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Sample records for magnetron sputtering system

  1. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.; Grabner, R.F.; Ramsey, P.B.

    1994-08-02

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal. 12 figs.

  2. Magnetron sputtering source

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; McKernan, Mark A.; Grabner, R. Fred; Ramsey, Philip B.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetron sputtering source for sputtering coating substrates includes a high thermal conductivity electrically insulating ceramic and magnetically attached sputter target which can eliminate vacuum sealing and direct fluid cooling of the cathode assembly. The magnetron sputtering source design results in greater compactness, improved operating characteristics, greater versatility, and low fabrication cost. The design easily retrofits most sputtering apparatuses and provides for safe, easy, and cost effective target replacement, installation, and removal.

  3. Magnetron co-sputtering system for coating ICF targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, E.J.; Meyer, S.F.; Halsey, W.G.; Jameson, G.T.; Wittmayer, F.J.

    1981-12-09

    Fabrication of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets requires deposition of various types of coatings on microspheres. The mechanical strength, and surface finish of the coatings are of concern in ICF experiments. The tensile strength of coatings can be controlled through grain refinement, selective doping and alloy formation. We have constructed a magnetron co-sputtering system to produce variable density profile coatings with high tensile strength on microspheres. The preliminary data on the properties of a Au-Cu binary alloy system by SEM and STEM analysis is presented.

  4. Plasma properties of RF magnetron sputtering system using Zn target

    SciTech Connect

    Nafarizal, N.; Andreas Albert, A. R.; Sharifah Amirah, A. S.; Salwa, O.; Riyaz Ahmad, M. A.

    2012-06-29

    In the present work, we investigate the fundamental properties of magnetron sputtering plasma using Zn target and its deposited Zn thin film. The magnetron sputtering plasma was produced using radio frequency (RF) power supply and Argon (Ar) as ambient gas. A Langmuir probe was used to collect the current from the plasma and from the current intensity, we calculate the electron density and electron temperature. The properties of Zn sputtering plasma at various discharge conditions were studied. At the RF power ranging from 20 to 100 W and gas pressure 5 mTorr, we found that the electron temperature was almost unchanged between 2-2.5 eV. On the other hand, the electron temperature increased drastically from 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm{sup -3} when the discharge gas pressure increased from 5 to 10 mTorr. The electron microscope images show that the grain size of Zn thin film increase when the discharge power is increased. This may be due to the enhancement of plasma density and sputtered Zn density.

  5. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  6. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1998-06-16

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

  7. Practical magnetron sputtering system for the deposition of optical multilayer coatings.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, J A; Pekelsky, J R; Pelletier, R; Ranger, M; Sullivan, B T; Waldorf, A J

    1992-07-01

    A magnetron sputtering system is described in which, at any one time, as many as four different 15-cm x 46-cm rectangular planar magnetron targets can be mounted vertically in the deposition chamber. These can be attached to either dc or rf power supplies for direct or reactive deposition of metal, metal oxide, or nitride films. Typical target materials include Ag, Al, C, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, W, and Zr. Good uniformity can be obtained on stationary substrates, although better results are possible with oscillating substrates. The refractive indices are given for several useful oxide materials. The materials and thicknesses of the individual layers that comprise an optical multilayer system are entered into a computer that subsequently controls the deposition parameters, the substrate motion, and the deposition time. After a relatively simple calibration process, coatings that consist of between 20 and 60 layers can be produced to within an accuracy of 1% or 2%. A wideband optical monitor is available for checking the performance of the multilayer system during its deposition. Several examples of multilayer coatings that were prepared on this equipment are given.

  8. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of Multilayer X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broadway, David; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The proposal objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for x-ray, neutron, and EUV optic applications through the development of a magnetron sputtering deposition system. A specific goal of this endeavor is to combine multilayer deposition technology with the replication process in order to enhance the MSFC's position as a world leader in the design of innovative X-ray instrumentation through the development of full shell replicated multilayer optics. The development of multilayer structures is absolutely necessary in order to advance the field of X-ray astronomy by pushing the limit for observing the universe to ever increasing photon energies (i. e. up to 200 keV or higher); well beyond Chandra (approx. 10 keV) and NuStar's (approx. 75 keV) capability. The addition of multilayer technology would significantly enhance the X-ray optics capability at MSFC and allow NASA to maintain its world leadership position in the development, fabrication and design of innovative X-ray instrumentation which would be the first of its kind by combining multilayer technology with the mirror replication process. This marriage of these technologies would allow astronomers to see the universe in a new light by pushing to higher energies that are out of reach with today's instruments.To this aim, a magnetron vacum sputter deposition system for the deposition of novel multilayer thin film X-ray optics is proposed. A significant secondary use of the vacuum deposition system includes the capability to fabricate multilayers for applications in the field of EUV optics for solar physics, neutron optics, and X-ray optics for a broad range of applications including medical imaging.

  9. Full System Model of Magnetron Sputter Chamber - Proof-of-Principle Study

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, C; Gilmer, G; Zepeda-Ruiz, L; Wemhoff, A; Barbee, T

    2007-05-04

    The lack of detailed knowledge of internal process conditions remains a key challenge in magnetron sputtering, both for chamber design and for process development. Fundamental information such as the pressure and temperature distribution of the sputter gas, and the energies and arrival angles of the sputtered atoms and other energetic species is often missing, or is only estimated from general formulas. However, open-source or low-cost tools are available for modeling most steps of the sputter process, which can give more accurate and complete data than textbook estimates, using only desktop computations. To get a better understanding of magnetron sputtering, we have collected existing models for the 5 major process steps: the input and distribution of the neutral background gas using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC), dynamics of the plasma using Particle In Cell-Monte Carlo Collision (PIC-MCC), impact of ions on the target using molecular dynamics (MD), transport of sputtered atoms to the substrate using DSMC, and growth of the film using hybrid Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) and MD methods. Models have been tested against experimental measurements. For example, gas rarefaction as observed by Rossnagel and others has been reproduced, and it is associated with a local pressure increase of {approx}50% which may strongly influence film properties such as stress. Results on energies and arrival angles of sputtered atoms and reflected gas neutrals are applied to the Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of film growth. Model results and applications to growth of dense Cu and Be films are presented.

  10. High power impulse magnetron sputtering using a rotating cylindrical magnetron

    SciTech Connect

    Leroy, W. P.; Mahieu, S.; Depla, D.; Ehiasarian, A. P.

    2010-01-15

    Both the industrially favorable deposition technique, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), and the industrially popular rotating cylindrical magnetron have been successfully combined. A stable operation without arcing, leaks, or other complications for the rotatable magnetron was attained, with current densities around 11 A cm{sup -2}. For Ti and Al, a much higher degree in ionization in the plasma region was observed for the HIPIMS mode compared to the direct current mode.

  11. Effect of magnetic field strength on deposition rate and energy flux in a dc magnetron sputtering system

    SciTech Connect

    Ekpe, Samuel D.; Jimenez, Francisco J.; Field, David J.; Davis, Martin J.; Dew, Steven K.

    2009-11-15

    Variations in the magnetic field strongly affect the plasma parameters in a magnetron sputtering system. This in turn affects the throughput as well as the energy flux to the substrate. The variation in the magnetic field in this study, for a dc magnetron process, is achieved by shifting the magnet assembly slightly away from the target. Measurements of the plasma parameters show that while the electron density at the substrate increases with decrease in magnetic field, the electron temperature decreases. The cooling of the electron temperature is consistent with results reported elsewhere. The deposition rate per input magnetron power is found to increase slightly with the decrease in magnetic field for the process conditions considered in this study. Results suggest that the energy flux to the substrate tends to show a general decrease with the shift in the magnet assembly.

  12. On the evolution of film roughness during magnetron sputtering deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Turkin, A. A.; Pei, Y. T.; Shaha, K. P.; Chen, C. Q.; Vainshtein, D. I.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2010-11-15

    The effect of long-range screening on the surface morphology of thin films grown with pulsed-dc (p-dc) magnetron sputtering is studied. The surface evolution is described by a stochastic diffusion equation that includes the nonlocal shadowing effects in three spatial dimensions. The diffusional relaxation and the angular distribution of the incident particle flux strongly influence the transition to the shadowing growth regime. In the magnetron sputtering deposition the shadowing effect is essential because of the configuration of the magnetron system (finite size of sputtered targets, rotating sample holder, etc.). A realistic angular distribution of depositing particles is constructed by taking into account the cylindrical magnetron geometry. Simulation results are compared with the experimental data of surface roughness evolution during 100 and 350 kHz p-dc deposition, respectively.

  13. Gas Adsorption Properties of Fluorocarbon Thin Films Prepared Using Three Different Types of RF Magnetron Sputtering Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoru Iwamori,; Norihiko Hasegawa,; Satoshi Yano,; Kazutoshi Noda,

    2010-04-01

    Fluorocarbon thin films were deposited onto a quartz crystal with a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) target using three different types of RF magnetron sputtering systems with strong, weak, and unbalanced magnetic fields. The adsorption properties of these thin films for water, ethanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, toluene, and methyl salicylate were evaluated using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method in order to characterize the surface properties of these thin films. These thin films have low sensitivities to non-polar solvents that contain methyl and aromatic groups, and high sensitivities to polar solvents that contain carbonyl and hydroxyl groups. Chemical structures, especially, polar moieties in these fluorocarbon thin films would affect the gas adsorption properties.

  14. Particle contamination formation in magnetron sputtering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Selwyn, G.S.; Sequeda, F.; Huang, C.

    1997-07-01

    Defects caused by particulate contamination are an important concern in the fabrication of thin film products. Often, magnetron sputtering processes are used for this purpose. Particle contamination generated during thin film processing can be detected using laser light scattering, a powerful diagnostic technique which provides real-time, {ital in situ} imaging of particles {gt}0.3 {mu}m on the target, substrate, or in the plasma. Using this technique, we demonstrate that the mechanisms for particle generation, transport, and trapping during magnetron sputter deposition are different from the mechanisms reported in previously studied plasma etch processes, due to the inherent spatial nonuniformity of magnetically enhanced plasmas. During magnetron sputter deposition, one source of particle contamination is linked to portions of the sputtering target surface exposed to weaker plasma density. There, film redeposition induces filament or nodule growth. Sputter removal of these features is inhibited by the dependence of sputter yield on angle of incidence. These features enhance trapping of plasma particles, which then increases filament growth. Eventually the growths effectively {open_quotes}short-circuit{close_quotes} the sheath, causing high currents to flow through these features. This, in turn, causes mechanical failure of the growth resulting in fracture and ejection of the target contaminants into the plasma and onto the substrate. Evidence of this effect has been observed in semiconductor fabrication and storage disk manufacturing. Discovery of this mechanism in both technologies suggests it may be universal to many sputter processes. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Vacuum Society.}

  15. Evolution of the plasma composition of a high power impulse magnetron sputtering system studied with a time-of-flight spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, Efim; Anders, Andre

    2008-12-31

    The plasma of a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) system has been investigated using a time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer. The target materials included high sputter yield materials (Cu, Ag), transition metals (Nb, Cr, Ti), and carbon (graphite); the sputtering gases were argon, krypton and nitrogen, and two different target thicknesses were selected to consider the role of the magnetic field strength. Measurements for selected combinations of those parameters give quantitative information on the transition from gas-dominated to metal-dominated (self-sputtering) plasma, on the fractions of ion charge states, and in the case of molecular gases, on the fraction of atomic and molecular ions.

  16. Thickness dependence of piezoelectric properties of BiFeO3 films fabricated using rf magnetron sputtering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramaki, Masaaki; Kariya, Kento; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Murakami, Shuichi; Fujimura, Norifumi

    2016-10-01

    The piezoelectric property of BiFeO3 films prepared on a (100) LaNiO3/Si(100) substrate using an rf magnetron sputtering system was investigated for their applications in MEMS vibration energy harvesters. The X-ray diffraction profiles indicate that (100)-oriented BiFeO3 films with thicknesses from 450 to 1750 nm were obtained at a deposition temperature of 510 °C. All the films showed well-defined ferroelectric hysteresis loops at room temperature. The thickness dependence of crystallinity and electrical properties indicated that the films have a bottom layer with a high defect density. The e 31,f piezoelectric coefficient and electromechanical coupling factor (k\\text{31,f}2) increase with increasing film thickness and reach -3.2 C/m2 and 3.3%, respectively, at a thickness of 1750 nm, which is considered to be caused by the decrease in defect density.

  17. SiC formation for a solar cell passivation layer using an RF magnetron co-sputtering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung, Yeun-Ho; Kang, Hyun Il; Kim, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hae-Seok; Lee, Jaehyung; Choi, Won Seok

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a method of amorphous silicon carbide film formation for a solar cell passivation layer. The film was deposited on p-type silicon (100) and glass substrates by an RF magnetron co-sputtering system using a Si target and a C target at a room-temperature condition. Several different SiC [Si1-xCx] film compositions were achieved by controlling the Si target power with a fixed C target power at 150 W. Then, structural, optical, and electrical properties of the Si1-xCx films were studied. The structural properties were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The optical properties were achieved by UV-visible spectroscopy and ellipsometry. The performance of Si1-xCx passivation was explored by carrier lifetime measurement.

  18. SiC formation for a solar cell passivation layer using an RF magnetron co-sputtering system.

    PubMed

    Joung, Yeun-Ho; Kang, Hyun Il; Kim, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hae-Seok; Lee, Jaehyung; Choi, Won Seok

    2012-01-05

    In this paper, we describe a method of amorphous silicon carbide film formation for a solar cell passivation layer. The film was deposited on p-type silicon (100) and glass substrates by an RF magnetron co-sputtering system using a Si target and a C target at a room-temperature condition. Several different SiC [Si1-xCx] film compositions were achieved by controlling the Si target power with a fixed C target power at 150 W. Then, structural, optical, and electrical properties of the Si1-xCx films were studied. The structural properties were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The optical properties were achieved by UV-visible spectroscopy and ellipsometry. The performance of Si1-xCx passivation was explored by carrier lifetime measurement.

  19. Comprehensive computer model for magnetron sputtering. II. Charged particle transport

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Francisco J. Dew, Steven K.; Field, David J.

    2014-11-01

    Discharges for magnetron sputter thin film deposition systems involve complex plasmas that are sensitively dependent on magnetic field configuration and strength, working gas species and pressure, chamber geometry, and discharge power. The authors present a numerical formulation for the general solution of these plasmas as a component of a comprehensive simulation capability for planar magnetron sputtering. This is an extensible, fully three-dimensional model supporting realistic magnetic fields and is self-consistently solvable on a desktop computer. The plasma model features a hybrid approach involving a Monte Carlo treatment of energetic electrons and ions, along with a coupled fluid model for thermalized particles. Validation against a well-known one-dimensional system is presented. Various strategies for improving numerical stability are investigated as is the sensitivity of the solution to various model and process parameters. In particular, the effect of magnetic field, argon gas pressure, and discharge power are studied.

  20. EMI shielding using composite materials with two sources magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaja, J.; Jaroszewski, M.; Lewandowski, M.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the preparation composite materials for electromagnetic shields using two sources magnetron sputtering DC-M is presented. A composite material was prepared by coating a nonwoven polypropylene metallic layer in sputtering process of targets Ti (purity 99%) and brass alloy MO58 (58%Cu, 40%Zn, 2%Pb) and ϕ diameter targets = 50 mm, under argon atmosphere. The system with magnetron sputtering sources was powered using switch-mode power supply DPS (Dora Power System) with a maximum power of 16 kW and a maximum voltage of 1.2 kV with group frequency from 50 Hz to 5 kHz. The influence of sputtering time of individual targets on the value of the EM field attenuation SE [dB] was investigated for the following supply conditions: pressure pp = 2x10-3 Torr, sputtering power P = 750 W, the time of applying a layer t = 5 min, group frequency fg = 2 kHz, the frequency of switching between targets fp = 1 Hz.

  1. The Structure and Properties of Inductively Coupled Plasma Assisted Magnetron Sputtered Nanocrystalline CrN Films for Bearings of Wind Power Systems.

    PubMed

    Chun, Sung-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Chromium nitride films used as important surface modified bearings for the wind power systems have been prepared using DC (direct current) and ICP assisted magnetron sputtering. The applied ICP power was varied from 0 to 500 W. The deposition rate and nano-grain size of ICP assisted films were decreased when the ICP power increased, while the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of chromium nitride films increased. We present in detail coatings (e.g., deposition rate, grain size, prefer-orientation, corrosion resistance and hardness). Our studies show that chromium nitride coatings with superior properties can be prepared using ICP assisted sputtering.

  2. Fuzzy tungsten in a magnetron sputtering device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, T. J.; Khan, A.; Heil, T.; Bradley, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    Helium ion induced tungsten nanostructure (tungsten fuzz) has been studied in a magnetron sputtering device. Three parameters were varied, the fluence from 3.4 × 1023-3.0 × 1024 m-2, the He ion energy from 25 to 70 eV, and the surface temperature from 900 to 1200 K. For each sample, SEM images were captured, and measurements of the fuzz layer thickness, surface roughness, reflectivity, and average structure widths are provided. A cross-over point from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is found at 2.4 ± 0.4 × 1024 m-2, and a temperature of 1080 ± 60 K. No significant change was observed in the energy sweep. The fuzz is compared to low fluence fuzz created in the PISCES-A linear plasma device. Magnetron fuzz is less uniform than fuzz created by PISCES-A and with generally larger structure widths. The thicknesses of the magnetron samples follow the original Φ1/2 relation as opposed to the incubation fluence fit.

  3. On reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, J. T.

    2016-01-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is an ionized physical vapor deposition (IPVD) technique that is particularly promising for reactive sputtering applications. However, there are few issues that have to be resolved before the full potential of this technique can be realized. Here we give an overview of the key experimental findings for the reactive HiPIMS discharge. An increase in the discharge current is commonly observed with increased partial pressure of the reactive gas or decreased repetition pulse frequency. There are somewhat conflicting claims regarding the hysteresis effect in the reactive HiPIMS discharge as some report reduction or elimination of the hysteresis effect while others claim a feedback control is essential. The ion energy distribution of the metal ion and the atomic ion of the reactive gas are similar and extend to very high energies while the ion energy distribution of the working gas and the molecular ion of the reactive gas are similar and are much less energetic.

  4. Characterization of Magnetron Sputtered Coatings by Pulsed Eddy Current Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Mulligan, Chris; Lee Changqing; Danon, Yaron

    2005-04-09

    A method that uses induced pulsed eddy currents for characterization of thick magnetron sputtered Nb coatings on steel is presented in this paper. The objectives of this work are to develop a system for rapid quantitative nondestructive inspection of coatings as well as to determine the correlation between coating properties, such as density and purity, and eddy current measured resistivity of coatings. A two-probe differential system having higher sensitivity and less noise than a one-probe system with 2-D scanning ability was developed.

  5. Method and apparatus for improved high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre

    2013-11-05

    A high power impulse magnetron sputtering apparatus and method using a vacuum chamber with a magnetron target and a substrate positioned in the vacuum chamber. A field coil being positioned between the magnetron target and substrate, and a pulsed power supply and/or a coil bias power supply connected to the field coil. The pulsed power supply connected to the field coil, and the pulsed power supply outputting power pulse widths of greater that 100 .mu.s.

  6. Thick beryllium coatings by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H; Nikroo, A; Youngblood, K; Moreno, K; Wu, D; Fuller, T; Alford, C; Hayes, J; Detor, A; Wong, M; Hamza, A; van Buuren, T; Chason, E

    2011-04-14

    Thick (>150 {micro}m) beryllium coatings are studied as an ablator material of interest for fusion fuel capsules for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). As an added complication, the coatings are deposited on mm-scale spherical substrates, as opposed to flats. DC magnetron sputtering is used because of the relative controllability of the processing temperature and energy of the deposits. We used ultra small angle x-ray spectroscopy (USAXS) to characterize the void fraction and distribution along the spherical surface. We investigated the void structure using a combination focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results show a few volume percent of voids and a typical void diameter of less than two hundred nanometers. Understanding how the stresses in the deposited material develop with thickness is important so that we can minimize film cracking and delamination. To that end, an in-situ multiple optical beam stress sensor (MOSS) was used to measure the stress behavior of thick Beryllium coatings on flat substrates as the material was being deposited. We will show how the film stress saturates with thickness and changes with pressure.

  7. Formation of dielectric silicon compounds by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselov, D. S.; Voronov, Yu A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of reactive magnetron sputtering of the silicon target in the ambient of inert argon gas with reactive gas, nitrogen or oxygen. The magnetron was powered by two mid-frequency generators of a rectangular pulse of opposite polarity. The negative polarity pulse provides the sputtering of the target. The positive polarity pulse provides removal of accumulated charge from the surface of the target. This method does not require any special devices of resistances matching and provides continuous sputtering of the target.

  8. Magnetron sputtered boron films and TI/B multilayer structures

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1993-04-20

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  9. Magnetron sputtered boron films and Ti/B multilayer structures

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  10. Magnetron sputtered boron films and Ti/B multilayer structures

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1995-02-14

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 6 figs.

  11. Magnetron sputtered boron films and TI/B multilayer structures

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  12. DEPOSITION OF NIOBIUM AND OTHER SUPERCONDUCTING MATERIALS WITH HIGH POWER IMPULSE MAGNETRON SPUTTERING: CONCEPT AND FIRST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    High Current Electronics Institute, Tomsk, Russia; Anders, Andre; Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Lim, Sunnie; Mentink, Matthijs; Slack, Jonathan L.; Wallig, Joseph G.; Nollau, Alexander V.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.

    2011-07-24

    Niobium coatings on copper cavities have been considered as a cost-efficient replacement of bulk niobium RF cavities, however, coatings made by magnetron sputtering have not quite lived up to high expectations due to Q-slope and other issues. High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is a promising emerging coatings technology which combines magnetron sputtering with a pulsed power approach. The magnetron is turned into a metal plasma source by using very high peak power density of ~ 1 kW/cm{sup 2}. In this contribution, the cavity coatings concept with HIPIMS is explained. A system with two cylindrical, movable magnetrons was set up with custom magnetrons small enough to be inserted into 1.3 GHz cavities. Preliminary data on niobium HIPIMS plasma and the resulting coatings are presented. The HIPIMS approach has the potential to be extended to film systems beyond niobium, including other superconducting materials and/or multilayer systems.

  13. Rotating cylindrical magnetron sputtering: Simulation of the reactive process

    SciTech Connect

    Depla, D.; Mahieu, S.; Van Aeken, K.; Leroy, W. P.; Haemers, J.; De Gryse, R.; Li, X. Y.; Bogaerts, A.

    2010-06-15

    A rotating cylindrical magnetron consists of a cylindrical tube, functioning as the cathode, which rotates around a stationary magnet assembly. In stationary mode, the cylindrical magnetron behaves similar to a planar magnetron with respect to the influence of reactive gas addition to the plasma. However, the transition from metallic mode to poisoned mode and vice versa depends on the rotation speed. An existing model has been modified to simulate the influence of target rotation on the well known hysteresis behavior during reactive magnetron sputtering. The model shows that the existing poisoning mechanisms, i.e., chemisorption, direct reactive ion implantation and knock on implantation, are insufficient to describe the poisoning behavior of the rotating target. A better description of the process is only possible by including the deposition of sputtered material on the target.

  14. Magnetron Sputtered Gold Contacts on N-gaas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buonaquisti, A. D.; Matson, R. J.; Russell, P. E.; Holloway, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    Direct current planar magnetron sputtering was used to deposit gold Schottky barrier electrical contacts on n-type GaAs of varying doping densities. The electrical character of the contact was determined from current voltage and electron beam induced voltage data. Without reducing the surface concentration of carbon and oxide, the contacts were found to be rectifying. There is evidence that energetic neutral particles reflected from the magnetron target strike the GaAs and cause interfacial damage similar to that observed for ion sputtering. Particle irradiation of the surface during contact deposition is discussed.

  15. GaAs Films Prepared by RF-Magnetron Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    L.H. Ouyang; D.L. Rode; T. Zulkifli; B. Abraham-Shrauner; N. Lewis; M.R. Freeman

    2001-08-01

    The authors reported on the optical absorption, adhesion, and microstructure of RF-magnetron sputtered films of hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline GaAs films for the 1 to 25 {micro}m infrared wavelength rate. Sputtering parameters which were varied include sputtering power, temperature and pressure, and hydrogen sputtering-gas concentration. TEM results show a sharp transition from purely amorphous GaAs to a mixture of microcrystalline GaAs in an amorphous matrix at 34 {+-} 2 C. By optimizing the sputtering parameters, the optical absorption coefficient can be decreased below 100 cm{sup -1} for wavelengths greater than about 1.25 {micro}m. These results represent the lowest reported values of optical absorption for sputtered films of GaAs directly measured by spectrophotometry for the near-infrared wavelength region.

  16. A Plasma Lens for Magnetron Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Brown, Jeff

    2010-11-30

    A plasma lens, consisting of a solenoid and potential-defining ring electrodes, has been placed between a magnetron and substrates to be coated. Photography reveals qualitative information on excitation, ionization, and the transport of plasma to the substrate.

  17. Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Adámek, J.

    2014-10-15

    A feedforward scheme is applied for drift waves control in a magnetized magnetron sputtering plasma. A system of driven electrodes collecting electron current in a limited region of the explored plasma is used to interact with unstable drift waves. Drift waves actually appear as electrostatic modes characterized by discrete wavelengths of the order of few centimeters and frequencies of about 100 kHz. The effect of external quasi-periodic, both in time and space, travelling perturbations is studied. Particular emphasis is given to the role played by the phase relation between the natural and the imposed fluctuations. It is observed that it is possible by means of localized electrodes, collecting currents which are negligible with respect to those flowing in the plasma, to transfer energy to one single mode and to reduce that associated to the others. Due to the weakness of the external action, only partial control has been achieved.

  18. Very low pressure high power impulse triggered magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Andersson, Joakim

    2013-10-29

    A method and apparatus are described for very low pressure high powered magnetron sputtering of a coating onto a substrate. By the method of this invention, both substrate and coating target material are placed into an evacuable chamber, and the chamber pumped to vacuum. Thereafter a series of high impulse voltage pulses are applied to the target. Nearly simultaneously with each pulse, in one embodiment, a small cathodic arc source of the same material as the target is pulsed, triggering a plasma plume proximate to the surface of the target to thereby initiate the magnetron sputtering process. In another embodiment the plasma plume is generated using a pulsed laser aimed to strike an ablation target material positioned near the magnetron target surface.

  19. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shailesh; Gahan, David; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K; Daniels, Stephen; Hopkins, M B

    2016-04-01

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  20. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shailesh; Gahan, David; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K.; Daniels, Stephen; Hopkins, M. B.

    2016-04-01

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  1. RF Reactive Magnetron Sputter Deposition of Silicon Sub-Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hattum, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    RF reactive magnetron plasma sputter deposition of silicon sub oxide E.D. van Hattum Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Utrecht University The work described in the thesis has been inspired and stimulated by the use of SiOx layers in the direct inductive printing technology, where the SiOx layer is used as the charge retention layer on the drums for copying and printing devices. The thesis describes investigations of the plasma and of processes taking place on the sputter target and on the SiOx growth surface in the room temperature, RF reactive magnetron plasma sputter deposition technology. The sputtering target consists of silicon and the reactive atmosphere consists of an Ar/O2 mixture. The composition of the grown SiOx layers has been varied between x=0 and x=2 by variation of the O2 partial pressure. The characteristics of the growth process have been related to the nanostructural properties of the grown films. The deposition system enables the characterisation of the plasma (Langmuir probe, energy resolved mass spectrometer) and of the growing film (Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD), Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy) and is connected to a beamline of a 6MV tandem van de Graaff accelerator. Also Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy have been applied. It is shown how ERD can be used as a real-time in-situ technique. The thesis presents spatially resolved values of the ion density, electron temperature and the quasi-electrostatic potential, determined using a Langmuir probe. The plasma potential has a maximum about 2 cm from the cathode erosion area, and decreases (more than 200 V typically) towards the floating sputter cathode. The potential decreases slightly in the direction towards the grounded growth surface and the positive, mainly Ar+, ions created in the large volume of the plasma closest to the substrate are accelerated towards the growth surface. These ions obtain a few eV of

  2. Development of magnetron sputtering simulator with GPU parallel computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Ilyoup; Kim, Jihun; Bae, Junkyeong; Lee, Jinpil

    2014-12-01

    Sputtering devices are widely used in the semiconductor and display panel manufacturing process. Currently, a number of surface treatment applications using magnetron sputtering techniques are being used to improve the efficiency of the sputtering process, through the installation of magnets outside the vacuum chamber. Within the internal space of the low pressure chamber, plasma generated from the combination of a rarefied gas and an electric field is influenced interactively. Since the quality of the sputtering and deposition rate on the substrate is strongly dependent on the multi-physical phenomena of the plasma regime, numerical simulations using PIC-MCC (Particle In Cell, Monte Carlo Collision) should be employed to develop an efficient sputtering device. In this paper, the development of a magnetron sputtering simulator based on the PIC-MCC method and the associated numerical techniques are discussed. To solve the electric field equations in the 2-D Cartesian domain, a Poisson equation solver based on the FDM (Finite Differencing Method) is developed and coupled with the Monte Carlo Collision method to simulate the motion of gas particles influenced by an electric field. The magnetic field created from the permanent magnet installed outside the vacuum chamber is also numerically calculated using Biot-Savart's Law. All numerical methods employed in the present PIC code are validated by comparison with analytical and well-known commercial engineering software results, with all of the results showing good agreement. Finally, the developed PIC-MCC code is parallelized to be suitable for general purpose computing on graphics processing unit (GPGPU) acceleration, so as to reduce the large computation time which is generally required for particle simulations. The efficiency and accuracy of the GPGPU parallelized magnetron sputtering simulator are examined by comparison with the calculated results and computation times from the original serial code. It is found that

  3. Deposition rates of high power impulse magnetron sputtering: Physics and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2010-07-15

    Deposition by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is considered by some as the new paradigm of advanced sputtering technology, yet this is met with skepticism by others for the reported lower deposition rates, if compared to rates of more conventional sputtering of equal average power. In this contribution, the underlying physical reasons for the rate changes are discussed, including (i) ion return to the target and self-sputtering, (ii) the less-than-linear increase in the sputtering yield with increasing ion energy, (iii) yield changes due to the shift of species responsible for sputtering, (iv) changes due to greater film density, limited sticking, and self-sputtering on the substrate, (v) noticeable power losses in the switch module, (vi) changes in the magnetic balance and particle confinement of the magnetron due to self-fields at high current, and (vii) superposition of sputtering and sublimation/evaporation for selected materials. The situation is even more complicated for reactive systems where the target surface chemistry is a function of the reactive gas partial pressure and discharge conditions. While most of these factors imply a reduction in the normalized deposition rate, increased rates have been reported for certain conditions using hot targets and less poisoned targets. Finally, some points of economics and HIPIMS benefits are considered.

  4. Heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si by DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steglich, Martin; Patzig, Christian; Berthold, Lutz; Schrempel, Frank; Füchsel, Kevin; Höche, Thomas; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    The growth of Ge on Si(100) by DC Magnetron Sputtering at various temperatures is studied by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Smooth heteroepitaxial Ge films are prepared at relatively low temperatures of 380°C. Typical Stransky-Krastanov growth is observed at 410°C. At lower temperatures (320°C), films are essentially amorphous with isolated nanocrystallites at the Si-Ge interface. A minor oxygen contamination at the interface, developing after ex-situ oxide removal, is not seen to hinder epitaxy. Compensation of dislocation-induced acceptors in Ge by sputtering from n-doped targets is proposed.

  5. Heteroepitaxial Ge-on-Si by DC magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Steglich, Martin; Schrempel, Frank; Füchsel, Kevin; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Patzig, Christian; Berthold, Lutz; Höche, Thomas; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-07-15

    The growth of Ge on Si(100) by DC Magnetron Sputtering at various temperatures is studied by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Smooth heteroepitaxial Ge films are prepared at relatively low temperatures of 380°C. Typical Stransky-Krastanov growth is observed at 410°C. At lower temperatures (320°C), films are essentially amorphous with isolated nanocrystallites at the Si-Ge interface. A minor oxygen contamination at the interface, developing after ex-situ oxide removal, is not seen to hinder epitaxy. Compensation of dislocation-induced acceptors in Ge by sputtering from n-doped targets is proposed.

  6. Discharge current modes of high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhongzhen Xiao, Shu; Ma, Zhengyong; Cui, Suihan; Ji, Shunping; Pan, Feng; Tian, Xiubo; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-09-15

    Based on the production and disappearance of ions and electrons in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma near the target, the expression of the discharge current is derived. Depending on the slope, six possible modes are deduced for the discharge current and the feasibility of each mode is discussed. The discharge parameters and target properties are simplified into the discharge voltage, sputtering yield, and ionization energy which mainly affect the discharge plasma. The relationship between these factors and the discharge current modes is also investigated.

  7. Calcium phosphate coatings produced by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolbasov, E. N.; Zheravin, A. A.; Klimov, I. A.; Kulbakin, D. E.; Perelmuter, V. M.; Tverdokhlebov, S. I.; Cherdyntseva, N. V.; Choinzonov, E. L.

    2016-08-01

    Calcium phosphate coatings on titanium implants surface, produced by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method with hydroxyapatite solid target were investigated. It was found that produced coatings are calcium deficient compared to stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. The surface of the coatings is highly rough at the nanoscale and highly elastic. In vivo experiments on rats revealed that titanium implants with the calcium phosphate coatings do not cause negative tissue reaction after 6 months incubation period.

  8. Characterisation of Mg biodegradable stents produced by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmrabet, N.; Botterill, N.; Grant, D. M.; Brown, P. D.

    2015-10-01

    Novel Mg-minitubes for biodegradable stent applications have been produced using PVD magnetron sputtering. The minitubes were characterised, as a function of annealing temperature, using a combination of SEM/EDS, XRD and hardness testing. The as-deposited minitubes exhibited columnar grain structures with high levels of porosity. Slight alteration to the crystal structure from columnar to equiaxed grain growth was demonstrated at elevated temperature, along with increased material densification, hardness and corrosion resistance.

  9. Magnetron sputtering in rigid optical solar reflectors production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asainov, O. Kh; Bainov, D. D.; Krivobokov, V. P.; Sidelev, D. V.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetron sputtering was applied to meet the growing need for glass optical solar reflectors. This plasma method provided more uniform deposition of the silver based coating on glass substrates resulted in decrease of defective reflectors fraction down to 5%. For instance, such parameter of resistive evaporation was of 30%. Silver film adhesion to glass substrate was enhanced with indium tin oxide sublayer. Sunlight absorption coefficient of these rigid reflectors was 0.081-0.083.

  10. Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2010-10-13

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is pulsed sputtering where the peak power exceeds the time-averaged power by typically two orders of magnitude. The peak power density, averaged over the target area, can reach or exceed 107 W/m2, leading to plasma conditions that make ionization of the sputtered atoms very likely. A brief review of HIPIMS operation is given in a tutorial manner, illustrated by some original data related to the self-sputtering of niobium in argon and krypton. Emphasis is put on the current-voltage-time relationships near the threshold of self-sputtering runaway. The great variety of current pulse shapes delivers clues on the very strong gas rarefaction, self-sputtering runaway conditions, and the stopping of runaway due to the evolution of atom ionization and ion return probabilities as the gas plasma is replaced by metal plasma. The discussions are completed by considering instabilities and the special case of ?gasless? self-sputtering.

  11. Elementary surface processes during reactive magnetron sputtering of chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Monje, Sascha; Corbella, Carles Keudell, Achim von

    2015-10-07

    The elementary surface processes occurring on chromium targets exposed to reactive plasmas have been mimicked in beam experiments by using quantified fluxes of Ar ions (400–800 eV) and oxygen atoms and molecules. For this, quartz crystal microbalances were previously coated with Cr thin films by means of high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering. The measured growth and etching rates were fitted by flux balance equations, which provided sputter yields of around 0.05 for the compound phase and a sticking coefficient of O{sub 2} of 0.38 on the bare Cr surface. Further fitted parameters were the oxygen implantation efficiency and the density of oxidation sites at the surface. The increase in site density with a factor 4 at early phases of reactive sputtering is identified as a relevant mechanism of Cr oxidation. This ion-enhanced oxygen uptake can be attributed to Cr surface roughening and knock-on implantation of oxygen atoms deeper into the target. This work, besides providing fundamental data to control oxidation state of Cr targets, shows that the extended Berg's model constitutes a robust set of rate equations suitable to describe reactive magnetron sputtering of metals.

  12. Plasma regimes in high power pulsed magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Los Arcos, Teresa

    2013-09-01

    High Power Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering (HPPMS) is a relatively recent variation of magnetron sputtering where high power is applied to the magnetron in short pulses. The result is the formation of dense transient plasmas with a high fraction of ionized species, ideally leading to better control of film growth through substrate bias. However, the broad range of experimental conditions accessible in pulsed discharges results in bewildering variations in current and voltage pulse shapes, pulse power densities, etc, which represent different discharge behaviors, making it difficult to identify relevant deposition conditions. The complexity of the plasma dynamics is evident. Within each pulse, plasma characteristics such as plasma composition, density, gas rarefaction, spatial distribution, degree of self-sputtering, etc. vary with time. A recent development has been the discovery that the plasma emission can self-organize into well-defined regions of high and low plasma emissivity above the racetrack (spokes), which rotate in the direction given by the E ×B drift and that significantly influence the transport mechanisms in HPPMS. One seemingly universal characteristic of HPPMS plasmas is the existence of well defined plasma regimes for different power ranges. These regimes are clearly differentiated in terms of plasma conductivity, plasma composition and spatial plasma self-organization. We will discuss the global characteristics of these regimes in terms of current-voltage characteristics, energy-resolved QMS and OES analysis, and fast imaging. In particular we will discuss how the reorganization of the plasma emission into spokes is associated only to specific regimes of high plasma conductivity. We will also briefly discuss the role of the target in shaping the characteristics of the HPPMS plasma, since sputtering is a surface-driven process. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within the framework of the SFB-TR87.

  13. The bioactivity mechanism of magnetron sputtered bioglass thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbecaru, C.; Stan, G. E.; Pina, S.; Tulyaganov, D. U.; Ferreira, J. M. F.

    2012-10-01

    Smooth and adherent bioactive coatings with ∼0.5 μm thickness were deposited onto Si substrates by the radiofrequency-magnetron sputtering method at 150 °C under 0.4 Pa of Ar atmosphere using a bioglass powder as target with a composition in the SiO2-CaO-MgO-P2O5-CaF2-B2O3-Na2O system. The bioactivity of the as-prepared bioglass samples was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid for different periods of time up to 30 days. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectrometry and energy dispersive spectroscopy revealed that important structural and compositional changes took place upon immersing the samples in SBF. Whilst the excellent biomineralisation capability of the BG thin films was demonstrated by the in vitro induction of extensive and homogenous crystalline hydroxyapatite in-growths on their surfaces, a series of bioactivity process kinetics peculiarities (derogations from the classical model) were emphasised and thoroughly discussed.

  14. Preparation of diamond-like carbon films using reactive Ar/CH4 high power impulse magnetron sputtering system with negative pulse voltage source for substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Kamata, Hikaru

    2016-04-01

    Diamond-like carbon films were prepared using a reactive Ar/CH4 high-power impulse magnetron sputtering system with a negative pulse voltage source for the substrate, changing the CH4 fraction up to 15% in the total pressure range from 0.3 to 2 Pa. The magnitude of the negative pulse voltage for the substrate was also varied up to about 500 V. The hardness of films monotonically increased with increasing magnitude of the negative pulse voltage. The films with hardnesses between 16.5 and 23 GPa were prepared at total pressures less than 0.5 Pa and CH4 fractions less than 10% by applying an appropriate negative pulse voltage of 300-400 V. In X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the area ratio C-C sp3/(C-C sp2 + C-C sp3) in the C 1s core level was higher than 30% at pressures less than 0.5 Pa and CH4 fractions less than 15%. On the other hand, the films with hardnesses between 5 and 10 GPa were prepared with a relatively high growth rate at the partial pressures of CH4 higher than 0.1 Pa. However, the observation of the photoluminescence background in Raman spectroscopy indicated a relatively high hydrogen content.

  15. Hard carbon coatings deposited by pulsed high current magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskomov, K. V.; Solov'ev, A. A.; Rabotkin, S. V.

    2014-12-01

    Hard (up to 17 GPa) carbon coatings are deposited onto face SiC bearings used in liquid pumps by pulsed high-current magnetron sputtering of graphite. As a result, the friction coefficient is decreased from 0.43 to 0.11 and the wear rate is decreased from 26 to 0.307 μm3 N-1 m-1, which increases the service life of the bearings by approximately three times. The deposited carbon coatings have a high hardness and wear resistance due to the generation of high-density (up to 1013 cm-3) plasma.

  16. Ion-induced oxidation of aluminum during reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreiter, Oliver; Grosse-Kreul, Simon; Corbella, Carles; von Keudell, Achim

    2013-04-01

    Particle beam experiments were conducted in an ultra-high-vacuum vessel to mimic target poisoning during reactive magnetron sputtering of aluminum. Aluminum targets were exposed to quantified beams of argon ions, oxygen atoms and molecules, and aluminum vapour. The growth and etch rates were measured in situ by means of an Al-coated quartz crystal microbalance. The chemical state of the target surface was monitored in-situ by real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The surface processes were modelled through a set of balance equations providing sputter yields and sticking coefficients. The results indicate that the oxygen uptake of the aluminum surface is enhanced by a factor 1 to 2 by knock-on implantation and that the deposition of aluminum is not affected by the oxidation state of the surface.

  17. Experimental evidence of warm electron populations in magnetron sputtering plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, B. B. Han, Jeon G.; Kim, Hye R.; Ishikawa, K.; Hori, M.

    2015-01-21

    This work report on the results obtained using the Langmuir probe (LP) measurements in high-power dc magnetron sputtering discharges. Data show clear evidence of two electron components, such as warm and bulk electrons, in the sputtering plasma in a magnetic trap. We have also used optical emission spectroscopy diagnostic method along with LP to investigate the plasma production. Data show that there is a presence of low-frequency oscillations in the 2–3 MHz range, which are expected to be generated by high-frequency waves. Analysis also suggests that the warm electrons, in the plasmas, can be formed due to the collisionless Landau damping of the bulk electrons.

  18. Microstructural evaluation of NiTi-based films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Crăciunescu, Corneliu M. Mitelea, Ion Budău, Victor; Ercuţa, Aurel

    2014-11-24

    Shape memory alloy films belonging to the NiTi-based systems were deposited on heated and unheated substrates, by magnetron sputtering in a custom made system, and their structure and composition was analyzed using electron microscopy. Several substrates were used for the depositions: glass, Cu-Zn-Al, Cu-Al-Ni and Ti-NiCu shape memory alloy ribbons and kapton. The composition of the Ti-Ni-Cu films showed limited differences, compared to the one of the target and the microstructure for the DC magnetron sputtering revealed crystallized structure with features determined on peel off samples from a Si wafer. Both inter and transcrystalline fractures were observed and related to the interfacial stress developed on cooling from deposition temperature.

  19. Microstructural evaluation of NiTi-based films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crǎciunescu, Corneliu M.; Mitelea, Ion; Budǎu, Victor; ErcuÅ£a, Aurel

    2014-11-01

    Shape memory alloy films belonging to the NiTi-based systems were deposited on heated and unheated substrates, by magnetron sputtering in a custom made system, and their structure and composition was analyzed using electron microscopy. Several substrates were used for the depositions: glass, Cu-Zn-Al, Cu-Al-Ni and Ti-NiCu shape memory alloy ribbons and kapton. The composition of the Ti-Ni-Cu films showed limited differences, compared to the one of the target and the microstructure for the DC magnetron sputtering revealed crystallized structure with features determined on peel off samples from a Si wafer. Both inter and transcrystalline fractures were observed and related to the interfacial stress developed on cooling from deposition temperature.

  20. Experimental investigation of quasiperiodic-chaotic-quasiperiodic-chaotic transition in a direct current magnetron sputtering plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sabavath, Gopi Kishan; Banerjee, I.; Mahapatra, S. K.; Shaw, Pankaj Kumar; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.

    2015-08-15

    Floating potential fluctuations from a direct current magnetron sputtering plasma have been analysed using time series analysis techniques like phase space plots, power spectra, frequency bifurcation plot, etc. The system exhibits quasiperiodic-chaotic-quasiperiodic-chaotic transitions as the discharge voltage was increased. The transitions of the fluctuations, quantified using the largest Lyapunov exponent, have been corroborated by Hurst exponent and the Shannon entropy. The Shannon entropy is high for quasiperiodic and low for chaotic oscillations.

  1. Deposition and characterization of magnetron sputtered bcc tantalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Anamika

    The goal of this thesis was to provide scientific and technical research results for developing and characterizing tantalum (Ta) coatings on steel substrates deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. Deposition of tantalum on steel is of special interest for the protection it offers to surfaces, e.g. the surfaces of gun barrels against the erosive wear of hot propellant gases and the mechanical damage caused by the motion of launching projectiles. Electro-plated chromium is presently most commonly used for this purpose; however, it is considered to be carcinogenic in its hexavalent form. Tantalum is being investigated as non-toxic alternative to chromium and also because of its superior protective properties in these extreme environments. DC magnetron sputtering was chosen for this investigation of tantalum coatings on steel substrates because it is a versatile industrial proven process for deposition of metals. Sputter deposited Ta films can have two crystallographic structures: (1) body center cubic (bcc) phase, characterized by high toughness and high ductility and (2) a tetragonal beta phase characterized by brittleness and a tendency to fail under stress. It was found in this work that the bcc Ta coatings on steel can be obtained reliably by either of two methods: (1) depositing Ta on a submicron, stoichiometric TaN seed layer reactively sputtered on unheated steel and (2) depositing Ta directly on steel heated above a critical temperature. For argon sputtering gas this critical temperature was found to be 400°C at a pressure of 5 mtorr. With the heavier krypton gas, this critical temperature is reduced to 350°C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the structure of tantalum and nitride films, and the composition of the nitride films was measured by nuclear reaction analyses (NRA), which were used to study in detail the enhancement of the bcc phase of Ta on steel. The scratch adhesion tests performed with a diamond hemispherical tip of radius 200 mum

  2. Magnetron-Sputtered YSZ and CGO Electrolytes for SOFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyev, A. A.; Shipilova, A. V.; Ionov, I. V.; Kovalchuk, A. N.; Rabotkin, S. V.; Oskirko, V. O.

    2016-08-01

    Reactive magnetron sputtering has been used for deposition of yttria-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) and gadolinium-doped CeO2 (CGO) layers on NiO-YSZ commercial anodes for solid oxide fuel cells. To increase the deposition rate and improve the quality of the sputtered thin oxide films, asymmetric bipolar pulse magnetron sputtering was applied. Three types of anode-supported cells, with single-layer YSZ or CGO and YSZ/CGO bilayer electrolyte, were prepared and investigated. Optimal thickness of oxide layers was determined experimentally. Based on the electrochemical characteristics of the cells, it is shown that, at lower operating temperatures of 650°C to 700°C, the cells with single-layer CGO electrolyte are most effective. The power density of these fuel cells exceeds that of the cell based on YSZ single-layer electrolyte at the same temperature. Power densities of 650 mW cm-2 and 500 mW cm-2 at 700°C were demonstrated by cells with single-layer YSZ and CGO electrolyte, respectively. Significantly enhanced maximum power density was achieved in a bilayer-electrolyte single cell, as compared with cells with a single electrolyte layer. Maximum power density of 1.25 W cm-2 at 800°C and 1 W cm-2 at 750°C under voltage of 0.7 V were achieved for the YSZ/CGO bilayer electrolyte cell with YSZ and CGO thickness of about 4 μm and 1.5 μm, respectively. This signifies that the YSZ thin film serves as a blocking layer to prevent electrical current leakage in the CGO layer, leading to the overall enhanced performance. This performance is comparable to the state of the art for cells based on YSZ/CGO bilayer electrolyte.

  3. Plasma"anti-assistance" and"self-assistance" to high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.

    2009-01-30

    A plasma assistance system was investigated with the goal to operate high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at lower pressure than usual, thereby to enhance the utilization of the ballistic atoms and ions with high kinetic energy in the film growth process. Gas plasma flow from a constricted plasma source was aimed at the magnetron target. Contrary to initial expectations, such plasma assistance turned out to be contra-productive because it led to the extinction of the magnetron discharge. The effect can be explained by gas rarefaction. A better method of reducing the necessary gas pressure is operation at relatively high pulse repetition rates where the afterglow plasma of one pulse assists in the development of the next pulse. Here we show that this method, known from medium-frequency (MF) pulsed sputtering, is also very important at the much lower pulse repetition rates of HiPIMS. A minimum in the possible operational pressure is found in the frequency region between HiPIMS and MF pulsed sputtering.

  4. Tailoring of antibacterial Ag nanostructures on TiO2 nanotube layers by magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Uhm, Soo-Hyuk; Song, Doo-Hoon; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Sang-Bae; Han, Jeon-Geon; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2014-04-01

    To reduce the incidence of postsurgical bacterial infection that may cause implantation failure at the implant-bone interface, surface treatment of titanium implants with antibiotic materials such as silver (Ag) has been proposed. The purpose of this work was to create TiO2 nanotubes using plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), followed by formation of an antibacterial Ag nanostructure coating on the TiO2 nanotube layer using a magnetron sputtering system. PEO was performed on commercially pure Ti sheets. The Ag nanostructure was added onto the resulting TiO2 nanotube using magnetron sputtering at varying deposition rates. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the surface, and Ag content on the TiO2 nanotube layer was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Scanning probe microscopy for surface roughness and contact angle measurement were used to indirectly confirm enhanced TiO2 nanotube hydrophilicity. Antibacterial activity of Ag ions in solution was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and antibacterial testing against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). In vitro, TiO2 nanotubes coated with sputtered Ag resulted in significantly reduced S. aureus. Cell viability assays showed no toxicity for the lowest sputtering time group in the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. These results suggest that a multinanostructured layer with a biocompatible TiO2 nanotube and antimicrobial Ag coating is a promising biomaterial that can be tailored with magnetron sputtering for optimal performance.

  5. Characterization on RF magnetron sputtered niobium pentoxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Usha, N.; Sivakumar, R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2014-10-15

    Niobium pentoxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) thin films with amorphous nature were deposited on microscopic glass substrates at 100°C by rf magnetron sputtering technique. The effect of rf power on the structural, morphological, optical, and vibrational properties of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films have been investigated. Optical study shows the maximum average transmittance of about 87% and the optical energy band gap (indirect allowed) changes between 3.70 eV and 3.47 eV. AFM result indicates the smooth surface nature of the samples. Photoluminescence measurement showed the better optical quality of the deposited films. Raman spectra show the LO-TO splitting of Nb-O stretching of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films.

  6. RF magnetron sputtering of thick platinum coatings on glass microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, S.F.; Hsieh, E.J.; Burt, R.J.

    1980-05-28

    Thick platinum coatings on glass microspheres are needed for proposed Laser Fusion targets. The spherical nature of these substrates coupled with the small dimensions (approx. 100 ..mu..m OD) make it difficult to achieve a smooth and uniform coating. Coating problems encountered include a rough surface and porous microstructure from the oblique incidence and lack of temperature and bias control, clumping of the microspheres causing non-uniformities, and particle accumulation causing cone defects. Sputtering parameters significantly affecting the coatings include total pressure, DC substrate bias, and the addition of doping gases. Using an ultrasonic vibrating screened cage and RF magnetron Sputtergun, we have successfully batch coated microspheres with up to 6 ..mu..m of Pt, with a surface roughness of 200 nm, thickness non-concentricity of 300 nm, and density greater than 98% of bulk Pt.

  7. Influence of RF power on magnetron sputtered AZO films

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Mohit; Modi, Pankaj; Dusane, R. O.

    2013-02-05

    Al-doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) transparent conducting films are prepared on glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering under different RF power with a 3 inch diameter target of 2 wt%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in zinc oxide. The effect of RF power on the structural, optical and electrical properties of AZO films was investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Hall measurement and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The XRD data indicates a preferential c-axis orientation for all the films. All films exhibit high transmittance (<90%) in visible region. Films deposited at 60 W power exhibit lowest resistivity of 5.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}{omega}cm. Such low-resistivity and high-transmittance AZO films when prepared using low RF power at room temperature could find important applications in flexible electronics.

  8. Combined optical emission and resonant absorption diagnostics of an Ar-O2-Ce-reactive magnetron sputtering discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mel, A. A.; Ershov, S.; Britun, N.; Ricard, A.; Konstantinidis, S.; Snyders, R.

    2015-01-01

    We report the results on combined optical characterization of Ar-O2-Ce magnetron sputtering discharges by optical emission and resonant absorption spectroscopy. In this study, a DC magnetron sputtering system equipped with a movable planar magnetron source with a Ce target is used. The intensities of Ar, O, and Ce emission lines, as well as the absolute densities of Ar metastable and Ce ground state atoms are analyzed as a function of the distance from the magnetron target, applied DC power, O2 content, etc. The absolute number density of the Arm is found to decrease exponentially as a function of the target-to-substrate distance. The rate of this decrease is dependent on the sputtering regime, which should be due to the different collisional quenching rates of Arm by O2 molecules at different oxygen contents. Quantitatively, the absolute number density of Arm is found to be equal to ≈ 3 × 108 cm- 3 in the metallic, and ≈ 5 × 107 cm- 3 in the oxidized regime of sputtering, whereas Ce ground state densities at the similar conditions are found to be few times lower. The absolute densities of species are consistent with the corresponding deposition rates, which decrease sharply during the transition from metallic to poisoned sputtering regime.

  9. Asymmetric particle fluxes from drifting ionization zones in sputtering magnetrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjan, Matjaž; Franz, Robert; Anders, André

    2014-04-01

    Electron and ion fluxes from direct current and high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (dcMS and HiPIMS) plasmas were measured in the plane of the target surface. Biased collector probes and a particle energy and mass analyzer showed asymmetric emission of electrons and of singly and doubly charged ions. For both HiPIMS and dcMS discharges, higher fluxes of all types of particles were observed in the direction of the electrons' E × B drift. These results are put in the context with ionization zones that drift over the magnetron's racetrack. The measured currents of time-resolving collector probes suggest that a large fraction of the ion flux originates from drifting ionization zones, while energy-resolving mass spectrometry indicates that a large fraction of the ion energy is due to acceleration by an electric field. This supports the recently proposed hypothesis that each ionization zone is associated with a negative-positive-negative space charge structure, thereby producing an electric field that accelerates ions from the location where they were formed.

  10. Plasma potential mapping of high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, Albert; Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Sanders, Jason M.; Anders, Andre

    2011-12-20

    Pulsed emissive probe techniques have been used to determine the plasma potential distribution of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges. An unbalanced magnetron with a niobium target in argon was investigated for pulse length of 100 μs at a pulse repetition rate of 100 Hz, giving a peak current of 170 A. The probe data were taken with a time resolution of 20 ns and a spatial resolution of 1 mm. It is shown that the local plasma potential varies greatly in space and time. The lowest potential was found over the target’s racetrack, gradually reaching anode potential (ground) several centimeters away from the target. The magnetic pre-sheath exhibits a funnel-shaped plasma potential resulting in an electric field which accelerates ions toward the racetrack. In certain regions and times, the potential exhibits weak local maxima which allow for ion acceleration to the substrate. Knowledge of the local E and static B fields lets us derive the electrons’ E×B drift velocity, which is about 105 m/s and shows structures in space and time.

  11. Determination of ionization fraction and plasma potential in a dc magnetron sputtering system using a quartz crystal microbalance and a gridded energy analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Green, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    A diagnostic which combines a quartz crystal microbalance and a gridded energy analyzer has been developed to measure the ion-to- neutral ratio and the plasma potential in a commercial dc magnetron sputtering device. Additional features of this sensor include an externally controlled shutter which protects the diagnostic when it is in the chamber, but it is not in use. The diagnostic is mounted on a linear motion feedthrough and embedded in a slot in the wafer chuck to allow for measuring uniformity in deposition and ionization throughout the plane of the wafer. RF power is introduced to ionize the Al particles. Using the quartz crystal microbalance and the gridded energy analyzer, the ion-to-neutral ratio and other parameters are determined. Comparing the total deposition rate with and without a bias that screens out the ions, but leaves the plasma undisturbed, allows for the determination of the ion-to-neutral ratio. By varying the voltage applied to the grids, the plasma potential is measured. For example, a magnetron configuration having a pressure of 35 mtorr, a dc power of 2 kW, and a net rf power of 310{+-}5 W yielded 78{+-}5% ionization and a plasma potential of 35{+-}1 V.

  12. Magnetron sputtered WS2; optical and structural analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koçak, Y.; Akaltun, Y.; Gür, Emre

    2016-04-01

    Remarkable properties of graphene have renewed interest in inorganic, Transition Metal Dichalgogenits (TMDC) due to unique electronic and optical properties. TMDCs such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2 have sizable bandgaps that change from indirect to direct in single layers, allowing applications such as solar cells, transistors, photodetectors and electroluminescent devices in which the graphene is not actively used. So, fabrication and analysis of these films are important for new generation devices. In this work, polycrystalline WS2 films were grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS) on different substrates like n-Si(100), n-Si(111), p-Si(100), glass and fused silica. Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties were investigated as a function of film thickness and RF power. From XRD analysis, signals from planes of (002), (100), (101), (110), (008) belong to the hegzagonal WS2 were obtained. Raman spectra of the WS2 show that there are two dominant peaks at ~351 cm-1 (in-plane phonon mode) and ~417 cm-1 (out-of-plane phonon mode). XPS analysis of the films has shown that binding energy and the intensity of tungsten 4f shells shifts by depending on the depth of the films which might be due to the wellknown preferential sputtering.

  13. Evaluation of Gate Oxide Damage Caused by Ionization Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaka, Shigeki; Iyanagi, Katsumi; Fukuhara, Jota; Hayase, Shuzi

    2007-11-01

    An unbalanced magnet (UM) is commonly employed in ionization magnetron sputtering (IMS) in order to increase the ionization rates of sputtering species. In this paper, sputtering using an UM is compared with that using a balanced magnet (BM) during the deposition of Ti thin layers. Ti layers were fabricated on the top of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) gate electrodes of antenna metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with various thicknesses of gate SiO2 layers ranging from 25 to 80 Å, and the durability of the gate SiO2 layers was monitored by current-voltage (I-V) measurements. It was found that the MOS capacitors with thin SiO2 layers fabricated with the UM were much more damaged than those fabricated with the BM. This characteristic became more marked for thinner SiO2 layers. Its origin was investigated by monitoring the current injected from the plasma to the substrate using a specially designed electrical configuration, and was explained as follows. Electrons are carried toward substrates by curvature drift originating from the diverging magnetic field perpendicular to the substrate. This causes the accumulation of electrons on the gate SiO2 thin layers where the diverging magnetic field is developed at the beginning of discharge, i.e., before the uniform Ti deposition starts to occur. Consequently, the accumulated electrons break the gate SiO2 layer. These results suggest that a new design of magnetic fields for the UM is needed so that the magnetic field does not reach the substrate. It is particularly important to keep the diverging magnetic fields away from the substrates at the beginning of discharge.

  14. Microstructural comparisons of ultrathin Cu films deposited by ion-beam and dc-magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prater, W. L.; Allen, E. L.; Lee, W.-Y.; Toney, M. F.; Kellock, A.; Daniels, J. S.; Hedstrom, J. A.; Harrell, T.

    2005-05-01

    We report and contrast both the electrical resistance and the microstructure of copper thin films deposited in an oxygen-containing atmosphere by ion-beam and dc-magnetron sputtering. For films with thicknesses of 5 nm or less, the resistivity of the Cu films is minimized at oxygen concentrations ranging from 0.2% to 1% for dc-magnetron sputtering and 6%-10% for ion-beam sputtering. Films sputtered under both conditions show a similar decrease of interface roughness with increasing oxygen concentration, although the magnetron-deposited films are smoother. The dc-magnetron-produced films have higher resistivity, have smaller Cu grains, and contain a higher concentration of cuprous oxide particles. We discuss the mechanisms leading to the grain refinement and the consequent reduced resistivity in both types of films.

  15. Magnetron sputtering as a method of thin-film catalyst development for electrochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, E. A.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a thin-film Pt/C catalyst on the fluoroplastic substrates by means of the magnetron sputtering method in order to use as reference and working electrodes of electrochemical cells.

  16. R.F. magnetron sputtering of multilayered c-BN films on cemented carbide tool.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungtae; Jeong, Sehoon; Lee, Kwangmin

    2011-02-01

    A c-BN thin film was deposited using a B4C target in a r.f. magnetron sputtering system. The c-BN layer was coated with a TiAIN adhesion layer (approximately 2 microm), boron carbide (approximately 1 microm) and BCN (10 approximately 15 nm) nano-gradient layer system. The c-BN layers with thicknesses of more than 0.5 microm were successfully deposited onto cemented carbide substrates. The high resolution XPS spectra analysis of B1s and N1s revealed that the c-BN film was mainly composed of sp3 BN bonds.

  17. Boron ion source based on planar magnetron discharge in self-sputtering mode.

    PubMed

    Gushenets, V I; Hershcovitch, A; Kulevoy, T V; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu

    2010-02-01

    An ion source based on a planar magnetron sputtering device with thermally isolated target has been designed and demonstrated. For a boron sputtering target, high target temperature is required because boron has low electrical conductivity at room temperature, increasing with temperature. The target is well-insulated thermally and can be heated by an initial low-current, high-voltage discharge mode. A discharge power of 16 W was adequate to attain the required surface temperature (400 degrees C), followed by transition of the discharge to a high-current, low-voltage mode for which the magnetron enters a self-sputtering operational mode. Beam analysis was performed with a time-of-flight system; the maximum boron ion fraction in the beam is greater than 99%, and the mean boron ion fraction, time-integrated over the whole pulse length, is about 95%. We have plans to make the ion source steady state and test with a bending magnet. This kind of boron ion source could be competitive to conventional boron ion sources that utilize compounds such as BF(3), and could be useful for semiconductor industry application.

  18. Facing-target mid-frequency magnetron reactive sputtered hafnium oxide film: Morphology and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Xu, Jun; Wang, You-Nian; Choi, Chi Kyu; Zhou, Da-Yu

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous hafnium dioxide (HfO2) film was prepared on Si (100) by facing-target mid-frequency reactive magnetron sputtering under different oxygen/argon gas ratio at room temperature with high purity Hf target. 3D surface profiler results showed that the deposition rates of HfO2 thin film under different O2/Ar gas ratio remain unchanged, indicating that the facing target midfrequency magnetron sputtering system provides effective approach to eliminate target poisoning phenomenon which is generally occurred in reactive sputtering procedure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) demonstrated that the gradual reduction of oxygen vacancy concentration and the densification of deposited film structure with the increase of oxygen/argon (O2/Ar) gas flow ratio. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis suggested that the surface of the as-deposited HfO2 thin film tends to be smoother, the root-meansquare roughness (RMS) reduced from 0.876 nm to 0.333 nm while O2/Ar gas flow ratio increased from 1/4 to 1/1. Current-Voltage measurements of MOS capacitor based on Au/HfO2/Si structure indicated that the leakage current density of HfO2 thin films decreased by increasing of oxygen partial pressure, which resulted in the variations of pore size and oxygen vacancy concentration in deposited thin films. Based on the above characterization results the leakage current mechanism for all samples was discussed systematically.

  19. RP and RQA Analysis for Floating Potential Fluctuations in a DC Magnetron Sputtering Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabavath, Gopikishan; Banerjee, I.; Mahapatra, S. K.

    2016-04-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a direct current magnetron sputtering plasma is visualized using recurrence plot (RP) technique. RP comprises the recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) which is an efficient method to observe critical regime transitions in dynamics. Further, RQA provides insight information about the system’s behavior. We observed the floating potential fluctuations of the plasma as a function of discharge voltage by using Langmuir probe. The system exhibits quasi-periodic-chaotic-quasi-periodic-chaotic transitions. These transitions are quantified from determinism, Lmax, and entropy of RQA. Statistical investigations like kurtosis and skewness also studied for these transitions which are in well agreement with RQA results.

  20. A Semi-Empirical Model for Tilted-Gun Planar Magnetron Sputtering Accounting for Chimney Shadowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunn, J. K.; Metting, C. J.; Hattrick-Simpers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) approaches to composition and thickness profiles of sputtered thin-film samples are the key to expediting materials exploration for these materials. Here, an ICME-based semi-empirical approach to modeling the thickness of thin-film samples deposited via magnetron sputtering is developed. Using Yamamura's dimensionless differential angular sputtering yield and a measured deposition rate at a point in space for a single experimental condition, the model predicts the deposition profile from planar DC sputtering sources. The model includes corrections for off-center, tilted gun geometries as well as shadowing effects from gun chimneys used in most state-of-the-art sputtering systems. The modeling algorithm was validated by comparing its results with experimental deposition rates obtained from a sputtering system utilizing sources with a multi-piece chimney assembly that consists of a lower ground shield and a removable gas chimney. Simulations were performed for gun-tilts ranging from 0° to 31.3° from the vertical with and without the gas chimney installed. The results for the predicted and experimental angular dependence of the sputtering deposition rate were found to have an average magnitude of relative error of for a 0°-31.3° gun-tilt range without the gas chimney, and for a 17.7°-31.3° gun-tilt range with the gas chimney. The continuum nature of the model renders this approach reverse-optimizable, providing a rapid tool for assisting in the understanding of the synthesis-composition-property space of novel materials.

