carbon incorporated with titanium (a-C:Ti) was coated on 316L stainless steel (SS) by magnetron sputtering technique to attain superior tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. The morphology, topography and functional groups of the nanostructured a-C:Ti coatings in various concentrations were analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman and XPS analyses confirmed the increase in sp2 bonds with increasing titanium content in the a-C matrix. TEM analysis confirmed the composite nature of the coating and the presence of nanostructured TiC for Ti content of 2.33 at.%. This coating showed superior tribological properties compared to the other a-C:Ti coatings. Furthermore, electrochemical corrosion studies were performed against stimulated body fluid medium in which all the a-C:Ti coatings showed improved corrosion resistance than the pure a-C coating. Preosteoblasts proliferation and viability on the specimens were tested and the results showed that a-C:Ti coatings with relatively high Ti (3.77 at.%) content had better biocompatibility. Based on the results of this work, highly durable coatings with good biocompatibility could be achieved by incorporation of optimum amount of Ti in a-C coatings deposited on SS by magnetron sputtering technique.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of CdTe nanostructures grown by RF magnetron sputtering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarnejad, Elaheh; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Hantehzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we synthesize Cadmium Telluride nanostructures by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system on soda lime glass at various thicknesses. The effect of CdTe nanostructures thickness on crystalline, optical and morphological properties has been studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The XRD parameters of CdTe nanostructures such as microstrain, dislocation density, and crystal size have been examined. From XRD analysis, it could be assumed that increasing deposition time caused the formation of the wurtzite hexagonal structure of the sputtered films. Optical properties of the grown nanostructures as a function of film thickness have been observed. All the films indicate more than 60% transmission over a wide range of wavelengths. The optical band gap values of the films have obtained in the range of 1.62-1.45 eV. The results indicate that an RF sputtering method succeeded in depositing of CdTe nanostructures with high purity and controllable physical properties, which is appropriate for photovoltaic and nuclear detector applications.

  10. Magnetic interaction intensity in cobalt samarium thin films fabricated using DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic interaction intensity between magnetic grains was studied for as deposited cobalt samarium alloys in the form of thin films. The films were deposited onto silicon substrates using dc magnetron sputtering technique. The results showed that the magnitude of interaction intensity between magnetic grains in the films was reduced as samarium content increased until 20 at.% Sm. However, the coercivity of the films decreases with further increase in samarium concentration above 20 at. % Sm.. Thus the increase of coercivity in this range of composition (up to 20 at % of samarium) is due to the initial increase in size magnetic grains as well increase in grain separation, which reduces interaction intensity between grains. The effect of samarium content on interaction intensity between magnetic grains in the films is studied.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of DC magnetron sputtered nano structured molybdenum thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondiya, S. R.; Rokade, A. V.; Jadhavar, A. A.; Pandharkar, S. M.; Kulkarni, R. R.; Karpe, S. D.; Diwate, K. D.; Jadkar, S. R.

    2016-04-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) thin films were deposited on corning glass (#7059) substrates using DC magnetron sputtering system. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, morphology and topological properties have been investigated. Films were characterized by variety of techniques such as low angle x-ray diffraction (low angle XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM). The low angle XRD analysis revealed that the synthesized Mo films are nanocrystalline having cubic crystal structure with (110) preferential orientation. The microstructure of the deposited Mo thin films observed with FE-SEM images indicated that films are homogeneous and uniform with randomly oriented leaf shape morphology. The AFM analysis shows that with increase in substrate temperature the rms roughness of Mo films increases. The obtained results suggest that the synthesized nanostructured Mo thin films have potential application as a back contact material for high efficiency solar cells like CdTe, CIGS, CZTS etc.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of DC magnetron sputtered nano structured molybdenum thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Rondiya, S. R.; Rokade, A. V.; Jadhavar, A. A.; Pandharkar, S. M.; Kulkarni, R. R.; Karpe, S. D.; Diwate, K. D.; Jadkar, S. R.

    2016-04-13

    Molybdenum (Mo) thin films were deposited on corning glass (#7059) substrates using DC magnetron sputtering system. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, morphology and topological properties have been investigated. Films were characterized by variety of techniques such as low angle x-ray diffraction (low angle XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM). The low angle XRD analysis revealed that the synthesized Mo films are nanocrystalline having cubic crystal structure with (110) preferential orientation. The microstructure of the deposited Mo thin films observed with FE-SEM images indicated that films are homogeneous and uniform with randomly oriented leaf shape morphology. The AFM analysis shows that with increase in substrate temperature the rms roughness of Mo films increases. The obtained results suggest that the synthesized nanostructured Mo thin films have potential application as a back contact material for high efficiency solar cells like CdTe, CIGS, CZTS etc.

  13. Structural and morphological properties of ITO thin films grown by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorannevis, Z.; Akbarnejad, E.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2015-10-01

    Physical properties of transparent and conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films grown by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering are studied systematically by changing deposition time. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data indicate polycrystalline thin films with grain orientations predominantly along the (2 2 2) and (4 0 0) directions. From atomic force microscopy (AFM) it is found that by increasing the deposition time, the roughness of the film increases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show a network of a high-porosity interconnected nanoparticles, which approximately have a pore size ranging between 20 and 30 nm. Optical measurements suggest an average transmission of 80 % for the ITO films. Sheet resistances are investigated using four-point probes, which imply that by increasing the film thickness the resistivities of the films decrease to 2.43 × 10-5 Ω cm.

  14. Composition of nanocomposites based on thin layers of tin on porous silicon formed by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenshin, A. S.; Kashkarov, V. M.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Seredin, P. V.; Ryabtsev, S. V.; Bel'tyukov, A. N.; Gil'mutdinov, F. Z.

    2017-01-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy the features of morphology and peculiarities of the surface composition of nanocomposites made of thin tin layers by magnetron sputtering formed on porous silicon with pores size of 50-150 nm. Porous silicon was obtained on n-type conductivity crystalline silicon substrate. The obtained nanocomposites were found differ between themselves by the ratio of the main phases: tin dioxide, sub-oxide and metal tin in a dependence on the thickness of the deposited tin layer. Fraction of the oxidized tin in the phase composition of composites was reduced from the surface to the bulk of the sample. Moreover, it was determined that the deposition of tin nanolayers did not result in a considerable change of the phase composition of porous silicon substrate.

