Science.gov

Sample records for magnolia bark extract

  1. Magnolia officinalis (Hou Po) bark extract stimulates the Nrf2-pathway in hepatocytes and protects against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Rajgopal, Arun; Missler, Stephen R; Scholten, Jeffery D

    2016-12-04

    The highly aromatic bark of Magnolia officinalis Rehder and EH Wilson, (magnolia bark) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine where it is known as Hou Po. Historically the bark of the tree has been used for treating variety of disorders the most common use of magnolia bark in traditional prescription has been to treat stress and anxiety disorders. Till date it is not clear regarding the fundamental cellular pathway it modulates. NRF2 signaling has emerged as the central pathway that protects cells from variety of stressors this led us to hypothesize that basis for magnolia bark's effects could be via activating NRF2 pathway. We utilized variety of biochemical procedures like luciferase reporter assay, enzyme induction, gene expression to determine NRF2 inducing activity by magnolia bark extract and its significance. Further we identified the phytochemicals inducing this activity using bio-directed fractionation procedure. In this study, we demonstrate that magnolia bark extract activates Nrf2-dependent gene expression and protects against hydrogen peroxide mediated oxidative stress in hepatocytes. We further identified through HPLC fractionation and mass spectroscopy that magnolol, 4-methoxy honokiol and honokiol are the active phytochemicals inducing the Nrf2-mediated activity. This could be the molecular basis for its numerous beneficial activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of zinc lactate and magnolia bark extract added tablets on volatile sulfur-containing compounds in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Porciani, Pier Francesco; Grandini, Simone; Chazine, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    A controlled, clinical, double-blind study was conducted to assess the efficacy of sugar-free tablets containing zinc lactate and magnolia bark extract (MBE) on oral volatile sulfur-containing compounds (VSC) versus placebo tablets for two hours. In order to join the study, subjects had to have at least 24 teeth, no report of oral and systemic diseases, and no removable dentures. All 128 eligible participants had to avoid any professional oral hygiene, refrain from taking medicines for two weeks, be not menstruating, and not brush their teeth and tongue, smoke, drink alcohol, coffee or tea, eat onion, garlic, or licorice for a six-hour period before the visit and during the test. Moreover, to join the protocol, they had to show a VSC score of ≥ 75 ppb at the baseline measurement. Each qualified subject was placed in the test or the control group using a table of random numbers. The test tablet (0.7 g) contained 0.17 mg of zinc, in the form of zinc lactate, and 0.84 mg magnolia bark extract; the control tablet was identical, but without these active agents. The OralChroma2 device was utilized to evaluate total oral VSC. Their levels were recorded at baseline, after eight minutes of sucking two tablets in succession, after one hour, and after two hours. Data were analyzed with SPSS software and the level of significance was set at α = 0.05. One hundred subjects completed the trial (50 in the control group and 50 in the test group); 52 men and 48 women, mean age 38. None reported problems linked to zinc lactate or magnolia bark extract. The mean percentage reduction from baseline at the end of eight minutes of tablet sucking was 39% in the control group (p < 0.001) and 62% in the test group (p < 0.001); one hour later it was 6% in the control group and 30% in the test group (p < 0.001), and two hours later it was 2% in the control group and 18% in the test group (p < 0.001). The comparisons between the two groups after baseline adjustment showed a statistically

  3. Anti-emetic principles of Magnolia obovata bark and Zingiber officinale rhizome.

    PubMed

    Kawai, T; Kinoshita, K; Koyama, K; Takahashi, K

    1994-02-01

    Magnolol and honokiol, biphenyl compounds, were isolated as anti-emetic principles from the methanolic extract of Magnolia obovata bark. [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-shogaols and [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-gingerols were isolated from the methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome as anti-emetic principles. Some phenyl-propanoids with allyl side-chains were found to show the same activity. They inhibited the emetic action induced by the oral administration of copper sulfate pentahydrate to leopard and ranid frogs.

  4. The effect of zinc acetate and magnolia bark extract added to chewing gum on volatile sulfur-containing compounds in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Porciani, Pier Francesco; Grandini, Simone

    2012-01-01

    A controlled, clinical, double-blind study was conducted to assess the efficacy of a sugar-free chewing gum containing zinc acetate and magnolia bark extract (MBE) on oral volatile sulfur-containing compounds (VSC) versus a placebo sugar-free chewing gum for two hours. To participate in the study, subjects had to have at least 24 of their teeth, no report of oral and systemic diseases, and no removable dentures. All 168 eligible participants had to avoid any professional oral hygiene, refrain from taking medicine for two weeks, and not be menstruating. They were also instructed not to brush their teeth and tongue, smoke, drink alcohol, or eat onion, garlic, or licorice for the six-hour period before the visit and during the test. Moreover, to join the protocol, they had to show a VSC score of > or = 75 ppb at the baseline measurement. One-hundred and twenty-three subjects (67 men and 56 women, mean age 37) met the criteria at baseline and were entered into either the test or control group by assignment from a table of randomized numbers. The test chewing gum (2.23 g) contained zinc acetate 0.012% and magnolia bark extract 0.15% in weight; the control gum was equivalent without these active agents. The OralChroma device was utilized to evaluate total oral VSC. Their levels were recorded at baseline, after ten minutes of mastication, after one hour, and after two hours. Data were analyzed with SPSS software and the level of significance was set at alpha = 0.05. One-hundred and twenty-three subjects completed the trial (62 in the control group and 61 in the test group); none reported problems linked to zinc acetate or magnolia bark extract. The mean percentage reductions from baseline at the end of the 10-minute chewing were 31.2% in the control group (p < 0.05) and 50.9% in the test group (p < 0.05). One hour later the reductions were 6.9% in the control group and 27.6% in the test group (p < 0.05); two hours later the reductions were 2.3% in the control group and 13

  5. Effects of neolignans from the stem bark of Magnolia obovata on plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Choi, N H; Choi, G J; Min, B-S; Jang, K S; Choi, Y H; Kang, M S; Park, M S; Choi, J E; Bae, B K; Kim, J-C

    2009-06-01

    To characterize antifungal principles from the methanol extract of Magnolia obovata and to evaluate their antifungal activities against various plant pathogenic fungi. Four neolignans were isolated from stem bark of M. obovata as antifungal principles and identified as magnolol, honokiol, 4-methoxyhonokiol and obovatol. In mycelial growth inhibition assay, both magnolol and honokiol displayed more potent antifungal activity than 4-methoxyhonokiol and obovatol. Both magnolol and honokiol showed similar in vivo antifungal spectrum against seven plant diseases tested; both compounds effectively suppressed the development of rice blast, tomato late blight, wheat leaf rust and red pepper anthracnose. 4-Methoxyhonokiol and obovatol were highly active to only rice blast and wheat leaf rust respectively. The extract of M. obovata and four neolignans had potent in vivo antifungal activities against plant pathogenic fungi. Neolignans from Magnolia spp. can be used and suggested as a novel antifungal lead compound for the development of new fungicide and directly as a natural fungicide for the control of plant diseases such as rice blast and wheat leaf rust.

  6. Antidepressant-like synergism of extracts from magnolia bark and ginger rhizome alone and in combination in mice.

    PubMed

    Yi, Li-Tao; Xu, Qun; Li, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Lei; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2009-06-15

    Magnolia bark and ginger rhizome is a drug pair in many prescriptions for treatment of mental disorders in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, compatibility and synergism mechanism of two herbs on antidepressant actions have not been reported. The aim of this study was to approach the rationale of the drug pair in TCM. We evaluated antidepressant-like effects of mixture of honokiol and magnolol (HMM), polysaccharides (PMB) from magnolia bark, essential oil (OGR) and polysaccharides (PGR) from ginger rhizome alone, and the possibility of synergistic interactions in their combinations in the mouse forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NE) levels in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum were also examined. 30 mg/kg HMM decreased immobility in the FST and TST in mice after one- and two-week treatment. OGR (19.5 or 39 mg/kg) alone was ineffective. The combination of an ineffective dose of 39 mg/kg OGR with 15 mg/kg HMM was the most effective and produced a synergistic action on behaviors after two-week treatment. Significant increase in 5-HT and synergistic increase in NE in prefrontal cortex were observed after co-administration of HMM with OGR. These results demonstrated that HMM was the principal component of this drug pair, whereas OGR served as adjuvant fraction. Compatibility of HMM with OGR was suggested to exert synergistic antidepressant actions by attenuating abnormalities in serotonergic and noradrenergic system functions. Therefore, we confirmed the rationality of drug pair in clinical application and provided a novel perspective in drug pair of TCM researches.

  7. Biosynthesis of flat silver nanoflowers: from Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract to simulation solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xiaolian; Huang, Jiale; Wu, Lingfeng; Sun, Daohua; Li, Qingbiao

    2014-03-01

    Flat Ag nanoflowers were directly synthesized from the bioreduction of AgNO3 using Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract without any additional stabilizer or protective agent at room temperature. Effects of concentrations of the Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract on the Ag nanostructures were investigated. The main components containing flavone, polyphenol, protein, and reducing sugar in the plant extract were thoroughly determined before and after the reaction, and the dialysis experiments were also conducted. The results of components analysis and dialysis showed that gallic acid representing polyphenols played an important role in the biosynthesis of silver nanoplates. Trisodium citrate combined gallic acid solution, instead of Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract, was employed and successfully simulated the biosynthesis process of the flat Ag nanoflowers.

  8. Magterpenoids A-C, Three Polycyclic Meroterpenoids with PTP1B Inhibitory Activity from the Bark of Magnolia officinalis var. biloba.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan; Li, Chuang-Jun; Ma, Jie; Chen, Fang-You; Li, Li; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Ye, Fei; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2018-06-15

    Magterpenoid A (1), possessing a rare 4,6,11-trioxatricyclo[5.3.1.0 1,5 ]undecane framework with an irregular monoterpenoid moiety, magterpenoid B (2), with an unprecedented 6/6/6/6 polycyclic skeleton, and magterpenoid C (3), a novel terpenoid quinone with a C6-C3 unit, were isolated from the bark of Magnolia officinalis var. biloba. Plausible biogenetic pathways of 1-3 are presented. Compounds 1 and 3 exhibited significant PTP1B inhibitory activities with IC 50 values of 1.44 and 0.81 μM, respectively.

  9. Inhibition of melanogenesis and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Magnolia grandiflora L. flower is wildly used in Asian as a traditional herbal medication. The purpose of the study was to investigate the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract. In the study, the inhibitory effects of M. grandiflora L. flower extract on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Meanwhile, the antioxidative capacity of the flower extract was also investigated. Results Our results revealed that M. grandiflora L. flower extract inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 =11.1%; v/v), the flower extract also effectively suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 13.6%; v/v) and decreased the amount of melanin (IC50 = 25.6%; v/v) in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells. Protein expression level of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) were also decreased by the flower extract. Additionally, antioxidant capacities such as ABTS+ free radical scavenging activity, reducing capacity and total phenolic content of the flower extract were increased in a dose-dependent pattern. Conclusions Our results concluded that M. grandiflora L. flower extract decreased the expression of tyrosinase and TRP-1, and then inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. The flower extract also show antioxidant capacities and depleted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hence, M. grandiflora L. flower extract could be applied as a type of dermatological whitening agent in skin care products. PMID:22672352

  10. Inhibition of melanogenesis and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Hsieh, Wan-Yu; Niu, Yu-Lin; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-06-06

    Magnolia grandiflora L. flower is wildly used in Asian as a traditional herbal medication. The purpose of the study was to investigate the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract. In the study, the inhibitory effects of M. grandiflora L. flower extract on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Meanwhile, the antioxidative capacity of the flower extract was also investigated. Our results revealed that M. grandiflora L. flower extract inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC(50) = 11.1%; v/v), the flower extract also effectively suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity (IC(50) = 13.6%; v/v) and decreased the amount of melanin (IC(50) = 25.6%; v/v) in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells. Protein expression level of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) were also decreased by the flower extract. Additionally, antioxidant capacities such as ABTS(+) free radical scavenging activity, reducing capacity and total phenolic content of the flower extract were increased in a dose-dependent pattern. Our results concluded that M. grandiflora L. flower extract decreased the expression of tyrosinase and TRP-1, and then inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. The flower extract also show antioxidant capacities and depleted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hence, M. grandiflora L. flower extract could be applied as a type of dermatological whitening agent in skin care products.

  11. Polyethylene glycol-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Fan, Tao; Hu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lijin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a kind of green solvent named polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed for the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. The effects of PEG molecular weight, PEG concentration, sample size, pH, ultrasonic power and extraction time on the extraction of magnolol and honokiol were investigated to optimise the extraction conditions. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the PEG-based UAE supplied higher extraction efficiencies of magnolol and honokiol than the ethanol-based UAE and traditional ethanol-reflux extraction. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient (R(2)), repeatability (relative standard deviation, n = 6) and recovery confirmed the validation of the proposed extraction method, which were 0.9993-0.9996, 3.1-4.6% and 92.3-106.8%, respectively.

  12. Analysis of lignans in Magnoliae Flos by turbulent flow chromatography with online solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuan; Chen, Cen; Ye, Xiaolan; Song, Fenyun; Fan, Guorong; Wu, Fuhai

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a method coupling turbulent flow chromatography with online solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for analyzing the lignans in Magnoliae Flos. By the online pretreatment of turbulent flow chromatography solid-phase extraction, the impurities removal and analytes concentration were automatically processed, and the lignans were separated rapidly and well. Seven lignans of Magnoliae Flos including epieudesmin, magnolin, 1-irioresinol-B-dimethyl ether, epi-magnolin, fargesin aschantin, and demethoxyaschantin were identified by comparing their retention behavior, UV spectra, and mass spectra with those of reference substances or literature data. The developed method was validated, and the good results showed that the method was not only automatic and rapid, but also accurate and reliable. The turbulent flow chromatography with online solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method holds a high potential to become an effective method for the quality control of lignans in Magnoliae Flos and a useful tool for the analysis of other complex mixtures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Anti-biofilm and bactericidal effects of magnolia bark-derived magnolol and honokiol on Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Sakaue, Yuuki; Domon, Hisanori; Oda, Masataka; Takenaka, Shoji; Kubo, Miwa; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Okiji, Takashi; Terao, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects people of all ages and is a worldwide health concern. Streptococcus mutans is a major cariogenic bacterium because of its ability to form biofilm and induce an acidic environment. In this study, the antibacterial activities of magnolol and honokiol, the main constituents of the bark of magnolia plants, toward planktonic cell and biofilm of S. mutans were examined and compared with those of chlorhexidine. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of magnolol, honokiol and chlorhexidine for S. mutans were 10, 10 and 0.25 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, each agent showed bactericidal activity against S. mutans planktonic cells and inhibited biofilm formation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Magnolol (50 µg/mL) had greater bactericidal activity against S. mutans biofilm than honokiol (50 µg/mL) and chlorhexidine (500 µg/mL) at 5 min after exposure, while all showed scant activity against biofilm at 30 s. Furthermore; chlorhexidine (0.5-500 µg/mL) exhibited high cellular toxicity for the gingival epithelial cell line Ca9-22 at 1 hr, whereas magnolol (50 µg/mL) and honokiol (50 µg/mL) did not. Thus; it was found that magnolol has antimicrobial activities against planktonic and biofilm cells of S. mutans. Magnolol may be a candidate for prevention and management of dental caries. © 2015 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Efficacy and Safety of White Willow Bark (Salix alba) Extracts.

    PubMed

    Shara, Mohd; Stohs, Sidney J

    2015-08-01

    Willow bark extract has been used for thousands of years as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic. In spite of its long history of use, relatively few human and animal studies have been published that confirm anecdotal observations. A small number of clinical studies have been conducted that support the use of willow bark extracts in chronic lower back and joint pain and osteoarthritis. Willow bark extracts also are widely used in sports performance and weight loss products presumably because of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, although no human studies have been published that specifically and directly document beneficial effects. In recent years, various in vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory activity of willow bark extract is associated with down regulation of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-kappa B. Although willow bark extracts are generally standardized to salicin, other ingredients in the extracts including other salicylates as well as polyphenols, and flavonoids may also play prominent roles in the therapeutic actions. Adverse effects appear to be minimal as compared to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin. The primary cause for concern may relate to allergic reactions in salicylate-sensitive individuals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Valorisation of softwood bark through extraction of utilizable chemicals. A review.

    PubMed

    Jablonsky, M; Nosalova, J; Sladkova, A; Haz, A; Kreps, F; Valka, J; Miertus, S; Frecer, V; Ondrejovic, M; Sima, J; Surina, I

    2017-11-01

    Softwood bark is an important source for producing chemicals and materials as well as bioenergy. Extraction is regarded as a key technology for obtaining chemicals in general, and valorizing bark as a source of such chemicals in particular. In this paper, properties of 237 compounds identified in various studies dealing with extraction of softwood bark were described. Finally, some challenges and perspectives on the production of chemicals from bark are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

    2008-01-01

    Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

  17. Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom.

    PubMed

    Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents.

  18. Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Methods Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. Results At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. Conclusions It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents. PMID:25183127

  19. Removal of Water-Soluble Extractives Improves the Enzymatic Digestibility of Steam-Pretreated Softwood Barks.

    PubMed

    Frankó, Balázs; Carlqvist, Karin; Galbe, Mats; Lidén, Gunnar; Wallberg, Ola

    2018-02-01

    Softwood bark contains a large amounts of extractives-i.e., soluble lipophilic (such as resin acids) and hydrophilic components (phenolic compounds, stilbenes). The effects of the partial removal of water-soluble extractives before acid-catalyzed steam pretreatment on enzymatic digestibility were assessed for two softwood barks-Norway spruce and Scots pine. A simple hot water extraction step removed more than half of the water-soluble extractives from the barks, which improved the enzymatic digestibility of both steam-pretreated materials. This effect was more pronounced for the spruce than the pine bark, as evidenced by the 30 and 11% glucose yield improvement, respectively, in the enzymatic digestibility. Furthermore, analysis of the chemical composition showed that the acid-insoluble lignin content of the pretreated materials decreased when water-soluble extractives were removed prior to steam pretreatment. This can be explained by a decreased formation of water-insoluble "pseudo-lignin" from water-soluble bark phenolics during the acid-catalyzed pretreatment, which otherwise results in distorted lignin analysis and may also contribute to the impaired enzymatic digestibility of the barks. Thus, this study advocates the removal of extractives as the first step in the processing of bark or bark-rich materials in a sugar platform biorefinery.

  20. DNA extraction and amplification from contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials.

  1. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of Cordia dichotoma (Forster F.) bark extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nariya, Pankaj B.; Bhalodia, Nayan R.; Shukla, V. J.; Acharya, R. N.

    2011-01-01

    Cordia dichotoma Forst.f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shlesmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeias. Present study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of Cordia dichotoma bark. Antibacterial activity of methanol and butanol extracts of the bark was carried out against two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two Gram positive bacteria (St. pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The antifungal activity of the extracts was carried out against three common pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, A.clavatus, and Candida albicans). Zone of inhibition of extracts was compared with that of different standards like Amplicilline, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and Nystain and Greseofulvin for antifungal activity. The extracts showed remarkable inhibition of zone of bacterial growth and fungal growth and the results obtained were comparable with that of standards drugs against the organisms tested. The activity of extracts increased linearly with increase in concentration of extract (mg/ml). The results showed the antibacterial and antifungal activity against the organisms tested. PMID:22661859

  2. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of Cordia dichotoma (Forster F.) bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Nariya, Pankaj B; Bhalodia, Nayan R; Shukla, V J; Acharya, R N

    2011-10-01

    Cordia dichotoma Forst.f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shlesmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeias. Present study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of Cordia dichotoma bark. Antibacterial activity of methanol and butanol extracts of the bark was carried out against two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two Gram positive bacteria (St. pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The antifungal activity of the extracts was carried out against three common pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, A.clavatus, and Candida albicans). Zone of inhibition of extracts was compared with that of different standards like Amplicilline, Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and Nystain and Greseofulvin for antifungal activity. The extracts showed remarkable inhibition of zone of bacterial growth and fungal growth and the results obtained were comparable with that of standards drugs against the organisms tested. The activity of extracts increased linearly with increase in concentration of extract (mg/ml). The results showed the antibacterial and antifungal activity against the organisms tested.

  3. 75 FR 29656 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Magnolia, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ...-1179; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASW-35] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Magnolia, AR AGENCY: Federal... airspace for Magnolia, AR. Decommissioning of the Magnolia non-directional beacon (NDB) at Magnolia Municipal Airport, Magnolia, AR has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of...

  4. DNA Extraction and Amplification from Contemporary Polynesian Bark-Cloth

    PubMed Central

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. PMID:23437166

  5. In Vitro Dermo-Cosmetic Evaluation of Bark Extracts from Common Temperate Trees.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jane; Angelis, Apostolis; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Rosalia, Michalea; Abedini, Amin; Bakiri, Ali; Reynaud, Romain; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Gangloff, Sophie C; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2016-10-01

    Wood residues produced from forestry activities represent an interesting source of biologically active, high value-added secondary metabolites. In this study, 30 extracts from 10 barks of deciduous and coniferous tree species were investigated for their potential dermo-cosmetic use. The extracts were obtained from Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Prunus avium, Acer pseudoplatanus, Fraxinus excelsior, Populus robusta, Larix decidua, Picea abies , and Populus tremula after three successive solid/liquid extractions of the barks with n- heptane, methanol, and methanol/water. All extracts were evaluated for their radical scavenging capacity, for their elastase, collagenase, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities, as well as for their antibacterial activity against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus . In parallel, the global metabolite profiles of all extracts were established by 1D and 2D NMR and related to their biological activity. The results showed that the methanol extracts of Q. robur, A. glutinosa, L. decidua , and P. abies barks exhibit particularly high activities on most bioassays, suggesting their promising use as active ingredients in the dermo-cosmetic industry. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Cinnamon Bark, Honey, and Their Combination Effects against Acne-Causing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Julianti, Elin; Rajah, Kasturi K.; Fidrianny, Irda

    2017-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the major skin bacteria that cause the formation of acne. The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of cinnamon bark, honey, and their combination against acne bacteria. The antibacterial activity of extract of cinnamon bark and honey were investigated against P. acnes and S. epidermidis using disc diffusion. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were attained using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methods. The interaction between cinnamon bark extract and honey was determined using a checkerboards method. The results showed that the MICs of cinnamon bark extract and honey against P. acne were 256 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively, while those against S. epidermidis were 1024 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively. The MBC of cinnamon bark extract against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were more than 2048 µg/mL, whereas the MBC for honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were 100%. The combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis showed additive activity with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) value of 0.625. Therefore, the combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey has potential activity against acne-causing bacteria. PMID:28398231

  7. Antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic, and apoptotic activity of stem bark extracts of Cephalotaxus griffithii Hook. f.

    PubMed

    Moirangthem, Dinesh Singh; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Kasoju, Naresh; Bora, Utpal

    2012-04-03

    Cephalotaxus spp. are known to possess various therapeutic potentials. Cephalotaxus griffithii, however, has not been evaluated for its biological potential. The reason may be the remoteness and inaccessibility of the habitat where it is distributed. The main aim of this study was to: (1) evaluate multiple biological potentials of stem bark of C. griffithii, and (2) identify solvent extract of stem bark of C. griffithii to find the one with the highest specific biological activity. Dried powder of stem bark of C. griffithii was exhaustively extracted serially by soaking in petroleum ether, acetone and methanol to fractionate the chemical constituents into individual fractions or extracts. The extracts were tested for total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant (DPPH radical scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, and reducing power models), antibacterial (disc diffusion assay on six bacterial strains), cytotoxic (MTT assay on HeLa cells), and apoptotic activity (fluorescence microscopy, DNA fragmentation assay, and flow cytometry on HeLa cells). Among the three extracts of stem bark of C. griffithii, the acetone extract contained the highest amount of total phenolics and flavonoids and showed maximum antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic (IC50 of 35.5 ± 0.6 μg/ml; P < 0.05), and apoptotic (46.3 ± 3.6% sub-G0/G1 population; P < 0.05) activity, followed by the methanol and petroleum ether extracts. However, there was no significant difference observed in IC50 values (DPPH scavenging assay) of the acetone and methanol extracts and the positive control (ascorbic acid). In contrast, superoxide radical scavenging assay-based antioxidant activity (IC50) of the acetone and methanol extracts was significantly lower than the positive control (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis suggested that phenolic and flavonoid content present in stem bark of C. griffithii extracts was responsible for the high antioxidant, cytotoxic, and apoptotic activity (P < 0.05). Stem bark

  8. Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Bark Extract: Cardiovascular Activity and Myocyte Protection against Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Chiarini, Alberto; Micucci, Matteo; Ioan, Pierfranco; Fimognari, Carmela; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Comandini, Patrizia; Hrelia, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    This work was aimed at evaluating the cardioprotective effects of Castanea sativa Mill. (CSM) bark extract characterized in its phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. The study was performed using primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of CSM bark extract and isolated guinea pig left and right atria, left papillary muscle, and aorta to evaluate its direct effect on cholinergic and adrenergic response. In cultured cardiomyocytes the CSM bark extract reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the extract decreased the contraction induced by noradrenaline (1 μM) in guinea pig aortic strips and induced transient negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects without involvement of cholinergic or adrenergic receptors in the guinea pig atria. Our results indicate that CSM bark extract exhibits antioxidant activity and might induce cardioprotective effect. PMID:23533692

  9. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction conditions for preparing lignan-rich extract from Saraca asoca bark using Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shikha; Aeri, Vidhu

    2016-07-01

    Lyoniside is the major constituent of Saraca asoca Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) bark. There is an immediate need to develop an efficient method to isolate its chemical constituents, since it is a therapeutically important plant. A rapid extraction method for lyoniside based on microwave-assisted extraction of S. asoca bark was developed and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Lyoniside was analyzed and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The extraction solvent ratio (%), material solvent ratio (g/ml) and extraction time (min) were optimized using Box-Behnken design (BBD) to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. The optimal conditions were the use of 1:30 material solvent ratio with 70:30 mixture of methanol:water for 10 min duration. The optimized microwave-assisted extraction yielded 9.4 mg/g of lyoniside content in comparison to reflux extraction under identical conditions which yielded 4.2 mg/g of lyoniside content. Under optimum conditions, the experimental values agreed closely with the predicted values. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated a high goodness-of-fit model and the success of the RSM method for optimizing lyoniside extraction from the bark of S. asoca. All the three variables significantly affected the lyoniside content. Increased polarity of solvent medium enhances the lyoniside yield. The present study shows the applicability of microwave-assisted extraction in extraction of lyoniside from S. asoca bark.

  10. Biological screening of Bangladeshi mango mistletoe bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Islam, R; Khurshid Alam, A H M; Hossain, M A; Mosaddik, M A; Sadik, G

    2004-06-01

    The ethyl acetate extract of the Bangladeshi mango mistletoe (Loranthus globosus) bark was found to be most effective against both Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria and it also showed good cytotoxicity with a LC50 10.83 microg/ml. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Guarea kunthiana Bark Extract Enhances the Antimicrobial Activities of Human and Bovine Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Jerjomiceva, Natalja; Seri, Hisham; Yaseen, Ragheda; de Buhr, Nicole; Setzer, William N; Naim, Hassan Y; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren

    2016-06-01

    Guarea kunthiana is used in folk remedies for the treatment of several diseases including microbial infections. The mechanism behind this phenomenon still needs to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of G. kunthiana bark extract on antimicrobial functions of human and bovine neutrophils as the first line of defense against infections. For this aim, neutrophils were isolated from either human or bovine blood and treated with G. kunthiana bark extract. The antimicrobial activity of the neutrophils against Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and Escherichia (E.) coli was tested in a bacterial survival assay and a fluorescence-based phagocytosis assay. Furthermore, the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) was visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy. We show that neutrophils treated with G. kunthiana extract distinctly increased phagocytosis of S. aureus or E. coli. Interestingly, we demonstrate that G. kunthiana bark extract induces the formation of NETs in both cell types. This effect was abolished when treating the cells with diphenyleniodonium chloride (DPI) pointing to a direct implication of the NADPH oxidase-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species in this process. In summary, our data strongly suggest that G. kunthiana bark extract boosts the antimicrobial activities of neutrophils as the first line of defense against invading pathogens.

  12. High-efficient extraction of principal medicinal components from fresh Phellodendron bark (cortex phellodendri).

    PubMed

    Xu, Keqin; He, Gongxiu; Qin, Jieming; Cheng, Xuexiang; He, Hanjie; Zhang, Dangquan; Peng, Wanxi

    2018-05-01

    There are three key medicinal components (phellodendrine, berberine and palmatine) in the extracts of Phellodendron bark, as one of the fundamental herbs of traditional Chinese medicine. Different extraction methods and solvent combinations were investigated to obtain the optimal technologies for high-efficient extraction of these medicinal components. The results showed that combined solvents have higher extracting effect of phellodendrine, berberine and palmatine than single solvent, and the effect of ultrasonic extraction is distinctly better than those of distillation and soxhlet extraction. The hydrochloric acid/methanol-ultrasonic extraction has the best effect for three medicinal components of fresh Phellodendron bark, providing an extraction yield of 103.12 mg/g berberine, 24.41 mg/g phellodendrine, 1.25 mg/g palmatine.

  13. Bark anatomy, chemical composition and ethanol-water extract composition of Anadenanthera peregrina and Anadenanthera colubrina

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Caroline J.; Miranda, Isabel; Quilhó, Teresa; Mori, Fábio Akira; Pereira, Helena

    2017-01-01

    The bark of Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg and Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan were characterized in relation to anatomical and chemical features. The barks were similar and included a thin conducting phloem, a largely dilated and sclerified non-conducting phloem, and a rhyridome with periderms with thin phellem interspersed by cortical tissues. Only small differences between species were observed that cannot be used alone for taxonomic purposes. The summative chemical composition of A. peregrina and A. colubrina was respectively: 8.2% and 7.7% ash; 28.8% and 29.3% extractives; 2.4% and 2.6% suberin; and 18.9% lignin. The monosaccharide composition showed the predominance of glucose (on average 82% of total neutral sugars) and of xylose (9%). The ethanol-water extracts of A. peregrina and A. colubrina barks included a high content of phenolics, respectively: total phenolics 583 and 682 mg GAE/g extract; 148 and 445 mg CE/g extract; tannins 587 and 98 mg CE/g extract. The antioxidant activity was 238 and 269 mg Trolox/g extract. The barks of the Anadenanthera species are a potential source of polar extractives that will represent an important valorization and therefore contribute to improve the overall economic potential and sustainability of A. peregrina and A. colubrina PMID:29281656

  14. An evaluation of yellow-flowering magnolias and magnolia rootstocks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yellow-flowering magnolias were evaluated for flower color, bloom duration and growth rate in USDA Hardiness Zone 6b. Of the thirty selections evaluated, all were reported to have yellow blooms; however, tepal color ranged from light pink with some yellow coloration, to creamy yellow to dark yellow....

  15. Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effects of Magnolia dealbata and its active compounds.

    PubMed

    Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Gonzalez-Espindola, Luis Angel; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Gonzalez-Martinez, Marisela del Rocio; Domínguez, Fabiola; Garcia-Carranca, Alejandro

    2011-08-01

    Multi-drug resistance is of great concern for public health worldwide and necessitates the search for new antimicrobials from sources such as plants. Several Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) species have been reported to exert antimicrobial effects on sensitive and multidrug-resistant microorganisms. However, the antimicrobial properties of Magnolia dealbata have not been experimentally evaluated. The antimicrobial effects of an ethanol extract of Magnolia dealbata seeds (MDE) and its active compounds honokiol (HK) and magnolol (MG) were tested against the phytopathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and several human multi-drug resistant pathogens using the disk-diffusion assay. The effects of MDE and its active compounds on the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were evaluated using MTT assay. MDE and its active compounds had antimicrobial activity (inhibition zone > 10 mm) against C. michiganensis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Trichosporon belgeii. The results suggest that M. dealbata and its active compounds have selective antimicrobial effects against drug-resistant fungal and Gram (-) bacteria and exert minimal toxic effects on human PMBC.

  16. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Adeleke Ojo, Oluwafemi; Adeyonu, Oluwatosin; Imiere, Oluwatosin; Emmanuel Oyinloye, Babatunji; Ogunmodede, Oluwafemi

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major endocrine disorders, characterized by impaired insulin action and deficiency. Traditionally, Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark has been reputably used in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. The present study evaluates the ameliorative activity of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan and the animals were orally administered with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark once daily for 21 days. Results: At the end of the intervention, diabetic control rats showed significant (p<0.05) weight reduction, abnormal haematological parameters, high serum lipids (except high density lipoprotein) concentrations, increased creatinine, bilirubin and urea levels with decreased in albumin level when compared with non-diabetic control rats. All these alterations were reverted to normal after administered with different doses of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark most especially at 150 mg/kg body weight which exhibited no significant (p>0.05) different with non-diabetic rats. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark may be useful in ameliorating complications associated with diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:29670849

  17. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Adeleke Ojo, Oluwafemi; Adeyonu, Oluwatosin; Imiere, Oluwatosin; Emmanuel Oyinloye, Babatunji; Ogunmodede, Oluwafemi

    2018-03-01

    Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is one of the major endocrine disorders, characterized by impaired insulin action and deficiency. Traditionally, Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark has been reputably used in the management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. The present study evaluates the ameliorative activity of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan and the animals were orally administered with 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark once daily for 21 days. Results: At the end of the intervention, diabetic control rats showed significant (p<0.05) weight reduction, abnormal haematological parameters, high serum lipids (except high density lipoprotein) concentrations, increased creatinine, bilirubin and urea levels with decreased in albumin level when compared with non-diabetic control rats. All these alterations were reverted to normal after administered with different doses of ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark most especially at 150 mg/kg body weight which exhibited no significant (p>0.05) different with non-diabetic rats. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanol extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus stem bark may be useful in ameliorating complications associated with diabetes mellitus patients.