  1. Ion beam analysis and co-sputtering simulation (CO-SS) of bi-metal films produced by magnetron co-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J.; Andrade, E.; Muhl, S.; Canto, C.; de Lucio, O.; Chávez, E.; Rocha, M. F.; Garcés-Medina, E.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetron sputtering is widely used to deposit thin films on different types of substrates. An important application of this method is to make multicomponent thin films using co-sputtering, where two or more elements are included in the target. The thickness and elemental composition of the films depend on the experimental parameters used, the system geometry and the spatial distribution of the elements in the target. If the target is made of two spatially separate pieces of the materials, then the composition of the deposit depends on a combination of the relative areas, the sputtering yield and the angular distribution of the emission of the sputtered flux of each material. In this work, a co-sputtering simulation program, known as CO-SS, was developed to simulate the thickness and composition of metal films produced by DC magnetron sputtering (Al) and co-sputtering (Al + Ti). The CO-SS code models the angular distribution of particles ejected by sputtering from the target, where this is assumed to vary as cosn β , where n is a free parameter and β is the angle of ejection relative to the normal to the surface of the target, and the sputtering yield of each material. The program also takes into account other geometry factors such as the distance between the target and the substrate, and the size of the substrate. Rutherford backscattering (RBS) using 4He was employed to measure the thickness and the composition of the films deposited on glass cover slides in order to assess the CO-SS program. The film thickness was also measured by profilometry. The CO-SS code was found to accurately model the experimental results for both the Al and Ti/Al films. The CO-SS code is freely available for use from http://demonstrations.wolfram.com/CoSputteringSimulationCOSS/.

  2. Reduction in plasma potential by applying negative DC cathode bias in RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isomura, Masao; Yamada, Toshinori; Osuga, Kosuke; Shindo, Haruo

    2016-11-01

    We applied a negative DC bias voltage to the cathode of an RF magnetron sputtering system and successfully reduced the plasma potential in both argon plasma and hydrogen-diluted argon plasma. The crystallinity of the deposited Ge films is improved by increasing the negative DC bias voltage. It is indicated that the reduction in plasma potential is effective for reducing the plasma damage on deposited materials, caused by the electric potential between the plasma and substrates. In addition, the deposition rate is increased by the increased electric potential between the plasma and the cathode owing to the negative DC bias voltage. The present method successfully gives us higher speed and lower damage sputtering deposition. The increased electric potential between the plasma and the cathode suppresses the evacuation of electrons from the plasma and also enhances the generation of secondary electrons on the cathode. These probably suppress the electron loss from the plasma and result in the reduction in plasma potential.

  3. Modification of film structure by plasma potential control using triode high power pulsed magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Takeo; Umahashi, Takuya; Baba, Shigeru

    2014-02-01

    We have designed a new triode configuration in a magnetron sputtering apparatus to control the plasma potential of the discharge. An additional chimney electrode was introduced above the conventional sputter gun to apply a positive voltage. The discharge power was provided by a pulse power source to achieve high power pulsed magnetron sputtering operation. We confirmed that the plasma potential increased with increasing positive electrode voltage. Copper films with substantially flatter surfaces could be obtained on a water-cooled and electrically grounded substrate at an Ar gas pressure of 5 Pa.

  4. Comparative Study of Cu Films Prepared by DC, High-Power Pulsed and Burst Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyev, A. A.; Oskirko, V. O.; Semenov, V. A.; Oskomov, K. V.; Rabotkin, S. V.

    2016-08-01

    A comparative study of deposition rate, adhesion, structural and electrical properties of nanocrystalline copper thin films deposited using direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and different regimes of high power pulsed magnetron sputtering is presented. High-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) and burst regime (pulse packages) of magnetron sputtering are investigated. The ion and atomic flows toward the growing film during magnetron sputtering of a Cu target are determined. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to observe the structural characterization of the films. The resistivity of the films was measured using four-point probe technique. In all sputtering regimes, Cu films have mixture crystalline orientations of [111], [200], [311] and [220] in the direction of the film growth. As peak power density in studied deposition regimes was different in order of magnitude (from 15 W/cm2 in DC regime to 3700 W/cm2 in HIPIMS), film properties were also greatly different. DCMS Cu films exhibit a porous columnar grain structure. In contrast, HIPIMS Cu films have a slightly columnar and denser composition. Cu films deposited using burst regimes at peak power density of 415 W cm-2 and ion-to-atom ratio of about 5 have the densest composition and smallest electrical resistance.

  5. Closed field magnetron sputtering: new generation sputtering process for optical coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, D. R.; Brinkley, I.; Waddell, E. M.; Walls, J. M.

    2008-09-01

    "Closed field" magnetron (CFM) sputtering offers a flexible and high throughput deposition process for optical coatings and thin films. CFM sputtering uses two or more different metal targets to deposit multilayers comprising a wide range of dielectrics, metals and conductive oxides. Moreover, CFM provides a room temperature deposition process with high ion current density, low bias voltage and reactive oxidation in the entire volume around the rotating substrate drum carrier, thereby producing films over a large surface area at high deposition rate with excellent and reproducible optical properties. Machines based on the Closed Field are scaleable to meet a range of batch and in-line size requirements. Typically, thin film thickness control to <+/-1% is accomplished simply using time, although optical monitoring can be used for more demanding applications. Fine layer thickness control and deposition of graded index layers is also assisted with a specially designed rotating shutter mechanism. This paper presents data on optical properties for CFM deposited optical coatings, including anti-reflection, thermal control filters, graded coatings, narrowband filters as well as conductive transparent oxides such as indium tin oxide and carbide films. Benefits of the CFM sputter process are described.

  6. Closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating of Ni/Al thin films: influence of the magnetron power.

    PubMed

    Said, R; Ahmed, W; Gracio, J

    2010-04-01

    In this study NiAl thin films have been deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering Ion plating (CFUBMSIP). The influence of magnetron power has been investigated using dense and humongous NiAl compound targets onto stainless steel and glass substrates. Potential applications include tribological, electronic media and bond coatings in thermal barrier coatings system. Several techniques has been used to characterise the films including surface stylus profilometry, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) Composition analysis of the samples was carried out using VGTOF SIMS (IX23LS) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Scratch tester (CSM) combined with acoustic emission singles during loading in order to compare the coating adhesion. The acoustic emission signals emitted during the indentation process were used to determine the critical load, under which the film begins to crack and/or break off the substrate. The average thickness of the films was approximately 1 um. EDAX results of NiAl thin films coating with various magnetron power exhibited the near equal atomic% Ni:Al. The best result being obtained using 300 W and 400 W DC power for Ni and Al targets respectively. XRD revealed the presence of beta NiAl phase for all the films coatings. AFM analysis of the films deposited on glass substrates exhibited quite a smooth surface with surface roughness values in the nanometre range. CSM results indicate that best adhesion was achieved at 300 W for Ni, and 400 W for Al targets compared to sample other power values. SIMS depth profile showed a uniform distribution of the Ni and Al component from the surface of the film to the interface.

  7. Characterization of high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hala, Matej

    Paper I: In the first paper, we present a new approach in the characterization of the high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge evolution—time- and species-resolved plasma imaging—employing a set of band-pass optical interference filters suitable for the isolation of the emission originating from different species populating the plasma. We demonstrate that the introduction of such filters can be used to distinguish different phases of the discharge, and to visualize numerous plasma effects including background gas excitations during the discharge ignition, gas shock waves, and expansion of metal-rich plasmas. In particular, the application of this technique is shown on the diagnostics of the 200 µs long non-reactive HiPIMS discharges using a Cr target. Paper II: In order to gain further information about the dynamics of reactive HiPIMS discharges, both fast plasma imaging and time- and space-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES) are used for a systematic investigation of the 200 µs long HiPIMS pulses operated in Ar, N2 and N 2/Ar mixtures and at various pressures. It is observed that the dense metal plasma created next to the target propagates in the reactor at a speed ranging from 0.7 to 3.5 km s-1, depending on the working gas composition and the pressure. In fact, it increases with higher N 2 concentration and with lower pressure. The visible form of the propagating plasma wave changes from a hemispherical shape in Ar to a drop-like shape extending far from the target with increasing N2 concentration, owing to the significant emission from molecular N2. Interestingly, the evidence of the target self-sputtering is found for all investigated conditions, including pure N2 atmosphere. Paper III: Here, we report on the time- and species-resolved plasma imaging analysis of the dynamics of the 200 µs long HiPIMS discharges above a Cr target ignited in pure O2. It is shown that the discharge emission is dominated solely by neutral and

  8. Effects of parameters on the performance of amorphous IGZO thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Jian-wen; Ma, Rui-xin; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Li, Shi-na; Cheng, Shi-yao; Liu, Zi-lin

    2014-09-01

    Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) transparent conductive thin films are prepared on glass substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The effects of seven factors, which are substrate temperature, sputtering atmosphere, working pressure, sputtering power, annealing temperature, negative bias voltage and sputtering time, on Hall mobility, transmittance and surface roughness are studied through orthogonal experiments. The results show that the effects of working pressure, substrate temperature and sputtering atmosphere on performance of films are the most prominent. According to the experimental results and discussion, relatively reasonable process parameters are obtained, which are working pressure of 0.35 Pa, substrate temperature of 200 °C, sputtering atmosphere of Ar, sputtering power of 125 W, sputtering time of 30 min, negative bias voltage of 0 V and annealing temperature of 300 °C.

  9. Reactive sputtering of δ-ZrH{sub 2} thin films by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and direct current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Högberg, Hans Tengdelius, Lina; Eriksson, Fredrik; Broitman, Esteban; Lu, Jun; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Samuelsson, Mattias

    2014-07-01

    Reactive sputtering by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) of a Zr target in Ar/H{sub 2} plasmas was employed to deposit Zr-H films on Si(100) substrates, and with H content up to 61 at. % and O contents typically below 0.2 at. % as determined by elastic recoil detection analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a chemical shift of ∼0.7 eV to higher binding energies for the Zr-H films compared to pure Zr films, consistent with a charge transfer from Zr to H in a zirconium hydride. X-ray diffraction shows that the films are single-phase δ-ZrH{sub 2} (CaF{sub 2} type structure) at H content >∼55 at. % and pole figure measurements give a 111 preferred orientation for these films. Scanning electron microscopy cross-section images show a glasslike microstructure for the HiPIMS films, while the DCMS films are columnar. Nanoindentation yield hardness values of 5.5–7 GPa for the δ-ZrH{sub 2} films that is slightly harder than the ∼5 GPa determined for Zr films and with coefficients of friction in the range of 0.12–0.18 to compare with the range of 0.4–0.6 obtained for Zr films. Wear resistance testing show that phase-pure δ-ZrH{sub 2} films deposited by HiPIMS exhibit up to 50 times lower wear rate compared to those containing a secondary Zr phase. Four-point probe measurements give resistivity values in the range of ∼100–120 μΩ cm for the δ-ZrH{sub 2} films, which is slightly higher compared to Zr films with values in the range 70–80 μΩ cm.

  10. Influence of the magnetron on the growth of aluminum nitride thin films deposited by reactive sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Iriarte, G. F.

    2010-03-15

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films deposited on high-vacuum systems without substrate heating generally exhibit a poor degree of c-axis orientation. This is due to the nonequilibrium conditions existing between the energy of the sputtered particles and the energy at the substrate surface. The application of substrate bias or substrate temperature is known to improve the adatom mobility by delivering energy to the substrate; both are hence well-established crystal growth promoting factors. It is well known that low sputtering pressures can be used as a parameter improving the growth of highly c-axis oriented aluminum nitride films at room temperature even without applying bias voltage to the substrate. Generally, the use of high pressures implies thermalization of particles within the gas phase and is considered to increase the energy gap between these and the substrate surface. However, in later experiments we have learned that the use of high processing pressures does not necessarily implies a detriment of crystallographic orientation in the films. By measuring (for the first time to the author's knowledge) the full width at half maximum value of the rocking curve of the 0002-AlN peak at several positions along the 100 mm diameter (100)-silicon wafers on which aluminum nitride thin films were deposited by reactive sputtering, a new effect was observed. Under certain processing conditions, the growth of the AlN thin films is influenced by the target magnetron. More precisely, their degree of c-axis orientation varies at wafer areas locally coincident under the target magnetron. This effect should be considered, especially where large area substrates are employed such as in silicon wafer foundry manufacturing processes.

  11. On the electron energy in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmundsson, J. T.; Sigurjonsson, P.; Larsson, P.; Lundin, D.; Helmersson, U.

    2009-06-15

    The temporal variation of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) was measured with a Langmuir probe in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge at 3 and 20 mTorr pressures. In the HiPIMS discharge a high power pulse is applied to a planar magnetron giving a high electron density and highly ionized sputtered vapor. The measured EEDF is Maxwellian-like during the pulse; it is broader for lower discharge pressure and it becomes narrower as the pulse progresses. This indicates that the plasma cools as the pulse progresses, probably due to high metal content of the discharge.

  12. Are the argon metastables important in high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges?

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmundsson, J. T.; Lundin, D.; Minea, T. M.; Stancu, G. D.; Brenning, N.

    2015-11-15

    We use an ionization region model to explore the ionization processes in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge in argon with a titanium target. In conventional dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS), stepwise ionization can be an important route for ionization of the argon gas. However, in the HiPIMS discharge stepwise ionization is found to be negligible during the breakdown phase of the HiPIMS pulse and becomes significant (but never dominating) only later in the pulse. For the sputtered species, Penning ionization can be a significant ionization mechanism in the dcMS discharges, while in the HiPIMS discharge Penning ionization is always negligible as compared to electron impact ionization. The main reasons for these differences are a higher plasma density in the HiPIMS discharge, and a higher electron temperature. Furthermore, we explore the ionization fraction and the ionized flux fraction of the sputtered vapor and compare with recent experimental work.

  13. Facility for combined in situ magnetron sputtering and soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Telling, N. D.; Laan, G. van der; Georgieva, M. T.; Farley, N. R. S.

    2006-07-15

    An ultrahigh vacuum chamber that enables the in situ growth of thin films and multilayers by magnetron sputtering techniques is described. Following film preparation, x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements are performed by utilizing an in vacuum electromagnet. XMCD measurements on sputtered thin films of Fe and Co yield spin and orbital moments that are consistent with those obtained previously on films measured in transmission geometry and grown in situ by evaporation methods. Thin films of FeN prepared by reactive sputtering are also examined and reveal an apparent enhancement in the orbital moment for low N content samples. The advantages of producing samples for in situ XAS and XMCD studies by magnetron sputtering are discussed.

  14. Optical properties of amorphous silicon thin films fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Benfeng; Zhao, Qingnan; Zheng, Pan

    2008-12-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films have been prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The effects of hydrogen pressure, substrate temperature and sputtering power on deposition rate of a-Si:H thin films and optical characteristics have been investigated. The films are studied by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer and NKD7000w thin film analysis system. The results show that the hydrogen pressure, substrate temperature and sputtering power will affect the deposition rate respectively; The refractive index, extinctive index and optical bandgap of hydrogenated silicon thin films vary regularly with the change of one of the deposition parameters. The optical bandgap, absorption coefficient and extinctive index of the films are evaluated. The absorption coefficient values range from 1.1×104cm-1 to 8.3×104cm-1 and the corresponding extinctive index vary from 0.23 to 0.35 at the wavelength of 400nm, and the optical bandgap of a-Si:H vary from 1.77 to 1.89eV.

  15. Magnetron sputter deposition of boron and boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    McKernan, M.A.; Makowiecki, D.; Ramsey, P.; Jankowski, A.

    1991-03-13

    The fabrication of x-ray optical coatings with greater reflectivity required the development of sputter deposition processes for boron and boron carbide. The use of high density boron and boron carbide and a vacuum brazed target design was required to achieve the required sputter process stability and resistance to the thermal stress created by high rate sputtering. The results include a description of the target fabrication procedures and sputter process parameters necessary to fabricate B{sub 4}C{sup (1)} and B{sup (2)} modulated thin film structures. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Fabrication of nanogradient coatings for laser devices using the method of magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Abramov, N F; Volpyan, O D; Obod, Yu A; Dronskii, R V

    2013-09-30

    Significant advantages of the magnetron sputtering method for producing complex high-quality optical coatings for laser devices are shown. Technology aspects of efficient fabrication of such coatings are considered. The capabilities of the developed automated technological and control equipment are described. (nanogradient dielectric coatings and metamaterials)

  17. Structure and Properties of Ti-O-N Coatings Produced by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konischev, M. E.; Kuzmin, O. S.; Pustovalova, A. A.; Morozova, N. S.; Evdokimov, K. E.; Surmenev, R. A.; Pichugin, V. F.; Epple, M.

    2014-02-01

    Results of an experimental study of the optical characteristics of gas discharges are presented. The study was aimed at optimizing the operating modes of a mid-frequency magnetron sputtering system to efficiently deposit Ti-O-N coatings. The conditions for maintaining the intensity of the chosen spectroscopic lines that ensure synthesis of titanium oxide and titanium oxynitride coatings have been revealed. The morphology, structure, contact angle, and free surface energy of titanium oxide and titanium oxynitride coatings on type 12Kh18N10T stainless steel substrates were examined by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy, and by measuring the wetting angle. The results of examination of the structure and properties of the synthesized films and their physicomechanical and optical characteristics are given.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of DC magnetron sputtered nano structured molybdenum thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondiya, S. R.; Rokade, A. V.; Jadhavar, A. A.; Pandharkar, S. M.; Kulkarni, R. R.; Karpe, S. D.; Diwate, K. D.; Jadkar, S. R.

    2016-04-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) thin films were deposited on corning glass (#7059) substrates using DC magnetron sputtering system. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, morphology and topological properties have been investigated. Films were characterized by variety of techniques such as low angle x-ray diffraction (low angle XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM). The low angle XRD analysis revealed that the synthesized Mo films are nanocrystalline having cubic crystal structure with (110) preferential orientation. The microstructure of the deposited Mo thin films observed with FE-SEM images indicated that films are homogeneous and uniform with randomly oriented leaf shape morphology. The AFM analysis shows that with increase in substrate temperature the rms roughness of Mo films increases. The obtained results suggest that the synthesized nanostructured Mo thin films have potential application as a back contact material for high efficiency solar cells like CdTe, CIGS, CZTS etc.

  19. Research on titanium nitride thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering for MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merie, Violeta; Pustan, Marius; Negrea, Gavril; Bîrleanu, Corina

    2015-12-01

    Titanium nitride can be used among other materials as diffusion barrier for MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) applications. The aim of this study is to elaborate and to characterize at nanoscale titanium nitride thin films. The thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on silicon substrates using a 99.99% purity titanium target. Different deposition parameters were employed. The deposition temperature, deposition time, substrate bias voltage and the presence/absence of a titanium buffer layer are the parameters that were modified. The so-obtained films were then investigated by atomic force microscopy. A significant impact of the deposition parameters on the determined mechanical and tribological characteristics was highlighted. The results showed that the titanium nitride thin films deposited for 20 min at room temperature without the presence of a titanium buffer layer when a negative bias of -90 V was applied to the substrate is characterized by the best tribological and mechanical behavior.

  20. Magnetron sputtering of copper on thermosensitive polymer materials of the gas centrifuge rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisevich, V.; Senchenkov, S.; Titov, D.

    2016-09-01

    Magnetron sputtering is the well-known and widely-used deposition technique for coating versatile high-quality and well-adhered films. However, the technology has some limitations, caused by high temperatures on the coating surface. The paper is devoted to the experimental development of a process of magnetron sputtering of copper on a surface coated with a thermosensitive polymer made of carbon fiber with epoxide binder. This process is applied for balancing a rotor of a gas centrifuge for isotope separation. The optimum operating parameters of the process are found and discussed. They were in quantitative agreement with data obtained by means of non-stationary modeling based on a global description of plasma in the typical geometry of the magnetron discharges obtained in independent research. The structure of the resulting layer is investigated.

  1. Laser-Aided Diagnostics of Atoms and Particulates in Magnetron Sputtering Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nafarizal, N.; Takada, N.; Sasaki, K.

    2009-07-07

    Laser-aided diagnostic technique is introduced as an advanced and valuable technique to evaluate the properties of plasma. This technique is an expensive and sophisticated technique which requires researchers to have a basic knowledge in optical spectroscopy. In the present paper, we will generally introduce the experimental work using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and laser light scattering (LLS) techniques. The LIF was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of Cu atoms in magnetron sputtering plasma. The change in the spatial distribution was studied as a function of discharge power. On the other hand, the LLS was used to evaluate the generation of Cu particulates in high-pressure magnetron sputtering plasma. The temporal evolution of Cu particulates in the gas phase of sputtering plasma was visualized successfully.

  2. A review comparing cathodic arcs and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, André

    2014-09-02

    In this study, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has been in the center of attention over the last years as it is an emerging physical vapor deposition (PVD) technology that combines advantages of magnetron sputtering with various forms of energetic deposition of films such as ion plating and cathodic arc plasma deposition. It should not come at a surprise that many extension and variations of HiPIMS make use, intentionally or unintentionally, of previously discovered approaches to film processing such as substrate surface preparation by metal ion sputtering and phased biasing for film texture and stress control. Therefore, in this review, an overview is given on some historical developments and features of cathodic arc and HiPIMS plasmas, showing commonalities and differences. To limit the scope, emphasis is put on plasma properties, as opposed to surveying the vast literature on specific film materials and their properties.

  3. A review comparing cathodic arcs and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Anders, André

    2014-09-02

    In this study, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has been in the center of attention over the last years as it is an emerging physical vapor deposition (PVD) technology that combines advantages of magnetron sputtering with various forms of energetic deposition of films such as ion plating and cathodic arc plasma deposition. It should not come at a surprise that many extension and variations of HiPIMS make use, intentionally or unintentionally, of previously discovered approaches to film processing such as substrate surface preparation by metal ion sputtering and phased biasing for film texture and stress control. Therefore, in thismore » review, an overview is given on some historical developments and features of cathodic arc and HiPIMS plasmas, showing commonalities and differences. To limit the scope, emphasis is put on plasma properties, as opposed to surveying the vast literature on specific film materials and their properties.« less

  4. Magnetron sputtered boron films for increasing hardness of a metal surface

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    2003-05-27

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  5. RF Magnetron Sputtering Deposited W/Ti Thin Film For Smart Window Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksuz, Lutfi; Kiristi, Melek; Bozduman, Ferhat; Uygun Oksuz, Aysegul

    2014-10-01

    Electrochromic (EC) devices can change reversible and persistent their optical properties in the visible region (400-800 nm) upon charge insertion/extraction according to the applied voltage. A complementary type EC is a device containing two electrochromic layers, one of which is anodically colored such as vanadium oxide (V2 O5) while the other cathodically colored such as tungsten oxide (WO3) which is separated by an ionic conduction layer (electrolyte). The use of a solid electrolyte such as Nafion eliminates the need for containment of the liquid electrolyte, which simplifies the cell design, as well as improves safety and durability. In this work, the EC device was fabricated on a ITO/glass slide. The WO3-TiO2 thin film was deposited by reactive RF magnetron sputtering using a 2-in W/Ti (9:1%wt) target with purity of 99.9% in a mixture gas of argon and oxygen. As a counter electrode layer, V2O5 film was deposited on an ITO/glass substrate using V2O3 target with the same conditions of reactive RF magnetron sputtering. Modified Nafion was used as an electrolyte to complete EC device. The transmittance spectra of the complementary EC device was measured by optical spectrophotometry when a voltage of +/-3 V was applied to the EC device by computer controlled system. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Fig. 2). The cyclic voltammetry (CV) for EC device was performed by sweeping the potential between +/-3 V at a scan rate of 50 mV/s.

  6. Microstructure and properties of SiC-coated carbon fibers prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yong; Huang, Xiaozhong; Du, Zuojuan; Xiao, Jianrong; Zhou, Shan; Wei, Yongshan

    2016-04-01

    SiC-coated carbon fibers are prepared at room temperature with different radio-frequency magnetron sputtering powers. Results show that the coated carbon fibers have uniform, continuous, and flawless surfaces. The mean strengths of the coated carbon fibers with different sputtering powers are not influenced by other factors. Filament strength of SiC-coated carbon fibers increases by approximately 2% compared with that of uncoated carbon fibers at a sputtering power of <200 W. The filament strengths of the coated fibers increase by 9.3% and 12% at sputtering powers of 250 and 300 W, respectively. However, the mean strength of the SiC-coated carbon fibers decreased by 8% at a sputtering power of 400 W.

  7. Research on the optical and electrical properties of ITO thin film using magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Changlong; Zhai, Yujia; Huang, Jing; Yang, Xu; Liu, Weiguo; Gao, Aihua

    2009-12-01

    Due to excellent photoelectrical properties, ITO thin films become the indispensable flat transparent electrode for their practical applications in the flat-panel displays, touch screens, solar cells and electrochromic devices. Therefore, it's very necessary to study photoelectrical properties of ITO films. In this paper, ITO thin films were prepared on the glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering technology, and measured the transmittance of ITO thin films in the visible region using the spectrophotometer; the resistivities were measured with the four-probe instrument. The effects of sputtering pressure, oxygen-argon flow ratio and sputtering power was researched on photoelectrical performance of ITO thin films. The results show that, the optimum parameters of ITO films prepared are: sputtering pressure 0.6Pa, oxygen-argon flow ratio 1:40, sputtering power 108W. The average transmittance in the visible area is 81.18%, resistivity is 8.9197 × 10-3Ω.cm.

  8. An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Weichsel, T. Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Silze, A.

    2014-05-15

    An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} to 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3}, when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 10{sup 18} atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al{sup +} ion beam.

  9. Application of closed field magnetron sputtering deposition in thin film photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, D. R.; Waugh, A. R.; Upadhyaya, Hari M.; Nasikkar, P. S.; Walls, J. M.

    2009-08-01

    Thin film solar cell technology is highly promising to enable clean and low cost generation of solar electricity for various applications. The high efficiency, flexibility and lightweight advantages of thin film solar cells, together with stable performance and potentially low production costs, further enhance their attractiveness for both terrestrial and space applications. A distinct manufacturing advantage of thin film solar cells is the use of fast vacuum deposition methods, providing the high throughput essential to reduce manufacturing costs. However, an essential pre-requisite is the development of deposition techniques which combine capability to deposit the solar cell thin film multilayer preferably within a single vacuum cycle, removing the requirement for certain process steps to be carried out using non-vacuum wet chemistry. Moreover, process development is also needed to provide low temperature processing and low stress multilayer thin film structures which enable photovoltaic devices to be deposited on to low cost flexible polymer or metal substrates. In this paper a new sputtering tool strategy is introduced, utilising high plasma densities (~10mA.cm-2) and low ion energies, thereby lowering process temperature and film stress for deposition onto both flexible and solid substrates. The technique uses magnetrons of opposing magnetic polarity to create a "closed field" in which the plasma density is enhanced without the need for high applied voltages. A prototype batch system has been designed which employs a rotating vertical drum as the substrate carrier and a symmetrical array of four linear magnetrons. The magnetrons are fitted with target materials for each of the thin films required in the PV stack including the CdTe absorber layer, CdS buffer layer and the back TCO contact. Details of the system design will be provided together with optical, electrical and metrology data already obtained from ITO thin films. The "closed field" sputtering

  10. Thermoelectric properties of Al-doped Mg2Si thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-jian; Zhou, Bai-yang; Li, Jian-xin; Wen, Cui-lian

    2016-11-01

    The Al-doped Mg2Si thin films were fabricated by two-target alternative magnetron sputtering technique, and the influences of different Al doping contents on the thermoelectric properties of Al-doped Mg2Si thin films were investigated. The compositions, crystal structures, electronic transport properties and thermoelectric properties of the thin films were examined using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall coefficient measurement and Seebeck coefficient measurement system, respectively. The EDS results show that the thin films doped with Al target sputtering power of 30 W, 60 W and 90 W have the Al content of 0.68 at.%, 1.56 at.% and 2.85 at.%, respectively. XRD results indicate that the diffraction peaks of Mg2Si become stronger with increasing Al dopant. The results of Hall coefficient measurement and Seebeck coefficient measurement system reveal that all the samples are n-type. The conductivities of Al-doped Mg2Si thin films are significantly greater than that of undoped Mg2Si thin film, and increase with increasing Al doping content. With the increase of temperature, the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficients of Mg2Si base thin films increase firstly and then decrease. The maximum power factor obtained is 3.8 mW m-1 k-2 for 1.56 at.% Al-doped Mg2Si thin film at 573 K.

  11. Heavy particle transport in sputtering systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieschmann, Jan

    2015-09-01

    This contribution aims to discuss the theoretical background of heavy particle transport in plasma sputtering systems such as direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS), high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), or multi frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (MFCCP). Due to inherently low process pressures below one Pa only kinetic simulation models are suitable. In this work a model appropriate for the description of the transport of film forming particles sputtered of a target material has been devised within the frame of the OpenFOAM software (specifically dsmcFoam). The three dimensional model comprises of ejection of sputtered particles into the reactor chamber, their collisional transport through the volume, as well as deposition of the latter onto the surrounding surfaces (i.e. substrates, walls). An angular dependent Thompson energy distribution fitted to results from Monte-Carlo simulations is assumed initially. Binary collisions are treated via the M1 collision model, a modified variable hard sphere (VHS) model. The dynamics of sputtered and background gas species can be resolved self-consistently following the direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) approach or, whenever possible, simplified based on the test particle method (TPM) with the assumption of a constant, non-stationary background at a given temperature. At the example of an MFCCP research reactor the transport of sputtered aluminum is specifically discussed. For the peculiar configuration and under typical process conditions with argon as process gas the transport of aluminum sputtered of a circular target is shown to be governed by a one dimensional interaction of the imposed and backscattered particle fluxes. The results are analyzed and discussed on the basis of the obtained velocity distribution functions (VDF). This work is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the frame of the Collaborative Research Centre TRR 87.

  12. Industry-relevant magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc ultra-high vacuum deposition system for in situ x-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth using high energy synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, J L; Thomson, W; Howard, B; Schell, N; Näslund, L-Å; Rogström, L; Johansson-Jõesaar, M P; Ghafoor, N; Odén, M; Nothnagel, E; Shepard, A; Greer, J; Birch, J

    2015-09-01

    We present an industry-relevant, large-scale, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc deposition system purposefully designed for time-resolved in situ thin film deposition/annealing studies using high-energy (>50 keV), high photon flux (>10(12) ph/s) synchrotron radiation. The high photon flux, combined with a fast-acquisition-time (<1 s) two-dimensional (2D) detector, permits time-resolved in situ structural analysis of thin film formation processes. The high-energy synchrotron-radiation based x-rays result in small scattering angles (<11°), allowing large areas of reciprocal space to be imaged with a 2D detector. The system has been designed for use on the 1-tonne, ultra-high load, high-resolution hexapod at the P07 High Energy Materials Science beamline at PETRA III at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron in Hamburg, Germany. The deposition system includes standard features of a typical UHV deposition system plus a range of special features suited for synchrotron radiation studies and industry-relevant processes. We openly encourage the materials research community to contact us for collaborative opportunities using this unique and versatile scientific instrument.

  13. Room temperature growth of nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 thin films by dc magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Preetam; Kaur, Davinder

    2010-03-01

    We report, the structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 thin films grown on glass substrate by dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The influence of sputtering power and pressure over crystallinity and surface morphology of the films were investigated. It was observed that increase in sputtering power activates the TiO 2 film growth from relative lower surface free energy to higher surface free energy. XRD pattern revealed the change in preferred orientation from (1 0 1) to (0 0 4) with increase in sputtering power, which is accounted for different surface energy associated with different planes. Microstructure of the films also changes from cauliflower type to columnar type structures with increase in sputtering power. FESEM images of films grown at low pressure and low sputtering power showed typical cauliflower like structure. The optical measurement revealed the systematic variation of the optical constants with deposition parameters. The films are highly transparent with transmission higher than 90% with sharp ultraviolet cut off. The transmittance of these films was found to be influenced by the surface roughness and film thickness. The optical band gap was found to decrease with increase in the sputtering power and pressure. The refractive index of the films was found to vary in the range of 2.50-2.24 with increase in sputtering pressure or sputtering power, resulting in the possibility of producing TiO 2 films for device applications with different refractive index, by changing the deposition parameters.

  14. Highly adherent bioactive glass thin films synthetized by magnetron sputtering at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Stan, G E; Pasuk, I; Husanu, M A; Enculescu, I; Pina, S; Lemos, A F; Tulyaganov, D U; El Mabrouk, K; Ferreira, J M F

    2011-12-01

    Thin (380-510 nm) films of a low silica content bioglass with MgO, B(2)O(3), and CaF(2) as additives were deposited at low-temperature (150°C) by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering onto titanium substrates. The influence of sputtering conditions on morphology, structure, composition, bonding strength and in vitro bioactivity of sputtered bioglass films was investigated. Excellent pull-out adherence (~73 MPa) was obtained when using a 0.3 Pa argon sputtering pressure (BG-a). The adherence declined (~46 MPa) upon increasing the working pressure to 0.4 Pa (BG-b) or when using a reactive gas mixture (~50 MPa). The SBF tests clearly demonstrated strong biomineralization features for all bioglass sputtered films. The biomineralization rate increased from BG-a to BG-b, and yet more for BG-c. A well-crystallized calcium hydrogen phosphate-like phase was observed after 3 and 15 days of immersion in SBF in all bioglass layers, which transformed monotonously into hydroxyapatite under prolonged SBF immersion. Alkali and alkali-earth salts (NaCl, KCl and CaCO(3)) were also found at the surface of samples soaked in SBF for 30 days. The study indicated that features such as composition, structure, adherence and bioactivity of bioglass films can be tailored simply by altering the magnetron sputtering working conditions, proving that this less explored technique is a promising alternative for preparing implant-type coatings.

  15. Properties of a-C:H:Si thin films deposited by middle-frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jinlong; Wang, Yubao; Du, Jinfang; Yang, Hua; Hao, Junying

    2016-08-01

    The silicon doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H:Si) films were prepared on silicon substrates by middle-frequency magnetron sputtering silicon target in an argon and methane gas mixture atmosphere. The deposition rate, chemical composition, structure, surface properties, stress, hardness and tribological properties in the ambient air of the films were systemically investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), nanoindentation and tribological tester. The results show that doped silicon content in the films is controlled in the wide range from 39.7 at.% to 0.2 at.% by various methane gas flow rate, and methane flow rate affects not only the silicon content but also its chemical bonding structure in the films due to the transformation of sputtering modes. Meanwhile, the sp3 carbon component in the films linearly increases with increasing of methane flow rate. The film deposited at moderate methane flow rate of 40-60 sccm exhibits the very smooth surface (RMS roughness 0.4 nm), low stress (0.42 GPa), high hardness (21.1 GPa), as well as low friction coefficient (0.038) and wear rate (1.6 × 10-7 mm3/Nm). The superior tribological performance of the films could be attributed to the formation and integral covering of the transfer materials on the sliding surface and their high hardness.

  16. High power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges: Instabilities and plasma self-organization

    SciTech Connect

    Ehiasarian, A. P.; New, R.; Hecimovic, A.; Arcos, T. de los; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Boeke, M.; Winter, J.

    2012-03-12

    We report on instabilities in high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas which are likely to be of the generalized drift wave type. They are characterized by well defined regions of high and low plasma emissivity along the racetrack of the magnetron and cause periodic shifts in floating potential. The azimuthal mode number m depends on plasma current, plasma density, and gas pressure. The structures rotate in E-vectorxB-vector direction at velocities of {approx}10 km s{sup -1} and frequencies up to 200 kHz. Collisions with residual gas atoms slow down the rotating wave, whereas increasing ionization degree of the gas and plasma conductivity speeds it up.

  17. Hollow metal target magnetron sputter type radio frequency ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, N. Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.; Tsubouchi, N.

    2014-02-15

    A 70 mm diameter 70 mm long compact ion source equipped with a hollow sputtering target has been designed and tested. The hollow sputtering target serves as the radio frequency (RF) plasma excitation electrode at 13.56 MHz. A stable beam of Cu{sup +} has been extracted when Ar was used as the discharge support gas. In the extracted beam, Cu{sup +} had occupied more than 85% of the total ion current. Further increase in Cu{sup +} ions in the beam is anticipated by increasing the RF power and Ar pressure.

  18. Deposition of Tungsten Thin Films on Flexible Polymer Substrates by Direct-Current Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Huo, Zhenxuan; Jiao, Xiangquan; Zhong, Hui; Shi, Yu

    2015-11-01

    We have investigated thin tungsten films deposited on polymer substrates by direct-current magnetron sputtering under different conditions. Unlike tungsten films deposited on rigid substrates, films on polymer substrates grew at appropriate sputtering power, low sputtering pressure, and low substrate temperature. High sputtering power results in tungsten films with good crystal orientation, compact microstructure, and low electrical resistivity. However, high-power sputtering damages the polymer substrates. Enhancing sputtering pressure substantially degrades tungsten orientation and increases electrical resistivity. Furthermore, a slight increase in substrate temperature results in tungsten films with good crystal orientation, a dense microstructure, and low electrical resistivity. Nonetheless, a high substrate temperature results in soft and deformed polymer substrates; this degrades tungsten crystal orientation and substantially roughens tungsten films. On the basis of this study, compact and flat tungsten films with low electrical resistivity can be obtained at a sputtering power of 69 W, a sputtering pressure of 1 Pa, a substrate temperature of 100°C, and a distance between target and substrate of 60 mm.

  19. Rarefaction windows in a high-power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Palmucci, Maria; Britun, Nikolay; Konstantinidis, Stephanos; Snyders, Rony

    2013-09-21

    The velocity distribution function of the sputtered particles in the direction parallel to the planar magnetron cathode is studied by spatially- and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a short-duration (20 μs) high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge. The experimental evidence for the neutral and ionized sputtered particles to have a constant (saturated) velocity at the end of the plasma on-time is demonstrated. The velocity component parallel to the target surface reaches the values of about 5 km/s for Ti atoms and ions, which is higher that the values typically measured in the direct current sputtering discharges before. The results point out on the presence of a strong gas rarefaction significantly reducing the sputtered particles energy dissipation during a certain time interval at the end of the plasma pulse, referred to as “rarefaction window” in this work. The obtained results agree with and essentially clarify the dynamics of HiPIMS discharge studied during the plasma off-time previously in the work: N. Britun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 131504 (2011)

  20. Velocity distribution of neutral species during magnetron sputtering by Fabry-Perot interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Britun, N.; Han, J. G.; Oh, S.-G.

    2008-04-07

    The velocity distribution of a metallic neutral species sputtered in a dc magnetron discharge was measured using a planar Fabry-Perot interferometer and a hollow cathode lamp as a reference source. The measurement was performed under different angles of view relative to the target surface. The velocity distribution function in the direction perpendicular to the target becomes asymmetrical as the Ar pressure decreases, whereas it remains nearly symmetrical when the line of sight is parallel to the target surface. The average velocity of the sputtered Ti atoms was measured to be about 2 km/s.

  1. In situ stress evolution during magnetron sputtering of transition metal nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Abadias, G.; Guerin, Ph.

    2008-09-15

    Stress evolution during reactive magnetron sputtering of TiN, ZrN, and TiZrN layers was studied using real-time wafer curvature measurements. The presence of stress gradients is revealed, as the result of two kinetically competing stress generation mechanisms: atomic peening effect, inducing compressive stress, and void formation, leading to a tensile stress regime predominant at higher film thickness. No stress relaxation is detected during growth interrupt in both regimes. A change from compressive to tensile stress is evidenced with increasing film thickness, Ti content, sputtering pressure, and decreasing bias voltage.

  2. Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered piezoelectric thin film aluminum nitride – Technology and piezoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeckel, C. Kaufmann, C.; Hahn, R.; Schulze, R.; Billep, D.; Gessner, T.

    2014-07-21

    Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films are prepared on several seed layers and at different sputtering conditions. The piezoelectric c-axis (002) orientation of the AlN is analyzed with X-ray diffraction method. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 31} is determined with a Laser-Doppler-Vibrometer at cantilevers and membranes by analytical calculations and finite element method. Additionally, thin film AlN on bulk silicon is used to characterize the longitudinal piezoelectric charge coefficient d{sub 33}.

  3. Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered piezoelectric thin film aluminum nitride - Technology and piezoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeckel, C.; Kaufmann, C.; Hahn, R.; Schulze, R.; Billep, D.; Gessner, T.

    2014-07-01

    Pulsed DC magnetron sputtered aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films are prepared on several seed layers and at different sputtering conditions. The piezoelectric c-axis (002) orientation of the AlN is analyzed with X-ray diffraction method. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient d31 is determined with a Laser-Doppler-Vibrometer at cantilevers and membranes by analytical calculations and finite element method. Additionally, thin film AlN on bulk silicon is used to characterize the longitudinal piezoelectric charge coefficient d33.

  4. Self-organization and self-limitation in high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2012-05-28

    The plasma over the racetrack in high power impulse magnetron sputtering develops in traveling ionization zones. Power densities can locally reach 10{sup 9} W/m{sup 2}, which is much higher than usually reported. Ionization zones move because ions are 'evacuated' by the electric field, exposing neutrals to magnetically confined, drifting electrons. Drifting secondary electrons amplify ionization of the same ionization zone where the primary ions came from, while sputtered and outgassing atoms are supplied to the following zone(s). Strong density gradients parallel to the target disrupt electron confinement: a negative feedback mechanism that stabilizes ionization runaway.

  5. Resistive switching behavior of RF magnetron sputtered ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalakshmi, R.; Angappane, S.

    2015-06-24

    The resistive switching characteristics of RF magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films have been studied. The x-ray diffraction studies confirm the formation of crystalline ZnO on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub x}/Si substrate. We have fabricated Cu/ZnO/Pt device using a shadow masking technique for resistive switching study. Our Cu/ZnO/Pt device exhibits a unipolar resistive switching behaviour. The switching observed in our device could be related to oxygen vacancies or Cu ions that generate the conducting filaments responsible for resistive switching. We found HRS to LRS resistance ratio of as high as ∼200 for our Cu/ZnO/Pt device. The higher resistance ratio and stability of Cu/ZnO/Pt device would make our RF magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films suitable for non volatile memory applications.

  6. Characterization of hydrogenated and deuterated silicon carbide films codeposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantelica, D.; Ionescu, P.; Petrascu, H.; Dracea, M. D.; Statescu, M.; Matei, E.; Rasoga, O.; Stancu, C.; Marascu, V.; Ion, V.; Acsente, T.; Dinescu, G.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present the deposition of amorphous SiC thin films by radiofrequency dual magnetron sputtering. The dependence of the deposited films properties over the discharges electrical power and the effect of hydrogenous species (H2 and/or D2) addition to main discharge gas (Ar) were investigated. Accurate elemental analysis of the samples, including detection of hydrogen and deuterium, was performed by ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques: RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) and ERDA (Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis). SiCx thin films with thicknesses between 1700 and 4500 Å and C/Si ratio between 0.2/1 and 1.25/1 were obtained in different deposition conditions. The results prove that thin films of amorphous SiC with well controlled properties can be produced using radiofrequency dual magnetron sputtering.

  7. Catalytic growth of ZnO nanostructures by r.f. magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Hernández, María; Alvaro, Raquel; Serrano, Sheila; Costa-Krämer, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic effect of gold seed particles deposited on a substrate prior to zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film growth by magnetron sputtering was investigated. For this purpose, selected ultra thin gold layers, with thicknesses close to the percolation threshold, are deposited by thermal evaporation in ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions and subsequently annealed to form gold nanodroplets. The ZnO structures are subsequently deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering in a UHV chamber, and possible morphological differences between the ZnO grown on top of the substrate and on the gold are investigated. The results indicate a moderate catalytic effect for a deposited gold underlayer of 4 nm, quite close to the gold thin film percolation thickness.

  8. Measuring the energy flux at the substrate position during magnetron sputter deposition processes

    SciTech Connect

    Cormier, P.-A.; Thomann, A.-L.; Dussart, R.; Semmar, N.; Mathias, J.; Balhamri, A.; Snyders, R.; Konstantinidis, S.

    2013-01-07

    In this work, the energetic conditions at the substrate were investigated in dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS), pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (pDCMS), and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges by means of an energy flux diagnostic based on a thermopile sensor, the probe being set at the substrate position. Measurements were performed in front of a titanium target for a highly unbalanced magnetic field configuration. The average power was always kept to 400 W and the probe was at the floating potential. Variation of the energy flux against the pulse peak power in HiPIMS was first investigated. It was demonstrated that the energy per deposited titanium atom is the highest for short pulses (5 {mu}s) high pulse peak power (39 kW), as in this case, the ion production is efficient and the deposition rate is reduced by self-sputtering. As the argon pressure is increased, the energy deposition is reduced as the probability of scattering in the gas phase is increased. In the case of the HiPIMS discharge run at moderate peak power density (10 kW), the energy per deposited atom was found to be lower than the one measured for DCMS and pDCMS discharges. In these conditions, the HiPIMS discharge could be characterized as soft and close to a pulsed DCMS discharge run at very low duty cycle. For the sake of comparison, measurements were also carried out in DCMS mode with a balanced magnetron cathode, in the same working conditions of pressure and power. The energy flux at the substrate is significantly increased as the discharge is generated in an unbalanced field.

  9. Structure formation upon reactive direct current magnetron sputtering of transition metal oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Ngaruiya, J.M.; Kappertz, O.; Mohamed, S.H.; Wuttig, M.

    2004-08-02

    A comparative study of reactive direct current magnetron sputtering for different transition metal oxides reveals crystalline films at room temperature for group 4 and amorphous films for groups 5 and 6. This observation cannot be explained by the known growth laws and is attributed to the impact of energetic particles, originating from the oxidized target, on the growing film. This scenario is supported by measured target characteristics, the evolution of deposition stress of the films, and the observed backsputtering.

  10. Electrochromic properties of niobium oxide thin films prepared by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Toshiro; Arai, Susumu

    1993-08-01

    Electrochromic niobium oxide thin films were prepared by a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method. Amorphous Nb2O5 thin films deposited at radio-frequency power 100 W showed the electrochromic behavior: Reduction and oxidation of the films in 0.1 M Na2CO3+0.1 M NaHCO3 buffer solution resulted in coloration and bleaching, respectively. Coulometry indicated that the coloration efficiency was 10 cm2/C.

  11. Effect of sputtering power on Cd/Zn atomic ratio and optical properties of Cu2ZnxCd1-xSnS4 thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering: An experimental and first-principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Na; Li, Pingting; Hao, Yunxing; Wang, Xin; Meng, Lei

    2016-09-01

    Cu2ZnxCd1-xSnS4 (CZCTS) thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass (SLG) substrates by rf magnetron sputtering. It is found that the Cd/Zn atomic ratio of kesterite CZCTS increases with the enhancement of sputtering power. The structural, surface morphology and optical properties of the CZCTS thin films deposited at different sputtering power were systemically investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicate that all CZCTS thin films are polycrystalline with kesterite structure and no impurity phase is observed. The variation of Cd/Zn atomic ratio in CZCTS results in the shift of the optical bandgap.

  12. Fabrication of Optical Multilayer Devices from Porous Silicon Coatings with Closed Porosity by Magnetron Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Hernández, Jaime; Godinho, Vanda; Lacroix, Bertrand; Jiménez de Haro, Maria C; Jamon, Damien; Fernández, Asunción

    2015-07-01

    The fabrication of single-material photonic-multilayer devices is explored using a new methodology to produce porous silicon layers by magnetron sputtering. Our bottom-up methodology produces highly stable amorphous porous silicon films with a controlled refractive index using magnetron sputtering and incorporating a large amount of deposition gas inside the closed pores. The influence of the substrate bias on the formation of the closed porosity was explored here for the first time when He was used as the deposition gas. We successfully simulated, designed, and characterized Bragg reflectors and an optical microcavity that integrates these porous layers. The sharp interfaces between the dense and porous layers combined with the adequate control of the refractive index and thickness allowed for excellent agreement between the simulation and the experiments. The versatility of the magnetron sputtering technique allowed for the preparation of these structures for a wide range of substrates such as polymers while also taking advantage of the oblique angle deposition to prepare Bragg reflectors with a controlled lateral gradient in the stop band wavelengths.

  13. Effect of buffer layer on thermochromic performances of VO2 films fabricated by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Benqin; Tao, Haizheng; Zhao, Xiujian

    2016-03-01

    As a well-developed industrial fabricating method, magnetron sputtering technique has its distinct advantages for the large-scale production. In order to investigate the effect of buffer layer on the formation and thermochromic performances of VO2 films, using RF magnetron sputtering method, we fabricated three kinds of buffer layers SiO2, TiO2 and SnO2 on soda lime float-glass. Then according to the reactive DC magnetron sputtering method, VO2 films were deposited. Due to the restriction of heat treatment temperature when using soda lime float-glass as substrates, dense rutile phase TiO2 cannot be formed, leading to the formation of vanadium oxide compounds containing Na ions. When using SnO2 as buffer layer, we found that relatively high pure VO2 can be deposited more easily. In addition, compared with the effect of SiO2 buffer layer, we observed an enhanced visible transparency, a decreased infrared emissivity, which should be mainly originated from the modified morphology and/or the hetero-structured VO2/SnO2 interface.

  14. Effects of the duty ratio on the niobium oxide film deposited by pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering methods.

    PubMed

    Eom, Ji Mi; Oh, Hyun Gon; Cho, Il Hwan; Kwon, Sang Jik; Cho, Eou Sik

    2013-11-01

    Niobium oxide (Nb2O5) films were deposited on p-type Si wafers and sodalime glasses at a room temperature using in-line pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering system with various duty ratios. The different duty ratio was obtained by varying the reverse voltage time of pulsed DC power from 0.5 to 2.0 micros at the fixed frequency of 200 kHz. From the structural and optical characteristics of the sputtered NbOx films, it was possible to obtain more uniform and coherent NbOx films in case of the higher reverse voltage time as a result of the cleaning effect on the Nb2O5 target surface. The electrical characteristics from the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) fabricated with the NbOx films shows the leakage currents are influenced by the reverse voltage time and the Schottky barrier diode characteristics.

  15. Polycrystalline CuInSe2 thin films for solar cells by three-source magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Tokio; Migita, Kazuo; Kunioka, Akio

    1993-08-01

    Polycrystalline CuInSe2 films were deposited in a wide range of Cu/In ratios by three-source magnetron sputtering technique onto soda-lime glass and Mo-coated glass substrates at elevated substrate temperatures. Good run-to-run reproductibility was achieved in our sputtering system using melt-grown polycrystalline selenium target. In excess films which are desirable for solar cells were obtained in the temperature range of 400 to 500 C. These films showed a preferential (112) orientation of the chalcopyrite structure and possessed an excellent adhesion property to the substrates. Preliminary solar cells with ZnO:Al/CdS/CuInSe2 structure resulted in a conversion efficiency of 6.3% under AM 1.5 illumination.

  16. Structural and optical properties of CdO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, G. Anil; Reddy, M. V. Ramana; Reddy, Katta Narasimha

    2014-04-01

    Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate by r.f. magnetron sputtering technique using a high purity (99.99%) Cd target of 2-inch diameter and 3 mm thickness in an Argon and oxygen mixed atmosphere with sputtering power of 50W and sputtering pressure of 2×10-2 mbar. The prepared films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD analysis reveals that the films were polycrystalline with cubic structure. The visible range transmittance was found to be over 70%. The optical band gap increased from 2.7 eV to2.84 eV with decrease of film thickness.

  17. Deposition of ultrahard Ti-Si-N coatings by pulsed high-current reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskomov, K. V.; Zakharov, A. N.; Rabotkin, S. V.; Solov'ev, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the results of investigation of properties of ultrahard Ti-Si-N coatings deposited by pulsed high-current magnetron reactive sputtering (discharge pulse voltage is 300-900 V, discharge pulse current is up to 200 A, pulse duration is 10-100 μs, and pulse repetition rate is 20-2000 Hz). It is shown that for a short sputtering pulse (25 μs) and a high discharge current (160 A), the films exhibit high hardness (66 GPa), wear resistance, better adhesion, and a lower sliding friction coefficient. The reason is an enhancement of ion bombardment of the growing coating due to higher plasma density in the substrate region (1013 cm-3) and a manifold increase in the degree of ionization of the plasma with increasing peak discharge current (mainly due to the material being sputtered).

  18. Nitrogen self-diffusion in magnetron sputtered Si-C-N films

    SciTech Connect

    Hueger, E.; Schmidt, H.; Geue, T.; Stahn, J.; Tietze, U.; Lott, D.; Markwitz, A.; Geckle, U.; Bruns, M.

    2011-05-01

    Self-diffusion was studied in magnetron sputtered nitrogen-rich amorphous compounds of the system Si-C-N by using nitrogen as a model tracer. As shown by infra-red spectroscopy a transient metastable region exists, where the structure of the material can be visualized as silicon nitride tetrahedra which are connected by carbo-diimide (-N=C=N-) bonds to a three dimensional amorphous network. In this region diffusion studies are carried out by neutron reflectometry and isotope multilayers as a function of annealing time, temperature and chemical composition. Low diffusivities between 10{sup -20} and 10{sup -24} m{sup 2}/s were found. In the metastable region, diffusion is faster than diffusion in amorphous silicon nitride by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, while the activation enthalpies of diffusion between 3.1 and 3.4 eV are the same within error limits. This can be explained by the fact that the diffusion mechanism along SiN{sub 4} tetrahedra is identical to that in amorphous silicon nitride, however, the carbo-diimide bonds seem to widen the structure, allowing faster diffusion. A correlation between diffusivities and the number of carbo-diimid bonds present in the material is found, where the highest diffusivities are observed for materials with the highest number of carbo-diimid bonds, close to the composition Si{sub 2}CN{sub 4}.

  19. Effect of the target power density on high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozák, Tomáš

    2012-04-01

    We present a model analysis of high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of copper. We use a non-stationary global model based on the particle and energy conservation equations in two zones (the high density plasma ring above the target racetrack and the bulk plasma region), which makes it possible to calculate time evolutions of the averaged process gas and target material neutral and ion densities, as well as the fluxes of these particles to the target and substrate during a pulse period. We study the effect of the increasing target power density under conditions corresponding to a real experimental system. The calculated target current waveforms show a long steady state and are in good agreement with the experimental results. For an increasing target power density, an analysis of the particle densities shows a gradual transition to a metal dominated discharge plasma with an increasing degree of ionization of the depositing flux. The average fraction of target material ions in the total ion flux onto the substrate is more than 90% for average target power densities higher than 500 W cm-2 in a pulse. The average ionized fraction of target material atoms in the flux onto the substrate reaches 80% for a maximum average target power density of 3 kW cm-2 in a pulse.

  20. Nanocharacterization of titanium nitride thin films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merie, V. V.; Pustan, M. S.; Bîrleanu, C.; Negrea, G.

    2014-08-01

    Titanium nitride thin films are used in applications such as tribological layers for cutting tools, coating of some medical devices (scalpel blades, prosthesis, implants etc.), sensors, electrodes for bioelectronics, microelectronics, diffusion barrier, bio-microelectromechanical systems (Bio-MEMS) and so on. This work is a comparative study concerning the influence of substrate temperature on some mechanical and tribological characteristics of titanium nitride thin films. The researched thin films were obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering method. The experiments employed two kinds of substrates: a steel substrate and a silicon one. The elaboration of titanium nitride thin films was done at two temperatures. First, the obtaining was realized when the substrates were at room temperature, and second, the obtaining was realized when the substrates were previously heated at 250 °C. The elaborated samples were then investigated by atomic force microscopy in order to establish their mechanical and tribological properties. The nanohardness, roughness, friction force are some of the determined characteristics. The results marked out that the substrate which was previously heated at 250 °C led to the obtaining of more adherent titanium nitride thin films than the substrate used at room temperature.

  1. Nanocharacterization of Titanium Nitride Thin Films Obtained by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merie, Violeta Valentina; Pustan, Marius Sorin; Bîrleanu, Corina; Negrea, Gavril

    2015-05-01

    Titanium nitride thin films are used in applications such as tribological layers for cutting tools, coating of some medical devices (scalpel blades, prosthesis, implants, etc.), sensors, electrodes for bioelectronics, microelectronics, diffusion barrier, bio-micro-electromechanical systems, and so on. This work is a comparative study concerning the influence of substrate temperature on some mechanical and tribological characteristics of titanium nitride thin films. The researched thin films were obtained by the reactive magnetron sputtering method. The experiments employed two kinds of substrates: a steel substrate and a silicon one. The elaboration of titanium nitride thin films was done at two temperatures. First, when the substrates were at room temperature, and second, when the substrates were previously heated at 250°C. The temperature of 250°C was kept constant during the deposition of the films. The samples were then investigated by atomic force microscopy in order to establish their mechanical and tribological properties. The nanohardness, Young's modulus, roughness, and friction force were some of the determined characteristics. The results demonstrated that the substrate which was previously heated at 250°C led to the obtaining of more adherent titanium nitride thin films than the substrate used at room temperature. The preheating of both substrates determined the decrease of thin films roughness. The friction force, nanohardness and Young's modulus of the tested samples increased when the substrates were preheated at 250°C.

  2. Strain mediated coupling in magnetron sputtered multiferroic PZT/Ni-Mn-In/Si thin film heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Kirandeep; Kaur, Davinder; Singh, Sushil Kumar

    2014-09-21

    The strain mediated electrical and magnetic properties were investigated in PZT/Ni-Mn-In heterostructure deposited on Si (100) by dc/rf magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed that (220) orientation of Ni-Mn-In facilitate the (110) oriented tertragonal phase growth of PZT layer in PZT/Ni-Mn-In heterostructure. A distinctive peak in dielectric constant versus temperature plots around martensitic phase transformation temperature of Ni-Mn-In showed a strain mediated coupling between Ni-Mn-In and PZT layers. The ferroelectric measurement taken at different temperatures exhibits a well saturated and temperature dependent P-E loops with a highest value of P{sub sat}~55 μC/cm² obtained during martensite-austenite transition temperature region of Ni-Mn-In. The stress induced by Ni-Mn-In layer on upper PZT film due to structural transformation from martensite to austenite resulted in temperature modulated Tunability of PZT/Ni-Mn-In heterostructure. A tunability of 42% was achieved at 290 K (structural transition region of Ni-Mn-In) in these heterostructures. I-V measurements taken at different temperatures indicated that ohmic conduction was the main conduction mechanism over a large electric field range in these heterostructures. Magnetic measurement revealed that heterostructure was ferromagnetic at room temperature with a saturation magnetization of ~123 emu/cm³. Such multiferroic heterostructures exhibits promising applications in various microelectromechanical systems.

  3. A feedback model of magnetron sputtering plasmas in HIPIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, A. E.; Ganesan, R.; Bilek, M. M. M.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2015-04-01

    We present a 1D feedback model that captures the essential elements of plasma pulse initiation and is useful for control and diagnostics of sputtering plasmas. Our model falls into the class of single-species population models with recruitment and time delay, which show no oscillatory behaviour. The model can reproduce essential features of published time-current traces from plasma discharges and is useful to determine the key parameters affecting the evolution of the discharge. We include the external circuit and we focus on the time evolution of the current as a function of the applied voltage and the plasma parameters. We find the necessity of a nonlinear loss term in the time-dependent plasma ion population to ensure a stable discharge, and we show that a higher secondary electron emission coefficient reduces the time delay for current initiation. We report that I-V characteristics in the plateau region, where it exists, fit a power curve of the form I = kVn, where n is influenced most strongly by the nonlinear loss term.

  4. Zn-diffused LiNbO3 waveguides fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghli-Moghadam, L.; Baghizadeh, A.; Nabiyouni, G.; Farashiani, A.; Zendehnam, A.

    2009-12-01

    One of the most popular techniques to fabricate low-loss optical waveguides is the use of zinc (Zn) ions by thermally diffusing them into lithium niobate (LN) crystal. Along this line the fabrication procedure involving lower temperatures and shorter times of diffusion would be more desirable. To this end we report a new procedure using advantages based on the DC-Magnetron sputtering technique through a 3-step waveguide fabrication process in X-cut LN; the first step was sputtering 150 nm thick Zn layer on 400 K hot LN substrate; after this, an immediate oxidation of deposited Zn layer has been done just for 10 min. in 450°C. The final step was thermal diffusion of Zn into LN in a variety of times (1-3 h) and temperatures (600-800°C). All probable changes have been characterized by XRD, RBS and double beam Spectrophotometer. Using the advantages of DC-Magnetron sputtering and simultaneous increase of substrate temperature, combined with an immediate oxidation step before final annealing; the encouraging results of RBS analysis revealed that the whole amount of Zn has diffused with a good gradient after annealing just for 3 h at 750°C; and also the comparative analysis of as-received and diffused LN demonstrated good stability in its optical and structural properties.

  5. Crystallographic texture, morphology, optical, and microwave dielectric properties of dc magnetron sputtered nanostructured zirconia thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Pamu, D.; Sudheendran, K.; Ghanashyam Krishna, M.; James Raju, K. C.

    2008-03-15

    Nanocrystalline zirconia thin films have been deposited at ambient temperature by dc magnetron sputtering on glass and quartz substrates. The crystallite size as calculated from the x-ray diffraction patterns in the films varies between 10 and 25 nm and is dependent on oxygen percentage in the sputtering gas. Interestingly, the presence of monoclinic and cubic phase is observed for the films deposited on glass at 40%, 60%, and 80% of oxygen in the sputtering gas, while those deposited on quartz showed only the monoclinic phase. Refractive index decreased with increase in percentage of oxygen in the sputter gas. Significantly, even at 100% oxygen in the sputtering gas, films of thickness of the order of 500 nm have been grown starting from the metallic Zr target. The dielectric constants were measured using the extended cavity perturbation technique at X-band frequency (8-12 GHz). The dielectric constant and loss tangent showed a very small decrease with increase in frequency but exhibited a stronger dependence on processing parameters. The dielectric constants of the films at microwave frequencies ranged between 12.16 and 22.3.

  6. High power pulsed magnetron sputtering: A method to increase deposition rate

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, Priya McLain, Jake; Ruzic, David N; Shchelkanov, Ivan A.

    2015-05-15

    High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) is a state-of-the-art physical vapor deposition technique with several industrial applications. One of the main disadvantages of this process is its low deposition rate. In this work, the authors report a new magnetic field configuration, which produces deposition rates twice that of conventional magnetron's dipole magnetic field configuration. Three different magnet pack configurations are discussed in this paper, and an optimized magnet pack configuration for HPPMS that leads to a higher deposition rate and nearly full-face target erosion is presented. The discussed magnetic field produced by a specially designed magnet assembly is of the same size as the conventional magnet assembly and requires no external fields. Comparison of deposition rates with different power supplies and the electron trapping efficiency in complex magnetic field arrangements are discussed.

  7. Sputter deposition of MgxAlyOz thin films in a dual-magnetron device: a multi-species Monte Carlo model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusupov, M.; Saraiva, M.; Depla, D.; Bogaerts, A.

    2012-07-01

    A multi-species Monte Carlo (MC) model, combined with an analytical surface model, has been developed in order to investigate the general plasma processes occurring during the sputter deposition of complex oxide films in a dual-magnetron sputter deposition system. The important plasma species, such as electrons, Ar+ ions, fast Ar atoms and sputtered metal atoms (i.e. Mg and Al atoms) are described with the so-called multi-species MC model, whereas the deposition of MgxAlyOz films is treated by an analytical surface model. Target-substrate distances for both magnetrons in the dual-magnetron setup are varied for the purpose of growing stoichiometric complex oxide thin films. The metal atoms are sputtered from pure metallic targets, whereas the oxygen flux is only directed toward the substrate and is high enough to obtain fully oxidized thin films but low enough to avoid target poisoning. The calculations correspond to typical experimental conditions applied to grow these complex oxide films. In this paper, some calculation results are shown, such as the densities of various plasma species, their fluxes toward the targets and substrate, the deposition rates, as well as the film stoichiometry. Moreover, some results of the combined model are compared with experimental observations. Note that this is the first complete model, which can be applied for large and complicated magnetron reactor geometries, such as dual-magnetron configurations. With this model, we are able to describe all important plasma species as well as the deposition process. It can also be used to predict film stoichiometries of complex oxide films on the substrate.