  15. Decorative black TiCxOy film fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering without importing oxygen reactive gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Katsushi; Wakabayashi, Masao; Tsukakoshi, Yukio; Abe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-02-01

    Decorative black TiCxOy films were fabricated by dc (direct current) magnetron sputtering without importing the oxygen reactive gas into the sputtering chamber. Using a ceramic target of titanium oxycarbide (TiC1.59O0.31), the oxygen content in the films could be easily controlled by adjustment of total sputtering gas pressure without remarkable change of the carbon content. The films deposited at 2.0 and 4.0 Pa, those are higher pressure when compared with that in conventional magnetron sputtering, showed an attractive black color. In particular, the film at 4.0 Pa had the composition of TiC1.03O1.10, exhibited the L* of 41.5, a* of 0.2 and b* of 0.6 in CIELAB color space. These values were smaller than those in the TiC0.29O1.38 films (L* of 45.8, a* of 1.2 and b* of 1.2) fabricated by conventional reactive sputtering method from the same target under the conditions of gas pressure of 0.3 Pa and optimized oxygen reactive gas concentration of 2.5 vol.% in sputtering gas. Analysis of XRD and XPS revealed that the black film deposited at 4.0 Pa was the amorphous film composed of TiC, TiO and C. The adhesion property and the heat resisting property were enough for decorative uses. This sputtering process has an industrial advantage that the decorative black coating with color uniformity in large area can be easily obtained by plain operation because of unnecessary of the oxygen reactive gas importing which is difficult to be controlled uniformly in the sputtering chamber.

  16. RF magnetron sputtering of a hydroxyapatite target: A comparison study on polytetrafluorethylene and titanium substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmenev, Roman A.; Surmeneva, Maria A.; Grubova, Irina Yu.; Chernozem, Roman V.; Krause, Bärbel; Baumbach, Tilo; Loza, Kateryna; Epple, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    A pure hydroxyapatite (HA) target was used to prepare the biocompatible coating of HA on the surface of a polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) substrate, which was placed on the same substrate holder with technically pure titanium (Ti) in the single deposition runs by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The XPS, XRD and FTIR analyses of the obtained surfaces showed that for all substrates, instead of the HA coating deposition, the coating of a mixture of calcium carbonate and calcium fluoride was grown. According to SEM investigations, the surface of PTFE was etched, and the surface topography of uncoated Ti was preserved after the depositions. The FTIR results reveal no phosphate bonds; only calcium tracks were observed in the EDX-spectra on the surface of the coated PTFE substrates. Phosphate oxide (V), which originated from the target, could be removed using a vacuum pump system, or no phosphate-containing bonds could be formed on the substrate surface because of the severe substrate bombardment process, which prevented the HA coating deposition. The observed results may be connected with the surface re-sputtering effect of the growing film by high-energy negatively charged ions (most probably oxygen or fluorine), which are accelerated in the cathode dark sheath.

  17. Magnetron-sputtered Be coatings as reflectors for ultracold neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryś, T.; Daum, M.; Fierlinger, P.; Fomin, A.; Geltenbort, P.; Henneck, R.; Kirch, K.; Kharitonov, A.; Krasnoshekova, I.; Kuźniak, M.; Lasakov, M.; Pichlmaier, A.; Raimondi, F.; Schelldorfer, R.; Serebrov, A.; Siber, E.; Tal'daev, R.; Varlamov, V.; Vasiliev, A.; Wambach, J.; Zherebtsov, O.

    2005-10-01

    We describe the production, characterization and performance of magnetron-sputtered Be coatings on aluminum, copper and stainless steel substrates. The coating thickness is typically 300 nm. Small samples were characterized by means of Optical Microscopy (OM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray induced Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA). The coating quality and adhesion following thermal cycling and neutron irradiation were tested with respect to future applications as storage containers in Ultracold Neutron (UCN) sources. The fractional uncoated area was determined to be 10 -4 to 10 -5 by OM and XPS. These results were confirmed by foil transmission measurements with UCN in the energy range 180 to 230 neV. The storage time of a 250 l Be-coated Cu container was determined for UCN energies up to 60 neV at room temperature and around 90 K and the wall loss factor η extracted. We obtained η (90 K)=2.7×10 -5 and η(300 K)=1.1×10 -4 in good agreement with previously published results.

  18. Fabrication of multilayered Ge nanocrystals by magnetron sputtering and annealing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Green, Martin A; Conibeer, Gavin; Cho, Eun-Chel; Huang, Yidan; Pere-Wurfl, Ivan; Flynn, Chris

    2008-11-12

    Multilayered Ge nanocrystals embedded in Si and Ge oxide films have been fabricated on Si substrate by a (SiO(2)+Ge)/(SiO(2)+GeO(2)) superlattice approach, using an rf magnetron sputtering technique with a Ge+SiO(2) composite target and subsequent thermal annealing in N(2) ambient at 750 °C for 5 min. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated the formation of Ge nanocrystals with an average size estimated to be 9.8 nm. Raman scattering spectra showed a peak of the Ge-Ge vibrational mode shifted downwards to 298.8 cm(-1), which was caused by quantum confinement of phonons in the Ge nanocrystals. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) analysis demonstrated that the Ge chemical state is mainly Ge(0) in the (SiO(2)+Ge) layer and Ge(4+) in the (SiO(2)+GeO(2)) layer in the superlattice structure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that Ge nanocrystals were confined in (SiO(2)+Ge) layers, and had good crystallinity. This superlattice approach significantly improved both the size uniformity of Ge nanocrystals and their uniformity of spacing on the 'Z' growth direction compared with the conventional Ge-ncs fabrication method using a single and thick SiO(2) matrix film.

  19. Titania, silicon dioxide, and tantalum pentoxide waveguides and optical resonant filters prepared with radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and annealing.

    PubMed

    Rabady, Rabi; Avrutsky, Ivan

    2005-01-20

    Mixing dielectric materials in solid-thin-film deposition allows the engineering of thin films' optical constants to meet specific thin-film-device requirements, which can be significantly useful for optoelectronics devices and photonics technologies in general. In principle, by use of radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering, it would be possible to mix any two, or more, materials at different molar ratios as long as the mixed materials are not chemically reactive in the mixture. This freedom in material mixing by use of magnetron sputtering has an advantage by providing a wide range of the material optical constants, which eventually enables the photonic-device designer to have the flexibility to achieve optimal device performance. We deposited three combinations from three different oxides by using rf magnetron sputtering and later investigated them for their optical constants. Each two-oxide mixture was done at different molar ratio levels. Moreover, postdeposition annealing was investigated and was shown to reduce the optical losses and to stabilize the film composition against environmental effects such as aging and humidity exposure. These investigations were supported by the fabricated planar waveguides and optical resonant filters.

  20. Growth of CuCl thin films by magnetron sputtering for ultraviolet optoelectronic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Natarajan, Gomathi; Daniels, S.; Cameron, D. C.; O'Reilly, L.; Mitra, A.; McNally, P. J.; Lucas, O. F.; Rajendra Kumar, R. T.; Reid, Ian; Bradley, A. L.