  18. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus koraiensis Cone Bark Extracts Prepared by Micro-Wave Assisted Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sun-Ae; Kim, Dong-Hee; Hong, Shin-Hyub; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Na-Hyun; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; An, Bong-Jeun; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Cho, Young-Je

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compared the anti-inflammatory activity of Pinus koraiensis cone bark extracts prepared by conventional extraction and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Water extracts and 50% ethanol extracts prepared using MAE were applied to RAW 264.7 cell at 5, 10, 25, and 50 μg/mL of concentrations, and tested for cytoxicity. The group treated with 50 μg/mL of 50% ethanol extracts showed toxicity. In order to investigate the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, extracts of water and ethanol were treated with 5, 10, and 25 μg/mL concentrations. The inhibitory activity of water and 50% ethanol extracts groups were determined as 40% and 60% at 25 μg/mL concentration, respectively. We found concentration dependent decreases on inducible NO synthase. The inhibitory effect against forming inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β, was also superior in the 25 μg/mL treated group than the control group. According to these results, the water extracts and 50% ethanol extracts both inhibited inflammatory mediators by reducing the inflammatory response. Therefore, The MAE extracts of P. koraiensis cone bark can be developed as a functional ingredient with anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27752500

  20. Potentiation of the antiinflammatory effect of Anacardium occidentale (Linn.) stem-bark aqueous extract by grapefruit juice.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O

    2004-04-01

    In an attempt to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Anacardium occidentale Linn. (family: Anacardiaceae), the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory effect of the plant's stem-bark aqueous extract in rats. Young adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. The antiinflammatory effect of A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract alone and in combination with grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) juice was investigated on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Like diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.), aqueous extract of A. occidentale stem-bark (800 mg/kg p.o.) produced time-related, sustained and significant reduction (p < 0.05-0.001) of the fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation of the rat hind paw. However, the antiinflammatory effect of the plant extract was found to be approximately 8-15 times less than that of diclofenac. Coadministration of grapefruit juice (5 ml/kg p.o.) with A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract (800 mg/kg p.o.) or diclofenac (100 mg/kg p.o.) significantly potentiated (p < 0.05-0.001) the antiinflammatory effects of the crude plant extract and diclofenac on fresh egg albumin-induced rat paw edema. Although A. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract is less potent than diclofenac as an antiinflammatory agent, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that the plant extract possesses antiinflammatory activity, and thus lend pharmacological support to the folkloric use of the plant in the management and/or control of arthritis and other inflammatory conditions among the Yoruba-speaking people of western Nigeria.

  1. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activities of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark extracts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan-li; Gan, Xiao-qing; Fan, Qing-fei; Yang, Jing-jing; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Hua-bin; Song, Qi-shi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 44 compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark, a traditional Dai herbal medicine, were identified by GC-MS. Major components included 3(2H)-benzofuranone, asarinin and (dimethoxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzene. A total of 18 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of Maqian bark by column chromatography and identified by chemical and spectral analyses. Rhoifoline B, zanthoxyline dimethoxy derivative, N-nortidine, nitidine, decarine are the major alkaloids. Both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant inhibition on NO production, which imply anti-inflammatory activity, in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells without cell toxicity. Decarine is the major anti-inflammatory constituent with NO IC50 values of 48.43 μM on RAW264.7 cells. The petroleum ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract and decarine showed anti-inflammatory activities through inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells without cell toxicity too. Decarine showed anti-inflammatory activity on human colon cells by reducing IL-6 and IL-8 production in TNF-α+IL-1β-induced Caco-2 cells. These results support the use of Maqian bark as a remedy for enteritis and colitis recorded by Dai medicine in China, and elucidate the major pharmacological compounds in Maqian bark. PMID:28383530

  2. Toxicological studies of stem bark extract from Schefflera barteri Harms (Araliaceae).

    PubMed

    Atsafack, Serge Secco; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Mouokeu, Raymond Simplice; Koanga Mogtomo, Martin Luther; Tchinda, Alembert Tiabou; De Dieu, Tamokou Jean; Magnifouet Nana, Huguette; Ebelle Etame, Rébecca Madeleine; Biyiti, Lucie; Ngono Ngane, Rosalie Annie

    2015-03-07

    The use of herbal medicines as complements or alternatives to orthodox medicines has been on the increase. There has been the erroneous belief that these medicines are free from adverse effects. Schefflera barteri is popularly used in the West region of Cameroon for the treatment of various diseases such as diarrhea, spasm, pneumonia and animals bite. Considering the ethnopharmacological relevance of this plant, this study was designed to investigate the possible toxic effects of the stem bark extract of S. barteri. The extract was prepared by maceration of stem bark dry powder in methylene chloride/methanol mixture. Phytochemical analysis was performed by chemical reaction method. Oral acute toxicity study was carried out by administering single geometric increasing doses (2 to 16 g/kg body weight) of plant extract to Swiss albino mice. For sub-acute toxicity study, repeated doses (100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg bw) of plant extract were given to Wistar albino rats for 28 consecutive days by oral route. At the end of the treatment period, hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed, as well as histopathological studies. Phytochemical analysis of stem bark extract of S. barteri revealed the presence of anthocyanins, anthraquinons and saponins. Acute toxicity results showed that the LD50 was greater than 16000 mg/kg. Sub-acute treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased the level of serum transaminase, proteins and HDL cholesterol. On the other hand, the extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the level of leucocytes as well as neutrophils, basophils and monocytes in female. No significant variation of serum creatinine, LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides as well as liver, spleen, testicles and ovaries proteins was noted. Histopathological analysis of organs showed vascular congestion, inflammation of peri-portal and vacuolization of hepatocytes at the level of the liver. Leucocytes infiltration of peri-portal veins were noticed on lungs and liver cells

  3. Tannins from Hamamelis virginiana: identification of proanthocyanidins and hamamelitannin quantification in leaf, bark, and stem extracts.

    PubMed

    Vennat, B; Pourrat, H; Pouget, M P; Gross, D; Pourrat, A

    1988-10-01

    The tannins in leaf, bark, and stem extracts of HAMAMELIS VIRGINIANA were analyzed. Four proanthocyanidins were isolated by HPLC. One was a procyanidin polymer containing only one type of flavanol unit; the other three were polymers of procyanidin and prodelphinidin containing two types of flavanol units. A method of assay of hamamelitannin showed the bark extract to be 31 times richer in hamamelitannin than the leaf extract and 87 times richer than the stem extract.

  4. Anti-pseudomonas activity of essential oil, total extract, and proanthocyanidins of Pinus eldarica Medw. bark.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Masoud; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Abtahi, Seyed Reza

    2016-01-01

    Pinus eldarica Medw. (Iranian pine) is native to Transcaucasian region and has been vastly planted in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Various parts of this plant have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including infectious conditions (e.g. infectious wounds). In this study we aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of P. eldarica bark extract, essential oil and proanthocyanidins on three important bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial analysis was performed using standard disk diffusion method with different concentrations of essential oil, bark total hydroalcoholic extract, and bark proanthocyanidins (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml). After incubation at 37°C for 24 h, the antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring the zone of growth inhibition surrounding the disks. The results indicated that the essential oil, total hydroalcoholic extract, and proanthocyanidins of the bark of the P. eldarica were effective against the gram negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, and significantly inhibited its growth in disk diffusion method (P<0.001) of which the essential oil had the most potent inhibitory effect. However, none of the bark preparations could significantly inhibit the growth of S. aureus or E. coli. Our findings showed that P. eldarica bark components have significant anti-pseudomonas activity having potentials for new sources of antibacterial agents or antibacterial herbal preparations.

  5. Anti-pseudomonas activity of essential oil, total extract, and proanthocyanidins of Pinus eldarica Medw. bark

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Masoud; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Abtahi, Seyed Reza

    2016-01-01

    Pinus eldarica Medw. (Iranian pine) is native to Transcaucasian region and has been vastly planted in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Various parts of this plant have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including infectious conditions (e.g. infectious wounds). In this study we aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of P. eldarica bark extract, essential oil and proanthocyanidins on three important bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial analysis was performed using standard disk diffusion method with different concentrations of essential oil, bark total hydroalcoholic extract, and bark proanthocyanidins (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml). After incubation at 37°C for 24 h, the antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring the zone of growth inhibition surrounding the disks. The results indicated that the essential oil, total hydroalcoholic extract, and proanthocyanidins of the bark of the P. eldarica were effective against the gram negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, and significantly inhibited its growth in disk diffusion method (P<0.001) of which the essential oil had the most potent inhibitory effect. However, none of the bark preparations could significantly inhibit the growth of S. aureus or E. coli. Our findings showed that P. eldarica bark components have significant anti-pseudomonas activity having potentials for new sources of antibacterial agents or antibacterial herbal preparations. PMID:27051433

  6. Pinus densiflora bark extract prevents selenite-induced cataract formation in the lens of Sprague Dawley rat pups.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun; Choung, Se-Young

    2017-01-01

    Rat pups treated with sodium selenite are typically used as an in vivo model to mimic age-related nuclear cataract. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, reduction of antioxidant enzymes, crystalline proteolysis, and apoptosis are considered factors that contribute to pathogenesis of age-related nuclear cataract. In the present study, we investigated whether Pinus densiflora bark extract has potential to prevent cataract formation and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups (n=10). Group 1 rat pups (the control) were treated with only normal saline. The rat pups in groups 2 to 6 were given a subcutaneous injection with sodium selenite (18 μmol/kg bodyweight) on postnatal (P) day 10. Group 3 rat pups (the positive control) were given gastric intubation with curcumin (80 mg/kg bodyweight) on P9, P10, and P11. The rat pups in groups 4 to 6 were given gastric intubation with P. densiflora bark extract 40 mg/kg, 80 mg/kg, and 120 mg/kg, respectively, on P9, P10, and P11. This study showed that P. densiflora bark extract dose-dependently prevented cataract formation. Water-soluble protein, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activity levels were found to be high, and conversely, water-insoluble protein, malondialdehyde, and Ca 2+ -ATPase were found to be low in the groups treated with P. densiflora bark extract compared to group 2. Real-time PCR analysis showed αA-crystalline, lens-specific m-calpain ( Lp84 ), lens-specific intermediates (filensin and phakinin), and antiapoptotic factor ( Bcl-2 ) were downregulated, and the apoptotic factors (caspase-3 and Bax) and plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase ( PMCA-1 ) were upregulated in group 2 compared to group 1. P. densiflora bark extract regulated the imbalance of these genes. The increased cleavage form of caspase-3 was lowered in the groups treated with P. densiflora bark extract. In conclusion, P. densiflora bark

  7. Assessment of antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanol extract of Xylocarpus granatum bark in mice model.

    PubMed

    Rouf, Razina; Uddin, Shaikh Jamal; Shilpi, Jamil Ahmad; Alamgir, Mahiuddin

    2007-02-12

    The methanol extract of Xylocarpus granatum bark was studied for its antidiarrhoeal properties in experimental diarrhoea, induced by castor oil and magnesium sulphate in mice. At the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg per oral, the methanol extract showed significant and dose-dependent antidiarrhoeal activity in both models. The extracts also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test when compared to atropine sulphate (5 mg/kg; i.m.). The results showed that the extracts of Xylocarpus granatum bark have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity and supports its traditional uses in herbal medicine.

  8. Comparative evaluation of successive extracts of leaf and stem bark of Albizzia lebbeck for mast cell stabilization activity.

    PubMed

    Shashidhara, S; Bhandarkar, Anant V; Deepak, M

    2008-06-01

    Successive chloroform, methanol and water extracts of bark and leaves of Albizzia lebbeck were tested for its in vitro mast cell stabilizing effect against compound 48/80. Methanolic extract of leaf and methanolic and water extracts of bark have shown maximum activity comparable to that of disodium chromoglycate.

  9. Piscicidal activity of leaf and bark extract of Thevetia peruviana plant and their biochemical stress response on fish metabolism.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Yadav, R P; Singh, A

    2010-11-01

    The leaf and bark of Thevetia peruviana (Family: Apocynaceae) plant was administered for 24 h to the freshwater fish Catla catla (Hamilton) to evaluate their piscicidal activity in laboratory and cemented pond condition. The LC0 values of lef and bark extracts of different solvents (i.e., acetone, diethyl ether, ethyl alcohol, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride) of this plant to fish Catla catla were determined. The LC50 values of acetone leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana plant is 88.80 mg/L (24h) in laboratory condition and 529.38 mg/L (24h) in cemented pond condition; acetone bark extract of this plant is 99.43 mg/L (24h) in laboratory condition and 591.78 mg/L (24h) in cemented pond condition against freshwater fish Catla catla. Similar trend was also observed in case of other solvent (i.e., diethyl ether, ethyl alcohol, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride) of leaf and bark extracts of Thevetia peruviana plant against freshwater fish Catla catla in laboratory and cemented pond conditions. The acetone leaf and bark extract of this plant was very effective in comparison to other solvent extract in both the conditions. So, the biochemical analysis is taken only acetone leaf and bark extract of Thevetia peruviana plant in laboratory condition. Exposure of sub-lethal doses (40% and 80% of LC,) of acetone leaf and bark extract of this plant over 24 h caused significant (P < 0.05) alterations in total protein, free amino acids, DNA & RNA, protease and acid and alkaline phosphatase activity in muscle, liver and gonadal tissues of fish Catla catla in laboratory condition.

  10. Anti-giardia activity and acute toxicity of a methanol extract of Senna racemosa bark.

    PubMed

    Caamal-Fuentes, Edgar E; Graniel-Sabido, Manlio; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2016-12-04

    Senna racemosa (Mill.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (syn. Cassia racemosa Mill.) is a plant used in traditional Mayamedicinal practices to treat diarrhea. A methanol extract of S. racemosa bark has been shown to have in vitro activity against Giardia intestinalis. No studies of its efficacy and toxicity in in vivo models have been done. The present study objective was to analyze the activity of this methanol extract of S. racemosa bark against Giardia intestinalis trophozoites in experimentally infected mice, and evaluate its toxicological effects in rats. S. racemosa was collected in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico (21°58'N, 89°36'W) in June 2005. The bark methanol extract was obtained and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) was used to generate a constituent profile. In vivo anti-giardia activity was assayed with an experimental model of G. intestinalis infection in neonatal CD-1 mice. Nine doses ranging from 0.25-15mg extract/kg body weight were tested to determine the dose required to kill 50% of the trophozoites (ED 50 ). An acute toxicity assay was run in which one of four single doses (200, 1000, 2000 and3000mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to adult Wistar rats. Animal weight, death rates, toxic effects and behavioral parameters were observed over a 14-d period. They were then euthanized and a necropsy performed. The S. racemosa bark extract inhibited growth of G. intestinalis (ED 50 =1.14mg/Kg) in neonatal CD-1 mice. No toxic or lethal effects were observed even at the highest dosage (3000mg/Kg), and neither were signs of toxicity observed in internal organs. The active compounds chrysophanol and physcion were present in the extract at a 1.76 ratio. The results strongly support traditional use of S. racemosa bark for treatment of diarrhea caused by Giardia intestinalis infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol® (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE. PMID:22049273

  12. Inhibition of Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum by Juglans species bark extracts

    Treesearch

    M.E. Ostry; M. Moore

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and reliable screening technique is needed for selecting trees with resistance to butternut canker. In a laboratory assay, reagent grade naphthoquinones and crude bark extracts of Juglans species variously inhibited spore germination and growth of Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum, the causal fungus of butternut...

  13. Inhibition of Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum by Juglans species bark extracts

    Treesearch

    M.J. Moore; M.E. Ostry; A.D. Hegeman; A.C. Martin

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and reliable technique is needed for identifying butternut trees (Juglans cinerea) with resistance to butternut canker. We investigated the potential of a bark extract bioassay to detect levels of resistance to Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum (Oc-j), the causal agent of butternut canker....

  14. Vitamin e supplementation with rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract improves hematological indices.

    PubMed

    Isaiah, Akpanabiatu Monday; Olawale, Otitoju; Effiong, Edet Emmanuel; Idongesit, Ndem Jessie; Fidelis, Uwah Anthony; Friday, Ufot Usenobong

    2012-02-01

    Vitamin supplementation in Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract administration may interact and impact significantly on hematology of albino Wistar rats. In this investigation we studied vitamin E supplementation with Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract on the hematology of experimental animals. Forty two rats weighing 200 - 230 g were randomly selected into six groups of seven animals each. Group 1 animals serve as controls; group 2 received vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight). Groups 3 and 4 were given the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. Groups 5 and 6 were given vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight), the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. The extract and the vitamin were administered daily by oral intubation. Blood samples analyzed for hematological indices. Decrease in white blood cell count (WBC) was observed, indicating improved immunity of animals. Extract at 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight with and without vitamin E affected hemoglobin and packed cell volume. Rauwolfia vomitoria with or without vitamin E improved animal's immunity and enhances their hematology. Interaction of vitamin E with the extract affects medicinal therapeutics of this plant.

  15. Mimusops elengi bark extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Rakhi; Bag, Braja Gopal; Ghosh, Pooja

    2016-04-01

    The bark extract of Mimusops elengi is rich in different types of plant secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids and saponins. The present study shows the usefulness of the bark extract of Mimusops elengi for the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles in water at room temperature under very mild conditions. The synthesis of the gold nanoparticles was complete within a few minutes without any extra stabilizing or capping agents and the polyphenols present in the bark extract acted as both reducing as well as stabilizing agents. The synthesized colloidal gold nanoparticles were characterized by HRTEM, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The synthesized gold nanoparticles have been used as an efficient catalyst for the reduction of 3-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol to their corresponding aminophenols in water at room temperature.

  16. Antimicrobial kinetics of Alstonia scholaris bark extract-mediated AgNPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supraja, N.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; David, E.; Giridhara Krishna, T.

    2016-06-01

    Nanobiotechnology is considered as one of the important branches of nanotechnology, and research on synthesis of nanoscale materials, silver in particular, using plant and plant parts has been progressing rapidly. Herein, we used bark extract of Alstonia scholaris one of the most important medicinal plants to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) which exhibited excellent antimicrobial properties against biofilm formed in drinking water PVC pipes. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was done by treating 90 mL of 1 mM AgNO3 aqueous solution with 10 mL of 5 % bark extract. As-prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized using the biophysical techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering for the measurement of hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential. The kinetics of the antimicrobial activity against PVC biofilm of prepared silver nanoparticles were done using comparative solution suspension time-killing assessments and which are evidenced in Epi-fluorescent microscopic observations.

  17. Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. root bark

    PubMed Central

    Ganga Rao, B.; Umamaheswara Rao, P.; Sambasiva Rao, E.; Mallikarjuna Rao, T.; Praneeth. D, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats. Methods In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs. Results All extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains. In Carrageenan induced inflammation model, hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R. tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant (P<0.001) reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane, ethyl acetate extracts. Conclusions In the present study extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats. PMID:23569853

  18. Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. root bark.

    PubMed

    Ganga Rao, B; Umamaheswara Rao, P; Sambasiva Rao, E; Mallikarjuna Rao, T; Praneeth D, V S

    2012-10-01

    To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats. In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs. All extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains. In Carrageenan induced inflammation model, hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R. tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant (P<0.001) reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane, ethyl acetate extracts. In the present study extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  19. Anticonvulsant effects of ethanol stem bark extract of Lannea barteri (Anacardiaceae) in mice and chicks.

    PubMed

    Garba, K; Yaro, A H; Ya'u, J

    2015-08-22

    Preparation of Lannea barteri is used in the treatment of epilepsy, gastritis, childhood convulsions among other uses in northern Nigeria for many years. The popularity of its efficacy is well established among the Traditional Medical Practitioners. The present study aimed at screening the ethanol stem bark extract of Lannea barteri for possible anticonvulsant action. Anticonvulsant screening was carried out using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), strychnine (STN) and picrotoxin (PTC) induced seizures in mice while Maximal electroshock (MES) test was carried out in day old chicks. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract was performed on the extract. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50) was carried out in mice. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) LD50 of the extract was estimated to be 567.70 mg/kg in mice. Lannea barteri (160 mg/kg) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) delayed the mean onset of seizures induced by PTZ when compared with normal saline treated group. Similarly, the extract at 160 mg/kg significantly (p ≤ 0.05) prolonged the latency of convulsion induced by STN. Lannea barteri (40 mg/kg) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) delayed the mean onset of seizures induced by picrotoxin in mice. The extracts at all the doses tested showed no observable effect in decreasing the mean recovery time of convulsed chicks in MEST. Flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins and glycosides were found present in the stem bark extract. Our findings revealed that the ethanol stem bark extract of Lannea barteri contained bioactive constituents that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and supports the ethnomedical claim for the use of its stem bark in the management of epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anti-biofilm activity of Marula - a study with the standardized bark extract.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Ratul; Chaudhary, Sushil K; Sharma, Amrita; Yadav, Kirendra K; Nema, Neelesh K; Sekhoacha, Mamello; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Braga, Fernão C; Matsabisa, Motlalepula Gilbert; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Sen, Tuhinadri

    2014-05-28

    Marula (Sclerocarya birrea; family - Anacardiaceae) is an African plant, which enjoys wide socio-economic importance particularly in southern part of Africa. The fruits are consumed as food and also as alcoholic beverage (cream liquor). In different parts of Africa, the decoction of the bark is traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery, diarrhoea, and various other infectious conditions. The aim of the study was to investigate the anti-biofilm properties of the methanol extract of Marula bark (stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea), with a view towards combating the emergence of antimicrobial resistance often associated with bacterial biofilms. The standardized methanol extract was initially tested for its antimicrobial property. The crystal violet assay was used for evaluating anti-biofilm (biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeuginosa) activity. Further in order to study the mechanism of anti-biofilm activity, the same was evaluated for understanding its role on various quorums sensing mediated phenomenon (swarming motility assay, protease and pyoverdin assay) that are known to be associated with the formation of biofilms and pathogenicity. The methanol extract showed no inhibition of bacterial growth up to a concentration of 200 µg/ml. Interestingly, the sample produced anti-biofilm activity (around 75% decrease; 100 µg/ml) at sub-lethal concentration. Further it also significantly reduced the QS mediated swarming motility. The release of various virulent factors (protease and pyoverdin) was found to be lowered when pre-treated with the extract. The present study illustrates the anti-biofilm property Sclerocarya birrea. The standardized extract significantly disrupted the quorum sensing mediated production of biofilm formation and also inhibited swarming ability of the cells. The extract displayed a regulatory role on the secretion of protease and pyoverdin, two QS dependent pathogenic factors found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study also validates the

  1. Vitamin E Supplementation with Rauwolfia Vomitoria Root Bark Extract Improves Hematological Indices

    PubMed Central

    Isaiah, Akpanabiatu Monday; Olawale, Otitoju; Effiong, Edet Emmanuel; Idongesit, Ndem Jessie; Fidelis, Uwah Anthony; Friday, Ufot Usenobong

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vitamin supplementation in Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract administration may interact and impact significantly on hematology of albino Wistar rats. Aim: In this investigation we studied vitamin E supplementation with Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract on the hematology of experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Forty two rats weighing 200 – 230 g were randomly selected into six groups of seven animals each. Group 1 animals serve as controls; group 2 received vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight). Groups 3 and 4 were given the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. Groups 5 and 6 were given vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight), the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. The extract and the vitamin were administered daily by oral intubation. Blood samples analyzed for hematological indices. Results: Decrease in white blood cell count (WBC) was observed, indicating improved immunity of animals. Extract at 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight with and without vitamin E affected hemoglobin and packed cell volume. Conclusion: Rauwolfia vomitoria with or without vitamin E improved animal's immunity and enhances their hematology. Interaction of vitamin E with the extract affects medicinal therapeutics of this plant. PMID:22408754

  2. In vitro antioxidant and antimalarial activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Del.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Muhammad Bilal; Tharaphan, Pattamon; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Tarning, Joel; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2017-07-18

    The emergence of drug resistant malaria is threatening our ability to treat and control malaria in the Southeast Asian region. There is an urgent need to develop novel and chemically diverse antimalarial drugs. This study aimed at evaluating the antimalarial and antioxidant potentials of Acacia nilotica plant extracts. The antioxidant activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts were determined by standard antioxidant assays; reducing power capacity, % lipid peroxidation inhibition and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. The antimalarial activities of plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum parasites were determined by the 48 h schizont maturation inhibition assay. Further confirmation of schizonticide activity of extracts was made by extending the incubation period up to 96 h after removing the plant extract residues from parasites culture. Inhibition assays were analyzed by dose-response modelling. In all antioxidant assays, leaves of A. nilotica showed higher antioxidant activity than pods and bark. Antimalarial IC 50 values of leaves, pods and bark extracts were 1.29, 4.16 and 4.28 μg/ml respectively, in the 48 h maturation assay. The IC 50 values determined for leaves, pods and bark extracts were 3.72, 5.41 and 5.32 μg/ml respectively, after 96 h of incubation. All extracts inhibited the development of mature schizont, indicating schizonticide activity against P. falciparum. A. nilotica extracts showed promising antimalarial and antioxidant effects. However, further investigation is needed to isolate and identify the active components responsible for the antimalarial and antioxidant effects.

  3. Protective effect of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts against cataract through the inhibition of aldose reductase activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, YanLi; Zhao, Yongxia; Sui, YaNan; Lei, XiaoJun

    2018-04-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts against cataract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rats. Aldose reductase is a key enzyme in the intracellular polyol pathway, which plays a major role in the development of diabetic cataract. Rats were divided into five groups as normal control, diabetic control, and diabetic control treated with different concentrations of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts. Presence of major constituents in Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract was performed by qualitative analysis. Body weight changes, blood glucose, blood insulin, and reduced glutathione (GSH) and aldose reductase mRNA and protein expression were determined. Rat body weight gain was noted following treatment with bark extracts. The blood glucose was reduced up to 36% following treatment with bark extracts. The blood insulin and tissue GSH contents were substantially increased more than 100% in diabetic rats following treatment with extracts. Aldose reductase activity was reduced up to 79.3% in diabetic rats following treatment with extracts. V max , K m , and K i of aldose reductase were reduced in the lens tissue homogenate compared to the diabetic control. Aldose reductase mRNA and protein expression were reduced more than 50% following treatment with extracts. Treatment with Pterocarpus marsupium bark was able to normalize these levels. Taking all these data together, it is concluded that the use of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts could be the potential therapeutic approach for the reduction of aldose reductase against diabetic cataract.

  4. Antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities and determination of the total tannin content of bark extracts Endopleura uchi.

    PubMed

    Politi, Flávio A S; de Mello, João C P; Migliato, Ketylin F; Nepomuceno, Andréa L A; Moreira, Raquel R D; Pietro, Rosemeire C L R

    2011-01-01

    Endopleura uchi is a typical Amazonian tree and its bark is popularly employed in the preparation of teas against myomas, arthritis, influenza, diarrhea and cancer. In this study, the antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of five different extracts of the bark, selected by their total tannin content, were assessed. The potential antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and the values found were very similar among the extracts and to the standards antioxidants used in the tests. Cytotoxicity analysis in mammalian cells indicated that all the tested extracts exhibited IC(50) values higher than the highest concentration used, showing that they do not present a risk when consumed under these conditions. Extract tested against five bacterial strains and one yeast strain did not show satisfactory growth inhibitory activity, and even the extracts that showed some antimicrobial activity were not effective at any dilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The results may serve as a reference for subsequent works, since such reference values described in the literature for the bark of E. uchi.

  5. Magnolol, a major bioactive constituent of the bark of Magnolia officinalis, induces sleep via the benzodiazepine site of GABA(A) receptor in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Rui; Zhou, Xu-Zhao; Luo, Yan-Jia; Huang, Zhi-Li; Urade, Yoshihiro; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-11-01

    Magnolol (6,6',7,12-tetramethoxy-2,2'-dimethyl-1-beta-berbaman, C(18)H(18)O(2)), an active ingredient of the bark of Magnolia officinalis, has been reported to exert potent anti-epileptic effects via the GABA(A) receptor. The receptor also mediates sleep in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to determine whether magnolol could modulate sleep behaviors by recording EEG and electromyogram in mice. The results showed that magnolol administered i.p. at a dose of 5 or 25 mg/kg could significantly shorten the sleep latency, increase the amount of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep for 3 h after administration with an increase in the number of NREM and REM sleep episodes. Magnolol at doses of 5 and 25 mg/kg increased the number of bouts of wakefulness but decreased their duration. On the other hand, magnolol increased the number of state transitions from wakefulness to NREM sleep and subsequently from NREM sleep to wakefulness. Immunohistochemical study showed that magnolol increased c-Fos expression in the neurons of ventrolateral preoptic area, a sleep center in the anterior hypothalamus, and decreased c-Fos expression in the arousal tuberomammillary nucleus, which was located in the caudolateral hypothalamus. The sleep-promoting effects and changes in c-Fos induced by magnolol were reversed by flumazenil, an antagonist at the benzodiazepine site of the GABA(A) receptor. These results indicate that magnolol increased NREM and REM sleep via the GABA(A) receptor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Abroma augusta Linn bark extract-mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subhajit; Bag, Braja Gopal; Basu, Ranadhir

    2015-10-01

    The bark extract of Abroma augusta Linn is rich in medicinally important phytochemicals including antioxidants and polyphenols. First one step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described utilizing the bark extract of Abroma augusta L. and chloroauric acid under very mild reaction conditions. The phytochemicals present in the bark extract acted both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent, and no additional stabilizing and capping agents were needed. Detailed characterizations of the stabilized AuNPs were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles has been demonstrated for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, and the kinetics of the reduction reaction have been studied spectrophotometrically.

  7. Proanthocyanidin-rich Pinus radiata bark extract inhibits mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis-like reactions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun Ho; Song, Chang Ho; Mun, Sung Phil

    2018-02-01

    Mast cells play a critical role in the effector phase of immediate hypersensitivity and allergic reactions. Pinus radiata bark extract exerts multiple biological effects and exhibits immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. However, its role in mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of proanthocyanidin-rich water extract (PAWE) isolated from P. radiata bark on compound 48/80-induced or antidinitrophenyl (DNP) immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated anaphylaxis-like reactions in vivo. In addition, we evaluated the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of PAWE on mast cell activation, with a specific focus on histamine release, using rat peritoneal mast cells. PAWE attenuated compound 48/80-induced or anti-DNP IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis-like reactions in mice, and it inhibited histamine release triggered by compound 48/80, ionophore A23187, or anti-DNP IgE in rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro. Moreover, PAWE suppressed compound 48/80-elicited calcium uptake in a concentration-dependent manner and promoted a transient increase in intracellular cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate levels. Together, these results suggest that proanthocyanidin-rich P. radiata bark extract effectively inhibits anaphylaxis-like reactions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Genetic diversity of Magnolia ashei characterized by SSR markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Ashe magnolia (Magnolia ashei) is a deciduous small tree most noted for its large 1-2 foot long leaves and fragrant creamy white flowers. Although the species is adapted to and used in landscapes in many parts of the U.S., it is endemic only to Northwest Florida where it is limited to ten counti...

  9. Application of Ionic Liquids in the Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini Bark

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Sun, Xiaowei; Yang, Fengjian; Zhao, Chunjian; Zhang, Lin; Zu, Yuangang

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) was successfully applied to the extraction of proanthocyanidins from Larix gmelini bark. In this work, in order to evaluate the performance of ionic liquids in the microwave-assisted extraction process, a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different cations and anions were evaluated for extraction yield, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide was selected as the optimal solvent. In addition, the ILMAE procedure for the proanthocyanidins was optimized and compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the proanthocyanidins was obtained. Relative to other methods, the proposed approach provided higher extraction yield and lower energy consumption. The Larix gmelini bark samples before and after extraction were analyzed by Thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the ILMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation. PMID:22606036

  10. Antioxidant activity of extracts from the bark of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murrary) Parl.

    Treesearch

    Heng Gao; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2006-01-01

    The bark of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl. was extracted with methanol and sequentially partitioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and deionized water. The antioxidant activities of the four extracts were evaluated using the DPPH• and ABTS+• methods. The total phenolic...

  11. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects of Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae) stem-bark aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies in our laboratories and elsewhere have shown that some members of Anacardiaceae family possess antiinflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic effects in man and mammalian experimental animals. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory, analgesic and antidiabetic properties of the stem-bark aqueous extract of Mangifera indica Linn., M. indica a member of the Anacardiaceae family, in rats and mice. The stem-bark powder of M. indica was Soxhlet extracted with distilled water and used. The analgesic effect of the plant's extract was evaluated by the hot-plate and acetic acid test models of pain in mice, while the antiinflammatory and antidiabetic effects of the stem-bark extract were investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus, respectively. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg i.p.), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg i.p.), and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) were used respectively as reference analgesic, antiinflammatory, and hypoglycemic agents for comparison. M. indica stem-bark aqueous extract (MIE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p<0.05-0.001) analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice. MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) also significantly (p<0.05-0.001) inhibited fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and caused significant (p<0.05-0.001) hypoglycemic effects in rats. It is suggested that the analgesic effects of MIE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) may be peripherally and centrally mediated. The different chemical constituents of the plant, especially the polyphenolics, flavonoids, triterpenoids, mangiferin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant may be involved in the observed antiinflammatory, analgesic, and hypoglycemic effects of the plant's extract. However, the results of this experimental animal study lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric uses of the plant in the management

  12. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark and the involvement of phenolic compounds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antioxidant compounds like phenols and flavonoids scavenge free radicals and thus inhibit the oxidative mechanisms that lead to control degenerative and other diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity in vitro, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark. Methods Crescentia cujete leaves and bark crude ethanol extract (CEE) and their partitionates petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AQF) were firstly prepared. Different established testing methods, such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, ferric reducing power (FRP), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Further, the total yield, total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of CEE and all the fractions were determined. Ethanol extracts of both leaves and stem bark were also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening to detect the presence of secondary metabolites, using standard phytochemical methods (Thin layer chromatography and spray reagents). Results Phytochemical screening of crude ethanol extract of both leaves and stem bark revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and terpenoids. All the fractions and CEE of leaves and bark exhibited antioxidant activities, however, EAF of leaves showing the highest antioxidant activity based on the results of DPPH, FRP and TAC assay tests. The above fraction has shown the significant DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 8.78 μg/ml) when compared with standard ascorbic acid (IC50 =7.68 μg/ml). The TAC and FRP activities increased with increasing crude extract/fractions content. The TPC (371.23 ± 15.77 mg GAE/g extract) and TFC (144.64 ± 5.82 mg QE/g extract) of EAF of leaves were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions for both leaves and bark. TPC were highly

  13. Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities and Determination of the Total Tannin Content of Bark Extracts Endopleura uchi

    PubMed Central

    Politi, Flávio A. S.; de Mello, João C. P.; Migliato, Ketylin F.; Nepomuceno, Andréa L. A.; Moreira, Raquel R. D.; Pietro, Rosemeire C. L. R.