  8. Investigation of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharge using fast ICCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecimovic, Ante

    2012-10-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) combines impulse glow discharges at power levels up to the MW range with conventional magnetron cathodes to achieve a highly ionised sputtered flux. The dynamics of the HIPIMS discharge was investigated using fast Intensified Charge Coupled Device (ICCD) camera. In the first experiment the HIPIMS plasma was recorded from the side with goal to analyse the plasma intensity using Abel inversion to obtain the emissivity maps of the plasma species. Resulting emissivity maps provide the information on the spatial distribution of Ar and sputtered material and evolution of the plasma chemistry above the cathode. In the second experiment the plasma emission was recorded with camera facing the target. The images show that the HIPIMS plasma develops drift wave type instabilities characterized by well defined regions of high and low plasma emissivity along the racetrack of the magnetron. The instabilities cause periodic shifts in the floating potential. The structures rotate in ExB direction at velocities of 10 kms-1 and frequencies up to 200 kHz. The high emissivity regions comprise Ar and metal ion emission with strong Ar and metal neutral emission depletion. A detailed analysis of the temporal evolution of the saturated instabilities using four consequently triggered fast ICCD cameras is presented. Furthermore working gas pressure and discharge current variation showed that the shape and the speed of the instability strongly depend on the working gas and target material combination. In order to better understand the mechanism of the instability, different optical interference band pass filters (of metal and gas atom, and ion lines) were used to observe the spatial distribution of each species within the instability.

  9. Development of high-vacuum planar magnetron sputtering using an advanced magnetic field geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Takahiro; Yagyu, Daisuke; Saito, Shigeru Ohno, Yasunori; Itoh, Masatoshi; Uhara, Yoshio; Miura, Tsutomu; Nakano, Hirofumi

    2015-11-15

    A permanent magnet in a new magnetic field geometry (namely, with the magnetization in the radial direction) was fabricated and used for high-vacuum planar magnetron sputtering using Penning discharge. Because of the development of this magnet, the discharge current and deposition rate were increased two to three times in comparison with the values attainable with a magnet in the conventional geometry. This improvement was because the available space for effective discharge of the energetic electrons for the ionization increased because the magnetic field distribution increased in both the axial and radial directions of discharge.

  10. Study of Niobium Nitride Films Produced by DC Reactive Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotovy, I.; Buc, D.; Brcka, J.; Srnanek, R.

    1997-05-01

    Niobium nitride films were prepared onto unheated GaAs and SiO2 substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering from a niobium metal target in an Ar + N2 mixed atmosphere. During deposition, the nitrogen content in the gas mixture was varied from 0 to 20%. The effects of the different nitrogen content and high-temperature annealing (with annealing temperatures ranging from 850 to 950 °C) on the composition, structural and electrical properties of the films were studied using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and resistivity measurement. The correlations between technological parameters and film properties, structure and composition were established.

  11. Texture evolution in nanocrystalline iron films deposited using biased magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Vetterick, G.; Taheri, M. L.; Baldwin, J. K.; Misra, A.

    2014-12-21

    Fe thin films were deposited on sodium chloride (NaCl) substrates using magnetron sputtering to investigate means of texture control in free standing metal films. The Fe thin films were studied using transmission electron microscopy equipped with automated crystallographic orientation microscopy. Using this technique, the microstructure of each film was characterized in order to elucidate the effects of altering deposition parameters. The natural tendency for Fe films grown on (100) NaCl is to form a randomly oriented nanocrystalline microstructure. By careful selection of substrate and deposition conditions, it is possible to drive the texture of the film toward a single (100) orientation while retaining the nanocrystalline microstructure.

  12. Surface functionalization of nanostructured LaB6-coated Poly Trilobal fabric by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Zhang, Lin; Min, Guanghui; Yu, Huashun; Gao, Binghuan; Liu, Huihui; Xing, Shilong; Pang, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Nanostructured LaB6 films were deposited on flexible Poly Trilobal substrates (PET textiles) through direct current magnetron sputtering in order to broaden its applications and realize surface functionalization of polyester fabrics. Characterizations and performances were investigated by employing a scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer. Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) conducted by the integral conversion was employed to measure the ultraviolet protection ability. As expected, the growth of LaB6 film depending on the pressure variation enhanced UV-blocking ability (UPF rating at 30.17) and absorption intensity of the textiles.

  13. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Deposition of amino-rich thin films by RF magnetron sputtering of nylon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylián, O.; Hanuš, J.; Choukourov, A.; Kousal, J.; Slavínská, D.; Biederman, H.

    2009-07-01

    RF magnetron sputtering of a nylon target in different gas mixtures was studied in order to evaluate the capability of this process to deposit amino-rich coatings needed in a wide range of biomedical applications. It has been demonstrated that both the deposition rate of the coatings and the surface density of primary amino groups are strongly linked with working gas mixture composition. From this point of view, a sufficiently high deposition rate as well as the highest amine efficiency reaching a NH2/C value of 18% was observed in the N2/H2 discharge, which leads to the surface exhibiting a high rate of protein adsorption.

  14. Spectroscopic imaging of self-organization in high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore, Singapore; Andersson, Joakim; Ni, Pavel; Anders, Andre

    2013-07-17

    Excitation and ionization conditions in traveling ionization zones of high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas were investigated using fast camera imaging through interference filters. The images, taken in end-on and side on views using light of selected gas and target atom and ion spectral lines, suggest that ionization zones are regions of enhanced densities of electrons, and excited atoms and ions. Excited atoms and ions of the target material (Al) are strongly concentrated near the target surface. Images from the highest excitation energies exhibit the most localized regions, suggesting localized Ohmic heating consistent with double layer formation.

  15. Different properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide nanostructured thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Bidmeshkipour, Samina Shahtahmasebi, Nasser

    2013-06-15

    Aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanostructured thin films are prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on glass substrate using specifically designed ZnO target containing different amount of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder as the Al doping source. The optical properties of the aluminium doped zinc oxide films are investigated. The topography of the deposited films were investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Variation of the refractive index by annealing temperature are considered and it is seen that the refractive index increases by increasing the annealing temperature.

  16. Ion energies in high power impulse magnetron sputtering with and without localized ionization zones

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yuchen; Tanaka, Koichi; Liu, Jason; Anders, André

    2015-03-23

    High speed imaging of high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges has revealed that ionization is localized in moving ionization zones but localization disappears at high currents for high yield targets. This offers an opportunity to study the effect ionization zones have on ion energies. We measure that ions have generally higher energies when ionization zones are present, supporting the concept that these zones are associated with moving potential humps. We propose that the disappearance of ionization zones is caused by an increased supply of atoms from the target which cools electrons and reduces depletion of atoms to be ionized.

  17. Plasma reactivity in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering through oxygen kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Vitelaru, Catalin; Lundin, Daniel; Brenning, Nils; Minea, Tiberiu

    2013-09-02

    The atomic oxygen metastable dynamics in a Reactive High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (R-HiPIMS) discharge has been characterized using time-resolved diode laser absorption in an Ar/O{sub 2} gas mixture with a Ti target. Two plasma regions are identified: the ionization region (IR) close to the target and further out the diffusion region (DR), separated by a transition region. The μs temporal resolution allows identifying the main atomic oxygen production and destruction routes, which are found to be very different during the pulse as compared to the afterglow as deduced from their evolution in space and time.

  18. CrAIN film deposited by magnetron sputtering for the inkjet printer head.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seon-Cheol; Kim, Sang Ho

    2014-12-01

    CrAIN film has advantages of stability and multifunctionality over the commercial TaN0.8. This study investigated the characteristics of CrAIN film deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering as a function of Al content after deposition heat treatment. With a 600 degrees C heat treatment and 20% Al content, the low temperature coefficient of resistance (-2670.6 ppm/k), high oxidation resistance, and thermal conductivity were acquired. This was found due to the high-density columnar NaCI structure with 20% Al and the recrystallization utilized by heat treatment.

  19. Alfven's critical ionization velocity observed in high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Brenning, N.; Lundin, D.

    2012-09-15

    Azimuthally rotating dense plasma structures, spokes, have recently been detected in several high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) devices used for thin film deposition and surface treatment, and are thought to be important for plasma buildup, energizing of electrons, as well as cross-B transport of charged particles. In this work, the drift velocities of these spokes are shown to be strongly correlated with the critical ionization velocity, CIV, proposed by Alfven. It is proposed as the most promising approach in combining the CIV and HiPIMS research fields is to focus on the role of spokes in the process of electron energization.

  20. Influence of the microstructure on the corrosion behavior of magnetron sputter-quenched amorphous metallic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.; Williams, R. M.; Landel, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The microstructure and corrosion behavior of magnetron sputter deposited amorphous metallic films of (Mo6ORu40)82B18 under varying sputtering atmospheres have been investigated. The microstructural details and topology of the films have been studied by scanning electron microscopy and correlated with the deposition conditions. By reducing the pressure of pure argon gas, the characteristic features of rough surface and columnar growth full of vertical voids can be converted into a mirror-smooth finish with very dense deposits. Films deposited in the presence of O2 or N2 exhibit columnar structure with vertical voids. Film deposited in pure argon at low pressure show remarkably high corrosion resistance due to the formation of a uniform passive surface layer. The influence of the microstructure and surface texture on the corrosion behavior is discussed.

  1. Deposition of highly textured AlN thin films by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, Milena A.; Törndahl, Tobias; Katardjiev, Ilia; Kubart, Tomas

    2015-03-15

    Aluminum nitride thin films were deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and pulsed direct-current on Si (100) and textured Mo substrates, where the same deposition conditions were used for both techniques. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The results show a pronounced improvement in the AlN crystalline texture for all films deposited by HiPIMS on Si. Already at room temperature, the HiPIMS films exhibited a strong preferred (002) orientation and at 400 °C, no contributions from other orientations were detected. Despite the low film thickness of only 200 nm, an ω-scan full width at half maximum value of 5.1° was achieved on Si. The results are attributed to the high ionization of sputtered material achieved in HiPIMS. On textured Mo, there was no significant difference between the deposition techniques.

  2. Hall mobility of cuprous oxide thin films deposited by reactive direct-current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yun Seog; Winkler, Mark T.; Siah, Sin Cheng; Brandt, Riley; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2011-05-09

    Cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for photovoltaic applications. We report Hall mobilities of polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}O thin films deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. High substrate growth temperature enhances film grain structure and Hall mobility. Temperature-dependent Hall mobilities measured on these films are comparable to monocrystalline Cu{sub 2}O at temperatures above 250 K, reaching 62 cm{sup 2}/V s at room temperature. At lower temperatures, the Hall mobility appears limited by carrier scattering from ionized centers. These observations indicate that sputtered Cu{sub 2}O films at high substrate growth temperature may be suitable for thin-film photovoltaic applications.

  3. Microstructure and residual stress of magnetron sputtered nanocrystalline palladium and palladium gold films on polymer substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Castrup, Anna; Kuebel, Christian; Scherer, Torsten; Hahn, Horst

    2011-03-15

    The authors report the structural properties and residual stresses of 500-nm-thick nanocrystalline Pd and PdAu films on compliant substrates prepared by magnetron sputtering as a function of the pressure of the Ar-sputtering gas. Films were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. At low pressures the metal films exhibit strong compressive stresses, which rapidly change to highly tensile with increasing pressure, and then gradually decrease. Along with this effect a change in microstructure is observed from a dense equiaxed structure at low pressures to distinctive columns with reduced atomic density at the column walls at higher pressures. The preparation of nearly stress-free dense nanocrystalline films is demonstrated.

  4. Nanoporous Ti-metal film deposition using radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique for photovoltaic application.

    PubMed

    Sung, Youl-Moon; Paeng, Sung-Hwan; Moon, Byung-Ho; Kwak, Dong-Joo

    2012-02-01

    Nanoporous Ti-metal film electrode was fabricated by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering technique on nanoporous TiO2 layer prepared by sol-gel combustion method and investigated with respect to its photo-anode properties of TCO-less DSCs. The porous Ti layer (approximately 1 microm) with low sheet resistance (approximately 17 Omega/sq.) can collect electrons from the TiO2 layer and allows the ionic diffusion of I(-)/I(3-) through the hole. The porous Ti layer with highly ordered columnar structure prepared by 8 mTorr sputtering shows the good impedance characteristics. The efficiency of prepared TCO-less DSCs sample is about 4.83% (ff: 0.6, Voc: 0.65 V, Jsc: 11.2 mA/cm2).

  5. Diagnostics of RF magnetron sputtering plasma for synthesizing transparent conductive Indium-Zinc-Oxide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Takayuki; Inoue, Mari; Takota, Naoki; Ito, Masafumi; Higashijima, Yasuhiro; Kano, Hiroyuki; den, Shoji; Yamakawa, Koji; Hori, Masaru

    2009-10-01

    Transparent conductive Oxide film has been used as transparent conducting electrodes of optoelectronic devices such as flat panel display, solar cells, and so on. Indium-Zinc-Oxide (IZO) has been investigated as one of promising alternatives Indium Tin Oxide film, due to amorphous, no nodule and so on. In order to control a sputtering process with highly precise, RF magnetron sputtering plasma using IZO composite target was diagnosed by absorption and emission spectroscopy. We have developed a multi-micro hollow cathode lamp which can emit simultaneous multi-atomic lines for monitoring Zn and In densities simultaneously. Zn and In densities were measured to be 10^9 from 10^10 cm-3 at RF power from 40 to 100 W, pressure of 5Pa, and Ar flow rate of 300 sccm. The emission intensities of Zn, In, InO, and Ar were also observed.

  6. Particle visualization in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering. I. 2D density mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Britun, Nikolay Palmucci, Maria; Konstantinidis, Stephanos; Snyders, Rony

    2015-04-28

    Time-resolved characterization of an Ar-Ti high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge has been performed. This paper deals with two-dimensional density mapping in the discharge volume obtained by laser-induced fluorescence imaging. The time-resolved density evolution of Ti neutrals, singly ionized Ti atoms (Ti{sup +}), and Ar metastable atoms (Ar{sup met}) in the area above the sputtered cathode is mapped for the first time in this type of discharges. The energetic characteristics of the discharge species are additionally studied by Doppler-shift laser-induced fluorescence imaging. The questions related to the propagation of both the neutral and ionized discharge particles, as well as to their spatial density distributions, are discussed.

  7. On Both Spatial And Velocity Distribution Of Sputtered Particles In Magnetron Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitelaru, C.; Pohoata, V.; Tiron, V.; Costin, C.; Popa, G.

    2012-12-01

    The kinetics of the sputtered atoms from the metallic target as well as the time-space distribution of the argon metastable atoms have been investigated for DC and high power pulse magnetron discharge by means of Tunable Diode - Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TD-LAS) and Tunable Diode - Laser Induced Fluorescence (TD-LIF). The discharge was operated in argon (5-30 mTorr) with two different targets, tungsten and aluminum, for pulses of 1 to 20 μs, at frequencies of 0.2 to 1 kHz. Peak current intensity of ~100 A has been attained at cathode peak voltage of ~1 kV. The mean velocity distribution functions and particle fluxes of the sputtered metal atoms, in parallel and perpendicular direction to the target, have been obtained and compared for DC and pulse mode.

  8. Effects of electron irradiation on the properties of GZO films deposited with RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Heo, S. B.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, Y. J.; Kim, I. S.; Kang, M. S.; Choi, D. H.; Lee, B. H.; Kim, M. G.; Kim, Daeil

    2012-02-01

    Transparent conductive GZO films were deposited on polycarbonate substrates by electron beam assisted radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and then the influence of electron irradiation on the structural, optical and electrical properties of GZO films was investigated by using X-ray diffractometry, UV-vis spectrophotometry, four point probes, atomic force microscopy and UV photoelectron spectroscopy. Sputtering power was kept constant at 3 W/cm2 during deposition, while electron irradiation energy varied from 450 to 900 eV. Electron irradiated GZO films show larger grain sizes than those of films prepared without electron irradiation, and films irradiated at 900 eV show higher optical transmittance in the visible wavelength region and lower sheet resistance (120 Ω/□) than other films. The work-function is also increased with electron irradiation energy. The highest work-function of 4.4 eV was observed in films that were electron irradiated at 900 eV.

  9. DC magnetron sputtered polyaniline-HCl thin films for chemical sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Menegazzo, Nicola; Boyne, Devon; Bui, Holt; Beebe, Thomas P; Booksh, Karl S

    2012-07-01

    Thin films of conducting polymers exhibit unique chemical and physical properties that render them integral parts in microelectronics, energy storage devices, and chemical sensors. Overall, polyaniline (PAni) doped in acidic media has shown metal-like electronic conductivity, though exact physical and chemical properties are dependent on the polymer structure and dopant type. Difficulties arising from poor processability render production of doped PAni thin films particularly challenging. In this contribution, DC magnetron sputtering, a physical vapor deposition technique, is applied to the preparation of conductive thin films of PAni doped with hydrochloric acid (PAni-HCl) in an effort to circumvent issues associated with conventional thin film preparation methods. Samples manufactured by the sputtering method are analyzed along with samples prepared by conventional drop-casting. Physical characterization (atomic force microscopy, AFM) confirm the presence of PAni-HCl and show that films exhibit a reduced roughness and potentially pinhole-free coverage of the substrate. Spectroscopic evidence (UV-vis, FT-IR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) suggests that structural changes and loss of conductivity, not uncommon during PAni processing, does occur during the preparation process. Finally, the applicability of sputtered films to gas-phase sensing of NH(3) was investigated with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy and compared to previous contributions. In summary, sputtered PAni-HCl films exhibit quantifiable, reversible behavior upon exposure to NH(3) with a calculated LOD (by method) approaching 0.4 ppm NH(3) in dry air.

  10. Duty cycle control in reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of hafnium and niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, R.; Treverrow, B.; Murdoch, B.; Xie, D.; Ross, A. E.; Partridge, J. G.; Falconer, I. S.; McCulloch, D. G.; McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.

    2016-06-01

    Instabilities in reactive sputtering have technological consequences and have been attributed to the formation of a compound layer on the target surface (‘poisoning’). Here we demonstrate how the duty cycle of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) can be used to control the surface conditions of Hf and Nb targets. Variations in the time resolved target current characteristics as a function of duty cycle were attributed to gas rarefaction and to the degree of poisoning of the target surface. As the operation transitions from Ar driven sputtering to metal driven sputtering, the secondary electron emission changes and reduces the target current. The target surface transitions smoothly from a poisoned state at low duty cycles to a quasi-metallic state at high duty cycles. Appropriate selection of duty cycle increases the deposition rate, eliminates the need for active regulation of oxygen flow and enables stable reactive deposition of stoichiometric metal oxide films. A model is presented for the reactive HIPIMS process in which the target operates in a partially poisoned mode with different degrees of oxide layer distribution on its surface that depends on the duty cycle. Finally, we show that by tuning the pulse characteristics, the refractive indices of the metal oxides can be controlled without increasing the absorption coefficients, a result important for the fabrication of optical multilayer stacks.

  11. Investigation of optical and microstructural properties of RF magnetron sputtered PTFE films for hydrophobic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, S.; Haque, S. Maidul; Rao, K. Divakar; De, Rajnarayan; Shripathi, T.; Deshpande, U.; Ganesan, V.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2016-11-01

    The deposition time dependence of optical, structural and morphological properties of thin as well as ultrathin Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sputtered films have been explored in the present communication. The films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering under high vacuum condition, as a function of deposition time. The ellipsometry as well as X-ray reflectivity data show a drastic reduction in film thickness as the deposition time increases from 5 s to 10 s, possibly as a consequence of back sputtering. With subsequent deposition, back sputtering component decreases and hence, thickness increases with increase in deposition time. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show a slight change in growth morphology although roughness is independent of deposition time. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) measurements showed the presence of Csbnd C and CFx (x = 1-3) bonds in all the PTFE films. Supporting this, corresponding X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) curves fitted for C-1s and F-1s peaks revealed a major contribution from CF2 bonds along with significant contribution from CF3 bonds leading to an F/C ratio of ∼1.5 giving hydrophobic nature of all the films.

  12. Highly oriented polycrystalline Cu2O film formation using RF magnetron sputtering deposition for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, S.; Shima, H.; Akinaga, H.

    2014-02-01

    Room temperature sputtering deposition and re-crystallization of the deposited thin films by rapid thermal annealing have been evaluating in detail as a formation method of Cu2O active layer for solar cells, which minimize thermal budget in fabrication processes. Single phase polycrystalline Cu2O films were obtained by a magnetron rf sputtering deposition and its crystallinity and electrical characteristics were controlled by the annealing. Hall mobility was improved up to 17 cm2V-1s-1 by the annealing at 600°C for 30s. Since this value was smaller than 47 cm2V-1s-1 of the film deposited under thermal equilibrium state using pulsed laser deposition at 600°C, some contrivances were necessary to compensate the deficiency. It was understood that the sputter-deposited Cu2O films on (111)-oriented Pt films were strongly oriented to (111) face also by the self-assembly and the crystallinity was improved by the annealing preserving its orientation. The sputter-deposited film quality was expected to become equivalent to the pulsed laser deposition film from the results of X-ray diffractometry and photoluminescence.

  13. Time-resolved investigation of dual high power impulse magnetron sputtering with closed magnetic field during deposition of Ti-Cu thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Stranak, Vitezslav; Hippler, Rainer; Cada, Martin; Hubicka, Zdenek; Tichy, Milan

    2010-08-15

    Time-resolved comparative study of dual magnetron sputtering (dual-MS) and dual high power impulse magnetron sputtering (dual-HiPIMS) systems arranged with closed magnetic field is presented. The dual-MS system was operated with a repetition frequency 4.65 kHz (duty cycle {approx_equal}50%). The frequency during dual-HiPIMS is lower as well as its duty cycle (f=100 Hz, duty 1%). Different metallic targets (Ti, Cu) and different cathode voltages were applied to get required stoichiometry of Ti-Cu thin films. The plasma parameters of the interspace between magnetrons in the substrate position were investigated by time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy, Langmuir probe technique, and measurement of ion fluxes to the substrate. It is shown that plasma density as well as ion flux is higher about two orders of magnitude in dual-HiPIMS system. This fact is partially caused by low diffusion of ionized sputtered particles (Ti{sup +},Cu{sup +}) which creates a preionized medium.

  14. Time-resolved investigation of dual high power impulse magnetron sputtering with closed magnetic field during deposition of Ti-Cu thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranak, Vitezslav; Cada, Martin; Hubicka, Zdenek; Tichy, Milan; Hippler, Rainer

    2010-08-01

    Time-resolved comparative study of dual magnetron sputtering (dual-MS) and dual high power impulse magnetron sputtering (dual-HiPIMS) systems arranged with closed magnetic field is presented. The dual-MS system was operated with a repetition frequency 4.65 kHz (duty cycle ≈50%). The frequency during dual-HiPIMS is lower as well as its duty cycle (f =100 Hz, duty 1%). Different metallic targets (Ti, Cu) and different cathode voltages were applied to get required stoichiometry of Ti-Cu thin films. The plasma parameters of the interspace between magnetrons in the substrate position were investigated by time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy, Langmuir probe technique, and measurement of ion fluxes to the substrate. It is shown that plasma density as well as ion flux is higher about two orders of magnitude in dual-HiPIMS system. This fact is partially caused by low diffusion of ionized sputtered particles (Ti+,Cu+) which creates a preionized medium.

  15. ZrN coatings deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Purandare, Yashodhan Ehiasarian, Arutiun; Hovsepian, Papken; Santana, Antonio

    2014-05-15

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) coatings were deposited on 1 μm finish high speed steel and 316L stainless steel test coupons. Cathodic Arc (CA) and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) + Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering (UBM) techniques were utilized to deposit coatings. CA plasmas are known to be rich in metal and gas ions of the depositing species as well as macroparticles (droplets) emitted from the arc sports. Combining HIPIMS technique with UBM in the same deposition process facilitated increased ion bombardment on the depositing species during coating growth maintaining high deposition rate. Prior to coating deposition, substrates were pretreated with Zr{sup +} rich plasma, for both arc deposited and HIPIMS deposited coatings, which led to a very high scratch adhesion value (L{sub C2}) of 100 N. Characterization results revealed the overall thickness of the coatings in the range of 2.5 μm with hardness in the range of 30–40 GPa depending on the deposition technique. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and tribological experiments such as dry sliding wear tests and corrosion studies have been utilized to study the effects of ion bombardment on the structure and properties of these coatings. In all the cases, HIPIMS assisted UBM deposited coating fared equal or better than the arc deposited coatings, the reasons being discussed in this paper. Thus H+U coatings provide a good alternative to arc deposited where smooth, dense coatings are required and macrodroplets cannot be tolerated.

  16. Tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnetron sputtered titanium-amorphous carbon coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhandapani, Vishnu Shankar; Subbiah, Ramesh; Thangavel, Elangovan; Arumugam, Madhankumar; Park, Kwideok; Gasem, Zuhair M.; Veeraragavan, Veeravazhuthi; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous carbon incorporated with titanium (a-C:Ti) was coated on 316L stainless steel (SS) by magnetron sputtering technique to attain superior tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. The morphology, topography and functional groups of the nanostructured a-C:Ti coatings in various concentrations were analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman and XPS analyses confirmed the increase in sp2 bonds with increasing titanium content in the a-C matrix. TEM analysis confirmed the composite nature of the coating and the presence of nanostructured TiC for Ti content of 2.33 at.%. This coating showed superior tribological properties compared to the other a-C:Ti coatings. Furthermore, electrochemical corrosion studies were performed against stimulated body fluid medium in which all the a-C:Ti coatings showed improved corrosion resistance than the pure a-C coating. Preosteoblasts proliferation and viability on the specimens were tested and the results showed that a-C:Ti coatings with relatively high Ti (3.77 at.%) content had better biocompatibility. Based on the results of this work, highly durable coatings with good biocompatibility could be achieved by incorporation of optimum amount of Ti in a-C coatings deposited on SS by magnetron sputtering technique.

  17. Study on the effect of target on plasma parameters of magnetron sputtering discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Saikia, P.; Kakati, B.; Saikia, B. K.

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the effect of magnetron target on different plasma parameters of Argon/Hydrogen (Ar - H{sub 2}) direct current (DC) magnetron discharge is examined. Here, Copper (Cu) and Chromium (Cr) are used as magnetron targets. The value of plasma parameters such as electron temperature (kT{sub e}), electron density (N{sub e}), ion density (N{sub i}), degree of ionization of Ar, and degree of dissociation of H{sub 2} for both the target are studied as a function of input power and hydrogen content in the discharge. The plasma parameters are determined by using Langmuir probe and Optical emission spectroscopy. On the basis of the different reactions in the gas phase, the variation of plasma parameters and sputtering rate are explained. The obtained results show that electron and ion density decline with gradual addition of Hydrogen in the discharge and increase with rising input power. It brings significant changes on the degree of ionization of Ar and dissociation of H{sub 2}. The enhanced value of electron density (N{sub e}), ion density (N{sub i}), degree of Ionization of Ar, and degree of dissociation of H{sub 2} for Cr compared to Cu target is explained on the basis of it's higher Ion Induced Secondary Electron Emission Coefficient (ISEE) value.

  18. Optical properties and residual stress in aluminum nitride films prepared by alternating-current dual reactive magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chien-Jen; Jaing, Cheng-Chung; Lee, Kun-Hsien; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2011-05-01

    Aluminum nitride films were deposited by alternating-current dual reactive magnetron sputtering. The influence of different nitrogen flow and working pressures at a sputtering power of 5 kW on the refractive index, extinction coefficient, crystalline structure, residual stress, and surface roughness of aluminum nitride films was discussed. The aluminum nitride film would have high refractive index, low extinction coefficient and small residual stress at suitable nitrogen flow rate and low working pressure.

  19. Deposition and characterization of molybdenum thin films using dc-plasma magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Majid; Islam, Mohammad

    2013-12-15

    Molebdenum (Mo) thin films were deposited on well-cleaned soda-lime glass substrates using DC-plasma magnetron sputtering. In the design of experiment deposition was optimized for maximum beneficial characteristics by monitoring effect of process variables such as deposition power (100–200 W). Their electrical, structural and morphological properties were analyzed to study the effect of these variables. The electrical resistivity of Mo thin films could be reduced by increasing deposition power. Within the range of analyzed deposition power, Mo thin films showed a mono crystalline nature and the crystallites were found to have an orientation along [110] direction. The surface morphology of thin films showed that a highly dense micro structure has been obtained. The surface roughness of films increased with deposition power. The adhesion of Mo thin films could be improved by increasing the deposition power. Atomic force microscopy was used for the topographical study of the films and to determine the roughness of the films. X-ray diffractrometer and scanning electron microscopy analysis were used to investigate the crystallinity and surface morphology of the films. Hall effect measurement system was used to find resistivity, carrier mobility and carrier density of deposited films. The adhesion test was performed using scotch hatch tape adhesion test. Mo thin films prepared at deposition power of 200 W, substrate temperature of 23°C and Ar pressure of 0.0123 mbar exhibited a mono crystalline structure with an orientation along (110) direction, thickness of ∼550 nm and electrical resistivity value of 0.57 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm.

  20. High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: scalable plasma sources for plasma-based ion implantation and deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2009-09-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) and related self-sputtering techniques are reviewed from a viewpoint of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D). HIPIMS combines the classical, scalable sputtering technology with pulsed power, which is an elegant way of ionizing the sputtered atoms. Related approaches, such as sustained self-sputtering, are also considered. The resulting intense flux of ions to the substrate consists of a mixture of metal and gas ions when using a process gas, or of metal ions only when using `gasless? or pure self-sputtering. In many respects, processing with HIPIMS plasmas is similar to processing with filtered cathodic arc plasmas, though the former is easier to scale to large areas. Both ion implantation and etching (high bias voltage, without deposition) and thin film deposition (low bias, or bias of low duty cycle) have been demonstrated.

  1. Magnetic properties of in-plane oriented barium hexaferrite thin films prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaozhi; Yue, Zhenxing Meng, Siqin; Yuan, Lixin

    2014-12-28

    In-plane c-axis oriented Ba-hexaferrite (BaM) thin films were prepared on a-plane (112{sup ¯}0) sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by DC magnetron sputtering followed by ex-situ annealing. The DC magnetron sputtering was demonstrated to have obvious advantages over the traditionally used RF magnetron sputtering in sputtering rate and operation simplicity. The sputtering power had a remarkable influence on the Ba/Fe ratio, the hematite secondary phase, and the grain morphology of the as-prepared BaM films. Under 80 W of sputtering power, in-plane c-axis highly oriented BaM films were obtained. These films had strong magnetic anisotropy with high hysteresis loop squareness (M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.96) along the in-plane easy axis and low M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.03 along the in-plane hard axis. X-ray diffraction patterns and pole figures revealed that the oriented BaM films grew via an epitaxy-like growth process with the crystallographic relationship BaM (101{sup ¯}0)//α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup ¯}0)//Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup ¯}0)

  2. Electrostatic quadrupole plasma mass spectrometer measurements during thin film depositions using simultaneous matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation and magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C. N.; Check, M. H.; Muratore, C.; Voevodin, A. A.

    2010-05-15

    A hybrid plasma deposition process, combining matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) of carbon nanopearls (CNPs) with magnetron sputtering of gold was investigated for growth of composite films, where 100 nm sized CNPs were encapsulated into a gold matrix. Composition and morphology of such composite films was characterized with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Carbon deposits on a gold magnetron sputter target and carbon impurities in the gold matrices of deposited films were observed while codepositing from gold and frozen toluene-CNP MAPLE targets in pure argon. Electrostatic quadrupole plasma analysis was used to determine that a likely mechanism for generation of carbon impurities was a reaction between toluene vapor generated from the MAPLE target and the argon plasma originating from the magnetron sputtering process. Carbon impurities of codeposited films were significantly reduced by introducing argon-oxygen mixtures into the deposition chamber; reactive oxygen species such as O and O+ effectively removed carbon contamination of gold matrix during the codeposition processes. Increasing the oxygen to argon ratio decreased the magnetron target sputter rate, and hence hybrid process optimization to prevent gold matrix contamination and maintain a high sputter yield is needed. High resolution TEM with energy dispersive spectrometry elemental mapping was used to study carbon distribution throughout the gold matrix as well as embedded CNP clusters. This research has demonstrated that a hybrid MAPLE and magnetron sputtering codeposition process is a viable means for synthesis of composite thin films from premanufactured nanoscale constituents, and that cross-process contaminations can be overcome with understanding of hybrid plasma process interaction mechanisms.

  3. Process monitoring during AlN{sub x}O{sub y} deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering and correlation with the film's properties

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, Joel Vaz, Filipe; Marques, Luis; Martin, Nicolas

    2014-03-15

    In this work, AlN{sub x}O{sub y} thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering, using an aluminum target and an Ar/(N{sub 2}+O{sub 2}) atmosphere. The direct current magnetron discharge parameters during the deposition process were investigated by optical emission spectroscopy and a plasma floating probe was used. The discharge voltage, the electron temperature, the ion flux, and the optical emission lines were recorded for different reactive gas flows, near the target and close to the substrate. This information was correlated with the structural features of the deposits as a first step in the development of a system to control the structure and properties of the films during reactive magnetron sputtering. As the target becomes poisoned, the discharge voltage suffers an important variation, due to the modification of the secondary electron emission coefficient of the target, which is also supported by the evolution of the electron temperature and ion flux to the target. The sputtering yield of the target was also affected, leading to a reduction of the amount of Al atoms arriving to the substrate, according to optical emission spectroscopy results for Al emission line intensity. This behavior, together with the increase of nonmetallic elements in the films, allowed obtaining different microstructures, over a wide range of compositions, which induced different electrical and optical responses of films.

  4. Thin-film heterostructures based on oxides of copper and zinc obtained by RF magnetron sputtering in one vacuum cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasjev, V.; Bazhan, M.; Klimenkov, B.; Mukhin, N.; Chigirev, D.

    2016-07-01

    Investigations of formation conditions of oxide heterostructures ZnO/CuO in the same vacuum cycle using RF magnetron sputtering of powder targets of zinc and copper oxides were carried out. The optical and electrical properties of the thin film structures were studied.

  5. High-rate deposition of optical coatings by closed-field magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, D. R.; Brinkley, I.; Waddell, E. M.; Walls, J. M.

    2005-09-01

    "Closed field" magnetron (CFM) sputtering offers a flexible and high throughput deposition process for optical coatings and thin films required in a wide range of optical applications. CFM sputtering uses two or more different metal targets to deposit multilayers comprising a wide range of dielectrics, metals and conductive oxides. Moreover, CFM provides a room temperature deposition process with high ion current density, low bias voltage and reactive oxidation in the entire volume around the rotating substrate drum carrier, thereby producing films over a large surface area at high deposition rate with excellent and reproducible optical properties. Machines based on the Closed Field are scaleable to meet a range of batch and in-line size requirements. Typically, thin film thickness control to <+/-1% is accomplished simply using time. Fine layer thickness control and deposition of graded index layers is also assisted with a specially designed rotating shutter mechanism. The CFM configuration also allows plasma treatment of surfaces prior to deposition, allowing optimisation of coating adhesion to substrates such as plastics. This paper presents data on optical, durability and environmental properties for CFM deposited optical coatings, including anti-reflection, IR blocker and colour control and thermal control filters, graded coatings, as well as conductive transparent oxides such as indium tin oxide. Benefits of the CFM sputter process for a range of optical applications are described.

  6. Deposition of multilayer optical coatings using closed-field magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, D. R.; Brinkley, I.; Hall, G. W.; Waddell, E. M.; Walls, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    "Closed field" magnetron (CFM) sputtering offers a flexible and high throughput deposition process for optical coatings and thin films required in display technologies. CFM sputtering uses two or more different metal targets to deposit multilayers comprising a wide range of dielectrics, metals and conductive oxides. Moreover, CFM provides a room temperature deposition process with high ion current density, low bias voltage and reactive oxidation in the entire volume around the rotating substrate drum carrier, thereby producing films over a large surface area at high deposition rate with excellent and reproducible optical properties. Machines based on the Closed Field are scaleable to meet a range of batch and in-line size requirements. Typically, thin film thickness control to < +/-1% is accomplished simply using time, although optical monitoring can be used for more demanding applications. Fine layer thickness control and deposition of graded index layers is also assisted with a specially designed rotating shutter mechanism. This paper presents data on optical properties for CFM deposited optical coatings, including anti-reflection, IR blocker and colour control and thermal control filters, graded coatings, narrowband filters as well as conductive transparent oxides such as indium tin oxide. Benefits of the CFM sputter process are described.

  7. RF magnetron sputtering deposition of CdTe passivation on HgCdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkowski, Jaroslaw; Adamiec, Krzysztof; Rogalski, Antoni

    1998-04-01

    In this study, we report the RF magnetron sputtering growth and characterization of CdTe passivant on bulk n-type HgCdTe. Our investigations include the HgCdTe surface preparation and in-situ pretreatment, deposition-induced surface damage, interface charge, CdTe film stoichiometry, and thermal stability. The metal-insulator-semiconductor test structures are processed and their electrical properties are measured by capacitance-voltage characteristics. The heterostructures are also characterized by reflectance measurement. In order to investigate the passivation properties of CdTe/HgCdTe heterostructures, we have modeled the band diagram of abrupt CdTe/HgCdTe heterojunction. The effect of sputtering growth condition parameters is also reported. The sputtering CdTe layers, exhibit excellent dielectric, insulating and mechano- chemical properties, as well as interface properties. The interfaces are characterized by slight accumulation and a small hysteresis. A carefully controlled growth process and surface pretreatment tailored to the specific material are required in order to obtain near flat band conditions on n- type materials. Additional informations on surface limitations are obtained from analyzing the I-V characteristics of photodiodes with metal gates covering the p-n junction surface location.

  8. Chemical mechanical polishing characteristics of ITO thin film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kang-Yeon; Choi, Gwon-Woo; Kim, Yong-Jae; Choi, Youn-Ok; Kim, Nam-Oh

    2012-02-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films have attracted intensive interest because of their unique properties of good conductivity, high optical transmittance over the visible region and easy patterning ability. ITO thin films have found many applications in anti-static coatings, thermal heaters, solar cells, flat panel displays (FPDs), liquid crystal displays (LCDs), electroluminescent devices, sensors and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). ITO thin films are generally fabricated by using various methods, such as spraying, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), evaporation, electron gun deposition, direct current electroplating, high frequency sputtering, and reactive sputtering. In this research, ITO films were grown on glass substrates by using a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. In order to achieve a high transmittance and a low resistivity, we examined the various film deposition conditions, such as substrate temperature, working pressure, annealing temperature, and deposition time. Next, in order to improve the surface quality of the ITO thin films, we performed a chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) with different process parameters and compared the electrical and the optical properties of the polished ITO thin films. The best CMP conditions with a high removal rate, low nonuniformity, low resistivity and high transmittance were as follows: platen speed, head speed, polishing time, and slurry flow rate of 30 rpm, 30 rpm, 60 sec, and 60 ml/min, respectively.

  9. Fabrication and physico-mechanical properties of thin magnetron sputter deposited silver-containing hydroxyapatite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, A. A.; Surmeneva, M. A.; Tyurin, A. I.; Pirozhkova, T. S.; Shuvarin, I. A.; Prymak, O.; Epple, M.; Chaikina, M. V.; Surmenev, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    As a measure of the prevention of implant associated infections, a number of strategies have been recently applied. Silver-containing materials possessing antibacterial activity as expected might have wide applications in orthopedics and dentistry. The present work focuses on the physico-chemical characterization of silver-containing hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) coating obtained by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Mechanochemically synthesized Ag-HA powder (Ca10-xAgx(PO4)6(OH)2-x, x = 1.5) was used as a precursor for sputtering target preparation. Morphology, composition, crystallinity, physico-mechanical features (Young's modulus and nanohardness) of the deposited Ag-HA coatings were investigated. The sputtering of the nanostructured multicomponent target at the applied process conditions allowed to deposit crystalline Ag-HA coating which was confirmed by XRD and FTIR data. The SEM results revealed the formation of the coating with the grain morphology and columnar cross-section structure. The EDX analysis confirmed that Ag-HA coating contained Ca, P, O and Ag with the Ca/P ratio of 1.6 ± 0.1. The evolution of the mechanical properties allowed to conclude that addition of silver to HA film caused increase of the coating nanohardness and elastic modulus compared with those of pure HA thin films deposited under the same deposition conditions.

  10. RF-Magnetron Sputtered Conductive Perovskite BaPbO3 Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yih-Rong; Wu, Jenn-Ming

    2003-01-01

    The crystallinity, chemical bonding, and electrical properties of BaPbO3 (BPO) thin films prepared by rf-magnetron sputtering on SiO2/Si substrates were investigated. The working pressure and the Ar/O2 ratio during sputtering are two of the most important factors that influence the characteristics of the prepared BPO films. Both increasing working pressure and increasing Ar/O2 ratio enhanced the crystallization of the perovskite BPO phase and yielded films with low resistivity. Sputtering in an environment with a working pressure of 80 mTorr and Ar/O2 = 90/10 at 350°C gave deposited BPO films with a low resistivity of 0.9 × 10-3 Ωcm, and a high carrier concentration of 8.3 × 1020 electrons/cm3, which values were almost equal to those of the bulk BaPbO3. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that Pb4+ ions were formed in the BPO films as the working pressure and the Ar/O2 ratio were increased, enhancing the crystallization of the perovskite BPO phase to yield films of lower resistivity.

  11. Effect of oxygen flow rate on the properties of SiOx films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Fachun; Li, Ming; Wang, Haiqian; Jiang, Yousong; Song, Yizhou

    2005-08-01

    SiOx (x=0--2) films were deposited on BK-7 substrates by a low frequency reactive magnetron sputtering system with the oxygen flow rate (OFR) changing from 0 to 30 sccm. The samples were characterized by atomic force microscopy, spectrophotometer, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The extinction coefficient and refractive index decrease, while the optical transmittance increases with the increase of OFR from 0 to 17 sccm. The root mean square surface roughness has a maximum at 10 sccm OFR. The highest deposition rate is at 15 sccm OFR. Our results show that the films deposited at 20 sccm OFR are stoichiometric silica with relatively high deposition rate, low extinction coefficient, and low surface roughness. Therefore, a precise control of OFR is very important to obtain high quality films for optical applications.

  12. Photocatalytic activity of bipolar pulsed magnetron sputter deposited TiO2/TiWOx thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Ko-Wei; Hu, Chung-Hsuan; Hua, Li-Yu; Lee, Chin-Tan; Zhao, Yu-Xiang; Chang, Julian; Yang, Shu-Yi; Han, Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Titanium oxide films were formed by sputtering and then TiWOx films were deposited by bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering with pure titanium and tungsten metal targets. The sputtering of titanium oxide with tungsten enhanced the orientation of the TiO2 (1 0 1) plane of the specimen assemblies. The main varying parameter was the tungsten pulse power. Titanium oxide sputtered with tungsten using a pulsing power of 50 W exhibited a superior hydrophilic property, and a contact angle of 13.1°. This fabrication conditions maximized the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue solution. The mechanism by which the titanium oxide was sputtered with tungsten involves the photogeneration of holes and electron traps, inhibiting the hole-electron recombination, enhancing hydrophilicity and reducing the contact angle.

  13. Structural and thermal properties of nanocrystalline CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, M.; Gupta, V. K.; Gautam, Y. K.; Dave, V.; Chandra, R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown immense application of metal oxides like CuO, MgO, CaO, Al2O3, etc. in different areas which includes chemical warfare agents, medical drugs, magnetic storage media and solar energy transformation. Among the metal oxides, CuO nanoparticles are of special interest because of their excellent gas sensing and catalytic properties. In this paper we report structural and thermal properties of CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron DC sputtering. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer. The XRD result reveals that as DC power increased from 30W to 80W, size of the CuO nanoparticles increased. The same results have been verified through TEM analysis. Thermal properties of these particles were studied using thermogravimetry.

  14. Reactive DC magnetron sputtered zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin film and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, B.; Ashok, K.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Kuppusami, P.; Jayachandran, M.

    2008-05-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin films were prepared by using reactive direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering onto different substrates. A good polycrystalline nature with face centered cubic structure was observed from X-ray Diffraction for ZrN thin films. The observed 'd' values from the X-ray Diffraction pattern were found to be in good agreement with the standard 'd' values (JCPDS-89-5269). An emission peak is observed at 587nm from Photoluminescence studies for the excitation at 430nm. The resistivity value (ρ) of 2.1798 (μΩ cm) was observed. ZrN has high wear resistance and low coefficient of friction. A less negative value of Ecorr and lower value of Icorr observed for ZrN / Mild Steel (MS) clearly confirm the better corrosion resistance than the bare substrate. Also the higher Rct value and lower Cdl value was observed for ZrN / MS from Nyquist - plot.

  15. Optical properties of ITO films obtained by high-frequency magnetron sputtering with accompanying ion treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Krylov, P. N. Zakirova, R. M.; Fedotova, I. V.

    2013-10-15

    A variation in the properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films obtained by the method of reactive magnetron sputtering with simultaneous ion treatment is reported. The ITO films feature the following parameters in the optical range of 450-1100 nm: a transmission coefficient of 80%, band gap of 3.50-3.60 eV, and a refractive index of 1.97-2.06. All characteristics of the films depend on the ion-treatment current. The latter, during the course of deposition, reduces the resistivity of the ITO films with the smallest value of the resistivity being equal to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm. The degradation of films with a high resistivity when kept in air is observed.

  16. Electrochemical properties of magnetron sputtered WO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Madhavi, V.; Kondaiah, P.; Hussain, O. M.; Uthanna, S.

    2013-02-05

    Thin films of tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) were deposited on ITO substrates by using RF magnetron sputtering at oxygen and argon atmospheres of 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}Pa and 4 Pa respectively. The chemical composition and surface morphology of the WO{sub 3} thin films have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. The results indicate that the deposited WO{sub 3} thin films are nearly stoichiometric. The electrochemical performances of the WO{sub 3} thin films have been evaluated by galvonostatic charging/discharging method. The discharge capacity was 15{mu}Ah/cm{sup 2}{mu}m at the initial cycle and faded rapidly in the first few cycles and stabilized at a lesser stage.

  17. Size-dependent electrical conductivity of indium zinc oxide deposited by RF magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Heo, Young-Woo; Pearton, S J; Norton, D P

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the size-dependent electrical conductivities of indium zinc oxide stripes with different widths from 50 nm to 4 microm and with the same thickness of 50 nm deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. The size of the indium zinc oxide stripes was controlled by e-beam lithography. The distance of the two Ti/Au Ohmic electrodes along the indium zinc oxide stripes was kept constant at 25 microm. The electrical conductivity decreased as the size of the indium zinc oxide stripes decreased below a critical width (80 nm). The activation energy, derived from the electric conductivity versus temperature measurement, was dependent on the dimensions of indium zinc oxide stripes. These results can be understood as stemming from surface charge trapping from the absorption of oxygen and/or water vapor, which leads to an increase in the energy difference between the conduction energy band and the Fermi energy. PMID:22849102

  18. One-step aluminium-assisted crystallization of Ge epitaxy on Si by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ziheng Hao, Xiaojing; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Green, Martin A.

    2014-02-03

    In this work, one-step aluminium-assisted crystallization of Ge on Si is achieved via magnetron sputtering by applying an in-situ low temperature (50 °C to 150 °C) heat treatment in between Al and Ge depositions. The effect of heat treatment on film properties and the growth mechanism of Ge epitaxy on Si are studied via X-ray diffraction, Raman and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Compared with the conventional two-step process, the one-step aluminium-assisted crystallization requires much lower thermal budget and results in pure Ge epitaxial layer, which may be suitable for use as a virtual substrate for the fabrication of III-V solar cells.

  19. Characteristics of W Doped Nanocrystalline Carbon Films Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Seob; Park, Chul Min; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Moon

    2016-05-01

    Nanocrystalline tungsten doped carbon (WC) films were prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Tungsten was used as the doping material in carbon thin films with the aim of application as a contact strip in an electric railway. The structural, physical, and electrical properties of the fabricated WC films with various DC bias voltages were investigated. The films had a uniform and smooth surface. Hardness and frication characteristics of the films were improved, and the resistivity and sheet resistance decreased with increasing negative DC bias voltage. These results are associated with the nanocrystalline WC phase and sp(2) clusters in carbon networks increased by ion bombardment enhanced with increasing DC bias voltage. Consequently, the increase of sp(2) clusters containing WC nanocrystalline in the carbon films is attributed to the improvement in the physical and electrical properties.

  20. Surface properties and biocompatibility of nanostructured TiO2 film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Asif; He, Jie; Jiao, Lingrui; Zhong, Xiaoxia; Sheng, Zhengming

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 films are deposited on a silicon substrate using 150-W power from the RF magnetron sputtering at working pressures of 3 to 5 Pa, with no substrate bias, and at 3 Pa with a substrate bias of -50 V. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that TiO2 films deposited on unbiased as well as biased substrates are all amorphous. Surface properties such as surface roughness and wettability of TiO2 films, grown in a plasma environment, under biased and unbiased substrate conditions are reported according to the said parameters of RF power and the working pressures. Primary rat osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) cells have been cultured on nanostructured TiO2 films fabricated at different conditions of substrate bias and working pressures. The effects of roughness and hydrophilicity of nanostructured TiO2 films on cell density and cell spreading have been discussed.

  1. Control over the preferred orientation of CIGS films deposited by magnetron sputtering using a wetting layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yong; Jiang, Fan; Liu, Lian; Yu, Zhou; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    A growth method is presented to control the preferred orientation in chalcopyrite CuIn x Ga1- x Se2 (CIGS) thin films grown by magnetron sputtering. Films with (220/204) and (112) preferred orientation as well as randomly oriented films were prepared. The effects of an In2Se3 wetting layer and the working pressure on the texture transition phenomena were examined. A large-grained CIGS film with (220/204) texture was formed at 400°C with the inclusion of a thin (80 nm) In2Se3 layer and liquid phase (excess copper selenide phase) formation, and the reaction mechanism is proposed. The device deposited at 2.0 Pa on an In2Se3 layer exhibited the optimal electrical properties. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. C/CrC nanocomposite coating deposited by magnetron sputtering at high ion irradiation conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Z.; Rainforth, W. M.; Gass, M. H.; Bleloch, A.; Ehiassarian, A. P.; Hovsepian, P. Eh.

    2011-10-01

    CrC with the fcc NaCl (B1) structure is a metastable phase that can be obtained under the non-equilibrium conditions of high ion irradiation. A nano-composite coating consisting of amorphous carbon embedded in a CrC matrix was prepared via the unbalanced magnetron sputtering of graphite and Cr metal targets in Ar gas with a high ionized flux (ion-to-neutral ratio Ji/Jn = 6). The nanoscale amorphous carbon clusters self-assembled into layers alternated by CrC, giving the composite a multilayer structure. The phase, microstructure, and composition of the coating were characterized using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy. The interpretation of the true coating structure, in particular the carbide type, is discussed.

  3. Deposition of vanadium oxide films by direct-current magnetron reactive sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusano, E.; Theil, J. A.; Thornton, John A.

    1988-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that thin films of vanadium oxide can be deposited at modest substrate temperatures by dc reactive sputtering from a vanadium target in an O2-Ar working gas using a planar magnetron source. Resistivity ratios of about 5000 are found between a semiconductor phase with a resistivity of about 5 Ohm cm and a metallic phase with a resistivity of about 0.001 Ohm cm for films deposited onto borosilicate glass substrates at about 400 C. X-ray diffraction shows the films to be single-phase VO2 with a monoclinic structure. The VO2 films are obtained for a narrow range of O2 injection rates which correspond to conditions where cathode poisoning is just starting to occur.

  4. Structural and thermal properties of nanocrystalline CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, M.; Gupta, V. K.; Gautam, Y. K.; Dave, V.; Chandra, R.

    2014-01-28

    Recent research has shown immense application of metal oxides like CuO, MgO, CaO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, etc. in different areas which includes chemical warfare agents, medical drugs, magnetic storage media and solar energy transformation. Among the metal oxides, CuO nanoparticles are of special interest because of their excellent gas sensing and catalytic properties. In this paper we report structural and thermal properties of CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron DC sputtering. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer. The XRD result reveals that as DC power increased from 30W to 80W, size of the CuO nanoparticles increased. The same results have been verified through TEM analysis. Thermal properties of these particles were studied using thermogravimetry.

  5. Studies on optoelectronic properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered chromium doped CdO thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Hymavathi, B. Rao, T. Subba; Kumar, B. Rajesh

    2014-10-15

    Cr doped CdO thin films were deposited on glass substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering method and subsequently annealed from 200 °C to 500 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the films exhibit (1 1 1) preferred orientation. The optical transmittance of the films increases from 64% to 88% with increasing annealing temperature. The optical band gap values were found to be decreased from 2.77 to 2.65 eV with the increase of annealing temperature. The decrease in optical band gap energy with increasing annealing temperature can be attributed to improvement in the crystallinity of the films and may also be due to quantum confinement effect. A minimum resistivity of 2.23 × 10{sup −4} Ω.cm and sheet resistance of 6.3 Ω/sq is obtained for Cr doped CdO film annealed at 500 °C.

  6. Role of oxygen atoms in the growth of magnetron sputter-deposited ZnO films

    SciTech Connect

    Jie, Jin; Morita, Aya; Shirai, Hajime

    2010-08-15

    The role of oxygen atoms in the growth of magnetron sputter-deposited ZnO films was studied by alternating the deposition of a several-nanometer-thick ZnO layer and the O{sub 2}/Ar mixture plasma exposure, i.e., layer-by-layer technique. The film crystallization promoted with suppressing the oxygen vacancy and interstitial defects by adjusting the exposure condition of O{sub 2}/Ar plasma. These findings suggest that the chemical potential of oxygen atom determine the film crystallization as well as the electronic state. The diffusion and effusion of oxygen atoms at the growing surface play a role of thermal annealing, promoted the film crystallization as well as the creation and the annihilation of oxygen and zinc related defects. The role of oxygen atoms reaching at the film-growing surface is discussed in term of chemical annealing. The possible oxygen diffusion mechanism is proposed.

  7. Bioactive glass thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering technique: The role of working pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, G. E.; Marcov, D. A.; Pasuk, I.; Miculescu, F.; Pina, S.; Tulyaganov, D. U.; Ferreira, J. M. F.

    2010-09-01

    Bioglass coatings were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering deposition at low temperature (150 °C) onto silicon substrates. The influence of argon pressure values used during deposition (0.2 Pa, 0.3 Pa and 0.4 Pa) on the short-range structure and biomineralization potential of the bioglass coatings was studied. The biomineralization capability was evaluated after 30 days of immersion in simulated body fluid. SEM-EDS, XRD and FTIR measurements were performed. The tests clearly showed strong biomineralization features for the bioglass films. The thickness of the chemically grown hydroxyapatite layers was more than twice greater for the BG films deposited at the highest working pressure, in comparison to those grown on the films obtained at lower working pressures. The paper attempts to explain this experimental fact based on structural and compositional considerations.

  8. High-frequency magnetic properties of Zn ferrite films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Dangwei; Zhu Jingyi; Yang Yuancai; Fan Xiaolong; Chai Guozhi; Sui Wenbo; Zhang Zhengmei; Xue Desheng

    2010-02-15

    The effect of thermal annealing on structural and magnetic properties has been investigated for Zn ferrite films deposited on Si (111) substrates using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The saturation magnetization at room temperature was enhanced upto 303 emu/cm{sup 3} by annealing at relatively low temperature of 200 deg. C and decreased at higher temperatures. The complex permeability {mu}={mu}{sup '}-i{mu}{sup ''} values of the ferrite films as-deposited and annealed at 200 and 400 deg. C were measured at frequency upto 5 GHz. These films exhibited better high-frequency properties, especially, the film annealed at 200 deg. C had a large {mu}{sup '} of 19.5 and high resonance frequency f{sub r} of 1.61 GHz. And the reason was investigated preliminarily based on the bianisotropy model.

  9. Microstructure and optoelectronic properties of galliumtitanium-zinc oxide thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shou-bu; Lu, Zhou; Zhong, Zhi-you; Long, Hao; Gu, Jin-hua; Long, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Gallium-titanium-zinc oxide (GTZO) transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The dependences of the microstructure and optoelectronic properties of GTZO thin films on Ar gas pressure were observed. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that all the deposited films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal structure and have a preferred orientation along the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. With the increment of Ar gas pressure, the microstructure and optoelectronic properties of GTZO thin films will be changed. When Ar gas pressure is 0.4 Pa, the deposited films possess the best crystal quality and optoelectronic properties.

  10. Surface properties and biocompatibility of nanostructured TiO2 film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Asif; He, Jie; Jiao, Lingrui; Zhong, Xiaoxia; Sheng, Zhengming

    2015-02-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 films are deposited on a silicon substrate using 150-W power from the RF magnetron sputtering at working pressures of 3 to 5 Pa, with no substrate bias, and at 3 Pa with a substrate bias of -50 V. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that TiO2 films deposited on unbiased as well as biased substrates are all amorphous. Surface properties such as surface roughness and wettability of TiO2 films, grown in a plasma environment, under biased and unbiased substrate conditions are reported according to the said parameters of RF power and the working pressures. Primary rat osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) cells have been cultured on nanostructured TiO2 films fabricated at different conditions of substrate bias and working pressures. The effects of roughness and hydrophilicity of nanostructured TiO2 films on cell density and cell spreading have been discussed.

  11. Morphology of epitaxial TiN(001) grown by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, B.W.; Petrov, I.; Cahill, D.G.; Greene, J.E.

    1997-03-01

    The evolution of surface morphology and microstructure during growth of single crystal TiN(001) is characterized by {ital in situ} scanning tunneling microscopy and postdeposition plan-view transmission electron microscopy. The TiN layers are grown on MgO at 650{lt}T{lt}750{degree}C using reactive magnetron sputter deposition in pure N{sub 2}. The surface morphology is dominated by growth mounds with an aspect ratio of {approx_equal}0.006; both the roughness amplitude and average separation between mounds approximately follow a power law dependence on film thickness, t{sup {alpha}}, with {alpha}=0.25{plus_minus}0.07. Island edges show dendritic geometries characteristic of limited step-edge mobility at the growth temperature. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Characteristics of W Doped Nanocrystalline Carbon Films Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Seob; Park, Chul Min; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Moon

    2016-05-01

    Nanocrystalline tungsten doped carbon (WC) films were prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Tungsten was used as the doping material in carbon thin films with the aim of application as a contact strip in an electric railway. The structural, physical, and electrical properties of the fabricated WC films with various DC bias voltages were investigated. The films had a uniform and smooth surface. Hardness and frication characteristics of the films were improved, and the resistivity and sheet resistance decreased with increasing negative DC bias voltage. These results are associated with the nanocrystalline WC phase and sp(2) clusters in carbon networks increased by ion bombardment enhanced with increasing DC bias voltage. Consequently, the increase of sp(2) clusters containing WC nanocrystalline in the carbon films is attributed to the improvement in the physical and electrical properties. PMID:27483857

  13. Particle visualization in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering. II. Absolute density dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Britun, Nikolay Palmucci, Maria; Konstantinidis, Stephanos; Snyders, Rony

    2015-04-28

    Time-resolved characterization of an Ar-Ti high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge has been performed. The present, second, paper of the study is related to the discharge characterization in terms of the absolute density of species using resonant absorption spectroscopy. The results on the time-resolved density evolution of the neutral and singly-ionized Ti ground state atoms as well as the metastable Ti and Ar atoms during the discharge on- and off-time are presented. Among the others, the questions related to the inversion of population of the Ti energy sublevels, as well as to re-normalization of the two-dimensional density maps in terms of the absolute density of species, are stressed.

  14. Magnetron co-sputtered silicon-containing hydroxyapatite thin films--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Thian, E S; Huang, J; Best, S M; Barber, Z H; Bonfield, W

    2005-06-01

    The use of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) as a biomaterial has been reported recently. In vivo testing has shown that Si-HA promotes early bonding of the bone/implant interface. In order to extend its usage to major load-bearing applications such as artificial hip replacement implants, it has been proposed that the material could be used in the form of a coating on implant surfaces. This paper reports a preliminary study of the biocompatibility of magnetron co-sputtered silicon-containing hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) coatings on a metallic substrate. Magnetron co-sputtered Si-HA films of thickness 600 nm with a Si content of approximately 0.8 wt% were produced on titanium substrates. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the as-deposited Si-HA films were either amorphous or made up of very small crystals. The crystallinity of Si-HA films was increased after post-deposition heat treatment at 700 degrees C for 3 h, and the principal peaks were attributable to HA. The formation of nano-scale silicon-calcium phosphate precipitates was noted on the heat-treated films. In vitro cell culture has demonstrated that human osteoblast-like cells attached and grew well on all films, with the highest cell growth and signs of mineralisation observed on the heat-treated Si-HA films. In addition, many focal contacts were produced on the films and the cells had well-defined actin cytoskeletal organisation. This work shows that as-deposited and heat-treated Si-HA films have excellent bioactivity and are good candidates when rapid bone apposition is required. Furthermore, heat-treated Si-HA films have improved biostability compared to as-deposited films under physiological conditions.

  15. Enhancement of bioactivity on medical polymer surface using high power impulse magnetron sputtered titanium dioxide film.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Ju; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Chen, Ying-Hung; Chung, Chi-Jen; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-12-01

    This study utilizes a novel technique, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), which provides a higher ionization rate and ion bombardment energy than direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS), to deposit high osteoblast compatible titanium dioxide (TiO2) coatings with anatase (A-TiO2) and rutile (R-TiO2) phases onto the biomedical polyetheretherketone (PEEK) polymer substrates at low temperature. The adhesions of TiO2 coatings that were fabricated using HIPIMS and DCMS were compared. The in vitro biocompatibility of these coatings was confirmed. The results reveal that HIPIMS can be used to prepare crystallinic columnar A-TiO2 and R-TiO2 coatings on PEEK substrate if the ratio of oxygen to argon is properly controlled. According to a tape adhesion test, the HIPIMS-TiO2 coatings had an adhesion grade of 5B even after they were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) environments for 28days. Scratch tests proved that HIPIMS-TiO2 coatings undergo cohesive failure. These results demonstrate that the adhesive force between HIPIMS-TiO2 coating/PEEK is stronger than that between DCMS-TiO2 coating/PEEK. After a long period (28days) of immersion in SBF, a bone-like crystallinic hydroxyapatite layer with a corresponding Ca/P stoichiometry was formed on both HIPIMS-TiO2. The osteoblast compatibility of HIPIMS-TiO2 exceeded that of the bare PEEK substrate. It is also noticeable that the R-TiO2 performed better in vitro than the A-TiO2 due to the formation of many negatively charged hydroxyl groups (-OH(-)) groups on R-TiO2 (110) surface. In summary, the HIPIMS-TiO2 coatings satisfied the requirements for osseointegration, suggesting the possibility of using HIPIMS to modify the PEEK surface with TiO2 for spinal implants.

  16. Electrical and optical properties of Ta-Si-N thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Oezer, D.; Sanjines, R.; Ramirez, G.; Rodil, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    The electrical and optical properties of Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering from individual Ta and Si targets were studied in order to investigate the effects of nitrogen and silicon contents on both properties and their correlation to the film microstructure. Three sets of fcc-Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} thin films were prepared: sub-stoichiometric Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub 0.44}, nearly stoichiometric Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub 0.5}, and over-stoichiometric Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub 0.56}. The optical properties were investigated by near-normal-incidence reflectivity and ellipsometric measurements in the optical energy range from 0.375 eV to 6.8 eV, while the d.c. electrical resistivity was measured in the van der Pauw configuration from 20 K to 300 K. The optical and electrical measurements were interpreted using the standard Drude-Lorentz model and the so-called grain boundary scattering model, respectively. The electronic properties were closely correlated with the compositional and structural modifications of the Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} films due to variations in the stoichiometry of the fcc-TaN{sub z} system and the addition of Si atoms. According to the nitrogen and silicon contents, fcc-Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} films can exhibit room temperature resistivity values ranging from 10{sup 2} {mu}{Omega} cm to about 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} {mu}{Omega} cm. The interpretation of the experimental temperature-dependent resistivity data within the Grain Boundary Scattering model, combined with the results from optical investigations, showed that the mean electron transmission probability G and the free carriers concentration, N, are the main parameters that control the transport properties of these films. The results indicated that the correlation between electrical and optical measurements with the chemical composition and the nanostructure of the Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} thin films provides a pertinent and

  17. Effects of off-stoichiometry and density on the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of yttrium iron garnet films by magnetron sputtering method

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Qinghui; Zhang Huaiwu; Wen Qiye; Liu Yingli

    2010-10-15

    Yttrium iron garnet films were deposited on Si and Si/CeO{sub 2} substrates by magnetron sputtering method followed by postannealing. By varying the fabrication parameters such as sputtering atmosphere, sputtering power, and annealing atmosphere, single phase garnet films were obtained with different off-stoichiometry and film density. The dependence of cation ratio, magnetic and magneto-optical characteristics, and absorption coefficient were systemically investigated. The results reveal that a proper oxygen pressure in both sputtering and annealing process give rise to a small cation ratio of (Fe{sup 2+} or Fe{sup 4+})/Fe{sup 3+}, thus is beneficial to obtain large saturation magnetization, large Faraday rotation, and small optical absorption. The sputtering power can also affect the properties of the film through changing the film density. Our results indicate that the properties of sputtering deposited yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film can be easily tuned and optimized by modifying the off-stoichiometry and density of the film, thus provides flexibility to fabricate YIG film for extensive applications.