    2006-08-01

    Copper (I) chloride (CuCl) is a potential candidate for ultraviolet (UV) optoelectronics due to its close lattice match with Si (mismatch less than 0.4%) and a high UV excitonic emission at room temperature. CuCl thin films were deposited using radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The influence of target to substrate distance (d{sub ts}) and sputtering pressure on the composition, microstructure, and UV emission properties of the films were analyzed. The films deposited with shorter target to substrate spacing (d{sub ts}=3 cm) were found to be nonstoichiometric, and the film stoichiometry improves when the substrate is moved away from the target (d{sub ts}=4.5 and 6 cm). A further increase in the spacing results in poor crystalline quality. The grain interface area increases when the sputtering pressure is increased from 1.1x10{sup -3} to 1x10{sup -2} mbar at d{sub ts}=6 cm. Room temperature cathodoluminescence spectrum shows an intense and sharp UV exciton (Z{sub 3}) emission at {approx}385 nm with a full width at half maximum of 16 nm for the films deposited at the optimum d{sub ts} of 6 cm and a pressure of 1.1x10{sup -3} mbar. A broad deep level emission in the green region ({approx}515 nm) is also observed. The relative intensity of the UV to green emission peaks decreased when the sputtering pressure was increased, consistent with an increase in grain boundary area. The variation in the stoichiometry and the crystallinity are attributed to the change in the intensity and energy of the flux of materials from the target due to the interaction with the background gas molecules.

  1. Photoluminescence observation from zinc oxide formed by magnetron sputtering at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, D.; Babichev, A.; Nikitina, E.; Gudovskikh, A.; Kladko, P.

    2015-11-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) of ZnO thin films grown by magnetron sputtering at room temperature has been observed. The PL spectra were measured using an instrument from Accent Optical Technologies with a solid state UV laser (λ = 266 nm) as the pumping source and at the temperature of 300 K. Samples grown at sputtering power of 100-200 W show a strong photoluminescence (PL) at wavelength of 377 nm and its intensity shows non-linear dependence with magnetron power. At values of sputtering power less then 100 W PL signal was not observed. A correlation between PL, XRD intensity and ZnO grain size was shown.

  2. Evolution of sputtering target surface composition in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubart, T.; Aijaz, A.

    2017-05-01

    The interaction between pulsed plasmas and surfaces undergoing chemical changes complicates physics of reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS). In this study, we determine the dynamics of formation and removal of a compound on a titanium surface from the evolution of discharge characteristics in an argon atmosphere with nitrogen and oxygen. We show that the time response of a reactive process is dominated by surface processes. The thickness of the compound layer is several nm and its removal by sputtering requires ion fluence in the order of 1016 cm-2, much larger than the ion fluence in a single HiPIMS pulse. Formation of the nitride or oxide layer is significantly slower in HiPIMS than in dc sputtering under identical conditions. Further, we explain very high discharge currents in HiPIMS by the formation of a truly stoichiometric compound during the discharge off-time. The compound has a very high secondary electron emission coefficient and leads to a large increase in the discharge current upon target poisoning.

  3. Effect of magnetron sputtering parameters and stress state of W film precursors on WSe2 layer texture by rapid selenization.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongchao; Gao, Di; Xie, Senlin; Zou, Jianpeng

    2016-11-04

    Tungsten diselenide (WSe2) film was obtained by rapid selenization of magnetron sputtered tungsten (W) film. To prevent WSe2 film peeling off from the substrate during selenization, the W film was designed with a double-layer structure. The first layer was deposited at a high sputtering-gas pressure to form a loose structure, which can act as a buffer layer to release stresses caused by WSe2 growth. The second layer was deposited naturally on the first layer to react with selenium vapour in the next step. The effect of the W film deposition parameters(such as sputtering time, sputtering-gas pressure and substrate bias voltage)on the texture and surface morphology of the WSe2 film was studied. Shortening the sputtering time, increasing the sputtering-gas pressure or decreasing the substrate bias voltage can help synthesize WSe2 films with more platelets embedded vertically in the matrix. The stress state of the W film influences the WSe2 film texture. Based on the stress state of the W film, a model for growth of the WSe2 films with different textures was proposed. The insertion direction of the van der Waals gap is a key factor for the anisotropic formation of WSe2 film.

  4. Effect of magnetron sputtering parameters and stress state of W film precursors on WSe2 layer texture by rapid selenization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongchao; Gao, Di; Xie, Senlin; Zou, Jianpeng

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten diselenide (WSe2) film was obtained by rapid selenization of magnetron sputtered tungsten (W) film. To prevent WSe2 film peeling off from the substrate during selenization, the W film was designed with a double-layer structure. The first layer was deposited at a high sputtering-gas pressure to form a loose structure, which can act as a buffer layer to release stresses caused by WSe2 growth. The second layer was deposited naturally on the first layer to react with selenium vapour in the next step. The effect of the W film deposition parameters(such as sputtering time, sputtering-gas pressure and substrate bias voltage)on the texture and surface morphology of the WSe2 film was studied. Shortening the sputtering time, increasing the sputtering-gas pressure or decreasing the substrate bias voltage can help synthesize WSe2 films with more platelets embedded vertically in the matrix. The stress state of the W film influences the WSe2 film texture. Based on the stress state of the W film, a model for growth of the WSe2 films with different textures was proposed. The insertion direction of the van der Waals gap is a key factor for the anisotropic formation of WSe2 film. PMID:27812031

  5. Sputter deposition system for controlled fabrication of multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Di Nardo, R.P.; Takacs, P.Z.; Majkrzak, C.F.; Stefan, P.M.

    1985-06-01

    A detailed description of a sputter deposition system constructed specifically for the fabrication of x-ray and neutron multilayer monochromators and supermirrors is given. One of the principal design criteria is to maintain precise control of film thickness and uniformity over large substrate areas. Regulation of critical system parameters is fully automated so that response to feedback control information is rapid and complicated layer thickness sequences can be deposited accurately and efficiently. The use of either dc or rf magnetron sources makes it possible to satisfy the diverse material requirements of both x-ray and neutron optics.

  6. Synthesis of Tantalum-Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films by Magnetron Sputtering for Photovoltaic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Minh; Luu, Manh Quynh; Nguyen, Minh Hieu; Nguyen, Duy Thien; Bui, Van Diep; Truong, Thanh Tu; Pham, Van Thanh; Nguyen-Tran, Thuat

    2017-06-01

    Tantalum-doped tin oxide transparent conductive thin films were deposited on glass substrates by radio frequency and direct current reactive magnetron co-sputtering methods in an argon and oxygen environment. Optimization of the thin films for photovoltaic applications was performed using a dimensionless figure of merit by combining electrical and transparency properties. The optimized thin film showed a weight-averaged transmittance of 83%, a band gap value of 3.2 eV, resistivity of 5.2 × 10-3 Ω cm, and bulk carrier concentration of 1.2 × 1020 cm-3. The lowest resistivity among all films was 2.1 × 10-3 Ω cm, corresponding to a weight-averaged transmittance of 62%. The optimized deposition condition was carried out by co-sputtering on heated substrates at 270°C. Thin films deposited under this optimized condition were applied for our perovskite solar cells, and demonstrated promising power conversion efficiency.