    2011-01-01

    Endopleura uchi is a typical Amazonian tree and its bark is popularly employed in the preparation of teas against myomas, arthritis, influenza, diarrhea and cancer. In this study, the antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of five different extracts of the bark, selected by their total tannin content, were assessed. The potential antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and the values found were very similar among the extracts and to the standards antioxidants used in the tests. Cytotoxicity analysis in mammalian cells indicated that all the tested extracts exhibited IC50 values higher than the highest concentration used, showing that they do not present a risk when consumed under these conditions. Extract tested against five bacterial strains and one yeast strain did not show satisfactory growth inhibitory activity, and even the extracts that showed some antimicrobial activity were not effective at any dilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The results may serve as a reference for subsequent works, since such reference values described in the literature for the bark of E. uchi. PMID:21731469

  14. Chemical composition of barks from Quercus faginea trees and characterization of their lipophilic and polar extracts.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joana P A; Miranda, Isabel; Sousa, Vicelina B; Pereira, Helena

    2018-01-01

    The bark from Quercus faginea mature trees from two sites was chemically characterized for the first time. The barks showed the following composition: ash 14.6%, total extractives 13.2%, suberin 2.9% and lignin 28.2%. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of glucose and xylose (50.3% and 35.1% of all monosaccharides respectively) with 4.8% of uronic acids. The suberin composition was: ω-hydroxyacids 46.3% of total compounds, ɑ,ω-alkanoic diacids 22.3%, alkanoic acids 5.9%, alkanols 6.7% and aromatics 6.9% (ferulic acid 4.0%). Polar extracts (ethanol-water) had a high phenolic content of 630.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of extract, condensed tannins 220.7 mg of catechin equivalents (CE)/g extract, and flavonoids 207.7 mg CE/g of extract. The antioxidant activity was very high corresponding to 1567 mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract, and an IC50 of 2.63 μg extract/ml. The lipophilic extracts were constituted mainly by glycerol and its derivatives (12.3% of all compounds), alkanoic acids (27.8%), sterols (11.5%) and triterpenes (17.8%). In view of an integrated valorization, Quercus faginea barks are interesting sources of polar compounds including phenols and polyphenols with possible interesting bioactivities, while the sterols and triterpenes contained in the lipophilic extracts are also valuable bioactive compounds or chemical intermediates for specific high-value market niches, such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and biomedicine.

  15. Chemical composition of barks from Quercus faginea trees and characterization of their lipophilic and polar extracts

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The bark from Quercus faginea mature trees from two sites was chemically characterized for the first time. The barks showed the following composition: ash 14.6%, total extractives 13.2%, suberin 2.9% and lignin 28.2%. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of glucose and xylose (50.3% and 35.1% of all monosaccharides respectively) with 4.8% of uronic acids. The suberin composition was: ω-hydroxyacids 46.3% of total compounds, ɑ,ω-alkanoic diacids 22.3%, alkanoic acids 5.9%, alkanols 6.7% and aromatics 6.9% (ferulic acid 4.0%). Polar extracts (ethanol-water) had a high phenolic content of 630.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of extract, condensed tannins 220.7 mg of catechin equivalents (CE)/g extract, and flavonoids 207.7 mg CE/g of extract. The antioxidant activity was very high corresponding to 1567 mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract, and an IC50 of 2.63 μg extract/ml. The lipophilic extracts were constituted mainly by glycerol and its derivatives (12.3% of all compounds), alkanoic acids (27.8%), sterols (11.5%) and triterpenes (17.8%). In view of an integrated valorization, Quercus faginea barks are interesting sources of polar compounds including phenols and polyphenols with possible interesting bioactivities, while the sterols and triterpenes contained in the lipophilic extracts are also valuable bioactive compounds or chemical intermediates for specific high-value market niches, such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and biomedicine. PMID:29763441

  16. Antioxidant activity of extracts from the wood and bark of Port OrFord cedar

    Treesearch

    Heng Gao; Todd F. Shupe; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chung Y. Hse

    2007-01-01

    Heartwood, sapwood, and inner and outer bark of Port Orford cedar were extracted with methanol, and the extracts evaluated for antioxidant activity. The total phenol content (TPC) of the extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Butylated hydroxytoluene was used as a positive control in the free-radical-...

  17. [Inflammatory ointment from shea butter and hydro-alcoholic extract of Khaya senegalensis barks (Cailcederat)].

    PubMed

    Thioune, O; Ahodikpe, D; Dieng, M; Diop, A B; Ngom, S; Lo, I

    2000-01-01

    In a former study, it was proved that the alcoholic solution of hydro-alcoholic extract of Khaya senegalensis barks had an anti-inflammatory activity on animals after a local application. In this work, ointments made from the same extract and three different excipients (vaseline, lanoline and shea butter (crude and refined)) have been prepared and tested by the method of the croton oil inhibited ear oedema. Results showed inhibition percentages of the ear oedema of 58.8%, 66.7% and 75.4% when the hydro-alcoholic extract was tested at respective doses of 1%, 2% and 3% in shea butter. The two other excipients, (vaceline and Lanoline) tested at the dose of 3% showed between 52% and 58% of inhibitions. The interest of this study was to demonstrate the possibility to maintain the anti-inflammatory activity of Khaya senegalensis barks by using them in a galenic form, easy to prepare and which is, in addition, more adapted than the extract to possible clinical trials.

  18. Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Antiproliferative Activities and Total Polyphenol Contents of the Extracts of Geissospermum reticulatum Bark

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Nicholas M.; Wawer, Iwona; Paradowska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Geissospermum species are medically important plants due to their health-promoting effects. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant ability and antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of infusions, tinctures, and ethanolic extracts of Geissospermum reticulatum barks in relation to the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids. Seven samples of barks were collected in various regions of Peruvian Amazonia. We found that the amount of total phenolics in the studied products varied from 212.40 ± 0.69 to 1253.92 ± 11.20 mg GAE/kg. In our study there is a correlation (R 2 = 0.7947) between the results of antioxidants assays: FRAP and ORAC for tinctures, infusions, and ethanolic extracts of G. reticulatum barks. We have also observed antiproliferative activities of the ethanolic extracts on normal T-cells. These extracts have caused death on malignant cell lines (THP-1 and HL-60) and this data correlates well with their antioxidant capacity measured by ORAC method. Interestingly, the highest concentration of the ethanolic extract was not toxic in the zebrafish embryo developmental assay. Our results indicate that G. reticulatum is rich in antioxidants and have cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties. The data suggests potential immunosuppressive role of the extracts. This is the first study presenting the results of chemical and biological analysis of multiple preparations from G. reticulatum. PMID:27446507

  19. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. in mice and on human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Heroor, Sanjeev; Beknal, Arun Kumar; Mahurkar, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extracts of fruit and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. on cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression in mice and the phagocytic effect on human neutrophils. Methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. at two dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg p.o. were administered for 13 days to albino mice and cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg i.p.) was administered on 11th, 12th, and 13th days, 1 hour after the administration of the respective treatment. On 14th day blood was collected and the hematological parameters were evaluated. The two extracts in the concentration range 100, 50, 25, 12 and 6.25 μg were also tested for phagocytic effect on human neutrophils using the in vitro models-nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye test, phagocytosis of Candida albicans, and chemotaxis assay. Methanolic extracts of fruit and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. showed significant counteracting effect (P < 0.01) to cyclophosphamide-induced reduction in total WBC, differential leucocyte count, platelet counts, RBC counts, and hemoglobin levels. The extracts of the plant in the concentration range 100, 50, 25, 12, and 6.25 μg also showed significant (P < 0.01) phagocytic effect on human neutrophils in the parameters studied. Methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. exhibited immunomodulatory property in both in vivo and in vitro models.

  20. [Studies on HPLC chromatogram of phenolic constituents of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-hua; Guo, Bao-lin; Si, Jin-ping

    2005-07-01

    To study the chemical characteristic, to identify the different forms and to establish the new standard for the quality control of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. HPLC method was used with acetonitrile-water (63:37) as the mobile phase at room temperature. The chromatographic column was Lichrospher 100 RP-18e (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm). The flow rate was 1 mL x min(-1), and the detection wavelength was 294 nm. The chromatograms of 45 individuals from 13 seed resources of Cortex Magnolia Officinalis were recorded. The chemical characteristics analysis and comparability' s calculation of seed resources were made. It was proposed that the area ratio of peak 5 to 6 (characteristic I) and the area ratio of peak 5 and 6 to the total peak areas (characteristic II) are the identification characteristics for different seed resources of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. This method can be used effectively to identify the high quality seed resource of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis.

  1. Separation and structural analysis of saponins in a bark extract from Quillaja saponaria Molina.

    PubMed

    Nord, L I; Kenne, L

    1999-07-20

    Six major saponins were isolated from a bark extract from Quillaja saponaria Molina. Solid-phase extraction, followed by a two-step reversed-phase HPLC separation procedure with phosphate and ammonium acetate buffers of different pH values, was used. The compounds were characterised using NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods.

  2. Safety and Toxicology of Magnolol and Honokiol.

    PubMed

    Sarrica, Andrea; Kirika, Natalja; Romeo, Margherita; Salmona, Mario; Diomede, Luisa

    2018-06-20

    Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia obovata bark extracts have been used for thousands of years in Chinese and Japanese traditional medicines and are still widely employed as herbal preparations for their sedative, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, and antispastic effects. Neolignans, particularly magnolol and honokiol, are the main substances responsible for the beneficial properties of the magnolia bark extract (MBE). The content of magnolol and honokiol in MBE depends on different factors, including the Magnolia plant species, the area of origin, the part of the plant employed, and the method used to prepare the extract. The biological and pharmacological activities of magnolol and honokiol have been extensively investigated. Here we review the safety and toxicological properties of magnolol and honokiol as pure substances or as components of concentrated MBE, including the potential side-effects in humans after oral intake. In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity studies indicated that concentrated MBE has no mutagenic and genotoxic potential, while a subchronic study performed according to OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) guidelines established a no adverse effect level for concentrated MBE > 240 mg/kg b.w/d. Similar to other dietary polyphenols, magnolol and honokiol are subject to glucuronidation, and despite a relatively quick clearance, an interaction with pharmaceutical active principles or other herbal constituents cannot be excluded. However, intervention trials employing concentrated MBE for up to 1 y did not report adverse effects. In conclusion, over the recent years different food safety authorities evaluated magnolol and honokiol and considered them safe. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Acute and subacute toxicity of Schinus terebinthifolius bark extract.

    PubMed

    Lima, L B; Vasconcelos, C F B; Maranhão, H M L; Leite, V R; Ferreira, P A; Andrade, B A; Araújo, E L; Xavier, H S; Lafayette, S S L; Wanderley, A G

    2009-12-10

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) has long been used in traditional Brazilian medicine, especially to treat inflammatory and haemostatic diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity (45 days) of Schinus terebinthifolius via the oral route in Wistar rats of both sexes. For the acute toxicity test, the dried extract of Schinus terebinthifolius bark was administered in doses from 0.625 to 5.0 g/kg (n=5/group/sex) and in the subacute toxicity test the following doses were used: 0.25, 0.625 and 1.5625 g/kg/day (n=13/group/sex), for 45 consecutive days. In the acute toxicity test, Schinus terebinthifolius did not produce any toxic signs or deaths. The subacute treatment with Schinus terebinthifolius did not alter either the body weight gain or the food and water consumption. The hematological and biochemical analysis did not show significant differences in any of the parameters examined in female or male groups, except in two male groups, in which the treatment with Schinus terebinthifolius (0.25 and 0.625 g/kg) induced an increase of mean corpuscular volume values (2.9 and 2.6%, respectively). These variations are within the physiological limits described for the specie and does not have clinical relevance. The acute and subacute administration of the dried extract of Schinus terebinthifolius bark did not produced toxic effects in Wistar rats.

  4. Nutrients, Antioxidant Capacity and Safety of Hot Water Extract from Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum M.) and Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) Bark.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Sagar; Ratti, Cristina; Poubelle, Patrice E; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2018-03-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum M.) and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) barks were treated with hot water to extract nutrients in order to explore, for the first time, its potential as safe dietary antioxidants. The organic and inorganic nutrients of these extracts, as well as their safety on human PLB-985 cells differentiated into neutrophils-like cells, were determined. Proximate analysis showed that both bark extracts were low in moisture and fat. Sugar maple bark extract (SM-BX) showed crude protein and ash content higher than those found in red maple bark extract (RM-BX). In addition, SM-BX had total sugars higher than those evaluated in RM-BX, while complex sugars (oligo- and/or poly-saccharides) were similarly abundant in both bark extracts. Furthermore, SM-BX demonstrated a wide array of vital minerals (K, Ca, Mg, P, Na, Fe and Cu) in quantity larger than that evaluated in RM-BX, whereas RM-BX have Zn and Mn levels higher than those found in SM-BX. Phytochemical analyses showed that RM-BX exhibited total phenolic and flavonoid contents higher than those measured in SM-BX. Consequently, RM-BX presented an antioxidant activity higher than that of SM-BX: 2.85-fold ABTS radical cation scavenging capacity and 1.9-fold oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Finally, RM-BX and SM-BX were greatly safe since, at concentration up to 100 μg/ml, they did not modify the viability of neutrophils as determined by flow-cytometry assay using Annexin V-FITC/Propidum Iodide as markers. In conclusion, our in vitro studies indicate that both red and sugar maple bark extracts have a real potential as food additives.

  5. Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Anal, Anil Kumar; Jaisanti, Sirorat; Noomhorm, Athapol

    2014-10-01

    The bioactive compounds of banana peels and cinnamon barks were extracted by vacuum microwave and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods at pre-determined temperatures and times. These methods enhance the yield extracts in shorter time. The highest yields of both extracts were obtained from the conditions which employed the highest temperature and the longest time. The extracts' yield from cinnamon bark method was higher by ultrasonic than vacuum microwave method, while vacuum microwave method gave higher extraction yield from banana peel than ultrasonic method. The phenolic contents of cinnamon bark and banana peel extracts were 467 and 35 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively. The flavonoid content found in banana peel and cinnamon bark extracts were 196 and 428 mg/g quercetin equivalent, respectively. In addition, it was found that cinnamon bark gave higher 2,2-Diphenyl-1-1 picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity (TAA). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analyzed by measuring the peroxide and p-anisidine values after oxidation of fish oils, stored for a month (30 days) at 25 °C and showed lesser peroxide and p-anisidine values in the fish oils containing the sample extracts in comparison to the fish oil without containing any extract. The banana peel and cinnamon extracts had shown the ability as antioxidants to prevent the oxidation of fish oil and might be considered as rich sources of natural antioxidant.

  6. Antidepressant-like effect of the water extract of the fixed combination of Gardenia jasminoides, Citrus aurantium and Magnolia officinalis in a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    PubMed

    Xing, Hang; Zhang, Kuo; Zhang, Ruowen; Shi, Huiyan; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2015-12-01

    Water extract of the fixed combination of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit, Citrus aurantium L. fruit and Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils. bark, traditional name - Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po (ZZHPD) is used for treatment of depressive-like symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The present study aimed to explore antidepressant-like effects and potential mechanisms of ZZHPD in a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Antidepressant-like effects of ZZHPD were investigated through behavioral tests, and potential mechanism was assessed by neuroendocrine system, neurotrophin and hippocampal neurogenesis. Antidepressant-like effects of ZZHPD (3.66, 7.32 and 14.64 g/kg/day) were estimated through coat state test, sucrose preference test, forced swimming test and open-field test. Effects of ZZHPD on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were evaluated by hormones measurement and dexamethasone suppression test. In addition, the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus was measured, as well as hippocampal neurogenesis was investigated by doublecortin (DCX) and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine/neuronal nuclei (BrdU/NeuN). The results demonstrated that ZZHPD significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors, normalized the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT), restored the negative feedback loop of HPA axis and improved the levels of BDNF, DCX and BrdU/NeuN compared with those in CUMS-induced rats. The above results revealed that ZZHPD exerted antidepressant-like effects possibly by normalizing HPA axis function, increasing expression of BDNF in hippocampus and promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Boring in response to bark and phloem extracts from North American trees does not explain host acceptance behavior of Orthotomicus erosus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Walter, Abigail J; Kells, Stephen A; Venette, Robert C; Seybold, Steven J

    2010-04-01

    When invasive herbivorous insects encounter novel plant species, they must determine whether the novel plants are hosts. The Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), an exotic bark beetle poised to expand its range in North America, accepts hosts after contacting the bark. To test the hypothesis that O. erosus accepts hosts on the basis of gustatory cues, we prepared bark and phloem extracts from logs of four North American tree species that we had used in previous host acceptance experiments. Water, methanol, and hexane extracts of red pine, tamarack, balsam fir, and paper birch were presented alone and in combination on a neutral filter paper substrate in a section of a plastic drinking straw. Boring behavior in response to the three-extract combinations differed from the pattern of acceptance previously observed among species when the beetles were in contact with the bark surface. Only the aqueous extracts of tamarack, Larix laricina, increased the initiation and the extent of boring by O. erosus on the filter paper substrate. We conclude that the effects of extracted chemicals do not match the behavior of the beetles observed when penetrating excised bark and phloem discs, indicating that host selection by O. erosus may not be predictable from bark and phloem chemistry alone. Instead, host acceptance may be determined by nongustatory stimuli or by a combination of stimuli including gustatory and nongustatory cues.

  8. Willow Bark

    MedlinePlus

    ... from several varieties of the willow tree, including white willow or European willow, black willow or pussy willow, ... taking a specific product containing glucosamine sulfate, methylsufonlylmethane, white willow bark extract, ginger root concentrate, boswellia extract, turmeric ...

  9. Fatty and Waxy Components of Southern Pine Bark-Amounts Present As Free Extractives

    Treesearch

    Elaine T. Howard

    1975-01-01

    Whole bark from six mature trees of each of the four major southern pines was extracted with petroleum ether and with toluene. Trees were 20 to 58 years old and 8.0 to 11.8 inches in d.b.h. Percentages of petroleum ether-solubles were: slash pine, 1.94; loblolly, 2.29; longleaf, 2.64; and shortleaf 3.05. Percentages obtained by toluene extraction were: loblolly, 3.04;...

  10. In vivo antioxidant effect of aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts of Vitex doniana in CCl4 induced liver damage rats.

    PubMed

    Adetoro, Kadejo Olubukola; Bolanle, James Dorcas; Abdullahi, Sallau Balarebe; Ahmed, Ozigi Abdulrahaman

    2013-05-01

    The antioxidant effects of aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves of Vitex doniana (V. doniana) were evaluated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage and non induced liver damage albino rats. A total of 60 albino rats (36 induced liver damage and 24 non induced liver damage) were assigned into liver damage and non liver damage groups of 6 rats in a group. The animals in the CCl4 induced liver damage groups, were induced by intraperitoneal injection with a single dose of CCl4 (148 mg·ml(-1)·kg(-1) body weight) as a 1:1 (v/v) solution in olive oil and were fasted for 36 h before the subsequent treatment with aqueous root bark, stem bark and leaves extracts of V. doniana and vitamin E as standard drug (100 mg/kg body weighy per day) for 21 d, while the animals in the non induced groups were only treated with the daily oral administration of these extracts at the same dose. The administration of CCl4 was done once a week for a period of three weeks. The liver of CCl4 induced not treated group showed that the induction with CCl4, significantly (P<0.05) increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and significantly (P<0.05) decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). However there was no significant (P>0.05) difference between TBARS, SOD and CAT in the liver of the induced treated groups and normal control group. In the kidney, TBARS showed no significant (P>0.05) difference between the normal and the induced groups, SOD was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in the CCl4 group compared to standard drug and normal control groups, CAT was significantly (P<0.05) increased in root and vitamin E groups when compared to induced not treated group. The studies also showed that when the extracts were administered to normal animals, there was no significant (P>0.05) change in the liver and kidney level of TBARS, SOD and CAT compared with the normal control except in the kidney of animals treated with stem extract where TBARS was significantly

  11. Montessori for All: Magnolia Montessori

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The founders of Montessori For All, which opened Magnolia Montessori--a PK-8 public charter school in Austin, Texas--created a new school model that blends the best of authentic Montessori schooling (hands-on and self-directed learning) with best practices from high-performing charter schools (basic skills mastery to excel on standardized tests…

  12. Sub-chronic Hepatotoxicity of Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae) Inner Stem Bark Extract in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Okonkwo, T. J. N.; Okorie, O.; Okonta, J. M.; Okonkwo, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    The extracts of Anacardium occidentale have been used in the management of different cardiovascular disorders in Nigeria. These have necessitated the assessment of the toxicity of this plant extract in sub-chronic administration. The inner stem bark of Anacardium occidentale was extracted with 80 % methanol and quantitatively analysed for antinutrients and some heavy metals. The phytochemical compositions and acute toxicity of the extract were determined also. Toxicity profiles of the extract on some liver function parameters were evaluated following a sub-chronic oral administration at doses of 1.44 and 2.87 g/kg. The phytochemical screening of extract revealed the presence of high amount of tannins, moderate saponins and trace of free reducing sugars. The antinutrient levels were 5.75 % (tannins), 2.50 % (oxalates), 2.00 % (saponins), 0.25 % (phytate) and 0.03 % (cyanide). The quantity of iron detected from dried crude was 8.92 mg/100 g, while lead and cadmium were non-detectable. The extract had LD50of 2.154g/kg p.o. in mice. Sub-chronic administration of the extract significantly increased the serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase, which are indicative of liver damage. The serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and total protein of the treated animals were not significantly increased. The effects of sub-chronically administered extract on hepatocytes were minimal as the serum alkaline phosphatase; total bilirubin and total protein levels in treated animals were not significant (p< 0.05). Thus, sub-chronic administrations of Anacardium occidentale inner stem bark extract did not significantly (p< 0.05) depress the function of hepatocytes in Wistar rats. PMID:21188045

  13. Senna singueana: Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective, Antiapoptotic Properties and Phytochemical Profiling of a Methanol Bark Extract.

    PubMed

    Sobeh, Mansour; Mahmoud, Mona F; Hasan, Rehab A; Cheng, Haroan; El-Shazly, Assem M; Wink, Michael

    2017-09-08

    Natural products are considered as an important source for the discovery of new drugs to treat aging-related degenerative diseases and liver injury. The present study profiled the chemical constituents of a methanol extract from Senna singueana bark using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS and 36 secondary metabolites were identified. Proanthocyanidins dominated the extract. Monomers, dimers, trimers of (epi)catechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)guibourtinidol, (ent)cassiaflavan, and (epi)afzelechin represented the major constituents. The extract demonstrated notable antioxidant activities in vitro: In DPPH (EC 50 of 20.8 µg/mL), FRAP (18.16 mM FeSO₄/mg extract) assays, and total phenolic content amounted 474 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Also, in an in vivo model, the extract increased the survival rate of Caenorhabditis elegans worms pretreated with the pro-oxidant juglone from 43 to 64%, decreased intracellular ROS inside the wild-type nematodes by 47.90%, and induced nuclear translocation of the transcription factor DAF-16 in the transgenic strain TJ356. Additionally, the extract showed a remarkable hepatoprotective activity against d-galactosamine (d-GalN) induced hepatic injury in rats. It significantly reduced elevated AST (aspartate aminotransferase), and total bilirubin. Moreover, the extract induced a strong cytoplasmic Bcl-2 expression indicating suppression of apoptosis. In conclusion, the bark extract of S. sengueana represents an interesting candidate for further research in antioxidants and liver protection.

  14. The Ethanolic Stem-Bark Extract of Antrocaryon micraster Inhibits Carrageenan-Induced Pleurisy and Pedal Oedema in Murine Models of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Essel, Leslie B.; Duduyemi, Babatunde M.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a 70% v/v ethanol extract of the stem bark of Antrocaryon micraster on murine models of carrageenan-induced pleurisy and paw oedema. Rat pleural fluid was analysed for volume, protein content, and leucocytes, while lung histology was assessed for damage. Lung tissue homogenates were assayed for glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Phytochemical analysis was carried out on the stem bark. Acute toxicity studies were conducted in rats. In the pleurisy model the extract (30–300 mg/kg) significantly reduced the volume and amount of proteins and leucocytes in the exudate and also protected against lung injury. Tissue level of GSH and SOD and CAT expression were increased while MDA level and MPO activity were reduced. The peak and total oedema responses were significantly suppressed when given both preemptively and curatively in the mice paw oedema test. Saponins, alkaloids, triterpenoids, and tannins were present in the stem bark. A. micraster extract exhibited no apparent acute toxicity. We conclude that the ethanolic stem-bark extract of A. micraster has antioxidant action and exhibits significant anti-inflammatory activity through suppression of pleurisy and paw oedema induced with carrageenan. PMID:28798953

  15. Evaluation of Hypoglycemic and Genotoxic Effect of Polyphenolic Bark Extract from Quercus sideroxyla

    PubMed Central

    Soto-García, Marcela; Rosales-Castro, Martha; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N.

    2016-01-01

    Quercus sideroxyla is a wood species whose bark has phenolic compound and should be considered to be bioactive; the hypoglycemic and genotoxic properties of Q. sideroxyla bark were evaluated in this study. Total phenolic compound was determined in crude extract (CE) and organic extract (OE). The OE has the highest amount of phenols (724.1 ± 12.0 GAE/g). Besides, both CE and OE demonstrated effect over the inhibition of α-amylase in vitro. Hypoglycemic activity was assessed by glucose tolerance curve and the area under curve (UAC); OE showed the highest hypoglycemic activity. In addition, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) and the extracts (50 mg/kg) were administered for 10 days; OE showed hypoglycemic effect compared with diabetic control and decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation. Acute toxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated in CE; results of acute toxicity did not show any mortality. Besides, the comet assay showed that CE at a dose of 100 mg/kg did not show any genotoxic effect when evaluated at 24 h, whereas it induced slight damage at 200 mg/kg, with the formation of type 1 comets. PMID:27867402

  16. Effect of a total extract from Fraxinus ornus stem bark and esculin on zymosan- and carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice.

    PubMed

    Stefanova, Z; Neychev, H; Ivanovska, N; Kostova, I

    1995-05-01

    This study investigates the total ethanol extract (TE) of the stem bark of Fraxinus ornus and its constituent esculin (EN). They inhibited classical pathway (CP) and alternative pathway (AP) of complement activation in mouse serum. After intraperitoneal administration the total extract displayed antiinflammatory activity in both zymosan- and carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice. The results suggest that the traditional use of Fraxinus ornus stem bark extracts in the treatment of inflammatory disorders is at least partially due to its coumarin constituents.

  17. On the origin and distribution of magnolias: Tectonics, DNA and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebda, R. J.; Irving, E.

    Extant magnolias have a classic disjunct distribution in southeast Asia and in the Americas between Canada and Brazil, and nowhere in between. Of the 17 sections (about 210 species) in two subgenera, only two, Tulipastrum and Rhytidospermum, are truly disjunct. Molecular analyses reveal that several North American species are basal forms suggesting that magnolias originated in North America, as indicated by their fossil record. We recognize four elements in their evolution. (1) Ancestral magnolias originated in the Late Cretaceous of North America in high mid-latitudes (45°-60°N) at low altitudes in a greenhouse climate. (2) During the exceptionally warm climate of the Eocene, magnolias spread eastwards, via the Disko Island and Thulean isthmuses, first to Europe, and then across Asia, still at low altitudes and high mid-latitudes. (3) With mid-Cenozoic global cooling, they shifted to lower mid-latitudes (30°-45°N), becoming extinct in Europe and southern Siberia, dividing a once continuous distribution into two, centred in eastern Asia and in North America. (4) In the late Cenozoic, as ice-house conditions developed, magnolias migrated southward from both centres into moist warm temperate upland sites in the newly uplifted mountains ranges of South and Central America, southeast Asia, and the High Archipelago, where they diversified. Thus the late Cenozoic evolution of magnolias is characterized by impoverishment of northern and diversification of southern species, the latter being driven by a combination of high relief and climate oscillations, and neither of the present centers of diversity is the center of origin. Disjunction at the generic level and within section Tulipastrum likely occurred as part of the general mid-Cenozoic southward displacement assisted by the development of north-south water barriers, especially the Turgai Strait across western Siberia. Disjunction in section Rhytidospermum could be Neogene.

  18. The Study of Interactions between Active Compounds of Coffee and Willow (Salix sp.) Bark Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Durak, Agata; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Coffee and willow are known as valuable sources of biologically active phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and salicin. The aim of the study was to determine the interactions between the active compounds contained in water extracts from coffee and bark of willow (Salix purpurea and Salix myrsinifolia). Raw materials and their mixtures were characterized by multidirectional antioxidant activities; however, bioactive constituents interacted with each other. Synergism was observed for ability of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power, whereas compounds able to scavenge ABTS radical cation acted antagonistically. Additionally, phytochemicals from willow bark possessed hydrophilic character and thermostability which justifies their potential use as an ingredient in coffee beverages. Proposed mixtures may be used in the prophylaxis or treatment of some civilization diseases linked with oxidative stress. Most importantly, strong synergism observed for phytochemicals able to prevent lipids against oxidation may suggest protective effect for cell membrane phospholipids. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes as an ingredient in coffee beverages can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this issue requires further study. PMID:25013777

  19. Bioaccessibility in vitro of nutraceuticals from bark of selected Salix species.

    PubMed

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Sugier, Danuta; Dziki, Dariusz; Sugier, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the extractability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability in vitro of antioxidative compounds from bark of selected Salix species: S. alba (SA), S. daphnoides (SD), S. purpurea (SP), and S. daphnoides x purpurea (SDP) hybrid willow clones originating from their natural habitats and cultivated on the sandy soil. The highest amount of phenolic glycosides was found in the bark of SDP and SD. The best source of phenolics was bark of SDP. The highest content of flavonoids were found in SD bark samples, whereas the highest concentration of bioaccessible and bioavailable phenolic acids was determined in SDP bark. Bark of all tested Salix species showed significant antiradical activity. This properties are strongly dependent on extraction system and genetic factors. Regardless of Salix genotypes, the lowest chelating power was found for chemically-extractable compounds. Bark of all Salix species contained ethanol-extractable compounds with reducing ability. Besides this, high bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro of Salix bark phytochemicals were found. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this problem requires further study.

  20. Bioaccessibility In Vitro of Nutraceuticals from Bark of Selected Salix Species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and to compare the extractability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability in vitro of antioxidative compounds from bark of selected Salix species: S. alba (SA), S. daphnoides (SD), S. purpurea (SP), and S. daphnoides x purpurea (SDP) hybrid willow clones originating from their natural habitats and cultivated on the sandy soil. The highest amount of phenolic glycosides was found in the bark of SDP and SD. The best source of phenolics was bark of SDP. The highest content of flavonoids were found in SD bark samples, whereas the highest concentration of bioaccessible and bioavailable phenolic acids was determined in SDP bark. Bark of all tested Salix species showed significant antiradical activity. This properties are strongly dependent on extraction system and genetic factors. Regardless of Salix genotypes, the lowest chelating power was found for chemically-extractable compounds. Bark of all Salix species contained ethanol-extractable compounds with reducing ability. Besides this, high bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro of Salix bark phytochemicals were found. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this problem requires further study. PMID:24696660

  1. Microbial xylitol production from corn cobs using Candida magnoliae.

    PubMed

    Tada, Kiyoshi; Horiuchi, Jun-Ichi; Kanno, Tohru; Kobayashi, Masayoshi

    2004-01-01

    Microbial production of xylitol from corn cobs using Candida magnoliae was experimentally investigated. Approximately 25 g-xylose/l solution was obtained from 100 g-corn cobs/l solution by hydrolysis using 1.0% sulfuric acid at 121 degrees C for 60 min. To remove inhibitors from the hydrolysates, charcoal pellets were found to be effective in selectively removing the inhibitors from the hydrolysates without affecting xylose concentration. C. magnoliae was successfully cultivated using the treated corn cob hydrolysate, resulting in the production of 18.7 g-xylitol/l from 25 g-xylose/l within 36 h.

  2. 75 FR 11936 - Unit Structures LLC, Magnolia, AR; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,367] Unit Structures LLC, Magnolia, AR; Notice of Termination of Investigation Pursuant to Section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974, as... Arkansas Rapid Response Coordinator on behalf of workers of Unit Structures LLC, Magnolia, Arkansas. The...

  3. Antimicrobial activity of bark extracts of Syzygium jambos (L.) alston (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Djipa, C D; Delmée, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J

    2000-07-01

    Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston (Myrtaceae) is a widespread medicinal plant traditionally used in sub-Saharan Africa to treat infectious diseases. Acetone and aqueous extracts from the bark of S. jambos were tested for antimicrobial activity in vitro by the agar dilution method in petri dishes. Both extracts showed some activity against the tested micro-organisms. They proved to be particularly effective on Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica and coagulase negative staphylococci among which Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii and Staphylococcus warneri. These properties seem to be related to the high tannin content of S. jambos extracts (77 and 83% for the aqueous and acetone extracts, respectively, determined according to the European Pharmacopoeia method) which were generally more active than Hamamelis virginiana, Krameria triandra, Alchemilla vulgaris and Rubus fruticosus extracts containing 48, 44, 46 and 28% tannins, respectively. Furthermore, elimination of tannins totally suppressed these antimicrobial activities.

  4. Effect of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) stem bark methylene chloride/methanol extract on streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Dimo, Théophile; Rakotonirina, Silvere V; Tan, Paul V; Azay, Jacqueline; Dongo, Etienne; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Cros, Gérard

    2007-04-04

    Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) is used as a traditional treatment of diabetes in Cameroon. In this study, we investigated the possible antidiabetic effect of the stem bark extract in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg) to male Wistar rats. Experimental animals (six per group), were treated by oral administration of plant extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) and metformin (500 mg/kg; reference drug) for comparison, during 21 days. The stem bark methanol/methylene chloride extract of Sclerocarya birrea exhibited at termination, a significant reduction in blood glucose and increased plasma insulin levels in diabetic rats. The extract also prevented body weight loss in diabetic rats. The effective dose of the plant extract (300 mg/kg) tended to reduce plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and urea levels toward the normal levels. Four days after diabetes induction, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed in experimental diabetic rats. The results showed a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in rats treated with Sclerocarya birrea extract. Metformin, a known antidiabetic drug (500 mg/kg), significantly decreased the integrated area under the glucose curve. These data indicate that Sclerocarya birrea treatment may improve glucose homeostasis in STZ-induced diabetes which could be associated with stimulation of insulin secretion.