  18. Heavily-doped ZnO:Al thin films prepared by using magnetron Co-sputtering: Optical and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Eun-A.; Jun, Young-Kil; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Lee, Woo-Sun

    2016-07-01

    Photovoltaic applications require transparent conducting-oxide (TCO) thin films with high optical transmittance in the visible spectral region (380 - 780 nm), low resistivity, and high thermal/chemical stability. The ZnO thin film is one of the most common alternatives to the conventional indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film TCO. Highly transparent and conductive ZnO thin films can be prepared by doping with group III elements. Heavily-doped ZnO:Al (AZO) thin films were prepared by using the RF magnetron co-sputtering method with ZnO and Al targets to obtain better characteristics at a low cost. The RF sputtering power to each target was varied to control the doping concentration in fixed-thickness AZO thin films. The crystal structures of the AZO thin films were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction. The morphological microstructure was observed by using scanning electron microscopy. The optical transmittance and the band gap energy of the AZO thin films were examined with an UV-visible spectrophotometer in the range of 300 - 1800 nm. The resistivity and the carrier concentration were examined by using a Hall-effect measurement system. An excellent optical transmittance > 80% with an appropriate band gap energy (3.26 - 3.27 eV) and an improved resistivity (~10 -1 Ω·cm) with high carrier concentration (1017 - 1019 cm -3) were demonstrated in 350-nm-thick AZO thin films for thin-film photovoltaic applications.

  19. Physical Properties of Silver Oxide Thin Film Prepared by DC Magnetron Sputtering: Effect of Oxygen Partial Pressure During Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entezar Mehdi, Hamid; Hantehzadeh, M. R.; Valedbagi, Sh.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper the physical properties of silver oxide thin film have been prepared on BK7 substrate at room temperature by reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique using pure silver metal target by varying oxygen partial pressure during growth at reported. The reactive sputter gas was a mixture of Ar (99.999%) and N2 (99.999%) with the different ratio Ar and N2 by volume at the constant pressure of the growth chamber. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that by increasing O2 volume during the Growth, change in crystalline structure will occur. The Atomic Force Microscope images shown by increasing O2 volume, the RMS roughness decreasing consistently. The thickness of the thin films decreases (from 353 to 230 nm) with increasing oxygen partial pressure in chamber. The reflectivity of thin films was investigated with a spectrophotometer system, and the surface reflectivity measurements indicate that by increasing O2 volume growth, the optical properties of the films changes.

  20. Physics of Plasma-Based Ion Implantation&Deposition (PBIID)and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS): A Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2007-08-28

    The emerging technology of High Power Impulse MagnetronSputtering (HIPIMS) has much in common with the more establishedtechnology of Plasma Based Ion Implantation&Deposition (PBIID):both use pulsed plasmas, the pulsed sheath periodically evolves andcollapses, the plasma-sheath system interacts with the pulse-drivingpower supply, the plasma parameters are affected by the power dissipated,surface atoms are sputtered and secondary electrons are emitted, etc.Therefore, both fields of science and technology could learn from eachother, which has not been fully explored. On the other hand, there aresignificant differences, too. Most importantly, the operation of HIPIMSheavilyrelies on the presence of a strong magnetic field, confiningelectrons and causing their ExB drift, which is closed for typicalmagnetron configurations. Second, at the high peak power levels used forHIPIMS, 1 kW/cm2 or greater averaged over the target area, the sputteredmaterial greatly affects plasma generation. For PBIID, in contrast,plasma generation and ion processing of the surface (ion implantation,etching, and deposition) are considered rela-tively independentprocesses. Third, secondary electron emission is generally considered anuisance for PBIID, especially at high voltages, whereas it is a criticalingredient to the operation of HIPIMS. Fourth, the voltages in PBIID areoften higher than in HIPIMS. For the first three reasons listed above,modelling of PBIID seems to be easier and could give some guidance forfuture HIPIMS models, which, clearly, will be more involved.

  1. Tribological properties of metal doped a-C film by RF magnetron sputtering method

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yong Seob; Jung, Tae-Hwan; Lim, Dong-Gun; Park, Young; Kim, Hyungchul; Choi, Won Seok

    2012-10-15

    We deposited various metal doped amorphous carbon (a-C:Me) films by radio frequency (RF) magnetron co-sputtering method. Tungsten (W), molybdenum (Mo), and chromium (Cr) were used as the doping metals in a-C film. The applied power on carbon and metal (W, Mo, and Cr) target were 150 W and 40 W, respectively. a-C:Me films exhibited smooth and uniform surface roughness and the hardness over 15 GPa. Specially, a-C:W film showed the maximum hardness of 18.5 GPa. The coefficient of friction of a-C:W film is relatively lower than that of other films and the critical load value of a-C:W film is higher. These results are related to the concentration of metal in the carbon matrix by the difference of sputtering yield and the change of the structure by the metal bonding. Consequently, W metal is good candidate as the doping metal for the improvement of tribological characteristics.

  2. Deposition and characterization of TiZrV-Pd thin films by dc magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Yan-Hui; Wei, Wei; Fan, Le; Pei, Xiang-Tao; Hong, Yuan-Zhi; Wang, Yong

    2015-12-01

    TiZrV film is mainly applied in the ultra-high vacuum pipes of storage rings. Thin film coatings of palladium, which are added onto the TiZrV film to increase the service life of nonevaporable getters and enhance H2 pumping speed, were deposited on the inner face of stainless steel pipes by dc magnetron sputtering using argon gas as the sputtering gas. The TiZrV-Pd film properties were investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The grain size of TiZrV and Pd films were about 0.42-1.3 nm and 8.5-18.25 nm respectively. It was found that the roughness of TiZrV films is small, about 2-4 nm, but for Pd film it is large, about 17-19 nm. The PP At. % of Pd in TiZrV/Pd films varied from 86.84 to 87.56 according to the XPS test results. Supported by National Natural Science Funds of China (11205155) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (WK2310000041)

  3. ZnO:Al films prepared by inline DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingel, Astrid; Füchsel, Kevin; Kaiser, Norbert; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) is one of the most promising transparent conductive oxide (TCO) materials that can substitute the high-quality but costly indium tin oxide (ITO). To ensure high-quality films as well as moderate production costs, inline DC magnetron sputtering was chosen to deposit thin AZO films. The influence of sputter gas pressure, substrate temperature, and film thickness on the electrical, optical, and structural properties was analyzed. The resistivity reaches a minimum of 1.3×10-5 Ωm at around 1 Pa for a substrate temperature of 90°C. A maximum conductivity was obtained by increasing the substrate temperature to 160°C. An annealing step after deposition led to a further decrease in resistivity to a value of 5.3×10-6 Ωm in a 200 nm thin film. At the same time, the optical performance could be improved. Additionally, simulations of the transmittance and reflectance spectra were carried out to compare carrier concentration and mobility determined by optical techniques with those from Hall measurements.

  4. Resputtering effect during MgO buffer layer deposition by magnetron sputtering for superconducting coated conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Shaozhu; Shi, Kai; Deng, Shutong; Han, Zhenghe; Feng, Feng Lu, Hongyuan; Qu, Timing; Zhu, Yuping; Huang, Rongxia

    2015-07-15

    In this study, MgO thin films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The film thickness in the deposition area directly facing the target center obviously decreased compared with that in other areas. This reduction in thickness could be attributed to the resputtering effect resulting from bombardment by energetic particles mainly comprising oxygen atoms and negative oxygen ions. The influences of deposition position and sputtering pressure on the deposition rate were investigated. Resputtering altered the orientation of the MgO film from (111) to (001) when the film was deposited on a single crystal yttria-stabilized zirconia substrate. The density distribution of energetic particles was calculated on the basis of the measured thicknesses of the MgO films deposited at different positions. The divergence angle of the energetic particle flux was estimated to be approximately 15°. The energetic particle flux might be similar to the assisting ion flux in the ion beam assisted deposition process and could affect the orientation of the MgO film growth.

  5. Fabrication of single-crystal Si nanowires by ultrahigh vacuum magnetron sputtering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knepper, J. W.; Zhao, X. W.; Yang, F. Y.

    2006-03-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have attracted great interests due to the intriguing fundamental science and technological application they provide. Many semiconductor materials have been made into single crystal nanowires with superior crystal quality and high mobility. Among them, silicon is particularly interesting because silicon is the foundation of modern electronic technology. A majority of the nanowire synthesis used laser-assisted catalyst growth or chemical vapor deposition. Here we reported a different approach to the fabrication of semiconductor nanowires using ultrahigh vacuum magnetron sputtering. Using thin Au layers as catalyst via vopor-liquid-solid mechanism, single crystal Si nanowires have been grown on Si substrates at a temperature of ˜700 C. Electron microscopy revealed that most Si nanowires grew epitaxially on Si(111) surfaces. Si nanowires are perpendicular to the Si(111) surface with a Si/Au alloy sphere on the top of the nanowires. The growth of Si nanowires on Si wafers with other orientations and amorphous silicon oxide layers was also observed, but with much less probability. The diameter of the Si nanowires is about 200 nm using Au layers as catalyst. The nanowire diameter can be controlled to smaller size by patterning the Au layers into small dots to reduce the catalyst size. Si nanowires fabricated by ultrahigh vacuum sputter at a base pressure of 10̂-10 torr are high purity and can be easily doped to desirable carrier concentration.

  6. Three-Dimensional, Fibrous Lithium Iron Phosphate Structures Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Bünting, Aiko; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Sebold, Doris; Buchkremer, H P; Vaßen, R

    2015-10-14

    Crystalline, three-dimensional (3D) structured lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) thin films with additional carbon are fabricated by a radio frequency (RF) magnetron-sputtering process in a single step. The 3D structured thin films are obtained at deposition temperatures of 600 °C and deposition times longer than 60 min by using a conventional sputtering setup. In contrast to glancing angle deposition (GLAD) techniques, no tilting of the substrate is required. Thin films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrospcopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic charging and discharging. The structured LiFePO4+C thin films consist of fibers that grow perpendicular to the substrate surface. The fibers have diameters up to 500 nm and crystallize in the desired olivine structure. The 3D structured thin films have superior electrochemical properties compared with dense two-dimensional (2D) LiFePO4 thin films and are, hence, very promising for application in 3D microbatteries.

  7. Novel high power impulse magnetron sputtering enhanced by an auxiliary electrical field.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunwei; Tian, Xiubo

    2016-08-01

    The high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) technique is a novel highly ionized physical vapor deposition method with a high application potential. However, the electron utilization efficiency during sputtering is rather low and the metal particle ionization rate needs to be considerably improved to allow for a large-scale industrial application. Therefore, we enhanced the HIPIMS technique by simultaneously applying an electric field (EF-HIPIMS). The effect of the electric field on the discharge process was studied using a current sensor and an optical emission spectrometer. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the electric potential and electric field during the EF-HIPIMS process was simulated using the ANSYS software. The results indicate that a higher electron utilization efficiency and a higher particle ionization rate could be achieved. The auxiliary anode obviously changed the distribution of the electric potential and the electric field in the discharge region, which increased the plasma density and enhanced the degree of ionization of the vanadium and argon gas. Vanadium films were deposited to further compare both techniques, and the morphology of the prepared films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The films showed a smaller crystal grain size and a denser growth structure when the electric field was applied during the discharge process.

  8. Thermoelectric Properties of Amorphous Zr-Ni-Sn Thin Films Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yang; Tan, Qing; Zhu, Jie; Li, Siyang; Liu, Chenjin; Lei, Yuxiong; Li, Liangliang

    2015-06-01

    n-Type Zr-Ni-Sn thermoelectric thin films with thickness of 60 nm to 400 nm were deposited by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering. The microstructure of the Zr-Ni-Sn thin films was examined by x-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, revealing an amorphous microstructure. The thermal conductivity of the amorphous films was measured by the ultrafast laser pump-probe thermoreflectance technique, revealing values of 1.4 W m-1 K-1 to 2.2 W m-1 K-1, smaller than that of bulk material because of the amorphous microstructure of the films. The effects of the sputtering power on the composition, Seebeck coefficient, and electrical conductivity of the films were investigated. The largest Seebeck coefficient and power factor were achieved at 393 K, being -112.0 μV K-1 and 2.66 mW K-2 m-1, respectively. The low thermal conductivity and high power factor indicate that amorphous Zr-Ni-Sn thin films could be a promising material for use in thermoelectric microdevices.

  9. Surface treatment effect on Si (111) substrate for carbon deposition using DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, A. S.; Sahdan, M. F.; Hendra, I. B.; Dinari, P.; Darma, Y.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we studied the effect of HF treatment in silicon (111) substrate surface for depositing thin layer carbon. We performed the deposition of carbon by using DC Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering with carbon pallet (5% Fe) as target. From SEM characterization results it can be concluded that the carbon layer on HF treated substrate is more uniform than on substrate without treated. Carbon deposition rate is higher as confirmed by AFM results if the silicon substrate is treated by HF solution. EDAX characterization results tell that silicon (111) substrate with HF treatment have more carbon fraction than substrate without treatment. These results confirmed that HF treatment on silicon Si (111) substrates could enhance the carbon deposition by using DC sputtering. Afterward, the carbon atomic arrangement on silicon (111) surface is studied by performing thermal annealing process to 900 °C. From Raman spectroscopy results, thin film carbon is not changing until 600 °C thermal budged. But, when temperature increase to 900 °C, thin film carbon is starting to diffuse to silicon (111) substrates.

  10. Effect of pulse frequency on the ion fluxes during pulsed dc magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Rahamathunnisa, M.; Cameron, D. C.

    2009-03-15

    The ion fluxes and energies which impinge on the substrate during the deposition of chromium nitride by asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc reactive magnetron sputtering have been analyzed using energy resolved mass spectrometry. It has been found that there is a remarkable increase in ion flux at higher pulse frequencies and that the peak ion energy is directly related to the positive voltage overshoot of the target voltage. The magnitude of the metal flux depositing on the substrate is consistent with a 'dead time' of {approx}0.7 {mu}s at the start of the on period. The variation of the ion flux with pulse frequency has been explained by a simple model in which the ion density during the on period has a large peak which is slightly delayed from the large negative voltage overshoot which occurs at the start of the on pulse due to increased ionization at that time. This is consistent with the previously observed phenomena in pulsed sputtering.

  11. Nanocrystalline silicon quantum dots thin films prepared by magnetron reaction sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weiping; Deng, Jinxiang; Yang, Bing; Yu, Zhenrui; Aceves, Mariano

    2009-07-01

    Silicon is a kind of excellent semiconductor material and is one of the core material of microelectronics. But it is not a fine luminescent material. The photoluminescence(PL) will be obtained by excitation only when the size of silicon partials reduced to a certain value. Nanocrystalline silicon films have special structure and many excellent optoelectronic properties and are supposed to be applied in optoelectronic devices and large scale integrated circuits. In this paper, Nanocrystalline silicon films was deposited on silicon substrate by RF magnetron sputtering with pure Si target. And the working gas is the mixture of oxygen and argon .The content of O2 in working gas (O2/ O2 + Ar) and the power of sputtering were changed separately .However, the substrate temperature, working gas pressure and other conditions were definite. After annealing in the stove, we got the Nanocrystalline silicon particles in the thin films. Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) transmittance measurement was carried out to characterized Nanocrystalline silicon films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement was also performed to estimate the atom ratio of the Nanocrystalline silicon films. Raman scattering measurements was also taken in to characterize the Nanocrystalline silicon films. The formation of Nanocrystalline silicon filmswere depended partly on the parameters of experiment. The annealed silicon films were researched that the size of the Nanocrystalline silicon particles proved to be largely impacted by the annealing temperature in the thin film

  12. Novel high power impulse magnetron sputtering enhanced by an auxiliary electrical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunwei; Tian, Xiubo

    2016-08-01

    The high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) technique is a novel highly ionized physical vapor deposition method with a high application potential. However, the electron utilization efficiency during sputtering is rather low and the metal particle ionization rate needs to be considerably improved to allow for a large-scale industrial application. Therefore, we enhanced the HIPIMS technique by simultaneously applying an electric field (EF-HIPIMS). The effect of the electric field on the discharge process was studied using a current sensor and an optical emission spectrometer. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the electric potential and electric field during the EF-HIPIMS process was simulated using the ANSYS software. The results indicate that a higher electron utilization efficiency and a higher particle ionization rate could be achieved. The auxiliary anode obviously changed the distribution of the electric potential and the electric field in the discharge region, which increased the plasma density and enhanced the degree of ionization of the vanadium and argon gas. Vanadium films were deposited to further compare both techniques, and the morphology of the prepared films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The films showed a smaller crystal grain size and a denser growth structure when the electric field was applied during the discharge process.

  13. Radio-Frequency Superimposed Direct Current Magnetron Sputtered Ga:ZnO Transparent Conducting Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Sigdel, A. K.; Ndione, P. F.; Perkins, J. D.; Gennett, T.; van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Shaheen, S. E.; Ginley, D. S.; Berry, J. J.

    2012-05-01

    The utilization of radio-frequency (RF) superimposed direct-current (DC) magnetron sputtering deposition on the properties of gallium doped ZnO (GZO) based transparent conducting oxides has been examined. The GZO films were deposited using 76.2 mm diameter ZnO:Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5 at. % Ga vs. Zn) ceramic oxide target on heated non-alkaline glass substrates by varying total power from 60 W to 120 W in steps of 20 W and at various power ratios of RF to DC changing from 0 to 1 in steps of 0.25. The GZO thin films grown with pure DC, mixed approach, and pure RF resulted in conductivities of 2200 {+-} 200 S/cm, 3920 {+-} 600 S/cm, and 3610 {+-} 400 S/cm, respectively. X-ray diffraction showed all films have wurtzite ZnO structure with the c-axis oriented perpendicular to the substrate. The films grown with increasing RF portion of the total power resulted in the improvement of crystallographic texture with smaller full-width half maximum in {chi} and broadening of optical gap with increased carrier concentration via more efficient doping. Independent of the total sputtering power, all films grown with 50% or higher RF power portion resulted in high mobility ({approx}28 {+-} 1 cm{sup 2}/Vs), consistent with observed improvements in crystallographic texture. All films showed optical transmittance of {approx}90% in the visible range.

  14. Radio-frequency superimposed direct current magnetron sputtered Ga:ZnO transparent conducting thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Sigdel, Ajaya K.; Shaheen, Sean E.; Ndione, Paul F.; Perkins, John D.; Gennett, Thomas; Hest, Maikel F. A. M. van; Ginley, David S.; Berry, Joseph J.

    2012-05-01

    The utilization of radio-frequency (RF) superimposed direct-current (DC) magnetron sputtering deposition on the properties of gallium doped ZnO (GZO) based transparent conducting oxides has been examined. The GZO films were deposited using 76.2 mm diameter ZnO:Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5 at. % Ga vs. Zn) ceramic oxide target on heated non-alkaline glass substrates by varying total power from 60 W to 120 W in steps of 20 W and at various power ratios of RF to DC changing from 0 to 1 in steps of 0.25. The GZO thin films grown with pure DC, mixed approach, and pure RF resulted in conductivities of 2200 {+-} 200 S/cm, 3920 {+-} 600 S/cm, and 3610 {+-} 400 S/cm, respectively. X-ray diffraction showed all films have wurtzite ZnO structure with the c-axis oriented perpendicular to the substrate. The films grown with increasing RF portion of the total power resulted in the improvement of crystallographic texture with smaller full-width half maximum in {chi} and broadening of optical gap with increased carrier concentration via more efficient doping. Independent of the total sputtering power, all films grown with 50% or higher RF power portion resulted in high mobility ({approx}28 {+-} 1 cm{sup 2}/Vs), consistent with observed improvements in crystallographic texture. All films showed optical transmittance of {approx}90% in the visible range.

  15. Study of physical properties of carbon nanotube thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostoufirad, Sanaz; Elahi, Seyyed Mohammad; Saviz, Shahrooz

    2014-01-01

    Cu-incorporated amorphous carbon thin films containing carbon nanotubes have been prepared by DC-magnetron sputtering using a bi-component Cu-C composite target. The properties of the films have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic force microscopy, Furrier transform infrared, Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopies. The results show that the films on a large scale are amorphous with major distorted sp2 graphite bonds, but carbon nanotubes are locally formed in the bulk of the films. Sputtering simulations show that the chemical composition of the films is Cu0.066C0.934. Cu addition results in the formation of a new type of carbon nanotube (CNT) with new radial breathing modes located at 236 cm-1. Cu induces an increase in the density of defects due to bundles of CNTs. This has also been identified in the optical spectroscopy with the observation of a reduction in the band gap with more than 1 eV. Moreover, films are transparent in the visible range and highly reflective in the mid-infrared region, and their sheet resistance is comparable to that of conventional transparent conductive electrodes.

  16. Surface treatment effect on Si (111) substrate for carbon deposition using DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Aji, A. S. Sahdan, M. F.; Hendra, I. B.; Dinari, P.; Darma, Y.

    2015-04-16

    In this work, we studied the effect of HF treatment in silicon (111) substrate surface for depositing thin layer carbon. We performed the deposition of carbon by using DC Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering with carbon pallet (5% Fe) as target. From SEM characterization results it can be concluded that the carbon layer on HF treated substrate is more uniform than on substrate without treated. Carbon deposition rate is higher as confirmed by AFM results if the silicon substrate is treated by HF solution. EDAX characterization results tell that silicon (111) substrate with HF treatment have more carbon fraction than substrate without treatment. These results confirmed that HF treatment on silicon Si (111) substrates could enhance the carbon deposition by using DC sputtering. Afterward, the carbon atomic arrangement on silicon (111) surface is studied by performing thermal annealing process to 900 °C. From Raman spectroscopy results, thin film carbon is not changing until 600 °C thermal budged. But, when temperature increase to 900 °C, thin film carbon is starting to diffuse to silicon (111) substrates.

  17. Novel high power impulse magnetron sputtering enhanced by an auxiliary electrical field.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunwei; Tian, Xiubo

    2016-08-01

    The high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) technique is a novel highly ionized physical vapor deposition method with a high application potential. However, the electron utilization efficiency during sputtering is rather low and the metal particle ionization rate needs to be considerably improved to allow for a large-scale industrial application. Therefore, we enhanced the HIPIMS technique by simultaneously applying an electric field (EF-HIPIMS). The effect of the electric field on the discharge process was studied using a current sensor and an optical emission spectrometer. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the electric potential and electric field during the EF-HIPIMS process was simulated using the ANSYS software. The results indicate that a higher electron utilization efficiency and a higher particle ionization rate could be achieved. The auxiliary anode obviously changed the distribution of the electric potential and the electric field in the discharge region, which increased the plasma density and enhanced the degree of ionization of the vanadium and argon gas. Vanadium films were deposited to further compare both techniques, and the morphology of the prepared films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The films showed a smaller crystal grain size and a denser growth structure when the electric field was applied during the discharge process. PMID:27587123

  18. Fabrication of bioactive, antibacterial TiO2 nanotube surfaces, coated with magnetron sputtered Ag nanostructures for dental applications.

    PubMed

    Uhm, Soo-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Bae; Song, Doo-Hoon; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Han, Jeon-Geon; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2014-10-01

    We investigated whether a silver coating on an anodic oxidized titania (TiO2) nanotube surface would be useful for preventing infections in dental implants. We used a magnetron sputtering process to deposit Ag nanoparticles onto a TiO2 surface. We studied different sputtering input power densities and maintained other parameters constant. We used scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and contact angle measurements to characterize the coated surfaces. Staphylococcus aureus was used to evaluate antibacterial activity. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed peaks that corresponded to metallic Ag, Ti, O, and biocompatible anatase phase TiO2 on the examined surfaces. The contact angles of the Ag nanoparticle-loaded surfaces were significantly lower at 2.5 W/cm2 input power under pulsed direct current mode compared to commercial, untreated Ti surfaces. In vitro antibacterial analysis indicated that a significantly reduced number of S. aureus were detected on an Ag nanoparticle-loaded TiO2 nanotube surface compared to control untreated surfaces. No cytotoxicity was noted, except in the group treated with 5 W/cm2 input power density, which was the highest input of power density we tested for the magnetron sputtering process. Overall, we concluded that it was feasible to create antibacterial Ag nanoparticle-loaded titanium nanotube surfaces with magnetron sputtering. PMID:25942879

  19. Magnetic field strength influence on the reactive magnetron sputter deposition of Ta2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollerweger, R.; Holec, D.; Paulitsch, J.; Rachbauer, R.; Polcik, P.; Mayrhofer, P. H.

    2013-08-01

    Reactive magnetron sputtering enables the deposition of various thin films to be used for protective as well as optical and electronic applications. However, progressing target erosion during sputtering results in increased magnetic field strengths at the target surface. Consequently, the glow discharge, the target poisoning, and hence the morphology, crystal structure and stoichiometry of the prepared thin films are influenced. Therefore, these effects were investigated by varying the cathode current Im between 0.50 and 1.00 A, the magnetic field strength B between 45 and 90 mT, and the O2/(Ar + O2) flow rate ratio Γ between 0% and 100%. With increasing oxygen flow ratio a substoichiometric TaOx oxide forms at the metallic Ta target surface which further transfers to a non-conductive tantalum pentoxide Ta2O5, impeding a stable dc glow discharge. These two transition zones (from Ta to TaOx and from TaOx to Ta2O5) shift to higher oxygen flow rates for increasing target currents. In contrast, increasing the magnetic field strength (e.g., due to sputter erosion) mainly shifts the TaOx to Ta2O5 transition to lower oxygen flow rates while marginally influencing the Ta to TaOx transition. To allow for a stable dc glow discharge (and to suppress the formation of non-conductive Ta2O5 at the target) even at Γ = 100% either a high target current (Im ⩾ 1 A) or a low magnetic field strength (B ⩽ 60 mT) is necessary. These conditions are required to prepare stoichiometric and fully crystalline Ta2O5 films.

  20. Process stabilization by peak current regulation in reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of hafnium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, T.; Villamayor, M.; Lundin, D.; Helmersson, U.

    2016-02-01

    A simple and cost effective approach to stabilize the sputtering process in the transition zone during reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is proposed. The method is based on real-time monitoring and control of the discharge current waveforms. To stabilize the process conditions at a given set point, a feedback control system was implemented that automatically regulates the pulse frequency, and thereby the average sputtering power, to maintain a constant maximum discharge current. In the present study, the variation of the pulse current waveforms over a wide range of reactive gas flows and pulse frequencies during a reactive HiPIMS process of Hf-N in an Ar-N2 atmosphere illustrates that the discharge current waveform is a an excellent indicator of the process conditions. Activating the reactive HiPIMS peak current regulation, stable process conditions were maintained when varying the N2 flow from 2.1 to 3.5 sccm by an automatic adjustment of the pulse frequency from 600 Hz to 1150 Hz and consequently an increase of the average power from 110 to 270 W. Hf-N films deposited using peak current regulation exhibited a stable stoichiometry, a nearly constant power-normalized deposition rate, and a polycrystalline cubic phase Hf-N with (1 1 1)-preferred orientation over the entire reactive gas flow range investigated. The physical reasons for the change in the current pulse waveform for different process conditions are discussed in some detail.

  1. Development of light source using micro hollow cathode plasma for monitoring absolute densities of metal atoms in magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Takayuki; Tachibana, Yoshihiro; Ito, Masafumi; Takashima, Seigo; Higashijima, Yasuhiro; Kano, Hiroyuki; den, Shoji; Hori, Masaru

    2007-10-01

    The quantitative analysis of metal atoms is important for understanding the chemistry and controlling the conditions in sputtering process. The light source, which emits multi-atomic lines simultaneously, is required for diagnostics of behaviors of many kind of metallic atom at the same time. In this study, a multi-micro hollow cathode lamp for simultaneous monitoring of multi-metal atoms in sputtering process was developed. The emissions of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mo for analysis were simultaneously obtained from 4 hollows. The Cu and Mo densities in the magnetron sputtering were measured using absorption spectroscopy employing the multi-micro hollow cathode lamp. Those densities were measured to be from 10^9 to 10^10 cm-3 in the RF power range from 0 to 100 W at a pressure of 5 Pa. The simultaneous measurement of the atomic densities in the sputtering plasma has been performed.

  2. Decorative black TiCxOy film fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering without importing oxygen reactive gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Katsushi; Wakabayashi, Masao; Tsukakoshi, Yukio; Abe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-02-01

    Decorative black TiCxOy films were fabricated by dc (direct current) magnetron sputtering without importing the oxygen reactive gas into the sputtering chamber. Using a ceramic target of titanium oxycarbide (TiC1.59O0.31), the oxygen content in the films could be easily controlled by adjustment of total sputtering gas pressure without remarkable change of the carbon content. The films deposited at 2.0 and 4.0 Pa, those are higher pressure when compared with that in conventional magnetron sputtering, showed an attractive black color. In particular, the film at 4.0 Pa had the composition of TiC1.03O1.10, exhibited the L* of 41.5, a* of 0.2 and b* of 0.6 in CIELAB color space. These values were smaller than those in the TiC0.29O1.38 films (L* of 45.8, a* of 1.2 and b* of 1.2) fabricated by conventional reactive sputtering method from the same target under the conditions of gas pressure of 0.3 Pa and optimized oxygen reactive gas concentration of 2.5 vol.% in sputtering gas. Analysis of XRD and XPS revealed that the black film deposited at 4.0 Pa was the amorphous film composed of TiC, TiO and C. The adhesion property and the heat resisting property were enough for decorative uses. This sputtering process has an industrial advantage that the decorative black coating with color uniformity in large area can be easily obtained by plain operation because of unnecessary of the oxygen reactive gas importing which is difficult to be controlled uniformly in the sputtering chamber.

  3. Thermochromic VO2 thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering for smart window applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, Jean-Philippe

    "Smart" windows are a perfect innovative example of technology that reduces our energy dependence and our impact on the environment while saving on the economical point of view. With the use of vanadium dioxide (VO2), a thermochromic compound, and this, as a thin coating, it would in fact be possible to control the sun's transmission of infrared light (heat) as a function of the surrounding environment temperature. In other words, its optical behavior would allow a more effective management of heat exchanges between a living venue and the outdoor environment. However, this type of window is still in a developmental stage. First, the oxide's deposition is not simple in nature. Based on a conventional deposition technique called magnetron sputtering mainly used in the fenestration industry, several factors such as the oxygen concentration and the substrate temperature during deposition can affect the coating's thermochromic behavior, and this, by changing its composition and crystallinity. Other control parameters such as the deposition rate, the pressure in the sputtering chamber and the choice of substrate may also modify the film microstructure, thereby varying its optical and electrical properties. In addition, several issues still persist as to its commercial application. For starters, the material's structural transition, related to the change of its optical properties, only occurs around 68°C. In addition, its low transparency and natural greenish colour are not visually appealing. Then, to this day, the deposition temperature required to crystallize and form the thermochromic oxide remains an obstacle for a possible large-scale application. Ultimately, although the material's change in temperature has been shown to be advantageous in situations of varying climate, the existing corrective solutions to these issues generate a deterioration of the thermochromic behavior. With no practical expertise on the material, this project was undertaken with certain

  4. Ultra-hard AlMgB14 coatings fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering from a stoichiometric target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishin, A. M.; Khartsev, S. I.; Böhlmark, J.; Ahlgren, M.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time hard aluminum magnesium boride films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering from a single stoichiometric ceramic AlMgB14 target. Optimized processing conditions (substrate temperature, target sputtering power and target-to-substrate distance) enable fabrication of stoichiometric in-depth compositionally homogeneous films with the peak values of nanohardness 88 GPa and Young's modulus 517 GPa at the penetration depth of 26 nm and, respectively, 35 and 275 GPa at 200 nm depth in 2 μm thick film.

  5. Silicon oxynitride films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering using nitrous oxide as a single-source precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Hänninen, Tuomas Schmidt, Susann; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Högberg, Hans

    2015-09-15

    Silicon oxynitride thin films were synthesized by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of silicon in argon/nitrous oxide plasmas. Nitrous oxide was employed as a single-source precursor supplying oxygen and nitrogen for the film growth. The films were characterized by elastic recoil detection analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, scanning electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Results show that the films are silicon rich, amorphous, and exhibit a random chemical bonding structure. The optical properties with the refractive index and the extinction coefficient correlate with the film elemental composition, showing decreasing values with increasing film oxygen and nitrogen content. The total percentage of oxygen and nitrogen in the films is controlled by adjusting the gas flow ratio in the deposition processes. Furthermore, it is shown that the film oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio can be tailored by the high power impulse magnetron sputtering-specific parameters pulse frequency and energy per pulse.

  6. Electrochemical Characteristics of TiN/ZrN Multilayers on the Ti-35Ta-xHf Alloy by Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Byung-Hak; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Eun, Sang-Won; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the electrochemical characteristics of TiN/ZrN multilayers on a Ti-35Ta-xHf alloy by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The Ti-35Ta-xHf alloy had an α''+ β phase structure. The Ti-35Ta-15Hf alloy had a higher intensity β phase peak than Ti-35Ta-3Hf and 7Hf alloy, which contained lower Hf content. The martensite traces disappeared with increasing Hf content and the Ti-35Ta-15Hf alloy showed an entirely equiaxed structure with a β phase. The multilayer film was developed by alternately depositing TiN and ZrN layers on Ti-35Ta-15Hf substrates using the RF magnetron sputtering system to improve the interface properties between the coating and substrate. The uncoated specimen showed a passive region between 60 and 1300 mV with a current density of 0.38 µA/cm2, whereas, the TiN/ZrN multilayered specimen had a passive region between 210 and 1500 mV with a current density of 0.09 µA/cm2. The experimental results suggest that the as-sputtered layer coated well on the substrate. The TiN/ZrN multilayered film on Ti-35Ta-15Hf substrate exhibited better electrochemical resistance than that of the uncoated Ti-35Ta-15Hf substrate.

  7. Tribological and structural properties of titanium nitride and titanium aluminum nitride coatings deposited with modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Logan

    The demand for economical high-performance materials has brought attention to the development of advanced coatings. Recent advances in high power magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) have shown to improve tribological properties of coatings. These coatings offer increased wear and oxidation resistance, which may facilitate the use of more economical materials in harsh applications. This study demonstrates the use of novel forms of HPPMS, namely modulated pulsed-power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) and deep oscillation magnetron sputtering (DOMS), for depositing TiN and Ti1-xAlxN tribological coatings on commonly used alloys, such as Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718. Both technologies have been shown to offer unique plasma characteristics in the physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. High power pulses lead to a high degree of ionization compared to traditional direct-current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and pulsed magnetron sputtering (PMS). Such a high degree of ionization was previously only achievable by cathodic arc deposition (CAD); however, CAD can lead to increased macroparticles that are unfavorable in high friction and corrosive environments. MPPMS, DOMS, and other HPPMS techniques offer unique plasma characteristics and have been shown to produce coatings with refined grain structure, improved density, hardness, adhesion, and wear resistance. Using DOMS and MPPMS, TiN and Ti1-xAlxN coatings were deposited using PMS to compare microstructures and tribological performance. For Ti1-xAlxN, two sputtering target compositions, Ti 0.5Al0.5 and Ti0.3Al0.7, were used to evaluate the effects of MPPMS on the coating's composition and tribological properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize microstructure and crystallographic texture. Several tribological properties were evaluated including: wear rate, coefficient of friction, adhesion, and nanohardness. Results show that substrate

  8. STEM-EELS analysis reveals stable high-density He in nanopores of amorphous silicon coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Schierholz, Roland; Lacroix, Bertrand; Godinho, Vanda; Caballero-Hernández, Jaime; Duchamp, Martial; Fernández, Asunción

    2015-02-20

    A broad interest has been showed recently on the study of nanostructuring of thin films and surfaces obtained by low-energy He plasma treatments and He incorporation via magnetron sputtering. In this paper spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope is used to locate and characterize the He state in nanoporous amorphous silicon coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering. A dedicated MATLAB program was developed to quantify the helium density inside individual pores based on the energy position shift or peak intensity of the He K-edge. A good agreement was observed between the high density (∼35-60 at nm(-3)) and pressure (0.3-1.0 GPa) values obtained in nanoscale analysis and the values derived from macroscopic measurements (the composition obtained by proton backscattering spectroscopy coupled to the macroscopic porosity estimated from ellipsometry). This work provides new insights into these novel porous coatings, providing evidence of high-density He located inside the pores and validating the methodology applied here to characterize the formation of pores filled with the helium process gas during deposition. A similar stabilization of condensed He bubbles has been previously demonstrated by high-energy He ion implantation in metals and is newly demonstrated here using a widely employed methodology, magnetron sputtering, for achieving coatings with a high density of homogeneously distributed pores and He storage capacities as high as 21 at%.

  9. STEM-EELS analysis reveals stable high-density He in nanopores of amorphous silicon coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schierholz, Roland; Lacroix, Bertrand; Godinho, Vanda; Caballero-Hernández, Jaime; Duchamp, Martial; Fernández, Asunción

    2015-02-01

    A broad interest has been showed recently on the study of nanostructuring of thin films and surfaces obtained by low-energy He plasma treatments and He incorporation via magnetron sputtering. In this paper spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope is used to locate and characterize the He state in nanoporous amorphous silicon coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering. A dedicated MATLAB program was developed to quantify the helium density inside individual pores based on the energy position shift or peak intensity of the He K-edge. A good agreement was observed between the high density (˜35-60 at nm-3) and pressure (0.3-1.0 GPa) values obtained in nanoscale analysis and the values derived from macroscopic measurements (the composition obtained by proton backscattering spectroscopy coupled to the macroscopic porosity estimated from ellipsometry). This work provides new insights into these novel porous coatings, providing evidence of high-density He located inside the pores and validating the methodology applied here to characterize the formation of pores filled with the helium process gas during deposition. A similar stabilization of condensed He bubbles has been previously demonstrated by high-energy He ion implantation in metals and is newly demonstrated here using a widely employed methodology, magnetron sputtering, for achieving coatings with a high density of homogeneously distributed pores and He storage capacities as high as 21 at%.

  10. The Characterisation and Performance of Magnetron Sputter Coatings on Minting Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, David Alexander

    Enhancing the performance of various tools and mechanical parts through the use of thin films has been given much attention recently. Thin films have many different uses including: reducing friction, protecting from corrosion and increasing hardness and wear resistance. The Royal Canadian Mint has adopted the magnetron sputter ion plating technique to apply a new Cr-Ti-N based multi-component hard coating and thereby replace their Cr-plating process. Apart from showing improvements to the performance of their minting dies, this change is also more environmentally friendly. The purpose of this thesis is to further characterise this new coating which has shown superior performance. The structure of coatings applied using the magnetron sputter ion plating technique was reviewed along with the hardness and performance analysis of thin-film coatings. Hardness performance of the film on minting dies, including hardness testing and thin-film hardness models, are reviewed. The die performance is discussed in terms of surface wear encountered during the minting process. Two test dies made from air-hardening tool steel are coated and analysed for their hardness performance. Three numismatic coin dies are also analysed at different stages of their lifetime to compare the surface wear at those stages and evaluate the performance of the coating. Both nano- and micro-indentation hardness testing was used to obtain hardness data on the two test dies. The Korsunsky thin-film hardness model was selected to best represent both sets of hardness data. The thin-film hardness model parameters and film hardness were simultaneously calibrated using both nano- and micro-indentation test data. The film hardness was determined to be about 2672 HV. The film hardness was then successfully predicted using only the micro-indentation data and the method was demonstrated on two additional dies with the same composition. The hardness performance of the die was linked to the adhesion of the film. In

  11. Growth of wafer-scale MoS2 monolayer by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Junguang; Chai, Jianwei; Lu, Xin; Wong, Lai Mun; Wong, Ten It; Pan, Jisheng; Xiong, Qihua; Chi, Dongzhi; Wang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    The two-dimensional layer of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) exhibits promising prospects in the applications of optoelectronics and valleytronics. Herein, we report a successful new process for synthesizing wafer-scale MoS2 atomic layers on diverse substrates via magnetron sputtering. Spectroscopic and microscopic results reveal that these synthesized MoS2 layers are highly homogeneous and crystallized; moreover, uniform monolayers at wafer scale can be achieved. Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy indicate comparable optical qualities of these as-grown MoS2 with other methods. The transistors composed of the MoS2 film exhibit p-type performance with an on/off current ratio of ~103 and hole mobility of up to ~12.2 cm2 V-1 s-1. The strategy reported herein paves new ways towards the large scale growth of various two-dimensional semiconductors with the feasibility of controllable doping to realize desired p- or n-type devices.The two-dimensional layer of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) exhibits promising prospects in the applications of optoelectronics and valleytronics. Herein, we report a successful new process for synthesizing wafer-scale MoS2 atomic layers on diverse substrates via magnetron sputtering. Spectroscopic and microscopic results reveal that these synthesized MoS2 layers are highly homogeneous and crystallized; moreover, uniform monolayers at wafer scale can be achieved. Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy indicate comparable optical qualities of these as-grown MoS2 with other methods. The transistors composed of the MoS2 film exhibit p-type performance with an on/off current ratio of ~103 and hole mobility of up to ~12.2 cm2 V-1 s-1. The strategy reported herein paves new ways towards the large scale growth of various two-dimensional semiconductors with the feasibility of controllable doping to realize desired p- or n-type devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06411a

  12. Thermochromic VO2 thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering for smart window applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, Jean-Philippe

    "Smart" windows are a perfect innovative example of technology that reduces our energy dependence and our impact on the environment while saving on the economical point of view. With the use of vanadium dioxide (VO2), a thermochromic compound, and this, as a thin coating, it would in fact be possible to control the sun's transmission of infrared light (heat) as a function of the surrounding environment temperature. In other words, its optical behavior would allow a more effective management of heat exchanges between a living venue and the outdoor environment. However, this type of window is still in a developmental stage. First, the oxide's deposition is not simple in nature. Based on a conventional deposition technique called magnetron sputtering mainly used in the fenestration industry, several factors such as the oxygen concentration and the substrate temperature during deposition can affect the coating's thermochromic behavior, and this, by changing its composition and crystallinity. Other control parameters such as the deposition rate, the pressure in the sputtering chamber and the choice of substrate may also modify the film microstructure, thereby varying its optical and electrical properties. In addition, several issues still persist as to its commercial application. For starters, the material's structural transition, related to the change of its optical properties, only occurs around 68°C. In addition, its low transparency and natural greenish colour are not visually appealing. Then, to this day, the deposition temperature required to crystallize and form the thermochromic oxide remains an obstacle for a possible large-scale application. Ultimately, although the material's change in temperature has been shown to be advantageous in situations of varying climate, the existing corrective solutions to these issues generate a deterioration of the thermochromic behavior. With no practical expertise on the material, this project was undertaken with certain

  13. The structure, surface topography and mechanical properties of Si-C-N films fabricated by RF and DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhifeng; Wang, Yingjun; Du, Chang; Huang, Nan; Wang, Lin; Ning, Chengyun

    2011-12-01

    Silicon carbon nitride thin films were deposited on Co-Cr alloy under varying deposition conditions such as sputtering power and the partial pressure ratio of N2 to Ar by radio frequency and direct current magnetron sputtering techniques. The chemical bonding configurations, surface topography and hardness were characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and nano-indentation technique. The sputtering power exhibited important influence on the film composition, chemical bonding configurations and surface topography, the electro-negativity had primary effects on chemical bonding configurations at low sputtering power. A progressive densification of the film microstructure occurring with the carbon fraction was increased. The films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering, the relative content of the Si-N bond in the films increased with the sputtering power increased, and Si-C and Si-Si were easily detachable, and C-O, N-N and N-O on the film volatile by ion bombardment which takes place very frequently during the film formation process. With the increase of sputtering power, the films became smoother and with finer particle growth. The hardness varied between 6 GPa and 11.23 GPa depending on the partial pressure ratio of N2 to Ar. The tribological characterization of Co-Cr alloy with Si-C-N coating sliding against UHMWPE counter-surface in fetal bovine serum, shows that the wear resistance of the Si-C-N coated Co-Cr alloy/UHMWPE sliding pair show much favourable improvement over that of uncoated Co-Cr alloy/UHMWPE sliding pair. This study is important for the development of advanced coatings with tailored mechanical and tribological properties.

  14. Microstructural evolution of thin film vanadium oxide prepared by pulsed-direct current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, M. A.; Horn, M. W.; Gauntt, B. D.; Dickey, E. C.; Podraza, N. J.

    2012-11-01

    Vanadium oxide (VO{sub x}) thin films have been deposited by pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering using a metallic vanadium target in a reactive argon and oxygen environment. While the process parameters (power, total pressure, oxygen-to-argon ratio) remained constant, the deposition time was varied to produce films between 75 {+-} 6 and 2901 {+-} 30 A thick, which were then optically and electrically characterized. The complex dielectric function spectra ({epsilon} = {epsilon}{sub 1} + i{epsilon}{sub 2}) of the films from 0.75 to 5.15 eV were extracted by ex situ, multiple-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements for the series of varied thickness VO{sub x} samples. Significant changes in {epsilon} and resistivity occur as a function of thickness, indicating the correlations exist between the electrical and the optical properties over this spectral range. In addition, in situ measurements via real time SE (RTSE) were made on the film grown to the largest thickness to track optical property and structural variations during growth. RTSE was also used to characterize changes in the film occurring after growth was completed, namely during post sputtering in the presence of argon and oxygen while the sample is shielded, and atmospheric exposure. RTSE indicates that the exposure of the film to the argon and oxygen environment, regardless of the shutter isolating the target, causes up to 200 A of the top surface of the deposited film to become more electrically resistive as evidenced by variations in {epsilon}. Exposure of the VO{sub x} thin film to atmospheric conditions introduces a similar change in {epsilon}, but this change occurs throughout the bulk of the film. A combination of these observations with RTSE results indicates that thinner, less ordered VO{sub x} films are more susceptible to drastic changes due to atmospheric exposure and that microstructural variations in this material ultimately control its environmental stability.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of delafossite thin films by reactive RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmat Uceda, Martin Antonio

    This work presents a comparative study on optical and electrical properties of CuAlO2 thin films on sapphire (0001) substrates deposited with two different growth conditions using reactive RF-magnetron sputtering technique from metallic Cu and Al targets. CuAlO2 is a very promising material for transparent electronic applications, it is intended that comparison of results obtained from both approaches, could lead to optimization and control of the physical properties of this material, namely its electrical conductivity and optical transmittance. All samples were heat treated at 1100°C using rapid thermal annealing with varying time and rate of cooling. The effect of sputtering conditions and different annealing time on phase formation and evolution is studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that for most of the samples CuAlO2 phase is formed after 60 min of annealing time, but secondary phases were also present that depend on the deposition conditions. However, pure CuAlO2 phase was obtained for annealed CuO on sapphire films with annealing time of 60 min. The optical properties obtained from UV-Visible spectroscopic measurement reveals indirect and direct optical band gaps for CuAlO2 films and were found to be 2.58 and 3.72 eV respectively. The films show a transmittance of about 60% in the visible range. Hall effect measurements indicate p-type conductivity. Van der Pauw technique was used to measure resistivity of the samples. The highest electrical conductivity and charge carrier concentration obtained were of 1.01x10-1S.cm -1 and 3.63 x1018 cm-3 respectively.

  16. Hydroxyapatite thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition and radio-frequency magnetron sputtering: comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelea, V.; Morosanu, C.; Iliescu, M.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2004-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films for applications in the biomedical field were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and radio-frequency magnetron sputtering (RF-MS) techniques. The depositions were performed from pure hydroxyapatite targets on Ti-5Al-2.5Fe (TiAlFe) alloys substrates. In order to prevent the HA film penetration by Ti atoms or ions diffused from the Ti-based alloy during and after deposition, the substrates were pre-coated with a thin buffer layer of TiN. In both cases, TiN was introduced by reactive PLD from TiN targets in low-pressure N 2. The PLD films were grown in vacuum onto room temperature substrates. The RF-MS films were deposited in low-pressure argon on substrates heated at 550 °C. The initially amorphous PLD thin films were annealed at 550 °C for 1 h in ambient air in order to restore the initial crystalline structure of HA target. The thickness of the PLD and RF-MS films were ˜1 μm and ˜350 nm, respectively. All films were structurally studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and white light confocal microscopy (WLCM). The mechanical properties of the films were tested by Berkovich nano-indentation. Both PLD and RF-MS films mostly contain HA phase and exhibit good mechanical characteristics. Peaks of CaO were noticed as secondary phase in the GIXRD patterns only for RF-MS films. By its turn, the sputtered films were smoother as compared to the ones deposited by PLD (50 nm versus 250 nm average roughness). The RF-MS films were harder, more mechanically resistant and have a higher Young modulus.

  17. [Study on the Properties of the Pc-Si Films Prepared by Magnetron Co-Sputtering at Low Temperature].

    PubMed

    Duan, Liang-fei; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Li-yuan; Li, Xue-ming; Chen, Xiao-bo; Yang, Pei-zhi

    2016-03-01

    The polycrystalline silicon thin films play an important role in the field of electronics. In the paper, α-SiAl composite membranes on glass substrates was prepared by magnetron co-sputtering. The contents of Al radicals encapsulated-in the α-Si film can be adjusted by changing the Al to Si sputtering power ratios. The as-prepared α-Si films were converted into polycrystalline films by using a rapid thermal annealing (RTP) at low temperature of 350 degrees C for 10 minutes in N2 atmosphere. An X-ray diffractometer, and Raman scattering and UV-Visible-NIR Spectrometers were used to characterize the properties of the Pc-Si films. The influences of Al content on the properties of the Pc-Si films were studied. The results showed that the polycrystalline silicon films were obtained from α-SiAl composite films which were prepared by magnetron co-sputtering at a low temperature following by a rapid thermal annealing. The grain size and the degree of crystallization of the Pc-Si films increased with the increase of Al content, while the optical band gap was reduced. The nc-Si films were prepared when the Al to Si sputtering power ratio was 0.1. And a higher Crystallization rate (≥ 85%) of polycrystalline silicon films were obtained when the ratio was 0.3. The band gaps of the polycrystalline silicon films can be controlled by changing the aluminum content in the films.

  18. Properties of TiN/TiCN multilayer films by direct current magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianyun; Hao, Junying; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Weimin

    2012-03-01

    In this work, a TiN/TiCN multilayer film was deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering. Its thickness was about 9675 nm and the bilayer numbers were 10. The composition, crystalline structure and amorphous carbon (a-C) phase of the film were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was employed to observe the inner structure of the film. The TiCN layer exhibited a glass-like structure and the TiN layer presented a columnar structure. The adhesion force between the film and the substrate was 37.8 N determined by scratch tests. The hardness of the uppermost TiCN layer and the total film was 34.22 GPa and 27.22 GPa obtained by nano-indentation tests, respectively. In addition, the TiN/TiCN multilayer thick film showed different types of tribological behaviour against Si3N4 balls and steel balls. The mean coefficient of friction and the wear rate of the film were about 0.14 and 1.15 × 10-6 mm3 N-1 m-1 when the film slid against Si3N4 balls for 1 h.

  19. Studies on Nanostructure Aluminium Thin Film Coatings Deposited using DC magnetron Sputtering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh M, Muralidhar; G, Vijaya; MS, Krupashankara; Sridhara, B. K.; Shridhar, T. N.

    2016-09-01

    Nanostructured thin film metallic coatings has become an area of intense research particularly in applications related solar, sensor technologies and many other optical applications such as laser windows, mirrors and reflectors. Thin film metallic coatings were deposited using DC magnetron sputtering process. The deposition rate was varied to study its influence on optical behavior of Aluminum thin films at a different argon flow rate. Studies on the optical response of these nanostructure thin film coatings were characterized using UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer with integrating sphere in the wavelength range of (250-2500nm) and Surface morphology were carried out using atomic force microscope with roughness ranging from 2 to 20nm and thickness was measured using Dektak measuring instrument. The reflection behavior of aluminium coatings on polycarbonate substrates has been evaluated. UV-VIS-NIR Spectrophotometer analysis indicates higher reflectance of 96% for all the films in the wavelength range of 250 nm to 2500 nm. Nano indentation study revealed that there was a considerable change in hardness values of the films prepared at different conditions.

  20. Investigation of ionized metal flux in enhanced high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Stranak, Vitezslav; Hubicka, Zdenek; Cada, Martin; Drache, Steffen; Hippler, Rainer; Tichy, Milan

    2014-04-21

    The metal ionized flux fraction and production of double charged metal ions Me{sup 2+} of different materials (Al, Cu, Fe, Ti) by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) operated with and without a pre-ionization assistance is compared in the paper. The Electron Cyclotron Wave Resonance (ECWR) discharge was employed as the pre-ionization agent providing a seed of charge in the idle time of HiPIMS pulses. A modified grid-free biased quartz crystal microbalance was used to estimate the metal ionized flux fraction ξ. The energy-resolved mass spectrometry served as a complementary method to distinguish particular ion contributions to the total ionized flux onto the substrate. The ratio between densities of doubly Me{sup 2+} and singly Me{sup +} charged metal ions was determined. It is shown that ECWR assistance enhances Me{sup 2+} production with respect of absorbed rf-power. The ECWR discharge also increases the metal ionized flux fraction of about 30% especially in the region of lower pressures. Further, the suppression of the gas rarefaction effect due to enhanced secondary electron emission of Me{sup 2+} was observed.

  1. Formation Mechanism of Fe Nanocubes by Magnetron Sputtering Inert Gas Condensation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junlei; Baibuz, Ekaterina; Vernieres, Jerome; Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Jansson, Ville; Nagel, Morten; Steinhauer, Stephan; Sowwan, Mukhles; Kuronen, Antti; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura

    2016-04-26

    In this work, we study the formation mechanisms of iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) grown by magnetron sputtering inert gas condensation and emphasize the decisive kinetics effects that give rise specifically to cubic morphologies. Our experimental results, as well as computer simulations carried out by two different methods, indicate that the cubic shape of Fe NPs is explained by basic differences in the kinetic growth modes of {100} and {110} surfaces rather than surface formation energetics. Both our experimental and theoretical investigations show that the final shape is defined by the combination of the condensation temperature and the rate of atomic deposition onto the growing nanocluster. We, thus, construct a comprehensive deposition rate-temperature diagram of Fe NP shapes and develop an analytical model that predicts the temporal evolution of these properties. Combining the shape diagram and the analytical model, morphological control of Fe NPs during formation is feasible; as such, our method proposes a roadmap for experimentalists to engineer NPs of desired shapes for targeted applications. PMID:26962973

  2. Compositionally graded SiCu thin film anode by magnetron sputtering for lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Polat, B. D.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Keles, O; Erdemir, A; Amine, Khalil

    2015-10-22

    Compositionally graded and non-graded composite SiCu thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on Cu disks for investigation of their potentials in lithium ion battery applications. The compositionally graded thin film electrodes with 30 at.% Cu delivered a 1400 mAh g-1 capacity with 80% Coulombic efficiency in the first cycle and still retained its capacity at around 600 mAh g-1 (with 99.9% Coulombic efficiency) even after 100 cycles. On the other hand, the non-graded thin film electrodes with 30 at.% Cu exhibited 1100 mAh g-1 as the first discharge capacity with 78% Coulombic efficiency but the cycle life of this film degraded very quickly, delivering only 250 mAh g-1 capacity after 100th cycles. Not only the Cu content but also the graded film thickness were believed to be the main contributors to the much superior performance of the compositionally graded SiCu films. We also believe that the Cu-rich region of the graded film helped reduce internal stress build-up and thus prevented film delamination during cycling. In particular, the decrease of Cu content from interface region to the top of the coating reduced the possibility of stress build-up across the film during cycling, thus leading to a high electrochemical performance.

  3. Formation Mechanism of Fe Nanocubes by Magnetron Sputtering Inert Gas Condensation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junlei; Baibuz, Ekaterina; Vernieres, Jerome; Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Jansson, Ville; Nagel, Morten; Steinhauer, Stephan; Sowwan, Mukhles; Kuronen, Antti; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura

    2016-04-26

    In this work, we study the formation mechanisms of iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) grown by magnetron sputtering inert gas condensation and emphasize the decisive kinetics effects that give rise specifically to cubic morphologies. Our experimental results, as well as computer simulations carried out by two different methods, indicate that the cubic shape of Fe NPs is explained by basic differences in the kinetic growth modes of {100} and {110} surfaces rather than surface formation energetics. Both our experimental and theoretical investigations show that the final shape is defined by the combination of the condensation temperature and the rate of atomic deposition onto the growing nanocluster. We, thus, construct a comprehensive deposition rate-temperature diagram of Fe NP shapes and develop an analytical model that predicts the temporal evolution of these properties. Combining the shape diagram and the analytical model, morphological control of Fe NPs during formation is feasible; as such, our method proposes a roadmap for experimentalists to engineer NPs of desired shapes for targeted applications.

  4. Electrical and optical properties of molybdenum doped zinc oxide films prepared by reactive RF magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, R. Subba; Sreedhar, A.; Uthanna, S.

    2015-08-28

    Molybdenum doped zinc oxide (MZO) films were deposited on to glass substrates held at temperatures in the range from 303 to 673 K by reactive RF magnetron sputtering method. The chemical composition, crystallographic structure and surface morphology, electrical and optical properties of the films were determined. The films contained the molybdenum of 2.7 at. % in ZnO. The films deposited at 303 K were of X-ray amorphous. The films formed at 473 K were of nanocrystalline in nature with wurtzite structure. The crystallite size of the films was increased with the increase of substrate temperature. The optical transmittance of the films was in the visible range was 80–85%. The molybdenum (2.7 at %) doped zinc oxide films deposited at substrate temperature of 573 K were of nanocrystalline with electrical resistivity of 7.2×10{sup −3} Ωcm, optical transmittance of 85 %, optical band gap of 3.35 eV and figure of merit 30.6 Ω{sup −1}cm{sup −1}.

  5. Origin of the Delayed Current Onset in High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

    2010-07-19

    Repetitive pulses of voltage and current are applied in high power impulse magnetron sputtering. The current pulse usually lags the applied voltage by a significant time, which in some cases can reach many 10s of microseconds. The current time lag is generally highly reproducible and jitters less than 1percent of the delay time. This work investigates the time lag experimentally and theoretically. The experiments include several different target and gas combinations, voltage and current amplitudes, gas pressures, pulse repetition rates, and pulse durations. It is shown that in all cases the inverse delay is approximately proportional to the applied voltage, where the proportionality factor depends on the combination of materials and the conditions selected. The proportionality factor contains the parameters of ionization and secondary electron emission. The statistical time lag is negligible while the formative time lag is large and usually dominated by the ion motion (inertia), although, at low pressure, the long free path of magnetized electrons causing ionization contributes to the delay.

  6. Properties of Cu(In,Ga,Al)Se{sub 2} thin films fabricated by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Hameed, Talaat A.; Cao, Wei; Mansour, Bahiga A.; Elzawaway, Inas K.; Abdelrazek, El-Metwally M.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2015-05-15

    Cu(In,Ga,Al)Se{sub 2} (CIGAS) thin films were studied as an alternative absorber layer material to Cu(In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x})Se{sub 2}. CIGAS thin films with varying Al content were prepared by magnetron sputtering on Si(100) and soda-lime glass substrates at 350 °C, followed by postdeposition annealing at 520 °C for 5 h in vacuum. The film composition was measured by an electron probe microanalyzer while the elemental depth profiles were determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry. X-ray diffraction studies indicated that CIGAS films are single phase with chalcopyrite structure and that the (112) peak clearly shifts to higher 2θ values with increasing Al content. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed dense and well-defined grains, as well as sharp CIGAS/Si(100) interfaces for all films. Atomic force microscopy analysis indicated that the roughness of CIGAS films decreases with increasing Al content. The bandgap of CIGAS films was determined from the optical transmittance and reflectance spectra and was found to increase as Al content increased.

  7. Structural, optical and electrical properties of WOxNy filmsdeposited by reactive dual magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Sodky H.; Anders, Andre

    2006-06-05

    Thin films of tungsten oxynitride were prepared by dual magnetron sputtering of tungsten using argon/oxygen/nitrogen gas mixtures with various nitrogen/oxygen ratios. The presence of even small amounts of oxygen had a great effect not only on the composition but on the structure of WOxNy films, as shown by Rutherford backscattering and x-ray diffraction, respectively. Significant incorporation of nitrogen occurred only when the nitrogen partial pressure exceeded 89 percent of the total reactive gas pressure. Sharp changes in the stoichiometry, deposition rate, room temperature resistivity, electrical activation energy and optical band gap were observed when the nitrogen/oxygen ratio was high.The deposition rate increased from 0.31 to 0.89 nm/s, the room temperature resistivity decreased from 1.65 x 108 to 1.82 x 10-2 ?cm, the electrical activation energy decreased from 0.97 to 0.067 eV, and the optical band gap decreased from 3.19 to 2.94 eV upon nitrogen incorporation into the films. WOxNy films were highly transparent as long as the nitrogen incorporation was low, and were brownish (absorbing) and partially reflecting as nitrogen incorporation became significant.

  8. Characterization and Performance of Magnetron-Sputtered Zirconium Coatings Deposited on 9Cr-1Mo Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Akash; Murugesan, Somasundaram; Parameswaran, P.; Priya, R.; Thirumurugessan, R.; Muthukumar, N.; Mohandas, E.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Krishnamurthi, J.

    2016-09-01

    Zirconium coatings of different thicknesses have been deposited at 773 K on 9Cr-1Mo steel substrate using pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. These coatings were heat treated in vacuum at two different temperatures (1173 and 1273 K) for one hour. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of Zr-coated samples revealed the formation of α-phase (HCP structure) of Zr. XRD analysis of heat-treated samples show the presence of Zr3Fe and Zr2Fe intermetallics. The lattice parameter of these coatings was calculated, and it matches with the bulk values when the thickness reached 2µm. In order to understand this, crystallite size and strain values of these coatings were calculated from XRD plots employing Williamson-Hall method. In order to assess the performance of the coatings, systematic corrosion tests were carried out. The corrosion current density calculated from the polarization behavior showed that the corrosion current density of the uncoated 9Cr-1Mo steel was higher than the coated sample before and after the heat treatment. Studies using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirmed that the coated steel has higher impedance than the uncoated steel. The corrosion resistance of 9Cr1Mo steel had improved after Zr coating. However, the corrosion resistance of the coating after heat treatment decreased when compared to the as-deposited coating. The microstructure and composition of the surface oxide film influence the corrosion resistance of the Zr-coated 9Cr1Mo steel.

  9. Antimicrobial brass coatings prepared on poly(ethylene terephthalate) textile by high power impulse magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Hung; Wu, Guo-Wei; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this work is to prepare antimicrobial, corrosion-resistant and low-cost Cu65Zn35 brass film on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), which is known to provide high-density plasma, so as to generate a strongly adherent film at a reduced substrate temperature. The results reveal that the brass film grows in a layer-plus-island mode. Independent of their deposition time, the obtained films retain a Cu/Zn elemental composition ratio of 1.86 and exhibit primarily an α copper phase structure. Oxygen plasma pre-treatment for 1min before coating can significantly increase film adhesion such that the brass-coated fabric of Grade 5 or Grade 4-5 can ultimately be obtained under dry and wet rubbing tests, respectively. However, a deposition time of 1min suffices to provide effective antimicrobial properties for both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. As a whole, the feasibility of using such advanced HIPIMS coating technique to develop durable antimicrobial textile was demonstrated.

  10. Photoluminescenceof magnetron sputtered CdTe films: dependence on target purity, substrate, and annealing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinko, Kathleen

    2002-03-01

    We have altered several parameters relating to the CdTe layer in CdTe-based solar cells and have analyzed the effects of these changes on low-temperature photoluminescence (PL). Polycrystalline CdTe films were grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering from two targets purchased from commercial vendors and one pressed at the University of Toledo (UT). We observed substantial differences related to the targets and to the soda lime and borosilicate glass substrates. Parts of each film were annealed at 387 C and 400 C in the presence of CdCl2. The intensity and the spectrum of the PL suggest that films grown from the homemade UT target were of comparable quality to those grown from the commercial target. We found much weaker PL for films grown on borosilicate glass than for soda-lime glass. This may indicate that sodium from the soda-lime glass may leach into the films producing a shallow donor and enhancing the donor-acceptor pair luminescence. Work supported by NREL and NSF.

  11. Structural and optical properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered zinc aluminum oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, B. Rajesh; Rao, T. Subba

    2014-10-15

    Highly transparent conductive Zinc Aluminum Oxide (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates using DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. The thin films were deposited at 200 °C and post-deposition annealing from 15 to 90 min. XRD patterns of ZAO films exhibit only (0 0 2) diffraction peak, indicating that they have c-axis preferred orientation perpendicular to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the surface morphology of the films. The grain size obtained from SEM images of ZAO thin films are found to be in the range of 20 - 26 nm. The minimum resistivity of 1.74 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm and an average transmittance of 92% are obtained for the thin film post annealed for 30 min. The optical band gap of ZAO thin films increased from 3.49 to 3.60 eV with the increase of annealing time due to Burstein-Moss effect. The optical constants refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) were also determined from the optical transmission spectra.