  7. Synthesis of Tantalum-Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films by Magnetron Sputtering for Photovoltaic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Minh; Luu, Manh Quynh; Nguyen, Minh Hieu; Nguyen, Duy Thien; Bui, Van Diep; Truong, Thanh Tu; Pham, Van Thanh; Nguyen-Tran, Thuat

    2017-01-01

    Tantalum-doped tin oxide transparent conductive thin films were deposited on glass substrates by radio frequency and direct current reactive magnetron co-sputtering methods in an argon and oxygen environment. Optimization of the thin films for photovoltaic applications was performed using a dimensionless figure of merit by combining electrical and transparency properties. The optimized thin film showed a weight-averaged transmittance of 83%, a band gap value of 3.2 eV, resistivity of 5.2 × 10-3 Ω cm, and bulk carrier concentration of 1.2 × 1020 cm-3. The lowest resistivity among all films was 2.1 × 10-3 Ω cm, corresponding to a weight-averaged transmittance of 62%. The optimized deposition condition was carried out by co-sputtering on heated substrates at 270°C. Thin films deposited under this optimized condition were applied for our perovskite solar cells, and demonstrated promising power conversion efficiency.

  8. Magnetron Plasma Sputtered Nanocomposite Thin Films: Structural Surface Studies by In Vacuo Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Videnovic, Ivan R.

    2004-12-01

    The experimental system that enables thin film deposition by chemical vapor deposition combined with magnetron sputtering and sample surface characterization by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), without breaking the vacuum between the deposition and the characterization stage, is described. The particular goal of this work was study of the surface arrangement of embedded metallic nanoclusters of 1B group (Au, Ag, and Cu) in amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H). From the range of applied material characterization tools, we present here the results of several PES-based experiments used to reveal cluster properties at the surface: as-deposited sample PES measurements, off-normal take-off angle XPS, and in situ in-depth XPS profiling by Ar+ ion etching. Clear distinction in all PES results of the samples deposited on the grounded substrates from those deposited on -150 V dc biased ones is obtained, revealing that keeping the substrate grounded during deposition results in topmost metallic clusters covered with a very thin layer of a-C:H, while applying negative bias voltage to the substrate results in partially bald clusters on the surface.

  9. Degradation and Characterization of Resorbable Phosphate-Based Glass Thin-Film Coatings Applied by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Bryan W; Gimeno-Fabra, Miquel; Segal, Joel; Ahmed, Ifty; Grant, David M

    2015-12-16

    Quinternary phosphate-based glasses of up to 2.67 μm, deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering, were degraded in distilled water and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to investigate their degradation characteristics. Magnetron-sputtered coatings have been structurally compared to their compositionally equivalent melt-quenched bulk glass counterparts. The coatings were found to have structurally variable surfaces to melt-quenched glass such that the respective bridging oxygen to nonbridging oxygen bonds were 34.2% to 65.8% versus 20.5% to 79.5%, forming metaphosphate (PO3)(-) (Q(2)) versus less soluble (P2O7)(4-) (Q(1)) and (PO4)(3-) (Q(0)), respectively. This factor led to highly soluble coatings, exhibiting a t(1/2) degradation dependence in the first 2 h in distilled water, followed by a more characteristic linear profile because the subsequent layers were less soluble. Degradation was observed to preferentially occur, forming voids characteristic of pitting corrosion, which was confirmed by the use of a focused ion beam. Coating degradation in PBS precipitated a (PO3)(-) metaphosphate, an X-ray amorphous layer, which remained adherent to the substrate and seemingly formed a protective diffusion barrier, which inhibited further coating degradation. The implications are that while compositionally similar, sputter-deposited coatings and melt-quenched glasses are structurally dissimilar, most notably, with regard to the surface layer. This factor has been attributed to surface etching of the as-deposited coating layer during deposition and variation in the thermal history between the processes of magnetron sputtering and melt quenching.

  10. Magnetron Sputtered Pulsed Laser Deposition Scale Up

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-14

    2:721-726 34 S. J. P. Laube and E. F. Stark, “ Artificial Intellegence in Process Control of Pulsed Laser Deposition”, Proceedings of...The model would be based on mathematical simulation of real process data, neural-networks, or other artificial intelligence methods based on in situ...Laube and E. F. Stark, Proc. Symp. Artificial Intel. Real Time Control, Valencia, Spain, 3-5 Oct. ,1994, p.159-163. International Federation of

  11. The structure, surface topography and mechanical properties of Si-C-N films fabricated by RF and DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhifeng; Wang, Yingjun; Du, Chang; Huang, Nan; Wang, Lin; Ning, Chengyun

    2011-12-01

    Silicon carbon nitride thin films were deposited on Co-Cr alloy under varying deposition conditions such as sputtering power and the partial pressure ratio of N2 to Ar by radio frequency and direct current magnetron sputtering techniques. The chemical bonding configurations, surface topography and hardness were characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and nano-indentation technique. The sputtering power exhibited important influence on the film composition, chemical bonding configurations and surface topography, the electro-negativity had primary effects on chemical bonding configurations at low sputtering power. A progressive densification of the film microstructure occurring with the carbon fraction was increased. The films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering, the relative content of the Si-N bond in the films increased with the sputtering power increased, and Si-C and Si-Si were easily detachable, and C-O, N-N and N-O on the film volatile by ion bombardment which takes place very frequently during the film formation process. With the increase of sputtering power, the films became smoother and with finer particle growth. The hardness varied between 6 GPa and 11.23 GPa depending on the partial pressure ratio of N2 to Ar. The tribological characterization of Co-Cr alloy with Si-C-N coating sliding against UHMWPE counter-surface in fetal bovine serum, shows that the wear resistance of the Si-C-N coated Co-Cr alloy/UHMWPE sliding pair show much favourable improvement over that of uncoated Co-Cr alloy/UHMWPE sliding pair. This study is important for the development of advanced coatings with tailored mechanical and tribological properties.

  12. Study of optical properties of asymmetric bipolar pulse DC magnetron sputtered Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin film as a function of oxygen content in deposition ambient

    SciTech Connect

    Haque, S. Maidul Shinde, D. D. Misal, J. S.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2014-04-24

    Tantalum penta-oxide thin films have been deposited by reactive sputtering technique using asymmetric bipolar pulsed DC source at various oxygen percentage viz. 0 to 50 %. The optical properties of the films have been studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. It has been observed that compact films with low void fraction, high refractive index and band gap can be obtained by the above technique with oxygen percentage in the range of 30–40%. The films deposited with zero or very low oxygen content have high deposition rate and yield metal rich films with large voids, defects, low band gap and high refractive index. Similarly films deposited with >40% oxygen content again contain voids and defects due to the presence of large amount of gas molecules in the sputtering ambient.

  13. Time resolved ion energy distribution functions of non-reactive and reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Katharina; Breilmann, Wolfgang; Maszl, Christian; Benedikt, Jan; von Keudell, Achim

    2016-09-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is a technique for thin film deposition and can be operated in reactive and non-reactive mode. The growth rate of HiPIMS in non-reactive mode reduces to 30% compared to direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS) at same average power. However, the quality of the coatings produced with HiPIMS is excellent which makes these plasmas highly appealing. In reactive mode target poisoning is occurring which changes the plasma dynamics. An advantage of reactive HiPIMS is that it can be operated hysteresis-free which can result in a higher growth rate compared to dcMS. In this work thin films are deposited by a HiPIMS plasma which is generated by short pulses of 100 μs with high power densities in the range of 1 kW/cm2. Ar and Ar/N2 admixtures are used as a working gas to sputter a 2'' titanium target. The particle transport is analysed with time resolved ion energy distribution functions which are measured by a mass spectrometer with a temporal resolution of 2 μs. Phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy is executed to investigate the particle dynamics of different species. The time and energy resolved particle fluxes in non-reactive and reactive mode are compared and implications on the sputter process are discussed.