  5. Anticholinesterase activities of cold and hot aqueous extracts of F. racemosa stem bark.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2010-04-01

    The present study evaluated the anticholinesterase activity of cold and hot aqueous extracts of Ficus racemosa stem bark against rat brain acetylcholinesterase in vitro. Both the cold aqueous extract (FRC) and the hot aqueous extract (FRH) exhibited a dose dependent inhibition of rat brain acetylcholinesterase. FRH showed significantly higher (P extracts did not show 50% inhibition of AChE at the doses tested (200-1000 mug ml(-1)). The IC(50) values of 1813 and 1331 mug ml(-1) were deduced for FRC and FRH, respectively (calculated by extrapolation using Boltzmann's dose response analysis).

  6. In vitro study on the antioxidant activity of a polyphenol-rich extract from Pinus brutia bark and its fractions.

    PubMed

    Cretu, Elena; Karonen, Maarit; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Mircea, Cornelia; Trifan, Adriana; Charalambous, Christiana; Constantinou, Andreas I; Miron, Anca

    2013-11-01

    A crude hydromethanolic extract from Pinus brutia bark and its fractions (diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions) were studied with regard to their phenolic content and antioxidant activities. The total phenolics and proanthocyanidins in each extract were quantified by spectrophotometric methods; the polyphenolic profile was analyzed by RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. All extracts were tested with regard to their ability to scavenge free radicals (ABTS radical cation, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals), reduce ferric ions, and inhibit 15-lipoxygenase. P. brutia bark extracts had high phenolic contents (303.79±7.34-448.90±1.39 mg/g). Except diethyl ether extract, all other extracts contained proanthocyanidins ranging from 225.79±3.94 to 250.40±1.44 mg/g. Several polyphenols were identified by RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS: taxifolin in diethyl ether extract, a taxifolin-O-hexoside, catechin, procyanidin dimers, and trimers in ethyl acetate extract. Except diethyl ether extract, all other extracts were effective scavengers of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals (EC₅₀=33.5±1.1-54.93±2.85 μg/mL and 0.47±0.06-0.6±0.0 mg/mL, respectively). All extracts had noticeable 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory effects (EC₅₀=22.47±0.75-34.43±2.25 μg/mL). We conclude that P. brutia bark is very promising for the dietary supplements industry due to its high free radical scavenging and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory effects.

  7. Tannins from Hamamelis virginiana bark extract: characterization and improvement of the antiviral efficacy against influenza A virus and human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Theisen, Linda L; Erdelmeier, Clemens A J; Spoden, Gilles A; Boukhallouk, Fatima; Sausy, Aurélie; Florin, Luise; Muller, Claude P

    2014-01-01

    Antiviral activity has been demonstrated for different tannin-rich plant extracts. Since tannins of different classes and molecular weights are often found together in plant extracts and may differ in their antiviral activity, we have compared the effect against influenza A virus (IAV) of Hamamelis virginiana L. bark extract, fractions enriched in tannins of different molecular weights and individual tannins of defined structures, including pseudotannins. We demonstrate antiviral activity of the bark extract against different IAV strains, including the recently emerged H7N9, and show for the first time that a tannin-rich extract inhibits human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 infection. As the best performing antiviral candidate, we identified a highly potent fraction against both IAV and HPV, enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins by ultrafiltration, a simple, reproducible and easily upscalable method. This ultrafiltration concentrate and the bark extract inhibited early and, to a minor extent, later steps in the IAV life cycle and tannin-dependently inhibited HPV attachment. We observed interesting mechanistic differences between tannin structures: High molecular weight tannin containing extracts and tannic acid (1702 g/mol) inhibited both IAV receptor binding and neuraminidase activity. In contrast, low molecular weight compounds (<500 g/mol) such as gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate or hamamelitannin inhibited neuraminidase but not hemagglutination. Average molecular weight of the compounds seemed to positively correlate with receptor binding (but not neuraminidase) inhibition. In general, neuraminidase inhibition seemed to contribute little to the antiviral activity. Importantly, antiviral use of the ultrafiltration fraction enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins and, to a lesser extent, the unfractionated bark extract was preferable over individual isolated compounds. These results are of interest for developing and improving plant

  8. Tannins from Hamamelis virginiana Bark Extract: Characterization and Improvement of the Antiviral Efficacy against Influenza A Virus and Human Papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Theisen, Linda L.; Erdelmeier, Clemens A. J.; Spoden, Gilles A.; Boukhallouk, Fatima; Sausy, Aurélie; Florin, Luise; Muller, Claude P.

    2014-01-01

    Antiviral activity has been demonstrated for different tannin-rich plant extracts. Since tannins of different classes and molecular weights are often found together in plant extracts and may differ in their antiviral activity, we have compared the effect against influenza A virus (IAV) of Hamamelis virginiana L. bark extract, fractions enriched in tannins of different molecular weights and individual tannins of defined structures, including pseudotannins. We demonstrate antiviral activity of the bark extract against different IAV strains, including the recently emerged H7N9, and show for the first time that a tannin-rich extract inhibits human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 infection. As the best performing antiviral candidate, we identified a highly potent fraction against both IAV and HPV, enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins by ultrafiltration, a simple, reproducible and easily upscalable method. This ultrafiltration concentrate and the bark extract inhibited early and, to a minor extent, later steps in the IAV life cycle and tannin-dependently inhibited HPV attachment. We observed interesting mechanistic differences between tannin structures: High molecular weight tannin containing extracts and tannic acid (1702 g/mol) inhibited both IAV receptor binding and neuraminidase activity. In contrast, low molecular weight compounds (<500 g/mol) such as gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate or hamamelitannin inhibited neuraminidase but not hemagglutination. Average molecular weight of the compounds seemed to positively correlate with receptor binding (but not neuraminidase) inhibition. In general, neuraminidase inhibition seemed to contribute little to the antiviral activity. Importantly, antiviral use of the ultrafiltration fraction enriched in high molecular weight condensed tannins and, to a lesser extent, the unfractionated bark extract was preferable over individual isolated compounds. These results are of interest for developing and improving plant

  9. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of psidium guajava in albino rats and albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, N Chandra; Jayasree, T; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-09-01

    Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of Theobroma cacao L. stem bark ethanol extract and its fractions in experimental models.

    PubMed

    Oyeleke, Sabitiu A; Ajayi, Abayomi M; Umukoro, Solomon; Aderibigbe, A O; Ademowo, Olusegun George

    2018-08-10

    The stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. have been used for the treatment of inflammation, toothache, measles and malaria in ethnomedicine. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of Theobroma cacao stem bark has not been fully elucidated. The anti-inflammatory activity of Theobroma cacao stem bark ethanol extract and its fractions was investigated in this study. The anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol extract of Theobroma cacao stem bark (EETc) and its dichloromethane (DCMF), ethylacetate (EAF) and aqueous (AQF) fractions was investigated in erythrocytes membrane stabilizing assay and carrageenan-induced paw oedema. The anti-inflammatory activity of the EAF and EETc was investigated in carrageenan induced-granuloma air pouch models. The extract and fractions showed significant membrane stabilizing action on rat erythrocytes cell membrane. The oral administration of DCMF, EAF and AQF (250 mg/kg) significantly inhibited paw oedema induced by carrageenan (41.3%, 55.0% and 45.0%, respectively) compared to control group. The EAF (62.5, 125 and 250 mg/kg) and EETc (250 mg/kg) significantly inhibited exudates formation in carrageenan air pouch by (63.8, 71.5, 74.5, 64.3%) at 24 h and by (69.4%, 75.7%, 77.1% and 68.4%) at 72 h respectively. The EETc and EAF significantly reduced neutrophil counts, protein, nitrite, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA) but increased reduced glutathione (GSH) levels compared to control in pouch exudates. The HPLC fingerprint of EAF revealed presence of caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid and morin. Ethanol extract of Theobroma cacao and its ethylacetate fraction demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity partly by reducing neutrophil migration and inflammatory mediator production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antispermatogenic, antiandrogenic activities of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth bark extract in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R S; Kachhawa, J B S; Chaudhary, R

    2006-03-01

    Methanolic extract of Albizia lebbeck bark when administered orally at the dose level of 100 mg/rat/day to male rats of proven fertility for 60 days did not cause any significant loss in their body weights but the weights of reproductive organs, i.e. testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were decreased in a significant manner when compared to controls. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced significantly which resulted in reduction of male fertility by 100%. Marked decline in the germ cell population was noticed. Population of preleptotene, pachytene, secondary spermatocytes and step-19 spermatid were declined by 60.86%, 65.81%, 71.56% and 66.55%, respectively. Cross-sectional surface area of sertoli cells as well as the cells counts were found to be depleted significantly. Leydig cells nuclear area and number of mature Leydig cells were decreased by 60.03% and 51.56%, respectively. Serum testosterone levels showed significant reduction after A. lebbeck extract feeding. Oral administration of the extract did not affect red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and glucose in the blood and cholesterol, protein, triglyceride and phospholipid in the serum. In conclusion, A. lebbeck bark extract administration arrests spermatogenesis in male rats without noticeable side effects.

  12. Antidiarrheal activity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Cordia africana

    PubMed Central

    Asrie, Assefa Belay; Abdelwuhab, Mohammedbrhan; Shewamene, Zewdneh; Gelayee, Desalegn Asmelashe; Adinew, Getnet Mequanint; Birru, Eshetie Melese

    2016-01-01

    An ethnobotanical study in Agew-Awi and Amhara peoples in northwest Ethiopia reported that Cordia africana is used traditionally in the treatment of liver disease, amebiasis, stomachache, and diarrhea. The root and root bark are reported to be used in the treatment of diarrhea. Therefore, this study was intended to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of C. africana against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The antidiarrheal effect of the plant was tested on castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice (23–25 g) of either sex. Number of diarrheic defecations, intestinal length traveled by the charcoal meal, and weight of intestinal fluid were taken as important parameters to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the plant extract. In preliminary phytochemical screening tests, the methanolic extract of C. africana was found to contain phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and saponins. Reduction in the number of diarrheic drops was observed in groups of mice that received 200 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 400 mg/kg (P<0.01) of the extract compared to the negative controls. The percent inhibition of intestinal fluid accumulation was 26.83%, 46.34%, and 53.66% at the doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Relative to the negative control group, the mean percent of intestinal length moved by the charcoal meal was decreased by 24.41%, 39.89%, and 51.66% in groups of mice given 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the plant extract, respectively. To iterate the finding, the root bark extract of C. africana was found to be effective in preventing castor oil-induced diarrhea and intestinal motility in a dose-dependent manner. This reveals that the plant material has promising antidiarrheal activity as it is claimed in traditional medical practice. PMID:27799833

  13. Antidiarrheal activity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Cordia africana.

    PubMed

    Asrie, Assefa Belay; Abdelwuhab, Mohammedbrhan; Shewamene, Zewdneh; Gelayee, Desalegn Asmelashe; Adinew, Getnet Mequanint; Birru, Eshetie Melese

    2016-01-01

    An ethnobotanical study in Agew-Awi and Amhara peoples in northwest Ethiopia reported that Cordia africana is used traditionally in the treatment of liver disease, amebiasis, stomachache, and diarrhea. The root and root bark are reported to be used in the treatment of diarrhea. Therefore, this study was intended to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of C. africana against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The antidiarrheal effect of the plant was tested on castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice (23-25 g) of either sex. Number of diarrheic defecations, intestinal length traveled by the charcoal meal, and weight of intestinal fluid were taken as important parameters to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the plant extract. In preliminary phytochemical screening tests, the methanolic extract of C. africana was found to contain phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and saponins. Reduction in the number of diarrheic drops was observed in groups of mice that received 200 mg/kg ( P <0.05) and 400 mg/kg ( P <0.01) of the extract compared to the negative controls. The percent inhibition of intestinal fluid accumulation was 26.83%, 46.34%, and 53.66% at the doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Relative to the negative control group, the mean percent of intestinal length moved by the charcoal meal was decreased by 24.41%, 39.89%, and 51.66% in groups of mice given 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the plant extract, respectively. To iterate the finding, the root bark extract of C. africana was found to be effective in preventing castor oil-induced diarrhea and intestinal motility in a dose-dependent manner. This reveals that the plant material has promising antidiarrheal activity as it is claimed in traditional medical practice.

  14. An aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (Vimang) inhibits T cell proliferation and TNF-induced activation of nuclear transcription factor NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Gabino; Blanco-Molina, Magdalena; Sancho, Rocío; Macho, Antonio; Delgado, René; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2005-03-01

    A commercial aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) has been reported to have antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities. The molecular basis for these diverse properties is still unknown. This study shows that a stem bark extract of M. indica inhibits early and late events in T cell activation, including CD25 cell surface expression, progression to the S-phase of the cell cycle and proliferation in response to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. Moreover, the extract prevented TNFalpha-induced IkappaBalpha degradation and the binding of NF-kappaB to the DNA. This study may help to explain at the molecular level some of the biological activities attributed to the aqueous stem bark extract of M. indica (Vimang).

  15. [Study on digitization of difference in drug color and odor of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex before and after perspiration].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Liang; Yan, Ren-Yi; Guo, Jian; Shao, Ai-Juan; Yang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    To digitalize the changes in characters of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex after perspiration with colorimeter and electronic nose. With perspired and non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex as objective, colorimeter and electronic nose were used to detect their color characteristic parameter and odor characteristic parameter. Finally, an identification model was established. In terms of drug color, the color characteristic parameter model was established for perspired and non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex on the basis of L*, a*, b* color spaces. The range of 90% of reference values of perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex: L* (52.22-59.42), a* (5.36-7.68), b* (22.04-27.05). The range of 90% of reference values of non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex: L* (38.42-47.31), a* (9.63-11.85), b* (18.48-25.53). In terms of drug odor, the principal component analysis (PCA) and the partial least squares method (PLS) showed significant difference between perspired and non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex. The difference in drug color and odor of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex before and after perspiration can be digitalized according to color and odor characteristic parameters tested with colorimeter and electronic nose.

  16. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using bark extracts of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. and study of their antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Manoja; Smita, Soumya Shuvra

    2018-03-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved using bark extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub., a native plant of Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia. The plant parts are familiar for ailment of different diseases. The bioactive compounds present in bark of the plant were extracted with Soxhlet extractor. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used as a raw material for preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The ratio of bark extract and silver nitrate solution for synthesis of AgNPs was standardized as 3:5. The change in colour of the solution from pale yellow to deep brown can be correlated to reduction reaction catalyzed by plant bioactive compounds. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) maxima, λmax, were recorded at 452 nm. SPR indicates the nature and type of particles present in the solution. The suitable concentration of AgNO3 was found to be 10 mM to carry out reduction reaction with the bark extract. Alkaline environment (pH 9) suitably promotes the reaction. FTIR graph of synthesized AgNPs shows the shifting peak of 3265.0 wavelength/cm and 1635.40 wavelength/cm indicates that AgNPs were coated with plant biomolecules, which is attributed to the stabilization of AgNPs. XRD and SEM photograph of the AgNPs showed that they were spherical in shape and capped with bioactive compounds. Thus, the synthesized AgNPs are more stable, less toxic and homogenous in shape. The average diameter of the nanoparticles was 81 nm. The synthesized AgNPs had efficacy against a Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli), a Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), and a mold (Aspergillus niger). The maximum conversion was 66%. From the present investigation, it can be concluded that the bioactive compounds present in the bark of Butea have the capacity to reduce silver ion into silver nanoparticles in aqueous condition and the synthesized AgNPs are stabilized and loss toxic. Moreover, they also possess

  17. Pine Bark and Green Tea Concentrated Extracts: Antioxidant Activity and Comprehensive Characterization of Bioactive Compounds by HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María de la Luz; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents. PMID:25383680

  18. Pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts: antioxidant activity and comprehensive characterization of bioactive compounds by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    de la Luz Cádiz-Gurrea, María; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-11-06

    The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents.

  19. Stimulant Paste Preparation and Bark Streak Tapping Technique for Pine Oleoresin Extraction.

    PubMed

    Füller, Thanise Nogueira; de Lima, Júlio César; de Costa, Fernanda; Rodrigues-Corrêa, Kelly C S; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-01-01

    Tapping technique comprises the extraction of pine oleoresin, a non-wood forest product consisting of a complex mixture of mono, sesqui, and diterpenes biosynthesized and exuded as a defense response to wounding. Oleoresin is used to produce gum rosin, turpentine, and their multiple derivatives. Oleoresin yield and quality are objects of interest in pine tree biotechnology, both in terms of environmental and genetic control. Monitoring these parameters in individual trees grown in the field provides a means to examine the control of terpene production in resin canals, as well as the identification of genetic-based differences in resinosis. A typical method of tapping involves the removal of bark and application of a chemical stimulant on the wounded area. Here we describe the methods for preparing the resin-stimulant paste with different adjuvants, as well as the bark streaking process in adult pine trees.

  20. Effect of oral administration of bark extracts of Pterocarpus santalinus L. on blood glucose level in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Kameswara Rao, B; Giri, R; Kesavulu, M M; Apparao, C

    2001-01-01

    The effect of administration of different doses of Pterocarpus santalinus L. bark extracts in normal and diabetic rats, on blood glucose levels was evaluated in this study. Among the three fractions (aqueous, ethanol and hexane), ethanolic fraction at the dose of 0.25 g/kg body weight showed maximum antihyperglycemic activity. The same dose did not cause any hypoglycemic activity in normal rats. The results were compared with the diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide and the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of PS bark at the dose of 0.25 g/kg b.w. was found to be more effective than that of glibenclamide.

  1. Comparison between several techniques of olive tree bark extraction (Tunisian Chemlali variety).

    PubMed

    Issaoui, Aimen; Ksibi, Hatem; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    In order to better understand the chemical composition of the olive tree bark of Tunisian chemlali variety (Olea europaea cv. 'Chemlali'), this material was extracted by different ways. Compositions of extracts were used at best-selected conditions for each technique, and characterised using HPLC, LC/MS and GC-MS techniques. Analyses are conducted to an important variety of high carbon number compounds such as aliphatic compounds as nanocosane and heptacosane, and molecules with high value added tax (VAT) which can be classified as follows: diterpenes as phytol, triterpenes as squalene and also esters as Benzyl cinnamate. Hydrodistillation at high pressure seems to be a very common method to get a wide variety of compounds, the results are better than the ones obtained using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

  2. Antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract as an anti-ulcerogenic agent.

    PubMed

    Nartey, Edmund T; Ofosuhene, Mark; Kudzi, William; Agbale, Caleb M

    2012-05-20

    Cassia sieberiana is a savannah tree with a wide phytotherapeutic application including the use of its roots in the management of various stomach disorders including gastric ulcer, stomach pains and indigestion. The aim of the study is to evaluate the antioxidant, gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins, secretory phospholipase A2, phytochemical and acute toxicity properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract in a bid to justify its phytotherapeutic applications in gastric ulcer. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of the roots bark extract of Cassia sieberiana were assayed. Serum secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) concentration and activity and the formation of gastric mucosal prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and I2 (PGI2) were also assessed. Comparisons between means were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Students Standard Newman-Keuls post hoc analysis to determine statistical significance. P < 0.05 was considered significant. The extract was found to possess significant ferric reducing antioxidant power and can scavenge hydroxyl radicals. The extract also possesses DPPH scavenging activity, can chelate ferrous ion and a dose-dependent protective effect against lipid peroxidation and free radical generation. Prostaglandin studies showed that the roots bark extract dose dependently increased gastric mucosal PGE2 and PGI2 levels and also decreased serum sPLA2 activity. Phytochemical analyses suggest that the roots extract contains polyhydroxyl/phenolic substances. Acute toxicity test showed no sign of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/kg body weight p.o. C. sieberiana roots extract possesses significant antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandin properties as well as serum secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity which could be due to its content of polyhydroxy and/or phenolic substances. This may justify its use as an anti-ulcerogenic agent in traditional medicine in West Africa.

  3. Ethnobotanical survey, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv.

    PubMed

    Khallouki, Farid; Haubner, Roswitha; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W

    2011-11-01

    The root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv. is traditionally used in the Democratic Republic of Congo to treat several debilitating conditions, such as hernia, female sterility, sexual asthenia, and parasitic infections. However, little is known about the composition of the secondary plant substances, which may contribute to these traditional medicinal effects. We conducted an ethnobotanical study and then evaluated the composition of the secondary plant substances in extracts of the root bark by using spectroscopic methods. After delipidation, the root bark was lixiviated in methanol, and components in the extract were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-MS and nano-electrospray ionization-MS-MS. These methods identified 13 secondary plant substances (almost exclusively phenolic compounds): p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (I), vanillin (II), tyrosol (III), 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (IV), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (V), vanillyl alcohol (VI), syringaldehyde (VII), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanol (VIII), vanillic acid (IX), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (X), syringic acid (XI), and ferulic acid (XII), along with the phytosterol squalene (XIII). In the HPLC-based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase antioxidant assay system, the methanolic extract exhibited potent antioxidant capacity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 72 μL, equivalent to 1.38 mg/mL of raw extract. Thus, a methanol extract of A. cuneata Oliv. contained a range of polyphenolic compounds, which may be partly responsible for its known traditional medicinal effects. More detailed studies on the phytochemistry of this important plant species are therefore warranted.

  4. Evaluation of Antinociceptive Activity of Aqueous Extract of Bark of Psidium Guajava in Albino Rats and Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jayasree, T.; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. Aim: To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Materials and Methods: Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. Results: The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. Conclusion: AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms. PMID:25386462

  5. Utilization of Tahongai stem bark (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) extract as corrosion inhibitor on API 5L steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizky, Yoel; Novita, Eli; Rinda, Shaimah; Sulistijono, Triana, Yunita

    2018-04-01

    Tahongai (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) is one of herbal plant cultivated in Kalimantan. Tahongai stem bark extract (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) is known containing antioxidant to prevent cancer cell growing, therefore it is expected to become a good organic corrosion inhibitor. Tests conducted in this study were: DPPH to prove the content of antioxidant compounds in Tahongai woods (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) from which IC50 number is found to be 153.78 µg/mL, indicating intermediate power, Fourier Transform Infrared Specroscopy (FTIR) to determine the functional groups and compounds in Tahongai stem bark extract (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) and suspected that flavonoid compound contained in extract, Open Circuit Potential (OCP) to obtain corrosion rate data and found that the slowest corrosion occurred on 400 ppm (30 days) with corrosion rate 8,74 × 10-4 mm/year. The most efficient inhibitor found in 400 ppm (30 days) with 92,063%.

  6. alpha-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of Mangifera indica bark.

    PubMed

    Prashanth, D; Amit, A; Samiulla, D S; Asha, M K; Padmaja, R

    2001-08-01

    The ethanolic extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves, Holarrhena antidysenterica bark, Swertia chirata whole plant and Mangifera indica bark were tested (in-vitro) for alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. M. indica extract was found to be the most potent, with an IC(50) value of 314 microg/ml.

  7. Magnolol and honokiol from Magnolia officinalis enhanced antiviral immune responses against grass carp reovirus in Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohui; Hu, Yang; Shan, Lipeng; Yu, Xiaobo; Hao, Kai; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2017-04-01

    Medicinal plants have been widely used for a long history. Exploration of pharmacologically active compounds from medicinal plants present a broad prevalent of application. By examining viral mRNA expression in GCRV-infected Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells treated with thirty kinds of plant extracts, we identified Magnolia officinalis Rehd et Wils. was able to preferably suppress viral replication. Further studies demonstrated that the main ingredients of magnolia bark, namely, magnolol and honokiol presented protective pharmacological function when treated GCRV-infected CIK cells with a concentration of 2.00 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, reverse transcript quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot showed that both magnolol and honokiol were efficient to restrain the replication of GCRV in CIK cells at non-toxic concentration (2.51 ± 0.51 μg/ml for magnolol, and 3.18 ± 0.61 μg/ml for honokiol). Moreover, it was found that magnolol and honokiol promoted the expression of immune-related genes. Magnolol obviously significantly increased the expression of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF)7 rather than that of IRF3 in the GCRV-infected cells, leading to the activation of type I IFN (IFN-I). Simultaneously, magnolol drastically facilitated the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, but failed to induce the molecules in nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathways. Differently, honokiol strikingly motivated not only the expression of IL-1β, but also those of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and NF-κB. Interestingly, though honokiol motivated the expression of IFN-β promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1), IRF3 and IRF7, it failed to up-regulate the expression of IFN-I, indicating that honokiol enhanced the host innate antiviral response to GCRV infection via NF-κB pathways. Collectively, the present study revealed that magnolol and honokiol facilitated the expression of innate immune-related genes to strengthen the

  8. The Vallarta Botanical Garden's advancements in conserving the diversity of native Mexican oaks and magnolias

    Treesearch

    N.A. Gerlowski; M.A. Muñiz-Castro

    2017-01-01

    Mexico is both an oak (Quercus) biodiversity hotspot (over 160 described species) and the western hemisphere's leader in magnolia (Magnolia) diversity (36 described species). In the face of myriad threats to these groups, including climate change, habitat loss/fragmentation, overharvesting, and plant pests/pathogens, the...

  9. MFE/Magnolia - A joint CNES/NASA mission for the earth magnetic field investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runavot, Josette; Ousley, Gilbert W.

    1988-01-01

    The joint phase B study in the CNES/NASA MFE/Magnolia mission to study the earth's magnetic field are reported. The scientific objectives are summarized and the respective responsibilities of NASA and CNES are outlined. The MFE/Magnolia structure and power systems, mass and power budgets, attitude control system, instrument platform and boom, tape recorders, rf system, propellant system, and scientific instruments are described.

  10. Magnolia officinalis L. Fortified Gum Improves Resistance of Oral Epithelial Cells Against Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jessica; Imboeck, Julia Maria; Walker, Joel Michael; Maitra, Amarnath; Haririan, Hady; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui; Dodds, Michael; Inui, Taichi; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the periodontal tissues are known health problems worldwide. Therefore, anti-inflammatory active compounds are used in oral care products to reduce long-term inflammation. In addition to inducing inflammation, pathogen attack leads to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may lead to oxidative damage of macromolecules. Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract (MBE) has been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in vitro. In the present study, the influence of MBE-fortified chewing gum on the resistance against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and oxidative stress of oral epithelial cells was investigated in a four-armed parallel designed human intervention trial with 40 healthy volunteers. Ex vivo stimulation of oral epithelial cells with LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis for 6[Formula: see text]h increased the mRNA expression and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1[Formula: see text], IL-[Formula: see text], IL-8, MIP-1[Formula: see text], and TNF[Formula: see text]. Chewing MBE-fortified gum for 10[Formula: see text]min reduced the ex vivo LPS-induced increase of IL-8 release by 43.8 [Formula: see text] 17.1% at the beginning of the intervention. In addition, after the two-week intervention with MBE-fortified chewing gum, LPS-stimulated TNF[Formula: see text] release was attenuated by 73.4 [Formula: see text] 12.0% compared to chewing regular control gum. This increased resistance against LPS-induced inflammation suggests that MBE possesses anti-inflammatory activity in vivo when added to chewing gum. In contrast, the conditions used to stimulate an immune response of oral epithelial cells failed to induce oxidative stress, measured by catalase activity, or oxidative DNA damage.

  11. Abortifacient potential of methanolic extract of Anthocephalus cadamba stem bark in mice.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Muhammad Vaseem; Kala, Manika; Ravat, Nirav; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2015-09-15

    Medicinal plants possessing abortifacient activity have been used traditionally for a long time in folk medicine. Anthocephalus cadamba, is one such herb that has been known to possess abortifacient potential in ethnobotanical literature, but has not been validated scientifically. The methanolic extract of Anthocephalus cadamba stem bark (MEAC) was prepared and tested for abortifacient, estrogenic and uterotrophic activity. Pregnant Swiss albino mice were randomized into 5 groups (1-5). Group 1 (negative control) received 0.2% w/v agar, group 2-4 (received extract at the dose of 500, 1000 and 1500mg/kg b.w.) and group 5 received mifepristone at a dose of 5.86mg/kg b.w. respectively, by oral route from 10(th) to 18(th) day post-coitum daily, and various parameters recorded. The uterotrophic bioassay was performed in bilaterally ovariectomized mice dosed from 9(th) to 15(th) day of ovariectomy and change in uterotrophic parameters was observed. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed presence of glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, triterpenoids, flavonoids and tannins. No signs of clinical toxicity were observed at any time during the period of treatment. The extract significantly reduced (P<0.05) the number of live fetus, weight and survival ratio of the fetus, number of corpora lutea, progesterone, estradiol and luteinizing hormone whereas the number of dead fetus, number of mice that aborted, percentage vaginal opening and post-implantation loss increased significantly (P<0.05). The estrogenicity experiments showed increase in uterine weight (P<0.05), ballooning of uterus, uterine glucose (P<0.05) and ALP (P<0.001) in extract treated group dose dependently. In addition, the extract also induced vaginal bleeding preceding parturition. This study has substantiated the abortifacient potential of the methanolic extract of Anthocephalus cadamba stem bark. The activity was more marked in 1000 and 1500mg/kg b.w. of the extract and was comparable to that of

  12. 78 FR 34371 - Magnolia Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1578-000] Magnolia Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Magnolia Energy...

  13. Evaluation of acute and sub-acute toxicity of Pinus eldarica bark extract in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghadirkhomi, Akram; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Agha Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pinus eldarica (P. eldarica) is one of the most common pines in Iran which has various bioactive constituents and different uses in traditional medicine. Since there is no documented evidence for P. eldarica safety, the acute and sub-acute oral toxicities of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark were investigated in male and female Wistar rats in this study. Materials and Methods: In the acute study, a single dose of extract (2000 mg/kg) was orally administered and animals were monitored for 7 days. In the sub-acute study, repeated doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day) of the extract were administered for 28 days and biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Our results showed no sign of toxicity and no mortality after single or repeated administration of P. eldarica. The median lethal dose (LD50) of P. eldarica was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg. The mean body weight and most of the biochemical and hematological parameters showed normal levels. There were only significant decreases in serum triglyceride levels at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract in male rats (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and in monocyte counts at the highest dose of the extract in both male and female rats (p<0.05). Mild inflammation was also found in histological examination of kidney and liver tissues at the highest dose of extract. Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark may be considered as relatively non-toxic particularly at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg. PMID:27761426

  14. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq

    PubMed Central

    Mbaebie, BO; Edeoga, HO; Afolayan, AJ

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Schotia latifolia (S. latifolia) bark locally used for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced ailments in South Africa. Methods The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins were also determined to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results The activities of plant extract against DPPH, ABTS and NO radicals were concentration dependent with IC50 value of 0.06, 0.05 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was greater than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid which were used as standard drugs in a concentration dependent manner. The total phenolics content of the aqueous bark extract was (193.33±0.03 TE/g), followed by flavonoids (72.70±0.01 QE/g), proanthocyanidins (48.76±0.00 CE/g) and flavonols (47.76±0.21 QE/g). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of percentage tannin (11.40±0.02), alkaloid (9.80±0.01), steroids (18.20±0.01), glycosides (29.80±0.01) and saponins (6.80±0.00). The results exhibited a positive linear correlation between these polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activities. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of S. latifolia is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its uses in folkloric medicines. PMID:23569880

  15. A new name and seventeen new combinations in the Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) of China and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Chris; Png, Siak-Khoon Sk

    2013-12-01

    A new name is proposed and seventeen new combinations are made as a result of the previous reduction of the remaining genera of subfamily Magnolioideae (Magnoliaceae) into the genus Magnolia. The replacement name Magnolia fansipanensis is proposed for Manglietia crassifolia Q. N. Vu et al., since its transfer to Magnolia would create an illegitimate later homonym of the fossil name M. crassifolia Göpp. A further 17 new combinations are made to transfer the following taxa to Magnolia: Manglietia guangzhouensis A. Q. Dong et al., M. kaifui Q. W. Zeng & X. M. Hu, M. lawii N. H. Xia & W. F. Liao, plus Michelia concinna H. Jiang & E. D. Liu, M. jianfenglingensis G. A. Fu & K. Pan, M. viridipetala Y. W. Law et al., M. wuzhishangensis G. A. Fu & K. Pan, M. xianianhei Q. N. Vu and Yulania carnosa D. L. Fu & D. L. Zhang, Y. cuneatofolia T. B. Chao (probably Zhao) et al., Y. dabieshanensis T. B. Zhao et al., Y. dimorpha T. B. Zhao & Z. X. Chen, Y. fragarigynandria T. B. Zhao et al., Y. shirenshanensis D. L. Fu & T. B. Zhao, Y. shizhenii D. L. Fu & F. W. Li, Y. verrucata D. L. Fu et al. and Y. xinyangensis T. B. Zhao et al. The transfer of the above taxa to Magnolia is necessary following the present almost universal recognition of Magnolioideae as one of two monogeneric subfamilies within Magnoliaceae.

  16. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Orekoya, Latifat Olubukola; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary.

  17. Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark and its active component emodin.