  12. Growth of TiO{sub 2} Thin Film on Various Substrates using RF Magnetron Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2011-03-30

    The conductivity of Titanium Dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin film fabricated using Radio Frequency (RF) Magnetron Sputtering on Silicon (Si), Indium doped--Tin Oxide (ITO) and microscope glass (M) substrates is presented in this paper. The dependant of thin film thickness and type of substrate been discussed. TiO{sub 2} was deposited using Ti target in Ar+O{sub 2}(45:10) mixture at 250 W for 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 minute. Resultant thickness varies from 295 nm to 724 nm with deposition rate 6.4 nm/min. On the other hand, resistivity, Rs value for ITO substrate is between 5.72x10{sup -7} to 1.54x10{sup -6{Omega}}.m, Si substrate range is between 3.52x10{sup -6} to 1.76x10{sup -5{Omega}}.m and M substrate range is between 99 to 332 {Omega}.m. The value of resistivity increases with the thickness of the thin film.

  13. Adhesion analysis for chromium nitride thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, F. M.; Merie, V. V.; Pintea, I. M.; Molea, A.

    2016-08-01

    The thin film industry is continuously growing due to the wide range of applications that require the fabrication of advanced components such as sensors, biological implants, micro-electromechanical devices, optical coatings and so on. The selection regarding the deposition materials, as well as the deposition technology influences the properties of the material and determines the suitability of devices for certain real-world applications. This paper is focused on the adhesion force for several chromium nitride thin films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering. All chromium nitride thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate, the discharge current and the argon flow being kept constant. The main purpose of the paper is to determine the influence of deposition parameters on the adhesion force. Therefore some of the deposition parameters were varied in order to study their effect on the adhesion force. Experimentally, the values of the adhesion force were determined in multiple points for each sample using the spectroscopy in point mode of the atomic force microscope. The obtained values were used to estimate the surface energy of the CrN thin films based on two existing mathematical models for the adhesion force when considering the contact between two bodies.

  14. Abrasion resistant low friction and ultra-hard magnetron sputtered AlMgB14 coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishin, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    Hard aluminum magnesium boride films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering from a single stoichiometric AlMgB14 ceramic target. X-ray amorphous AlMgB14 films are very smooth. Their roughness does not exceed the roughness of Si wafer and Corning glass used as the substrates. Dispersion of refractive index and extinction coefficient were determined within 300 to 2500 nm range for the film deposited onto Corning glass. Stoichiometric in-depth compositionally homogeneous 2 μm thick films on the Si(100) wafer possess the peak values of nanohardness 88 GPa and Young’s modulus 517 GPa at the penetration depth of 26 nm and, respectively, 35 GPa and 275 GPa at 200 nm depth. Friction coefficient was found to be 0.06. The coating scratch adhesion strength of 14 N was obtained as the first chipping of the coating whereas its spallation failure happened at 21 N. These critical loads and the work of adhesion, estimated as high as 18.4 J m-2, surpass characteristics of diamond like carbon films deposited onto tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) substrates.

  15. Molybdenum Oxides Deposited by Modulated Pulse Power Magnetron Sputtering: Stoichiometry as a Function of Process Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Neil R.; Sun, Lirong; Grant, John T.; Jones, John G.; Jakubiak, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Molybdenum oxide films were deposited using modulated pulse power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) from a molybdenum target in a reactive environment where the flow rate of oxygen was varied from 0 sccm to 2.00 sccm. By varying the amount of reactive oxygen available during deposition, the composition of the films ranged from metallic Mo to fully stoichiometric MoO3, when the molybdenum target became poisoned, due to the formation of a dielectric surface oxide coating. Film compositions were verified using high energy resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Target poisoning occurred at an oxygen flow rate of 1.25 sccm and reversed when the flow rate decreased to about 1.00 sccm. MoO3 films deposited via MPPMS had densities of 3.8 g cm-3, 81% of the density of crystalline α-MoO3 as determined by x-ray reflectivity (XRR). In addition, XRR and atomic force microscopy data showed sub-nanometer surface roughness values. From spectroscopic ellipsometry, the measured refractive index of the MoO3 films at 589 nm was 1.97 with extinction coefficient values <0.02 at wavelengths above the measured absorption edge of 506 nm (2.45 eV).

  16. Superior biofunctionality of dental implant fixtures uniformly coated with durable bioglass films by magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Popa, A C; Stan, G E; Enculescu, M; Tanase, C; Tulyaganov, D U; Ferreira, J M F

    2015-11-01

    Bioactive glasses are currently considered the suitable candidates to stir the quest for a new generation of osseous implants with superior biological/functional performance. In congruence with this vision, this contribution aims to introduce a reliable technological recipe for coating fairly complex 3D-shaped implants (e.g. dental screws) with uniform and mechanical resistant bioactive glass films by the radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method. The mechanical reliability of the bioactive glass films applied to real Ti dental implant fixtures has been evaluated by a procedure comprised of "cold" implantation in pig mandibular bone from a dead animal, followed by immediate tension-free extraction tests. The effects of the complex mechanical strains occurring during implantation were analysed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with electron dispersive spectroscopy. Extensive biocompatibility assays (MTS, immunofluorescence, Western blot) revealed that the bioactive glass films stimulated strong cellular adhesion and proliferation of human dental pulp stem cells, without promoting their differentiation. The ability of the implant coatings to conserve a healthy stem cell pool is promising to further endorse the fabrication of new osseointegration implant designs with extended lifetime.

  17. Thermal stability and thermo-mechanical properties of magnetron sputtered Cr-Al-Y-N coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Rovere, Florian; Mayrhofer, Paul H.

    2008-01-15

    Cr{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N coatings are promising candidates for advanced machining and high temperature applications due to their good mechanical and thermal properties. Recently the authors have shown that reactive magnetron sputtering using Cr-Al targets with Al/Cr ratios of 1.5 and Y contents of 0, 2, 4, and 8 at % results in the formation of stoichiometric (Cr{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}){sub 1-y}Y{sub y}N films with Al/Cr ratios of {approx}1.2 and YN mole fractions of 0%, 2%, 4%, and 8%, respectively. Here, the impact of Y on thermal stability, structural evolution, and thermo-mechanical properties is investigated in detail. Based on in situ stress measurements, thermal analyzing, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy studies the authors conclude that Y effectively retards diffusional processes such as recovery, precipitation of hcp-AlN and fcc-YN, grain growth, and decomposition induced N{sub 2} release. Hence, the onset temperature of the latter shifts from {approx}1010 to 1125 deg. C and the hardness after annealing at T{sub a}=1100 deg. C increases from {approx}32 to 39 GPa with increasing YN mole fraction from 0% to 8%, respectively.

  18. Application of RF magnetron sputtering for growth of AZO on glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorannevis, Z.; Akbarnejad, E.; Salar Elahi, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2016-08-01

    Aluminum zinc oxide (AZO), as one of the most promising transparent conducting oxide (TCO) materials, has now been widely used in thin film solar cells. In this study the optimization process of the RF magnetron sputtered AZO films was performed at room temperature by studying its physical properties such as structural, optical, electrical and morphological at different deposition times (10, 20, 40 and 60 min) for its use as a front contact for the Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) based thin film solar cell applications. Influence of the deposition time was investigated on the physical properties of the AZO thin film by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), spectrophotometer and four point probes. XRD analysis suggests that the preferred orientation of grains for all the samples prepared at different growth times are along (002) plane having the hexagonal structure. From optical measurements the films show an average transmission over 60%. Moreover it was found that by increasing the growth time, which implies increasing the film thicknesses as well as improving the crystallinity the resistivity of the grown films decrease from the 10-2 Ωcm to the order of 10-3 Ωcm.

  19. Nanoscale compositional analysis of NiTi shape memory alloy films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S. K.; Mohan, S.; Bysakh, S.; Kumar, A.; Kamat, S. V.

    2013-11-15

    The formation of surface oxide layer as well as compositional changes along the thickness for NiTi shape memory alloy thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering at substrate temperature of 300 °C in the as-deposited condition as well as in the postannealed (at 600 °C) condition have been thoroughly studied by using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy techniques. Formation of titanium oxide (predominantly titanium dioxide) layer was observed in both as-deposited and postannealed NiTi films, although the oxide layer was much thinner (8 nm) in as-deposited condition. The depletion of Ti and enrichment of Ni below the oxide layer in postannealed films also resulted in the formation of a graded microstructure consisting of titanium oxide, Ni{sub 3}Ti, and B2 NiTi. A uniform composition of B2 NiTi was obtained in the postannealed film only below a depth of 200–250 nm from the surface. Postannealed film also exhibited formation of a ternary silicide (Ni{sub x}Ti{sub y}Si) at the film–substrate interface, whereas no silicide was seen in the as-deposited film. The formation of silicide also caused a depletion of Ni in the film in a region ∼250–300 nm just above the film substrate interface.

  20. Microstructure evolution with varied layer thickness in magnetron-sputtered Ni/C multilayer films

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jichang; Li, Wenbin; Huang, Qiushi; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure evolution of magnetron-sputtered Ni/C multilayers was investigated by varying the Ni and C layer thickness in the region of a few nanometers. For the samples having 2.6-nm-thick C layers, the interface width increases from 0.37 to 0.81 nm as the Ni layer thickness decreases from 4.3 to 1.3 nm. Especially for the samples with Ni layers less than 2.0 nm, the interface width changes significantly due to the discontinuously distributed Ni crystallites. For the samples having 2.8-nm-thick Ni layers, the interface width increases from 0.37 to 0.59 nm when the C layer thickness decreases from 4.3 to 0.7 nm. The evolution of interface microstructures with varied Ni and C layers is explained based on a proposed simple growth model of Ni and C layers. PMID:27515586

  1. Structural and optical properties of ZnS thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Zinc sulfide [ZnS] thin films were deposited on glass substrates using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The substrate temperature was varied in the range of 100°C to 400°C. The structural and optical properties of ZnS thin films were characterized with X-ray diffraction [XRD], field emission scanning electron microscopy [FESEM], energy dispersive analysis of X-rays and UV-visible transmission spectra. The XRD analyses indicate that ZnS films have zinc blende structures with (111) preferential orientation, whereas the diffraction patterns sharpen with the increase in substrate temperatures. The FESEM data also reveal that the films have nano-size grains with a grain size of approximately 69 nm. The films grown at 350°C exhibit a relatively high transmittance of 80% in the visible region, with an energy band gap of 3.79 eV. These results show that ZnS films are suitable for use as the buffer layer of the Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells. PMID:22221917

  2. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline Ti(1-x)Al(x)N by reactive magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Jose, Feby; Ramaseshan, R; Dash, S; Dasgupta, Arup; Saroja, S; Tyagi, A K

    2009-09-01

    Ti(1-x)Al(x)N metastable films were synthesized by reactive magnetron co-sputtering with different Ti to Al ratios. XRD studies showed that as-deposited films were crystalline for concentrations of Al (35, 40, 55 and 64%) and become amorphous at 81% Al. These films were annealed at 1073 K to study the phase separation. Films up to 55% Al did not show any phase separation after annealing. But films with 64% Al splits into c-TiAIN and c-AIN, whereas films with 81% Al split into cubic-TiN and hex-AIN. Distribution of crystallites and their size were analyzed by TEM. High density of crystallites with dimensions between 3-11 nm was dispersed in amorphous matrix for 64% Al films. Nanoindentation technique was used to determine the mechanical properties of these films without substrate effect. Maximum hardness obtained for as deposited and annealed films (64% Al) were 35 GPa and 38 GPa, respectively.

  3. Growth, microstructure and supercapacitive performance of copper oxide thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purusottam Reddy, B.; Sivajee Ganesh, K.; Hussain, O. M.

    2016-02-01

    The supercapacitive performance of copper oxide thin film electrodes mainly relies on micro structure, phase, surface area and conductivity which in turn depend on the deposition technique and process parameters during growth. In the present study, thin films of copper oxide were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on stainless steel substrates keeping O2-to-Ar ratio at 1:11 and RF power at 250 W and varying the substrate temperature. The microstructure and the induced phase changes in copper oxide films are observed to be strongly influenced by the substrate temperature since the relaxation time, surface diffusion and surface structural changes are thermally activated. The XRD and Raman studies reveal that the films deposited at low substrate temperature (<200 °C) exhibited CuO, while the films deposited at substrate temperature >200 °C exhibited Cu2O phase. The films prepared at 350 °C exhibited reflections correspond to cubic Cu2O with predominant (111) orientation. The estimated maximum grain size from AFM studies was 72 nm with surface roughness of 51 nm. These films exhibited a highest areal capacitance of 30 mF cm-2 at scan rate of 5 mV s-1. The galvanostatic charge-discharge studies demonstrated high specific capacitance of 908 F g-1 at 0.5 mA cm-2 current density with 80 % of its initial capacity retention even after 1000 cycles.

  4. Microstructure and tribological properties of Ti-contained amorphous carbon film deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Li, R. L.; Tu, J. P.; Hong, C. F.; Liu, D. G.; Zhou, D. H.; Sun, H. L.

    2009-12-15

    Pure amorphous carbon (a-C) film and that with a small amount of Ti were deposited on high speed steel (W18Cr4V) substrates by means of dc closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The chemical composition and microstructure of the a-C films were performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated using a nanoindentor, Rockwell and scratch tests, and a conventional ball-on-disk tribometer, respectively. The pure a-C film showed the high hardness (53 GPa), elastic modulus (289 GPa), but the poor adhesive strength. When adding a small amount of Ti to the a-C film, both the adhesive strength and the tribological properties were improved. The Ti contained a-C film had the low wear rate (1.9x10{sup -17} m{sup 3} N{sup -1} m{sup -1}) and friction coefficient in humid air.

  5. Radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and wet thermal oxidation of ZnO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. F.; Chua, S. J.; Hu, G. X.; Gong, H.; Xiang, N.

    2007-08-01

    The authors studied the growth and wet thermal oxidation (WTO) of ZnO thin films using a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique. X-ray diffraction reveals a preferred orientation of [101¯0]ZnO(0002)//[112¯0]Al2O3(0002) coexisted with a small amount of ZnO (101¯1) and ZnO (101¯3) crystals on the Al2O3 (0001) substrate. The ZnO (101¯1) and ZnO (101¯3) crystals, as well as the in-plane preferred orientation, are absent from the growth of ZnO on the GaAs(001) substrate. WTO at 550 °C improves the crystalline and the photoluminescence more significantly than annealing in air, N2 and O2 ambient; it also tends to convert the crystal from ZnO (101¯1) and ZnO (101¯3) to ZnO (0002). The evolution of the photoluminescence upon WTO and annealing reveals that the green and orange emissions, centered at 520 and 650 nm, are likely originated from oxygen vacancies and oxygen interstitials, respectively; while the 420 nm emission, which is very sensitive to the postgrowth thermal processing regardless of the substrate and the ambient gas, is likely originated from the surface-state related defects.

  6. Synthesis of copper nitride films doped with Fe, Co, or Ni by reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jianbo; Huang, Saijia; Wang, Zhijiao; Hou, Yuxuan; Shi, Yuyu; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Jianping Li, Xing'ao

    2014-09-01

    Copper nitride (Cu{sub 3}N) and Fe-, Co-, and Ni-doped Cu{sub 3}N films were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering. The films were deposited on silicon substrates at room temperature using pure Cu target and metal chips. The molar ratio of Cu to N atoms in the as-prepared Cu{sub 3}N film was 2.7:1, which is comparable with the stoichiometry ratio 3:1. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the films were composed of Cu{sub 3}N crystallites with anti-ReO{sub 3} structure and adopted different preferred orientations. The reflectance of the four samples decreased in the wavelength range of 400–830 nm, but increased rapidly within wavelength range of 830–1200 nm. Compared with the Cu{sub 3}N films, the resistivity of the doped Cu{sub 3}N films decreased by three orders of magnitude. These changes have great application potential in optical and electrical devices based on Cu{sub 3}N films.

  7. Reducing the impurity incorporation from residual gas by ion bombardment during high vacuum magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, Johanna; Widenkvist, Erika; Larsson, Karin; Kreissig, Ulrich; Mraz, Stanislav; Martinez, Carlos; Music, Denis; Schneider, J. M.

    2006-05-08

    The influence of ion energy on the hydrogen incorporation has been investigated for alumina thin films, deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an Ar/O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O environment. Ar{sup +} with an average kinetic energy of {approx}5 eV was determined to be the dominating species in the plasma. The films were analyzed with x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elastic recoil detection analysis, demonstrating evidence for amorphous films with stoichiometric O/Al ratio. As the substrate bias potential was increased from -15 V (floating potential) to -100 V, the hydrogen content decreased by {approx}70%, from 9.1 to 2.8 at. %. Based on ab initio calculations, these results may be understood by thermodynamic principles, where a supply of energy enables surface diffusion, H{sub 2} formation, and desorption [Rosen et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, L137 (2005)]. These findings are of importance for the understanding of the correlation between ion energy and film composition and also show a pathway to reduce impurity incorporation during film growth in a high vacuum ambient.

  8. Low temperature deposition of transparent conducting ITO/Au/ITO films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daeil

    2010-01-01

    Transparent conducting indium tin oxide/Au/indium tin oxide (ITO) multilayered films were deposited on unheated polycarbonate substrates by magnetron sputtering. The thickness of the Au intermediated film varied from 5 to 20 nm. Changes in the microstructure, surface roughness and optoelectrical properties of the ITO/Au/ITO films were investigated with respect to the thickness of the Au intermediated layer. X-ray diffraction measurements of ITO single layer films did not show characteristic diffraction peaks, while ITO/Au/ITO films showed an In 2O 3 (2 2 2) characteristic diffraction peak. The optoelectrical properties of the films were also dependent on the presence and thickness of the Au thin film. The ITO 50 nm/Au 10 nm/ITO 40 nm films had a sheet resistance of 5.6 Ω/□ and an average optical transmittance of 72% in the visible wavelength range of 400-700 nm. Consequently, the crystallinity, which affects the optoelectrical properties of ITO films, can be enhanced with Au intermediated films.

  9. Portable surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for insecticide detection using silver nanorod film fabricated by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong-ek, Krongkamol; Horprathum, Mati; Eiamchai, Pitak; Limnonthakul, Puenisara; Patthanasettakul, Viyapol; Chindaudom, Pongpan; Nuntawong, Noppadon

    2011-03-01

    In order to increase agricultural productivity, several countries heavily rely on deadly insecticides, known to be toxic to most living organisms and thus significantly affect the food chain. The most obvious impact is to human beings who come into contact, or even consume, pesticide-exposed crops. This work hence focused on an alternative method for insecticide detection at trace concentration under field tests. We proposed a compact Raman spectroscopy system, which consisted of a portable Raman spectroscope, and a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate, developed for the purpose of such application, on a chip. For the selected portable Raman spectroscope, a laser diode of 785 nm for excitation and a thermoelectric-cooled CCD spectrometer for detection were used. The affordable SERS substrates, with a structure of distributed silver nanorods, were however fabricated by a low-energy magnetron sputtering system. Based on an oblique-angle deposition technique, several deposition parameters, which include a deposition angle, an operating pressure and a substrate rotation, were investigated for their immediate effects on the formation of the nanorods. Trace concentration of organophosphorous chemical agents, including methyl parathion, chlorpyrifos, and malathion, adsorbed on the fabricated SERS substrates were analyzed. The obtained results indicated a sensitive detection for the trace organic analyses of the toxic chemical agents from the purposed portable SERS system.

  10. Structure and magnetic properties of hcp and fcc nanocrystalline thin Ni films and nanoparticles produced by radio frequency magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Kapaklis, Vassilios; Pappas, Spiridon D; Poulopoulos, Panagiotis; Trachylis, Dimitrios; Schweiss, Peter; Politis, Constantin

    2010-09-01

    We report on the growth of thin Ni films by radio frequency magnetron sputtering in Ar-plasma. The growth temperature was about 350 K and the films were deposited on various substrates such as glass, silicon, sapphire and alumina. The thickness of the thinnest films was estimated by the appearance of Kiessig fringes up to about 2theta = 8 degrees in the small-angle X-ray diffraction pattern, as expected for high-quality atomically-flat thin films. With the help of this, a quartz balance system was calibrated and used for measuring the thickness of thicker samples with an accuracy of better than 5%. Structural characterization via X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed an Ar-gas pressure window, where single phase hcp Ni films may be grown. The magnetic response of the Ni films was checked at room temperature via a newly established and fully automatic polar magneto-optic Kerr effect magnetometer. The hcp films show no magnetic response. Interestingly, the magnetic saturation field of fcc films deposited at low Ar pressure is comparable to the one of bulk Ni, while the one of fcc films deposited at high Ar pressures is decreased, revealing the presence of residual strain in the films. Finally, it is shown that it is possible to form films which contain magnetic Ni fcc nanoparticles in a non-magnetic hcp matrix, i.e., a system interesting for technological applications demanding a single Ni target for its production.

  11. Degradation and Characterization of Resorbable Phosphate-Based Glass Thin-Film Coatings Applied by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Bryan W; Gimeno-Fabra, Miquel; Segal, Joel; Ahmed, Ifty; Grant, David M

    2015-12-16

    Quinternary phosphate-based glasses of up to 2.67 μm, deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering, were degraded in distilled water and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to investigate their degradation characteristics. Magnetron-sputtered coatings have been structurally compared to their compositionally equivalent melt-quenched bulk glass counterparts. The coatings were found to have structurally variable surfaces to melt-quenched glass such that the respective bridging oxygen to nonbridging oxygen bonds were 34.2% to 65.8% versus 20.5% to 79.5%, forming metaphosphate (PO3)(-) (Q(2)) versus less soluble (P2O7)(4-) (Q(1)) and (PO4)(3-) (Q(0)), respectively. This factor led to highly soluble coatings, exhibiting a t(1/2) degradation dependence in the first 2 h in distilled water, followed by a more characteristic linear profile because the subsequent layers were less soluble. Degradation was observed to preferentially occur, forming voids characteristic of pitting corrosion, which was confirmed by the use of a focused ion beam. Coating degradation in PBS precipitated a (PO3)(-) metaphosphate, an X-ray amorphous layer, which remained adherent to the substrate and seemingly formed a protective diffusion barrier, which inhibited further coating degradation. The implications are that while compositionally similar, sputter-deposited coatings and melt-quenched glasses are structurally dissimilar, most notably, with regard to the surface layer. This factor has been attributed to surface etching of the as-deposited coating layer during deposition and variation in the thermal history between the processes of magnetron sputtering and melt quenching.

  12. Effects of various deposition times and RF powers on CdTe thin film growth using magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorannevis, Z.; Akbarnejad, E.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a p-type II-VI compound semiconductor, which is an active component for producing photovoltaic solar cells in the form of thin films, due to its desirable physical properties. In this study, CdTe film was deposited using the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system onto a glass substrate. To improve the properties of the CdTe film, effects of two experimental parameters of deposition time and RF power were investigated on the physical properties of the CdTe films. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometer were used to study the structural, morphological and optical properties of the CdTe samples grown at different experimental conditions, respectively. Our results suggest that film properties strongly depend on the experimental parameters and by optimizing these parameters, it is possible to tune the desired structural, morphological and optical properties. From XRD data, it is found that increasing the deposition time and RF power leads to increasing the crystallinity as well as the crystal sizes of the grown film, and all the films represent zinc blende cubic structure. Roughness values given from AFM images suggest increasing the roughness of the CdTe films by increasing the RF power and deposition times. Finally, optical investigations reveal increasing the film band gaps by increasing the RF power and the deposition time.

  13. Simulation of nanoindentation experiment on RF magnetron sputtered nanocolumnar V2O5 film using finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porwal, Deeksha; Gupta, A. K.; Pillai, Anju M.; Sharma, Anand Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar; Khan, Kallol; Dey, Arjun

    2016-07-01

    The present work reports the nanomechanical behavior of a pulsed radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtered vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) film deposited on silicon (Si) substrate using a combination of nanoindentation experiments and a finite element model (FEM). Deposited V2O5 film is characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), nanoprofilometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), nanoindentation and FEM. The phase pure 6.16 μm V2O5 film shows a nanocolumnar structure. The film exhibits nanohardness (H) of 0.16 ± 0.013 GPa and Young’s modulus (E) of about 12.05 ± 1.41 GPa. The FEM reproduces experimentally obtained load versus depth (P-h) plot and subsequently give yield stress and strain hardening component data of V2O5 film on Si substrate. Stress-strain behavior and von-Mises stress distribution of the V2O5 film with Si substrate system are also simulated. The FE model confirms the local maximum equivalent stress active underneath the nanoindenters to be nearly twice as high as the yield stress and thereby explains the plastic deformation observed in the V2O5 film.

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–B–C–N–Si nanocomposite films deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Jaeho; An, Eunsol; Park, In-Wook; Nam, Dae-Geun; Jo, Ilguk; Lin, Jianliang; Moore, John J.; Ho Kim, Kwang; Park, Ikmin

    2013-11-15

    Quinary Ti–B–C–N–Si nanocomposite thin films were deposited on AISI 304 stainless steel substrates by d.c. unbalanced magnetron sputtering from a TiB{sub 2}–TiC compound target and a pure Si target. The relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties of the films was investigated in terms of the nanosized crystallites/amorphous system. The synthesized Ti–B–C–N–Si films were characterized using x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the Ti–B–C–N–Si films were nanocomposites composed of nanosized TiB{sub 2}, TiC, and TiSi{sub 2} crystallites (2-3 nm in size) embedded in an amorphous matrix. The addition of Si to the Ti–B–C–N film led to precipitation of nanosized crystalline TiSi{sub 2} and percolation of amorphous SiC phases. The Ti–B–C–N–Si films with up to 7 at. % Si content presented high hardness (≥35 GPa), H/E (≥0.0095), and W{sub e} (>50%) with compressive residual stress (∼0.5 GPa). A systematic investigation on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–B–C–N–Si films containing different Si contents is reported.

  15. Method to control deposition rate instabilities—High power impulse magnetron sputtering deposition of TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Kossoy, Anna E-mail: anna.kossoy@gmail.com; Magnusson, Rögnvaldur L.; Tryggvason, Tryggvi K.; Leosson, Kristjan; Olafsson, Sveinn

    2015-03-15

    The authors describe how changes in shutter state (open/closed) affect sputter plasma conditions and stability of the deposition rate of Ti and TiO{sub 2} films. The films were grown by high power impulse magnetron sputtering in pure Ar and in Ar/O{sub 2} mixture from a metallic Ti target. The shutter state was found to have an effect on the pulse waveform for both pure Ar and reactive sputtering of Ti also affecting stability of TiO{sub 2} deposition rate. When the shutter opened, the shape of pulse current changed from rectangular to peak-plateau and pulse energy decreased. The authors attribute it to the change in plasma impedance and gas rarefaction originating in geometry change in front of the magnetron. TiO{sub 2} deposition rate was initially found to be high, 1.45 Å/s, and then dropped by ∼40% during the first 5 min, while for Ti the change was less obvious. Instability of deposition rate poses significant challenge for growing multilayer heterostructures. In this work, the authors suggest a way to overcome this by monitoring the integrated average energy involved in the deposition process. It is possible to calibrate and control the film thickness by monitoring the integrated pulse energy and end growth when desired integrated pulse energy level has been reached.

  16. Time dependence of carbon film deposition on SnO{sub 2}/Si using DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Alfiadi, H. Aji, A. S. Darma, Y.

    2014-02-24

    Carbon deposition on SnO{sub 2} layer has been demonstrated at low temperature using DC unbalanced magnetron-sputtering technique for various time depositions. Before carbon sputtering process, SnO{sub 2} thin layer is grown on silicon substrate by thermal evaporation method using high purity Sn wire and then fully oxidizes by dry O{sub 2} at 225°C. Carbon sputtering process was carried out at pressure of 4.6×10{sup −2} Torr by keeping the substrate temperature of 300 °C for sputtering deposition time of 1 to 4 hours. The properties of SnO{sub 2}/Si structure and carbon thin film on SnO{sub 2} is characterized using SEM, EDAX, XRD, FTIR, and Raman Spectra. SEM images and XRD spectra show that SnO2 thin film has uniformly growth on Si substrate and affected by annealing temperature. Raman and FTIR results confirm the formation of carbon-rich thin film on SnO{sub 2}. In addition, XRD spectra indicate that some structural change occur by increasing sputtering deposition time. Furthermore, the change of atomic structure due to the thermal annealing is analized by XRD spectra and Raman spectroscopy.

  17. Temperature-dependent wear mechanisms for magnetron-sputtered AlTiTaN hard coatings.

    PubMed

    Khetan, Vishal; Valle, Nathalie; Duday, David; Michotte, Claude; Mitterer, Christian; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule; Choquet, Patrick

    2014-09-10

    AlTiTaN coatings have been demonstrated to have high thermal stability at temperatures up to 900 °C. It has been speculated that the high oxidation resistance promotes an improved wear resistance, specifically for dry machining applications. This work reports on the influence of temperature up to 900 °C on the wear mechanisms of AlTiTaN hard coatings. DC magnetron-sputtered coatings were obtained from an Al(46)Ti(42)Ta(12) target, keeping the substrate bias at -100 V and the substrate temperature at 265 °C. The coatings exhibited a single-phase face-centered cubic AlTiTaN structure. The dry sliding tests revealed predominant abrasion and tribo-oxidation as wear mechanisms, depending on the wear debris formed. At room temperature, abrasion leading to surface polishing was observed. At 700 and 800 °C, slow tribo-oxidation and an amorphous oxide formed reduced the wear rate of the coating compared to room temperature. Further, an increase in temperature to 900 °C increased the wear rate significantly due to fast tribo-oxidation accompanied by grooving. The friction coefficient was found to decrease with temperature increasing from 700 to 900 °C due to the formation of oxide scales, which reduce adhesion of asperity contacts. A relationship between the oxidation and wear mechanisms was established using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, surface profilometry, confocal microscopy, and dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry.

  18. Bioactivity response of Ta1-xOx coatings deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Almeida Alves, C F; Cavaleiro, A; Carvalho, S

    2016-01-01

    The use of dental implants is sometimes accompanied by failure due to periimplantitis disease and subsequently poor esthetics when soft-hard tissue margin recedes. As a consequence, further research is needed for developing new bioactive surfaces able to enhance the osseous growth. Tantalum (Ta) is a promising material for dental implants since, comparing with titanium (Ti), it is bioactive and has an interesting chemistry which promotes the osseointegration. Another promising approach for implantology is the development of implants with oxidized surfaces since bone progenitor cells interact with the oxide layer forming a diffusion zone due to its ability to bind with calcium which promotes a stronger bond. In the present report Ta-based coatings were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering onto Ti CP substrates in an Ar+O2 atmosphere. In order to assess the osteoconductive response of the studied materials, contact angle and in vitro tests of the samples immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) were performed. Structural results showed that oxide phases where achieved with larger amounts of oxygen (70 at.% O). More compact and smooth coatings were deposited by increasing the oxygen content. The as-deposited Ta coating presented the most hydrophobic character (100°); with increasing oxygen amount contact angles progressively diminished, down to the lowest measured value, 63°. The higher wettability is also accompanied by an increase on the surface energy. Bioactivity tests demonstrated that highest O-content coating, in good agreement with wettability and surface energy values, showed an increased affinity for apatite adhesion, with higher Ca/P ratio formation, when compared to the bare Ti substrates.

  19. Studies on optoelectronic properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered CdTe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, B. Rajesh; Hymavathi, B.; Rao, T. Subba

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium telluride continues to be a leading candidate for the development of cost effective photovoltaics for terrestrial applications. In the present work two individual metallic targets of Cd and Te were used for the deposition of CdTe thin films on mica substrates from room temperature to 300 °C by DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. XRD patterns of CdTe thin films deposited on mica substrates exhibit peaks at 2θ = 27.7°, 46.1° and 54.6°, which corresponds to reflection on (1 1 1), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) planes of CdTe cubic structure. The intensities of XRD patterns increases with the increase of substrate temperature upto 150 °C and then it decreases at higher substrate temperatures. The conductivity of CdTe thin films measured from four probe method increases with the increase of substrate temperature. The activation energies (ΔE) are found to be decrease with the increase of substrate temperature. The optical transmittance spectra of CdTe thin films deposited on mica have a clear interference pattern in the longer wavelength region. The films have good transparency (T > 85 %) exhibiting interference pattern in the spectral region between 1200 - 2500 nm. The optical band gap of CdTe thin films are found to be in the range of 1.48 - 1.57. The refractive index, n decreases with the increase of wavelength, λ. The value of n and k increases with the increase of substrate temperature.

  20. Studies on optoelectronic properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered CdTe thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, B. Rajesh; Hymavathi, B.; Rao, T. Subba

    2014-01-28

    Cadmium telluride continues to be a leading candidate for the development of cost effective photovoltaics for terrestrial applications. In the present work two individual metallic targets of Cd and Te were used for the deposition of CdTe thin films on mica substrates from room temperature to 300 °C by DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. XRD patterns of CdTe thin films deposited on mica substrates exhibit peaks at 2θ = 27.7°, 46.1° and 54.6°, which corresponds to reflection on (1 1 1), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) planes of CdTe cubic structure. The intensities of XRD patterns increases with the increase of substrate temperature upto 150 °C and then it decreases at higher substrate temperatures. The conductivity of CdTe thin films measured from four probe method increases with the increase of substrate temperature. The activation energies (ΔE) are found to be decrease with the increase of substrate temperature. The optical transmittance spectra of CdTe thin films deposited on mica have a clear interference pattern in the longer wavelength region. The films have good transparency (T > 85 %) exhibiting interference pattern in the spectral region between 1200 – 2500 nm. The optical band gap of CdTe thin films are found to be in the range of 1.48 – 1.57. The refractive index, n decreases with the increase of wavelength, λ. The value of n and k increases with the increase of substrate temperature.

  1. Sputter deposition system for controlled fabrication of multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Di Nardo, R.P.; Takacs, P.Z.; Majkrzak, C.F.; Stefan, P.M.

    1985-06-01

    A detailed description of a sputter deposition system constructed specifically for the fabrication of x-ray and neutron multilayer monochromators and supermirrors is given. One of the principal design criteria is to maintain precise control of film thickness and uniformity over large substrate areas. Regulation of critical system parameters is fully automated so that response to feedback control information is rapid and complicated layer thickness sequences can be deposited accurately and efficiently. The use of either dc or rf magnetron sources makes it possible to satisfy the diverse material requirements of both x-ray and neutron optics.

  2. Evaporation-assisted high-power impulse magnetron sputtering: The deposition of tungsten oxide as a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Hemberg, Axel; Dauchot, Jean-Pierre; Snyders, Rony; Konstantinidis, Stephanos

    2012-07-15

    The deposition rate during the synthesis of tungsten trioxide thin films by reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of a tungsten target increases, above the dc threshold, as a result of the appropriate combination of the target voltage, the pulse duration, and the amount of oxygen in the reactive atmosphere. This behavior is likely to be caused by the evaporation of the low melting point tungsten trioxide layer covering the metallic target in such working conditions. The HiPIMS process is therefore assisted by thermal evaporation of the target material.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of rf-planar magnetron sputtered KTaxNb1 - xO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sashital, S. R.; Krishnakumar, S.; Esener, S.

    1993-06-01

    Thin ferroelectric films of potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) have been grown by rf planar magnetron sputtering on sapphire, platinum coated silicon, and GaAs substrates. X-ray diffraction analysis indicate epitaxial growth with (100) orientation. The KTN films exhibit dielectric anomalies at temperatures between -4 and 9 °C and peak dielectric constant ɛ of nearly 2000. Films have a smooth surface morphology, and excellent optical transparency. The electro-optic effect and electrical properties of such KTN thin films are reported.

  4. Characterization of ZnO:SnO2 (50:50) thin film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cynthia, S. R.; Sivakumar, R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Ponmudi, S.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and tin oxide (SnO2) thin films have attracted significant interest recently for use in optoelectronic application such as solar cells, flat panel displays, photonic devices, laser diodes and gas sensors because of their desirable electrical and optical properties and wide band gap. In the present study, thin films of ZnO:SnO2 (50:50) were deposited on pre-cleaned microscopic glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The substrate temperature and RF power induced changes in structural, surface morphological, compositional and optical properties of the films have been studied.

  5. Drifting potential humps in ionization zones: The “propeller blades” of high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, André; Ni, Pavel; Panjan, Matjaž; Franz, Robert; Andersson, Joakim

    2013-09-30

    Ion energy distribution functions measured for high power impulse magnetron sputtering show features, such as a broad peak at several 10 eV with an extended tail, as well as asymmetry with respect to E×B, where E and B are the local electric and magnetic field vectors, respectively. Here it is proposed that those features are due to the formation of a potential hump of several 10 V in each of the traveling ionization zones. Potential hump formation is associated with a negative-positive-negative space charge that naturally forms in ionization zones driven by energetic drifting electrons.

  6. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al⁺ ion beam.

    PubMed

    Weichsel, T; Hartung, U; Kopte, T; Zschornack, G; Kreller, M; Philipp, A

    2015-09-01

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology-a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al(+) ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm(2) is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 10(9) cm(-3) to 6 × 10(10) cm(-3) and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge.

  7. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al+ ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichsel, T.; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Philipp, A.

    2015-09-01

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology—a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al+ ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm2 is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 109 cm-3 to 6 × 1010 cm-3 and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge.

  8. Enhanced electrical and noise properties of nanocomposite vanadium oxide thin films by reactive pulsed-dc magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Basantani, H. A.; Kozlowski, S.; Lee, Myung-Yoon; Li, J.; Dickey, E. C.; Jackson, T. N.; Bharadwaja, S. S. N.; Horn, M.

    2012-06-25

    Thin films of VO{sub x} (1.3 {<=} x {<=} 2) were deposited by reactive pulsed-dc magnetron sputtering of a vanadium metal target while RF-biasing the substrate. Rutherford back scattering, glancing angle x-ray, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed the formation of nanocolumns with nanotwins within VO{sub x} samples. The resistivity of nanotwinned VO{sub x} films ranged from 4 m{Omega}{center_dot}cm to 0.6 {Omega}{center_dot}cm and corresponding temperature coefficient of resistance between -0.1% and -2.6% per K, respectively. The 1/f electrical noise was analyzed in these VO{sub x} samples using the Hooge-Vandamme relation. These VO{sub x} films are comparable or surpass commercial VO{sub x} films deposited by ion beam sputtering.

  9. Structural and optical characterization of terbium doped ZnGa2O4 thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somasundaram, K.; Girija, K. G.; Sudarsan, V.; Selvin, P. Christopher; Vatsa, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Tb3+ doped ZnGa2O4 nanophosphor (21 nm) has been synthesized via low temperature polyol route and subsequently thin films of the same were deposited on glass and ITO substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The films were characterized by X-ray Diffraction and luminescence measurements. The XRD pattern showed that Tb3+ doped ZnGa2O4 nanophosphor has a cubic spinel phase. Luminescence behavior of the nanophosphor and as deposited sputtered film was investigated. The PL emission spectra of nanophosphor gave a broad ZnGa2O4 host emission band along with a strong terbium emission and the thin films showed only broad host emission band and there was no terbium ion emission.

  10. Indium tin oxide films deposited by thermionic-enhanced DC magnetron sputtering on unheated polyethylene terephthalate polymer substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Y.F.; Peng, W.C.; Lo, Y.H.; He, J.L.

    2009-08-05

    Indium tin oxide thin films were deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate substrates via thermionic enhanced DC magnetron sputtering at low substrate temperatures. The structural, optical and electrical properties of these films are methodically investigated. The results show that compared with traditional sputtering, the films deposited with thermionic emission exhibit higher crystallinity, and their optical and electrical properties are also improved. Indium tin oxide films deposited by utilizing thermionic emission exhibit an average visible transmittance of 80% and an electrical resistivity of 4.5 x 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm, while films made without thermionic emission present an average visible transmittance of 74% and an electrical resistivity of 1.7 x 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm.

  11. Application of Extended Smoluchowski Equations to Formation of Silver Nanoclusters Generated by Direct Current Magnetron Sputtering Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuhang; Feng, Yuanxin

    2016-09-01

    We apply the extended Smoluchowski rate equations with neutralization process between nanocluster (NC) anion and cation to study the formation of silver NCs generated by direct current magnetron sputtering (DC-MSP). By comparing the experimental and simulation results, it was found that the origin of size tuning by the cell length was prolonged aggregation time. Size tuning by DC power (P) was attributed to the enhanced initial number density and ionization fraction of the sputtered materials. It was revealed that parts of NC ions were "lost" after aggregation and the amount of lost ions increased with power (20 W < P < 100 W), which was caused by the accelerated neutralization process. The high consistency between experiment and simulation suggests that the extended Smoluchowski rate equations are capable to describe the NC formation in gas phase.

  12. [Study on the Properties of the Pc-Si Films Prepared by Magnetron Co-Sputtering at Low Temperature].

    PubMed

    Duan, Liang-fei; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Li-yuan; Li, Xue-ming; Chen, Xiao-bo; Yang, Pei-zhi

    2016-03-01

    The polycrystalline silicon thin films play an important role in the field of electronics. In the paper, α-SiAl composite membranes on glass substrates was prepared by magnetron co-sputtering. The contents of Al radicals encapsulated-in the α-Si film can be adjusted by changing the Al to Si sputtering power ratios. The as-prepared α-Si films were converted into polycrystalline films by using a rapid thermal annealing (RTP) at low temperature of 350 degrees C for 10 minutes in N2 atmosphere. An X-ray diffractometer, and Raman scattering and UV-Visible-NIR Spectrometers were used to characterize the properties of the Pc-Si films. The influences of Al content on the properties of the Pc-Si films were studied. The results showed that the polycrystalline silicon films were obtained from α-SiAl composite films which were prepared by magnetron co-sputtering at a low temperature following by a rapid thermal annealing. The grain size and the degree of crystallization of the Pc-Si films increased with the increase of Al content, while the optical band gap was reduced. The nc-Si films were prepared when the Al to Si sputtering power ratio was 0.1. And a higher Crystallization rate (≥ 85%) of polycrystalline silicon films were obtained when the ratio was 0.3. The band gaps of the polycrystalline silicon films can be controlled by changing the aluminum content in the films. PMID:27400496

  13. Effects of nitrogen ion implantation time on tungsten films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malau, Viktor; Ilman, Mochammad Noer; Iswanto, Priyo Tri; Jatisukamto, Gaguk

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen ion implantation time on tungsten thin film deposited on surface of AISI 410 steel has been performed. Tungsten thin film produced by dc magnetron sputtering method was deposited on AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel substrates, and then the nitrogen ions were implanted on tungsten thin film. The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of implantation deposition time on surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate of nitrogen implanted on tungsten film. Magnetron sputtering process was performed by using plasma gas of argon (Ar) to bombardier tungsten target (W) in a vacuum chamber with a pressure of 7.6 x 10-2 torr, a voltage of 300 V, a sputter current of 80 mA for sputtered time of 10 minutes. Nitrogen implantation on tungsten film was done with an initial pressure of 3x10-6 mbar, a fluence of 2 x 1017 ions/cm2, an energy of 100 keV and implantation deposition times of 0, 20, 30 and 40 minutes. The surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate of the films were evaluated by surfcorder test, Vickers microhardness test, wear test and potentiostat (galvanostat) test respectively. The results show that the nitrogen ions implanted deposition time on tungsten film can modify the surface roughness, microhardness, specific wear and corrosion rate. The minimum surface roughness, specific wear and corrosion rate can be obtained for implantation time of 20 minutes and the maximum microhardness of the film is 329 VHN (Vickers Hardness Number) for implantation time of 30 minutes. The specific wear and corrosion rate of the film depend directly on the surface roughness.

  14. Process characteristics and film properties upon growth of TiOx films by high power pulsed magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarakinos, K.; Alami, J.; Wuttig, M.

    2007-04-01

    In this work TiOx (x > 1.8) films are grown reactively from a ceramic TiO1.8 target employing high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) at a constant average target current. The effect of the pulse on/off time configuration on the target and the discharge characteristics as well as on the film properties is investigated. The target voltage (VT) increases from 480 to 650 V and the peak target current (ITp) increases from 2 to 40 A when the pulse off-time is increased from 200 to 2450 µs, while the on-time is kept constant at 50 µs. This is accompanied by an increase in the number of Ti atoms sputtered from the target, as manifested by time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements. OES also manifests an increase in the ionization of the sputtered Ti atoms with increasing ITp. The above changes in the target and discharge characteristics affect the deposition rate so that the latter increases with increasing ITp up to a value of 14 A, above which the deposition rate drops. In all the cases the deposition rates are up to ~40% higher compared to the rates achieved for films grown by dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) which are also studied for reference. The increase in ITp from 2 to 40 A also affects the films' properties. It is shown that a drop in the surface roughness from 1.1 to 0.5 nm takes place. These values are lower than the surface roughness of films grown by dcMS (1.35 nm). Moreover, films grown by HPPMS are found to have higher densities (up to 3.83 g cm-3) and higher refractive indices (up to 2.48) in comparison to the films grown by dcMS (3.71 g cm-3 and 2.38, respectively).

  15. Synthesis and characterization of large-area and continuous MoS2 atomic layers by RF magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sajjad; Shehzad, Muhammad Arslan; Vikraman, Dhanasekaran; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Singh, Jai; Choi, Dong-Chul; Seo, Yongho; Eom, Jonghwa; Lee, Wan-Gyu; Jung, Jongwan

    2016-02-21

    In this article, we report layer-controlled, continuous and large-area molydenum sulfide (MoS2) growth onto a SiO2/Si substrate by RF sputtering combined with sulfurization. A two-step process was employed to synthesize MoS2 films. In the first step, an atomically thin MoO3 film was deposited by RF magnetron sputtering at 300 °C. Subsequently, the as-sputtered MoO3 film was further subjected to post-annealing and sulfurization processes at 650 °C for 1 hour. It was observed that the number of layers of MoS2 can be controlled by adjusting the sputtering time. The fabricated MoS2 transistors exhibited high mobility values of ∼21 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (bilayer) and ∼25 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (trilayer), on/off ratios in the range of ∼10(7) (bilayer) and 10(4)-10(5) (trilayer), respectively. We believe that our proposed paradigm can start a new method for the growth of MoS2 in future electronics and optoelectronics applications.

  16. Structural and magnetic properties of NiZn-ferrite thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yingli; Li Yuanxun; Zhang Huaiwu; Chen Daming; Mu Chunhong

    2011-04-01

    Polycrystalline NiZn-ferrite thin films were deposited on Si(100) substrate by rf magnetron sputtering, using targets with a nominal composition of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The effects of substrate condition, sputtering pressure, and postannealing on the structure and magnetic properties of thin films have been investigated. Our results show that the preferred orientation of the NiZn spinel film changed from (311) to (400) with increasing the Ar pressure from 0.8 to 1.6 Pa, meanwhile, the grain size also increased. Atomic force microscopy analysis indicates that perfect surface morphology of the film can be obtained at a relatively lower sputtering pressure of 1.0 Pa. The relative percentage of residual oxygen increases significantly on a condition of lower sputtering pressure, and plays an important role in film structure due to the strong molecular adsorption tendency of oxygen on the film surface during the deposition process. A thin film with a typical thickness of 1 {mu}m, a saturation magnetization of 150 emu/cm{sup 3}, and a coercivity of 8.8 kA/m has been obtained after annealing at 800 deg. C, which has the potential application in magnetic integrated circuits.

  17. Low-temperature growth of gallium nitride films by inductively coupled-plasma-enhanced reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Chih-Jui; Chau-Nan Hong, Franklin

    2014-05-15

    Gallium nitride (GaN) films were grown on sapphire substrate by reactive magnetron sputtering. Inductively coupled-plasma (ICP) source was installed between the substrate holder and the sputtering target to increase the plasma density and the degree of ionization of nitrogen gas. Liquid Ga and Ar/N{sub 2} were used as the sputtering target and sputtering gases, respectively. X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed that the authors could grow high quality GaN crystallites at 500 °C. However, the crystalline GaN (0002) peak remained even by lowering the growth temperature down to 300 °C. The N:Ga ratio of the film grown at 500 °C was almost 1:1, and the nitrogen composition became higher toward the 1:1 N:Ga ratio with increasing the growth temperature. The high degree of ionization induced by ICP source was essential to the growth of high crystalline quality GaN films.

  18. Thermal conductivity of nitride films of Ti, Cr, and W deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Jagannadham, Kasichainula

    2015-05-15

    Nitride films of Ti, Cr, and W were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering from metal targets in argon and nitrogen plasma. TiN films with (200) orientation were achieved on silicon (100) at the substrate temperature of 500 and 600 °C. The films were polycrystalline at lower temperature. An amorphous interface layer was observed between the TiN film and Si wafer deposited at 600 °C. TiN film deposited at 600 °C showed the nitrogen to Ti ratio to be near unity, but films deposited at lower temperature were nitrogen deficient. CrN film with (200) orientation and good stoichiometry was achieved at 600 °C on Si(111) wafer but the film deposited at 500 °C showed cubic CrN and hexagonal Cr{sub 2}N phases with smaller grain size and amorphous back ground in the x-ray diffraction pattern. An amorphous interface layer was not observed in the cubic CrN film on Si(111) deposited at 600 °C. Nitride film of tungsten deposited at 600 °C on Si(100) wafer was nitrogen deficient, contained both cubic W{sub 2}N and hexagonal WN phases with smaller grain size. Nitride films of tungsten deposited at 500 °C were nonstoichiometric and contained cubic W{sub 2}N and unreacted W phases. There was no amorphous phase formed along the interface for the tungsten nitride film deposited at 600 °C on the Si wafer. Thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance of all the nitride films of Ti, Cr, and W were determined by transient thermoreflectance technique. The thermal conductivity of the films as function of deposition temperature, microstructure, nitrogen stoichiometry and amorphous interaction layer at the interface was determined. Tungsten nitride film containing both cubic and hexagonal phases was found to exhibit much higher thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance. The amorphous interface layer was found to reduce effective thermal conductivity of TiN and CrN films.

  19. In vitro biocompatibility of Ti-Mg alloys fabricated by direct current magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Hieda, Junko; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Cho, Ken

    2015-09-01

    Ti-xMg (x=17, 33, and 55 mass%) alloy films, which cannot be prepared by conventional melting processes owing to the absence of a solid-solution phase in the phase diagram, were prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering in order to investigate their biocompatibility. Ti and Mg films were also prepared by the same process for comparison. The crystal structures were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Ti, Ti-xMg alloy, and Mg films were immersed in a 0.9% NaCl solution at 310 K for 7d to evaluate the dissolution amounts of Ti and Mg. In addition, to evaluate the formation ability of calcium phosphate in vitro, the Ti, Ti-xMg alloy, and Mg films were immersed in Hanks' solution at 310 K for 30 d. Ti and Mg form solid-solution alloys because the peaks attributed to pure Ti and Mg do not appear in the XRD patterns of any of the Ti-xMg alloy films. The surfaces of the Ti-17 Mg alloy and Ti-33 Mg alloy films contain Ti oxides and MgO, whereas MgO is the main component of the surface oxide of the Ti-55 Mg alloy and Mg films. The dissolution amounts of Ti from all films are below or near the detection limit of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. On the other hand, the Ti-17 Mg alloy, Ti-33 Mg alloy, Ti-55 Mg alloy, and Mg films exhibit Mg dissolution amounts of approximately 2.5, 1.4, 21, and 41 μg/cm(2), respectively. The diffraction peaks attributed to calcium phosphate are present in the XRD patterns of the Ti-33 Mg alloy, Ti-55 Mg alloy, and Mg films after the immersion in Hanks' solution. Spherical calcium phosphate particles precipitate on the surface of the Ti-33 Mg film. However, many cracks are observed in the Ti-55 Mg film, and delamination of the film occurs after the immersion in Hanks' solution. The Mg film is dissolved in Hanks' solution and calcium phosphate particles precipitate on the glass substrate. Consequently, it is revealed that the Ti-33 Mg

  20. Microstructure and tribological properties of NbN-Ag composite films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Hongbo; Xu, Junhua

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the chameleon thin films were developed with the purpose of adjusting their chemistry at self-mating interfaces in response to environmental changes at a wide temperature range. However, very few studies have focused on what state the lubricious noble metal exists in the films and the tribological properties at room temperature (RT). Composite NbN-Ag films with various Ag content (Ag/(Nb + Ag)) were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering to investigate the crystal structure, mechanical and tribological properties. A combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses showed that face-centered cubic (fcc) NbN, hexagonal close-packed (hcp) NbN and fcc silver coexisted in NbN-Ag films. The incorporation of soft Ag into NbN matrix led to the hardness decrease from 29.6 GPa at 0 at.% Ag to 11.3 GPa at 19.9 at.% Ag. Tribological properties of NbN-Ag films performed using dry pin-on-disc wear tests against Al2O3 depended on Ag content to a large extent. The average friction coefficient and wear rate of NbN-Ag films decreased as Ag content increased from 4.0 to 9.2 at.%. With a further increase of Ag content, the average friction coefficient further decreased, while the wear rate increased gradually. The optimal Ag content was found to be 9.2-13.5 at.%, which showed low average friction coefficient values of 0.46-0.40 and wear rate values of 1.1 × 10-8 to 1.7 × 10-8 mm3/(mm N). 3D Profiler and Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the lubricant tribo-film AgNbO3 detected on the surface of the wear tracks could lead to the friction coefficient curve stay constant and decrease the average friction coefficients. The decrease of wear rate was mainly attributed to the lubricant tribo-film AgNbO3 as Ag content increased from 4.0 to 9.2 at.%; with a further increase in Ag content, the wear rate increased with increasing Ag content in NbN-Ag films because a

  1. In vitro biocompatibility of Ti-Mg alloys fabricated by direct current magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Hieda, Junko; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Cho, Ken

    2015-09-01

    Ti-xMg (x=17, 33, and 55 mass%) alloy films, which cannot be prepared by conventional melting processes owing to the absence of a solid-solution phase in the phase diagram, were prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering in order to investigate their biocompatibility. Ti and Mg films were also prepared by the same process for comparison. The crystal structures were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Ti, Ti-xMg alloy, and Mg films were immersed in a 0.9% NaCl solution at 310 K for 7d to evaluate the dissolution amounts of Ti and Mg. In addition, to evaluate the formation ability of calcium phosphate in vitro, the Ti, Ti-xMg alloy, and Mg films were immersed in Hanks' solution at 310 K for 30 d. Ti and Mg form solid-solution alloys because the peaks attributed to pure Ti and Mg do not appear in the XRD patterns of any of the Ti-xMg alloy films. The surfaces of the Ti-17 Mg alloy and Ti-33 Mg alloy films contain Ti oxides and MgO, whereas MgO is the main component of the surface oxide of the Ti-55 Mg alloy and Mg films. The dissolution amounts of Ti from all films are below or near the detection limit of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. On the other hand, the Ti-17 Mg alloy, Ti-33 Mg alloy, Ti-55 Mg alloy, and Mg films exhibit Mg dissolution amounts of approximately 2.5, 1.4, 21, and 41 μg/cm(2), respectively. The diffraction peaks attributed to calcium phosphate are present in the XRD patterns of the Ti-33 Mg alloy, Ti-55 Mg alloy, and Mg films after the immersion in Hanks' solution. Spherical calcium phosphate particles precipitate on the surface of the Ti-33 Mg film. However, many cracks are observed in the Ti-55 Mg film, and delamination of the film occurs after the immersion in Hanks' solution. The Mg film is dissolved in Hanks' solution and calcium phosphate particles precipitate on the glass substrate. Consequently, it is revealed that the Ti-33 Mg

  2. PdPt catalyst synthesized using a gas aggregation source and magnetron sputtering for fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillard, A.; Cuynet, S.; Lecas, T.; Andreazza, P.; Mikikian, M.; Thomann, A.-L.; Brault, P.

    2015-12-01

    PdPt catalysts with different morphologies and atomic ratios have been synthesized on native SiO2/Si and on proton exchange membranes. The combination of the gas aggregation source and magnetron sputtering techniques allows the formation of quasi core-shell Pd0.97Pt0.03@Pt nanoclusters. Transmission electron microscopy and grazing incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering measurements of the Pd-rich core reveal a mean diameter of 4 nm and a face-centered cubic structure. The Pt shell around half of the Pd-rich core is formed by magnetron sputtering, and increases the nanocluster diameter (up to 10 nm) and the overall Pt content (up to 85%). Membranes coated by the PdPt core catalyst and PdPt@Pt catalyst (resulting in the formation of catalyst-coated membranes) are incorporated into fuel cells and their electrical characteristics are measured. The association of the two deposition techniques results in the formation of quasi core-shell PdPt@Pt nanoclusters, improving the start-up step of the fuel cell.

  3. Effects of substrate temperature on properties of ITO-ZnO composition spread films fabricated by combinatorial RF magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Gi-Seok; Gim, In-Gi; Park, Jong-Woon; Kim, Kwang-Young; Kim, Tae-Won

    2009-10-15

    We have fabricated ITO-ZnO composition spread films to investigate the effects of substrate temperature on their electrical and optical properties by using combinatorial RF magnetron sputtering. It turned out by X-ray measurement that the film with zinc contents above 16.0 at% [Zn/(In+Zn+Sn)] showed amorphous phase regardless of substrate temperature. The amorphous ITO-ZnO film had lower resistivity than polycrystalline films. When the films were deposited at 250 deg. C, the minimum resistivity of 3.0x10{sup -4} OMEGA cm was obtained with the zinc contents of 16.0 at%. The indium content could be reduced as high as {approx}30 at% compared to that of ITO for the films having similar resistivity ({approx}10{sup -4} OMEGA cm). However, a drastic increase of resistivity was observed for the ITO-ZnO films deposited at 350 deg. C, having zinc contents below 15.2 at%. - Graphical abstract: The effects of substrate temperature on properties of ITO-ZnO films were investigated by using combinatorial RF magnetron sputtering. The amorphous ITO-ZnO film had lower resistivity than polycrystalline films. The minimum resistivity of 3.0x10{sup -4} OMEGA cm was obtained with the substrate temperature of 250 deg. C and the zinc contents of 16.0 at%. The electronic states of ITO-ZnO films were discussed with related to the formation of transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor (TAOS).

  4. Distribution of Fe atom density in a dc magnetron sputtering plasma source measured by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibagaki, K.; Nafarizal, N.; Sasaki, K.; Toyoda, H.; Iwata, S.; Kato, T.; Tsunashima, S.; Sugai, H.

    2003-10-01

    Magnetron sputtering discharge is widely used as an efficient method for thin film fabrication. In order to achieve the optimized fabrication, understanding of the kinetics in plasmas is essential. In the present work, we measured the density distribution of sputtered Fe atoms using laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. A dc magnetron plasma source with a Fe target was used. An area of 20 × 2 mm in front of the target was irradiated by a tunable laser beam having a planar shape. The picture of laser-induced fluorescence on the laser beam was taken using an ICCD camera. In this way, we obtained the two-dimensional image of the Fe atom density. As a result, it has been found that the Fe atom density observed at a distance of several centimeters from the target is higher than that adjacent to the target, when the Ar gas pressure was relatively high. It is suggested from this result that some gas-phase production processes of Fe atoms are available in the plasma. This work has been performed under the 21st Century COE Program by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan.

  5. BiVO4 photoanodes for water splitting with high injection efficiency, deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Haibo; Freudenberg, Norman; Nie, Man; van de Krol, Roel; Ellmer, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Photoactive bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin films were deposited by reactive co-magnetron sputtering from metallic Bi and V targets. The effects of the V-to-Bi ratio, molybdenum doping and post-annealing on the crystallographic and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the BiVO4 films were investigated. Phase-pure monoclinic BiVO4 films, which are more photoactive than the tetragonal BiVO4 phase, were obtained under slightly vanadium-rich conditions. After annealing of the Mo-doped BiVO4 films, the photocurrent increased 2.6 times compared to undoped films. After optimization of the BiVO4 film thickness, the photocurrent densities (without a catalyst or a blocking layer or a hole scavenger) exceeded 1.2 mA/cm2 at a potential of 1.23 VRHE under solar AM1.5 irradiation. The surprisingly high injection efficiency of holes into the electrolyte is attributed to the highly porous film morphology. This co-magnetron sputtering preparation route for photoactive BiVO4 films opens new possibilities for the fabrication of large-scale devices for water splitting.

  6. Investigation of conductive and transparent ITO/Ni/ITO multilayer films deposited by a magnetron sputter process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. C.; Shin, C. H.; Jeong, C. W.; Kwon, Y. J.; Park, J. H.; Kim, Daeil

    2010-01-01

    Transparent conducting ITO/Ni/ITO films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering of Sn-doped In 2O 3 and DC magnetron sputtering of Ni on unheated polycarbonate substrates. Ni interlayers with thicknesses of 5, 10, and 20 nm were used as intermediate metallic layers. Changes in the work function and optical, electrical and structural properties of the films were examined with respect to Ni layer thickness. The work function was measured to be about 4.5 eV and was found to be independent of Ni layer thickness. However, the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the films were influenced by the Ni thickness. As-deposited ITO single layer films showed In 2O 3 diffraction peaks for the (2 2 2) and (4 0 0) planes, while after insertion of the Ni layer between ITO films, these diffraction peaks disappeared. The electrical resistivity decreased with the Ni intermediated film and the optical transmittance also decreased due to increased optical absorption. The figure of merit reached a maximum of 2.0 × 10 -3 Ω -1 for a 5 nm-thick inserted Ni film, which is greater than the value for as-deposited ITO films.

  7. Measurements of sputtered neutrals and ions and investigation of their roles on the plasma properties during rf magnetron sputtering of Zn and ZnO targets

    SciTech Connect

    Maaloul, L.; Stafford, L.

    2013-11-15

    Langmuir probe and optical absorption spectroscopy measurements were used to determine the line-integrated electron density, electron temperature, and number density of Ar atoms in metastable {sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0} levels in a 5 mTorr, rf magnetron sputtering plasmas used for the deposition of ZnO-based thin films. While the average electron energy and density of Ar atoms in {sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0} excited states were fairly independent of self-bias voltage, the Ar {sup 3}P{sub 2}-to-electron number density ratio decreased by approximately a factor of 5 when going from −115 V to −300 V. This decrease was correlated to an increase by about one order of magnitude of the number density of sputtered Zn atoms determined by absolute actinometry measurements on Zn I using either Ar or Xe as the actinometer gas. These results were also found to be in excellent agreement with the predictions of a global model accounting for Penning ionization of sputtered Zn particles. The importance of the latter reactions was further confirmed by plasma sampling mass spectrometry showing a double peak structure for Zn ions: a low-energy component ascribed to thermalized ions created in the gas phase (by direct electron impact and by Penning ionization) and a high-energy tail due to ions ejected from the target and reaching quasi-collisionlessly the substrate surface.

  8. Physical and Optical Properties of SnO2/ZnO Film Prepared by an RF Magnetron Sputtering Method.

    PubMed

    Park, Jooyoung; Lee, Ikjae; Kim, Jaeyong

    2016-03-01

    Al-, Ga-, and In-doped ZnO thin films are widely used in many technical applications, such as in solar cells and on transparent conducting oxides having high optical transmission and low resistivity values. We prepared SnO2-doped ZnO thin films on quartz substrates by using an RF magnetron sputtering method at a substrate temperature of 350 degrees C. The ratio of SnO2 to ZnO was varied from 0 to 5:5 to investigate the effects of Sn on structure and physical properties of ZnO film. The samples were synthesized at a base pressure of 1.3 x 10(-4) Pa with a working pressure of 1.3 Pa and an RF power of 40 W under Ar atmosphere. The results of X-ray diffraction data revealed that pure ZnO films exhibit a strong (002) orientation and a polycrystalline wurzite hexagonal structure. However, as increasing the SnO2 concentration, ZnO transforms to an amorphous phase. The results of the Hall-effect-measurement system revealed that the resistivity values of the films increased as increasing the doping level of SnO2. The AFM data of morphology and microstructure showed that the grain size decreased with increasing SnO2 contents while the total area of grain the boundary increased. The average value of the transmittance of the films in the visible light range was 80-95% and was shifted toward to the shorter wavelengths of the absorption edges with increasing SnO2 contents.