  14. Physical properties of erbium implanted tungsten oxide filmsdeposited by reactive dual magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Sodky H.; Anders, Andre

    2006-11-08

    Amorphous and partially crystalline WO3 thin films wereprepared by reactive dual magnetron sputtering and successively implantedby erbium ions with a fluence in the range from 7.7 x 1014 to 5 x 1015ions/cm2. The electrical and optical properties were studied as afunction of the film deposition parameters and the ion fluence. Ionimplantation caused a strong decrease of the resistivity, a moderatedecrease of the index of refraction and a moderate increase of theextinction coefficient in the visible and near infrared, while theoptical band gap remained almost unchanged. These effects could belargely ascribed to ion-induced oxygen deficiency. When annealed in air,the already low resistivities of the implanted samples decreased furtherup to 70oC, whereas oxidation, and hence a strong increase of theresistivity, was observed at higher annealing temperatures.

  15. A Complementary Type of Electrochromic Device by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksuz, Lutfi; Kiristi, Melek; Bozduman, Ferhat; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2014-10-01

    Electrochromic (EC) devices can change their optical properties reversibly in the visible region (400-800 nm) upon charge insertion/extraction reactions according to the applied voltage. A complementary type of EC device composes of two electrochromic layers, which is separated by an ionic conduction layer (electrolyte). In this work, the EC device was fabricated using vanadium oxide (V2O5) and titanium doped tungsten oxide (WO3-TiO2) electrodes. The EC electrodes were deposited as thin film structures by a reactive RF magnetron sputtering system in a medium of gas mixture of argon and oxygen. surface morphology of the films was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Electrochemical property and durability of the EC device was investigated by a potentiostat system. Optical measurement was examined under applied voltages of +/- 2.5 V by a computer-controlled system, constantly.

  16. Studies on optoelectronic properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered chromium doped CdO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Hymavathi, B. Rao, T. Subba; Kumar, B. Rajesh

    2014-10-15

    Cr doped CdO thin films were deposited on glass substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering method and subsequently annealed from 200 °C to 500 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the films exhibit (1 1 1) preferred orientation. The optical transmittance of the films increases from 64% to 88% with increasing annealing temperature. The optical band gap values were found to be decreased from 2.77 to 2.65 eV with the increase of annealing temperature. The decrease in optical band gap energy with increasing annealing temperature can be attributed to improvement in the crystallinity of the films and may also be due to quantum confinement effect. A minimum resistivity of 2.23 × 10{sup −4} Ω.cm and sheet resistance of 6.3 Ω/sq is obtained for Cr doped CdO film annealed at 500 °C.

  17. One-step aluminium-assisted crystallization of Ge epitaxy on Si by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ziheng Hao, Xiaojing; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Green, Martin A.

    2014-02-03

    In this work, one-step aluminium-assisted crystallization of Ge on Si is achieved via magnetron sputtering by applying an in-situ low temperature (50 °C to 150 °C) heat treatment in between Al and Ge depositions. The effect of heat treatment on film properties and the growth mechanism of Ge epitaxy on Si are studied via X-ray diffraction, Raman and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Compared with the conventional two-step process, the one-step aluminium-assisted crystallization requires much lower thermal budget and results in pure Ge epitaxial layer, which may be suitable for use as a virtual substrate for the fabrication of III-V solar cells.

  18. Structural-dependent thermal conductivity of aluminium nitride produced by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Belkerk, B. E.; Soussou, A.; Carette, M.; Djouadi, M. A.; Scudeller, Y.

    2012-10-08

    This Letter reports the thermal conductivity of aluminium nitride (AlN) thin-films deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering on single-crystal silicon substrates (100) with varying plasma and magnetic conditions achieving different crystalline qualities. The thermal conductivity of the films was measured at room temperature with the transient hot-strip technique for film thicknesses ranging from 100 nm to 4000 nm. The thermal conductivity was found to increase with the thickness depending on the synthesis conditions and film microstructure. The conductivity in the bulk region of the films, so-called intrinsic conductivity, and the boundary resistance were in the range [120-210] W m{sup -1} K{sup -1} and [2-30 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}] K m{sup 2} W{sup -1}, respectively, in good agreement with microstructures analysed by x-ray diffraction, high-resolution-scanning-electron-microscopy, and transmission-electron-microscopy.

  19. Morphology of epitaxial TiN(001) grown by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, B.W.; Petrov, I.; Cahill, D.G.; Greene, J.E.

    1997-03-01

    The evolution of surface morphology and microstructure during growth of single crystal TiN(001) is characterized by {ital in situ} scanning tunneling microscopy and postdeposition plan-view transmission electron microscopy. The TiN layers are grown on MgO at 650{lt}T{lt}750{degree}C using reactive magnetron sputter deposition in pure N{sub 2}. The surface morphology is dominated by growth mounds with an aspect ratio of {approx_equal}0.006; both the roughness amplitude and average separation between mounds approximately follow a power law dependence on film thickness, t{sup {alpha}}, with {alpha}=0.25{plus_minus}0.07. Island edges show dendritic geometries characteristic of limited step-edge mobility at the growth temperature. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Growth and properties of YBaCu-oxide superconducting thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, X. X.; Li, H. C.; Geerk, J.; Linker, G.; Meyer, O.; Obst, B.; Ratzel, F.; Smithey, R.; Weschenfelder, F.

    1988-06-01

    Thin superconducting YBaCuO films have been reproducibly deposited by dc-magnetron sputtering from sintered targets in an oxygen-argon atmosphere. The growth has been studied on different single crystalline substrates like ZrO, Al2O3 and SrTiO3 as a function of Ts. Best zero resistance values on the different substrates were 87 K and 89 K, respectively with transition widths <2 K achieved at optimized temperatures (760

  1. Preparation of transparent Cu2Y2O5 thin films by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Te-Wei; Chang, Chih-Hao; Yang, Li-Wei; Wang, Yung-Po

    2015-11-01

    Cu2Y2O5 thin films were deposited on non-alkali glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. Its crystal structure, microstructure, optical property, mechanical property, and antibacterial activity were investigated by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, transmittance spectra, nanoindenter, and antibiotics test, respectively. A single-phase of Cu2Y2O5 was obtained while annealing at 700 °C in air and its optical transparency was >80% in the visible region. The hardness and elastic modulus of the film were 6.7 GPa and 82 GPa, respectively. Antibiotics testing result revealed that Cu2Y2O5 surface had a superior antibacterial performance even at a dark environment. Therefore, Cu2Y2O5 is a promising novel transparent antibacterial hard coating material.