    PubMed

    Brkanac, Sandra Radić; Gerić, Marko; Gajski, Goran; Vujčić, Valerija; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Kremer, Dario; Domijan, Ana-Marija

    2015-12-01

    In the present study toxicity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark, widely used as laxative, was investigated. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) were treated with F. alnus bark extract or emodin (emodin is bark component with laxative property), and cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and parameters of oxidative stress were assessed. Also, polyphenol content of bark extract and antioxidant activity of the extract and emodin measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods were examined. The bark extract (500 μg/ml) produced cell death and DNA damage, while level of ROS changed at 250 μg/ml. Emodin induced cell death and DNA damage at 150 μg/ml and 200 μg/ml, respectively, and the increase of ROS was observed at 25 μg/ml. These results suggest that both, bark extract and emodin, are cyto/genotoxic to HPBLs and that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of their toxicity. The results on antioxidant activity showed that, unlike emodin, bark extract possess moderate antioxidant capacity (44.6%, 46.8% and 2.25 mmol Fe(2+)/g measured by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay, respectively) that can be related to relatively high phenolic content (116.07 mg/g). However, due to toxicological properties use of F. alnus bark as well as emodin-containing preparations should be taken with caution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Unstable simple volatiles and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of essential oil from the roots bark of Oplopanax horridus extracted by supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Shao, Li; Bao, Mei-Hua; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2014-11-27

    Volatile oil from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus is regarded to be responsible for the clinical uses of the title plant as a respiratory stimulant and expectorant. Therefore, a supercritical fluid extraction method was first employed to extract the volatile oil from the roots bark of O. horridus, which was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-eight volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis, including (S,E)-nerolidol (52.5%), τ-cadinol (21.6%) and S-falcarinol (3.6%). Accordingly, the volatile oil (100 g) was subjected to chromatographic separation and purification. As a result, the three compounds, (E)-nerolidol (2 g), τ-cadinol (62 mg) and S-falcarinol (21 mg), were isolated and purified from the volatile oil, the structures of which were unambiguously elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques.

  19. [Studies on technology optimization for extraction and purification of total flavones from root bark of Artocarpus styracifolius].

    PubMed

    Ren, Gang; Liu, Rong-hua; Shao, Feng; Huang, Hui-lian; Wen, Li-rong

    2010-08-01

    To study the technology optimization for extraction and purification of total flavones from root bark of Artocarpus styracifolius. The optimum extraction conditions were investigated by the contents of the total flavones, using orthogonal test; Static adsorption capacity and desorption rate were employed as examine items for the screening of optimum macroporous resin and optimum technology for the purification of total flavones with selected macroporous were also investigated. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: using 60% alcohol of seven times than amounts of original material soaking 12 hours,extracting once with hot reflux method at 50 degrees C. HPD-500 type macroporous resin showed better adsorption and desorption property. The optimum purification conditions were as follows: the sample solution was prepared at the concentration of 50.0 mg/mL, subjected to HPD-500 type macroporous resin column chromatography with a load ratio of 22.0 mg total flavones per gram of resin. After standing for 1 hour, the column was eluted with 4 BV water before being eluted with 4 BV 80% alcohol. The purity of the product was 86.4%, which enhanced the content of total flavones by 533%. The optimum conditions for extraction and purification of total flavones from root bark of Artocarpus styractifolius are convenient and practical, and could be used as a reference for industrial production.

  20. Anti-spermatogenic activity of ethanol extract of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. stem bark.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Neeru; Vats, Manisha

    2011-06-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-spermatogenic efficacy of ethanol extract of stem bark of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. For the in vitro study, semen samples were obtained from 15 healthy fertile men aged 25-35 years. Sperm motility was examined by the Sander-Cramer method. A dose-dependent and time-dependent effect of ethanol extract on sperm motility and sperm viability were observed. Various concentrations affected the motility of sperm. Ethanol extract at a concentration of 20 mg/mL caused complete immobilization within 3 minutes. Sperm viability and hypo-osmotic swelling was significantly reduced at this concentration. The in vivo studies were carried out on Swiss male albino mice. Ethanol extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight resulted in a significant decrease (p<0.001) in weight of the testis and epididymis. A significant decrease (p<0.01) in sperm motility and sperm count in the epididymis were observed. Histological changes in the epididymis and testis were also investigated. Copyright © 2011 Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  1. Antihyperglycemic activity of Albizzia lebbeck bark extract in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type II diabetes mellitus rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Priyank A; Parikh, Mihir P; Johari, Sarika; Gandhi, Tejal R

    2015-01-01

    Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family - Leguminosae) extract is a proven mast cell stabilizing agent. Mast cells are involved in the inflammatory processes leading to the diabetes mellitus. To evaluate the effect of A. lebbeck against experimentally induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to six groups (n = 6). Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) given after 15 min of nicotinamide administration (110 mg/kg). Treatment with methanolic extract of A. lebbeck bark (MEAL) and metformin drug as standard was given for 21 days. Serum glucose (GLU) levels were measured on the 0 day and on 1(st), 7(th), 14(th) and 21(st) day after diabetes induction. After completion of study period, various biochemical parameters in serum such as - GLU, lipid profile, urea and creatinine were estimated. One-way analysis of variance followed with post-hoc Dunnett's test was used to analyse the data. Statistical significance for the values was set at P< 0.05. MEAL significantly decreased the level of serum GLU, creatinine, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein levels. A. lebbeck bark extract showed antihyperglycaemic activity along with antihyperlipidemic effect.

  2. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of condensed tannins with potent antioxidant activity from the leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-Dong; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ming; Liao, Meng-Meng; Chai, Wei-Ming

    2010-06-15

    The structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that the condensed tannins from stem bark and root bark include propelargonidin and procyanidin, and the leaf condensed tannins include propelargonidin, procyanidin and prodelphinidin, all with the procyanidin dominating. The condensed tannins had different polymer chain lengths, varying from trimers to undecamers for leaf and root bark and to dodecamers for stem bark. The condensed tannins extracted from the leaf, stem bark and root bark all showed a very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power.

  3. Investigation of protein expression profiles of erythritol-producing Candida magnoliae in response to glucose perturbation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Hyeong-Rho; Kim, Chang Sup; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2013-08-15

    Protein expression patterns of an erythritol-producing yeast, Candida magnoliae, were analyzed to identify differentially expressed proteins in response to glucose perturbation. Specifically, wild type C. magnoliae was grown under high and low glucose conditions and the cells were harvested at both mid-exponential and erythritol production phases for proteomic studies. In order to analyze intracellular protein abundances from the harvested cells quantitatively, total intracellular proteins were extracted and applied to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for separation and visualization of individual proteins. Among the proteins distributed in the range of pI 4-7 and molecular weight 29-97kDa, five osmo-responsive proteins were drastically changed in response to glucose perturbation. Hsp60 (Heat-shock protein 60), transaldolase and NADH:quinone oxidoreductase were down-regulated under the high glucose condition and Bro1 (BCK1-like Resistance to Osmotic shock) and Eno1 (enolase1) were up-regulated. These proteins are directly or indirectly related with cellular stress response. Importantly, protein expression patterns of Hsp60, Bro1 and Eno1 were strongly correlated with previous studies identifying the proteins perturbed by osmotic stress for other organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biogeographic Patterns Between Bacterial Phyllosphere Communities of the Southern Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) in a Small Forest.

    PubMed

    Stone, Bram W G; Jackson, Colin R

    2016-05-01

    The phyllosphere presents a unique system of discrete and easily replicable surfaces colonized primarily by bacteria. However, the biogeography of bacteria in the phyllosphere is little understood, especially at small to intermediate scales. Bacterial communities on the leaves of 91 southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) trees 1-452 m apart in a small forest plot were analyzed and fragments of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequenced using the Illumina platform. Assemblages were dominated by members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria. Patterns in community composition were measured by both relative abundance (theta) and presence-absence (Jaccard) dissimilarity metrics. Distance-based Moran's eigenvector map analyses of the distance-decay relationship found a significant, positive relationship between each dissimilarity metric and significant eigenfunctions derived from geographic distance between trees, indicating trees that were closer together had more similar bacterial phyllosphere communities. Indirect gradient analyses revealed that several environmental parameters (canopy cover, tree elevation, and the slope and aspect of the ground beneath trees) were significantly related to multivariate ordination scores based on relative bacterial sequence abundances; however, these relationships were not significant when looking at the incidence of bacterial taxa. This suggests that bacterial growth and abundance in the phyllosphere is shaped by different assembly mechanisms than bacterial presence or absence. More broadly, this study demonstrates that the distance-decay relationship applies to phyllosphere communities at local scales, and that environmental parameters as well as neutral forces may both influence spatial patterns in the phyllosphere.

  5. Antileishmanial Potential of Tropical Rainforest Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Monzote, Lianet; Piñón, Abel; Setzer, William N.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 115 different plant extracts from our collection, representing 96 plant species, have been evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes. In addition, the extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against BALB/c mouse macrophages in order to assess a selectivity index. Crude extracts that showed a selectivity index (CC50 for macrophage / IC50 for promastigotes) ≥ 5 or with IC50 < 12.5 μg/mL against promastigotes, a total of 28 extracts, were further screened for anti-amastigote activity. A total of 25 extracts showed promising activity against L. amazonensis promastigotes with low cytotoxic activity. Ten of these extracts showed selectivity indices, (CC50 for macrophages / IC50 for amastigotes) greater than 10 and are considered “hits”, worthy candidates for further phytochemical exploration: Conostegia xalapensis methanol bark extract, Endiandra palmerstonii bark extract, Eugenia monteverdensis acetone bark extract, Eugenia sp. “fine leaf” acetone bark extract, Exothea paniculata chloroform bark extract, Mallotus paniculatus ethanol bark extract, Matelea pseudobarbata ethanol extract, Quercus insignis ethanol bark extract, Sassafras albidum dichloromethane bark extract, and Stemmadenia donnell-smithii acetone bark extract. PMID:28933376

  6. Microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic extraction to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in needles and bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L. by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ratola, Nuno; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià; Alves, Arminda

    2009-01-15

    Two different extraction strategies (microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasonic extraction (USE)) were tested in the extraction of the 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from pine trees. Extraction of needles and bark from two pine species common in the Iberian Peninsula (Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L.) was optimized using two amounts of sample (1g and 5 g) and two PAHs spiking levels (20 ng/g and 100 ng/g). In all cases, the clean-up procedure following extraction consisted in solid-phase extraction (SPE) with alumina cartridges. Quantification was done by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS), using five deuterated PAH surrogate standards as internal standards. Limits of detection were globally below 0.2 ng/g. The method was robust for the matrices studied regardless of the extraction procedures. Recovery values between 70 and 130% were reached in most cases, except for high molecular weight PAHs (indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene). A field study with naturally contaminated samples from eight sites (four in Portugal and four in Catalonia, Spain) showed that needles are more suitable biomonitors for PAHs, yielding concentrations from 2 to 17 times higher than those found in bark. The levels varied according to the sampling site, with the sum of the individual PAH concentrations between 213 and 1773 ng/g (dry weight). Phenanthrene was the most abundant PAH, followed by fluoranthene, naphthalene and pyrene.

  7. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous and Dichloromethane/Methanol Stem Bark Extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub (Papilionaceae) on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tchamadeu, Marie Claire; Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré Djomeni; Blaes, Nelly; Girolami, Jean-Pierre; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Dimo, Théophile

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the Study: The aim is to evaluate the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects of aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub in normal and diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic and normal adult Wistar rats were orally administered with aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH plant extracts of P. soyauxii at various doses (38–300 mg/kg) in a single administration. In addition, STZ-induced diabetic rats received prolonged daily administration for 14 days. Glibenclamide (GB) (10 mg/kg) was used as reference treatment. In acute test, fasting blood glucose was followed for 5 h. In subacute test, body weight, food and water intakes, and blood glucose were followed weekly and serum biochemical parameters evaluated after 14 days treatment. Results: Acute administration of aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH stem bark extracts moderately decreased fasting blood glucose compared to GB, significantly in normal rats (P < 0.05 to P < 0.01) but, as GB, not significantly in diabetic rats. Prolonged treatments in diabetic rats with aqueous and CH2Cl2/CH3OH extracts reduced blood glucose to an extent, respectively, superior or similar to GB. Moreover, P. soyauxii also significantly (P < 0.01) reduced weight loss, and diabetes increased serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and transaminases (alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase) elevations. Conclusion: P. soyauxii Taub stem bark extracts have possible value for antidiabetic oral medication. SUMMARY Aqueous and Dichloromethane/Methanol stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii Taub have potent (compared to Glibenclamide) antidiabetic effects in STZ-diabetic rats, with specific kinetics and dose-responses.Moderate hypoglycemia effects upon acute P. soyauxii administration.Potent anti-hyperglycemic effects of sub-acute P. soyauxii administration in STZ-diabetic rats.Potent anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sub-acute P. soyauxii administration in STZ-diabetic rats

  8. Cationized milled pine bark as an adsorbent for orthophosphate anions

    Treesearch

    Mandla A. Tshabalala; K.G. Karthikeyan; D. Wang

    2004-01-01

    More efficient adsorption media are needed for removing dissolved phosphorus in surface water runoff. We studied the use of cationized pine bark as a sorbent for dissolved phosphorus in water. Cationized pine bark was prepared by treating extracted milled pine bark with polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAA HCl) and epichlorohydrin (ECH) in aqueous medium. Attachment of...

  9. Anti-ulcer polysaccharides from Cola cordifolia bark and leaves.

    PubMed

    Austarheim, Ingvild; Mahamane, Haidara; Sanogo, Rokia; Togola, Adiaratou; Khaledabadi, Mehdi; Vestrheim, Anne C; Inngjerdingen, Kari T; Michaelsen, Terje E; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit S

    2012-08-30

    Aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of C. cordifolia are traditionally used in Mali (West Africa) in the treatment of wounds and gastric ailments like abdominal pain, gastritis and gastric ulcers. To evaluate and compare the anti-ulcer and immunological activities, as well as the toxicity of polysaccharide rich water extracts from the bark and leaves of C. cordifolia. Gastric ulcers were induced in rats and the inhibition of ulcer formation was calculated based on lesion index. Immunological activities were measured by complement fixation and macrophage activation. Toxicity was tested on brine shrimps. The two extracts were characterised by GC, Yariv-precipitation and quantification of phenolic compounds. An ethnomedical survey on C. cordifolia was carried out in Siby (Mali, West-Africa) to generate more knowledge about the traditional use. Bark and leaf extracts from C. cordifolia significantly inhibited the formation of gastric lesions in rodents in a dose depending manner. CCbark50 showed a high complement fixation activity in vitro. No toxicity was found. The ethnomedical survey showed that C. cordifolia was mainly used for treating pain and wounds. Our results shows that the bark and the leaves comprise a dose dependant anti-ulcer activity in an experimental rat model (no statistical difference between the plant parts). Clinical studies should be performed to evaluate the effect of both bark and leaves of C. cordifolia as a remedy against gastric ulcer in human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antihyperglycemic activity of Albizzia lebbeck bark extract in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type II diabetes mellitus rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Priyank A.; Parikh, Mihir P.; Johari, Sarika; Gandhi, Tejal R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Albizzia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family - Leguminosae) extract is a proven mast cell stabilizing agent. Mast cells are involved in the inflammatory processes leading to the diabetes mellitus. Aim: To evaluate the effect of A. lebbeck against experimentally induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Materials and Method: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to six groups (n = 6). Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) given after 15 min of nicotinamide administration (110 mg/kg). Treatment with methanolic extract of A. lebbeck bark (MEAL) and metformin drug as standard was given for 21 days. Serum glucose (GLU) levels were measured on the 0 day and on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day after diabetes induction. After completion of study period, various biochemical parameters in serum such as - GLU, lipid profile, urea and creatinine were estimated. One-way analysis of variance followed with post-hoc Dunnett's test was used to analyse the data. Statistical significance for the values was set at P< 0.05. Results: MEAL significantly decreased the level of serum GLU, creatinine, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: A. lebbeck bark extract showed antihyperglycaemic activity along with antihyperlipidemic effect. PMID:27313423

  11. Influence of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract on intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen

    2014-08-15

    The selective antimicrobial effect of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract (PBE) (0.5 g/L) has been studied before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. PBE (a concentrate of water-soluble bioflavonoids, mainly including phenolic compounds) has been proven to have high stability to the digestion process. Pure phenolic compounds such as gallic acid had a high antimicrobial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, maintaining the lactic acid bacteria population (≈100%). Otherwise, E. coli O157:H7 only growth 50% when PBE was added to the culture media, while a slight increase on the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria was observed after exposition to the bark extract. Fresh fruit juices enriched with PBE showed the highest inhibitory effect on pathogenic intestinal bacterial growth, mainly E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis. The in vitro digestion process reduced the antibacterial effect of juices against most pathogenic bacteria in approximately 10%. However, the beneficial effect of fruit juices enriched with PBE (0.5 g/L) on gut microbiota is still considerable after digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Activity of hawthorn leaf and bark extracts in relation to biological membrane.

    PubMed

    Włoch, Aleksandra; Kapusta, Ireneusz; Bielecki, Krzysztof; Oszmiański, Jan; Kleszczyńska, Halina

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to identify and determine the percent content of polyphenols in extracts from leaves and hawthorn bark, to examine the effect of the extracts on the properties of the biological membrane as well as to determine their antioxidant activity toward membrane lipids. In particular, a biophysical investigation was conducted on the effect of hawthorn extracts on the osmotic resistance and morphology of erythrocyte cells and on the packing of the heads of membrane lipids. Analysis of the polyphenol content of extracts used the HPLC method. Analysis of the polyphenol composition has shown a dominant share of procyanidins and epicatechin in both extracts. The research showed that the polyphenolic compounds contained in hawthorn extracts are incorporated mainly into the hydrophilic part of the erythrocyte membrane, inducing echinocyte shapes. They also diminish the packing order of the lipid polar heads of the membrane, as evidenced by the lowered generalized polarization values of Laurdan. The substances used induced increased osmotic pressure of erythrocytes, making them less sensitive to changes in osmotic pressure. The presence of the extract compounds in the outer hydrophilic part of the erythrocyte membrane, evidenced by examination of the shapes and packing in the hydrophilic part of membrane, indicates that the substances constitute a kind of barrier that protects the erythrocyte membrane against free radicals, while the membrane-bound extracts do not disturb the membrane structure and, thus, do not cause any side effects.

  13. The impact of chewing gum on halitosis parameters: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Muniz, Francisco Wilker Mustafa Gomes; Friedrich, Stephanie Anagnostopoulos; Silveira, Carina Folgearini; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2017-02-17

    This study aimed to analyze the impact of chewing gum on halitosis parameters. Three databases were searched with the following focused question: 'Can chewing gum additionally reduce halitosis parameters, such as organoleptic scores and volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), when compared to a control treatment'? Controlled clinical trials presenting at least two halitosis measurements (organoleptic scores and/or VSC) were included. Ten studies were included, and different active ingredients were used. One study was performed using a chewing gum without any active ingredient. Chewing gum containing probiotic bacterium was shown to significantly reduce the organoleptic scores. Chewing gums containing zinc acetate and magnolia bark extract as well as allylisothiocyanate (AITC) with zinc lactate significantly reduced the levels of VSC in comparison to a placebo chewing gum. Furthermore, a sodium bicarbonate-containing chewing gum significantly reduced the VSC levels in comparison to rinsing with water. Furthermore, eucalyptus-extract chewing gum showed significant reductions in both organoleptic scores and VSC when compared with a control chewing gum. Chewing gum containing sucrose was able to reduce the VSC levels, in comparison to xylitol and zinc citrate chewing gum, but only for 5 min. It was concluded that chewing gums containing probiotics Lactobaccilus, zinc acetate and magnolia bark extract, eucalyptus-extract, and AITC with zinc lactate may be suitable for halitosis management. However, the low number of included studies and the high heterogeneity among the selected studies may limit the clinical applications of these findings.

  14. The paradox of natural products as pharmaceuticals. Experimental evidences of a mango stem bark extract.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Sellés, Alberto J; Delgado-Hernández, René; Garrido-Garrido, Gabino; García-Rivera, Dagmar; Guevara-García, Mariela; Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L

    2007-05-01

    Recent findings regarding basic, pre-clinical and clinical studies on a mango stem bark extract (MSBE) developed in Cuba (Vimang) on an industrial scale are summarized. Ethnomedical studies, extract reproducibility, biological effects and clinical evaluations in terms of patient quality of life are described as experimental evidences to support the statement that natural products, even being a mixture of compounds, could be as effective as "monoceuticals" for medical uses. Discussion about the use of "monoceuticals" versus "natureceuticals" in health care and medicine is based on effectiveness and availability, taking Vimang as an example of a natural product with supported scientific evidence to be used as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulator.

  15. An Empire's Extract: Chemical Manipulations of Cinchona Bark in the Eighteenth-Century Spanish Atlantic World.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Matthew James

    2014-01-01

    In 1790, the Spanish Crown sent a "botanist-chemist" to South America to implement production of a chemical extract made from cinchona bark, a botanical medicament from the Andes used throughout the Atlantic World to treat malarial fevers. Even though the botanist-chemist's efforts to produce the extract failed, this episode offers important insight into the role of chemistry in the early modern Atlantic World. Well before the Spanish Crown tried to make it a tool of empire, chemistry provided a vital set of techniques that circulated among a variety of healers, who used such techniques to make botanical medicaments useful and intelligible in new ways.

  16. Comprehensive analysis of commercial willow bark extracts by new technology platform: combined use of metabolomics, high-performance liquid chromatography-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high-resolution radical scavenging assay.

    PubMed

    Agnolet, Sara; Wiese, Stefanie; Verpoorte, Robert; Staerk, Dan

    2012-11-02

    Here, proof-of-concept of a new analytical platform used for the comprehensive analysis of a small set of commercial willow bark products is presented, and compared with a traditional standardization solely based on analysis of salicin and salicin derivatives. The platform combines principal component analysis (PCA) of two chemical fingerprints, i.e., HPLC and (1)H NMR data, and a pharmacological fingerprint, i.e., high-resolution 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical cation (ABTS(+)) reduction profile, with targeted identification of constituents of interest by hyphenated HPLC-solid-phase extraction-tube transfer NMR, i.e., HPLC-SPE-ttNMR. Score plots from PCA of HPLC and (1)H NMR fingerprints showed the same distinct grouping of preparations formulated as capsules of Salix alba bark and separation of S. alba cortex. Loading plots revealed this to be due to high amount of salicin in capsules and ampelopsin, taxifolin, 7-O-methyltaxifolin-3'-O-glucoside, and 7-O-methyltaxifolin in S. alba cortex, respectively. PCA of high-resolution radical scavenging profiles revealed clear separation of preparations along principal component 1 due to the major radical scavengers (+)-catechin and ampelopsin. The new analytical platform allowed identification of 16 compounds in commercial willow bark extracts, and identification of ampelopsin, taxifolin, 7-O-methyltaxifolin-3'-O-glucoside, and 7-O-methyltaxifolin in S. alba bark extract is reported for the first time. The detection of the novel compound, ethyl 1-hydroxy-6-oxocyclohex-2-enecarboxylate, is also described. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal barks used in Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Kloucek, P; Svobodova, B; Polesny, Z; Langrova, I; Smrcek, S; Kokoska, L

    2007-05-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six barks traditionally used in Callería District (Ucayali Department, Peru) for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms. Ethanol extracts of stem barks of Abuta grandifolia (Menispermaceae), Dipteryx micrantha (Leguminosae), Cordia alliodora (Boraginaceae), Naucleopsis glabra (Moraceae), Pterocarpus rohrii (Leguminosae), and root bark of Maytenus macrocarpa (Celastraceae) were tested against nine bacteria and one yeast using the broth microdilution method. All plants possessed significant antimicrobial effect, however, the extract of Naucleopsis glabra exhibited the strongest activity against Gram-positive bacteria (MICs ranging from 62.5 to 125 microg/ml), while the broadest spectrum of action was shown by the extract of Maytenus macrocarpa, which inhibited all the strains tested with MICs ranging from 125 to 250 microg/ml.

  18. Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of Clausena heptaphylla

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is wide spread interest in drugs derived from plants as green medicine is believed to be safe and dependable, compared with costly synthetic drugs that have adverse effects. Methods We have attempted to evaluate the antioxidant, In vitro thrombolytic, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects of Clausena heptaphylla (Rutaceae) stem bark extract ethanol extract. Results Ethanolic stem bark extract of Clausena heptaphylla (CHET) contains flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and steroids but it lacks tannins, anthraquinones and resins. Phenol content of the extract was 13.42 mg/g and flavonoid content was 68.9 mg/g. CHET exhibited significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 3.11 μg/ml. Reducing power of CHET was also moderately stronger. In the cytotoxicity assay, LC50 and Chi-square value of the ethanolic extract against brine shrimp nauplii were 144.1461 μg/ml and 0.8533 demonstrating potent cytotoxic effect of the extract. In vitro thrombolytic activity of CHET is significant with 45.38% clot lysis capability compared to that of Streptokinase (65.78%). In antibacterial screening, moderate zone of inhibition (6.5-9.0 mm in diameter) was observed against gram-positive Bacillus subtilis ATCC 11774, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus polymyxa ATCC 842 and Bacillus megaterium ATCC 13578 and less promising zone of inhibition (3.0-4.5 mm in diameter) against gram-negative Salmonella typhi ATCC 65154, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 13315 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Shigella sonnei ATCC 8992 did not show any sensitivity. The MIC values against these bacteria were ranged from 2,000 to 3,500 μg/ml. The extract showed significant zone of inhibition against Rhizopus oryzae DSM 2200, Aspergillus niger DSM 737 and Aspergillus ochraceus DSM 824 in antifungal assay. Conclusions Further advanced research is necessary to isolate and characterize the chemical components

  19. Antioxidant activity and phenol content of extracts of bark, stems, and young and mature leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth) O. Berg.

    PubMed

    Habermann, E; Imatomi, M; Pontes, F C; Gualtieri, S C J

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are a group of plant secondary metabolites known to have a variety of bioactivities, including the ability to function as antioxidants. Because of the side effects of the use of synthetic substances, the search for natural and less toxic compounds has increased significantly. This study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and phenol content of hexane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts of the bark (suber) and stems as well as the young and mature leaves of Blepharocalyx salicifolius. The extracts were obtained by extraction with organic solvents and subsequent fractionation by chromatographic partition coefficient. Preliminary tests for the presence of antioxidants were performed using bioautography in thin-layer chromatography. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, and the phenol content of the extracts was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu technique. The results showed that 9 of the 12 extracts evaluated displayed very strong antioxidant activity and three displayed moderate activity. Aqueous extracts of the young leaves and bark and the ethyl acetate extract of the young leaves showed the highest levels of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC). A correlation was observed between TPC and antioxidant activity index (AAI) with a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.7999. Thus, the high phenol content of B. salicifolius extracts and its correlation with antioxidant activity provide substrates for further studies.

  20. High Performance Thin layer Chromatography: Densitometry Method for Determination of Rubraxanthone in the Stem Bark Extract of Garcinia cowa Roxb.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Dachriyanus; Aulia, Hilyatul; Susanti, Meri

    2017-01-01

    Garcinia cowa is a medicinal plant widely grown in Southeast Asia and tropical countries. Various parts of this plant have been used in traditional folk medicine. The bark, latex, and root have been used as an antipyretic agent, while fruit and leaves have been used as an expectorant, for indigestion and improvement of blood circulation. This study aims to determine the concentration of rubraxanthone found in ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of G. cowa by the high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). HPTLC method was performed on precoated silica gel G 60 F254 plates using an HPTLC system with a developed mobile-phase system of chloroform: ethyl acetate: methanol: formic acid (86:6:3:5). A volume of 5 μL of standard and sample solutions was applied to the chromatographic plates. The plates were developed in saturated mode of twin trough chamber at room temperature. The method was validated based on linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and specificity. The spots were observed at ultraviolet 243 nm. The linearity of rubraxanthone was obtained between 52.5 and 157.5 ppm/spot. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 4.03 and 13.42 ppm/spot, respectively. The proposed method showed good linearity, precision, accuracy, and high sensitivity. Therefore, it may be applied for the quantification of rubraxanthone in ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of G. cowa . High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method provides rapid qualitative and quantitative estimation of rubraxanthone as a marker com¬pound in G. cowa extract used for commercial productRubraxanthone found in ethyl acetate extracts of G. cowa was successfully quantified using HPTLC method. Abbreviations Used : TLC: Thin-layer chromatography, HPTLC: High-performance thin-layer chromatography, LOD: Limit of detection, LOQ: Limit of quantification, ICH: International Conference on Harmonization.

  1. The high-performance liquid chromatography/multistage electrospray mass spectrometric investigation and extraction optimization of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) bark polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Tamás; Nebehaj, Esztella; Albert, Levente

    2015-05-08

    The aim of the present work was the high-performance liquid chromatographic separation and multistage mass spectrometric characterization of the polyphenolic compounds of beech bark, as well as the extraction optimization of the identified compounds. Beech is a common and widely used material in the wood industry, yet its bark is regarded as a by-product. Using appropriate extraction methods these compounds could be extracted and utilized in the future. Different extraction methods (stirring, sonication, microwave assisted extraction) using different solvents (water, methanol:water 80:20 v/v, ethanol:water 80:20 v/v) and time/temperature schedules have been compared basing on total phenol contents (Folin-Ciocâlteu) and MRM peak areas of the identified compounds to investigate optimum extraction efficiency. Altogether 37 compounds, including (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, quercetin-O-hexoside, taxifolin-O-hexosides (3), taxifolin-O-pentosides (4), B-type (6) and C-type (6) procyanidins, syringic acid- and coumaric acid-di-O-glycosides, coniferyl alcohol- and sinapyl alcohol-glycosides, as well as other unknown compounds with defined [M-H](-) m/z values and MS/MS spectra have been tentatively identified. The choice of the method, solvent system and time/temperature parameters favors the extraction of different types of compounds. Pure water can extract compounds as efficiently as mixtures containing organic solvents under high-pressure and high temperature conditions. This supports the implementation of green extraction methods in the future. Extraction times that are too long and high temperatures can result in the decrease of the concentrations. Future investigations will focus on the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity and utilization possibilities of the prepared extracts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Magnolia officinalis Extract Contains Potent Inhibitors against PTP1B and Attenuates Hyperglycemia in db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Yongsen; Fu, Xueqi; Chen, Yingli; Wang, Deli; Li, Wannan; Xing, Shu; Li, Guodong

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is an established therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory activity of Magnolia officinalis extract (ME) on PTP1B and its anti-T2DM effects. Inhibition assays and inhibition kinetics of ME were performed in vitro. 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes were stimulated with ME to explore its bioavailability in cell level. The in vivo studies were performed on db/db mice to probe its anti-T2DM effects. In the present study, ME inhibited PTP1B in a reversible competitive manner and displayed good selectivity against PTPs in vitro. Furthermore, ME enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation levels of cellular proteins, especially the insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylations of insulin receptor β-subunit (IRβ) and ERK1/2 in a dose-dependent manner in stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes. Meanwhile, ME enhanced insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. More importantly, there was a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose level of db/db diabetic mice treated orally with 0.5 g/kg ME for 4 weeks. These findings indicated that improvement of insulin sensitivity and hypoglycemic effects of ME may be attributed to the inhibition of PTP1B. Thereby, we pioneered the inhibitory potential of ME targeted on PTP1B as anti-T2DM drug discovery. PMID:26064877

  3. Grinding and classification of pine bark for use as plywood adhesive filler

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Karen G. Reed

    2005-01-01

    Prior efforts to incorporate bark or bark extracts into composites have met with only limited success because of poor performance relative to existing products and/or economic barriers stemming from high levels of processing. We are currently investigating applications for southern yellow pine (SYP) bark that require intermediate levels of processing, one being the use...

  4. In vitro multimodal-effect of Trichilia catigua A. Juss. (Meliaceae) bark aqueous extract in CNS targets.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, João; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel; Videira, Romeu António; Valentão, Patrícia; Veiga, Francisco; Andrade, Paula B

    2018-01-30

    The bark of Trichilia catigua A. Juss. (Meliaceae), popularly known as "big catuaba", is traditionally used in Brazilian folk medicine for its neuroactive potential as memory stimulant, and antinociceptive and antidepressant effects. To study the aqueous extract of T. catigua bark as dual inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). To explore its antioxidant potential through interaction with xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) pathway, and to attempt a relationship between its phenolic profile and effects displayed. Phenolic profiling was achieved by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS n and UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analyses. The capacity to inhibit hMAO-A was assessed in vitro, as was that for AChE, evaluated in rat brain homogenates. The direct inhibition of the X/XO pathway and the scavenging of superoxide anion radical were the selected in vitro models to explore the antioxidant potential. The cytotoxic effects were assayed in the human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells by MTT reduction, after direct exposure (24h). Twenty-six compounds were identified and quantified (551.02 ± 37.61mg/g of lyophilized extract). The phenylpropanoid substituted flavan-3-ols were the most representative compounds (~81% of quantified mass). The extract inhibited hMAO activity in a concentration-dependent manner (IC 50 = 121.06 ± 2.13μg/mL). A mixed model of inhibition of AChE activity was observed, reflected by the pronounced increase of Km values and a more discreet effect over the Vmax parameters, calculated from Michaelis-Menten fitted equations. In addition, it was demonstrated that the extract directly inhibits the X/XO pathway (IC 50 = 121.06 ± 2.13μg/mL) and also imbalances the oxidative stress acting as superoxide anion radical scavenger (EC 50 = 104.42 ± 10.67μg/mL), an oxidative by-product of this reaction. All these neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects were displayed within the non-toxic range of concentrations (0.063-0.500μg/mL) in SH-SY5Y cells. Our results validate

  5. Renal effects of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae) stem bark methanol/methylene chloride extract on L-NAME hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nguelefack-Mbuyo, Elvine Pami; Dimo, Théophile; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoit; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Kamanyi, Albert

    2010-08-01

    The present study aims at evaluating the effects of methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of Mammea africana on the renal function of L-NAME treated rats. Normotensive male Wistar rats were divided into five groups respectively treated with distilled water, L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + L-arginine (100 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or L-NAME + M. africana extract (200 mg/kg/day) for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure was measured before and at the end of treatment. Body weight was measured at the end of each week. Urine was collected 6 and 24 h after the first administration and further on day 15 and 30 of treatment for creatinine, sodium and potassium quantification, while plasma was collected at the end of treatment for the creatinine assay. ANOVA two way followed by Bonferonni or one way followed by Tukey were used for statistical analysis. M. africana successfully prevented the rise in blood pressure and the acute natriuresis and diuresis induced by L-NAME. When given chronically, the extract produced a sustained antinatriuretic effect, a non-significant increase in urine excretion and reduced the glomerular hyperfiltration induced by L-NAME. The above results suggest that the methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of M. africana may protect kidney against renal dysfunction and further demonstrate that its antihypertensive effect does not depend on a diuretic or natriuretic activity.