  9. Vehicle Exhaust Gas Clearance by Low Temperature Plasma-Driven Nano-Titanium Dioxide Film Prepared by Radiofrequency Magnetron Sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuang; Liang, Yongdong; Sun, Shujun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC) reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) film prepared by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP) reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas. PMID:23560062

  10. Physical and Optical Properties of SnO2/ZnO Film Prepared by an RF Magnetron Sputtering Method.

    PubMed

    Park, Jooyoung; Lee, Ikjae; Kim, Jaeyong

    2016-03-01

    Al-, Ga-, and In-doped ZnO thin films are widely used in many technical applications, such as in solar cells and on transparent conducting oxides having high optical transmission and low resistivity values. We prepared SnO2-doped ZnO thin films on quartz substrates by using an RF magnetron sputtering method at a substrate temperature of 350 degrees C. The ratio of SnO2 to ZnO was varied from 0 to 5:5 to investigate the effects of Sn on structure and physical properties of ZnO film. The samples were synthesized at a base pressure of 1.3 x 10(-4) Pa with a working pressure of 1.3 Pa and an RF power of 40 W under Ar atmosphere. The results of X-ray diffraction data revealed that pure ZnO films exhibit a strong (002) orientation and a polycrystalline wurzite hexagonal structure. However, as increasing the SnO2 concentration, ZnO transforms to an amorphous phase. The results of the Hall-effect-measurement system revealed that the resistivity values of the films increased as increasing the doping level of SnO2. The AFM data of morphology and microstructure showed that the grain size decreased with increasing SnO2 contents while the total area of grain the boundary increased. The average value of the transmittance of the films in the visible light range was 80-95% and was shifted toward to the shorter wavelengths of the absorption edges with increasing SnO2 contents. PMID:27455746

  11. Surface free energy of non-stick coatings deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chen-Cheng; Lee, Shih-Chin; Dai, Shyue-Bin; Tien, Shein-Long; Chang, Chung-Chih; Fu, Yaw-Shyan

    2007-02-01

    Semiconductor IC packaging molding dies require wear resistance, corrosion resistance and non-sticking (with a low surface free energy). The molding releasing capability and performance are directly associated with the surface free energy between the coating and product material. The serious sticking problem reduces productivity and reliability. Depositing TiN, TiMoS, ZrN, CrC, CrN, NiCr, NiCrN, CrTiAlN and CrNiTiAlN coatings using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating, and characterizing their surface free energy are the main object in developing a non-stick coating system for semiconductor IC molding tools. The contact angle of water, diiodomethane and ethylene glycol on the coated surfaces were measured at temperature in 20 °C using a Dataphysics OCA-20 contact angle analyzer. The surface free energy of the coatings and their components (dispersion and polar) were calculated using the Owens-Wendt geometric mean approach. The surface roughness was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adhesion force of these coatings was measured using direct tensile pull-off test apparatus. The experimental results showed that NiCrN, CrN and NiCrTiAlN coatings outperformed TiN, ZrN, NiCr, CiTiAlN, CrC and TiMoS coatings in terms of non-sticking, and thus have the potential as working layers for injection molding industrial equipment, especially in semiconductor IC packaging molding applications.

  12. Electrochemical and microstructural characterization of magnetron-sputtered ATO thin films as Li–ion storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, Pan; Zhang, Hong; Chen, Wenhao; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Li, Zhicheng

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Nano-structured ATO thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at 25 °C, 100 °C and 200 °C, respectively. • ATO thin films show a high reversible capacity and high rate performance. • Electrochemical reaction mechanism of the ATO thin film was revealed by transmission electron microscopy. - Abstract: Sb-doped SnO{sub 2} (ATO) nanostructured thin films were prepared by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering at the substrate temperatures of 25 °C, 100 °C and 200 °C, respectively. All the ATO thin films have the similar redox characteristics in the cyclic voltammetry measurements. The ATO thin film sputtered at 200 °C shows the lowest charge transfer resistance and best electrochemical performance, and has a high reversible capacity of 679 mA h g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1} after 200 charge–discharge cycles and high rate performance of 483 mA h g{sup −1} at 800 mA g{sup −1}. The electrochemical mechanisms were investigated by analyzing the phase evolution of the ATO electrodes that had been electrochemically induced at various stages. The results reveal that the ATO underwent reversible lithiation/delithiation processes during the electrochemical cycles, i.e., the SnO{sub 2} reacted with Li{sup +} to produce metallic Sn and followed by the formation of the Li{sub x}Sn alloys during discharge process, and then Li{sub x}Sn alloys de-alloyed, Sn reacted with Li{sub 2}O, and even partially formed SnO{sub 2} during charge process.

  13. Indium-tin oxide films obtained by DC magnetron sputtering for improved Si heterojunction solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jin-Hua; Si, Jia-Le; Wang, Jiu-Xiu; Feng, Ya-Yang; Gao, Xiao-Yong; Lu, Jing-Xiao

    2015-11-01

    The indium-tin oxide (ITO) film as the antireflection layer and front electrodes is of key importance to obtaining high efficiency Si heterojunction (HJ) solar cells. To obtain high transmittance and low resistivity ITO films by direct-current (DC) magnetron sputtering, we studied the impacts of the ITO film deposition conditions, such as the oxygen flow rate, pressure, and sputter power, on the electrical and optical properties of the ITO films. ITO films of resistivity of 4×10-4 Ω·m and average transmittance of 89% in the wavelength range of 380-780 nm were obtained under the optimized conditions: oxygen flow rate of 0.1 sccm, pressure of 0.8 Pa, and sputtering power of 110 W. These ITO films were used to fabricate the single-side HJ solar cell without an intrinsic a-Si:H layer. However, the best HJ solar cell was fabricated with a lower sputtering power of 95 W, which had an efficiency of 11.47%, an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.626 V, a filling factor (FF) of 0.50, and a short circuit current density (Jsc) of 36.4 mA/cm2. The decrease in the performance of the solar cell fabricated with high sputtering power of 110 W is attributed to the ion bombardment to the emitter. The Voc was improved to 0.673 V when a 5 nm thick intrinsic a-Si:H layer was inserted between the (p) a-Si:H and (n) c-Si layer. The higher Voc of 0.673 V for the single-side HJ solar cell implies the excellent c-Si surface passivation by a-Si:H. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2011AA050501).

  14. Submicrometer Hollow Bioglass Cones Deposited by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering: Formation Mechanism, Properties, and Prospective Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Popa, A C; Stan, G E; Besleaga, C; Ion, L; Maraloiu, V A; Tulyaganov, D U; Ferreira, J M F

    2016-02-01

    This work reports on the unprecedented magnetron sputtering deposition of submicrometric hollow cones of bioactive glass at low temperature in the absence of any template or catalyst. The influence of sputtering conditions on the formation and development of bioglass cones was studied. It was shown that larger populations of well-developed cones could be achieved by increasing the argon sputtering pressure. A mechanism describing the growth of bioglass hollow cones is presented, offering the links for process control and reproducibility of the cone features. The composition, structure, and morphology of the as-synthesized hollow cones were investigated by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), grazing incidence geometry X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The in vitro biological performance, assessed by degradation tests (ISO 10993-14) and cytocompatibility assays (ISO 10993-5) in endothelial cell cultures, was excellent. This allied with resorbability and the unique morphological features make the submicrometer hollow cones interesting candidate material devices for focal transitory permeabilization of the blood-brain barrier in the treatment of carcinoma and neurodegenerative disorders.

  15. Hybrid solar cells based on dc magnetron sputtered films of n-ITO on APMOVPE grown p-InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutts, T. J.; Li, X.; Wanlass, M. W.; Emery, K. A.; Gessert, T. A.

    1988-01-01

    Hybrid indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/InP solar cells are discussed. The cells are constructed by dc magnetron sputter deposition of ITO onto high-quality InP films grown by atmospheric pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (APMOVPE). A record efficiency of 18.9 percent, measured under standard Solar Energy Research Institute reporting conditions, has been obtained. The p-InP surface is shown to be type converted, principally by the ITO, but with the extent of conversion being modified by the nature of the sputtering gas. The deposition process, in itself, is not responsible for the type conversion. Dark currents have been suppressed by more than three orders of magnitude by the addition of hydrogen to the sputtering gas during deposition of a thin (5 nm) interface layer. Without this layer, and using only the more usual argon/oxygen mixture, the devices had poorer efficiencies and were unstable. A discussion of associated quantum efficiencies and capacitance/voltage measurements is also presented from which it is concluded that further improvements in efficiency will result from better control over the type-conversion process.

  16. Fiber textures of titanium nitride and hafnium nitride thin films deposited by off-normal incidence magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Deniz, D.; Harper, J. M. E.

    2008-09-15

    We studied the development of crystallographic texture in titanium nitride (TiN) and hafnium nitride (HfN) films deposited by off-normal incidence reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Texture measurements were performed by x-ray pole figure analysis of the (111) and (200) diffraction peaks. For a deposition angle of 40 deg. from substrate normal, we obtained TiN biaxial textures for a range of deposition conditions using radio frequency (rf) sputtering. Typically, we find that the <111> orientation is close to the substrate normal and the <100> orientation is close to the direction of the deposition source, showing substantial in-plane alignment. We also introduced a 150 eV ion beam at 55 deg. with respect to substrate normal during rf sputtering of TiN. Ion beam enhancement caused TiN to align its out-of-plane texture along <100> orientation. In this case, (200) planes are slightly tilted with respect to the substrate normal away from the ion beam source, and (111) planes are tilted 50 deg. toward the ion beam source. For comparison, we found that HfN deposited at 40 deg. without ion bombardment has a strong <100> orientation parallel to the substrate normal. These results are consistent with momentum transfer among adatoms and ions followed by an increase in surface diffusion of the adatoms on (200) surfaces. The type of fiber texture results from a competition among texture mechanisms related to surface mobilities of adatoms, geometrical, and directional effects.

  17. Effect of hafnium doping on density of states in dual-target magnetron co-sputtering HfZnSnO thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chuan-Xin; Li, Jun Fu, Yi-Zhou; Jiang, Xue-Yin; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Lin

    2015-11-23

    This study investigates the effect of hafnium doping on the density of states (DOSs) in HfZnSnO thin film transistors fabricated by dual-target magnetron co-sputtering system. The DOSs is extracted by temperature-dependent field-effect measurements, and they decrease from 1.1 × 10{sup 17} to 4.6 × 10{sup 16 }eV/cm{sup 3} with increasing the hafnium concentrations. The behavior of DOSs for the increasing hafnium concentration HfZnSnO thin film transistors can be confirmed by both the reduction of ΔV{sub T} under bias stress and the trapping charges calculated by capacitance voltage measurements. It suggests that the reduction in DOSs due to the hafnium doping is closely related with the bias stability and thermal stability.

  18. Substrate Heating Effect on c-Axis Texture and Piezoelectric Properties of AlN Thin Films Deposited by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasheminiasari, Masood; Lin, Jianliang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films with highly preferred (002) orientations have been reactively deposited by a pulsed-closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system using TiN/Ti as the seed/adhesion layer with various substrate temperatures. The texture, orientation and piezoelectric properties of AlN films were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, rocking curves and laser interferometry. A Michelson laser interferometer was designed and built to obtain the converse piezoelectric response of the deposited AlN thin films. It was found that a slight substrate temperature increase would significantly affect the (002) orientation and the piezoelectric coefficient of AlN thin films compared to the coating obtained with no intentional substrate heating, while higher temperature applications on substrate deteriorated the c-axis texture of the coatings without significant improvement in the piezoelectric response of AlN films.

  19. Structural and tribological properties of CrTiAlN coatings on Mg alloy by closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yongjing; Long, Siyuan; Yang, Shicai; Pan, Fusheng

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, a series of multi-layer hard coating system of CrTiAlN has been prepared by closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating (CFUBMSIP) technique in a gas mixture of Ar + N 2. The coatings were deposited onto AZ31 Mg alloy substrates. During deposition step, technological temperature and metallic atom concentration of coatings were controlled by adjusting the currents of different metal magnetron targets. The nitrogen level was varied by using the feedback control of plasma optical emission monitor (OEM). The structural, mechanical and tribological properties of coatings were characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), micro-hardness tester, and scratch and ball-on-disc tester. The experimental results show that the N atomic concentration increases and the oxide on the top of coatings decreases; furthermore the modulation period and the friction coefficient decrease with the N 2 level increasing. The outstanding mechanical property can be acquired at medium N 2 level, and the CrTiAlN coatings on AZ31 Mg alloy substrates outperform the uncoated M42 high speed steel (HSS) and the uncoated 316 stainless steel (SS).

  20. Morphology and structure evolution of tin-doped indium oxide thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering: The role of the sputtering atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Man Mete, Tayfun; Ellmer, Klaus

    2014-04-21

    The microstructure and morphology evolution of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering in different sputtering atmospheres were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy. The surface roughness w increases with increasing film thickness d{sub f}, and exhibits a power law behavior w ∼ d{sub f}{sup β}. The roughness decreases with increasing O{sub 2} flow, while it increases with increasing H{sub 2} flow. The growth exponent β is found to be 0.35, 0.75, and 0.98 for depositions in Ar/10%O{sub 2}, pure Ar, and Ar/10%H{sub 2} atmospheres, respectively. The correlation length ξ increases with film thickness also with a power law according to ξ ∼ d{sub f}{sup z} with exponents z = 0.36, 0.44, and 0.57 for these three different gas atmospheres, respectively. A combination of local and non-local growth modes in 2 + 1 dimensions is discussed for the ITO growth in this work.

  1. Ion-enhanced oxidation of aluminum as a fundamental surface process during target poisoning in reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Kuschel, Thomas; Keudell, Achim von

    2010-05-15

    Plasma deposition of aluminum oxide by reactive magnetron sputtering (RMS) using an aluminum target and argon and oxygen as working gases is an important technological process. The undesired oxidation of the target itself, however, causes the so-called target poisoning, which leads to strong hysteresis effects during RMS operation. The oxidation occurs by chemisorption of oxygen atoms and molecules with a simultaneous ion bombardment being present. This heterogenous surface reaction is studied in a quantified particle beam experiment employing beams of oxygen molecules and argon ions impinging onto an aluminum-coated quartz microbalance. The oxidation and/or sputtering rates are measured with this microbalance and the resulting oxide layers are analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sticking coefficient of oxygen molecules is determined to 0.015 in the zero coverage limit. The sputtering yields of pure aluminum by argon ions are determined to 0.4, 0.62, and 0.8 at 200, 300, and 400 eV. The variation in the effective sticking coefficient and sputtering yield during the combined impact of argon ions and oxygen molecules is modeled with a set of rate equations. A good agreement is achieved if one postulates an ion-induced surface activation process, which facilitates oxygen chemisorption. This process may be identified with knock-on implantation of surface-bonded oxygen, with an electric-field-driven in-diffusion of oxygen or with an ion-enhanced surface activation process. Based on these fundamental processes, a robust set of balance equations is proposed to describe target poisoning effects in RMS.

  2. EXAFS studies on Gd-doped ZrO2 thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Maidul Haque, S; Tripathi, S; Jha, S N; Bhattacharyya, D; Sahoo, N K

    2016-09-10

    ZrO2 thin films with 0%, 7%, 9%, 11%, and 13% Gd doping have been prepared by RF magnetron sputtering and have been characterized by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and optical transmission measurements to probe their structural and optical properties. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements have also been carried out on the samples at the Zr K- and Gd L3-edges. It has been observed that Gd goes to Zr sites up to 9%-11% doping concentration, and for Gd doping concentrations beyond 11%, Gd precipitates out as a separate Gd2O3 phase. The local structure information surrounding the Zr and Gd sites obtained from the analysis of the EXAFS studies have also been used to explain the macroscopic optical properties of the samples. PMID:27661374

  3. Fabrication and Electrical Characterization of the Si/ZnO/ZnO:Al Structure Deposited by RF-Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaya, A.; Djessas, K.; El Mir, L.; Khirouni, K.

    2016-10-01

    The electrical transport properties of the structures of Si(p)/ZnO(i)/ZnO: Al(3%) and Si(p)/PS/ZnO(i)/ZnO: Al(3%) deposited by radio-frequency-magnetron sputtering were investigated and compared by using current-voltage and impedance spectroscopy measurements in a wide temperature range of 80-300 K. Aluminum-doped ZnO is considered to be one of the most important transparent conducting oxide materials due to its high conductivity, good transparency and low cost. From the current-voltage-temperature ( I- V- T) characteristics, it was found that both structures had a good rectifying behavior. This behavior decreases according to the porous silicon layer. The variation of the conductance with frequency indicates the semiconducting behavior and superposition of different conduction mechanisms. The insertion of the porous silicon layer results in a decrease of conductivity, which is attributed to reduced conductivity of defect-rich porous silicon.

  4. High-responsivity UV-Vis Photodetector Based on Transferable WS2 Film Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Longhui; Tao, Lili; Tang, Chunyin; Zhou, Bo; Long, Hui; Chai, Yang; Lau, Shu Ping; Tsang, Yuen Hong

    2016-01-01

    The two-dimensional layered semiconducting tungsten disulfide (WS2) film exhibits great promising prospects in the photoelectrical applications because of its unique photoelectrical conversion property. Herein, in this paper, we report the simple and scalable fabrication of homogeneous, large-size and transferable WS2 films with tens-of-nanometers thickness through magnetron sputtering and post annealing process. The produced WS2 films with low resistance (4.2 kΩ) are used to fabricate broadband sensitive photodetectors in the ultraviolet to visible region. The photodetectors exhibit excellent photoresponse properties, with a high responsivity of 53.3 A/W and a high detectivity of 1.22 × 1011 Jones at 365 nm. The strategy reported paves new way towards the large scale growth of transferable high quality, uniform WS2 films for various important applications including high performance photodetectors, solar cell, photoelectrochemical cell and so on.

  5. Structural and nanomechanical properties of BiFeO3 thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The nanomechanical properties of BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films are subjected to nanoindentation evaluation. BFO thin films are grown on the Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering with various deposition temperatures. The structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, and the results confirmed the presence of BFO phases. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the average film surface roughness increased with increasing of the deposition temperature. A Berkovich nanoindenter operated with the continuous contact stiffness measurement option indicated that the hardness decreases from 10.6 to 6.8 GPa for films deposited at 350°C and 450°C, respectively. In contrast, Young's modulus for the former is 170.8 GPa as compared to a value of 131.4 GPa for the latter. The relationship between the hardness and film grain size appears to follow closely with the Hall–Petch equation. PMID:23799923

  6. Fabrication and Electrical Characterization of InZnO:N Thin Film Transistors Prepared by Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yunfei; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Wenqi; Li, Bin; Zhou, Dongzhan; Zhang, Xiqing; Wang, Yongsheng

    2016-07-01

    The fabrication and electrical characterization of InZnO:N thin film transistors (TFTs) were investigated in this work. The InZnO:N film was deposited on SiO2/ p-type Si substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering as the active layer of the TFTs at room temperature. In order to optimize the performance of the InZnO:N TFTs, the effect of the oxygen contents in the preparation of the active layer is investigated. We found that an appropriate O2/Ar gas flow ratio is very beneficial for the InZnO:N TFTs, and when the O2/Ar gas flow ratio is at 1/30, the transistor exhibited a high field-effect mobility of 39.3 cm2/Vs, a threshold voltage of 2.4 V and a I ON/OFF ratio of 1.1 × 107.

  7. Effect of growth rate on crystallization of HfO2 thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanunjaya, M.; Manikanthababu, N.; Pathak, A. P.; Rao, S. V. S. Nageswara

    2016-05-01

    Hafnium oxide (HfO2) is the potentially useful dielectric material in both; electronics to replace the conventional SiO2 as gate dielectric and in Optics as anti-reflection coating material. In this present work we have synthesized polycrystalline HfO2 thin films by RF magnetron sputtering deposition technique with varying target to substrate distance. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and transmission and Reflection (T&R) measurements to study the growth behavior, microstructure and optical properties. XRD measurement shows that the samples having mixed phase of monoclinic, cubic and tetragonal crystal structure. RBS measurements suggest the formation of Inter Layer (IL) in between Substrate and film

  8. Bimodal substrate biasing to control γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition during reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Prenzel, Marina; Kortmann, Annika; Stein, Adrian; Keudell, Achim von; Nahif, Farwah; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2013-09-21

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films have been deposited at substrate temperatures between 500 °C and 600 °C by reactive magnetron sputtering using an additional arbitrary substrate bias to tailor the energy distribution of the incident ions. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The film structure being amorphous, nanocrystalline, or crystalline was correlated with characteristic ion energy distributions. The evolving crystalline structure is connected with different levels of displacements per atom (dpa) in the growing film as being derived from TRIM simulations. The boundary between the formation of crystalline films and amorphous or nanocrystalline films was at 0.8 dpa for a substrate temperature of 500 °C. This threshold shifts to 0.6 dpa for films grown at 550 °C.

  9. EXAFS studies on Gd-doped ZrO2 thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Maidul Haque, S; Tripathi, S; Jha, S N; Bhattacharyya, D; Sahoo, N K

    2016-09-10

    ZrO2 thin films with 0%, 7%, 9%, 11%, and 13% Gd doping have been prepared by RF magnetron sputtering and have been characterized by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and optical transmission measurements to probe their structural and optical properties. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements have also been carried out on the samples at the Zr K- and Gd L3-edges. It has been observed that Gd goes to Zr sites up to 9%-11% doping concentration, and for Gd doping concentrations beyond 11%, Gd precipitates out as a separate Gd2O3 phase. The local structure information surrounding the Zr and Gd sites obtained from the analysis of the EXAFS studies have also been used to explain the macroscopic optical properties of the samples.

  10. High-responsivity UV-Vis Photodetector Based on Transferable WS2 Film Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Longhui; Tao, Lili; Tang, Chunyin; Zhou, Bo; Long, Hui; Chai, Yang; Lau, Shu Ping; Tsang, Yuen Hong

    2016-01-29

    The two-dimensional layered semiconducting tungsten disulfide (WS2) film exhibits great promising prospects in the photoelectrical applications because of its unique photoelectrical conversion property. Herein, in this paper, we report the simple and scalable fabrication of homogeneous, large-size and transferable WS2 films with tens-of-nanometers thickness through magnetron sputtering and post annealing process. The produced WS2 films with low resistance (4.2 kΩ) are used to fabricate broadband sensitive photodetectors in the ultraviolet to visible region. The photodetectors exhibit excellent photoresponse properties, with a high responsivity of 53.3 A/W and a high detectivity of 1.22 × 10(11) Jones at 365 nm. The strategy reported paves new way towards the large scale growth of transferable high quality, uniform WS2 films for various important applications including high performance photodetectors, solar cell, photoelectrochemical cell and so on.

  11. Characteristics of Nitrogen Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Films Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering for Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Choi, Byung Hui; Yun, Jung-Hyun; Park, Yong Seob

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic diamond-like carbon (DLC) is a carbon-based material used mainly in cutting tool coatings and as an abrasive material. The market for DLC has expanded into electronics, optics, and acoustics because of its distinct electrical and optical properties. In this work, n-doped DLC (N:DLC) films were deposited on p-type silicon substrates using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBMS) method. We investigated the effect of the working pressure on the microstructure and electrical properties of n-doped DLC films. The structural properties of N:DLC films were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDX, and the electrical properties of films were investigated by observing the changes in the resistivity and current-voltage (I-V) properties. The N:DLC films prepared by UBMS in this study demonstrated good conducting and physical properties with n-doping.

  12. Cross sectional TEM analysis of duplex HIPIMS and DC magnetron sputtered Mo and W doped carbon coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, J.; Castillo Muller, I.; Mandal, P.; Abbas, A.; West, G.; Rainforth, W. M.; Ehiasarian, A.; Hovsepian, P.

    2015-10-01

    A FIB lift-out sample was made from a wear-resistant carbon coating deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) with Mo and W. TEM analysis found columnar grains extending the whole ∼1800 nm thick film. Within the grains, the carbon was found to be organised into clusters showing some onion-like structure, with amorphous material between them; energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) found these clusters to be Mo- and W-rich in a later, thinner sample of the same material. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) showed no difference in C-K edge, implying the bonding type to be the same in cluster and matrix. These clusters were arranged into stripes parallel to the film plane, of spacing 7-8 nm; there was a modulation in spacing between clusters within these stripes that produced a second, coarser set of striations of spacing ∼37 nm.

  13. Evaluation of SmCo and SmCoN magnetron sputtering coatings for SOFC interconnect applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Junwei; Li, Chengming; Johnson, Christopher; Liu, Xingbo

    Cobalt or cobalt containing coatings are promising for SOFC interconnect applications because of their high conductivity. We have investigated SmCo and SmCoN coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering from a SmCo (5% Sm) target on to Crofer 22 APU substrates. The composition, structure, surface morphology, and electrical conductivity of the coated substrates were characterized by SEM/EDX, XRD and ASR measurements. Addition of Sm enhances the oxidation resistance and the Cr retention capability of the coatings. The use of nitride as a precursor stabilizes Sm during oxidation of the films, thus inhibiting diffusion of Fe, resulting in a more compact coating and lowering ASR. The combined advantages of Sm addition to cobalt and the use of a nitride as a precursor, makes SmCoN coatings a promising new interconnect coating material.

  14. Oxygen partial pressure dependent optical properties of glancing angle deposited (GLAD) Ta2O5 films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, S.; Haque, S. Maidul; Rao, K. Divakar; Misal, J. S.; Pratap, C.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2016-05-01

    Experiments were carried out on Ta2O5 oxide thin films by asymmetric bipolar pulsed DC magnetron sputtering using a new hybrid combination of conventional (normal incidence) deposition and glancing angle deposition (GLAD) geometries. The films were prepared with varying O2 partial pressure. The ellipsometry characterization reveals a systematic variation in refractive index, which decreased from 2.2 in the normal films to an average 1.78 in the GLAD films. The bandgap of these GLAD films is slightly higher as compared to normal films. Overall transmission of the GLAD films is increased is by ~ 15 % implying a reduction in the refractive index for potential optical filtering device applications. The results were further supported by X-ray reflectivity measurements which show an effective double layer structure in GLAD consisting of layers with different densities of the same Ta2O5 material.

  15. Reactive magnetron sputtering of Cu2O: Dependence on oxygen pressure and interface formation with indium tin oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuermeier, Jonas; Gassmann, Jürgen; Brötz, Joachim; Klein, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Thin films of copper oxides were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering and structural, morphological, chemical, and electronic properties were analyzed using x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, in situ photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrical resistance measurements. The deposition conditions for preparation of Cu(I)-oxide (Cu2O) are identified. In addition, the interface formation between Cu2O and Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) was studied by stepwise deposition of Cu2O onto ITO and vice versa. A type II (staggered) band alignment with a valence band offset ΔEVB = 2.1-2.6 eV depending on interface preparation is observed. The band alignment explains the nonrectifying behavior of p-Cu2O/n-ITO junctions, which have been investigated for thin film solar cells.

  16. The effect of deposition RF power on the SiC passivation layer synthesized by an RF magnetron sputtering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keun Seo, Jae; Ko, Ki-han; Seok Choi, Won; Park, Mungi; Hwan Lee, Jong; Yi, Jun-Sin

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we investigated the amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) film as an alternative material to silicon nitride (SiN) and silicon oxide (SiO 2) for the passivation layer of solar cells. The a-SiC films were deposited on the p-type silicon (1 0 0) and glass substrates by a RF magnetron sputtering method using a-SiC (99%) target. We investigated the properties according to the deposition RF power (150, 200, 250 and 300 W). The optical properties were investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy and an ellipsometer. The performance of SiC passivation layer was investigated by carrier lifetime measurement. We could obtain the lowest refractive index of 3.22 and the carrier lifetime was the highest, 7 μs at the deposition RF power of 150 W.

  17. High-responsivity UV-Vis Photodetector Based on Transferable WS2 Film Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Longhui; Tao, Lili; Tang, Chunyin; Zhou, Bo; Long, Hui; Chai, Yang; Lau, Shu Ping; Tsang, Yuen Hong

    2016-01-01

    The two-dimensional layered semiconducting tungsten disulfide (WS2) film exhibits great promising prospects in the photoelectrical applications because of its unique photoelectrical conversion property. Herein, in this paper, we report the simple and scalable fabrication of homogeneous, large-size and transferable WS2 films with tens-of-nanometers thickness through magnetron sputtering and post annealing process. The produced WS2 films with low resistance (4.2 kΩ) are used to fabricate broadband sensitive photodetectors in the ultraviolet to visible region. The photodetectors exhibit excellent photoresponse properties, with a high responsivity of 53.3 A/W and a high detectivity of 1.22 × 1011 Jones at 365 nm. The strategy reported paves new way towards the large scale growth of transferable high quality, uniform WS2 films for various important applications including high performance photodetectors, solar cell, photoelectrochemical cell and so on. PMID:26822972

  18. Characterization of polycrystalline VO2 thin film with low phase transition temperature fabricated by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tiegui; Wang, Langping; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yufen

    2016-04-01

    VO2 is a unique material that undergoes a reversible phase transformation around 68∘C. Currently, applications of VO2 on smart windows are limited by its high transition temperature. In order to reduce the temperature, VO2 thin film was fabricated on quartz glass substrate by high power impulse magnetron sputtering with a modulated pulsed power. The phase transition temperature has been reduced to as low as 32∘C. In addition, the VO2 film possesses a typical metal-insulator transition. X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction patterns reveal that an obvious lattice distortion has been formed in the as-deposited polycrystalline VO2 thin film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy proves that oxygen vacancies have been formed in the as-deposited thin film, which will induce a lattice distortion in the VO2 thin film.

  19. Magnetron sputtering based direct fabrication of three dimensional CdTe hierarchical nanotrees exhibiting stable superhydrophobic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Bingwei; Deng, Yuan; Wang, Yao; Shi, Yongming; Cao, Lili; Zhu, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Three dimensional CdTe hierarchical nanotrees are initially prepared by a simple one-step magnetron sputtering method without any templates or additives. The CdTe hierarchical nanotrees are constructed by the spear-like vertical trunks and horizontal branches with the diameters of about 100 nm at bottom and became cuspidal on the top. The particular nanostructure imparts these materials superhydrophobic property, and this property can be preserved after placing in air for 90 days, and is stable even after the ultraviolet light and X-ray irradiation, respectively. This study provides a simple strategy to achieve superhydrophobic properties for CdTe materials at lower temperature, which opens a new potential for CdTe solar cell with self-cleaning property.

  20. Effect of substrate temperature and film thickness on the characteristics of silver thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashaiekhy, Jahanbakhsh; Shafieizadeh, Zahra; Nahidi, Hossein

    2012-11-01

    Silver (Ag) films were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering deposition at different substrate temperatures (25-450 °C) and film thicknesses (100-800 nm) and their morphological, optical, electrical and structural properties were investigated. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to study the surface topography of the thin films. The grain size as well as surface roughness of the films is strongly dependent on the temperature and the film thickness. X-ray diffraction experiments showed the intensity enhancement by increasing substrate temperature, also by increasing film thickness. The optical properties were determined by means of spectrophotometric analysis. It is found that the optical reflection is not affected significantly with substrate temperature and film thickness. The electrical resistivities of films were determined by four-point probe measurements. The experimental results indicate that the films with higher thickness and deposition temperature have the lowest resistivity.

  1. Characteristics of Nitrogen Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Films Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering for Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Choi, Byung Hui; Yun, Jung-Hyun; Park, Yong Seob

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic diamond-like carbon (DLC) is a carbon-based material used mainly in cutting tool coatings and as an abrasive material. The market for DLC has expanded into electronics, optics, and acoustics because of its distinct electrical and optical properties. In this work, n-doped DLC (N:DLC) films were deposited on p-type silicon substrates using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBMS) method. We investigated the effect of the working pressure on the microstructure and electrical properties of n-doped DLC films. The structural properties of N:DLC films were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDX, and the electrical properties of films were investigated by observing the changes in the resistivity and current-voltage (I-V) properties. The N:DLC films prepared by UBMS in this study demonstrated good conducting and physical properties with n-doping. PMID:27483841

  2. Investigation of antiperovskite Mn{sub 3}CuN{sub x} film prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ying; Wang, Cong; Na, Yuanyuan; Chu, Lihua; Wen, Yongchun; Nie, Man

    2010-09-15

    Antiperovskite Mn{sub 3}CuN{sub x} film was prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering. It is the first time to report an antiperovskite ternary nitride film. The composition and crystal structure were characterized by energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). From the XRD pattern, it displays a (1 0 0) preferential orientation. A comparative study on the properties of Mn{sub 3}CuN{sub x} film and the bulk sample was presented. The film exhibits an antiferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition around 135 K, similar with the bulk sample. With temperature, the resistivity of the film shows semiconductor-like behavior throughout the measured temperature region, whereas there is an abrupt drop around the magnetic transition for the bulk. The variable temperature XRD results indicate that the film did not display any structure transition and shows a normal linear thermal expansion property around the magnetic transition.

  3. Comparison of AlN films grown by RF magnetron sputtering and ion-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, J.; Fu, T.; Cheung, N.W.; Ross, J.; Newman, N.; Rubin, M.

    1993-04-01

    Crystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films were formed on various substrates by using RF magnetron sputtering of an A1 target in a nitrogen plasma and also by ion-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (IAMBE). Basal-oriented AlN/(111) Si showed a degradation of crystallinity with increased substrate temperature from 550 to 770 C, while the crystallinity of AlN/(0001) A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples improved from 700 to 850 C. The optical absorption characteristics of the AlN/(0001) A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} films as grown by both deposition methods revealed a decrease in subbandgap absorption with increased substrate temperature.

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of TiZrNi thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering and thermal annealing.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyemin; Choi, Soo-bin; Lee, Ik-jae; Yu, Chung-jong; Kim, Jae-yong

    2010-11-01

    Distinctive thin layers of TiZr and Ni were deposited by using a magnetron sputtering method and a thermal annealing was applied to discover metallic films of quasicrystals. After a heat treatment in vacuum, 70 nm thick deposited layers were well mixed with nominal compositions of 49.7, 29.3 and 21.0 for Ti, Zr and Ni, respectively, which is very close with the one forming a quasicrystalline phase. The magnetization values were significantly decreased from 0.286 to 0.142 emu/mm3 at 2000 Oe, after annealing, while a shape of magnetic hysteresis was maintained. It is believed that a different magnetic behavior after thermal annealing is due to the homogeneous mixing of atomic elements and possible existence of a metastable phase.

  5. Bandgap widening in highly conducting CdO thin film by Ti incorporation through radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, B.; Thapa, R.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2008-01-01

    Transparent and highly conducting thin films of cadmium oxide (CdO) with titanium doping were synthesized by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The thin films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates with different percentages of titanium at a fixed substrate temperature 473 K and a fixed pressure of 0.1 mbar in Ar atmosphere. The deposited films were characterized by studying their crystallographic structure, optical and electrical properties. X-ray diffractometer, atomic force microscope, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer, and X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer were used for different characterizations. All the films have a rock-salt structure. A systematic increase in the optical bandgap was found for the CdO thin films with Ti doping, so that it can be considered as a candidate material for different optoelectronic device applications. Electrical conductivity was also found to increase with Ti doping concentration.

  6. Stable preparation process of superconductor insulator multilayer films for HTS devices by off-axis magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, S.; Wakana, H.; Kamitani, Ai; Tanabe, K.

    2006-10-01

    The preparation process for epitaxial multilayer films consisting of Y0.9La0.2Ba1.9Cu3Oy (La-YBCO) and SrSnO3 (SSO) for high-Tc superconductor (HTS) electronic devices was developed. Four-layer films of SSO/La-YBCO/SSO/La-YBCO were deposited on BaZrO3-buffered MgO(1 0 0) substrates by off-axis magnetron sputtering. During deposition, the substrates were directly heated from backside by thermal radiation of a heater. No adhesive paste, such as Ag, for fixing the substrate was used in order to avoid contamination. Deposition conditions, especially the heater temperature profiles and atmosphere during elevating the temperature, were carefully controlled. The multilayer films with the average surface roughness Ra around 2.0 nm were prepared with high reproducibility. Continuous production of the high-quality films throughout one year proved excellent stability of the preparation process.

  7. Nanoparticles of gold on ?-A12O3 Produced by dc Magnetron Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, Gabriel M; Lupini, Andrew R; Pennycook, Stephen J; Ownby, Gary Webb; Dudney, Nancy J

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a one-step magnetron sputtering technique for the preparation of supported catalyst particles that has a number of advantages over existing methods. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique, a supported gold on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxidation catalyst has been prepared. This catalyst is as active as catalysts prepared via traditional chemical methods for the oxidation of carbon monoxide (TOF 1.1 conversions/surface Au atom/second at 300 K and 16% CO/8% O{sub 2}/He). Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that this technique produces gold nanoparticles in a size range that is claimed in the literature to be most active (about 2 nm).

  8. Observation of a periodic runaway in the reactive Ar/O{sub 2} high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Shayestehaminzadeh, Seyedmohammad E-mail: shayesteh@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Arnalds, Unnar B.; Magnusson, Rögnvaldur L.; Olafsson, Sveinn

    2015-11-15

    This paper reports the observation of a periodic runaway of plasma to a higher density for the reactive discharge of the target material (Ti) with moderate sputter yield. Variable emission of secondary electrons, for the alternating transition of the target from metal mode to oxide mode, is understood to be the main reason for the runaway occurring periodically. Increasing the pulsing frequency can bring the target back to a metal (or suboxide) mode, and eliminate the periodic transition of the target. Therefore, a pulsing frequency interval is defined for the reactive Ar/O{sub 2} discharge in order to sustain the plasma in a runaway-free mode without exceeding the maximum power that the magnetron can tolerate.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of pure anatase phase nanocrystalline TiO2 thin film by magnetron sputtering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Nimisha; Bhargava, Ankita; Dayal, Saurabh; Kumar, C. Sasi

    2016-05-01

    In present work, our focus is to deposit anatase phase nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films. In order to prepare Titanium oxide films we first deposited Titanium thin films using DC magnetron sputtering and then the substrates were annealed in a muffle furnace at different temperatures. Further the samples were characterized for analysis of phase, morphology and optical properties using XRD, SEM, AFM and photoluminescence spectroscopy respectively. XRD shows the formation of tetragonal phase TiO2 with lattice parameters values a= 3.8 Å and c=9.6 Å. The surface roughness value of the films were found to vary from 1.6 nm to 15.9 nm. The grain size as estimated from AFM varies from 48 nm to 125 nm at different temperatures. Thus, the results revealed the formation of ultra-smooth anatase phase pure nanocrystalline TiO2 spherical particles.

  10. Structural and nanomechanical properties of BiFeO3 thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Jian, Sheng-Rui; Chang, Huang-Wei; Tseng, Yu-Chin; Chen, Ping-Han; Juang, Jenh-Yih

    2013-01-01

    The nanomechanical properties of BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films are subjected to nanoindentation evaluation. BFO thin films are grown on the Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering with various deposition temperatures. The structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, and the results confirmed the presence of BFO phases. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the average film surface roughness increased with increasing of the deposition temperature. A Berkovich nanoindenter operated with the continuous contact stiffness measurement option indicated that the hardness decreases from 10.6 to 6.8 GPa for films deposited at 350°C and 450°C, respectively. In contrast, Young's modulus for the former is 170.8 GPa as compared to a value of 131.4 GPa for the latter. The relationship between the hardness and film grain size appears to follow closely with the Hall-Petch equation. PMID:23799923

  11. Hybrid biocomposite with a tunable antibacterial activity and bioactivity based on RF magnetron sputter deposited coating and silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, A. A.; Surmenev, R. A.; Surmeneva, M. A.; Mukhametkaliyev, T.; Loza, K.; Prymak, O.; Epple, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we describe fabrication techniques used to prepare a multifunctional biocomposite based on a hydroxyapatite (HA) coating and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). AgNPs synthesized by a wet chemical reduction method were deposited on Ti substrates using a dripping/drying method followed by deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) coating via radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputter-deposition. The negatively charged silver nanoparticles (zeta potential -21 mV) have a spherical shape with a metallic core diameter of 50 ± 20 nm. The HA coating was deposited as a dense nanocrystalline film over a surface of AgNPs. The RF-magnetron sputter deposition of HA films on the AgNPs layer did not affect the initial content of AgNPs on the substrate surface as well as NPs size and shape. SEM cross-sectional images taken using the backscattering mode revealed a homogeneous layer of AgNPs under the CaP layer. The diffraction patterns from the coatings revealed reflexes of crystalline HA and silver. The concentration of Ag ions released from the biocomposites after 7 days of immersion in phosphate and acetate buffers was estimated. The obtained results revealed that the amount of silver in the solutions was 0.27 ± 0.02 μg mL-1 and 0.54 ± 0.02 μg mL-1 for the phosphate and acetate buffers, respectively, which corresponded well with the minimum inhibitory concentration range known for silver ions in literature. Thus, this work establishes a new route to prepare a biocompatible layer using embedded AgNPs to achieve a local antibacterial effect.

  12. Pulsed-bias magnetron sputtering of non-conductive crystalline chromia films at low substrate temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audronis, M.; Matthews, A.; Leyland, A.

    2008-02-01

    ) abundant in such discharges can be deployed to beneficially modify coating growth conditions at the surface of the film. 2F-pulsed-dc sputter deposition therefore offers a straightforward, reproducible and easily scalable deposition process which, in addition to significant process improvements, also allows complex substrate heating and/or RF biasing systems to be avoided. The findings of this study are expected to be of general validity and applicability to certain other oxide (such as Al2O3, TiO2 and HfO2) and non-oxide coatings of scientific and commercial interest.

  13. Visible light-induced photocatalytic properties of WO{sub 3} films deposited by dc reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Maiko; Oka, Nobuto; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2012-05-15

    The authors examined the photocatalytic activity of WO{sub 3} films (thickness 500-600 nm) deposited on a fused quartz substrate heated at 350-800 deg. C by dc reactive magnetron sputtering using a W metal target under the O{sub 2} gas pressure from 1.0 to 5.0 Pa. Films deposited at 800 deg. C under 5.0 Pa have excellent crystallinity of triclinic, P1(1) structure and a large surface area, as confirmed by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Exposure of acetaldehyde (CH{sub 3}CHO) adsorbed onto the film surface to ultraviolet, visible, or standard fluorescence light induces oxidative photocatalytic decomposition indicated by a decrease in CH{sub 3}CHO concentration and generation of CO{sub 2} gas. For all three types of irradiation, concentration ratio of decreased CH{sub 3}CHO to increased CO{sub 2} is about 1:1, suggesting the possible presence of intermediates. The sputter-deposited WO{sub 3} film can be a good candidate as a visible light-responsive photocatalyst.

  14. Effect of duty cycle on the electrical and optical properties of VOx film deposited by pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiang; Wu, Zhiming; Xu, Xiangdong; Wei, Xiongbang; Jiang, Yadong

    2013-12-01

    Vanadium oxide (VOx) films were deposited onto well cleaned glass substrates by bipolar pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Dependence of the structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the films on the pulsed power's duty cycle has been investigated. The results from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis show that there was no remarkable change in the amorphous structure in the films with duty cycle can be observed. But chemical analysis of the surface evaluated with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates that decrease the duty cycle favors to enhance the oxidation of the vanadium. The optical and electrical properties of the films were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry and temperature dependent resistivity measurements, respectively. The evolution of the transmittance, optical band gap, optical constants, resistivity and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the deposited films with duty cycle was analyzed and discussed. In comparison with conventional DC sputtering, under the same discharge atmosphere and power level, these parameters of the VOx films can be modified over a broad range by duty cycle. Therefore adjusting the duty cycle during deposition, which is an effective way to control and optimize the performances of the VOx film for various optoelectronic devices applications.

  15. Ultrasensitive hydrogen sensor based on Pt-decorated WO₃ nanorods prepared by glancing-angle dc magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Horprathum, M; Srichaiyaperk, T; Samransuksamer, B; Wisitsoraat, A; Eiamchai, P; Limwichean, S; Chananonnawathorn, C; Aiempanakit, K; Nuntawong, N; Patthanasettakul, V; Oros, C; Porntheeraphat, S; Songsiriritthigul, P; Nakajima, H; Tuantranont, A; Chindaudom, P

    2014-12-24

    In this work, we report an ultrasensitive hydrogen (H2) sensor based on tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanorods decorated with platinum (Pt) nanoparticles. WO3 nanorods were fabricated by dc magnetron sputtering with a glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique, and decorations of Pt nanoparticles were performed by normal dc sputtering on WO3 nanorods with varying deposition time from 2.5 to 15 s. Crystal structures, morphologies, and chemical information on Pt-decorated WO3 nanorods were characterized by grazing-incident X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The effect of the Pt nanoparticles on the H2-sensing performance of WO3 nanorods was investigated over a low concentration range of 150-3000 ppm of H2 at 150-350 °C working temperatures. The results showed that the H2 response greatly increased with increasing Pt-deposition time up to 10 s but then substantially deteriorated as the deposition time increased further. The optimally decorated Pt-WO3 nanorod sensor exhibited an ultrahigh H2 response from 1530 and 214,000 to 150 and 3000 ppm of H2, respectively, at 200 °C. The outstanding gas-sensing properties may be attributed to the excellent dispersion of fine Pt nanoparticles on WO3 nanorods having a very large effective surface area, leading to highly effective spillover of molecular hydrogen through Pt nanoparticles onto the WO3 nanorod surface.

  16. Influence of RF power on physical properties of ZnO:ZnF2 thin films by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang-Hsing; Lee, Yen-Hsien; Kang, Tsung-Kuei; Liu, Han-Wen

    2015-07-01

    Fluorine-doped zinc oxide (FZO) thin films were prepared on glass substrates at room temperature by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering with a ceramic ZnO target containing 1.5 wt% zinc fluoride (ZnF2). This study investigates the influences of RF powers of sputtering and H2 plasma treatment on properties of FZO films. For as-deposited films, all films had a highly (0 0 2) preferential c-axis orientation and film crystallinity was improved with increasing deposition power. The film resistivity decreased and the average optical transmittance in the visible range increased with increasing deposition power. The lowest resistivity of 9.29 × 10-4 Ω-cm and the average transmittance above 90% were obtained at the power of 150 W. For plasma treated films, the crystal structure had no significant change but the film resistivity further decreased to 7.92 × 10-4 Ω-cm and the optical bandgap increased to 3.725 eV. The calculated figures of merit exhibited that the film deposited with a high deposition power and a low H2 plasma power possessed the optimized optoelectronic properties. The H2 plasma treated FZO thin films have potential to be applied as transparent conducting electrodes.

  17. Effect of arc suppression on the physical properties of low temperature dc magnetron sputtered tantalum thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Subrahmanyam, A.; Valleti, Krishna; Joshi, Srikant V.; Sundararajan, G.

    2007-03-15

    Arcing is a common phenomenon in the sputtering process. Arcs and glow discharges emit electrons which may influence the physical properties of films. This article reports the properties of tantalum (Ta) thin films prepared by continuous dc magnetron sputtering in normal and arc-suppression modes. The substrate temperature was varied in the range of 300-673 K. The tantalum films were {approx}1.8 {mu}m thick and have good adherence to 316 stainless steel and single-crystal silicon substrates. The phase of the Ta thin film determines the electrical and tribological properties. The films deposited at 300 K using both methods were crystallized in a tetragonal structure ({beta} phase) with a smooth surface (grain size of {approx}10 nm) and exhibited an electrical resistivity of {approx}194 {mu}{omega} cm and a hardness of {approx}20 GPa. When the substrate temperature was 473 K and higher, the arc-suppression mode appears to influence the films to crystallize in the {alpha} phase with a grain size of {approx}40 nm, whereas the normal power mode gave mixed phases {beta} and {alpha} beyond 473 K, the arc-suppression mode yields larger grain sizes in the Ta thin films and the hardness decreases. These changes in the physical properties in arc-suppression mode are attributed to either the change in plasma characteristics or the energetic particle bombardment onto the substrate, or both.

  18. Substrate biasing effect on the physical properties of reactive RF-magnetron-sputtered aluminum oxide dielectric films on ITO glasses.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ling Yan; Cao, Hong Tao; Liu, Quan; Jiang, Ke Min; Liu, Zhi Min; Zhuge, Fei; Deng, Fu Ling

    2014-02-26

    High dielectric constant (high-k) Al2O3 thin films were prepared on ITO glasses by reactive RF-magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The effect of substrate bias on the subband structural, morphological, electrode/Al2O3 interfacial and electrical properties of the Al2O3 films is systematically investigated. An optical method based on spectroscopic ellipsometry measurement and modeling is adopted to probe the subband electronic structure, which facilitates us to vividly understand the band-tail and deep-level (4.8-5.0 eV above the valence band maximum) trap states. Well-selected substrate biases can suppress both the trap states due to promoted migration of sputtered particles, which optimizes the leakage current density, breakdown strength, and quadratic voltage coefficient of capacitance. Moreover, high porosity in the unbiased Al2O3 film is considered to induce the absorption of atmospheric moisture and the consequent occurrence of electrolysis reactions at electrode/Al2O3 interface, as a result ruining the electrical properties. PMID:24490685

  19. Influence of substrate bias voltage on structural and optical properties of RF reactive magnetron sputtered WO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavi, V.; Kondaiah, P.; Uthanna, S.

    2012-11-01

    In this investigation, tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films have been deposited on unheated glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering of tungsten target at constant oxygen partial pressure of 6×10-2 Pa, sputtering power of 150 W and at different substrate bias voltages in the range from 0 to -150 V. The structural and optical properties of the films were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometers. The films formed up to substrate bias voltage of -50 V were found to be amorphous in nature, while those films formed at -100 V showed a weak (200) reflection indicates the presence of monoclinic phase of WO3 in amorphous matrix. The optical transmittance of the films was in the range 78 - 95 % in the wavelength range of 500 - 1200 nm. The absorption band edge was shifted towards higher wavelength side with increasing substrate bias voltage. The optical band gap of the films decrease from 2.81 to 2.69 eV with increase of substrate bias voltage from 0 to -150 V respectively. The refractive index of the films increased from 2.19 to 2.27 with increase of substrate bias voltage from 0 to -150 V respectively.

  20. High Temperature Thermal Stability and Oxidation Resistance of Magnetron-sputtered Homogeneous CrAlON Coatings on 430 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayani, A.; Wickey, K. J.; Nandasiri, M. I.; Moore, A.; Garratt, E.; AlFaify, S.; Gao, X.; Smith, R. J.; Buchanan, T. L.; Priyantha, W.; Kopczyk, M.; Gannon, P. E.; Gorokhovsky, V. I.

    2009-03-01

    The requirements of low cost and high-temperature corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. We have investigated the performance of steel plates with homogenous coatings of CrAlON (oxynitrides). The coatings were deposited using RF magnetron sputtering, with Ar as a sputtering gas. Oxygen in these coatings was not intentionally added. Oxygen might have come through contaminated nitrogen gas bottle, leak in the chamber or from the partial pressure of water vapors. Nitrogen was added during the growth process to get oxynitride coating. The Cr/Al composition ratio in the coatings was varied in a combinatorial approach. The coatings were subsequently annealed in air for up to 25 hours at 800° C. The composition of the coated plates and the rate of oxidation were characterized using Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). From our results, we conclude that Al rich coatings are more susceptible to oxidation than Cr rich coatings.

  1. High temperature oxidation resistance of magnetron-sputtered homogeneous CrAlON coatings on 430 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garratt, E.; Wickey, K. J.; Nandasiri, M. I.; Moore, A.; AlFaify, S.; Gao, X.; Kayani, A.; Smith, R. J.; Buchanan, T. L.; Priyantha, W.; Kopczyk, M.; Gannon, P. E.

    2009-11-01

    The requirements of low cost and high-temperature corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. We have investigated the performance of steel plates with homogenous coatings of CrAlON (oxynitrides). The coatings were deposited using RF magnetron sputtering, with Ar as a sputtering gas. Oxygen in these coatings was not intentionally added. Oxygen might have come through contaminated nitrogen gas bottle, leak in the chamber or from the partial pressure of water vapors. Nitrogen was added during the growth process to get oxynitride coating. The Cr/Al composition ratio in the coatings was varied in a combinatorial approach. The coatings were subsequently annealed in air for up to 25 hours at 800 oC. The composition of the coated plates and the rate of oxidation were characterized using Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Surface characterization was carried out using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and surfaces of the coatings were found smooth on submicron scale. From our results, we conclude that Al rich coatings are more susceptible to oxidation than Cr rich coatings.

  2. Study of Electrical and Optical Properties of Cu-ASSISTED Amorphous Carbon Thin Films Deposition by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassannia, Sara; Elahi, Seyed Mohammad; Boochani, Arash

    2013-09-01

    Cu incorporated amorphous carbon thin films have been prepared by DC-magnetron sputtering using a bi-component Cu-C composite target. The properties of the films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic force microscopy, FTIR, Raman and UV-vis spectroscopies. The results show that the films are amorphous with major distorted sp2 graphite bonds as well as carbon nanotubes. Sputtering simulation shows that the chemical composition of the films is Cu0.066C0.934. Cu addition results in the formation of new type of carbon nanotubes (CNT) with new radial Breathing mode located at 236 cm-1. Cu induces an increase in the density of defects due to bundles of CNT's. Moreover the films are transparent in visible range and highly reflective in mid-infrared region. Electrical characterization shows that the pure carbon deposited films are semiconductor while the copper assisted thin films behave like metal and their sheet resistance is comparable with sheet resistance of conventional conductive electrodes.

  3. Effect of nitrogen doping on structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of radio frequency magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perumal, R.; Hassan, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Zinc oxide receives remarkable attention due to its several attractive physical properties. Zinc oxide thin films doped with nitrogen were grown by employing RF magnetron sputtering method at room temperature. Doping was accomplished in gaseous medium by mixing high purity nitrogen gas along with argon sputtering gas. Structural studies confirmed the high crystalline nature with c-axis oriented growth of the nitrogen doped zinc oxide thin films. The tensile strain was developed due to the incorporation of the nitrogen into the ZnO crystal lattice. Surface roughness of the grown films was found to be decreased with increasing doping level was identified through atomic force microscope analysis. The presenting phonon modes of each film were confirmed through FTIR spectral analysis. The increasing doping level leads towards red-shifting of the cut-off wavelength due to decrement of the band gap was identified through UV-vis spectroscopy. All the doped films exhibited p-type conductivity was ascertained using Hall measurements and the obtained results were presented.

  4. Effects of Ti addiction in WO 3 thin film ammonia gas sensor prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ming; Yong, Cholyun; Feng, Youcai; Lv, Yuqiang; Han, Lei; Liang, Jiran; Wang, Haopeng

    2006-11-01

    WO 3 sensing films (1500 Å) were deposited using dc reactive magnetron sputtering method on alumina substrate on which patterned interdigital Pt electrodes were previously formed. The additive Ti was sputtered with different thickness (100-500 Å) onto WO 3 thin films and then the films as-deposited were annealed at 400°C in air for 3h. The crystal structure and chemical composition of the films were characterized by XRD and XPS analysis. The effect of Ti addition on sensitive properties of WO 3 thin film to the NH 3 gas was then discussed. WO 3 thin films added Ti revealed excellent sensitivity and response characteristics in the presence of low concentration of NH 3 (5-400 ppm) gas in air at 200°C operating temperature. Especially,in case 300 Å thickness of additive Ti, WO 3 thin films have a promotional effect on the response speed to NH 3 and selectivity enhanced with respect to other gases (CO, C IIH 5OH, CH 4). The influence of different substrates, including alumina, silicon and glass, on sensitivity to NH 3 gas has also been investigated.

  5. Unintentional carbide formation evidenced during high-vacuum magnetron sputtering of transition metal nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greczynski, G.; Mráz, S.; Hultman, L.; Schneider, J. M.

    2016-11-01

    Carbide signatures are ubiquitous in the surface analyses of industrially sputter-deposited transition metal nitride thin films grown with carbon-less source materials in typical high-vacuum systems. We use high-energy-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy to reveal details of carbon temporal chemical state evolution, from carbide formed during film growth to adventitious carbon adsorbed upon contact with air. Using in-situ grown Al capping layers that protect the as-deposited transition metal nitride surfaces from oxidation, it is shown that the carbide forms during film growth rather than as a result of post deposition atmosphere exposure. The XPS signature of carbides is masked by the presence of adventitious carbon contamination, appearing as soon as samples are exposed to atmosphere, and eventually disappears after one week-long storage in lab atmosphere. The concentration of carbon assigned to carbide species varies from 0.28 at% for ZrN sample, to 0.25 and 0.11 at% for TiN and HfN, respectively. These findings are relevant for numerous applications, as unintentionally formed impurity phases may dramatically alter catalytic activity, charge transport and mechanical properties by offsetting the onset of thermally-induced phase transitions. Therefore, the chemical state of C impurities in PVD-grown films should be carefully investigated.

  6. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al{sup +} ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Weichsel, T. Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Philipp, A.

    2015-09-15

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology—a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al{sup +} ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm{sup 2} is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge.

  7. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al⁺ ion beam.

    PubMed

    Weichsel, T; Hartung, U; Kopte, T; Zschornack, G; Kreller, M; Philipp, A

    2015-09-01

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology-a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al(+) ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm(2) is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 10(9) cm(-3) to 6 × 10(10) cm(-3) and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge. PMID:26429434

  8. Effect of ambient combinations of argon, oxygen, and hydrogen on the properties of DC magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Marikkannan, M.; Subramanian, M.; Tanemura, M.; Mayandi, J. E-mail: jeyanthinath@yahoo.co.in; Vishnukanthan, V.; Pearce, J. M. E-mail: jeyanthinath@yahoo.co.in

    2015-01-15

    Sputtering has been well-developed industrially with singular ambient gases including neutral argon (Ar), oxygen (O{sub 2}), hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) to enhance the electrical and optical performances of indium tin oxide (ITO) films. Recent preliminary investigation into the use of combined ambient gases such as an Ar+O{sub 2}+H{sub 2} ambient mixture, which was suitable for producing high-quality (low sheet resistance and high optical transmittance) of ITO films. To build on this promising preliminary work and develop deeper insight into the effect of ambient atmospheres on ITO film growth, this study provides a more detailed investigation of the effects of ambient combinations of Ar, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2} on sputtered ITO films. Thin films of ITO were deposited on glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering using three different ambient combinations: Ar, Ar+O{sub 2} and Ar+O{sub 2}+H{sub 2}. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the three ambient sputtered ITO films were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, four probe electrical conductivity and optical spectroscopy. The XRD and Raman studies confirmed the cubic indium oxide structure, which is polycrystalline at room temperature for all the samples. AFM shows the minimum surface roughness of 2.7 nm for Ar+O{sub 2}+H{sub 2} sputtered thin film material. The thickness of the films was determined by the cross sectional SEM analysis and its thickness was varied from 920 to 817 nm. The columnar growth of ITO films was also discussed here. The electrical and optical measurements of Ar+O{sub 2}+H{sub 2} ambient combinations shows a decreased sheet resistance (5.06 ohm/□) and increased optical transmittance (69%) than other samples. The refractive index and packing density of the films were projected using optical transmission spectrum. From the observed results the Ar+O{sub 2}+H

  9. Growth of fullerene-like carbon nitride thin solid films by reactive magnetron sputtering; role of low-energy ion irradiation in determining microstructure and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidhardt, J.; Czigány, Zs.; Brunell, I. F.; Hultman, L.

    2003-03-01

    Fullerene-like (FL) carbon nitride (CNx) films were deposited on Si (100) substrates by dc reactive, unbalanced, magnetron sputtering in a N2/Ar mixture from a high-purity pyrolythic graphite cathode in a dual-magnetron system with coupled magnetic fields. The N2 fraction in the discharge gas (0%-100%) and substrate bias (-25 V; -40 V) was varied, while the total pressure (0.4 Pa) and substrate temperature (450 °C) was kept constant. The coupled configuration of the magnetrons resulted in a reduced ion flux density, leading to a much lower average energy per incorporated particle, due to a less focused plasma as compared to a single magnetron. This enabled the evolution of a pronounced FL microstructure. The nitrogen concentration in the films saturated rapidly at 14-18 at. %, as determined by elastic recoil analysis, with a minor dependence on the discharge conditions. No correlations were detected between the photoelectron N1s core level spectra and the different microstructures, as observed by high-resolution electron microscopy. A variety of distinct FL structures were obtained, ranging from structures with elongated and aligned nitrogen-containing graphitic sheets to disordered structures, however, not exclusively linked to the total N concentration in the films. The microstructure evolution has rather to be seen as in equilibrium between the two competing processes of adsorption and desorption of nitrogen-containing species at the substrate. This balance is shifted by the energy and number of arriving species as well as by the substrate temperature. The most exceptional structure, for lower N2 fractions, consists of well-aligned, multi-layered circular features (nano-onions) with an inner diameter of approximately 0.7 nm and successive shells at a distance of ˜0.35 nm up to a diameter of 5 nm. It is shown that the intrinsic stress formation is closely linked with the evolution and accommodation of the heavily bent fullerene-like sheets. The FL CNx

  10. Anisotropic Ti x Sn1- x O2 nanostructures prepared by magnetron sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shutian; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2011-12-01

    Regular arrays of Ti x Sn1- x O2 nanoflakes were fabricated through glancing angle sputter deposition onto self-assembled close-packed arrays of 200-nm-diameter polystyrene spheres. The morphology of nanostructures could be controlled by simply adjusting the sputtering power of the Ti target. The reflectance measurements showed that the melon seed-shaped nanoflakes exhibited optimal properties of antireflection in the entire visible and ultraviolet region. In addition, we determined their anisotropic reflectance in the direction parallel to the surface of nanoflakes and perpendicular to it, arising from the anisotropic morphology.

  11. Formation of alpha and beta tantalum at the variation of magnetron sputtering conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasakina, E. O.; Sevostyanov, M. A.; Mikhaylova, A. B.; Baikin, A. S.; Sergienko, K. V.; Leonov, A. V.; Kolmakov, A. G.

    2016-02-01

    Nano- and microdimensional surface layers of α and β tantalum on flat NiTi, Ti, glass, etc. substrates were created. Structure and composition of samples were defined by SEM, AES and x-ray diffractometry. With increase in deposition time surface layer thickness not linearly increases. The transitional layer provide high adhesion of a surface layer to a substrate. Irrespective of summary sputtering time the β phase is formed in the beginning and at sputtering time more than 20 min on it α tantalum is deposited, while temperature remains below 150°C. Keywords: composite materials, surface layer, tantalum, alpha and beta phase, nitinol, corrosion resistance.

  12. Investigation of the biaxial stress of Al-doped ZnO thin films on a flexible substrate with RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuo-Ting; Chen, Hsi-Chao; Cheng, Po-Wei; Chang, Jhe-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were deposited onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate, using the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. The residual stress of flexible electronics was investigated by a double beam shadow moiré interferometer with phase shifting interferometry (PSI). Moreover, the biaxial stress of AZO thin films can be graphically represented by using Mohr’s circle of stress. The residual stress of AZO thin films becomes more compressive with the increase in sputtering power. The maximum residual stress is -1115.74 MPa, and the shearing stress is 490.57 MPa at a sputtering power of 200 W. The trends of residual stress were evidenced by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and optical properties of AZO thin films. According to the evaluation results of the refractive index and the extinction coefficient, the AZO thin films have better quality when the sputtering power less than 100 W.

  13. The Structure and Properties of Inductively Coupled Plasma Assisted Magnetron Sputtered Nanocrystalline CrN Coatings in Corrosion Protective Die Casting Molds.

    PubMed

    Chun, Sung-Yong

    2015-07-01

    Chromium nitride coatings for the surface modified die casting molds with various ICP powers have been prepared using ICP assisted magnetron sputtering. The applied ICP power was varied from 0 to 300 W. The deposited coatings were characterized post-deposition using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Single CrN phased coatings with nano-grain sized (< 20 nm) were identified. The corrosion resistance and hardness of each coating were evaluated from potentiost at and nanoindentator. Superior corrosion protective coatings in excess of 20 GPa were deposited with assistance of ICP plasma during sputtering.

  14. The Structure and Properties of Inductively Coupled Plasma Assisted Magnetron Sputtered Nanocrystalline NbN Coatings in Corrosion Protective Die Casting Molds.

    PubMed

    Chun, Sung-Yong

    2016-02-01

    Niobium nitride coatings for the surface modified die casting molds with various ICP powers have been prepared using ICP assisted magnetron sputtering. The applied ICP power was varied from 0 to 200 W. The deposited coatings were characterized post-deposition using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Single NbN phased coatings with nano-grain sized (<7.6 nm) were identified. The corrosion resistance and hardness of each coating were evaluated from potentiostat and nanoindentator. Superior corrosion protective coatings in excess of 13.9 GPa were deposited with assistance of ICP plasma during sputtering.

  15. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Zr-Cu Amorphous Films Prepared by Magnetron Co-sputtering Deposition of Pure Zr and Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Qin; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Li, Gong; Li, Li-Xin; Xu, Zhe; Ma, Ming-Zhen; Liu, Ri-Ping

    2009-08-01

    ZrxCu100-x amorphous films are prepared on Si (111) substrates by magnetron co-sputtering of pure Zr and Cu. It is found that the glass forming ability (GFA) of the films increases with x when x is in the range from 35 to 65 and with the best glass forming ability at x = 65. It is therefore different from the bulk counterparts, for which only x = 35 and 50 were reported to have high glass forming ability during casting. The structure of the films is sensitive to the substrate temperature and the sputtering argon pressure.