  2. Research of niobium thin films with a predetermined thickness produced by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonyankin, D. A.; Blesman, A. I.; Postnikov, D. V.; Logacheva, A. I.; Logachev, I. A.; Teplouhov, A. A.; Fedorov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Niobium and niobium thin films are widely used in various fields of modern science and technology: in the electronics industry, in a nuclear medical imaging technique, in the information technology, in superconducting cavities technology etc. The grain size of thin niobium films depends on its thickness and the film’s stoichiometry can be varied as a function of thickness. Thus the problem of thickness control has a great practical importance in all fields of niobium films application. The focus of this study was to perform an experimental calibration of STC–2000A deposition controller for niobium target on ADVAVAC VSM–200 setup and to conduct a grain size, roughness and stoichiometry research by scanning electron microscopy, X–ray diffraction and laser interference microscopy of niobium films produced by RF magnetron sputtering with the thickness range from 200 nm to 400 nm and 50 nm step.

  3. Modeling of the Reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Jon Tomas; Lundin, Daniel; Raadu, Michael; Brenning, Nils; Minea, Tiberiu

    2015-09-01

    Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) provides both a high ionization fraction of the sputtered material and a high dissociation fraction of the molecular gas. We demonstrate this through an ionization region model (IRM) of the reactive Ar/O2 HiPIMS discharge with a titanium target. We explore the influence of oxygen dilution on the discharge properties such as electron density, the ionization fraction of the sputtered vapor and the oxygen dissociation fraction. We discuss the important processes and challenges for more detailed modeling of the reactive HiPIMS discharge. Furthermore, we discuss experimental observations during reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering sputtering (HiPIMS) of Ti target in Ar/N2 and Ar/O2 atmosphere. The discharge current waveform is highly dependent on the reactive gas flow rate, pulse repetition frequency and discharge voltage. The discharge current increases with decreasing repetition frequency and increasing flowrate of the reactive gas.

  4. Evaluation of femtosecond laser damage to gold pulse compression gratings fabricated by magnetron sputtering and e-beam evaporation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leilei; Kong, Fanyu; Xia, Zhilin; Jin, Yunxia; Huang, Haopeng; Li, Linxin; Chen, Junming; Cui, Yun; Shao, Jianda

    2017-04-10

    In this study, two kinds of Au-coated gratings (ACGs) with a period of 1740 lines/mm were fabricated and evaluated. For these ACG samples, magnetron sputtering and e-beam evaporation were used as the gold deposition process, and the samples had a bandwidth of at least 170 nm, with the -1st-order diffraction efficiency exceeding 90% around the center wavelength of 800 nm. The one-on-one damage threshold of ACGs fabricated by magnetron sputtering and e-beam evaporation measured at a pulse width of 60 fs was 0.59  J/cm2 and 0.43  J/cm2 in the case of the beam normal fluence, respectively. The typical damage morphology of the former type of samples was melting of the gold film, whereas those of the latter type were blisters and peeling off of the gold film. In theory, the electromagnetic field, temperature field, and thermal stress field distribution in the ACGs were calculated using the finite element method. We demonstrated that the adhesion between the gold film and the photoresist played an important role in determining the damage behavior. Thus, the laser resistance of ACG can be improved by enhancing the adhesion between the gold film and the photoresist, and magnetron sputtering was an alternative method to obtain ACGs with much better adhesion.

  5. Compositional study of vacuum annealed Al doped ZnO thin films obtained by RF magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Shantheyanda, B. P.; Todi, V. O.; Sundaram, K. B.; Vijayakumar, A.; Oladeji, I.

    2011-09-15

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were obtained by RF magnetron sputtering. The effects of deposition parameters such as power, gas flow conditions, and substrate heating have been studied. Deposited and annealed films were characterized for composition as well as microstructure using x ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x ray diffraction. Films produced were polycrystalline in nature. Surface imaging and roughness studies were carried out using SEM and AFM, respectively. Columnar grain growth was predominantly observed. Optical and electrical properties were evaluated for transparent conducting oxide applications. Processing conditions were optimized to obtain highly transparent AZO films with a low resistivity value of 6.67 x 10{sup -4}{Omega} cm.

  6. Novel high power impulse magnetron sputtering enhanced by an auxiliary electrical field.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunwei; Tian, Xiubo

    2016-08-01

    The high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) technique is a novel highly ionized physical vapor deposition method with a high application potential. However, the electron utilization efficiency during sputtering is rather low and the metal particle ionization rate needs to be considerably improved to allow for a large-scale industrial application. Therefore, we enhanced the HIPIMS technique by simultaneously applying an electric field (EF-HIPIMS). The effect of the electric field on the discharge process was studied using a current sensor and an optical emission spectrometer. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the electric potential and electric field during the EF-HIPIMS process was simulated using the ANSYS software. The results indicate that a higher electron utilization efficiency and a higher particle ionization rate could be achieved. The auxiliary anode obviously changed the distribution of the electric potential and the electric field in the discharge region, which increased the plasma density and enhanced the degree of ionization of the vanadium and argon gas. Vanadium films were deposited to further compare both techniques, and the morphology of the prepared films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The films showed a smaller crystal grain size and a denser growth structure when the electric field was applied during the discharge process.

  7. Origin of stress in radio frequency magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Rashmi; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.; Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C.

    2011-03-15

    Highly c-axis oriented ZnO thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by planar rf magnetron sputtering under varying pressure (10-50 mTorr) and oxygen percentage (50-100%) in the reactive gas (Ar + O{sub 2}) mixture. The as-grown films were found to be stressed over a wide range from -1 x 10{sup 11} to -2 x 10{sup 8} dyne/cm{sup 2} that in turn depends strongly on the processing conditions, and the film becomes stress free at a unique combination of sputtering pressure and reactive gas composition. Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) analyses identified the origin of stress as lattice distortion due to defects introduced in the ZnO thin film. FTIR study reveals that Zn-O bond becomes stronger with the increase in oxygen fraction in the reactive gas mixture. The lattice distortion or stress depends on the type of defects introduced during deposition. PL spectra show the formation of a shoulder in band emission with an increase in the processing pressure and are related to the presence of stress. The ratio of band emission to defect emission decreases with the increase in oxygen percentage from 50 to 100%. The studies show a correlation of stress with the structural, vibrational, and photoluminescence properties of the ZnO thin film. The systematic study of the stress will help in the fabrication of efficient devices based on ZnO film.

  8. Novel high power impulse magnetron sputtering enhanced by an auxiliary electrical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunwei; Tian, Xiubo

    2016-08-01

    The high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) technique is a novel highly ionized physical vapor deposition method with a high application potential. However, the electron utilization efficiency during sputtering is rather low and the metal particle ionization rate needs to be considerably improved to allow for a large-scale industrial application. Therefore, we enhanced the HIPIMS technique by simultaneously applying an electric field (EF-HIPIMS). The effect of the electric field on the discharge process was studied using a current sensor and an optical emission spectrometer. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the electric potential and electric field during the EF-HIPIMS process was simulated using the ANSYS software. The results indicate that a higher electron utilization efficiency and a higher particle ionization rate could be achieved. The auxiliary anode obviously changed the distribution of the electric potential and the electric field in the discharge region, which increased the plasma density and enhanced the degree of ionization of the vanadium and argon gas. Vanadium films were deposited to further compare both techniques, and the morphology of the prepared films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The films showed a smaller crystal grain size and a denser growth structure when the electric field was applied during the discharge process.