  6. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    SciTech Connect

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  7. Disorganization of cell division of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnalizawati, A. Siti Noor; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob, W. A.

    2013-11-01

    The in vitro activity of methanolic extract from Phyllanthus columnaris stem bark was studied against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 43300 and MRSA BM1 (clinical strain) using time-kill curves in conjunction with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The extract showed more markedly bactericidal activity in MRSA BM1 clinical strain within less than 4 h by 6.25-12.5 mg/mL and within 6 h by 1.56 mg/mL. Scanning electron microscopy of MRSA BM1 revealed distortion of cell whilst transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption in cell wall division.

  8. Tannins from Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Bark: Tannin Determination and Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Sosuke; Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2018-04-05

    The bark of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (black wattle) contains significant amounts of water-soluble components acalled "wattle tannin". Following the discovery of its strong antioxidant activity, a wattle tannin dietary supplement has been developed and as part of developing new dietary supplements, a literature search was conducted using the SciFinder data base for " Acacia species and their biological activities". An analysis of the references found indicated that the name of Acacia nilotica had been changed to Vachellia nilotica , even though the name of the genus Acacia originated from its original name. This review briefly describes why and how the name of A. nilotica changed. Tannin has been analyzed using the Stiasny method when the tannin is used to make adhesives and the hide-powder method is used when the tannin is to be used for leather tanning. A simple UV method is also able to be used to estimate the values for both adhesives and leather tanning applications. The tannin content in bark can also be estimated using NIR and NMR. Tannin content estimations using pyrolysis/GC, electrospray mass spectrometry and quantitative 31 P-NMR analyses have also been described. Tannins consists mostly of polyflavanoids and all the compounds isolated have been updated. Antioxidant activities of the tannin relating to anti-tumor properties, the viability of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and also anti-hypertensive effects have been studied. The antioxidant activity of proanthocyanidins was found to be higher than that of flavan-3-ol monomers. A total of fourteen papers and two patents reported the antimicrobial activities of wattle tannin. Bacteria were more susceptible to the tannins than the fungal strains tested. Several bacteria were inhibited by the extract from A. mearnsii bark. The growth inhibition mechanisms of E. coli were investigated. An interaction between extracts from A. mearnsii bark and antibiotics has also been studied. The extracts from A. mearnsii

  9. Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Shreya; Patra, Arpita; Samanta, Animesh; Roy, Suchismita; Mandal, Arpita; Mahapatra, Tapasi Das; Pradhan, Shrabani; Das, Koushik; Nandi, Dilip Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity and qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of flavonoid components, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid compound of Terminalia arjuna. Methods For phytochemical screening, some common and available standard tests were done. Antimicrobial bioassay was done through agar well diffusion method. Detection of antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds were done through thin layer chromatography. Total antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in colorimetric method. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for total flavonoid determination. Results Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method. Conclusions The Terminalia arjuna bark extract revealed the presence of bio-active constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities. PMID:24093787

  10. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds from stem bark of Albizia adianthifolia (Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Tamokou, Jean de Dieu; Simo Mpetga, Deke James; Keilah Lunga, Paul; Tene, Mathieu; Tane, Pierre; Kuiate, Jules Roger

    2012-07-18

    Albizia adianthifolia is used traditionally in Cameroon to treat several ailments, including infectious and associated diseases. This work was therefore designed to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds isolated from the stem bark of this plant. The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its fractionation was done by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic data in conjunction with literature data. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Broth micro-dilution method was used for antimicrobial test. Total phenol content was determined spectrophotometrically in the extracts by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The fractionation of the extract afforded two known compounds: lupeol (1) and aurantiamide acetate (2) together with two mixtures of fatty acids: oleic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid (B₁); n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and docosanoic acid (B₂). Aurantiamide acetate was the most active compound. The total phenol concentration expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) was found to vary from 1.50 to 13.49 μg/ml in the extracts. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total phenol content (R² = 0.946 for the TEAC method and R² = 0.980 for the DPPH free-radical scavenging assay). Our results clearly reveal that the ethyl acetate extract from the stem bark of A. adianthifolia possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial principles. The antioxidant activity of this extract as well as that of compound 2 are being reported herein for the first time. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as compound 2 in the treatment of oxidative damage and infections associated with the studied microorganisms.

  11. Response of yellow flowering magnolia varieties to powdery mildew, 2015

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yellow flowering varieties of Magnolia spp. hybrids were planted in April 2008 in a field plot with Waynesboro loam soil at the Otis L. Floyd Nursery Research Center in McMinnville, TN. Severity of powdery mildew was determined on 14 Jul, 21 Aug and 15 Oct using a scale of 0-100% foliage affected. ...

  12. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of Cordia dichotoma (Forst f.) bark

    PubMed Central

    Nariya, Pankaj B.; Bhalodia, Nayan R.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Nariya, Mukesh B.

    2013-01-01

    Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shleshmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate possible antioxidant potential of methanolic and butanol extract of C. dichotoma bark. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic and butanol extract was determined by 1,1, diphenyl–2, picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extracts were also evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. Phenolic content was measured using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as Gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of methanolic extract was measured by DPPH assay and was compared to ascorbic acid and ferric reducing power of the extract was evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study three in vitro models were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The first two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and remaining one method evaluated the reducing power. The present study revealed that the C. dichotoma bark has significant radical scavenging activity. PMID:24049418

  13. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity of Cordia dichotoma (Forst f.) bark.

    PubMed

    Nariya, Pankaj B; Bhalodia, Nayan R; Shukla, Vinay J; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Nariya, Mukesh B

    2013-01-01

    Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. bark, identified as botanical source of Shleshmataka in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Present investigation was undertaken to evaluate possible antioxidant potential of methanolic and butanol extract of C. dichotoma bark. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic and butanol extract was determined by 1,1, diphenyl-2, picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The extracts were also evaluated for their phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as Gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of methanolic extract was measured by DPPH assay and was compared to ascorbic acid and ferric reducing power of the extract was evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study three in vitro models were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The first two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and remaining one method evaluated the reducing power. The present study revealed that the C. dichotoma bark has significant radical scavenging activity.

  14. Effect of aqueous bark extract of Garuga pinnata Roxb. in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shirwaikar, Annie; Rajendran, K; Barik, Rakesh

    2006-09-19

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of aqueous extract of bark of Garuga pinnata Roxb. (Burseraceae). The various parameters studied included fasting blood sugar levels, serum lipid levels, liver glycogen content, serum insulin level and glycated hemoglobin in diabetic and normal rats. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide was used to induce type-II diabetes mellitus. Treatment with the extract at two dose levels showed a significant increase in the liver glycogen and serum insulin level and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels were also significantly reduced and the HDL cholesterol levels were significantly increased upon treatment with the extract thus proving the potent antidiabetic property of the plant.

  15. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Prosopis juliflora bark extract: reaction optimization, antimicrobial and catalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Arya, Geeta; Kumari, R Mankamna; Gupta, Nidhi; Kumar, Ajeet; Chandra, Ramesh; Nimesh, Surendra

    2018-08-01

    In the present study, silver nanoparticles (PJB-AgNPs) have been biosynthesized employing Prosopis juliflora bark extract. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was monitored on UV-vis spectrophotometer. The size, charge and polydispersity index (PDI) of PJB-AgNPs were determined using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Different parameters dictating the size of PJB-AgNPs were explored. Nanoparticles biosynthesis optimization studies suggested efficient synthesis of highly dispersed PJB-AgNPs at 25 °C when 9.5 ml of 1 mM AgNO 3 was reduced with 0.5 ml of bark extract for 40 min. Characterization of PJB-AgNPs by SEM showed spherical-shaped nanoparticles with a size range ∼10-50 nm along with a hydrodynamic diameter of ∼55 nm as evaluated by DLS. Further, characterizations were done by FTIR and EDS to evaluate the functional groups and purity of PJB-AgNPs. The antibacterial potential of PJB-AgNPs was tested against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The PJB-AgNPs remarkably exhibited anticancer activity against A549 cell line as evidenced by Alamar blue assay. The dye degradation activity was also evaluated against 4-nitrophenol that has carcinogenic effect. The results thus obtained suggest application of PJB-AgNPs as antimicrobial, anticancer and catalytic agents.

  16. Acacia catechu ethanolic bark extract induces apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Thangavelu; Ezhilarasan, Devaraj; Vijayaragavan, Rajagopal; Bhullar, Sukhwinder Kaur; Rajendran, Ramasamy

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancer is in approximately 30% of all cancers in India. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Acacia catechu bark (ACB) against human squamous cell carcinoma cell line-25 (SCC-25). Cytotoxic effect of ACB extract was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay. A. catechu extract was treated SCC-25 cells with 25 and 50 μg/mL for 24 h. Apoptosis markers such as caspases-8 and 9, bcl-2, bax, and cytochrome c (Cyt-c) were done by RT-PCR. Morphological changes of ACB treated cells were evaluated using acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual staining. Nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation were evaluated using propidium iodide (PI) staining. Further, cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. A. catechu treatment caused cytotoxicity in SCC-25 cells with an IC 50 of 52.09 μg/mL. Apoptotic marker gene expressions were significantly increased on ACB treatment. Staining with AO/EB and PI shows membrane blebbing and nuclear membrane distortion, respectively, and it confirms the apoptosis induction in SCC-25 cells. These results suggest that ACB extract can be used as a modulating agent in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  17. Stem bark extract and fraction of Persea americana (Mill.) exhibits bactericidal activities against strains of bacillus cereus associated with food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Akinpelu, David A; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Akinpelu, Oluseun F; Okoh, Anthony I

    2014-12-30

    The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL-12.5 mg/mL and 1.25-10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract's butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  18. Longleaf pine inner bark and outer bark thicknesses: Measurement and relevance

    Treesearch

    Thomas Eberhardt

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of bark thickness generally ignore the fact that bark is comprised of both living inner bark (phloem) and essentially dead outer bark (rhytidome).Discerning between them has ramifications for the utility of bark as a byproduct of timber harvesting and its functionality on a living tree. Inner bark and outer bark thicknesses for longleaf pine (Pinus...

  19. 78 FR 56170 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Magnolia, Arkansas; and Oil City, Louisiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 02-199; RM-10514; FCC 13-114] Radio Broadcasting Services; Magnolia, Arkansas; and Oil City, Louisiana AGENCY: Federal Communications... Communications Commission (``Commission'') denies an Application for Review filed by Access.1 Louisiana Holding...

  20. Fortified extract of red berry, Ginkgo biloba, and white willow bark in experimental early diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Bucolo, Claudio; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; Platania, Chiara Bianca Maria; Drago, Filippo; Leggio, Gian Marco; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a complex condition where inflammation and oxidative stress represent crucial pathways in the pathogenesis of the disease. Aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a fortified extract of red berries, Ginkgo biloba and white willow bark containing carnosine and α-lipoic acid in early retinal and plasma changes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single streptozotocin injection in Sprague Dawley rats. Diabetics and nondiabetic (control) rats were treated daily with the fortified extract for the ten days. Retina samples were collected and analyzed for their TNF-α and VEGF content. Moreover, plasma oxidative stress was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS). Increased TNF-α and VEGF levels were observed in the retina of diabetic rats. Treatment with the fortified extract significantly lowered retinal cytokine levels and suppressed diabetes-related lipid peroxidation. These data demonstrate that the fortified extract attenuates the degree of retinal inflammation and plasma lipid peroxidation preserving the retina in early diabetic rats.

  1. Constituents of the leaves of Magnolia ovata.

    PubMed

    Barros, Letícia Ferrari L; Barison, Andersson; Salvador, Marcos José; de Mello-Silva, Renato; Cabral, Elaine C; Eberlin, Marcos N; Stefanello, Maria Elida A

    2009-08-01

    Two new lignans, magnovatins A (1) and B (2), along with nine known compounds, were isolated from the leaves of Magnolia ovata. The known compounds were identified as acuminatin (3), licarin A (4), kadsurenin M, 4-O-demethylkadsurenin M, oleiferin A, oleiferin C, spathulenol, parthenolide, and 11,13-dehydrocompressanolide. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 yielded four new derivatives (1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b). The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectrometric data evaluation. Free-radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities of the major compunds 1, 3, and 4 were investigated.

  2. [Studies on extraction process of the main saponin constituents from the stem bark of Kalopanax septemlobus in Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue; Yang, Xin-ping; Liu, Xiao-fu; Jiang, Xiao-jun

    2009-09-01

    Using orthogonal experiment design, the total saponin constituents were obtained by refluxing extraction with alcohol and separated by macroporous adsorption resin and n-Butyl alcohol from the stem bark of Kalopanax septemlobus. According to the purity analysis and the yield, the extraction process was optimized. The results showed that the main saponin constituents were gained with a yield of 1.32% by using macroporous adsorption resin but 1.05% by using n-Butyl alcohol. The former was more efficient than the latter on both yield and color. The optimal process with isolation by macroporous adsorption resin is cheap, simple and practical.

  3. Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shreya; Patra, Arpita; Samanta, Animesh; Roy, Suchismita; Mandal, Arpita; Mahapatra, Tapasi Das; Pradhan, Shrabani; Das, Koushik; Nandi, Dilip Kumar

    2013-12-01

    To investigate phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity and qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of flavonoid components, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid compound of Terminalia arjuna. For phytochemical screening, some common and available standard tests were done. Antimicrobial bioassay was done through agar well diffusion method. Detection of antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds were done through thin layer chromatography. Total antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in colorimetric method. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for total flavonoid determination. Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method. The Terminalia arjuna bark extract revealed the presence of bio-active constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuroprotective Effects of Korean Red Pine(Pinus densiflora) Bark Extract and Its Phenolics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Won; Im, Sungbin; Jeong, Ha-Ram; Jung, Young-Seung; Lee, Inil; Kim, Kwan Joong; Park, Seung Kook; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2018-03-15

    Korean red pine ( Pinus densiflora ) is one of the major Pinus species in Korea. Red pine barkis removed prior to the chipping process in the wood industry and discarded aswaste. However, red pine bark contains a considerable amount of naturally occurring phenolics including flavonoids and therefore may have a variety of biological effects. In this study, we investigated if Korean red pine bark extract (KRPBE) could protect neuronal PC-12 cells from oxidative stress and inhibit cholinesterase activity.Analysis of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography results revealed four phenolics in KRPBE:vanillin, protocatechuic acid, catechin and taxifolin.Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of KRPBE were 397.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW) and 248.7 mg catechin equivalents/g DW, respectively. Antioxidant capacities of KRPBE measured using ABTS, DPPH, and ORAC assays were 697.3, 521.8, and 2,627.7 mg vitamin C equivalents/g DW, respectively. KRPBE and its identified phenolics protected against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, which degrade the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to terminate neurotransmission in synaptic clefts, were inhibited by treatment with KRPBE and its identified phenolics. Taken together, these results suggest that KRPBE and its constituent antioxidative phenolics are potent neuroprotective agents that can maintain cell viability in the context of oxidative stress and inhibit cholinesterase activity.

  5. COMPARISON OF MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION OF WATER SOLUBLE EXTRACTS OF EUGENIA JAMBOLANA LAM. (FAM. MYRTACEAE) BARKS OF DIFFERENT AGES ON DYSENTERY AND DIARRHOEA FORMING MICRO – ORGANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Asis Prosun; Pal, Subodh Chandra; Chattopadhyay, Debaprasad; De, Samar; Nandy, Anutosh

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary investigations was carried out to study the antibacterial activity of the water soluble extracts of five and ten years old barks of Eugenia Jambolana Lam. (fam. Myrtaceae) on dysentery and diarrhoea forming micro organisms. It was observed that the barks of young plants have a better inhibitory effect on micro – organisms like Salmonella viballerup, Shigella dysenteriae 10, Shigella boydii 5, Sgigella dysenteriae 2. PMID:22557509

  6. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanol Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajiboye, Basiru O.; Ojo, Oluwafemi A.; Adeyonu, Oluwatosin; Imiere, Oluwatosin D.; Fadaka, Adewale O.; Osukoya, Adetutu O.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the ameliorative effects of ethanol extract Artocarpus heterophyllus (EAH) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats were divided into 6 groups, with groups 1 and 2 serving as nondiabetic and diabetic control, respectively; group 3 serving as diabetic rats treated with 5 mg/kg glibenclamide; and groups 4 to 6 were diabetic rats treated with 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of EAH, respectively. Assays determined were serum insulin, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities. EAH stem bark reduced fasting blood glucose and lipid peroxidation levels and increased serum insulin levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Data obtained demonstrated the ability of EAH stem bark to ameliorate pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:29279019

  7. Ameliorative Activity of Ethanol Extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus Stem Bark on Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, Basiru O; Ojo, Oluwafemi A; Adeyonu, Oluwatosin; Imiere, Oluwatosin D; Fadaka, Adewale O; Osukoya, Adetutu O

    2017-10-01

    This study sought to investigate the ameliorative effects of ethanol extract Artocarpus heterophyllus (EAH) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats were divided into 6 groups, with groups 1 and 2 serving as nondiabetic and diabetic control, respectively; group 3 serving as diabetic rats treated with 5 mg/kg glibenclamide; and groups 4 to 6 were diabetic rats treated with 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of EAH, respectively. Assays determined were serum insulin, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities. EAH stem bark reduced fasting blood glucose and lipid peroxidation levels and increased serum insulin levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Data obtained demonstrated the ability of EAH stem bark to ameliorate pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  8. Partitioning of pine bark components to obtain a value-added product for plywood manufacture

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Karen G. Reed; Chi-Leung So

    2009-01-01

    Southern yellow pine (SYP) bark particles and bark extracts have been used only to a limited extent in wood-based composites due to poor performance relative to existing products and/or economic barriers. Our efforts to identify alternative applications for this biomass resource require the development of an improved understanding of the interrelationships between bark...

  9. The anti-inflammatory activity of standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. as evident in inhibition of Group IA sPLA2.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Shivalingaiah, Sudharshan

    2016-03-01

    The standard aqueous stem bark extract is consumed as herbal drink and used in the pharmaceutical formulations to treat patients suffering from various disease conditions in Cuba. This study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on Group IA sPLA2. M. indica extract, dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIa-PLA2) activity with an IC50 value 8.1 µg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ~40 µg/ml concentration and at various concentrations (0-50 µg/ml), it dose dependently inhibited the edema formation. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect on the GIA sPLA2. Furthermore, the inhibition was irreversible as evidenced from binding studies. It is observed that the aqueous extract ofM. indica effectively inhibits sPLA2 and it is associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate their anti-inflammatory properties. The mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract, with sPLA2 enzyme. Further studies on understanding the principal constituents, responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity would be interesting to develop this into potent anti-inflammatory agent.

  10. Antinociceptive properties of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the stem bark of Petersianthus macrocarpus (P. Beauv.) Liben (Lecythidaceae) in mice.

    PubMed

    Bomba, Francis Desire Tatsinkou; Wandji, Bibiane Aimee; Piegang, Basile Nganmegne; Awouafack, Maurice Ducret; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Kamanyi, Albert; Nguelefack, Telesphore Benoit

    2015-11-04

    Aqueous maceration from the stem barks of Petersianthus macrocarpus (P. Beauv.) Liben (Lecythidaceae) is taken orally in the central Africa for the management of various ailments, including pain. This work was carried out to evaluate in mice, the antinociceptive effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the stem bark of P. macrocarpus. The chemical composition of the aqueous and methanol extracts prepared as cold macerations was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LCMS). The antinociceptive effects of these extracts administered orally at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were evaluated using behavioral pain model induced by acetic acid, formalin, hot-plate, capsaicin and glutamate. The rotarod test was also performed at the same doses. The oral acute toxicity of both extracts was studied at the doses of 800, 1600, 3200 and 6400 mg/kg in mice. The LCMS analysis revealed the presence of ellagic acid as the major constituent in the methanol extract. Both extracts of P. macrocarpus significantly and dose dependently reduced the time and number of writhing induced by acetic acid. They also significantly inhibited the two phases of formalin-induced pain. These effects were significantly inhibited by a pretreatment with naloxone, except for the analgesic activity of the methanol extract at the earlier phase. In addition, nociception induced by hot plate, intraplantar injection of capsaicin or glutamate was significantly inhibited by both extracts. Acute toxicity test showed no sign of toxicity. These results demonstrate that aqueous and methanol extracts of P. macrocarpus are none toxic substances with good central and peripheral antinociceptive effects that are at least partially due to the presence of ellagic acid. These extracts may induce their antinociceptive effect by interfering with opioid, capsaicin and excitatory amino acid pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-diabetic activity of methanol/methylene chloride stem bark extracts of Terminalia superba and Canarium schweinfurthii on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kamtchouing, P; Kahpui, S M; Dzeufiet, P-D Djomeni; Tédong, L; Asongalem, E A; Dimo, T

    2006-04-06

    Stem bark extracts of Terminalia superba Engl. and Diels and Canarium schweinfurthii Engl. are used in Africa for the treatment of various ailments, including diabetes mellitus. The anti-diabetic effects of the methanol/methylene chloride extracts of the stem barks on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were evaluated on male rats. Through the subcutaneous route, diabetes was induced using 60 mg/mL of streptozotocin. After 2 days, the rats received, by gavage, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg of extract daily for 14 days. At 300 mg/kg, the two extracts (Terminalia superba and Canarium schweinfurthii), significantly showed at least 67.1% and 69.9% reduction in blood glucose level, respectively, while insulin (three units) given subcutaneously and once daily, had 76.8% reduction compared to diabetic untreated control rats. Similarly, the weight gains were 6.6% and 4.9%, respectively, and were comparable to the normal rats, whereas, diabetic untreated rats lost 14.1% body weight. Still with the same dose, there was 68.5% and 58.5% (p < 0.001) significant decrease in food consumption and 79.7% and 64.0% (p < 0.001) in fluid intake by diabetic rats treated with the respective plant extracts. The insulin-treated rats showed 56.4% and 75.8% decrease in food and fluid intake compared to an augmentation for diabetic control rats, 43.0% and 383.8%, respectively, at the end of the second week of experimentation. These results showed that the plant extracts can reverse hyperglycemia, polyphagia and polydipsia provoked by streptozotocin, and thus, they have anti-diabetic properties.

  12. Antioxidant tannins from stem bark and fine root of Casuarina equisetifolia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shang-Ju; Lin, Yi-Ming; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Wei, Shu-Dong; Lin, Guang-Hui; Ye, Gong-Fu

    2010-08-16

    Structures of condensed tannins from the stem bark and fine root of Casuarina equisetifolia were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and HPLC analyses. The condensed tannins from stem bark and fine root consist predominantly of procyanidin combined with prodelphinidin and propelargonidin, and epicatechin is the main extension unit. The condensed tannins had different polymer chain lengths, varying from trimers to tridecamer for stem bark and to pentadecamer for fine root. The antioxidant activities were measured by two models: 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing/ antioxidant power (FRAP). The condensed tannins extracted from C. equisetifolia showed very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing/ antioxidant power, suggesting that these extracts may be considered as new sources of natural antioxidants for food and nutraceutical products.

  13. Antioxidants from the bark of Burkea africana, an African medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Mathisen, Elin; Diallo, Drissa; Andersen, Øyvind M; Malterud, Karl Egil

    2002-03-01

    The bark of the tree Burkea africana is used medicinally in large areas of sub-Saharan Africa. The constituents responsible for its putative activity are not well known. We have investigated the bark of B. africana for antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. A hydroethanol bark extract showed high activity, and most of this activity was located in semipolar fractions of the extract. From chromatographic purification and spectroscopical structure studies, we conclude that the active constituents are proanthocyanidins. Two major components appear to be fisetinidol-(4alpha- --> 8)-catechin 3-gallate and bis-fisetinidol-(4alpha- --> 6, 4alpha- --> 8)-catechin 3-gallate. The latter compound is a new natural product. Smaller amounts of monomeric flavan-3-ols (catechin, epicatechin and fisetinidol) were also found. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Cola nitida Bark

    PubMed Central

    Dah-Nouvlessounon, Durand; Adoukonou-Sagbadja, Hubert; Diarrassouba, Nafan; Sina, Haziz; Adjanohoun, Adolphe; Inoussa, Mariam; Akakpo, Donald; Gbenou, Joachim D.; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Dicko, Mamoudou H.; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2015-01-01

    Kola nut is chewed in many West African cultures and is used ceremonially. The aim of this study is to investigate some biological effects of Cola nitida's bark after phytochemical screening. The bark was collected, dried, and then powdered for the phytochemical screening and extractions. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of C. nitida were used in this study. The antibacterial activity was tested on ten reference strains and 28 meat isolated Staphylococcus strains by disc diffusion method. The antifungal activity of three fungal strains was determined on the Potato-Dextrose Agar medium mixed with the appropriate extract. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS methods. Our data revealed the presence of various potent phytochemicals. For the reference and meat isolated strains, the inhibitory diameter zone was from 17.5 ± 0.7 mm (C. albicans) to 9.5 ± 0.7 mm (P. vulgaris). The MIC ranged from 0.312 mg/mL to 5.000 mg/mL and the MBC from 0.625 mg/mL to >20 mg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was observed with F. verticillioides and the lowest one with P. citrinum. The two extracts have an excellent reducing free radical activity. The killing effect of A. salina larvae was perceptible at 1.04 mg/mL. The purified extracts of Cola nitida's bark can be used to hold meat products and also like phytomedicine. PMID:25767723

  15. The action of Saraca asoca Roxb. de Wilde bark on the PGH2 synthetase enzyme complex of the sheep vesicular gland.

    PubMed

    Middelkoop, T B; Labadie, R P

    1985-01-01

    Extracts of S. asoca bark and pure compounds isolated from the bark were tested for properties that might inhibit the conversion of arachidonic acid by the PGH2 synthetase. They were assayed spectrophotometrically with adrenaline as cofactor. Methanol- and ethyl acetate extracts inhibited the conversion. The observed inhibition was confirmed in an oxygraphic assay. Two procyanidin dimers from the ethyl acetate extract showed enzyme catalyzed oxidation in our assay. The ether extract of the bark was also found to contain yet unknown substances which were capable of being oxidised by the PGH2 synthetase. The combined action of the components of the bark may explain the mode of action of the drug Asoka Aristha, the main ingredient of which is the bark of S. asoca. The drug is traditionally used in Sri Lanka to treat menorrhagia.

  16. Efficacy of Rhizophora mangle aqueous bark extract (RMABE) in the treatment of aphthous ulcers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Armas, Elizabeth; Sarracent, Yamina; Marrero, Eva; Fernández, Octavio; Branford-White, Christopher

    2005-11-01

    Rhizophora mangle aqueous bark extract (RMABE) (CIKRON-H), has been used as antiseptic and skin wound healing promoter. The present study was a randomised, single-blinded, placebo control trial conducted to asses the efficacy of RMABE in treating oral aphthous ulcers. Patients (n = 32) with aphthous ulcers were randomised to received placebo solution or RMABE topically, once a day, from Monday to Friday, until they healed. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by physician clinical observations (time to heal, change in condition), the quality of the patient's life and the tolerability through recording adverse effects. No demographic differences were noted between the two groups at base-line. Seven days after treatment, 12 of the 17 patients in the RMABE group (71%) were completely healed of their aphthous ulcers, with repaired mucosa and no symptoms of ulcers, compared with one in 15 patients in the placebo group (7%) (p < 0.0001). The time taken for the signs and symptoms of ulcers to diminish was also higher in the placebo than in RMABE-treatment group (erythema: placebo 10.54 +/- 1.24, RMABE 4.94 +/- 0.72 days, p = 0.0003; ardour: placebo 7.00 +/- 0.76, RMABE 2.93 +/- 0.49 days, p = 0.0001; and pain: placebo 7.43 +/- 1.21, RMABE 2.92 +/- 0.23 days, p = 0.0011). No subject showed any sign of adverse effects. These observations demonstrate that the R. mangle aqueous bark extract reduced the time to repair mucosal tissue, erythema, ardour and pain persistence. There was no evidence any adverse effects. This is the first time that the R. mangle extract has been reported to have mouth mucosa healing properties.

  17. SPE-HPTLC of procyanidins from the barks of different species and clones of Salix.

    PubMed

    Pobłocka-Olech, Loretta; Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława

    2008-11-04

    A SPE-HPTLC method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of procyanidin B(1) in willow barks. The chromatography was performed on HPTLC silica gel layer with the mobile phase chloroform-ethanol-formic acid (50:40:6 v/v/v), in the Automatic Developing Chamber-ADC 2. The methanol extracts from willow barks were purified by SPE method on RP-18 silica gel columns with methanol-water (7:93 v/v) as the eluent. The presence of procyanidin B(1) was revealed in the majority of investigated willow barks. The content of procyanidin B(1) varied from 0.26 mg/g in the extract of Salix purpurea clone 1067-2.24 mg/g in the extract of Salix alba clone 1100. The method was validated for linearity, precision, LOD, LOQ and repeatability.

  18. In vitro and in vivo cysticidal activity of extracts and isolated flavanone from the bark of Prunus serotina: A bio-guided study.

    PubMed

    Palomares-Alonso, Francisca; Rojas-Tomé, Irma Susana; Palencia Hernández, Guadalupe; Jiménez-Arellanes, María Adelina; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha Lydia; González-Maciel, Angélica; Ramos-Morales, Andrea; Santiago-Reyes, Rosalba; Castro, Nelly; González-Hernández, Iliana; Rufino-González, Yadira; Jung-Cook, Helgi

    2017-06-01

    Currently, neurocysticercosis treatment involves two drugs: albendazole and praziquantel; however, their efficacy is suboptimal and new cysticidal drugs are needed. The present paper reports the cysticidal activity of extracts of the bark from Prunus serotina against Taenia crassiceps cysts and the isolation and identification of the main components of the most active extract. Results showed that all extracts displayed in vitro cysticidal activity (EC 50 =17.9-88.5μg/mL), being the methanolic the most active and selective. Also, methanolic extract exhibited in vivo efficacy at 300mg/kg which was similar to that obtained with albendazole. Bio-guided fractionation of methanolic extract led the isolation of 2,3-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (naringenin, NGN), 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid and 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene. NGN exhibited in vitro activity, in a time-concentration-dependent manner (EC 50 =89.3μM]. Furthermore, NGN at a dose of 376.1μmol/kg displayed similar in vivo efficacy than those obtained with albendazole at 188.4μmol/kg. NGN also caused a high level of damage in all parasite tissue in a similar manner than that observed with the methanolic extract. This study represents the first report of the cysticidal properties of the bark of P. serotina. NGN was identified as the main active compound of this specie and other studies are required to explore the potential of this flavanone as cysticidal agent. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Parasiticidal effects of Morus alba root bark extracts against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infecting grass carp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important fish parasite that can result in significant losses in aquaculture. In order to find efficacious drugs to control Ich, the root bark of Morus alba, a traditional Chinese medicine, was evaluated for its antiprotozoal activity. The M. alba root bark w...

  20. Anti-hypertensive effects of the methanol/methylene chloride stem bark extract of Mammea africana in l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nguelefack-Mbuyo, P E; Nguelefack, T B; Dongmo, A B; Afkir, S; Azebaze, A G B; Dimo, T; Legssyer, A; Kamanyi, A; Ziyyat, A

    2008-05-22

    The methanol/methylene chloride (CH(3)OH/CH(2)Cl(2)) extract from the stem bark of Mammea africana was showed to possess vasodilating effect in the presence and the absence of N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the methanol/methylene chloride from the stem bark of Mammea africana. The extract (200 mg/(kg day)) was administered orally in rats treated concurrently with l-NAME (40 mg/(kg day)). l-Arginine (100 mg/(kg day)) and captopril (20 mg/(kg day))were used as positive controls. Bodyweight, systolic arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured weekly throughout the experiment period (28 days). At the end of treatment, animals were killed and the cardiac mass index evaluated. The aorta was used to evaluate the endothelium-dependant relaxation to carbachol. The aorta contraction induced by noradrenalin was also examined and expressed as a percentage of that induced by KCl. The extract neither affected the body weight nor the heart rate. The extract as captopril completely prevented the development of arterial hypertension. Both the substances failed to restore the endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation and increased the vascular contraction to norepinephrine in relation to KCl contraction. They also significantly reduced the left ventricular hypertrophy induced by l-NAME. These findings are in agreement with the traditional use of Mammea africana in the treatment of arterial hypertension and indicate that it may have a beneficial effect in patients with NO deficiency but will be unable to improve their endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation.

  1. In vitro antibacterial and time-kill assessment of crude methanolic stem bark extract of Acacia mearnsii de wild against bacteria in shigellosis.

    PubMed

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso Olusola; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2012-02-21

    Shigellosis is an important cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality among young children and old people for which treatment with antimicrobial agents is limited. Hence, the need for curative potentials obtainable from medicinal plants becomes inevitable. This study was carried out to assess the antibacterial potentials of crude methanolic extract of the stem bark of Acacia mearnsii against some selected bacteria of clinical importance in shigellosis. The bacteria were inhibited by the extract to produce concentration dependent inhibition zones. The extract exhibited a varied degree of antibacterial activity against all the tested isolates. The MIC values for Gram negative (0.0391-0.3125) mg/mL and those of Gram positive bacteria (0.0781-0.625) mg/mL indicated that the Gram negative bacteria were more inhibited by the extract than the Gram positive bacteria. Average log reduction in viable cell count in time-kill assay ranged between -2.456 Log₁₀ to 2.230 Log₁₀ cfu/mL after 4 h of interaction, and between -2.921 Log₁₀ and 1.447 Log₁₀ cfu/mL after 8 h interaction in 1× MIC and 2× MIC of the extract. The study provided scientific justification for the use of the crude methanolic extract from the stem bark of A. mearnsii in shigellosis. The degree of the antibacterial activity indicated that the crude extract is a potential source of bioactive compounds that could be useful for the development of new antimicrobial agents capable of decreasing the burden of drug resistance and cost of management of diseases of clinical and public health importance in South Africa.