  16. The Structure and Properties of Inductively Coupled Plasma Assisted Magnetron Sputtered Nanocrystalline NbN Coatings in Corrosion Protective Die Casting Molds.

    PubMed

    Chun, Sung-Yong

    2016-02-01

    Niobium nitride coatings for the surface modified die casting molds with various ICP powers have been prepared using ICP assisted magnetron sputtering. The applied ICP power was varied from 0 to 200 W. The deposited coatings were characterized post-deposition using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Single NbN phased coatings with nano-grain sized (<7.6 nm) were identified. The corrosion resistance and hardness of each coating were evaluated from potentiostat and nanoindentator. Superior corrosion protective coatings in excess of 13.9 GPa were deposited with assistance of ICP plasma during sputtering. PMID:27433719

  17. Highly oriented {delta}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films stable at room temperature synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Lunca Popa, P.; Kerdsongpanya, S.; Lu, J.; Eklund, P.; Sonderby, S.; Bonanos, N.

    2013-01-28

    We report the synthesis by reactive magnetron sputtering and structural characterization of highly (111)-oriented thin films of {delta}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This phase is obtained at a substrate temperature of 150-200 Degree-Sign C in a narrow window of O{sub 2}/Ar ratio in the sputtering gas (18%-20%). Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction reveal a polycrystalline columnar structure with (111) texture. The films are stable from room temperature up to 250 Degree-Sign C in vacuum and 350 Degree-Sign C in ambient air.

  18. Thickness Effects of TiC Interlayer on Tribological Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering Method.

    PubMed

    Park, Chulmin; Lee, Jaehyeong; Park, Yong Seob

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films prepared with TiC interlayer of various thicknesses as the adhesive layer. DLC and TiC thin films were prepared using unbalanced magnetron (UBM) sputtering method using graphite and titanium as targets. TiC films as the interlayer were deposited under DLC films and various physical, tribological, and structural properties of the films fabricated with various TiC interlayer thicknesses were investigated. With various TiC interlayer thicknesses under DLC films, the tribological properties of films were improved with increasing thickness and the DLC/TiC layer fabricated by unbalanced magnetron sputtering method are exhibited maximum high hardness over 27 GPa and high elastic modulus over 242 GPa, and a smooth surface below 0.09 nm.

  19. Propagation direction reversal of ionization zones in the transition between high and low current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Lab for Materials Processing and Die & Mold Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China; Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Yang, Yuchen; Liu, Jason; Liu, Lin; Anders, André

    2014-12-11

    Past research has revealed the propagation of dense, asymmetric ionization zones in both high and low current magnetron discharges. Here we report about the direction reversal of ionization zone propagation as observed with fast cameras. At high currents, zones move in the E B direction with velocities of 103 to 104 m/s. However at lower currents, ionization zones are observed to move in the opposite, the -E B direction, with velocities ~;; 103 m/s. It is proposed that the direction reversal is associated with the local balance of ionization and supply of neutrals in the ionization zone.

  20. Metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N film growth by hybrid high power pulsed magnetron/dc magnetron co-sputtering using synchronized pulsed substrate bias

    SciTech Connect

    Greczynski, Grzegorz; Lu Jun; Jensen, Jens; Petrov, Ivan; Greene, Joseph E.; Bolz, Stephan; Koelker, Werner; Schiffers, Christoph; Lemmer, Oliver; Hultman, Lars

    2012-11-15

    Metastable NaCl-structure Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N is employed as a model system to probe the effects of metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during film growth using reactive high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of Al and dc magnetron sputtering of Ti. The alloy film composition is chosen to be x = 0.61, near the kinetic solubility limit at the growth temperature of 500 Degree-Sign C. Three sets of experiments are carried out: a -60 V substrate bias is applied either continuously, in synchronous with the full HIPIMS pulse, or in synchronous only with the metal-rich-plasma portion of the HIPIMS pulse. Alloy films grown under continuous dc bias exhibit a thickness-invariant small-grain, two-phase nanostructure (wurtzite AlN and cubic Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N) with random orientation, due primarily to intense Ar{sup +} irradiation leading to Ar incorporation (0.2 at. %), high compressive stress (-4.6 GPa), and material loss by resputtering. Synchronizing the bias with the full HIPIMS pulse results in films that exhibit much lower stress levels (-1.8 GPa) with no measureable Ar incorporation, larger grains elongated in the growth direction, a very small volume fraction of wurtzite AlN, and random orientation. By synchronizing the bias with the metal-plasma phase of the HIPIMS pulses, energetic Ar{sup +} ion bombardment is greatly reduced in favor of irradiation predominantly by Al{sup +} ions. The resulting films are single phase with a dense competitive columnar structure, strong 111 orientation, no measureable trapped Ar concentration, and even lower stress (-0.9 GPa). Thus, switching from Ar{sup +} to Al{sup +} bombardment, while maintaining the same integrated incident ion/metal ratio, eliminates phase separation, minimizes renucleation during growth, and reduces the high concentration of residual point defects, which give rise to compressive stress.

  1. Optimization of Ta2O5 optical thin film deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Shakoury, R; Willey, Ronald R

    2016-07-10

    Radio frequency magnetron sputtering has been used here to find the parameters at which to deposit Ta2O5 optical thin films with negligible absorption in the visible spectrum. The design of experiment methodology was employed to minimize the number of experiments needed to find the optimal results. Two independent approaches were used to determine the index of refraction n and k values.

  2. Resistive switching in the Au/Zr/ZrO2-Y2O3/TiN/Ti memristive devices deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, O. N.; Mikhaylov, A. N.; Kasatkin, A. P.; Tikhov, S. V.; Filatov, D. O.; Pavlov, D. A.; Belov, A. I.; Koryazhkina, M. N.; Bobrov, A. I.; Malekhonova, N. V.; Gryaznov, E. G.; Antonov, I. N.; Shenina, M. E.

    2016-08-01

    Bipolar resistive switching phenomenon in the Au/Zr/ZrO2-Y2O3/TiN/Ti memristive devices deposited by magnetron sputtering has been studied. The structure of devices and electrical measurements data for the temperature range from 77 to 490 K are analyzed. The stable switching is demonstrated at room temperature, but the decrease in the resistive switching performance at elevated temperatures is observed.

  3. Evaluation of structure and material properties of RF magnetron sputter-deposited yttria-stabilized zirconia thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piascik, Jeffrey Robert

    Over the past several decades, research has focused on utilizing ceramic materials in new technological applications. Their uses have been primarily in applications that involve high temperatures or corrosive environments. Unfortunately, ceramic materials have been limited especially since they can be brittle, failing in a sudden and catastrophic manner. A strong emphasis on understanding mechanical properties of ceramics and ways to improving their strength and toughness, has led to many new technologies. The present work is part of a larger research initiative that is aimed at using RF magnetron sputter deposition of yttria-stabilized zirconia to improve the fracture toughness of brittle substrates (more specifically dental ceramics). Partially-stabilized zirconia (PSZ) has been studied extensively, due to its high temperature stability and stress-induced tetragonal to monoclinic (T⇒M) martensitic phase transformation. RF magnetron sputtering was chosen as the deposition method because of its versatility, especially the ability to deposit oxides at low temperatures. Initial investigations focused on the development of process-structure-properties of YSZ sputtered deposited thin films. The YSZ thin films were deposited over a range of temperatures (22--300°C), pressures (5--25 mTorr), and gas compositions (Ar:O2 ratio). Initial studies characterized a select set of properties in relation to deposition parameters including: refractive index, structure, and film stress. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) showed that the films are comprised of mainly monoclinic and tetragonal crystal phases. The film refractive index determined by prism coupling, depends strongly on deposition conditions and ranged from 1.959 to 2.223. Wafer bow measurements indicate that the sputtered YSZ films can have initial stress ranging from 86 MPa tensile to 192 MPa compressive, depending on the deposition parameters. Exposure to ambient conditions (25°C, 75% relative humidity) led to large increase

  4. Development of metal nanocluster ion source based on dc magnetron plasma sputtering at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, Abhijit; Koepp, Daniel; Ganeva, Marina; Hippler, Rainer; Datta, Debasish; Bhattacharyya, Satyaranjan

    2009-09-15

    A simple and cost effective nanocluster ion source for the deposition of size selected metal nanocluster has been developed based on the dc magnetron discharge (including pulsed dc discharge). The most important and interesting feature of this cluster source is that it is working at room temperature, cooled by chilled water during the experiment. There is no extraction unit in this device and the cluster streams flow only due to the pressure gradient from source chamber to substrate via quadrupole mass filter. It has provision of multiple substrate holders in the deposition chamber, which can be controlled manually. The facility consists of quadrupole mass filter (QMF 200), which can select masses in the range of 2-125 000 atoms depending on the target materials, with a constant mass resolution (M/{Delta}M{approx}25). The dc magnetron discharge at a power of about 130 W with Ar as feed/buffer gas was used to produce the Cu nanocluster in an aggregation tube and deposited on Si (100) wafer temperature.

  5. Spatially resolved electron density and electron energy distribution function in Ar magnetron plasmas used for sputter-deposition of ZnO-based thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Maaloul, L.; Gangwar, R. K.; Morel, S.; Stafford, L.

    2015-11-15

    Langmuir probe and trace rare gases optical emission spectroscopy were used to analyze the spatial structure of the electron density and electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in a cylindrical Ar magnetron plasma reactor used for sputter-deposition of ZnO-based thin films. While a typical Bessel (zero order) diffusion profile was observed along the radial direction for the number density of charged particles at 21 cm from the ZnO target, a significant rise of these populations with respect to the Bessel function was seen in the center of the reactor at 4 cm from the magnetron surface. As for the EEDF, it was found to transform from a more or less Maxwellian far from the target to a two-temperature Maxwellian with a depletion of high-energy electrons where magnetic field confinement effects become important. No significant change in the behavior of the electron density and EEDF across a wide range of pressures (5–100 mTorr) and self-bias voltages (115–300 V) was observed during magnetron sputtering of Zn, ZnO, and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} targets. This indicates that sputtering of Zn, In, and O atoms do not play a very significant role on the electron particle balance and electron heating dynamics, at least over the range of experimental conditions investigated.

  6. Determination of the number density of excited and ground Zn atoms during rf magnetron sputtering of ZnO target

    SciTech Connect

    Maaloul, L.; Gangwar, R. K.; Stafford, L.

    2015-07-15

    A combination of optical absorption spectroscopy (OAS) and optical emission spectroscopy measurements was used to monitor the number density of Zn atoms in excited 4s4p ({sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0}) metastable states as well as in ground 4s{sup 2} ({sup 1}S{sub 0}) state in a 5 mTorr Ar radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering plasma used for the deposition of ZnO-based thin films. OAS measurements revealed an increase by about one order of magnitude of Zn {sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0} metastable atoms by varying the self-bias voltage on the ZnO target from −115 to −300 V. Over the whole range of experimental conditions investigated, the triplet-to-singlet metastable density ratio was 5 ± 1, which matches the statistical weight ratio of these states in Boltzmann equilibrium. Construction of a Boltzmann plot using all Zn I emission lines in the 200–500 nm revealed a constant excitation temperature of 0.33 ± 0.04 eV. In combination with measured populations of Zn {sup 3}P{sub 2} and {sup 3}P{sub 0} metastable atoms, this temperature was used to extrapolate the absolute number density of ground state Zn atoms. The results were found to be in excellent agreement with those obtained previously by actinometry on Zn atoms using Ar as the actinometer gas [L. Maaloul and L. Stafford, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 31, 061306 (2013)]. This set of data was then correlated to spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements of the deposition rate of Zn atoms on a Si substrate positioned at 12 cm away from the ZnO target. The deposition rate scaled linearly with the number density of Zn atoms. In sharp contrast with previous studies on RF magnetron sputtering of Cu targets, these findings indicate that metastable atoms play a negligible role on the plasma deposition dynamics of Zn-based coatings.

  7. Radio-frequency magnetron triode sputtering of cadmium telluride and zinc telluride films and solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Adam Lee

    The n-CdS/p-CdTe solar cell has been researched for many years now. Research groups use a variety of processes to fabricate thin-film CdS/CdTe cells, including physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, and RF diode sputtering. One of the central areas of investigation concerning CdS/CdTe cells is the problem of a Schottky barrier at the back contact. Even cells fabricated with ohmic back contacts degrade into Schottky barriers as the devices are used. This severely degrades power generation. One possible solution is to use p+-ZnTe as an interlayer between CdTe and the back contact. ZnTe is easily doped with Cu to be p-type. However, even contacts with this ZnTe interlayer degrade over time, because Cu is highly mobile and diffuses away from the contact towards the CdS/CdTe junction. Another possibility is to dope ZnTe with N. It has been demonstrated using molecular beam epitaxy and RF diode sputtering. In this study, CdTe films are fabricated using a variation of RF diode sputtering called triode sputtering. This technique allows for control of ion bombardment to the substrate during deposition. Also, a higher plasma density near the target is achieved allowing depositions at lower pressures. These films are characterized structurally to show the effects of the various deposition parameters. N-doped ZnTe films are also fabricated using this technique. These films are characterized electrically to show the effects of the various deposition parameters. Also, the effects of post-deposition annealing are observed. It is found that annealing at the right temperature can increase the conductivity of the films by a factor of 3 or more. However, annealing at higher temperatures decreases the conductivity to as low as 12% of the initial conductivity. Finally, RF triode sputtered N-doped ZnTe films are used as an interlayer at the back contact of a CdS/CdTe solar cell. The effects of annealing the device before and after contact deposition are observed

  8. Dielectric, optical and electric studies on nanocrystalline Ba5Nb4O15 thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anil Kumar, C.; Pamu, D.

    2015-06-01

    We report the fabrication of nanocrystalline Ag/BNO/Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si thin film capacitors by RF magnetron sputtering with different film thicknesses. The effect of Ba5Nb4O15 (BNO) thickness on structural, microstructural, electrical, optical and dielectric properties is investigated for the first time. BNO sputtering target prepared is by mechanochemical synthesis method to eliminate the subordinate phases. As deposited thin films were X-ray amorphous and crystallinity is induced after annealing at 700 °C. Upon annealing, refractive indices of the films enhanced whereas the bandgap is decreased and are in the range of 1.89-2.16 and 4.07-4.24, respectively. With an increase in thickness, the dielectric properties improved substantially, which is described by the representation of a dead layer connected in series with a bulk region of the BNO film. The extracted values of thickness and dielectric constant for the dead layer found to be 15.21 nm and 37.03, correspondingly. The activation energy of the mobile charge carriers obtained using the Arrhenius relation are found to be 0.254, 0.036 and 0.027 eV, for the films with 150, 250 and 450 nm, respectively. The leakage current density found to decrease with thickness and found to be 2.5 × 10-6 A/cm2 at applied voltage of 50 kV/cm. The J-E characteristics of the BNO films show a combined response of grain, grain boundaries and film-electrode interfaces. It is interesting to note that in the negative electric field region, conduction is ohmic in nature whereas in the positive field region BNO films exhibit both ohmic and the space charge-limited current mechanisms. The achieved dielectric, electrical and optical properties make these films suitable for MIC, CMOS and optoelectronic applications.

  9. Influence of high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma ionization on the microstructure of TiN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehiasarian, A. P.; Vetushka, A.; Gonzalvo, Y. Aranda; Sáfrán, G.; Székely, L.; Barna, P. B.

    2011-05-01

    HIPIMS (High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering) discharge is a new PVD technology for the deposition of high-quality thin films. The deposition flux contains a high degree of metal ionization and nitrogen dissociation. The microstructure of HIPIMS-deposited nitride films is denser compared to conventional sputter technologies. However, the mechanisms acting on the microstructure, texture and properties have not been discussed in detail so far. In this study, the growth of TiN by HIPIMS of Ti in mixed Ar and N2 atmosphere has been investigated. Varying degrees of metal ionization and nitrogen dissociation were produced by increasing the peak discharge current (Id) from 5 to 30 A. The average power was maintained constant by adjusting the frequency. Mass spectrometry measurements of the deposition flux revealed a high content of ionized film-forming species, such as Ti1+, Ti2+ and atomic nitrogen N1+. Ti1+ ions with energies up to 50 eV were detected during the pulse with reducing energy in the pulse-off times. Langmuir probe measurements showed that the peak plasma density during the pulse was 3 × 1016 m-3. Plasma density, and ion flux ratios of N1+: N21+ and Ti1+: Ti0 increased linearly with peak current. The ratios exceeded 1 at 30 A. TiN films deposited by HIPIMS were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. At high Id, N1+: N21+> 1 and Ti1+: Ti0> 1 were produced; a strong 002 texture was present and column boundaries in the films were atomically tight. As Id reduced and N1+: N21+ and Ti1+: Ti0 dropped below 1, the film texture switched to strong 111 with a dense structure. At very low Id, porosity between columns developed. The effects of the significant activation of the deposition flux observed in the HIPIMS discharge on the film texture, microstructure, morphology and properties are discussed.

  10. Investigations on RF-magnetron sputtered Co3O4 thin films regarding the solar energy conversion properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohaus, C.; Morasch, J.; Brötz, J.; Klein, A.; Jaegermann, W.

    2016-04-01

    Co3O4 samples have been deposited using RF-magnetron sputtering from an oxide target. In situ x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction have been carried out to identify the phase and composition of the films. The work function of \\text{C}{{\\text{o}}3}{{\\text{O}}4} films showed variation of about 1 eV depending on the oxygen content of the sputter gas while the Fermi level position in the band gap was invariant towards different deposition parameters. Optical transmission spectroscopy in the UV/VIS/NIR regime showed two optical transitions at 0.8 eV and 1.7 eV. However, the optical absorption from these transition does not seem to aid in the conduction of charge carriers as has been revealed by conductivity measurements in a linear 4-point-setup. Diodes were prepared in a glass  | FTO  |   \\text{Ti}{{\\text{O}}2}  |\\text{C}{{\\text{o}}3}{{\\text{O}}4}|  NiO | Au-stacking geometry. They show poor photovoltaic behaviour with a short-circuit current of 0.33 mA cm-1 and an open-circuit voltage of 0.15 V, resulting in an overall efficiency of η =0.01% . The limitation of \\text{C}{{\\text{o}}3}{{\\text{O}}4} as an absorber in an All-Oxide solar cell can be related to poor transport properties combined with defect states in the band gap and Fermi level pinning at interfaces.

  11. Titanium dioxide fine structures by RF magnetron sputter method deposited on an electron-beam resist mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiba, Hideomi; Miyazaki, Yuta; Matsushita, Sachiko

    2013-09-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been draw attention for wide range of applications from photonic crystals for visible light range by its catalytic characteristics to tera-hertz range by its high refractive index. We present an experimental study of fabrication of fine structures of TiO2 with a ZEP electron beam resist mask followed by Ti sputter deposition techniques. A TiO2 thin layer of 150 nm thick was grown on an FTO glass substrate with a fine patterned ZEP resist mask by a conventional RF magnetron sputter method with Ti target. The deposition was carried out with argon-oxygen gases at a pressure of 5.0 x 10 -1 Pa in a chamber. During the deposition, ratio of Ar-O2 gas was kept to the ratio of 2:1 and the deposition ratio was around 0.5 Å/s to ensure enough oxygen to form TiO2 and low temperature to avoid deformation of fine pattern of the ZPU resist mask. Deposited TiO2 layers are white-transparent, amorphous, and those roughnesses are around 7 nm. Fabricated TiO2 PCs have wider TiO2 slabs of 112 nm width leaving periodic 410 x 410 nm2 air gaps. We also studied transformation of TiO2 layers and TiO2 fine structures by baking at 500 °C. XRD measurement for TiO2 shows that the amorphous TiO2 transforms to rutile and anatase forms by the baking while keeping the same profile of the fine structures. Our fabrication method can be one of a promising technique to optic devices on researches and industrial area.

  12. Forming dense arrays of gold nanoparticles in thin films of yttria stabilized zirconia by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, O. N.; Antonov, I. N.; Filatov, D. O.; Shenina, M. E.; Kasatkin, A. P.; Pavlov, D. A.; Bobrov, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    Layers of Au nanoparticles (NPs) were formed in films of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) on fusedquartz substrates by layer-by-layer magnetron deposition with subsequent annealing. The obtained structures were studied by applying high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to transverse sections and using optical absorption spectroscopy. TEM studies revealed the formation of Au NPs with a diameter of 2?3 nm concentrated in a thin layer within the YSZ film. The optical absorption spectra of the studied samples exhibited peaks of resonance plasmon absorption in Au NPs with a maximum wavelength of ~650 nm. The dependences of geometric and structural parameters of Au NP arrays (size, density, thickness of the Au NP layer, etc.) on the formation conditions were determined, and the regimes of fabrication of dense Au NP arrays that allow for collective plasmon excitations were identified.

  13. Ratio of Cu, Zn, Sn and S densities in magnetron sputtering plasmas employing a stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnS4 target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafarizal, Nayan; Sasaki, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) has drawn wide attention as a highly potential material for the next-generation thin film solar cells. In order to optimize CZTS thin films for solar cells, it is essential to understand their deposition mechanism. Especially since it consists of four elements, it is difficult to control the stoichiometric properties. In the present work, we measured the absolute ground-state densities of Cu, Zn, Sn, and S atoms released from a stoichiometric CZTS target in magnetron sputtering plasmas. The absolute atom densities were evaluated by ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. Magnetron sputtering plasmas were produced using a pulsed-modulated rf power supply and the temporal variations of atom densities were measured in the afterglow. The absolute Cu, Zn, Sn and S densities in the discharge phase were evaluated by the extrapolations of the temporal variations. It has been observed that the absolute Cu, Zn, Sn and S densities in the gas phase were not in agreement with the stoichiometry of the target as well as that of the deposited film. The results suggest possibilities of unconventional sputtering and deposition processes in the compound sputter deposition.

  14. Surface modification of 316L stainless steel with magnetron sputtered TiN/VN nanoscale multilayers for bio implant applications.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, B; Ananthakumar, R; Kobayashi, Akira; Jayachandran, M

    2012-02-01

    Nanoscale multilayered TiN/VN coatings were developed by reactive dc magnetron sputtering on 316L stainless steel substrates. The coatings showed a polycrystalline cubic structure with (111) preferential growth. XPS analysis indicated the presence of peaks corresponding to Ti2p, V2p, N1s, O1s, and C1s. Raman spectra exhibited the characteristic peaks in the acoustic range of 160-320 cm(-1) and in the optic range between 480 and 695 cm(-1). Columnar structure of the coatings was observed from TEM analysis. The number of adherent platelets on the surface of the TiN/VN multilayer, VN, TiN single layer coating exhibit fewer aggregation and pseudopodium than on substrates. The wear resistance of the multilayer coatings increases obviously as a result of their high hardness. Tafel plots in simulated bodily fluid showed lower corrosion rate for the TiN/VN nanoscale multilayer coatings compared to single layer and bare 316L SS substrate.

  15. Microstructure, Hardness and Corrosion Resistance of ZrN Films Prepared by Inductively Coupled Plasma Enhanced RF Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Meng, Yuedong; Ren, Zhaoxing; Shu, Xingsheng

    2008-04-01

    ZrN films were deposited on Si(111) and M2 steel by inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-enhanced RF magnetron sputtering. The effect of ICP power on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of ZrN films was investigated. When the ICP power is below 300 W, the ZrN films show a columnar structure. With the increase of ICP power, the texture coefficient (Tc) of the (111) plane, the nanohardness and elastic modulus of the films increase and reach the maximum at a power of 300 W. As the ICP Power exceeds 300 W, the films exhibit a ZrN and ZrNx mixed crystal structure without columnar grain while the nanohardness and elastic modulus of the films decrease. All the ZrN coated samples show a higher corrosion resistance than that of the bare M2 steel substrate in 3.5% NaCl electrolyte. The nanohardness and elastic modulus mostly depend on the crystalline structure and Tc of ZrN(111).

  16. Investigation of the physical properties of ion assisted ZrN thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signore, M. A.; Valerini, D.; Rizzo, A.; Tapfer, L.; Capodieci, L.; Cappello, A.

    2010-06-01

    Ion bombardment during thin film growth is known to cause structural and morphological changes in the deposited films, thus affecting their physical properties. In this work zirconium nitride films have been deposited by the ion assisted magnetron sputtering technique. The ion energy is controlled by varying the voltage applied to the substrate in the range 0-25 V. The deposited ZrN films are characterized for their structure, surface roughness, oxygen contamination, optical reflectance and electrical resistivity. With increasing substrate voltage crystallinity of the films is enhanced with a preferential orientation of the ZrN grains having the (1 1 1) axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. At the same time, a decrease in electrical resistivity and oxygen contamination content is observed up to 20 V. A higher substrate voltage (25 V) causes an inversion in the observed experimental trends. The role of oxygen contamination decrease and generation of nitrogen vacancies due to ionic assistance have been considered as a possible explanation for the experimental results.

  17. Nanostructured titanium-silver coatings with good antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility fabricated by one-step magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Long; Hang, Ruiqiang; Gao, Ang; Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Wang, Yueyue; Tang, Bin; Zhao, Lingzhou; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial infection and loosing are serious complications for biomedical implants in the orthopedic, dental, and other biomedical fields and the ideal implants should combine good antibacterial ability and bioactivity. In this study, nanostructured titanium-silver (Ti-Ag) coatings with different Ag contents (1.2 to 21.6 at%) are prepared on Ti substrates by magnetron sputtering. As the Ag concentration is increased, the coatings change from having dense columnar crystals to sparse ones and eventually no columnar structure. The Ti-Ag coatings can effectively kill Staphylococcus aureus during the first few days and remain moderately antibacterial after immersion for 75 days. Compared to pure Ti, the Ti-Ag coatings show good cytocompatibility as indicated by good osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, intracellular total protein synthesis, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. In addition, cell spreading, collagen secretion, and extracellular matrix mineralization are promoted on the coatings with the proper Ag contents due to the nanostructured morphological features. Our results indicate that favorable antibacterial activity and osseointegration ability can be simultaneously achieved by regulating the Ag contents in Ti-Ag coatings.

  18. Low-temperature growth of InxGa1-xN films by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Shi, X. J.; Zhu, J.

    2013-01-01

    The low-temperature growth of InxGa1-xN films on quartz glass substrates utilizing radio-frequency magnetron sputtering is investigated. In the InxGa1-xN films prepared using an In-Ga alloy target, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) peaks corresponding to wurtzite structure were observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was applied to study the extent of oxygen contamination and chemical states, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to evaluate the distribution profiles of oxygen impurity in the as-grown InxGa1-xN thin films. XPS and SIMS analysis indicate that the entire thin films have oxide phases. However, no evidence of In2O3, Ga2O3, or indium oxynitride phases was shown in XRD studies. It may be predicted that the oxygen impurities formed amorphous oxide phases embedded in InxGa1-xN matrix. According to our findings, indium is a major phase in the InxGa1-xN thin films which suggests that a significant amount of indium remains un-reacted with N2. The optical transmittance spectra of the as-grown films show interference fringe patterns. The indium fraction x of the as-deposited InxGa1-xN thin films can be calculated out by the transmittance data.

  19. Structure adhesion and corrosion resistance study of tungsten bisulfide doped with titanium deposited by DC magnetron co-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Roche, J.; González, J. M.; Restrepo-Parra, E.; Sequeda, F.; Alleh, V.; Scharf, T. W.

    2014-11-01

    Titanium-doped tungsten bisulfide thin films (WS2-Ti) were grown using a DC magnetron co-sputtering technique on AISI 304 stainless steel and silicon substrates. The films were produced by varying the Ti cathode power from 0 to 25 W. Using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), the concentration of Ti in the WS2 was determined, and a maximum of 10% was obtained for the sample grown at 25 W. Moreover, the S/W ratio was calculated and determined to increase as a function of the Ti cathode power. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results, at high titanium concentrations (greater than 6%), nanocomposite formation was observed, with nanocrystals of Ti embedded in an amorphous matrix of WS2. Using the scratch test, the coatings' adhesion was analyzed, and it was observed that as the Ti percentage was increased, the critical load (Lc) also increased. Furthermore, the failure type changed from plastic to elastic. Finally, the corrosion resistance was evaluated using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique, and it was observed that at high Ti concentrations, the corrosion resistance was improved, as Ti facilitates coating densification and generates a protective layer.

  20. Effect of negative bias on the composition and structure of the tungsten oxide thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meihan; Lei, Hao; Wen, Jiaxing; Long, Haibo; Sawada, Yutaka; Hoshi, Yoichi; Uchida, Takayuki; Hou, Zhaoxia

    2015-12-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films were deposited at room temperature under different negative bias voltages (Vb, 0 to -500 V) by DC reactive magnetron sputtering, and then the as-deposited films were annealed at 500 °C in air atmosphere. The crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical composition and transmittance of the tungsten oxide thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis spectrophotometer. The XRD analysis reveals that the tungsten oxide films deposited at different negative bias voltages present a partly crystallized amorphous structure. All the films transfer from amorphous to crystalline (monoclinic + hexagonal) after annealing 3 h at 500 °C. Furthermore, the crystallized tungsten oxide films show different preferred orientation. The morphology of the tungsten oxide films deposited at different negative bias voltages is consisted of fine nanoscale grains. The grains grow up and conjunct with each other after annealing. The tungsten oxide films deposited at higher negative bias voltages after annealing show non-uniform special morphology. Substoichiometric tungsten oxide films were formed as evidenced by XPS spectra of W4f and O1s. As a result, semi-transparent films were obtained in the visible range for all films deposited at different negative bias voltages.

  1. Morphological changes of tungsten surfaces by low-flux helium plasma treatment and helium incorporation via magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Iyyakkunnel, Santhosh; Marot, Laurent; Eren, Baran; Steiner, Roland; Moser, Lucas; Mathys, Daniel; Düggelin, Marcel; Chapon, Patrick; Meyer, Ernst

    2014-07-23

    The effect of helium on the tungsten microstructure was investigated first by exposure to a radio frequency driven helium plasma with fluxes of the order of 1 × 10(19) m(-2) s(-1) and second by helium incorporation via magnetron sputtering. Roughening of the surface and the creation of pinholes were observed when exposing poly- and nanocrystalline tungsten samples to low-flux plasma. A coating process using an excess of helium besides argon in the process gas mixture leads to a porous thin film and a granular surface structure whereas gas mixture ratios of up to 50% He/Ar (in terms of their partial pressures) lead to a dense structure. The presence of helium in the deposited film was confirmed with glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy and thermal desorption measurements. Latter revealed that the highest fraction of the embedded helium atoms desorb at approximately 1500 K. Identical plasma treatments at various temperatures showed strongest modifications of the surface at 1500 K, which is attributed to the massive activation of helium singly bond to a single vacancy inside the film. Thus, an efficient way of preparing nanostructured tungsten surfaces and porous tungsten films at low fluxes was found. PMID:24960311

  2. Metal–insulator transition of valence-controlled VO2 thin film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering using oxygen radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suetsugu, Takaaki; Shimazu, Yuichi; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Minohara, Makoto; Sakai, Enju; Horiba, Koji; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Tohru

    2016-06-01

    We have prepared b-axis-oriented VO2 thin films by RF magnetron sputtering using oxygen radicals as the reactive gas. The VO2 thin films consist of a mixed-valence V3+/V4+ state formed by oxygen vacancies. The V3+ ratio strongly depends on the film thickness and the oxygen partial pressure of the radical gun during deposition. The lattice constant of the b-axis increases and the metal–insulator transition (MIT) temperature decreases with decreasing V3+ ratio, although the VO2 thin films with a high V3+ ratio of 42% do not exhibit MIT. The bandwidths and spectral weights of V 3d a1g and \\text{e}\\text{g}σ bands at around the Fermi level, which correspond to the insulating phase at 300 K, are smaller in the VO2 thin films with a low V3+ ratio. These results indicate that the control of the mixed-valence V3+/V4+ state is important for the MIT of b-axis-oriented VO2 thin films.

  3. Hydrogen release kinetics during reactive magnetron sputter depostion of a-Si:H: An isotope labeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelson, J. R.; Mandrell, L.; Doyle, J. R.

    1994-08-01

    The release of moleculear hydrogen from the growing surface of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films is determined using an isotope labeling technique. The results demonstrate that surface-bonded H atoms are readily abstracted by atomic hydrogen arriving from the gas phase. The films are deposited by dc reactive magnetron sputtering of a silicon target in an argon-hydrogen atmosphere. To achieve isotope labeling, we first deposit a deuterated amorphous silicon film, then commence growth of hydrogenated amorphous silicon and measure the transient release of HD and D2 from the growing surface using mass spectrometry. Release occurs when the supply of reactive hydrogen in the growth flux exceeds the incorporation rate into the film, and is observed under all experimental conditions. The net rate of H incorporation is known from ex situ measurments of film growth and hydrogen content. We combine the H release and incorporation data in a mass balance argument to determine the H-surface kinetics. Under conditions which produce electronically useful films, (1) 0.5-1.0 hydrogen atoms react with the growing surface per incorporated silicon atom, (2) the near surface of the growing film contains 1-3 x 10(exp 15)/sq cm pf excess hydrogen, the dominant hydrogen release mechanism is by direct abstraction to form H2 molecules, and the kinetics of H release and incorportation can be described by constant rate coefficients. These data are supported by studies of H interactions with single-crystal silicon and amorphous carbon surfaces.

  4. Proton conductive tantalum oxide thin film deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering for all-solid-state switchable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, K.; Yamada, Y.; Bao, S.; Okada, M.; Yoshimura, K.

    2008-03-01

    Our developed all-solid-state switchable mirror as a smart window is consisted in multi-layer of Mg4Ni/Pd/Ta2O5/WO3/ITO/glass and can switch reversibly from the reflective state to the transparent one. The development of high performance solid electrolyte thin film of Ta2O5 is important for fast speed switching and high durability of the device. In this work, we have investigated the electrochemical property of Ta2O5 thin film deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. The effect of thickness on electrochemical and proton conductivities of Ta2O5 thin film was investigated. The Ta2O5 thin film with a thickness of 400 nm had better proton conductivity of 1.5×10-9 S/cm measured by AC impedance method. The transmittance at wavelength of 670 nm of the device with 400 nm thick Ta2O5 thin film was changed from 0.1% (reflective state) to 51% (transparent state) within 10 s by applying voltage of 5 V. The device showed high durability up to two-thousand switching cycles.

  5. Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films and Their Perovskite Solar Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cong; Cheng, Yu; Dai, Qilin; Song, Hongwei

    2015-12-03

    In this work, we report a physical deposition based, compact (cp) layer synthesis for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Typical solution-based synthesis of cp layer for perovskite solar cells involves low-quality of thin films, high-temperature annealing, non-flexible devices, limitation of large-scale production and that the effects of the cp layer on carrier transport have not been fully understood. In this research, using radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS), TiO2 cp layers were fabricated and the thickness could be controlled by deposition time; CH3NH3PbI3 films were prepared by evaporation &immersion (E &I) method, in which PbI2 films made by thermal evaporation technique were immersed in CH3NH3I solution. The devices exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.1% and the photovoltaic performance can maintain 77% of its initial PCE after 1440 h. The method developed in this study has the capability of fabricating large active area devices (40 × 40 mm(2)) showing a promising PCE of 4.8%. Low temperature and flexible devices were realized and a PCE of 8.9% was obtained on the PET/ITO substrates. These approaches could be used in thin film based solar cells which require high-quality films leading to reduced fabrication cost and improved device performance.

  6. The influence of target erosion grade in the optoelectronic properties of AZO coatings growth by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubizarreta, C.; G-Berasategui, E.; Ciarsolo, I.; Barriga, J.; Gaspar, D.; Martins, R.; Fortunato, E.

    2016-09-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent conductor coating has emerged as promising substitute to tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) as electrode in optoelectronic applications such as photovoltaics or light emitting diodes (LEDs). Besides its high transmission in the visible spectral region and low resistivity, AZO presents a main advantage over other candidates such as graphene, carbon nanotubes or silver nanowires; it can be deposited using the technology industrially implemented to manufacture ITO layers, the magnetron sputtering (MS). This is a productive, reliable and green manufacturing technique. But to guarantee the robustness, reproducibility and reliability of the process there are still some issues to be addressed, such as the effect and control of the target state. In this paper a thorough study of the influence of the target erosion grade in developed coatings has been performed. AZO films have been deposited from a ceramic target by RF MS. Structure, optical transmittance and electrical properties of the produced coatings have been analyzed as function of the target erosion grade. No noticeable differences have been found neither in optoelectronic properties nor in the structure of the coatings, indicating that the RF MS is a stable and consistent process through the whole life of the target.

  7. Reactive dc magnetron sputtering of (GeO{sub x}-SiO{sub 2}) superlattices for Ge nanocrystal formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zschintzsch, M.; Jeutter, N. M.; Borany, J. von; Krause, M.; Muecklich, A.

    2010-02-15

    The motivation of this work is the tailored growth of Ge nanocrystals for photovoltaic applications. The use of superlattices provides a reliable method to control the Ge nanocrystal size after phase separation. In this paper, we report on the deposition of (GeO{sub x}-SiO{sub 2}) superlattices via reactive dc magnetron sputtering and the self-ordered Ge nanocrystal formation during subsequent annealing. Attention is directed mainly to define proper deposition conditions for tuning the GeO{sub x} composition between elemental Ge (x=0) and GeO{sub 2} (x=2) by the variation in the deposition temperature and the oxygen partial pressure. A convenient process window has been found which allows sequential GeO{sub x}-SiO{sub 2} deposition without changing the oxygen partial pressure during deposition. The phase separation and Ge nanocrystal formation after subsequent annealing were investigated with in situ x-ray scattering, Raman spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. By these methods the existence of 2-5 nm Ge nanocrystals at annealing temperatures of 600-750 deg. C has been confirmed which is within the superlattice stability range. The technique used allows the fabrication of superlattice stacks with very smooth interfaces (roughness<1 nm); thus the Ge nanocrystal layers could be separated by very thin SiO{sub 2} films (d<3 nm) which offers interesting possibilities for charge transport via direct tunneling.

  8. Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films and Their Perovskite Solar Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cong; Cheng, Yu; Dai, Qilin; Song, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report a physical deposition based, compact (cp) layer synthesis for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Typical solution-based synthesis of cp layer for perovskite solar cells involves low-quality of thin films, high-temperature annealing, non-flexible devices, limitation of large-scale production and that the effects of the cp layer on carrier transport have not been fully understood. In this research, using radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS), TiO2 cp layers were fabricated and the thickness could be controlled by deposition time; CH3NH3PbI3 films were prepared by evaporation &immersion (E &I) method, in which PbI2 films made by thermal evaporation technique were immersed in CH3NH3I solution. The devices exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.1% and the photovoltaic performance can maintain 77% of its initial PCE after 1440 h. The method developed in this study has the capability of fabricating large active area devices (40 × 40 mm(2)) showing a promising PCE of 4.8%. Low temperature and flexible devices were realized and a PCE of 8.9% was obtained on the PET/ITO substrates. These approaches could be used in thin film based solar cells which require high-quality films leading to reduced fabrication cost and improved device performance. PMID:26631493

  9. Effect of deposition pressure on the properties of magnetron-sputter-deposited molybdenum back contacts for CIGS solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weimin; Yan, Xia; Aberle, Armin G.; Venkataraj, Selvaraj

    2015-08-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) thin films were deposited onto soda-lime glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering of a Mo target at various chamber pressures ranging from 1.5 × 10-3 to 7.5 × 10-3 mbar. The film properties were analysed with regards to their application as back electrode in copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells. It is observed that the resulting film morphology and microstructure were strongly affected by deposition pressure. Mo films deposited at a low pressure possess a high density and a low sheet resistance. These films also have a compact microstructure and a compressive strain, which lead to poor adhesion. The adhesion can be improved by increasing the chamber pressure, which has negative effects on the sheet resistance, optical reflection and porosity of the films. On the basis of these results, a method has been established to fabricate low-resistivity Mo films on soda-lime glass with very good adhesion for CIGS solar cell applications.

  10. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: An MWCNT-doped SNO2 thin film NO2 gas sensor by RF reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lin; Shizhen, Huang; Wenzhe, Chen

    2010-02-01

    An MWCNT-doped (multi-walled carbon nanotube) SnO2 thin film NO2 gas sensor, prepared by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering, showed a high sensitivity to ultra-low concentrations of NO2 in the parts per billion range. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterizations indicated that the MWCNTs were affected by the morphology of the SnO2 thin film and the particle size. The properties of the MWCNT-doped SnO2 sensor, such as sensitivity, selectivity, and response-recovery time, were investigated. Experimental results revealed that the MWCNT-doped SnO2 thin film sensor response to NO2 gas depended on the operating temperature, NO2 gas concentration, thermal treatment conditions, film thickness, and so on. The mechanism of the gas-sensing property of the MWCNT-doped Sn22 thin film sensor was investigated and showed that the improved gas-sensing performance should be attributed to the effects between MWCNTs (p-type) and SnO2 (n-type) semiconductors.

  11. Flexible electrochromics: magnetron sputtered tungsten oxide (WO3-x) thin films on Lexan (optically transparent polycarbonate) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uday Kumar, K.; Murali, Dhanya S.; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2015-06-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO3-x) based electrochromics on flexible substrates is a topic of recent interest. The present communication reports the electrochromic properties of WO3-x thin films grown on lexan, an optically transparent polycarbonate thermoplastic substrate. The WO3-x films are prepared at room temperature (300 K) by the reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique. The physical properties of metal oxide thin films are known to be controlled by the oxygen stoichiometry of the film. In the present work, the WO3-x thin films are prepared by varying the oxygen flow rates. All the WO3-x thin films are amorphous in nature. The electrochromic performance of the WO3-x thin films is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry measurements on tin doped indium oxide (ITO) coated lexan and glass substrates. The optical band gap of WO3-x thin films grown on lexan substrates (at any given oxygen flow rate) is significantly higher than those grown on glass substrates. The coloration efficiency of WO3-x thin films (at an oxygen flow rate of 10 sccm) on lexan substrates is: 143.9 cm2 C-1 which is higher compared to that grown on glass: 90.4 cm2 C-1.

  12. The effect of alumina and aluminium nitride coating by reactive magnetron sputtering on the resin bond strength to zirconia core

    PubMed Central

    Külünk, Şafak; Baba, Seniha; Öztürk, Özgür; Danişman, Şengül; Savaş, Soner

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Although several surface treatments have been recently investigated both under in vitro and in vivo conditions, controversy still exists regarding the selection of the most appropriate zirconia surface pre-treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of alumina (Al) and aluminium nitride (AlN) coating on the shear bond strength of adhesive resin cement to zirconia core. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty zirconia core discs were divided into 5 groups; air particle abrasion with 50 µm aluminum oxide particles (Al2O3), polishing + Al coating, polishing + AlN coating, air particle abrasion with 50 µm Al2O3 + Al coating and air particle abrasion with 50 µm Al2O3 + AlN coating. Composite resin discs were cemented to each of specimens. Shear bond strength (MPa) was measured using a universal testing machine. The effects of the surface preparations on each specimen were examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA (α=.05). RESULTS The highest bond strengths were obtained by air abrasion with 50 µm Al2O3, the lowest bond strengths were obtained in polishing + Al coating group (P<.05). CONCLUSION Al and AlN coatings using the reactive magnetron sputtering technique were found to be ineffective to increase the bond strength of adhesive resin cement to zirconia core. PMID:24353874

  13. Influence of Al Contents on the Microstructure, Mechanical, and Wear properties of Magnetron Sputtered CrAlN Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Hetal N.; Jayaganthan, R.

    2012-09-01

    CrAlN (0 < x < 0.1) coatings were deposited on SA304 substrate by a reactive magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and composition of the as-deposited coatings were systematically characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy/EDS and atomic force microscopy, and the phase formation by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The hardness of the coatings was investigated using nanoindentation, while wear properties were investigated using pin-on-disk tribometer. XRD study reveals that the deposited CrAlN coatings crystallized in the cubic B1 NaCl structure. The minimum and maximum hardness of the coatings are found to be 15.28 and 18.81 GPa, respectively. The COF and wear rate are found to be 0.48 and 2.25 × 10-5 mm3/N · m, which is lower than the CrN coatings deposited and characterized under the same environment (0.63 and 2.25 × 10-5 mm3/Nm).

  14. Structure and optical properties of aSiAl and aSiAlHx magnetron sputtered thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thøgersen, Annett; Stange, Marit; Jensen, Ingvild J. T.; Røyset, Arne; Ulyashin, Alexander; Diplas, Spyros

    2016-03-01

    Thin films of homogeneous mixture of amorphous silicon and aluminum were produced with magnetron sputtering using 2-phase Al-Si targets. The films exhibited variable compositions, with and without the presence of hydrogen, aSi1-xAlx and aSi1-xAlxHy. The structure and optical properties of the films were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-VisNIR spectrometry, ellipsometry, and atomistic modeling. We studied the effect of alloying aSi with Al (within the range 0-25 at. %) on the optical band gap, refractive index, transmission, and absorption. Alloying aSi with Al resulted in a non-transparent film with a low band gap (<1 eV). Hydrogenation of the films increased the band gap to values >1 eV. Variations of the Al and hydrogen content allowed for tuning of the optoelectronic properties. The films are stable up to a temperature of 300 °C. At this temperature, we observed Al induced crystallization of the amorphous silicon and the presence of large Al particles in a crystalline Si matrix.

  15. Metal-insulator transition of valence-controlled VO2 thin film prepared by RF magnetron sputtering using oxygen radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suetsugu, Takaaki; Shimazu, Yuichi; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Minohara, Makoto; Sakai, Enju; Horiba, Koji; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Tohru

    2016-06-01

    We have prepared b-axis-oriented VO2 thin films by RF magnetron sputtering using oxygen radicals as the reactive gas. The VO2 thin films consist of a mixed-valence V3+/V4+ state formed by oxygen vacancies. The V3+ ratio strongly depends on the film thickness and the oxygen partial pressure of the radical gun during deposition. The lattice constant of the b-axis increases and the metal-insulator transition (MIT) temperature decreases with decreasing V3+ ratio, although the VO2 thin films with a high V3+ ratio of 42% do not exhibit MIT. The bandwidths and spectral weights of V 3d a1g and \\text{e}\\text{g}σ bands at around the Fermi level, which correspond to the insulating phase at 300 K, are smaller in the VO2 thin films with a low V3+ ratio. These results indicate that the control of the mixed-valence V3+/V4+ state is important for the MIT of b-axis-oriented VO2 thin films.

  16. Magnetron sputtered diamond-like carbon microelectrodes for on-chip measurement of quantal catecholamine release from cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanfang; Chen, Xiaohui; Gupta, Sanju; Gillis, Kevin D; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

    2008-10-01

    Carbon electrodes are widely used in electrochemistry due to their low cost, wide potential window, and low and stable background noise. Carbon-fiber electrodes (CFE) are commonly used to electrochemically measure "quantal" catecholamine release via exocytosis from individual cells, but it is difficult to integrate CFEs into lab-on-a-chip devices. Here we report the development of nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) microelectrodes on a chip to monitor quantal release of catecholamines from cells. Advantages of DLC:N microelectrodes are that they are batch producible at low cost, and are harder and more durable than graphite films. The DLC:N microelectrodes were prepared by a magnetron sputtering process with nitrogen doping. The 30 microm by 40 microm DLC:N microelectrodes were patterned onto microscope glass slides by photolithography and lift-off technology. The properties of the DLC:N microelectrodes were characterized by AFM, Raman spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Quantal catecholamine release was recorded amperometrically from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells on the DLC:N microelectrodes. Amperometric spikes due to quantal release of catecholamines were similar in amplitude and area as those recorded using CFEs and the background current and noise levels of microchip DLC:N electrodes were also comparable to CFEs. Therefore, DLC:N microelectrodes are suitable for microchip-based high-throughput measurement of quantal exocytosis with applications in basic research, drug discovery and cell-based biosensors.

  17. Hydroxyapatite coating on biodegradable AZ31 and Mg-Ca alloys prepared by RF-magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhametkaliyev, T. Surmeneva, M. Surmenev, R.; Mathan, B. K.

    2015-11-17

    A thin film of hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited on AZ31 and Mg-Ca alloys by using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The thickness of the HA coating was determined to be 750 nm. The phase composition, microstructure, and surface morphology of the HA coatings were investigated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. In vitro degradation behaviour of the HA coated alloys was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) and 3.5wt.% NaCl solution using electrochemical method. The coatings homogeneously covered the entire surface of the substrates. The coating structure corresponded to a nanostructured HA. The ultrathin coating significantly improved the degradation resistance of the alloy. Nanocrystalline HA coating significantly improved the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca and AZ31 magnesium alloys. The polarization resistance (Rp) of the coated Mg-Ca alloy was more than two-order of magnitude higher and the corrosion current density I{sub corr} reduced by ∼ 98% as compared to the base alloy.

  18. Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films and Their Perovskite Solar Cell Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cong; Cheng, Yu; Dai, Qilin; Song, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report a physical deposition based, compact (cp) layer synthesis for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Typical solution-based synthesis of cp layer for perovskite solar cells involves low-quality of thin films, high-temperature annealing, non-flexible devices, limitation of large-scale production and that the effects of the cp layer on carrier transport have not been fully understood. In this research, using radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS), TiO2 cp layers were fabricated and the thickness could be controlled by deposition time; CH3NH3PbI3 films were prepared by evaporation & immersion (E & I) method, in which PbI2 films made by thermal evaporation technique were immersed in CH3NH3I solution. The devices exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.1% and the photovoltaic performance can maintain 77% of its initial PCE after 1440 h. The method developed in this study has the capability of fabricating large active area devices (40 × 40 mm2) showing a promising PCE of 4.8%. Low temperature and flexible devices were realized and a PCE of 8.9% was obtained on the PET/ITO substrates. These approaches could be used in thin film based solar cells which require high-quality films leading to reduced fabrication cost and improved device performance. PMID:26631493

  19. Surface and optical properties of indium tin oxide layer deposition by RF magnetron sputtering in argon atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudar, H. Hakan; Korkmaz, Şadan; Özen, Soner; Şenay, Volkan; Pat, Suat

    2016-08-01

    This study focused on the characterization and properties of transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited in argon atmosphere. ITO thin films were coated onto glass substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique at 75 and 100 W RF powers. Structural characteristics of producing films were investigated through X-ray diffraction analysis. UV-Vis spectrophotometer and interferometer were used to determine transmittance, absorbance and reflectance values of samples. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by atomic force microscope. The calculated band gaps were 3.8 and 4.1 eV for the films at 75 and 100 W, respectively. The effect of RF power on crystallinity of prepared films was explored using mentioned analysis methods. The high RF power caused higher poly crystallinity in the produced samples. The thickness and refractive index values for all samples increased respect to an increment of RF power and were calculated as 20, 50 nm and 1.71, 1.86 for samples at 75 and 100 W, respectively. Finally, the estimated grain sizes for all prepared films decreased with increasing of 2 θ degrees, and the number of crystallite per unit volume was calculated. It was found that nearly all properties including sheet resistance and resistivity depend on the RF power.

  20. Radio frequency magnetron sputtering of Li7La3Zr2O12 thin films for solid-state batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobe, S.; Dellen, C.; Finsterbusch, M.; Gehrke, H.-G.; Sebold, D.; Tsai, C.-L.; Uhlenbruck, S.; Guillon, O.

    2016-03-01

    Thin film batteries based on solid electrolytes having a garnet-structure like Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZ) are considered as one option for safer batteries with increased power density. In this work we show the deposition of Ta- and Al-substituted LLZ thin films on stainless steel substrates by r.f. magnetron sputtering. The thin films were characterized by XRD, SEM and time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to determine crystal structure, morphology and element distribution. The substrate temperature was identified to be one important parameter for the formation of cubic garnet-structured LLZ thin films. LLZ formation starts at around 650 °C. Single phase cubic thin films were obtained at substrate temperatures of 700 °C and higher. At these temperatures an interlayer is formed. Combination of SEM, ToF-SIMS and XRD indicated that this layer consists of γ-LiAlO2. The combined total ionic conductivity of the γ-LiAlO2 interlayer and the LLZ thin film (perpendicular to the plane) was determined to be 2.0 × 10-9 S cm-1 for the sample deposited at 700 °C. In-plane measurements showed a room temperature conductivity of 1.2 × 10-4 S cm-1 with an activation energy of 0.47 eV for the LLZ thin film.

  1. In situ deposition of PbTiO3 thin films by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iljinas, Aleksandras; Marcinauskas, Liutauras; Stankus, Vytautas

    2016-09-01

    The lead titanate thin films were deposited using in situ layer-by-layer reactive magnetron sputtering. The synthesis of films was performed on platinized silicon (Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si) substrates at 450-600 °C temperatures using Ti2O seed layer. The influence of the substrate temperature on the surface morphology, phase composition, and electrical properties of PbTiO3 films were investigated. Experimental results demonstrated that the deposition at higher substrate temperatures resulted in the formation of films with the lower surface roughness values. The increase of the substrate temperature has no effect on the tetragonality value of the films. The preferential orientation in the films was changed and the crystallites size slightly increased with the increased substrate temperature from 450 °C to 550 °C. Hysteresis measurements show that the films exhibit ferroelectric properties with a maximum coercive field of Ec = 150 kV/cm and of Pr = 60 μC/cm2. Coercive field dependence on the frequency measurements indicated that the creep regime of domain wall motions dominated till 1 kHz of frequency.

  2. Substrate temperature dependent surface morphology and photoluminescence of germanium quantum dots grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Samavati, Alireza; Othaman, Zulkafli; Ghoshal, Sib Krishna; Dousti, Mohammad Reza; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    2012-10-09

    The visible luminescence from Ge nanoparticles and nanocrystallites has generated interest due to the feasibility of tuning band gap by controlling the sizes. Germanium (Ge) quantum dots (QDs) with average diameter ~16 to 8 nm are synthesized by radio frequency magnetron sputtering under different growth conditions. These QDs with narrow size distribution and high density, characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) are obtained under the optimal growth conditions of 400 °C substrate temperature, 100 W radio frequency powers and 10 Sccm Argon flow. The possibility of surface passivation and configuration of these dots are confirmed by elemental energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The room temperature strong visible photoluminescence (PL) from such QDs suggests their potential application in optoelectronics. The sample grown at 400 °C in particular, shows three PL peaks at around ~2.95 eV, 3.34 eV and 4.36 eV attributed to the interaction between Ge, GeO(x) manifesting the possibility of the formation of core-shell structures. A red shift of ~0.11 eV in the PL peak is observed with decreasing substrate temperature. We assert that our easy and economic method is suitable for the large-scale production of Ge QDs useful in optoelectronic devices.

  3. Microstructured Nickel-Titanium Thin Film Leaflets for Hybrid Tissue Engineered Heart Valves Fabricated by Magnetron Sputter Deposition.

    PubMed

    Loger, K; Engel, A; Haupt, J; Lima de Miranda, R; Lutter, G; Quandt, E

    2016-03-01

    Heart valves are constantly exposed to high dynamic loading and are prone to degeneration. Therefore, it is a challenge to develop a durable heart valve substitute. A promising approach in heart valve engineering is the development of hybrid scaffolds which are composed of a mechanically strong inorganic mesh enclosed by valvular tissue. In order to engineer an efficient, durable and very thin heart valve for transcatheter implantations, we developed a fabrication process for microstructured heart valve leaflets made from a nickel-titanium (NiTi) thin film shape memory alloy. To examine the capability of microstructured NiTi thin film as a matrix scaffold for tissue engineered hybrid heart valves, leaflets were successfully seeded with smooth muscle cells (SMCs). In vitro pulsatile hydrodynamic testing of the NiTi thin film valve leaflets demonstrated that the SMC layer significantly improved the diastolic sufficiency of the microstructured leaflets, without affecting the systolic efficiency. Compared to an established porcine reference valve model, magnetron sputtered NiTi thin film material demonstrated its suitability for hybrid tissue engineered heart valves. PMID:26743538

  4. Corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC/Al bilayer thin films by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yiqin; Li, Heqin; Zuo, Min; Tao, Lei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Qiong; Bai, Peiwen

    2016-07-01

    The poor corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB imposes a great challenge in industrial applications. In this work, the SiC/Al bilayer thin films with the thickness of 510 nm were deposited on sintered NdFeB by magnetron sputtering to improve the corrosion resistance. A 100 nm Al buffer film was used to reduce the internal stress between SiC and NdFeB and improve the surface roughness of the SiC thin film. The morphologies and structures of SiC/Al bilayer thin films and SiC monolayer film were investigated with FESEM, AFM and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion behaviors of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC monolayer film and SiC/Al bilayer thin films were analyzed by polarization curves. The magnetic properties were measured with an ultra-high coercivity permanent magnet pulse tester. The results show that the surface of SiC/Al bilayer thin films is more compact and uniform than that of SiC monolayer film. The corrosion current densities of SiC/Al bilayer films coated on NdFeB in acid, alkali and salt solutions are much lower than that of SiC monolayer film. The SiC/Al bilayer thin films have little influence to the magnetic properties of NdFeB.

  5. Microstructure and dielectric properties of piezoelectric magnetron sputtered w-ScxAl1-xN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zukauskaite, Agne; Wingqvist, Gunilla; Palisaitis, Justinas; Jensen, Jens; Persson, Per; Matloub, Ramin; Muralt, Paul; Kim, Yunseok; Birch, Jens; Hultman, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric wurtzite ScxAl1 xN (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) thin films were epitaxially grown by reactive magnetron co-sputtering from elemental Sc and Al targets. Al2O3(0001) wafers with TiN(111) seed and electrode layers were used as substrates. X-ray diffraction shows that an increase in the Sc content results in the degradation of the crystalline quality. Samples grown at 400 C possess true dielectric behavior with quite low dielectric losses and the leakage current is negligible. For ScAlN samples grown at 800 C, the crystal structure is poor and leakage current is high. Transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy mapping shows a mass separation into ScN-rich and AlN-rich domains for x 0.2 when substrate temperature is increased from 400 to 800 C. The piezoelectric response of epitaxial ScxAl1 xN films measured by piezoresponse force microscopy and double beam interferometry shows up to 180% increase by the addition of Sc up to x = 0.2 independent of substrate temperature, in good agreement with previous theoretical predictions based on density-functional theory.

  6. Magnetron sputtered diamond-like carbon microelectrodes for on-chip measurement of quantal catecholamine release from cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanfang; Chen, Xiaohui; Gupta, Sanju; Gillis, Kevin D; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

    2008-10-01

    Carbon electrodes are widely used in electrochemistry due to their low cost, wide potential window, and low and stable background noise. Carbon-fiber electrodes (CFE) are commonly used to electrochemically measure "quantal" catecholamine release via exocytosis from individual cells, but it is difficult to integrate CFEs into lab-on-a-chip devices. Here we report the development of nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) microelectrodes on a chip to monitor quantal release of catecholamines from cells. Advantages of DLC:N microelectrodes are that they are batch producible at low cost, and are harder and more durable than graphite films. The DLC:N microelectrodes were prepared by a magnetron sputtering process with nitrogen doping. The 30 microm by 40 microm DLC:N microelectrodes were patterned onto microscope glass slides by photolithography and lift-off technology. The properties of the DLC:N microelectrodes were characterized by AFM, Raman spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Quantal catecholamine release was recorded amperometrically from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells on the DLC:N microelectrodes. Amperometric spikes due to quantal release of catecholamines were similar in amplitude and area as those recorded using CFEs and the background current and noise levels of microchip DLC:N electrodes were also comparable to CFEs. Therefore, DLC:N microelectrodes are suitable for microchip-based high-throughput measurement of quantal exocytosis with applications in basic research, drug discovery and cell-based biosensors. PMID:18493856

  7. Corrosion resistance of zirconium oxynitride coatings deposited via DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering and spray pyrolysis-nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubillos, G. I.; Bethencourt, M.; Olaya, J. J.

    2015-02-01

    ZrOxNy/ZrO2 thin films were deposited on stainless steel using two different methods: ultrasonic spray pyrolysis-nitriding (SPY-N) and the DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering technique (UBMS). Using the first method, ZrO2 was initially deposited and subsequently nitrided in an anhydrous ammonia atmosphere at 1023 K at atmospheric pressure. For UBMS, the film was deposited in an atmosphere of air/argon with a Φair/ΦAr flow ratio of 3.0. Structural analysis was carried out through X-ray diffraction (XRD), and morphological analysis was done through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Chemical analysis was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). ZrOxNy rhombohedral polycrystalline film was produced with spray pyrolysis-nitriding, whereas using the UBMS technique, the oxynitride films grew with cubic Zr2ON2 crystalline structures preferentially oriented along the (2 2 2) plane. Upon chemical analysis of the surface, the coatings exhibited spectral lines of Zr3d, O1s, and N1s, characteristic of zirconium oxynitride/zirconia. SEM analysis showed the homogeneity of the films, and AFM showed morphological differences according to the deposition technique of the coatings. Zirconium oxynitride films enhanced the stainless steel's resistance to corrosion using both techniques. The protective efficacy was evaluated using electrochemical techniques based on linear polarization (LP). The results indicated that the layers provide good resistance to corrosion when exposed to chloride-containing media.

  8. Properties of barium titanate (BaTiO3) thin films grown on silicon by rf magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelou, E. K.; Konofaos, N.; Thomas, C. B.

    2000-03-01

    Thin films of BaTiO3 were deposited on p-Si substrates by rf magnetron sputtering in order to investigate their suitability for use in ac thin film electroluminescent (ACTFEL) devices and dynamic RAM (DRAM) applications. Post-growth annealing at 700oC and the subsequent deposition of Al contacts resulted in the creation of Al/BaTiO3/p-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor devices. The electronic and structural properties of the films were examined by admittance spectroscopy, current-voltage and transient current measurements, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization. Analysis of the XRD spectra showed the polycrystalline nature of the films but also the presence of an amorphous phase. The electrical measurements revealed a high dielectric constant, around 60, a charge storage capacity exceeding 3muC cm-2 and a total charge trapped inside the oxide of around 50nCcm-2 while the density of traps at the BaTiO3/p-Si interface was found to be as high as 1 x 1012 cm-2eV-1. These results indicate that the films are suitable for both DRAM and ACTFEL applications.

  9. Optical and chemical properties of mixed-valent rhenium oxide films synthesized by reactive DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Neil R.; Gallagher, Regina C.; Sun, Lirong; Jones, John G.; Grant, John T.

    2015-07-01

    Mixed-valent rhenium oxide thin films were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering employing a metallic rhenium target within an oxygen-argon environment. The oxygen and argon flow rates were systematically varied, while the extinction coefficient, k, of the deposited layers was monitored using in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. In situ monitoring was used to identify absorption features specific to ReO3, namely, the minimization of k brought on by the gap between interband absorption features in the UV at 310 nm and the onset of free electron absorption at wavelengths above 540 nm. Based on these results, oxygen flow ratios of 50% and 60% were shown to produce films having optical properties characteristic of ReO3, and thus, were selected for detailed ex situ characterization. Chemical analysis via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that all films consisted largely of ReO3, but had some contributions from Re2O3, ReO2 and Re2O7. Additional monitoring of the chemistry, as a function of environmental exposure time, indicated a correlation between structural instability and the presence of Re2O3 and Re2O7 in the films.

  10. Thickness-dependent transport channels in topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films grown by magnetron sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen Jie; Gao, Kuang Hong; Li, Zhi Qing

    2016-01-01

    We study the low-temperature transport properties of Bi2Se3 thin films grown by magnetron sputtering. A positive magnetoresistance resulting from the weak antilocalization (WAL) effect is observed at low temperatures. The observed WAL effect is two dimensional in nature. Applying the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka theory, we have obtained the dephasing length. It is found that the temperature dependence of the dephasing length cannot be described only by the Nyquist electron-electron dephasing, in conflict with prevailing experimental results. From the WAL effect, we extract the number of the transport channels, which is found to increase with increasing the thickness of the films, reflecting the thickness-dependent coupling between the top and bottom surface states in topological insulator. On the other hand, the electron-electron interaction (EEI) effect is observed in temperature-dependent conductivity. From the EEI effect, we also extract the number of the transport channel, which shows similar thickness dependence with that obtained from the analysis of the WAL effect. The EEI effect, therefore, can be used to analyze the coupling effect between the top and bottom surface states in topological insulator like the WAL effect. PMID:27142578

  11. Effect of thermal annealing on structural, optical and electrical properties of RF reactive magnetron sputtered CdO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Gadipelly Anil; Ramana Reddy, Musugu; Narasimha Reddy, Katta

    2014-10-01

    Recently, there has been a lot of interest on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) materials which have common application in solar cells and some optoelectronic devices. In this work, cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by RF reactive magnetron sputtering technique and subsequently annealed in air from 200 °C to 500 °C. The effect of annealing temperature on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of CdO films is systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV-visible spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurements. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed that the films are polycrystalline in nature with a preferential orientation along (2 0 0) plane. Atomic force microscopy studies showed that these films are very smooth with maximum root mean square roughness of 3.13 nm. The CdO films formed at annealing temperature of 400 °C exhibited optical transmittance of 84%, electrical resistivity of 1.9 × 10-3 Ω cm and figure of merit of 1.8 × 10-3 Ω-1.