  9. Novel high power impulse magnetron sputtering enhanced by an auxiliary electrical field

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chunwei E-mail: xiubotian@163.com; Tian, Xiubo E-mail: xiubotian@163.com

    2016-08-15

    The high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) technique is a novel highly ionized physical vapor deposition method with a high application potential. However, the electron utilization efficiency during sputtering is rather low and the metal particle ionization rate needs to be considerably improved to allow for a large-scale industrial application. Therefore, we enhanced the HIPIMS technique by simultaneously applying an electric field (EF-HIPIMS). The effect of the electric field on the discharge process was studied using a current sensor and an optical emission spectrometer. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the electric potential and electric field during the EF-HIPIMS process was simulated using the ANSYS software. The results indicate that a higher electron utilization efficiency and a higher particle ionization rate could be achieved. The auxiliary anode obviously changed the distribution of the electric potential and the electric field in the discharge region, which increased the plasma density and enhanced the degree of ionization of the vanadium and argon gas. Vanadium films were deposited to further compare both techniques, and the morphology of the prepared films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The films showed a smaller crystal grain size and a denser growth structure when the electric field was applied during the discharge process.

  10. Initial Growth Process of Magnetron Sputtering 321 Stainless Steel Films Observed by Afm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yongzhong; Wu, Wei; Liu, Dongliang; Chen, Jian; Sun, Yali

    To investigate the initial morphological evolution of 321 stainless steel (SS) films, we examined the effect of sputtering time on the morphology of 321 SS film. In this study, a group of samples were prepared at nine different sputtering times within 20 s using radio-frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Only globular-like grains were formed on mica substrates within 6 s, whose average grain size is ~ 21-44 nm. Meanwhile, few grains with larger size are subject to settle at the defect sites of mica substrates. At 8 s, we found large columnar crystallites with the average grain size of 61 nm. From 10 to 14 s, islands grew continuously and coalesced in order to form an interconnected structure containing irregular channels or grooves, with a depth of ~ 3.5-5 nm. Up to 16 s, a nearly continuous film was formed and some new globular-like grains were again present on the film. Study of the AFM image at 20 s suggests that the watercolor masking method designed by us is an effective method, by which we can prepare thin films with steps for the measurement of the thickness of continuous thin films. It is also found that the coverage rate of films increases with the increase in sputtering time (from 2 to 16 s). On the other hand, the increase in root mean square (RMS) roughness is much more significant from 6 to 10 s, and there is a maximum value, 2.81 nm at 10 s due to more islands during deposition. However, RMS roughness decreases with the decrease in length and width of channels or grooves from 10 to 16 s. Especially, a lower RMS roughness of 0.73 nm occurs at 16 s, because of the continuous film produced with a large coverage rate of 98.43%.

  11. Species transport on the target during high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layes, V.; Monje, S.; Corbella, C.; Trieschmann, J.; de los Arcos, T.; von Keudell, A.

    2017-02-01

    High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) is a prominent technique to deposit superior materials due to the very energetic growth flux. The origin of this energetic growth flux is believed to be an electric potential structure inside localized ionization zones, the so-called spokes, in the HiPIMS plasma, which rotate in the E × B direction along the racetrack. The measurement of this electric potential or of the electric fields surrounding this ionization zone is extremely challenging due to the very high local power density that obstructs any traditional probe diagnostics. Here, we use a marker technique on the magnetron target to analyze the lateral transport of a target material on a HiPIMS target. We show that the target material is predominantly transported in the E × B direction irrespective of the presence of spokes. However, only when spokes are present, we observe also an enhanced transport in the opposite E × B direction. This is explained by the large electric field at the trailing edges of spokes.

  12. On the electron energy in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmundsson, J. T.; Sigurjonsson, P.; Larsson, P.; Lundin, D.; Helmersson, U.

    2009-06-15

    The temporal variation of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) was measured with a Langmuir probe in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge at 3 and 20 mTorr pressures. In the HiPIMS discharge a high power pulse is applied to a planar magnetron giving a high electron density and highly ionized sputtered vapor. The measured EEDF is Maxwellian-like during the pulse; it is broader for lower discharge pressure and it becomes narrower as the pulse progresses. This indicates that the plasma cools as the pulse progresses, probably due to high metal content of the discharge.

  13. Enhancement of bioactivity on medical polymer surface using high power impulse magnetron sputtered titanium dioxide film.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Ju; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Chen, Ying-Hung; Chung, Chi-Jen; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-12-01

    This study utilizes a novel technique, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), which provides a higher ionization rate and ion bombardment energy than direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS), to deposit high osteoblast compatible titanium dioxide (TiO2) coatings with anatase (A-TiO2) and rutile (R-TiO2) phases onto the biomedical polyetheretherketone (PEEK) polymer substrates at low temperature. The adhesions of TiO2 coatings that were fabricated using HIPIMS and DCMS were compared. The in vitro biocompatibility of these coatings was confirmed. The results reveal that HIPIMS can be used to prepare crystallinic columnar A-TiO2 and R-TiO2 coatings on PEEK substrate if the ratio of oxygen to argon is properly controlled. According to a tape adhesion test, the HIPIMS-TiO2 coatings had an adhesion grade of 5B even after they were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) environments for 28days. Scratch tests proved that HIPIMS-TiO2 coatings undergo cohesive failure. These results demonstrate that the adhesive force between HIPIMS-TiO2 coating/PEEK is stronger than that between DCMS-TiO2 coating/PEEK. After a long period (28days) of immersion in SBF, a bone-like crystallinic hydroxyapatite layer with a corresponding Ca/P stoichiometry was formed on both HIPIMS-TiO2. The osteoblast compatibility of HIPIMS-TiO2 exceeded that of the bare PEEK substrate. It is also noticeable that the R-TiO2 performed better in vitro than the A-TiO2 due to the formation of many negatively charged hydroxyl groups (-OH(-)) groups on R-TiO2 (110) surface. In summary, the HIPIMS-TiO2 coatings satisfied the requirements for osseointegration, suggesting the possibility of using HIPIMS to modify the PEEK surface with TiO2 for spinal implants.

  14. Facility for combined in situ magnetron sputtering and soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Telling, N. D.; Laan, G. van der; Georgieva, M. T.; Farley, N. R. S.