  2. Comparison of the protection effectiveness of acrylic polyurethane coatings containing bark extracts on three heat-treated North American wood species: Surface degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocaefe, Duygu; Saha, Sudeshna

    2012-04-01

    High temperature heat-treatment of wood is a very valuable technique which improves many properties (biological durability, dimensional stability, thermal insulating characteristics) of natural wood. Also, it changes the natural color of wood to a very attractive dark brown color. Unfortunately, this color is not stable if left unprotected in external environment and turns to gray or white depending on the wood species. To overcome this problem, acrylic polyurethane coatings are applied on heat-treated wood to delay surface degradations (color change, loss of gloss, and chemical modifications) during aging. The acrylic polyurethane coatings which have high resistance against aging are further modified by adding bark extracts and/or lignin stabilizer to enhance their effectiveness in preventing the wood aging behavior. The aging characteristic of this coating is compared with acrylic polyurethane combined with commercially available organic UV stabilizers. In this study, their performance on three heat-treated North American wood species (jack pine, quaking aspen and white birch) are compared under accelerated aging conditions. Both the color change data and visual assessment indicate improvement in protective characteristic of acrylic polyurethane when bark extracts and lignin stabilizer are used in place of commercially available UV stabilizer. The results showed that although acrylic polyurethane with bark extracts and lignin stabilizer was more efficient compared to acrylic polyurethane with organic UV stabilizers in protecting heat-treated jack pine, it failed to protect heat-treated aspen and birch effectively after 672 h of accelerated aging. This degradation was not due to the coating adhesion loss or coating degradation during accelerated aging; rather, it was due to the significant degradation of heat-treated aspen and birch surface beneath this coating. The XPS results revealed formation of carbonyl photoproducts after aging on the coated surfaces and

  3. Barks Essential Oil, Secondary Metabolites and Biological Activities of Four Organs of Tunisian Calligonum azel Maire.

    PubMed

    Bannour, Marwa; Aouadhi, Chedia; Khalfaoui, Houssem; Aschi-Smiti, Samira; Khadhri, Ayda

    2016-11-01

    This study is the first to investigate the chemical composition of barks essential oil (EO), secondary metabolites and biological activities of the MeOH and infusions extracts of seeds, leaves, barks and roots of Calligonum azel Maire (Polygonaceae) harvested from Tunisian desert. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) results showed the presence of fifty-four compounds in barks EO. The major components were: viridiflorol (14.6%), α-eudesmol (8.65%), trans-caryophyllene (6.72%), elemol (6.63%), β-eudesmol (6.21%). The obtained results showed that C. azel is a very rich plant in secondary metabolites. High contents in polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins were observed in both extracts of all studied organs. Significant differences were found between both extracts of the four organs. Thus, polyphenols and tannins were more abundant in leaves infusion extract, while, flavonoids showed a high level in barks extract. The antioxidant activity data demonstrated that all extracts showed strong antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. The MeOH extracts presented potential for antibacterial and antifungal activities against all tested microorganisms. The inhibition zones diameters and minimal inhibitrice concentration values were in the range of 9 - 15 mm and 2.5 - 20 μg/ml, respectively. This study demonstrated that C. azel can be regarded as an excellent plant source for natural antimicrobial agents. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  4. Study of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Myrianthus Arboreus (Cecropiaceae) Root Bark Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kasangana, Pierre Betu; Haddad, Pierre Selim; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of polyphenolic extracts from root bark of M. arboreus, we have determined the content of various polyphenols in aqueous and ethanol (EtOH) extract as well as two sub-fractions of the latter: ethyl acetate (EAc) and hexane (Hex). The total phenols, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids and proanthocyanidins have been determined for all studied extracts/fractions by spectrophotometric methods. Both TP content (331.5 ± 2.5 mg GAE/g) and HCA content (201 ± 1.5 mg CAE/g) were determined to be the highest in EAc fraction of EtOH extract. All studied extracts were however determined to have a low content in flavonoids. The determination of antioxidant capacities of the studied extracts has also been performed by the following in vitro antioxidant tests: DPPH scavenging, phosphomolybdenum method and oxygen radical absorbance (ORACFl and ORACPRG) assay. The results of the DPPH free radical and ORACFl assays showed that there is no significant difference between the EAc fraction and Oligopin®, but the EAc fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity as determined by the phosphomolybdenium method. In addition, the EtOH extract was determined to have the same antioxidant efficiency as the synthetic antioxidant BHT or commercial extract Oligopin® by phosphomolybdenum method. On the other hand, a positive correlation (r < 0.6) was found between different classes of polyphenols and the results of the phosphomolybdenum method, ORACFl as well as ORACPRG, except for the DPPH assay, for which a negative correlation was indicated (r < 0.62). Interestingly, it seems that the content in hydroxycinnamic acids played a big role in all assays with r < 0.9. According to the present study, EAc fraction and EtOH extract should be further studied for the potential use in the pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:26783713

  5. Green synthesis and characterization of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using root bark aqueous extract of Annona muricata Linn and their antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezealisiji, K. M.; Noundou, X. S.; Ukwueze, S. E.

    2017-11-01

    In recent time, various phytosynthetic methods have been employed for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles; these unique metal nanoparticles are used in several applications which include pharmaceuticals and material engineering. The current research reports a rapid and simple synthetic partway for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using root bark aqueous extract of Annona muricata and the evaluation of its antimicrobial efficacy against pathogenic microorganisms. The root bark extract was treated with aqueous silver nitrate solution. Silver ions were reduced to silver atoms which on aggregation gave Silver nanoparticles; the biosynthesized AgNPs were characteristically spherical, discreet and stabilized by phytochemical entities and were characterized using ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and photon correlation microscopy. The aqueous plant extract-AgNPs suspension was subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TEM result for the average particle size is 22 ± 2 nm. The polydispersity index and zeta-potential were found to be 0.44 ± 0.02 and - 27.90 ± 0.01 mV, respectively (Zeta-Sizer). The antimicrobial evaluation result showed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles at different concentration were very active against the Gram-positive bacteria ( B. subtilis, S. aureous) and Gram-negative bacteria ( K. Pneumonia, E. Coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), P. aeruginosa being most susceptible to the anti microbial effect of the silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity were obtained through biosynthesis.

  6. Saraca indica Bark Extract Shows In Vitro Antioxidant, Antibreast Cancer Activity and Does Not Exhibit Toxicological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Navneet Kumar; Saini, Karan Singh; Hossain, Zakir; Omer, Ankur; Sharma, Chetan; Gayen, Jiaur R.; Singh, Poonam; Arya, K. R.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of various diseases including cancer worldwide, because of their ease of accessibility and cost effectiveness. Multicomposed mixture of compounds present in a plant extract has synergistic activity, increases the therapeutic potential many folds, compensates toxicity, and increases bioavailability. Saraca indica (family Caesalpiniaceae) is one of the most ancient sacred plants with medicinal properties, exhibiting a number of pharmacological effects. Antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and toxicological evaluation of Saraca indica bark extract (SIE) were carried out in the present study. The results of the study indicated that this herbal preparation has antioxidant and antibreast cancer activity. Toxicological studies suggest that SIE is safer to use and may have a potential to be used as complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25861411

  7. Controllable biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles from a Eucommia ulmoides bark aqueous extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mingxia; Li, Wei; Yang, Feng; Liu, Huihong

    2015-05-01

    The present work reports the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by water extract of Eucommia ulmoides (E. ulmoides) bark. The effects of various parameters such as the concentration of reactants, pH of the reaction mixture, temperature and the time of incubation were explored to the controlled formation of gold nanoparticles. The characterization through high resolution-transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) infer that the as-synthesized AuNPs were spherical in shape with a face cubic crystal (FCC) structure. The results from zeta potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) suggest the good stability and narrow size distribution of the AuNPs. This method for synthesis of AuNPs is simple, economic, nontoxic and efficient. The as-synthesized AuNPs show excellent catalytic activity for the catalytic reducing decoloration of model compounds of azo-dye: reactive yellow 179 and Congo red.

  8. The Effect of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) Bark Extract on Histamine-Induced Paw Edema and Ileum Smooth Muscle Contraction.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Neto, Paulo Alexandre; Peixoto-Sobrinho, Tadeu José da Silva; da Silva Júnior, Edilson Dantas; Leopoldina da Silva, Jamilka; Rodrigo da Silva Oliveira, Alisson; Pupo, André Sampaio; Araújo, Alice Valença; da Costa-Silva, João Henrique; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2017-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as red aroeira, is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory, gastric, and respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihistaminic activity of S. terebinthifolius (St) bark extract by using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. The effects of St were investigated on contractions induced by histamine, carbachol, and potassium chloride in isolated guinea pig ileum. St was also studied in response to hind paw edema induced by histamine in rats. Experiments revealed that although St (250, 500, and 1,000  µ g/mL) reduced the histamine-induced contractions by 9.1 ± 1.8, 50.2 ± 2.0, and 68.9 ± 2.0%, respectively, it did not inhibit contractions induced by carbachol or KCl. The association of St (250 and 500  µ g/mL) with hydroxyzine, an H 1 -antihistamine (0.125 and 0.250  µ M), increased the inhibitory effect to 67.0 ± 3.2 and 85.1 ± 2.1%, respectively. Moreover, St (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) decreased paw edema from its peak by 33.9, 48.4, and 54.8%, respectively, whereas hydroxyzine (70 mg/kg) inhibited the peak edema by 56.5%. Altogether, the results suggest that the bark extract of S. terebinthifolius has an antihistaminic effect (H 1 ).

  9. The Effect of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) Bark Extract on Histamine-Induced Paw Edema and Ileum Smooth Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Nunes-Neto, Paulo Alexandre; da Silva Júnior, Edilson Dantas; Leopoldina da Silva, Jamilka; Rodrigo da Silva Oliveira, Alisson; Pupo, André Sampaio; Araújo, Alice Valença

    2017-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as red aroeira, is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory, gastric, and respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihistaminic activity of S. terebinthifolius (St) bark extract by using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. The effects of St were investigated on contractions induced by histamine, carbachol, and potassium chloride in isolated guinea pig ileum. St was also studied in response to hind paw edema induced by histamine in rats. Experiments revealed that although St (250, 500, and 1,000 µg/mL) reduced the histamine-induced contractions by 9.1 ± 1.8, 50.2 ± 2.0, and 68.9 ± 2.0%, respectively, it did not inhibit contractions induced by carbachol or KCl. The association of St (250 and 500 µg/mL) with hydroxyzine, an H1-antihistamine (0.125 and 0.250 µM), increased the inhibitory effect to 67.0 ± 3.2 and 85.1 ± 2.1%, respectively. Moreover, St (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) decreased paw edema from its peak by 33.9, 48.4, and 54.8%, respectively, whereas hydroxyzine (70 mg/kg) inhibited the peak edema by 56.5%. Altogether, the results suggest that the bark extract of S. terebinthifolius has an antihistaminic effect (H1). PMID:28928787

  10. A characterization of the antimalarial activity of the bark of Cylicodiscus gabunensis Harms.

    PubMed

    Aldulaimi, Omar; Uche, Fidelia I; Hameed, Hamza; Mbye, Haddijatou; Ullah, Imran; Drijfhout, Falko; Claridge, Timothy D W; Horrocks, Paul; Li, Wen-Wu

    2017-02-23

    A decoction of the bark of Cylicodiscus gabunensis Harms is used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of malaria in Nigeria. This study aims to validate the antimalarial potency of this decoction in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum and define potential bioactive constituents within the C. gabunensis bark. A bioassay-guided separation and fractionation protocol was applied to C. gabunensis extracts, exploiting the use of a Malaria Sybr Green I Fluorescence assay method to monitor antiproliferative effects on parasites as well as define 50% inhibition concentrations. Spectroscopic techniques, including GC-MS, TOF LC-MS and 1 H NMR were used to identify phytochemicals present in bioactive fractions. Analogues of gallic acid were synthesized de novo to support the demonstration of the antimalarial action of phenolic acids identified in C. gabunensis bark. In vitro cytotoxicity of plant extracts, fractions and gallate analogues was evaluated against the HepG2 cell line. The antimalarial activity of ethanolic extracts of C. gabunensis bark was confirmed in vitro, with evidence for phenolic acids, primarily gallic acid and close analogues such as ethyl gallate, likely providing this effect. Further fractionation produced the most potent fraction with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 4.7µg/ml. Spectroscopic analysis, including 1 H NMR, LC-MS and GC-MS analysis of this fraction and its acid hydrolyzed products, indicated the presence of conjugates of gallic acid with oligosaccharides. The extracts/fractions and synthetic alkyl and alkenyl gallates showed moderate selectivity against P. falciparum. These results support the use of the bark of C. gabunensis as a traditional medicine in the treatment of human malaria, with phenolic acid oligosaccharide complexes evident in the most bioactive fractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of ABC genes in shaping perianth phenotype in the basal angiosperm Magnolia.

    PubMed

    Wróblewska, M; Dołzbłasz, A; Zagórska-Marek, B

    2016-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the genus Magnolia is characterised by an undifferentiated perianth, typically organised into three whorls of nearly identical tepals. In some species, however, we encountered interesting and significant perianth modifications. In Magnolia acuminata, M. liliiflora and M. stellata the perianth elements of the first whorl are visually different from the others. In M. stellata the additional, spirally arranged perianth elements are present above the first three whorls, which suggests that they have been formed within the domain of stamen primordia. In these three species, we analysed expression patterns of the key flower genes (AP1, AGL6, AP3, PI, AG) responsible for the identity of flower elements and correlated them with results of morphological and anatomical investigations. In all studied species the elements of the first whorl lacked the identity of petals (lack of AP3 and PI expression) but also that of leaves (presence of AGL6 expression), and this seems to prove their sepal character. The analysis of additional perianth elements of M. stellata, spirally arranged on the elongated floral axis, revealed overlapping and reduced activity of genes involved in specification of the identity of the perianth (AGL6) but also of generative parts (AG), even though no clear gradient of morphological changes could be observed. In conclusion, Magnolia genus is capable of forming, in some species, a perianth differentiated into a calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals). Spirally arranged, additional perianth elements of M. stellata, despite activity of AG falling basipetally, resemble petals. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Characterization and quantitation of yohimbine and its analogs in botanicals and dietary supplements using LC/QTOF-MS and LC/QQQ-MS for determination of the presence of bark extract and yohimbine adulteration.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Derick; Neal-Kababick, James; Zweigenbaum, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    The compound yohimbine HCl has been restricted in Australia and categorized as a scheduled prescription drug in other parts of the world, including the United States where it is monographed as a drug in the U. S. Pharmacopeia. However, the bark of the yohimbe plant and its extract is considered a botanical that can be used as a dietary supplement in some parts of the world. For these reasons, methods to characterize the indole alkaloids of the bark and quantify yohimbine and its analogs are presented using accurate mass LC/quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF)-MS and triple quadrupole LC/MS, respectively. Samples were extracted with a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method to characterize and quantify the indole alkaloids. With the LC/QTOF-MS in auto MS/MS mode the indole alkaloids were identified, and the isomeric response of each could be used to determine whether the actual bark or extract was in samples of dietary supplements and not adulteration with yohimbine HCl. Analogs were identified and include yohimbic acid, methyl yohimbine, and hydroxyl yohimbine. Many isomers of each were also detected, but identified only by the number of chromatographic peaks. Quantification of yohimbine and ajmalicine spiked extracts showed recoveries of 99 to 103% with RSD of 3.6% or lower and LODs of less than 100 ppt. Calibration of the two standards gave r(2) = 0.9999 in a range from 0.1 to 100 ppb. Dietary supplements quantified for these two compounds showed a range from not detected to 3x the amounts found in the bark.

  13. Bark And Its Possible Uses

    Treesearch

    J. M. Harkin; J. W. Rowe

    1971-01-01

    What to do with bark is a major question facing the wood conversion industries. Optimum utilization of bark residues demands appreciation of the complexity of bark and the extreme variation in chemical and physical properties between barks of different wood species. This report discusses bark structure, past and present utilization, and methods of upgrading bark both...

  14. The antiplasmodial agents of the stem bark of Entandrophragma angolense (Meliaceae).

    PubMed

    Bickii, Jean; Tchouya, Guy Raymond Feuya; Tchouankeu, Jean Claude; Tsamo, Etienne

    2006-11-13

    In the search of active principles from the stem bark of Entandrophragma angolense, we submitted the compounds isolated from the dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) extract of the stem bark to antimalarial test against chloroquine resistant strain W2 of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite. Only 7alpha-obacunyl acetate and a cycloartane derivative exhibited a good activity, with IC(50)s of 2 and 5.4 microg/ml respectively. Other compounds were moderately active.

  15. Comparative study of teratogenic potentials of crude ethanolic root bark and leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria (apocynaceae) on the fetal heart

    PubMed Central

    Eluwa, Mokutima A.; Udoaffah, Matilda T.; Vulley, Moses B. G.; Ekanem, Theresa B.; Akpantah, Amabe O.; Asuquo, Olaitan A.; Ekong, Moses B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Rauwolfia vomitoria, a tropical shrub, is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of a variety of ailments. It is popular to the locals because of its anti-hypertensive and sedative properties. Aim: This is to find the probable teratogenic effects of ethanolic leaf and root bark extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria on the morphological and histological features of the fetal heart. Material and Methods: Twenty five female rats weighing between 170-200g were used for this study. The rats were divided into five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, with each group consisting of five rats. Pregnancy was induced by caging the female rats with sexually matured males. The presence of vaginal plug and tail structures in the vaginal smear the following morning confirmed coition, and it was regarded as day 0 of pregnancy. Group A was given sham treatment of distilled water. Group B and C received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria, and those in groups D and E received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic root bark extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria. These treatments were on days 7-11 of gestation (5 days) with the aid of an orogastric tube. On the day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed and the fetuses examined for gross anomalies, preserved and latter process for histological studies. Results: There were no mortality in this study, and no obvious gross malformations in the fetuses. Histological observations of the fetal heart showed marked distortion of the cardiac muscle nuclei and myocardial fibers in the treated groups particularly those whose mothers received 250mg/kg of the extracts. These effects were more pronounced in the groups whose mothers received the root extract when compared with the control and the groups whose mothers received the leaf extract. Conclusion: This result suggests that high doses of ethanolic leaf and root extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria may be

  16. Comparative study of teratogenic potentials of crude ethanolic root bark and leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria (apocynaceae) on the fetal heart.

    PubMed

    Eluwa, Mokutima A; Udoaffah, Matilda T; Vulley, Moses B G; Ekanem, Theresa B; Akpantah, Amabe O; Asuquo, Olaitan A; Ekong, Moses B

    2010-12-01

    Rauwolfia vomitoria, a tropical shrub, is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of a variety of ailments. It is popular to the locals because of its anti-hypertensive and sedative properties. This is to find the probable teratogenic effects of ethanolic leaf and root bark extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria on the morphological and histological features of the fetal heart. Twenty five female rats weighing between 170-200g were used for this study. The rats were divided into five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, with each group consisting of five rats. Pregnancy was induced by caging the female rats with sexually matured males. The presence of vaginal plug and tail structures in the vaginal smear the following morning confirmed coition, and it was regarded as day 0 of pregnancy. Group A was given sham treatment of distilled water. Group B and C received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria, and those in groups D and E received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic root bark extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria. These treatments were on days 7-11 of gestation (5 days) with the aid of an orogastric tube. On the day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed and the fetuses examined for gross anomalies, preserved and latter process for histological studies. There were no mortality in this study, and no obvious gross malformations in the fetuses. Histological observations of the fetal heart showed marked distortion of the cardiac muscle nuclei and myocardial fibers in the treated groups particularly those whose mothers received 250mg/kg of the extracts. These effects were more pronounced in the groups whose mothers received the root extract when compared with the control and the groups whose mothers received the leaf extract. This result suggests that high doses of ethanolic leaf and root extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria may be cardiotoxic to the developing rat's heart.

  17. Appetite Suppression and Antiobesity Effect of a Botanical Composition Composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Tae-Woo; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background . Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba , Yerba mate , and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method . Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601. Appetite suppression activity was tested in acute feed intake rat model. Efficacy was evaluated in C57BL/6J mouse models treated with oral doses of 1.3 g/kg/day for 7 weeks. Orlistat at 40 mg/kg/day was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). ELISA was done for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin level quantitation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) scoring was conducted. Results . Marked acute hypophagia with 81.8, 75.3, 43.9, and 30.9% reductions in food intake at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours were observed for UP601. Decreases in body weight gain (21.5% compared to the HFD at weeks 7 and 8.2% compared to baseline) and calorie intake (40.5% for the first week) were observed. 75.9% and 46.8% reductions in insulin and leptin, respectively, 4.2-fold increase in ghrelin level, and reductions of 18.6% in cholesterol and 59% in low-density lipoprotein were documented. A percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 30.4% was found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP601, respectively. 59.3% less mesenteric fat pad and improved NASH scores were observed for UP601. Conclusion . UP601, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba , Yerba mate , and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management.

  18. Appetite Suppression and Antiobesity Effect of a Botanical Composition Composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Tae-Woo; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601. Appetite suppression activity was tested in acute feed intake rat model. Efficacy was evaluated in C57BL/6J mouse models treated with oral doses of 1.3 g/kg/day for 7 weeks. Orlistat at 40 mg/kg/day was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). ELISA was done for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin level quantitation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) scoring was conducted. Results. Marked acute hypophagia with 81.8, 75.3, 43.9, and 30.9% reductions in food intake at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours were observed for UP601. Decreases in body weight gain (21.5% compared to the HFD at weeks 7 and 8.2% compared to baseline) and calorie intake (40.5% for the first week) were observed. 75.9% and 46.8% reductions in insulin and leptin, respectively, 4.2-fold increase in ghrelin level, and reductions of 18.6% in cholesterol and 59% in low-density lipoprotein were documented. A percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 30.4% was found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP601, respectively. 59.3% less mesenteric fat pad and improved NASH scores were observed for UP601. Conclusion. UP601, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management. PMID:27699065

  19. Assessment of the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo anti-tumor activity of the alcoholic stem bark extract/fractions of Mimusops elengi Linn.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Harish; Savaliya, Mihir; Biswas, Subhankar; Nayak, Pawan G; Maliyakkal, Naseer; Manjunath Setty, M; Gourishetti, Karthik; Pai, K Sreedhara Ranganath

    2016-08-01

    Various parts of Mimusops elengi Linn. (Sapotaceae) have been used widely in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of pain, inflammation and wounds. The study was conducted to explore the use of stem bark of M. elengi on pharmacological grounds and to evaluate the scientific basis of cytotoxic and anti-tumor activity. Extract/fractions were prepared and in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed using SRB assay. Most effective fractions were subjected to fluorescence microscopy based acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) and Hoechst 33342 staining to determine apoptosis induction and DNA fragmentation assay. Comet and micronuclei assay were performed to assess genotoxicity. Cell cycle analysis was also performed. In vivo anti-tumor potential was evaluated by Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model in mice. The alcoholic stem bark extract of M. elengi along with four fractions showed potential in vitro cytotoxicity in SRB assay. Of these, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were selected for further studies. The fractions revealed apoptosis inducing potential in AO/EB and Hoechst 33342 staining, which was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation assay. Genotoxic potential was revealed by comet and micronuclei assay. Fractions also exhibited specific cell cycle inhibition in G0/G1 phase. In EAC model, ethyl acetate fraction along with the standard (cisplatin) effectively reduced the increase in body weight compared to control and improved mean survival time. Both fractions were able to restore the altered hematological and biochemical parameters. Hence, M. elengi stem bark may be a possible therapeutic candidate having cytotoxic and anti-tumor potential.

  20. Methanol Extract from Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC) Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae) Stem Bark Quenches the Quorum Sensing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Vincent; Kiendrebeogo, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to its extensive arsenal of virulence factors and inherent resistance to antibiotics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a threat particularly in immunocompromised patients. Considering the central role of quorum sensing in the production of virulence factors, inhibition of bacterial communication mechanism constitute an opportunity to attenuate pathogenicity of bacteria resistant to available antibiotics. Our study aimed to assess the anti-quorum sensing activity of Anogeissus leiocarpus, traditionally used in Burkina Faso, for the treatment of infected burn wounds. Methods: Investigations were carried out on methanol extract from A. leiocarpus stem bark. The reporter strains Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 derivatives were used to evidence any interference with the bacterial quorum sensing and expression of related genes. P. aeruginosa PAO1 was used to measure the impact on pyocyanin production. Results: At a sub-inhibitory concentration (100 µg/mL), A. leiocarpus methanol extract quenched the quorum sensing mechanism of P. aeruginosa PAO1 by down-streaming the rhlR gene, with a subsequent reduction of pyocyanin production. Moreover, the antioxidant polyphenols evidenced are able to reduce the oxidative stress induced by pyocyanin. Conclusion: The antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing activities of A. leiocarpus stem bark could justify its traditional use in the treatment of infected burn wounds. PMID:28930136

  1. Adding Agnus Castus and Magnolia to Soy Isoflavones Relieves Sleep Disturbances Besides Postmenopausal Vasomotor Symptoms-Long Term Safety and Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    De Franciscis, Pasquale; Grauso, Flavio; Luisi, Anna; Schettino, Maria Teresa; Torella, Marco; Colacurci, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness for vasomotor symptoms and sleep disorders plus the long-term safety of a nutraceutical combination of agnus-castus and magnolia extracts combined with soy isoflavones (SI) and lactobacilli were assessed in postmenopausal women. A controlled study was carried out in menopausal women comparing this nutraceutical combination (ESP group) with a formulation containing isoflavones alone (C group) at the dosage recommended. The Kuppermann index, The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Short Form 36 (SF-36) were determined at baseline, three, six and 12 months. Endometrial thickness, mammary density and liver function were evaluated at baseline and after 12 months. One hundred and eighty women were enrolled in the study (100 in the ESP group and 80 in the C group). At the end of the treatment, mammary density, endometrial thickness, and hepatic function did not show substantial differences between groups. The Kuppermann index and particularly the tendency for hot flashes progressively and significantly decreased in frequency and severity during ESP versus C treatment. At the same time, a significant increase in sleep quality and psychophysical wellness parameters was observed in the ESP versus C groups. No adverse events were observed. Agnus-castus and magnolia, combined with SI + lactobacilli, can effectively and safely be used in symptomatic postmenopausal women, mainly when quality of sleep is the most disturbing complaint. The endometrium, mammary glands and liver function were unaffected after 12 months of treatment. PMID:28208808

  2. Adding Agnus Castus and Magnolia to Soy Isoflavones Relieves Sleep Disturbances Besides Postmenopausal Vasomotor Symptoms-Long Term Safety and Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    De Franciscis, Pasquale; Grauso, Flavio; Luisi, Anna; Schettino, Maria Teresa; Torella, Marco; Colacurci, Nicola

    2017-02-13

    The effectiveness for vasomotor symptoms and sleep disorders plus the long-term safety of a nutraceutical combination of agnus-castus and magnolia extracts combined with soy isoflavones (SI) and lactobacilli were assessed in postmenopausal women. A controlled study was carried out in menopausal women comparing this nutraceutical combination (ESP group) with a formulation containing isoflavones alone (C group) at the dosage recommended. The Kuppermann index, The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Short Form 36 (SF-36) were determined at baseline, three, six and 12 months. Endometrial thickness, mammary density and liver function were evaluated at baseline and after 12 months. One hundred and eighty women were enrolled in the study (100 in the ESP group and 80 in the C group). At the end of the treatment, mammary density, endometrial thickness, and hepatic function did not show substantial differences between groups. The Kuppermann index and particularly the tendency for hot flashes progressively and significantly decreased in frequency and severity during ESP versus C treatment. At the same time, a significant increase in sleep quality and psychophysical wellness parameters was observed in the ESP versus C groups. No adverse events were observed. Agnus-castus and magnolia, combined with SI + lactobacilli, can effectively and safely be used in symptomatic postmenopausal women, mainly when quality of sleep is the most disturbing complaint. The endometrium, mammary glands and liver function were unaffected after 12 months of treatment.

  3. Barking and mobbing.

    PubMed

    Lord, Kathryn; Feinstein, Mark; Coppinger, Raymond

    2009-07-01

    Barking is most often associated with the domestic dog Canis familiaris, but it is a common mammalian and avian vocalization. Like any vocalization, the acoustic character of the bark is likely to be a product of adaptation as well as an expression of the signaler's internal motivational state. While most authors recognize that the bark is a distinct signal type, no consistent description of its acoustic definition or function is apparent. The bark exhibits considerable variability in its acoustic form and occurs in a wide range of behavioral contexts, particularly in dogs. This has led some authors to suggest that dog barking might be a form of referential signaling, or an adaptation for heightened capability to communicate with humans. In this paper we propose a general 'canonical' acoustic description of the bark. Surveying relevant literature on dogs, wild canids, other mammals and birds, we explore an alternative functional hypothesis, first suggested by [Morton, E.S., 1977. On the occurrence and significance of motivation-structural rules in some bird and mammal sounds. Am. Nat. 111, 855-869] and consistent with his motivational-structural rules theory: that barking in many animals, including the domestic dog, is associated with mobbing behavior and the motivational states that accompany mobbing.

  4. Phytochemical analysis of Pinus eldarica bark

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2014-01-01

    Bark extract of Pinus pinaster contains numerous phenolic compounds such as catechins, taxifolin, and phenolic acids. These compounds have received considerable attentions because of their anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimetastatic and high antioxidant activities. Although P. pinaster bark has been intensely investigated in the past; there is comparably less information available in the literature in regard to P. eldarica bark. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of P. eldarica commonly found in Iran. A reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and taxifolin in P. pinaster and P. eldarica was developed. A mixture of 0.1% formic acid in deionized water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase, and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nova pack C18 at 280 nm. The two studied Pinus species contained high amounts of polyphenolic compounds. Among four marker compounds, the main substances identified in P. pinaster and P. eldarica were taxifolin and catechin, respectively. Furthermore, the composition of the bark oil of P. eldarica obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Thirty-three compounds accounting for 95.1 % of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenoid fractions, especially α-pinene (24.6%), caryophyllene oxide (14.0%), δ-3-carene (10.7%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (7.9%), and myrtenal (3.1%). PMID:25657795

  5. Histopathological alterations in mice under sub-acute treatment with Hintonia latiflora methanolic stem bark extract.

    PubMed

    Flores-Jiménez, Nancy G; Rojas-Lemus, Marcela; Fortoul, Teresa I; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando; López-Camacho, Perla Y; Anacleto-Santos, Jhony; Gutiérrez, Filiberto Malagón; Basurto-Islas, Gustavo; Rivera-Fernández, Norma

    2018-06-20

    The indiscriminate use of herbal products is increasingly growing worldwide; nonetheless consumers are not warned about the potential health risks that these products may cause. Hintonia latiflora (Hl) is a tree native to the American continent belonging to the Rubiaceae family and its stem bark is empirically used mainly to treat diabetes and malaria; supplements containing Hl are sold in America and Europe without medical prescription, thus scientific information regarding its toxicity as a consequence of a regular consumption is needed. In the present study, the histopathological effect of 200 and 1000 mg/kg of Hintonia latiflora methanolic stem bark extract (HlMeOHe) was evaluated in the small bowel, liver, pancreas, kidneys and brain of CD-1 male mice after oral sub-acute treatment for 28 days. No histopathological alterations were observed in the brain and small bowel of the treated animals; however, mice presented diarrhea from day 2 of treatment with both doses. No histological changes were observed in the tissues collected from the animals treated with 200 mg /kg, except for the liver that depicted periportal hepatitis. Animals treated with the higher dose showed in the liver sections hydropic degeneration, hepatitis and necrosis, kidney sections depicted tubular necrosis and in pancreas sections, hydropic degeneration of the pancreatic islets was observed. In conclusion, HlMeOHe damaged the liver with an oral dose of 200 mg/kg, and at 1000 mg/kg injured the kidneys and pancreas of the CD-1 male mice.

  6. Aporphine alkaloids and feruloylamides from the bark of Xylopia benthamii R.E. Fries (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Pimenta, L P S; Mendonça, D D

    2012-01-01

    The bark of Xylopia benthamii R.E. Fries was investigated in a search for new bioactive compounds. The ethanolic extract of the air-dried bark of X. benthamii was obtained and submitted to an acidic extraction procedure to obtain an alkaloid mixture. Chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of two aporphine alkaloids, nornantenine and laurotetanine, and a mixture of trans- and cis-feruloyltyramine, isolated for the first time in this genus. Structures were established by spectroscopic methods as NMR (1D and 2D) and mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

  7. Pharmacological and Genotoxic Properties of Polyphenolic Extracts of Cedrela odorata L. and Juglans regia L. Barks in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Almonte-Flores, Dulce Carolina; Paniagua-Castro, Norma; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo; Rosales-Castro, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Cedrela odorata L. and Juglans regia L. bark extracts was performed in vitro. Juglans regia showed greater extract concentration and higher antioxidant activity. Hypoglycemic activity in rats was assessed by generating a glucose tolerance curve and determining the area under the curve (AUC). Diabetes was later induced by an injection with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg of b.w.) and confirmed after 24 hours. The extract was administered (200 mg/kg b.w.) over 10 days, and blood glucose was monitored and compared with a control group. The glucose AUC showed a hypoglycemic effect of J. regia and C. odorata in normal rats. Both extracts reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation in diabetic rats. Polyphenolic extracts reduced cholesterol levels in a hypercholesterolemic mouse model and decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation. Polyphenolic extract doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. were administered alone or with cyclophosphamide (CPA) 50 mg/kg ip, which was used as a positive control. Analyses were performed using leukocytes in a comet assay after 4 and 24 h of treatment. Genotoxic effects were evaluated by the comet assay, which showed that while J. regia extract had no effect, C. odorata extract induced slight damage at 200 mg/kg, with the formation of type 0 and 1 comets. PMID:25945104

  8. Ameliorative effects of pine bark extract on spermatotoxicity by α-chlorohydrin in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, In-Chul; Baek, Hyung-Seon; Moon, Changjong; Bae, Chun-Sik; Kim, Sung-Ho; Park, Seung-Chun; Kim, Hyoung-Chin; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the protective effects of pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®, PYC, Horphag Research Ltd., Route de Belis, France) against α-chlorohydrin (ACH)-induced spermatotoxicity in rats. Rats were orally administered ACH (30 mg/kg/day) with or without PYC (20 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Administration of ACH significantly decreased sperm motility. α-Chlorohydrin also caused histopathological alterations and apoptotic changes in caput epididymides. An increased malondialdehyde concentration and decreased glutathione content, as well as catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were also found. In contrast, PYC treatment significantly prevented ACH-induced spermatotoxicity, including decreased sperm motility, histopathological lesions, and apoptotic changes in the caput epididymis. Pycnogenol® also had an antioxidant benefit by decreasing malondialdehyde and increasing levels of the antioxidant glutathione and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase in epididymal tissues. These results indicate that PYC treatment attenuated ACH-induced spermatotoxicity through antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Bark factors for Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Floyd. Johnson

    1966-01-01

    Recent emphasis on the measurement of upper stem tree diameters with optical dendrometers has directed attention to procedures for converting these outside-bark diameters to inside-bark diameters. One procedure that has been used requires an assumption that the ratio of diameter inside bark to diameter outside bark (henceforth called bark factor) remains the same up...