  12. Effect of thickness on surface morphology, optical and humidity sensing properties of RF magnetron sputtered CCTO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadipour, Mohsen; Ain, Mohd Fadzil; Ahmad, Zainal Arifin

    2016-11-01

    In this study, calcium copper titanate (CCTO) thin films were deposited on ITO substrates successfully by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method in argon atmosphere. The CCTO thin films present a polycrystalline, uniform and porous structure. The surface morphology, optical and humidity sensing properties of the synthesized CCTO thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV-vis spectrophotometer and current-voltage (I-V) analysis. XRD and AFM confirmed that the intensity of peaks and pore size of CCTO thin films were enhanced by increasing the thin films. Tauc plot method was adopted to estimate the optical band gaps. The surface structure and energy band gaps of the deposited films were affected by film thickness. Energy band gap of the layers were 3.76 eV, 3.68 eV and 3.5 eV for 200 nm, 400 nm, and 600 nm CCTO thin films layer, respectively. The humidity sensing properties were measured by using direct current (DC) analysis method. The response times were 12 s, 22 s, and 35 s while the recovery times were 500 s, 600 s, and 650 s for 200 nm, 400 nm, and 600 nm CCTO thin films, respectively at humidity range of 30-90% relative humidity (RH).

  13. Thermoelectric and Magneto-Thermoelectric Properties of Ga-DOPED ZnO Thin Films by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Fang, L.; Wu, F.; Tian, D. X.; Li, W. J.; Lu, Y.; Kong, C. Y.; Zhang, S. F.

    2014-04-01

    Zn(1-x)GaxO thin films (x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 named as GZO1, GZO2, GZO3, GZO4, respectively) were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The crystal structure, electrical, thermoelectric and magneto-thermoelectric properties of GZO films were investigated. It is found that all the GZO films are polycrystalline and preferentially oriented in the c-axis. The electrical resistivity of GZO films decreased first with increasing Ga doping content before it reached a minimum at x = 0.05, and then increased with further increasing Ga doping content. The magnetic fields (B) ranging from 0 to 1.5 T are perpendicularly applied to the films to study the magneto-thermoelectric properties. It is observed that the absolute values of Seebeck coefficients (|S|) of GZO1, GZO2, GZO3 show marked variation with magnetic field and obtain the maximum value at B = 0.5 T. Whereas the |S| value of GZO4 fluctuates slightly with magnetic field and reaches its peak at B = 1.0 T. The magneto-thermoelectric properties are analyzed and we propose that this behavior is mainly attributed to the effect of magnetic field on the electron transport.

  14. Influence of substrate properties and annealing temperature on the stress state of magnetron sputtered tungsten thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, J. C.; Cavaleiro, A.

    2006-11-15

    The influence of substrate properties and annealing temperature on the stress state of tungsten thin films deposited by dc reactive magnetron sputtering was studied using 310 steel (AISI), Fecralloy registered and Invar registered substrates. Besides elemental tungsten, only residual amounts of contamination elements (O, C, Ar, etc.) were detected by electron probe microanalysis. Only the {alpha}-W crystalline structure, with a preferential <110> orientation, was detected in all the films by x-ray diffraction. The highest lattice parameters were measured for the films deposited on 310 steel substrates, while the smallest values were obtained for the films deposited on Invar registered substrates. These results are closely related to the thermal expansion coefficients of the substrates. All the as-deposited films were in a compressive stress state independent of the substrate type (-3 GPa for 310 steel and Fecralloy registered substrates and -2 GPa for Invar registered substrates). The residual compressive stresses of the films deposited on Fecralloy registered substrates strongly decrease with annealing temperatures up to {approx_equal}-8 GPa at 1175 K. This result shows that the measured compressive stresses are not real, and they are a direct consequence of plastic deformation of the substrate. On the contrary, the compressive stresses measured in the films deposited on Invar registered and 310 steel substrates are real as plastic deformation of the substrates is not observed.

  15. Effects of discharge power on the structural and optical properties of TGZO thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jin-hua; Lu, Zhou; Zhong, Zhi-you; Long, Lu; Long, Hao

    2016-05-01

    The transparent semiconductors of Ti and Ga-incorporated ZnO (TGZO) thin films were prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering onto glass substrates. The effects of discharge power on the physical properties of thin films are studied. Experimental results show that all nanocrystalline TGZO thin films possess preferential orientation along the (002) plane. The discharge power significantly affects the crystal structure and optical properties of thin films. When the discharge power is 200 W, the TGZO thin film has the optimal crystalline quality and optical properties, with the narrowest full width at half-maximum ( FWHM) of 1.76×10-3 rad, the largest average grain size of 82.4 nm and the highest average transmittance of 84.3% in the visible range. The optical gaps of thin films are estimated by the Tauc's relation and observed to increase firstly and then decrease with the increase of the discharge power. In addition, the optical parameters, including refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric function and dissipation factor of the thin films, are determined by optical characterization methods. The dispersion behavior of the refractive index is also analyzed using the Sellmeier's dispersion model.

  16. Deuterium Retention in the Co-Deposition Carbon Layers Deposited by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering in D2 Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei-Yuan; Shi, Li-Qun; Zhang, Bin; Hu, Jian-Sheng

    2014-05-01

    Carbon is deposited on C and Si substrates by rf magnetron plasma sputtering in a D2 atmosphere. The deposited layers are examined with ion beam analysis and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The growth rates of the layers deposited on Si decrease with increasing substrate temperature, while increase significantly with the increase of D2 pressure. Meanwhile, the deuterium concentrations in the layers deposited on the Si substrates decrease from 30% to 2% and from 31% to 1% on the C substrates, respectively, when the substrate temperature varies from 350K to 900 K. Similarly, the D concentration in the layer on the Si substrates increases from 3.4% to 47%, and from 8% to 35% on the C substrates when the D2 pressure increases from 0.3Pa to 8.0Pa. D desorption characterized by TDS is mainly in the forms of D2, HD, HDO, CD4, and C2D4, and a similar release peak occurs at 645 K. The release peak of D2 molecules at 960K can be attributed to the escaped gas from the thin co-deposited deuterium-rich carbon layer in the form of C-D bonding.

  17. Characterization of TiO 2/Au/TiO 2 films deposited by magnetron sputtering on polycarbonate substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daeil

    2010-11-01

    Transparent and conducting TiO 2/Au/TiO 2 (TAuT) films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on polycarbonate substrates to investigate the effect of the Au interlayer on the optical, electrical, and structural properties of the films. In TAuT films, the Au interlayer thickness was kept at 5 nm. Although total thickness was maintained at 100 nm, the stack structure was varied as 50/5/45, 70/5/25, and 90/5/5 nm. In XRD pattern, the intermediate Au films were crystallized, while all TAuT films did not show any diffraction peaks for TiO 2 films with regardless of stack structure. The optical and electrical properties were dependent on the stack structure of the films. The lowest sheet resistance of 23 Ω/□ and highest optical transmittance of 76% at 550 nm were obtained from TiO 2 90 nm/Au 5 nm/TiO 2 5 nm films. The work function was dependent on the film stack. The highest work function (4.8 eV) was observed with the TiO 2 90 nm/Au 5 nm/TiO 2 5 nm film stack. The TAuT film stack of TiO 2 90 nm/Au 5 nm/TiO 2 5 nm films is an optimized stack that may be an alternative candidate for transparent electrodes in flat panel displays.

  18. Thickness-dependent transport channels in topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films grown by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen Jie; Gao, Kuang Hong; Li, Zhi Qing

    2016-05-01

    We study the low-temperature transport properties of Bi2Se3 thin films grown by magnetron sputtering. A positive magnetoresistance resulting from the weak antilocalization (WAL) effect is observed at low temperatures. The observed WAL effect is two dimensional in nature. Applying the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka theory, we have obtained the dephasing length. It is found that the temperature dependence of the dephasing length cannot be described only by the Nyquist electron-electron dephasing, in conflict with prevailing experimental results. From the WAL effect, we extract the number of the transport channels, which is found to increase with increasing the thickness of the films, reflecting the thickness-dependent coupling between the top and bottom surface states in topological insulator. On the other hand, the electron-electron interaction (EEI) effect is observed in temperature-dependent conductivity. From the EEI effect, we also extract the number of the transport channel, which shows similar thickness dependence with that obtained from the analysis of the WAL effect. The EEI effect, therefore, can be used to analyze the coupling effect between the top and bottom surface states in topological insulator like the WAL effect.

  19. Thickness-dependent transport channels in topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films grown by magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen Jie; Gao, Kuang Hong; Li, Zhi Qing

    2016-05-04

    We study the low-temperature transport properties of Bi2Se3 thin films grown by magnetron sputtering. A positive magnetoresistance resulting from the weak antilocalization (WAL) effect is observed at low temperatures. The observed WAL effect is two dimensional in nature. Applying the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka theory, we have obtained the dephasing length. It is found that the temperature dependence of the dephasing length cannot be described only by the Nyquist electron-electron dephasing, in conflict with prevailing experimental results. From the WAL effect, we extract the number of the transport channels, which is found to increase with increasing the thickness of the films, reflecting the thickness-dependent coupling between the top and bottom surface states in topological insulator. On the other hand, the electron-electron interaction (EEI) effect is observed in temperature-dependent conductivity. From the EEI effect, we also extract the number of the transport channel, which shows similar thickness dependence with that obtained from the analysis of the WAL effect. The EEI effect, therefore, can be used to analyze the coupling effect between the top and bottom surface states in topological insulator like the WAL effect.

  20. Comparative study of RF reactive magnetron sputtering and sol-gel deposition of UV induced superhydrophilic TiOx thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrakatseli, V. E.; Amanatides, E.; Mataras, D.

    2016-03-01

    TiOx and TiOx-like thin films were deposited on PEEK (Polyether ether ketone) substrates by low-temperature RF reactive magnetron sputtering and the sol-gel method. The resulting films were compared in terms of their properties and photoinduced hydrophilicity. Both techniques resulted in uniform films with good adhesion that can be switched to superhydrophilic after exposure to UVA radiation for similar time periods. In addition, the sputtered films can also be activated and switched to superhydrophilic by natural sunlight due to the higher absorption in the visible spectrum compared to the sol-gel films. On the other hand, the as deposited sol-films remain relatively hydrophilic for a longer time in dark compared to the sputtered film due to the differences in the morphology and the porosity of the two materials. Thus, depending on the application, either method can be used in order to achieve the desirable TiOx properties.

  1. Process-structure-property correlations in pulsed dc reactive magnetron sputtered vanadium oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatasubramanian, Chandrasekaran; Cabarcos, Orlando M.; Drawl, William R.; Allara, David L.; Ashok, S.; Horn, Mark W.; Bharadwaja, S. S. N.

    2011-11-15

    Cathode hysteresis in the reactive pulsed dc sputtering of a vanadium metal target was investigated to correlate the structural and electrical properties of the resultant vanadium oxide thin films within the framework of Berg's model [Berg et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 202 (1987)]. The process hysteresis during reactive pulsed dc sputtering of a vanadium metal target was monitored by measuring the cathode (target) current under different total gas flow rates and oxygen-to-argon ratios for a power density of {approx}6.6.W/cm{sup 2}. Approximately 20%-25% hysteretic change in the cathode current was noticed between the metallic and oxidized states of the V-metal target. The extent of the hysteresis varied with changes in the mass flow of oxygen as predicted by Berg's model. The corresponding microstructure of the films changed from columnar to equiaxed grain structure with increased oxygen flow rates. Micro-Raman spectroscopy indicates subtle changes in the film structure as a function of processing conditions. The resistivity, temperature coefficient of resistance, and charge transport mechanism, obeying the Meyer-Neldel relation [Meyer and Neldel, Z. Tech. Phys. (Leipzig) 12, 588 (1937)], were correlated with the cathode current hysteric behavior.

  2. Characterization of indium tin oxide films by RF-assisted DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houng, Boen; Wang, Adam

    2012-05-01

    A unique design of RF (radio frequency) assisted DC (direct current) sputter was employed to deposit ITO (indium tin oxide) films on PET (polyethylene terephtalate) substrate. Effects of different RF portions of total power and oxygen gas flow on the properties of the films were investigated. It was found that the films became denser as the applied RF portion of the total power increased. This is due to higher momentum energy transfer by impinging ions increasing adatom diffusion on the films. Thus, a larger grained and less porous microstructure was presented in the films deposited at higher RF portions of the total power. However, a rougher surface morphology and minor crystallization was also found in the films prepared at 100% RF power. By wisely adjusting to a 50% RF portion of the total power, the electrical resistivity can reach a minimum value of 5.4 × 10-4 Ω cm associated with the carrier concentration of 7.0 × 1020 cm-3 and mobility of 17.4 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. In addition, the oxygen gas concentration in the sputtering chamber was found to play a key role in determining the quality of the films. As oxygen gas flowed at 2 sccm, the electrical resistivity was decreased to 3.9 × 10-4 Ω cm at a 50% RF portion of the total power. The electrical conduction mechanism, based on the grain boundary scattering, was correlated to the microstructure of the films in terms of grain size.

  3. Properties of Li-Doped NiO Thin Films Prepared by RF-Magnetron Sputtering.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ho-Beom; Han, Joo-Hwan; Lee, Hee Young; Lee, Jai-Yeoul

    2016-02-01

    Li-doped NiO thin films were deposited on glass and c-axis (0001) sapphire single crystal substrates by radio frequency (RF)-niagnetron sputtering. The effects of the type of substrate, substrate temperature and atmosphere on the structural, electrical and optical properties of the NiO thin films were examined. The electrical conductivity of the NiO thin films depends on the type of substrate, substrate temperature and oxygen atmosphere. The electrical conductivity of the thin films on the glass and sapphire substrates was improved by the introduction of oxygen and decreased with increasing substrate temperature. The optical transmittance decreased with the introduction of oxygen and increased with increasing substrate temperature.

  4. Effect of buffer layer growth temperature on epitaxial GaN films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanta, P.; Singh, D.; Kumar, R.; Ganguli, T.; Srinivasa, R. S.; Major, S. S.

    2012-06-05

    Epitaxial GaN films were deposited by reactive sputtering of a GaAs target in 100 % nitrogen at 700 deg. C on ZnO buffer layers grown at different substrate temperatures over sapphire substrates. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements and the corresponding analysis show that the growth temperature of buffer layers significantly affects the micro-structural parameters of GaN epilayer, such as lateral coherence length, tilt and twist, while the vertical coherence length remains unaffected. The optimum substrate temperature for buffer layer growth has been found to be 300 deg. C. High epitaxial quality GaN film grown on such a buffer layer exhibited micro strain of 1.8x10{sup -4} along with screw and edge type dislocation densities of 7.87x10{sup 9} and 1.16x10{sup 11}, respectively.

  5. Effects of Processing Variables on Tantalum Nitride by Reactive-Ion-Assisted Magnetron Sputtering Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chao‑Tsang; Shieh, Han‑Ping D.

    2006-08-01

    The binary compound tantalum nitride (TaN) and ternary compounds tantalum tungsten nitrides (Ta1-xWxNy) exhibit interesting properties such as high melting point, high hardness, and chemical inertness. Such nitrides were deposited on a tungsten carbide (WC) die and silicon wafers by ion-beam-sputter evaporation of the respective metal under nitrogen ion-assisted deposition (IAD). The effects of N2/Ar flux ratio, post annealing, ion-assisted deposition, deposition rate, and W doping in coating processing variables on hardness, load critical scratching, oxidation resistance, stress and surface roughness were investigated. The optimum N2/Ar flux ratios in view of the hardness and critical load of TaN and Ta1-xWxNy films were ranged from 0.9 to 1.0. Doping W into TaN to form Ta1-xWxNy films led significant increases in hardness, critical load, oxidation resistance, and reduced surface roughness. The optimum doping ratio was [W/(W+Ta)]=0.85. From the deposition rate and IAD experiments, the stress in the films is mainly contributed by sputtering atoms. The lower deposition rate at a high N2/Ar flux ratio resulted in a higher compressive stress. A high compressive residual stress accounts for a high hardness. The relatively high compressive stress was attributed primarily to peening by atoms, ions and electrons during film growth, the Ta1-xWxNy films showed excellent hardness and strength against a high temperature, and sticking phenomena can essentially be avoided through their use. Ta1-xWxNy films showed better performance than the TaN film in terms of mechanical properties and oxidation resistance.

  6. Combinatorial study of WInZnO films deposited by rf magnetron co-sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Byeong-Yun; Park, Jae-Cheol; Lee, Young-Jun; Cha, Sang-Jun; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Kim, Kwang-Young; Kim, Tae-Won; Heo, Gi-Seok

    2011-09-15

    The compositional dependence of co-sputtered tungsten indium zinc oxide (WInZnO) film properties was first investigated by means of a combinatorial technique. Indium zinc oxide (IZO) and WO{sub 3} targets were used with different target power. W composition ratio [W/(In+Zn+W)] was varied between 3 and 30 at% and film thickness was reduced as the sample position moved toward WO{sub 3} target. Furthermore, the optical bandgap energy increased gradually, which might be affected by the reduction in film thickness. All the WInZnO films showed an amorphous phase regardless of the W/(In+Zn+W) ratio. As the W/(In+Zn+W) ratio in WInZnO films increased, the carrier concentration was restricted, causing the increase in electrical resistivity. W cations worked as oxygen binders in determining the electronic properties, resulting in suppressing the formation of oxygen vacancies. Consequentially, W metal cations were effectively incorporated into the WInZnO films as a suppressor against the oxygen vacancies and the carrier generation by employing the combinatorial technique. - Graphical abstract: The film thickness and the sheet resistance (R{sub s}) with respect to the sample position of WInZnO films, which is compositionally graded by rf power for each target, are exhibited. Highlights: > The compositional dependence of co-sputtered WInZnO film properties is first investigated. > W cations work as oxygen binders in determining the electronic properties. > All the WInZnO films show an amorphous phase regardless of the W/(In+Zn+W) ratio. > W metal cations are effectively incorporated into the WInZnO films by the combinatorial technique.

  7. The effect of substrate bias voltages on impact resistance of CrAlN coatings deposited by modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunyan, Yu; Linhai, Tian; Yinghui, Wei; Shebin, Wang; Tianbao, Li; Bingshe, Xu

    2009-01-01

    CrAlN coatings were deposited on silicon and AISI H13 steel substrates using a modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering system. The effect of substrate negative bias voltages on the impact property of the CrAlN coatings was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data show that all CrAlN coatings were crystallized in the cubic NaCl B1 structure, with the (1 1 1), (2 0 0) (2 2 0) and (2 2 2) diffraction peaks observed. Two-dimensional surface morphologies of CrAlN coatings were investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM). The results show that with increasing substrate bias voltage the coatings became more compact and denser, and the microhardness and fracture toughness of the coatings increased correspondingly. In the dynamic impact resistance tests, the CrAlN coatings displayed better impact resistance with the increase of bias voltage, due to the reduced emergence and propagation of the cracks in coatings with a very dense structure and the increase of hardness and fracture toughness in coatings.

  8. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and structural study of HfO{sub 2} thin films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Cantas, Ayten; Aygun, Gulnur; Basa, Deepak Kumar

    2014-08-28

    We have investigated the reduction of unwanted interfacial SiO{sub 2} layer at HfO{sub 2}/Si interface brought about by the deposition of thin Hf metal buffer layer on Si substrate prior to the deposition of HfO{sub 2} thin films for possible direct contact between HfO{sub 2} thin film and Si substrate, necessary for the future generation devices based on high-κ HfO{sub 2} gate dielectrics. Reactive rf magnetron sputtering system along with the attached in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was used to predeposit Hf metal buffer layer as well as to grow HfO{sub 2} thin films and also to undertake the in-situ characterization of the high-κ HfO{sub 2} thin films deposited on n-type 〈100〉 crystalline silicon substrate. The formation of the unwanted interfacial SiO{sub 2} layer and its reduction due to the predeposited Hf metal buffer layer as well as the depth profiling and also structure of HfO{sub 2} thin films were investigated by in-situ SE, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, and Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction. The study demonstrates that the predeposited Hf metal buffer layer has played a crucial role in eliminating the formation of unwanted interfacial layer and that the deposited high-κ HfO{sub 2} thin films are crystalline although they were deposited at room temperature.

  9. Influence of high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasma ionization on the microstructure of TiN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ehiasarian, A. P.; Vetushka, A.; Gonzalvo, Y. Aranda; Safran, G.; Szekely, L.; Barna, P. B.

    2011-05-15

    HIPIMS (High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering) discharge is a new PVD technology for the deposition of high-quality thin films. The deposition flux contains a high degree of metal ionization and nitrogen dissociation. The microstructure of HIPIMS-deposited nitride films is denser compared to conventional sputter technologies. However, the mechanisms acting on the microstructure, texture and properties have not been discussed in detail so far. In this study, the growth of TiN by HIPIMS of Ti in mixed Ar and N{sub 2} atmosphere has been investigated. Varying degrees of metal ionization and nitrogen dissociation were produced by increasing the peak discharge current (I{sub d}) from 5 to 30 A. The average power was maintained constant by adjusting the frequency. Mass spectrometry measurements of the deposition flux revealed a high content of ionized film-forming species, such as Ti{sup 1+}, Ti{sup 2+} and atomic nitrogen N{sup 1+}. Ti{sup 1+} ions with energies up to 50 eV were detected during the pulse with reducing energy in the pulse-off times. Langmuir probe measurements showed that the peak plasma density during the pulse was 3 x 10{sup 16} m{sup -3}. Plasma density, and ion flux ratios of N{sup 1+}: N{sub 2}{sup 1+} and Ti{sup 1+}: Ti{sup 0} increased linearly with peak current. The ratios exceeded 1 at 30 A. TiN films deposited by HIPIMS were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. At high I{sub d}, N{sup 1+}: N{sub 2}{sup 1+} > 1 and Ti{sup 1+}: Ti{sup 0} > 1 were produced; a strong 002 texture was present and column boundaries in the films were atomically tight. As I{sub d} reduced and N{sup 1+}: N{sub 2}{sup 1+} and Ti{sup 1+}: Ti{sup 0} dropped below 1, the film texture switched to strong 111 with a dense structure. At very low I{sub d}, porosity between columns developed. The effects of the significant activation of the deposition flux observed in the HIPIMS discharge on the film texture, microstructure, morphology and

  10. [Effects of Temperature on the Preparation of Al/Zn3N2 Thin Films Using Magnetron Reactive Sputtering].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun-qin; Chen, Jun-fang

    2015-08-01

    The effects of substrate temperature on the plasma active species were investigated by plasma optical emission spectroscopy. With increasing substrate temperature, the characteristic spectroscopy intensity of the first positive series of N2* (B(3)Πg-->A(3)Σu(+)), the second positive N2* (C(3)Πu-->B(3)Πg), the first negative series N2(+)* (B(2)Σu(+)-->X(2)Σg(+)) and Zn* are increased. Due to the substrate temperature, each ion kinetic energy is increased and the collision ionization intensified in the chamber. That leading to plasma ion density increase. These phenomenons's show that the substrate temperature raises in a certain range was conducive to zinc nitride thin films growth. Zn3N2 thin films were prepared on Al films using ion sources-assisted magnetron sputtering deposition method. The degree of crystalline of the films was examined with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that has a dominant peak located at 34.359° in room temperature, which was corresponding to the (321) plane of cubic anti-bixbyite zinc nitride structure (JCPDS Card No35-0762). When the substrate temperature was 100 °C, in addition to the (321) reflection, more diffraction peaks appeared corresponding to the (222), (400) and (600) planes, which were located at 31.756°, 36.620° and 56.612° respectively. When the substrate temperature was 200 °C, in addition to the (321), (222), (400) and (600) reflection, more new diffraction peaks also appeared corresponding to the (411), (332), (431) and (622) planes, which were located at 39.070, 43.179°, 47.004° and 62.561° respectively. These results show the film crystalline increased gradually with raise the substrate temperature. XP-1 profilometer were used to analyze the thickness of the Zn3N2 films. The Zn3N2 films deposited on Al films in mixture gas plasma had a deposition rate of 2.0, 2.2, and 2.7 nm · min(-1). These results indicate that the deposition rate was gradually enhanced as substrate temperature increased

  11. [Effects of Temperature on the Preparation of Al/Zn3N2 Thin Films Using Magnetron Reactive Sputtering].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun-qin; Chen, Jun-fang

    2015-08-01

    The effects of substrate temperature on the plasma active species were investigated by plasma optical emission spectroscopy. With increasing substrate temperature, the characteristic spectroscopy intensity of the first positive series of N2* (B(3)Πg-->A(3)Σu(+)), the second positive N2* (C(3)Πu-->B(3)Πg), the first negative series N2(+)* (B(2)Σu(+)-->X(2)Σg(+)) and Zn* are increased. Due to the substrate temperature, each ion kinetic energy is increased and the collision ionization intensified in the chamber. That leading to plasma ion density increase. These phenomenons's show that the substrate temperature raises in a certain range was conducive to zinc nitride thin films growth. Zn3N2 thin films were prepared on Al films using ion sources-assisted magnetron sputtering deposition method. The degree of crystalline of the films was examined with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that has a dominant peak located at 34.359° in room temperature, which was corresponding to the (321) plane of cubic anti-bixbyite zinc nitride structure (JCPDS Card No35-0762). When the substrate temperature was 100 °C, in addition to the (321) reflection, more diffraction peaks appeared corresponding to the (222), (400) and (600) planes, which were located at 31.756°, 36.620° and 56.612° respectively. When the substrate temperature was 200 °C, in addition to the (321), (222), (400) and (600) reflection, more new diffraction peaks also appeared corresponding to the (411), (332), (431) and (622) planes, which were located at 39.070, 43.179°, 47.004° and 62.561° respectively. These results show the film crystalline increased gradually with raise the substrate temperature. XP-1 profilometer were used to analyze the thickness of the Zn3N2 films. The Zn3N2 films deposited on Al films in mixture gas plasma had a deposition rate of 2.0, 2.2, and 2.7 nm · min(-1). These results indicate that the deposition rate was gradually enhanced as substrate temperature increased

  12. Phase map, composition and resistivity of reactively magnetron sputtered and annealed Ta–N films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamon, K.; Radić, N.; Bogdanović Radović, I.; Očko, M.

    2016-05-01

    Thin films of tantalum nitride (Ta–N) have been prepared by reactive magnetron deposition under various nitrogen partial pressures p{{\\text{N}}2} (0-1) and subsequently annealed (T a   =  450–950 °C). The structure, density, composition and electrical resistivity of the prepared films were systematically investigated. A p{{\\text{N}}2}-{{T}a} phase map was constructed from the results of structural analysis. With increasing of p{{\\text{N}}2} from 0 to 0.2, a single-phase or two-phase mixture films of tetragonal Ta, Ta2N ({{T}a}≥slant 450 °C), ɛ-TaN ({{T}a}≥slant 850 °C), θ-TaN ({{T}a}≥slant 850 °C) and fcc δ-TaN are sequentially observed. For p{{\\text{N}}2}=0.25 –0.45, the as grown and annealed films exhibit δ-TaN structure. Amorphous films grown in the p{{\\text{N}}2}=0.45 –0.75 range crystallize as cubic Ta2N3 upon annealing at {{T}a}≥slant 650 °C or as δ-TaN at {{T}a}≥slant 850 °C. A cubic Ta2N3 is grown at highest p{{\\text{N}}2} (≥slant 0.85), which decomposes to δ-TaN at {{T}a}≥slant 850 °C. The N     / Ta atomic ratio in the film linearly increases for p{{\\text{N}}2}=0 –0.5, ranging from 0 to 2.1, while the mass density monotonically decreases with p{{\\text{N}}2} . Upon annealing, a part of N atoms out-diffuses from the films deposited at p{{\\text{N}}2}≥slant 0.3 . The electrical resistivity strongly depends on both p{{\\text{N}}2} and T a . However, in the as grown and annealed δ-TaN films the resistivity was of the order of 100–1000 μ Ω cm. In these films, a correlation between the resistivity and the average number of defects (Ta vacancies and N atom excess) is observed. Finally, the influence of thermally introduced oxygen on the films resistivity has been revealed.

  13. Structural properties of Cu2O epitaxial films grown on c-axis single crystal ZnO by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, J.; Gorantla, S.; Riise, H. N.; Fjellvâg, Ø. S.; Diplas, S.; Løvvik, O. M.; Svensson, B. G.; Monakhov, E. V.; Gunnæs, A. E.

    2016-04-01

    Epitaxial Cu2O films grown by reactive and ceramic radio frequency magnetron sputtering on single crystalline ZnO (0001) substrates are investigated. The films are grown on both O- and Zn-polar surface of the ZnO substrates. The Cu2O films exhibit a columnar growth manner apart from a ˜5 nm thick CuO interfacial layer. In comparison to the reactively sputtered Cu2O, the ceramic-sputtered films are less strained and appear to contain nanovoids. Irrespective of polarity, the Cu2O grown by reactive sputtering is observed to have (111)Cu2O||(0001)ZnO epitaxial relationship, but in the case of ceramic sputtering the films are found to show additional (110)Cu2O reflections when grown on O-polar surface. The observed CuO interfacial layer can be detrimental for the performance of Cu2O/ZnO heterojunction solar cells reported in the literature.

  14. Control and enhancement of the oxygen storage capacity of ceria films by variation of the deposition gas atmosphere during pulsed DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltayeb, Asmaa; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K.; McCoy, Anthony; Venkatanarayanan, Anita; Yaremchenko, Aleksey A.; Surendran, Rajesh; McGlynn, Enda; Daniels, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    In this study, nanostructured ceria (CeO2) films are deposited on Si(100) and ITO coated glass substrates by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering using a CeO2 target. The influence on the films of using various gas ambients, such as a high purity Ar and a gas mixture of high purity Ar and O2, in the sputtering chamber during deposition are studied. The film compositions are studied using XPS and SIMS. These spectra show a phase transition from cubic CeO2 to hexagonal Ce2O3 due to the sputtering process. This is related to the transformation of Ce4+ to Ce3+ and indicates a chemically reduced state of CeO2 due to the formation of oxygen vacancies. TGA and electrochemical cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies show that films deposited in an Ar atmosphere have a higher oxygen storage capacity (OSC) compared to films deposited in the presence of O2. CV results specifically show a linear variation with scan rate of the anodic peak currents for both films and the double layer capacitance values for films deposited in Ar/O2 mixed and Ar atmosphere are (1.6 ± 0.2) × 10-4 F and (4.3 ± 0.5) × 10-4 F, respectively. Also, TGA data shows that Ar sputtered samples have a tendency to greater oxygen losses upon reduction compared to the films sputtered in an Ar/O2 mixed atmosphere.

  15. Current-Voltage Characteristics and Deposition of AlTiN Thin Films by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wan-Yu; Su, Amei; Liu, Yawei; Yeh, Chi-Ming; Chen, Wei-Chih; Chang, Chi-Lung

    2015-09-01

    In this study, AlTiN thin films were deposited using a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) process under a unipolar mode. The AlTi target had a composition of 70 at% Al and 30 at% Ti. Nitrogen was used as the reactive gas to deposite AlTiN thin films along with Ar gas at a working pressure of 1 ×10-3 torr. The target voltage and current were measured at different conditions including various duty cycles from 1 to 5%, pulse durations from 50 to 400 μs, target powers from 0.6 to 1.8 kW, and N2/Ar ratios from 0 to 1. Depending on the deposition condition, peak powers in the range of 104 to 105 W were observed. The effect of deposition conditions were discussed. For film deposition, the pulse duration and the duty cycle were fixed at 100 μs and 3%, respectively. A fixed bias of -150 V was applied to the substrates, including Si wafer, 304 stainless steel, and tungsten carbide.It was found that the nitrogen content increases with the N2/Ar ratio and then saturates. With increasing target power, a higher N2/Ar ratio was required for the AlTiN thin films to have a better mechanical properties. Meanwhile, the hardness of the AlTiN thin films also increases with the target power. The highest hardness of 41 GPa was observed as the N2/Ar ratio was 0.9 and the power was 1.8 kW. It was found that the amount Al-N bonding and the distribution of AlN phase within the AlTiN thin films play an important role in determining the mechanical properties.

  16. SiNx Coatings Deposited by Reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Process Parameters Influencing the Nitrogen Content.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Susann; Hänninen, Tuomas; Goyenola, Cecilia; Wissting, Jonas; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Goebbels, Nico; Tobler, Markus; Högberg, Hans

    2016-08-10

    Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (rHiPIMS) was used to deposit silicon nitride (SiNx) coatings for biomedical applications. The SiNx growth and plasma characterization were conducted in an industrial coater, using Si targets and N2 as reactive gas. The effects of different N2-to-Ar flow ratios between 0 and 0.3, pulse frequencies, target power settings, and substrate temperatures on the discharge and the N content of SiNx coatings were investigated. Plasma ion mass spectrometry shows high amounts of ionized isotopes during the initial part of the pulse for discharges with low N2-to-Ar flow ratios of <0.16, while signals from ionized molecules rise with the N2-to-Ar flow ratio at the pulse end and during pulse-off times. Langmuir probe measurements show electron temperatures of 2-3 eV for nonreactive discharges and 5.0-6.6 eV for discharges in transition mode. The SiNx coatings were characterized with respect to their composition, chemical bond structure, density, and mechanical properties by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity, X-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation, respectively. The SiNx deposition processes and coating properties are mainly influenced by the N2-to-Ar flow ratio and thus by the N content in the SiNx films and to a lower extent by the HiPIMS frequencies and power settings as well as substrate temperatures. Increasing N2-to-Ar flow ratios lead to decreasing growth rates, while the N content, coating densities, residual stresses, and the hardness increase. These experimental findings were corroborated by density functional theory calculations of precursor species present during rHiPIMS.

  17. Development of superlattice CrN/NbN coatings for joint replacements deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Hovsepian, Papken Ehiasarian; Ehiasarian, Arutiun Papken; Purandare, Yashodhan; Sugumaran, Arunprabhu Arunachalam; Marriott, Tim; Khan, Imran

    2016-09-01

    The demand for reliable coating on medical implants is ever growing. In this research, enhanced performance of medical implants was achieved by a CrN/NbN coating, utilising nanoscale multilayer/superlattice structure. The advantages of the novel high power impulse magnetron sputtering technology, namely, its unique highly ionised plasma, were exploited to deposit dense and strongly adherent coatings on CoCr implants. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed coating superlattice structure with bi-layer thickness of 3.5 nm. CrN/NbN deposited on CoCr samples showed exceptionally high adhesion, critical load values of LC2 = 50 N in scratch adhesion tests. Nanoindentation tests showed high hardness of 34 GPa and Young's modulus of 447 GPa. Low coefficient of friction (μ) 0.49 and coating wear coefficient (K C) = 4.94 × 10(-16) m(3) N(-1) m(-1) were recorded in dry sliding tests. Metal ion release studies showed a reduction in Co, Cr and Mo release at physiological and elevated temperatures (70 °C) to almost undetectable levels (<1 ppb). Rotating beam fatigue testing showed a significant increase in fatigue strength from 349 ± 59 MPa (uncoated) to 539 ± 59 MPa (coated). In vitro biological testing has been performed in order to assess the safety of the coating in biological environment; cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and sensitisation testing have been performed, all showing no adverse effects.

  18. Formation of Solution-derived Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Titanium Alloy in the Presence of Magnetron-sputtered Alumina Bond Coats

    PubMed Central

    Zykova, Anna; Safonov, Vladimir; Yanovska, Anna; Sukhodub, Leonid; Rogovskaya, Renata; Smolik, Jerzy; Yakovin, Stas

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (HAp) and calcium phosphate ceramic materials and coatings are widely used in medicine and dentistry because of their ability to enhance the tissue response to implant surfaces and promote bone ingrowth and osseoconduction processes. The deposition conditions have a great influence on the structure and biofunctionality of calcium phosphate coatings. Corrosion processes and poor adhesion to substrate material reduce the lifetime of implants with calcium phosphate coatings. The research has focused on the development of advanced methods to deposit double-layered ceramic oxide/calcium phosphate coatings by a hybrid technique of magnetron sputtering and thermal methods. The thermal method can promote the crystallization and the formation of HAp coatings on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V substrates at low temperature, based on the principle that the solubility of HAp in aqueous solutions decreases with increasing substrate temperature. By this method, hydroxyapatite directly coated the substrate without precipitation in the initial solution. Using a thermal substrate method, calcium phosphate coatings were prepared at substrate temperatures of 100-105 oC. The coated metallic implant surfaces with ceramic bond coats and calcium phosphate layers combine the excellent mechanical properties of metals with the chemical stability of ceramic materials. The corrosion test results show that the ceramic oxide (alumina) coatings and the double-layered alumina-calcium phosphate coatings improve the corrosion resistance compared with uncoated Ti6Al4V and single-layered Ti6Al4V/calcium phosphate substrates. In addition, the double-layered alumina/hydroxyapatite coatings demonstrate the best biocompatibility during in vitro tests. PMID:25893018

  19. Excellent vacuum tribological properties of Pb/PbS film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and ion sulfurizing.

    PubMed

    Guozheng, Ma; Binshi, Xu; Haidou, Wang; Shuying, Chen; Zhiguo, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Soft metal Pb film of 3 μm in thickness was deposited on AISI 440C steel by RF magnetron sputtering, and then some of the Pb film samples were treated by low-temperature ion sulfurizing (LTIS) and formed Pb/PbS composite film. Tribological properties of the Pb and Pb/PbS films were tested contrastively in vacuum and air condition using a self-developed tribometer (model of MSTS-1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were adopted to analyze the microstructure and chemical construction of the films and their worn surfaces. The results show that a mass of Pb was changed to PbS during the process of LTIS. In air condition, owing to the severe oxidation effect, pure Pb film showed relatively high friction coefficients (0.6), and Pb/PbS composite film also lost its friction-reduction property after sliding for a short time. In a vacuum, the average friction coefficients of Pb film were about 0.1, but the friction coefficient curve fluctuated obviously. And the Pb/PbS composite film exhibited excellent tribological properties in vacuum condition. Its friction coefficients keep stable at a low value of about 0.07 for a long time. If takes the value of friction coefficients exceeding 0.2 continuously as a criterion of lubrication failure, the sliding friction life of Pb/PbS film was as long as 3.2 × 10(5) r, which is 8 times of that of the Pb film. It can be concluded that the Pb/PbS film has excellent vacuum tribological properties and important foreground for applying in space solid lubrication related fields.

  20. Development of superlattice CrN/NbN coatings for joint replacements deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Hovsepian, Papken Ehiasarian; Ehiasarian, Arutiun Papken; Purandare, Yashodhan; Sugumaran, Arunprabhu Arunachalam; Marriott, Tim; Khan, Imran

    2016-09-01

    The demand for reliable coating on medical implants is ever growing. In this research, enhanced performance of medical implants was achieved by a CrN/NbN coating, utilising nanoscale multilayer/superlattice structure. The advantages of the novel high power impulse magnetron sputtering technology, namely, its unique highly ionised plasma, were exploited to deposit dense and strongly adherent coatings on CoCr implants. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed coating superlattice structure with bi-layer thickness of 3.5 nm. CrN/NbN deposited on CoCr samples showed exceptionally high adhesion, critical load values of LC2 = 50 N in scratch adhesion tests. Nanoindentation tests showed high hardness of 34 GPa and Young's modulus of 447 GPa. Low coefficient of friction (μ) 0.49 and coating wear coefficient (K C) = 4.94 × 10(-16) m(3) N(-1) m(-1) were recorded in dry sliding tests. Metal ion release studies showed a reduction in Co, Cr and Mo release at physiological and elevated temperatures (70 °C) to almost undetectable levels (<1 ppb). Rotating beam fatigue testing showed a significant increase in fatigue strength from 349 ± 59 MPa (uncoated) to 539 ± 59 MPa (coated). In vitro biological testing has been performed in order to assess the safety of the coating in biological environment; cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and sensitisation testing have been performed, all showing no adverse effects. PMID:27571960

  1. Thermoelectric properties of epitaxial ScN films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering onto MgO(001) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Burmistrova, Polina V.; Rui Koh, Yee; Lundstrom, Mark S.; Maassen, Jesse; Salamat, Shuaib; Favaloro, Tela; Saha, Bivas; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.

    2013-04-21

    Epitaxial ScN(001) thin films were grown on MgO(001) substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering. The deposition was performed in an Ar/N{sub 2} atmosphere at 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} Torr at a substrate temperature of 850 Degree-Sign C in a high vacuum chamber with a base pressure of 10{sup -8} Torr. In spite of oxygen contamination of 1.6 {+-} 1 at. %, the electrical resistivity, electron mobility, and carrier concentration obtained from a typical film grown under these conditions by room temperature Hall measurements are 0.22 m{Omega} cm, 106 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}, respectively. These films exhibit remarkable thermoelectric power factors of 3.3-3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} W/mK{sup 2} in the temperature range of 600 K to 840 K. The cross-plane thermal conductivity is 8.3 W/mK at 800 K yielding an estimated ZT of 0.3. Theoretical modeling of the thermoelectric properties of ScN calculated using a mean-free-path of 23 nm at 300 K is in very good agreement with the experiment. These results also demonstrate that further optimization of the power factor of ScN is possible. First-principles density functional theory combined with the site occupancy disorder technique was used to investigate the effect of oxygen contamination on the electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of ScN. The computational results suggest that oxygen atoms in ScN mix uniformly on the N site forming a homogeneous solid solution alloy. Behaving as an n-type donor, oxygen causes a shift of the Fermi level in ScN into the conduction band without altering the band structure and the density of states.

  2. Effects of substrate on the structure and orientation of ZnO thin film grown by rf-magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H. F.; Chua, S. J.; Hu, G. X.; Gong, H.; Xiang, N.

    2007-10-15

    X-ray diffractions, Nomarski microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence have been used to study the effects of substrate on the structure and orientation of ZnO thin films grown by rf-magnetron sputtering. GaAs(001), GaAs(111), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0002) (c-plane), and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(1102) (r-plane) wafers have been selected as substrates in this study. X-ray diffractions reveal that the ZnO film grown on GaAs(001) substrate is purely textured with a high c-axis orientation while that grown on GaAs(111) substrate is a single ZnO(0002) crystal; a polycrystalline structure with a large-single-crystal area of ZnO(0002) is obtained on a c-plane Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate while a ZnO(1120) single crystal is formed on an r-plane Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. There is absence of significant difference between the photoluminescence spectra collected from ZnO/GaAs(001), ZnO/GaAs(111), and ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0002), while the photoluminescence from ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(1102) shows a reduced intensity together with an increased linewidth, which is, likely, due to the increased incorporation of native defects during the growth of ZnO(1120)

  3. Formation of Solution-derived Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Titanium Alloy in the Presence of Magnetron-sputtered Alumina Bond Coats.

    PubMed

    Zykova, Anna; Safonov, Vladimir; Yanovska, Anna; Sukhodub, Leonid; Rogovskaya, Renata; Smolik, Jerzy; Yakovin, Stas

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (HAp) and calcium phosphate ceramic materials and coatings are widely used in medicine and dentistry because of their ability to enhance the tissue response to implant surfaces and promote bone ingrowth and osseoconduction processes. The deposition conditions have a great influence on the structure and biofunctionality of calcium phosphate coatings. Corrosion processes and poor adhesion to substrate material reduce the lifetime of implants with calcium phosphate coatings. The research has focused on the development of advanced methods to deposit double-layered ceramic oxide/calcium phosphate coatings by a hybrid technique of magnetron sputtering and thermal methods. The thermal method can promote the crystallization and the formation of HAp coatings on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V substrates at low temperature, based on the principle that the solubility of HAp in aqueous solutions decreases with increasing substrate temperature. By this method, hydroxyapatite directly coated the substrate without precipitation in the initial solution. Using a thermal substrate method, calcium phosphate coatings were prepared at substrate temperatures of 100-105 (o)C. The coated metallic implant surfaces with ceramic bond coats and calcium phosphate layers combine the excellent mechanical properties of metals with the chemical stability of ceramic materials. The corrosion test results show that the ceramic oxide (alumina) coatings and the double-layered alumina-calcium phosphate coatings improve the corrosion resistance compared with uncoated Ti6Al4V and single-layered Ti6Al4V/calcium phosphate substrates. In addition, the double-layered alumina/hydroxyapatite coatings demonstrate the best biocompatibility during in vitro tests. PMID:25893018

  4. Influence of working gas pressure on structure and properties of WO3 films reactively deposited by rf magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, T.; Tanabe, J.; Yamada, N.; Nakabayashi, H.

    2003-07-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO3) films with thickness of 0.9-6.7 μm have been deposited on glass-slide substrates, using rf magnetron sputtering in an atmosphere of mixture 80% Ar and 20% O2. The as-deposited films had a dark metallic color, like the W target, at a working gas pressure PW of 1 mTorr. Yellow films resulted at a PW of 3 mTorr. With a further increase of PW, the film color changed to pale yellow. From the x-ray diffraction patterns, the as-deposited films were polycrystalline crystallizing in the monoclinic crystal structure with high c-axis orientation perpendicular to the film plane. The optical transmittance of the films deposited at a PW of 1 mTorr is nearly zero. However, the transmittance of the films deposited at other PW are larger than 70% in the wavelength, λ, ranging from 500 to 900 nm. With decreasing λ to 400 nm, the transmittance decreases steeply to zero. The λ at this absorption edge is longer than that in TiO2 and comes in the visible region. The surface morphology of the films depends on PW. This different morphology may be attributed to the effect of the substrate heating by plasma emission because of the high plasma density at higher PW. The morphology of the films may also depend on the crystallinity of the WO3 films. As PW increased, the surfaces of the films became rougher but the grain sizes of the films did not always become larger. The WO3 films deposited in this study may be used for the underlayer of TiO2 photocatalyst.

  5. Optical and electrical properties of Ti(Cr)O2:N thin films deposited by magnetron co-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollbek, K.; Szkudlarek, A.; Marzec, M. M.; Lyson-Sypien, B.; Cecot, M.; Bernasik, A.; Radecka, M.; Zakrzewska, K.

    2016-09-01

    The paper deals with TiO2-based thin films, doped with Cr and N, obtained by magnetron co-sputtering from titanium dioxide ceramic and chromium targets in Ar + N2 atmosphere. Co-doped samples of Ti(Cr)O2:N are investigated from the point of view of morphological, crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties. Characterization techniques such as: X-ray diffraction, XRD, scanning electron microscopy, SEM, atomic force microscopy, AFM, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, EDX, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS, optical spectrophotometry as well as impedance spectroscopy are applied. XRD reveals TiO2 and TiO2:N thin films are well crystallized as opposed to those of TiO2:Cr and Ti(Cr)O2:N. XPS spectra confirm that co-doping has been successfully performed with the biggest contribution from the lower binding energy component of N 1s peak at 396 eV. SEM analysis indicates uniform and dense morphology without columnar growth. Comparison between the band gaps indicates a significant shift of the absorption edge towards visible range from 3.69 eV in the case of non-stoichiometric Ti(Cr)O2-x:N to 2.78 eV in the case of stoichiometric Ti(Cr)O2:N which should be attributed to the incorporation of both dopants at substitutional positions in TiO2 lattice. Electrical conductivity of stoichiometric Ti(Cr)O2:N increases in comparison to co-doped nonstoichiometric TiO2-x thin film and reaches almost the same value as that of TiO2 stoichiometric film.

  6. [Spectral Characteristics of Si Quantum Dots Embedded in SiN(x) Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Co-Sputtering].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-bo; Yang, Wen; Duan, Liang-fei; Zhang, Li-yuan; Yang, Pei-zhi; Song, Zhao-ning

    2015-07-01

    The silicon-rich SiN(x) films were fabricated on Si(100) substrate and quartz substrate at different substrate temperatures varying from room temperature to 400 degrees C by bipolar pulse ane RF magnetron co-sputtering deposition technique. After deposition, the films were annealed in a nitrogen atmosphere by rapid photothermal annealing at 1050 degrees C for 3 minutes. This thermal step allows the formation of the silicon quantum dots. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to analyze the bonding configurations, microstructures and luminescence properties of the films. The experimental results showed that: silicon-rich Si-N bonds were found in Fourier transform infrared spectra, suggesting that the silicon-rich SiN, films were successfully prepared; when the substrate temperature was not lower than 200 degrees C, the Raman spectra of the films showed the transverse optical mode of Si-Si vibration, while the significant diffraction peaks of Si(111) and Si(311) were shown in grazing incidence X-ray diffraction spectra, confirming the formation of silicon quantum dots; our work indicated that there was an optimal substrate temperature (300 degrees C), which could significantly increase the amount and the crystalline volume fraction of silicon quantum dots; three visible photoluminescence bands can be obtained for both 30 degrees C sample and 400 degrees C sample, and in combination with Raman results, the emission peaks were reasonably explained by using the quantum confinement effect and radiative recombination defect state of Si nanocrystals; the average size of the silicon quantum dots is 3.5 and 3.4 nm for the 300 degrees C sample and 400 degrees C sample, respectively. These results are useful for optimizing the fabrication parameters of silicon quantum dots embedded in SiN. thin films and have valuable implications for silicon based photoelectric device

  7. The use of segmented cathodes to determine the spoke current density distribution in high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Poolcharuansin, Phitsanu; Estrin, Francis Lockwood; Bradley, James W.

    2015-04-28

    The localized target current density associated with quasi-periodic ionization zones (spokes) has been measured in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge using an array of azimuthally separated and electrical isolated probes incorporated into a circular aluminum target. For a particular range of operating conditions (pulse energies up to 2.2 J and argon pressures from 0.2 to 1.9 Pa), strong oscillations in the probe current density are seen with amplitudes up to 52% above a base value. These perturbations, identified as spokes, travel around the discharge above the target in the E×B direction. Using phase information from the angularly separated probes, the spoke drift speeds, angular frequencies, and mode number have been determined. Generally, at low HiPIMS pulse energies E{sub p} < 0.8 J, spokes appear to be chaotic in nature (with random arrival times), however as E{sub p} increases, coherent spokes are observed with velocities between 6.5 and 10 km s{sup −1} and mode numbers m = 3 or above. At E{sub p} > 1.8 J, the plasma becomes spoke-free. The boundaries between chaotic, coherent, and no-spoke regions are weakly dependent on pressure. During each HiPIMS pulse, the spoke velocities increase by about 50%. Such an observation is explained by considering spoke velocities to be determined by the critical ionization velocity, which changes as the plasma composition changes during the pulse. From the shape of individual current density oscillations, it appears that the leading edge of the spoke is associated with a slow increase in local current density to the target and the rear with a more rapid decrease. The measurements show that the discharge current density associated with individual spokes is broadly spread over a wide region of the target.

  8. [Spectral Characteristics of Si Quantum Dots Embedded in SiN(x) Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Co-Sputtering].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-bo; Yang, Wen; Duan, Liang-fei; Zhang, Li-yuan; Yang, Pei-zhi; Song, Zhao-ning

    2015-07-01

    The silicon-rich SiN(x) films were fabricated on Si(100) substrate and quartz substrate at different substrate temperatures varying from room temperature to 400 degrees C by bipolar pulse ane RF magnetron co-sputtering deposition technique. After deposition, the films were annealed in a nitrogen atmosphere by rapid photothermal annealing at 1050 degrees C for 3 minutes. This thermal step allows the formation of the silicon quantum dots. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to analyze the bonding configurations, microstructures and luminescence properties of the films. The experimental results showed that: silicon-rich Si-N bonds were found in Fourier transform infrared spectra, suggesting that the silicon-rich SiN, films were successfully prepared; when the substrate temperature was not lower than 200 degrees C, the Raman spectra of the films showed the transverse optical mode of Si-Si vibration, while the significant diffraction peaks of Si(111) and Si(311) were shown in grazing incidence X-ray diffraction spectra, confirming the formation of silicon quantum dots; our work indicated that there was an optimal substrate temperature (300 degrees C), which could significantly increase the amount and the crystalline volume fraction of silicon quantum dots; three visible photoluminescence bands can be obtained for both 30 degrees C sample and 400 degrees C sample, and in combination with Raman results, the emission peaks were reasonably explained by using the quantum confinement effect and radiative recombination defect state of Si nanocrystals; the average size of the silicon quantum dots is 3.5 and 3.4 nm for the 300 degrees C sample and 400 degrees C sample, respectively. These results are useful for optimizing the fabrication parameters of silicon quantum dots embedded in SiN. thin films and have valuable implications for silicon based photoelectric device

  9. SiNx Coatings Deposited by Reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Process Parameters Influencing the Nitrogen Content.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Susann; Hänninen, Tuomas; Goyenola, Cecilia; Wissting, Jonas; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Goebbels, Nico; Tobler, Markus; Högberg, Hans

    2016-08-10

    Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (rHiPIMS) was used to deposit silicon nitride (SiNx) coatings for biomedical applications. The SiNx growth and plasma characterization were conducted in an industrial coater, using Si targets and N2 as reactive gas. The effects of different N2-to-Ar flow ratios between 0 and 0.3, pulse frequencies, target power settings, and substrate temperatures on the discharge and the N content of SiNx coatings were investigated. Plasma ion mass spectrometry shows high amounts of ionized isotopes during the initial part of the pulse for discharges with low N2-to-Ar flow ratios of <0.16, while signals from ionized molecules rise with the N2-to-Ar flow ratio at the pulse end and during pulse-off times. Langmuir probe measurements show electron temperatures of 2-3 eV for nonreactive discharges and 5.0-6.6 eV for discharges in transition mode. The SiNx coatings were characterized with respect to their composition, chemical bond structure, density, and mechanical properties by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity, X-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation, respectively. The SiNx deposition processes and coating properties are mainly influenced by the N2-to-Ar flow ratio and thus by the N content in the SiNx films and to a lower extent by the HiPIMS frequencies and power settings as well as substrate temperatures. Increasing N2-to-Ar flow ratios lead to decreasing growth rates, while the N content, coating densities, residual stresses, and the hardness increase. These experimental findings were corroborated by density functional theory calculations of precursor species present during rHiPIMS. PMID:27414283

  10. Structural and dielectric studies of Co doped MgTiO3 thin films fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, T. Santhosh; Gogoi, P.; Thota, S.; Pamu, D.

    2014-06-01

    We report the structural, dielectric and leakage current properties of Co doped MgTiO3 thin films deposited on platinized silicon (Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The role of oxygen mixing percentage (OMP) on the growth, morphology, electrical and dielectric properties of the thin films has been investigated. A preferred orientation of grains along (110) direction has been observed with increasing the OMP. Such evolution of the textured growth is explained on the basis of the orientation factor analysis followed the Lotgering model. (Mg1-xCox)TiO3 (x = 0.05) thin films exhibits a maximum relative dielectric permittivity of ɛr = 12.20 and low loss (tan δ ˜ 1.2 × 10-3) over a wide range of frequencies for 75% OMP. The role of electric field frequency (f) and OMP on the ac-conductivity of (Mg0.95Co0.05)TiO3 have been studied. A progressive increase in the activation energy (Ea) and relative permittivity ɛr values have been noticed up to 75% of OMP, beyond which the properties starts deteriorate. The I-V characteristics reveals that the leakage current density decreases from 9.93 × 10-9 to 1.14 × 10-9 A/cm2 for OMP 0% to 75%, respectively for an electric field strength of 250 kV/cm. Our experimental results reveal up to that OMP ≥ 50% the leakage current mechanism is driven by the ohmic conduction, below which it is dominated by the schottky emission.

  11. Improvement of adhesion and barrier properties of biomedical stainless steel by deposition of YSZ coatings using RF magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez-Hernández, Z.E.; Domínguez-Crespo, M.A.; Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Onofre-Bustamante, E.; Andraca Adame, J.; Dorantes-Rosales, H.

    2014-05-01

    The AISI 316L stainless steel (SS) has been widely used in both artificial knee and hip joints in biomedical applications. In the present study, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ, ZrO{sub 2} + 8% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films were deposited on AISI 316L SS by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering using different power densities (50–250 W) and deposition times (30–120 min) from a YSZ target. The crystallographic orientation and surface morphology were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of the surface modification on the corrosion performance of AISI 316L SS were evaluated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution using an electrochemical test on both the virgin and coated samples. The YSZ coatings have a (111) preferred orientation during crystal growth along the c-axis for short deposition times (30–60 min), whereas a polycrystalline structure forms during deposition times from 90 to 120 min. The corrosion protective character of the YSZ coatings depends on the crystal size and film thickness. A significant increase in adhesion and corrosion resistance by at least a factor of 46 and a higher breakdown potential were obtained for the deposited coatings at 200 W (120 min). - Highlights: • Well-formed and protective YSZ coatings were achieved on AISI 316L SS substrates. • Films grown at high power and long deposition time have polycrystalline structures. • The crystal size varies from ∼ 5 to 30 nm as both power and deposition time increased. • The differences of corrosion resistance are attributed to internal film structure.

  12. A parametric model for reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozák, Tomáš; Vlček, Jaroslav

    2016-02-01

    We present a time-dependent parametric model for reactive HiPIMS deposition of films. Specific features of HiPIMS discharges and a possible increase in the density of the reactive gas in front of the reactive gas inlets placed between the target and the substrate are considered in the model. The model makes it possible to calculate the compound fractions in two target layers and in one substrate layer, and the deposition rate of films at fixed partial pressures of the reactive and inert gas. A simplified relation for the deposition rate of films prepared using a reactive HiPIMS is presented. We used the model to simulate controlled reactive HiPIMS depositions of stoichiometric \\text{Zr}{{\\text{O}}2} films, which were recently carried out in our laboratories with two different configurations of the {{\\text{O}}2} inlets in front of the sputtered target. The repetition frequency was 500 Hz at the deposition-averaged target power densities of 5 Wcm-2and 50 Wcm-2 with a pulse-averaged target power density up to 2 kWcm-2. The pulse durations were 50 μs and 200 μs. Our model calculations show that the to-substrate {{\\text{O}}2} inlet provides systematically lower compound fractions in the target surface layer and higher compound fractions in the substrate surface layer, compared with the to-target {{\\text{O}}2} inlet. The low compound fractions in the target surface layer (being approximately 10% at the deposition-averaged target power density of 50 Wcm-2 and the pulse duration of 200 μs) result in high deposition rates of the films produced, which are in agreement with experimental values.

  13. Deposition of NiFe(200) and NiFe(111) textured films onto Si/SiO2 substrates by DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhumaliev, A. S.; Nikulin, Yu. V.; Filimonov, Yu. A.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of substrate temperature T sub and bias voltage U bias on the texture of NiFe films with thickness d ˜ 30-340 nm deposited by DC magnetron sputtering onto Si(111)/SiO2 substrates under working gas pressure ˜ 0.2 Pa has been investigated. It has been demonstrated that films grown at room substrate temperature have the (111) texture that is refined under a negative bias voltage. The deposition of films onto a grounded ( U bias ˜ 0) substrate heated to T sub ˜ 440-640 K results in the formation of textured NiFe(200) films.

  14. High quality boron carbon nitride/ZnO-nanorods p-n heterojunctions based on magnetron sputtered boron carbon nitride films

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, J. C.; Jha, S. K. E-mail: apwjzh@cityu.edu.hk; Wang, B. Q.; Jelenković, E. V.; Bello, I.; Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.; Martinu, L.; Zhang, W. J. E-mail: apwjzh@cityu.edu.hk

    2014-11-10

    Boron carbon nitride (BCN) films were synthesized on Si (100) and fused silica substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from a B{sub 4}C target in an Ar/N{sub 2} gas mixture. The BCN films were amorphous, and they exhibited an optical band gap of ∼1.0 eV and p-type conductivity. The BCN films were over-coated with ZnO nanorod arrays using hydrothermal synthesis to form BCN/ZnO-nanorods p-n heterojunctions, exhibiting a rectification ratio of 1500 at bias voltages of ±5 V.

  15. Deposition and characterization of zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering with linear gas ion source and bias voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavitha, A.; Subramanian, N. Sankara; Loganathan, S.; Kannan, R.

    2014-04-01

    Zirconium nitride thin films have been prepared on stainless steel substrate (304L grade) by reactive cylindrical magnetron sputtering method with Gas Ion Source (GIS) and bias voltage using optimized coating parameters. The structure and surface morphologies of the ZrN films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The adhesion property of ZrN thin film has been increased due to the GIS. The coating exhibits better adhesion strength up to 10 N whereas the ZrN thin film with bias voltage exhibits adhesion up to 500 mN.

  16. Deposition and characterization of zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering with linear gas ion source and bias voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Kavitha, A.; Kannan, R.; Subramanian, N. Sankara; Loganathan, S.

    2014-04-24

    Zirconium nitride thin films have been prepared on stainless steel substrate (304L grade) by reactive cylindrical magnetron sputtering method with Gas Ion Source (GIS) and bias voltage using optimized coating parameters. The structure and surface morphologies of the ZrN films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The adhesion property of ZrN thin film has been increased due to the GIS. The coating exhibits better adhesion strength up to 10 N whereas the ZrN thin film with bias voltage exhibits adhesion up to 500 mN.

  17. Room-temperature rf-magnetron sputter-deposited W-doped indium oxide: decoupling the influence of W dopant and O vacancies on the film properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samatov, Ivan G.; Jeppesen, Bjarke R.; Larsen, Arne Nylandsted; Ram, Sanjay K.

    2016-04-01

    Tungsten-doped indium oxide (IWO) thin films were deposited at room temperature using rf-magnetron sputtering. The optical, electrical, and structural properties of the IWO films were studied as functions of the O2-dilution fraction in the Ar sputtering gas. The W-doping level, and contributions of intrinsic oxygen vacancies and W dopant to the free carrier concentration were studied. Windows of optimum deposition conditions are demonstrated where amorphous and smooth-surfaced IWO films are obtained with low resistivity of 3.5 × 10-4 Ω cm, high mobility of 45 cm2 v-1 s-1, and high optical transparency (visible and NIR transparencies of 83 and 80 %, respectively). The observed optoelectronic properties are discussed in light of the underlying electron transport mechanisms.

  18. Heteroepitaxial growth of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin film on sapphire substrate by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Ning E-mail: n.song@student.unsw.edu.au; Huang, Yidan; Li, Wei; Huang, Shujuan; Hao, Xiaojing E-mail: n.song@student.unsw.edu.au; Wang, Yu; Hu, Yicong

    2014-03-03

    The heteroepitaxy of tetragonal Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films on hexagonal sapphire (0001) single crystal substrates is successfully obtained by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The sputtered CZTS film has a mirror-like smooth surface with a root mean square roughness of about 5.44 nm. X-ray θ-2θ scans confirm that CZTS film is (112) oriented on sapphire with an out of plane arrangement of CZTS (112) ‖ sapphire (0001). X-ray Phi scan further illustrates an in plane ordering of CZTS [201{sup ¯}] ‖ sapphire [21{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}0]. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy image of the interface region clearly shows that the CZTS thin film epitaxially grows on the sapphire (0001) substrate. The band gap of the film is found to be approximately 1.51 eV.

  19. Comparison of ZnO thin films grown on a polycrystalline 3C-SiC buffer layer by RF magnetron sputtering and a sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Duy-Thach; Chung, Gwiy-Sang

    2011-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on a polycrystalline (poly) 3C-SiC buffer layer using RF magnetron sputtering and a sol-gel method. The post-deposition annealing was performed on ZnO thin films prepared using both methods. The formation of ZnO piezoelectric thin films with less residual stress was due to a close lattice mismatch of the ZnO and SiC layers as obtained by the sputtering method. Nanocrystalline, porous ZnO film prepared using the sol-gel method showed strong ultraviolet UV emission at a wavelength of 380 nm. The 3C-SiC buffer layer improved the optical and piezoelectric properties of the ZnO film produced by the two deposition methods. Moreover, the different structures of the ZnO films on the 3C-SiC intermediate layer caused by the different deposition techniques were also considered and discussed.

  20. Enhanced quality of epitaxial AlN thin films on 6H-SiC by ultra-high-vacuum ion-assisted reactive dc magnetron sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungasmita, S.; Birch, J.; Persson, P. O. A.˚.; Järrendahl, K.; Hultman, L.

    2000-01-01

    Epitaxial AlN thin films have been grown on 6H-SiC substrates by ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) ion-assisted reactive dc magnetron sputtering. The low-energy ion-assisted growth (Ei=17-27 eV) results in an increasing surface mobility, promoting domain-boundary annihilation and epitaxial growth. Domain widths increased from 42 to 135 nm and strained-layer epitaxy was observed in this energy range. For Ei>52 eV, an amorphous interfacial layer of AlN was formed on the SiC, which inhibited epitaxial growth. Using UHV condition and very pure nitrogen sputtering gas yielded reduced impurity levels in the films (O: 3.5×1018cm-3). Analysis techniques used in this study are in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction, secondary-ion-mass spectroscopy, atomic-force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and cross-section high-resolution electron microscopy.