    2006-07-15

    An ultrahigh vacuum chamber that enables the in situ growth of thin films and multilayers by magnetron sputtering techniques is described. Following film preparation, x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements are performed by utilizing an in vacuum electromagnet. XMCD measurements on sputtered thin films of Fe and Co yield spin and orbital moments that are consistent with those obtained previously on films measured in transmission geometry and grown in situ by evaporation methods. Thin films of FeN prepared by reactive sputtering are also examined and reveal an apparent enhancement in the orbital moment for low N content samples. The advantages of producing samples for in situ XAS and XMCD studies by magnetron sputtering are discussed.

  15. Are the argon metastables important in high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges?

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmundsson, J. T.; Lundin, D.; Minea, T. M.; Stancu, G. D.; Brenning, N.

    2015-11-15

    We use an ionization region model to explore the ionization processes in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge in argon with a titanium target. In conventional dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS), stepwise ionization can be an important route for ionization of the argon gas. However, in the HiPIMS discharge stepwise ionization is found to be negligible during the breakdown phase of the HiPIMS pulse and becomes significant (but never dominating) only later in the pulse. For the sputtered species, Penning ionization can be a significant ionization mechanism in the dcMS discharges, while in the HiPIMS discharge Penning ionization is always negligible as compared to electron impact ionization. The main reasons for these differences are a higher plasma density in the HiPIMS discharge, and a higher electron temperature. Furthermore, we explore the ionization fraction and the ionized flux fraction of the sputtered vapor and compare with recent experimental work.

  16. Plasma sputtering depositions with colloidal masks for fabrication of nanostructured surfaces with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeter, Alexandra; Tiron, Vasile; Lupu, Nicoleta; Stoian, George; Sirghi, Lucel

    2017-06-01

    Titanium oxide/silicon oxide (TiO2/SiO2) 2D patterns were obtained by magnetron sputtering depositions of Ti on close-packed and size-reduced colloidal masks on Si and quartz substrates, followed by mask lift-off and ending with thermal oxidation. The physical processes involved in growing 2D Ti patterns and their oxidation are analyzed. For the magnetron sputtering deposition, two regimes are considered: the low-pressure regime when the flux of sputtered atoms is anisotropic, and the high-pressure regime, when the flux of sputtered atoms is isotropic due to frequent collisions. Moreover, magnetron sputtering operation modes, such as dc sputtering and high power impulse sputtering, are compared. The changes in pattern size and morphology determined by the oxidation of the Ti patterns and Si substrate are analyzed. The hydrophilicity induced by UV-light irradiation and the visible-light photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of the methylene blue of the fabricated TiO2/SiO2 patterns were considerably higher when compared to the performances of uniform TiO2 films.

  17. Plasma sputtering depositions with colloidal masks for fabrication of nanostructured surfaces with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Alexandra; Tiron, Vasile; Lupu, Nicoleta; Stoian, George; Sirghi, Lucel

    2017-06-23

    Titanium oxide/silicon oxide (TiO2/SiO2) 2D patterns were obtained by magnetron sputtering depositions of Ti on close-packed and size-reduced colloidal masks on Si and quartz substrates, followed by mask lift-off and ending with thermal oxidation. The physical processes involved in growing 2D Ti patterns and their oxidation are analyzed. For the magnetron sputtering deposition, two regimes are considered: the low-pressure regime when the flux of sputtered atoms is anisotropic, and the high-pressure regime, when the flux of sputtered atoms is isotropic due to frequent collisions. Moreover, magnetron sputtering operation modes, such as dc sputtering and high power impulse sputtering, are compared. The changes in pattern size and morphology determined by the oxidation of the Ti patterns and Si substrate are analyzed. The hydrophilicity induced by UV-light irradiation and the visible-light photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of the methylene blue of the fabricated TiO2/SiO2 patterns were considerably higher when compared to the performances of uniform TiO2 films.

  18. GMR in DC magnetron sputtered Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19}/Cu multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, M.; Cerjan, C.; Gibbons, M.; Law, B.; Grabner, F.; Vernon, S.P.; Wall, M.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper, the authors present results of a study on Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19}/Cu magnetic multilayers (MLs) deposited using a four-source DC magnetron sputtering system operated in planetary mode. A significant change of GMR value with deposition conditions, especially base pressure and deposition pressure, has been observed for Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19}/Cu MLs. With an optimized process, they have obtained a GMR response of 9.5% with a field sensitivity of 0.44%/Oe for Si/ [(Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19})17{angstrom}/Cu20{angstrom}]{sub 20} MLs without an Fe buffer layer. The insertion of a very thin layer of a second magnetic species at nonmagnetic/magnetic interfaces in the ML stack makes GMR response either sensitive or less sensitive to deposition conditions depending on the species selected. They believe that the key to obtaining large GMR values in Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19}/Cu MLs lies in the control of layered structure and interfacial chemistry. In addition, these Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19}/Cu MLs survive high temperature annealing up to 250 C, retaining a GMR value of 8.5%.

  19. Residual stress stability in fiber textured stoichiometric AlN film grown using rf magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Sah, R. E.; Kirste, L.; Baeumler, M.; Hiesinger, P.; Cimalla, V.; Lebedev, V.; Baumann, H.; Zschau, H.-E.

    2010-05-15

    The authors report on the stability of mechanical stress with aging and thermal cycling for columnar structured stoichiometric and homogeneous aluminum nitride thin films grown using radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The set of deposition parameters were optimized for the best possible orientation of crystallites in the c axis of compositionally stoichiometric films. The as-grown stress in the slightly nitrogen-rich film does not change when exposed to the atmosphere following deposition, while that in the nitrogen-deficient film, it changes due to oxidation. Additionally, the magnitude of as-grown stress has been found to depend on the substrate material in addition to the deposition parameters. The stress in the film grown on a Si(001) substrate was more tensile than in the film grown on a semi-insulating (si) GaAs(001) substrate for a given set of deposition parameters. Furthermore, the stress in the film grown on Si decreased with temperature, while that on si GaAs increased, indicating the thermally induced stress component to be the major component in the residual stress. Upon subsequent cooling the stress changes in both substrates followed the same path as of heating, thus exhibiting no hysteresis with thermal cycles between room temperature and 400 deg. C.

  20. Nanostructured phothocatalytic TiO2 thin film fabricated by magnetron sputtering on glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi Nejand, Bahram; Sanjabi, Sohrab; Ahmadi, Vahid

    TiO2 thin film was deposited by a DC reactive magnetron sputtering on ZnO/soda-lime glass substrate and single crystal SiO2 below 200 °C. ZnO layer was used as a buffer layer. Deposition was performed at Ar + O2 gas mixture with a pressure of 1.0 Pa and oxygen with a constant pressure of 0.2 Pa. The TiO2 / ZnO thicknesses were approximately 1000 nm and 80 nm, respectively. As-deposited films were annealed at 400 °C. The structure and morphology of deposited layers were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The transmittance of the films was measured using ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis) spectrophotometer. Photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated by the degradation of 2-propanol. The microstructure of annealed films was anatase, having improved photocatalytic activity. The surface grain size of TiO2 thin film after annealing was found about 25-35 nm and crystal size was approximately 8 nm. By using ZnO thin film as buffer layer, the photocatalytic property of TiO2 films was improved.