  10. Use of Cordia dichotoma bark in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ganjare, Anjali B; Nirmal, Sunil A; Rub, Ruksana A; Patil, Anuja N; Pattan, Shashikant R

    2011-08-01

    The plant Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. (Boraginaceae) is commonly known as "Bhokar" in Marathi. This tree species has been of interest to researchers because traditionally its bark is reported in the treatment of ulcer and colic pain. The present work was undertaken to validate its folk use in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) by using scientific methods. Dried bark powder was extracted with methanol and this crude methanol extract was fractionated using various solvents. These fractions were tested for effectiveness against UC. Macroscopical study and histopathology of the colon, level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in colon and blood were studied for the assessment of the activity. Antioxidant activity of these fractions was screened by using various methods. Animals treated with the methanol fraction of the crude methanol extract showed lower pathological scores and good healing. This fraction reduced MPO and MDA levels significantly in blood and tissue. It showed antioxidant potential [in DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay IC₅₀ value is 26.25; trolox equivalent (TE) antioxidant capacity µg/ml TE/g of plant material on dry basis in ABTS (2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline]-6-sulfonic acid) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potential) assay is 2.03 and 2.45, respectively]. The fraction contains a high level of phenolics. The methanol fraction of crude methanol extract of C. dichotoma bark is effective in the treatment of UC.

  11. Evaluation of the Analgesic Activity of the Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Dialium Guineense (Wild)

    PubMed Central

    Ezeja, MI; Omeh, YS; Ezeigbo, II; Ekechukwu, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dialium guineense is a medicinal plant used by some communities of Enugu-Ezike in Enugu State, Nigeria for treatment of fever, headache and other diverse ailments. Objectives: The present study evaluated the analgesic activity of the methanolic stem bark extract of the plant. Method: Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction or writhing, tail immersion and hot plate analgesic models in albino Wistar mice were used for the study. Three test doses (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight) of the extract were administered orally by gastric gavage. The activity was compared with a standard reference drug, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) (400 mg/kg) and negative control. The results were analysed by SPSS version 17 using ANOVA and Post Hoc Duncan. Result: In the acetic acid-induced writhing reflex model, D. guineense extract and the reference drug significantly (P =0.014 - 0.002) decreased the mean total number of abdominal constriction in the mice in a dose dependent fashion. The percentage inhibition of the abdominal constriction reflex was increased dose dependently from 0% in the negative control group to 71% at the highest dose of the extract (1000mg/kg). In the tail immersion model the extract at the dose of 1000 mg/kg significantly (P = 0. 048) increased the pain reaction time (PRT) while in hot plate model the extract and drug also significantly (P = 0.048 - 0.05) increased the mean PRT at the doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The dose of 250 mg/kg showed no analgesic activity in tail immersion and hot plate models. Conclusion: Dialium guineense demonstrated significant analgesic activity that may be mediated through peripheral pain mechanism. PMID:23209955

  12. Evaluation of the analgesic activity of the methanolic stem bark extract of dialium guineense (wild).

    PubMed

    Ezeja, Mi; Omeh, Ys; Ezeigbo, Ii; Ekechukwu, A

    2011-01-01

    Dialium guineense is a medicinal plant used by some communities of Enugu-Ezike in Enugu State, Nigeria for treatment of fever, headache and other diverse ailments. The present study evaluated the analgesic activity of the methanolic stem bark extract of the plant. Acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction or writhing, tail immersion and hot plate analgesic models in albino Wistar mice were used for the study. Three test doses (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight) of the extract were administered orally by gastric gavage. The activity was compared with a standard reference drug, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) (400 mg/kg) and negative control. The results were analysed by SPSS version 17 using ANOVA and Post Hoc Duncan. In the acetic acid-induced writhing reflex model, D. guineense extract and the reference drug significantly (P =0.014 - 0.002) decreased the mean total number of abdominal constriction in the mice in a dose dependent fashion. The percentage inhibition of the abdominal constriction reflex was increased dose dependently from 0% in the negative control group to 71% at the highest dose of the extract (1000mg/kg). In the tail immersion model the extract at the dose of 1000 mg/kg significantly (P = 0. 048) increased the pain reaction time (PRT) while in hot plate model the extract and drug also significantly (P = 0.048 - 0.05) increased the mean PRT at the doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The dose of 250 mg/kg showed no analgesic activity in tail immersion and hot plate models. Dialium guineense demonstrated significant analgesic activity that may be mediated through peripheral pain mechanism.

  13. Chemical Analysis and Study of Phenolics, Antioxidant Activity, and Antibacterial Effect of the Wood and Bark of Maclura tinctoria (L.) D. Don ex Steud.

    PubMed Central

    Lamounier, K. C.; Cunha, L. C. S.; de Morais, S. A. L.; de Aquino, F. J. T.; Chang, R.; do Nascimento, E. A.; de Souza, M. G. M.; Martins, C. H. G.; Cunha, W. R.

    2012-01-01

    Maclura tinctoria (L.) D. Don ex Steud. has one of the highest qualities among the coefficients for Brazilian woods (up to 9.6) and resistance rates equivalent to Indian teak (Tectona grandis). In this study, the macromolecular constituents and total phenols compounds as well as the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of this wood were evaluated. Total phenols and proanthocyanidin levels were higher in wood when compared with bark levels. The antioxidant activity of wood extracts (IC50 = 18.7 μg/mL) was more effective than that of bark extracts (IC50 = 20.9 μg/mL). Wood and bark extracts revealed a high potential for inhibition of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The bark extracts were the most active (MIC from 20 to 60 μg/mL). Both antioxidant activity and high potential for bacteria inhibition turn these extracts promising for drug formulations, especially as antibacterial agent. PMID:22454666

  14. From plant extract to molecular panacea: a commentary on Stone (1763) ‘An account of the success of the bark of the willow in the cure of the agues’

    PubMed Central

    Wood, John N.

    2015-01-01

    The application of aspirin-like drugs in modern medicine is very broad, encompassing the treatment of inflammation, pain and a variety of cardiovascular conditions. Although anecdotal accounts of willow bark extract as an anti-inflammatory drug have occurred since written records began (for example by Hippocrates), the first convincing demonstration of a potent anti-pyretic effect of willow bark containing salicylates was made by the English cleric Edward Stone in the late eighteenth century. Here, we discuss the route to optimizing and understanding the mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory drugs that have their origins in Stone's seminal study, ‘An account of the success of the bark of the willow in the cure of agues’. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750237

  15. Fraxinus paxiana bark mediated photosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their size modulation using swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Hemant; Vendamani, V. S.; Pathak, Anand P.; Tiwari, Archana

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is presented using bark extracts of Fraxinus paxiana var. sikkimensis. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterised by UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence, powder X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the bark samples are irradiated with 100 MeV silver ions and the subsequent structural modifications are analyzed. The swift heavy ion irradiated Fraxinus paxiana var. sikkimensis bark is also used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. It is illustrated that the irradiated bark assists in synthesizing smaller nanoparticles of homogenous size distribution as compared to when the pristine bark is used. The newly synthesized silver nanoparticles are also used to demonstrate the antimicrobial activities on Escherichia coli bacteria.

  16. Gastroprotective activity of the ethanol extract from the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Roseli S; Diniz, Polyana B F; Estevam, Charles S; Pinheiro, Malone S; Albuquerque-Júnior, Ricardo L C; Thomazzi, Sara M

    2013-05-20

    Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), known as "catingueira", has been used in folk medicine in the treatment of various disorders such as gastritis, heartburn, indigestion, and stomach ache. However, the gastroprotective properties of this species have not yet been studied. The ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis inner bark was used in rats via oral route, at the doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg. The antiulcer assays were performed using the ethanol- and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced ulcer models. Gastric secretion parameters (volume, pH, and total acidity) were also evaluated by the pylorus ligated model, and the mucus in the gastric content was determined. The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of the ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was performed using the agar-well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The ethanol extract (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg) produced dose dependent inhibition (P<0.01) on the ulcer lesion index, the total lesion area, and the percentage of lesion area in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. The ethanol extract (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg) also reduced (P<0.001) the ulcer index in the indomethacin-induced ulcer model. In the model ligature pylorus, the treatment with Caesalpinia pyramidalis ethanol extract failed to significantly change the gastric secretion parameters. However, after treatment with the ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg), there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in mucus production. The ethanol extract showed anti-Helicobacter pylori activity, with inhibition halos of 12.0 ± 1.7 mm at 10,000 μg/mL. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of the ethanol extract were of 625 and 10,000 μg/mL, respectively. Collectively, the present results suggest that the ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis displays gastroprotective actions, supporting the folkloric usage of the plant to treat various

  17. Leishmanicidal evaluation of extracts from native plants of the Yucatan peninsula.

    PubMed

    Peraza-Sánchez, S R; Cen-Pacheco, F; Noh-Chimal, A; May-Pat, F; Simá-Polanco, P; Dumonteil, E; García-Miss, M R; Mut-Martín, M

    2007-06-01

    Methanol extracts were prepared from different parts of 18 plants collected in the Yucatan peninsula and evaluated in an in vitro bioassay for leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania mexicana promastigotes. The ten most potent plant extracts (IC(50)<50 microg/ml) were Aphelandra scabra leaves, Byrsonima bucidaefolia bark, Byrsonima crassifolia bark, Clusia flava leaves, Cupania dentata bark, Diphysa carthagenensis leaves, Dorstenia contrajerva whole plant, Milleria quinqueflora roots, Tridax procumbens whole plant, and Vitex gaumeri bark.

  18. Rapid analysis of inner and outer bark composition of southern yellow pine bark from industrial sources

    Treesearch

    Chi-Leung So; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2006-01-01

    Differences in bark chemistry between inner and outer bark are well known and may affect the suitability of various bark supplies for a particular application. Accordingly, there is a need for quality control protocols to assess variability and predict product yields. Southern yellow pine bark samples from two industrial sources were separated into inner and outer bark...

  19. Antimicrobial properties of the stem bark of Saraca indica (Caesalpiniaceae).

    PubMed

    Sainath, R Shilpakala; Prathiba, J; Malathi, R

    2009-01-01

    Chloroform, methanol, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the stem bark of Saraca indica were investigated for their antibacterial and antifungal activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhimurium and Streptococcus pneumoniae and the fungi: Candida albicans and Cryptococcus albidus. Methanolic and aqueous extract exhibited antimicrobial activity with MIC ranging from 0.5-2% and 1-3% respectively. Methanolic extract exhibited the strongest activity against both bacteria and fungi.

  20. Effects of the aqueous extract of Pittosporum mannii Hook. f. (Pittosporaceae) stem barks on spontaneous and spasmogen-induced contractile activity of isolated rat duodenum.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Njiaza; Tom Esther, Ngo Lemba; Télesphore Benoît, Nguelefack; Paul Désiré, Dzeufiet Djomeni; Oumarou Bibi-Farouck, Aboubakar; Théophile, Dimo; Pierre, Kamtchouing

    2015-08-22

    Pittosporum mannii Hook. f. (Pittosporaceae) is a plant widely used in traditional medicine in Cameroon for the treatment of many gastrointestinal disorders including diarrhea. To date, no pharmacological study on the antidiarrheal and the antispasmodic properties of this plant has been reported. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the relaxant activity of the aqueous extract of stem barks of P. mannii (PMAE) on rat duodenum. Different concentrations of PMAE were tested separately (10-80 µg/mL) or cumulatively (5-80 µg/mL) on spontaneous and spasmogen (carbachol, histamine and KCl)-induced contractions of isolated rat duodenum strips. At concentrations ranging from 10 to 80 µg/mL, PMAE significantly decreased the tonus and the amplitude of spontaneous contractions. However, at high concentration (80 µg/mL), the extract elicited a transient relaxation was followed by a slight increase of tonus, while the amplitude remained lower compared to the normal spontaneous activity. The relaxant effect of the extract was not significantly affected in the presence of atropine (0.713 µg/mL) and promethazine (0.5 µg/mL). In addition, PMAE (20, 40, and 80 µg/mL) partially but significantly inhibited in a concentration related manner the contractions induced by carbachol (10(-9)-10(-4)M) and histamine (10(-9)-10(-4)M) on rat duodenum. PMAE (10-80 µg/mL) also significantly induced a concentration-dependent relaxation on KCl (20mM, 50mM, 10(-3)-6.10(-3)M)-induced contraction of rat duodenum. These results show that the aqueous extract of P. mannii stem barks possesses antispasmodic and spasmolytic effects at lower concentrations; therefore, supporting the use of the stem barks of this plant in the folk medicine for the treatment of diarrhea. However, caution should be paid while using higher concentrations that instead might produce spasmogenic effect and might worsen the diarrheal condition. The relaxant effect of PMAE appears to be non-specific of

  1. Evaluation of the systemic toxicity and mutagenicity of OLIGOPIN®, procyanidolic oligomers (OPC) extracted from French Maritime Pine Bark extract.

    PubMed

    Segal, L; Penman, M G; Piriou, Y

    2018-01-01

    The potential systemic toxicity of Oligopin®, a French Maritime Pine Bark extract (FMPBE) rich in procyanidolic oligomers, was evaluated in an acute oral limit test and a 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity study with Sprague Dawley rats. The potential mutagenicity was assessed in a bacterial reverse mutation assay and in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration assay with human lymphocytes. The results indicate that Oligopin® was nongenotoxic in both bacterial and human cell assays, was not acutely toxic via oral administration at up to 2000 mg/kg and was well tolerated following 90 days of oral administration to SD rats, with a no observed adverse effect level of 1000 mg/kg/day. The lack of significant adverse systemic effects in the 90 day study is concordant with findings from several human clinical trials. The acute toxicity and mutagenicity data are consistent with data reported by AFSSA in a summary of FMPBE safety, in which a NOAEL of 100 mg/kg/day was established. In contrast, the NOAEL derived from the 90-day study with Oligopin® was 1000 mg/kg/day, suggesting that it is less systemically toxic than other FMPBE previously evaluated in subchronic studies, and comparable to proanthocyanidins extracted from grape seeds, which are widely used as nutritional supplement ingredients.

  2. Depositional characteristics of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers on tree barks.

    PubMed

    Chun, Man Young

    2014-07-17

    This study was conducted to determine the depositional characteristics of several tree barks, including Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), Pine (Pinus densiflora), Platanus (Platanus), and Metasequoia (Metasequoia glyptostroboides). These were used as passive air sampler (PAS) of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Tree barks were sampled from the same site. PBDEs were analyzed by highresolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometer, and the lipid content was measured using the gravimetric method by n-hexane extraction. Gingko contained the highest lipid content (7.82 mg/g dry), whereas pine (4.85 mg/g dry), Platanus (3.61 mg/g dry), and Metasequoia (0.97 mg/g dry) had relatively lower content. The highest total PBDEs concentration was observed in Metasequoia (83,159.0 pg/g dry), followed by Ginkgo (53,538.4 pg/g dry), Pine (20,266.4 pg/g dry), and Platanus (12,572.0 pg/g dry). There were poor correlations between lipid content and total PBDE concentrations in tree barks (R(2)=0.1011, p =0.682). Among the PBDE congeners, BDE 206, 207 and 209 were highly brominated PBDEs that are sorbed to particulates in ambient air, which accounted for 90.5% (84.3-95.6%) of the concentration and were therefore identified as the main PBDE congener. The concentrations of particulate PBDEs deposited on tree barks were dependent on morphological characteristics such as surface area or roughness of barks. Therefore, when using the tree barks as the PAS of the atmospheric PBDEs, samples belonging to same tree species should be collected to reduce errors and to obtain reliable data.

  3. An Efficient, Robust, and Inexpensive Grinding Device for Herbal Samples like Cinchona Bark

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steen Honoré; Holmfred, Else; Cornett, Claus; Maldonado, Carla; Rønsted, Nina

    2015-01-01

    An effective, robust, and inexpensive grinding device for the grinding of herb samples like bark and roots was developed by rebuilding a commercially available coffee grinder. The grinder was constructed to be able to provide various particle sizes, to be easy to clean, and to have a minimum of dead volume. The recovery of the sample when grinding as little as 50 mg of crude Cinchona bark was about 60%. Grinding is performed in seconds with no rise in temperature, and the grinder is easily disassembled to be cleaned. The influence of the particle size of the obtained powders on the recovery of analytes in extracts of Cinchona bark was investigated using HPLC. PMID:26839823

  4. An Efficient, Robust, and Inexpensive Grinding Device for Herbal Samples like Cinchona Bark.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steen Honoré; Holmfred, Else; Cornett, Claus; Maldonado, Carla; Rønsted, Nina

    2015-01-01

    An effective, robust, and inexpensive grinding device for the grinding of herb samples like bark and roots was developed by rebuilding a commercially available coffee grinder. The grinder was constructed to be able to provide various particle sizes, to be easy to clean, and to have a minimum of dead volume. The recovery of the sample when grinding as little as 50 mg of crude Cinchona bark was about 60%. Grinding is performed in seconds with no rise in temperature, and the grinder is easily disassembled to be cleaned. The influence of the particle size of the obtained powders on the recovery of analytes in extracts of Cinchona bark was investigated using HPLC.

  5. Condensed Tannins from Longan Bark as Inhibitor of Tyrosinase: Structure, Activity, and Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chai, Wei-Ming; Huang, Qian; Lin, Mei-Zhen; Ou-Yang, Chong; Huang, Wen-Yang; Wang, Ying-Xia; Xu, Kai-Li; Feng, Hui-Ling

    2018-01-31

    In this study, the content, structure, antityrosinase activity, and mechanism of longan bark condensed tannins were evaluated. The findings obtained from mass spectrometry demonstrated that longan bark condensed tannins were mixtures of procyanidins, propelargonidins, prodelphinidins, and their acyl derivatives (galloyl and p-hydroxybenzoate). The enzyme analysis indicated that these mixtures were efficient, reversible, and mixed (competitive is dominant) inhibitor of tyrosinase. What's more, the mixtures showed good inhibitions on proliferation, intracellular enzyme activity and melanogenesis of mouse melanoma cells (B 16 ). From molecular docking, the results showed the interactions between inhibitors and tyrosinase were driven by hydrogen bond, electrostatic, and hydrophobic interactions. In addition, high levels of total phenolic and extractable condensed tannins suggested that longan bark might be a good source of tyrosinase inhibitor. This study would offer theoretical basis for the development of longan bark condensed tannins as novel food preservatives and medicines of skin diseases.

  6. Effects of Bark Beetle Infestation on Secondary Organic Aerosol Precursors in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff Hartz, K. E.; Amin, H.; Dodson, C.; Atkins, P. T.; Hallar, G.

    2009-12-01

    Bark beetles are a potentially destructive force in forest ecosytems; however, it is not known how insect attacks affect the atmosphere. Other insects, such as the weevil (Strophosoma melanogrammum) attacks on spruce trees in Denmark, have a significant local effect on monoterpene emissions. In fact, a single weevil induced a three-fold increase in monoterpene emission, and the response lasted for several weeks. Mountain pine bark beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) have infested the forests in the vicinity of Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, Colorado. Emissions were sampled from the headspace of bark at the trunk and from the tree branches in the canopy from bark beetle infested and healthy lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) trees. The emissions were collected onto scent traps, containing 110 mg of Porapak Q sorbent, using PAS-500 micro air samplers set to a 0.4 mL/min flow rate for two hours. After collection, the scent traps were spiked with a recovery standard, perdeutrated decane, and extracted with 1.5 mL hexanes (in three portions). The analytes in the extracts were separated and detected using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The analytes were identified and quantified using calibration curves from authentic standards, and when authentic standards were not available, the NIST mass spectra library and Adams retention time indices were used. The samples from lodgepole pine trees suggest an enhancement in the 3-carene, beta-phellandrene, and estragole (methyl chavicol) emissions upon bark beetle infestation. The samples from the Engelmann spruce trees suggest an enhancement in the 1,4-cineole, p-cymene, and beta-phellandrene emissions upon bark beetle infestation. A shift in the type and the quantity of VOC emissions due to bark beetle infestation may lead increases in SOA from these forests, since potent SOA precursors are produced.

  7. Application of high-performance liquid chromatography for research of salicin in bark of different varieties of Salix.

    PubMed

    Kenstaviciene, Palmyra; Nenortiene, Palma; Kiliuviene, Guoda; Zevzikovas, Andrejus; Lukosius, Audronis; Kazlauskiene, Daiva

    2009-01-01

    Willow (Salix L.) species are widely spread in Lithuanian natural dendroflora. Willow bark contains active substances known for anti-inflammatory properties and is known as a phytotherapeutic precursor of aspirin. Bark extracts are components of analgesic and antirheumatic preparations. Therapeutic effectiveness is associated with salicin (2-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside), which turns into salicylic acid. Increasing attention to natural preparations gives primary importance to research of plants. This study focused on 12 willow taxa and employed routine pharmacopoeia methods. High-performance liquid chromatography method was applied for the analysis of bark extractions. The investigation revealed that not all willow species accumulated a therapeutically sufficient amount of salicin. Bark samples were investigated after 1- and 2-year growth in autumn and spring. Salicin content ranged from 0.08 to 12.6%. Higher contents of active materials were determined in autumn and in 2-year-old willows. Certain willow taxa (Salix alba L., Salix mollissima L., Salix triandra L., Salix viminalis "Americana", Salix dasyclados L.) possessed extremely low salicin amounts. In the second year, analysis covered 32 willow species. Results indicated striking differences in salicin amounts (from 0.04% in Salix viminalis "Americana" to 12.06% in Salix acutifolia). Willow species, plant age, and season should be considered when collecting medicinal plant material. The amount of salicylates in 2-year-old willow bark collected in autumn exceeded by 25% that in 1-year-old willow bark collected in spring. Bark of some analyzed willow species contained the amount of salicylates too low for using as anti-inflammatory or antipyretic remedy.

  8. Condensed tannins from acacia mangium bark: Characterization by spot tests and FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharudin, Muhammad Azizi; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the adaptation and evaluation of one chemical tests for tannins characterization in acacia mangium bark. Acid butanol test developed to identify respectively condensed tannins is described. The two traditional tests used for tannin characterization namely ferric test and vanillin test were also performed and their functional also discussed. Condensed tannins were extracted from acacia mangium bark using water medium in presence of three different concentration basic reagent of NaOH(5%,10% and 15%) and were characterized by FT-IR spectrometry.

  9. Analgesic effects of stem bark extracts of Trichilia monadelpha (Thonn.) JJ De Wilde.

    PubMed

    Woode, Eric; Amoh-Barimah, Ama Kyeraa; Abotsi, Wonder Kofi Mensah; Ainooson, George Kwaw; Owusu, George

    2012-01-01

    Various parts of Trichilia monadelpha (Thonn) JJ De Wilde (Fam. Meliaceae) are used in Ghanaian traditional medicine for the treatment of painful and inflammatory conditions. The present study examined the analgesic properties of the petroleum ether (PEE), ethyl acetate (EAE), and the hydro-ethanolic (HAE) extract of the stem bark of the plant in murine models. PEE, EAE, and HAE were assessed in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin tests), thermal (hot plate test), and mechanical (Randall-Selitto paw pressure test) pain models. The possible mechanisms of the antinociceptive action were also examined with various antagonists in the formalin test. HAE, EAE, and PEE, each at doses of 10-100 mg/kg orally, and the positive controls (morphine and diclofenac) elicited significant dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in the chemical (acetic acid abdominal writhing and formalin tests), thermal (hot plate test), and mechanical (Randall-Selitto paw pressure test) pain models in rodents. The antinociceptive effect of HAE was partly or wholly reversed by systemic administration of atropine, naloxone, and glibenclamide. The antinociceptive effects of EAE and PEE were inhibited by atropine. The extracts HAE, EAE, and PEE caused dose-related antinociception in chemical, thermal, and mechanical models of pain in animals. The mechanism of action of HAE involves an interaction with muscarinic cholinergic, adenosinergic, opioidergic pathways, and ATP-sensitive K+ channels while that of EAE and PEE involve the muscarinic cholinergic system.

  10. Antidiabetic, renal/hepatic/pancreas/cardiac protective and antioxidant potential of methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark (ALEx) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Danish; Kumar, Vikas; Verma, Amita; Gupta, Pushpraj S; Kumar, Hemant; Dhingra, Vishal; Mishra, Vatsala; Sharma, Manju

    2014-07-16

    Hypoglycemic and/or anti-hyperglycemic activities have been recorded with numerous plants, many of which are used as traditional herbal treatments of diabetes. Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark have been used in traditional medicine along with some preliminary reports on its hypoglycemic action. The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The powdered stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth.. was extracted with methanol (MeOH) using soxhlation method and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. (ALEx) was concentrated to dryness using Rotary Evaporator. Diabetes was experimentally induced in the rats by single intraperitoneal administration of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). They glycemic control was measured by the blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and plasma insulin. The oxidative stress was evaluated in the liver and kidney by level of antioxidant markers and various biochemical parameters were assessed in diabetic control and extract treated rats. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats depicted the increased blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), diminished level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level and perturb level of antioxidant markers. Oral administration of MeAL at a concentration of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg b.w daily for 30 days results a momentous decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and enhancement of plasma insulin level as compared with STZ induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, it significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the level of TC, TG, and LDL-c, VLDL-c. While it increases the level of HDL-c to a significant (p < 0.05) level. The treatment also resulted in a marked increase in reduced glutathione, glutathione Peroxidase, catalase and superoxide

  11. Antidiabetic, renal/hepatic/pancreas/cardiac protective and antioxidant potential of methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark (ALEx) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypoglycemic and/or anti-hyperglycemic activities have been recorded with numerous plants, many of which are used as traditional herbal treatments of diabetes. Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. stem bark have been used in traditional medicine along with some preliminary reports on its hypoglycemic action. The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods The powdered stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth.. was extracted with methanol (MeOH) using soxhlation method and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The methanol/dichloromethane extract of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. (ALEx) was concentrated to dryness using Rotary Evaporator. Diabetes was experimentally induced in the rats by single intraperitoneal administration of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). They glycemic control was measured by the blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and plasma insulin. The oxidative stress was evaluated in the liver and kidney by level of antioxidant markers and various biochemical parameters were assessed in diabetic control and extract treated rats. Results Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats depicted the increased blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), diminished level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level and perturb level of antioxidant markers. Oral administration of MeAL at a concentration of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg b.w daily for 30 days results a momentous decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycated heamoglobin and enhancement of plasma insulin level as compared with STZ induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, it significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the level of TC, TG, and LDL-c, VLDL-c. While it increases the level of HDL-c to a significant (p < 0.05) level. The treatment also resulted in a marked increase in reduced glutathione

  12. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial action of silver nanoparticles from root bark extract of Berberislycium Royle.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Ansar; Murtaza, Ghulam; Bhatti, Tariq Mahmood; Kausar, Rehana; Ahmed, Muhammad Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Various biological methods are being recognized for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles, which are used in several fields. The phytosynthesis of nanoparticles came out as a cost effective and enviro-friendly approach. When root bark extract of Berberis lycium was treated with silver ions, they reduced to silver nanoparticles, which were spherical, crystalline, size ranged from 10-100nm and capped by biomolecules. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The plant mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles showed pronounced antimicrobial activities against both Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebseilla pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis). The plant mediated process proved to be non-toxic and low cost contender as reducing agent for synthesizing stable silver nanoparticles.

  13. Strip-bark and Whole-bark Siberian Pine Radial Growth Trends and Implications for Climate Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leland, C.; Cook, E. R.; Andreu-Hayles, L.; Pederson, N.; Hessl, A. E.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Byambasuren, O.; Nachin, B.; Davi, N. K.; D'Arrigo, R.; Griffin, K. L.; Bishop, D. A.; Rao, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    Ancient trees can exhibit strip-bark morphology in which a portion of the cambium, the active layer of growth in the stem, dies in response to environmental stress. Partial cambial dieback has been linked to several different ecological and physiological factors, but the causes of dieback vary depending on site conditions. Further, the implications of such morphology on radial growth trends and its importance for tree-ring-based climate reconstructions remain unclear. We investigate the timing and potential environmental drivers of cambial dieback in Pinus sibirica trees from a xeric site in central Mongolia, and compare growth patterns of strip and whole-bark (full cambium) trees over the past 500 years. Cambial dieback occurred primarily on the southern side of trees, and was most common during the cold and dry 19th century. These unfavorable climatic conditions, combined with high exposure to solar radiation, suggested by the orientation of strip bark, might be responsible for cambial dieback. Increasing ring-width trends are gradual in most strip-bark trees, and do not immediately follow dieback dates detected for individual stems. However, a mean ring-width chronology of all strip-bark trees abruptly increases and significantly exceeds ring widths of coeval whole-bark trees in the early 20th century. After standardizing strip and whole-bark series to remove allometric trends, the differences in recent growth trends persist. Before using strip-bark trees for climate reconstruction, we suggest comparing strip and whole-bark ring-width trends in order to determine appropriate methods for removing potential morphology-related growth trends. We extend this study by analyzing stable carbon isotopes in tree rings to evaluate whether there are physiological differences between strip-bark and whole-bark trees, and to determine if δ13C can be used as an additional parameter for climate reconstruction.

  14. Behavioral and anticonvulsant effects of the standardized extract of Ficus platyphylla stem bark.

    PubMed

    Chindo, Ben A; Ya'U, Jamilu; Danjuma, Nuhu M; Okhale, Samuel E; Gamaniel, Karniyus S; Becker, Axel

    2014-06-11

    Decoctions of Ficus platyphylla Del.-Holl (Family: Moraceae) are used in Nigeria׳s folk medicine for the management of epilepsy and their efficacies are widely acclaimed among the rural communities of northern Nigeria. The aim of the study is to examine the behavioral and anticonvulsant properties of the standardized methanol extract of Ficus platyphylla (FP) stem bark, in order to scientifically describe its potential values in the management of convulsive disorders. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and preliminary phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract were utilized and the intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50) determined in mice. The effects of FP were investigated on some murine models of behavior and its anticonvulsant effects studied on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, strychnine (STN)-, picrotoxin (PCT)-, isoniazid (INH)-, aminophylline (AMI)- and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice. The intraperitoneal oral LD50 of FP was estimated to be 5000mg/kg. FP significantly reduced the locomotor activities including the total distance covered, speed, active time and rearing counts. It shortened the onset and prolonged the duration of diazepam-induced sleep, but had no effect on motor coordination on the rota-rod treadmill or beam-walking assay in mice at the doses tested. The extract protected the mice against PTZ- and STN-induced seizures and significantly delayed the latencies of myoclonic jerks and tonic seizures induced by all the standard convulsant agents (PTZ, PCT, INH, STN and AMI) used in this study, but failed to protect the mice against MES seizures at the doses tested. The HPLC fingerprint of the extract shows a spectrum profile characteristic of Ficus platyphylla, while the preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids and tannins. Our study provides scientific evidence that FP may contain psychoactive principles with potential anticonvulsant properties, thus supporting further

  15. Cork Containing Barks - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Carla; Pereira, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Tree barks are among the less studied forest products notwithstanding their relevant physiological and protective role in tree functioning. The large diversity in structure and chemical composition of barks makes them a particularly interesting potential source of chemicals and bio-products, at present valued in the context of biorefineries. One of the valuable components of barks is cork (phellem in anatomy) due to a rather unique set of properties and composition. Cork from the cork oak (Quercus suber) has been extensively studied, mostly because of its economic importance and worldwide utilization of cork products. However, several other species have barks with substantial cork amounts that may constitute additional resources for cork-based bioproducts. This paper makes a review of the tree species that have barks with significant proportion of cork and on the available information regarding their bark structural and chemical characterization. A general integrative appraisal of the formation and types of barks and of cork development is also given. The knowledge gaps and the potential interesting research lines are identified and discussed, as well as the utilization perspectives.

  16. In vitro antiplasmodial activity and prophylactic potentials of extract and fractions of Trema orientalis (Linn.) stem bark.

    PubMed

    Olanlokun, John Oludele; David, Oluwole Moses; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2017-08-15

    Trema orientalis (T. orientalis Linn) has been used in the management of malaria in the western part of Nigeria and despite its application in ethnomedicine, there is dearth of scientific evidence to justify the acclaimed prophylactic antimalarial usage of the plant. The aim of this study is to assess the in vitro antiplasmodial cell-free assay and chemopreventive efficacy of the methanol extract of the stem bark of T. orientalis and its fractions as a prophylactic regimen for malaria prevention. Also, the antimicrobial activities of the extract and the fractions were investigated. Vacuum liquid chromatography was used to obtain dichloromethane, ethylacetate and methanol fractions from the methanol extract of T. orientalis. The fractions were tested for their prophylactic and cell-free antimalarial activity using murine models and β-hematin formation assay respectively. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the extract and its fractions against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In the prophylactic experiment, dichloromethane (DCMF), methanol fraction (MF) and extract (ME) (in this order) showed significant chemopreventive effects against P. berghei invasion of the red blood cells when compared with both Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) and untreated controls. Results of the in vitro study showed that the DCMF had the highest effect in preventing the formation of β-hematin when compared with other fractions. The DCMF also had the highest percentage inhibition of β-hematin formation when compared with chloroquine. The extract and fractions showed a concentration dependent antibacterial activity. Methanol extract had a pronounced inhibitory effect on Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Serratia mercescens ATCC 9986 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 19582 were the most susceptible bacteria. The results obtained showed that both extract and fractions of T. orientalis possessed

  17. Chemopreventive and remediation effect of Adansonia digitata L. Baobab (Bombacaceae) stem bark extracts in mouse model malaria.

    PubMed

    Adeoye, A O; Bewaji, C O

    2018-01-10

    Adansonia digitata L. Baobab (Bombacaceae) solvent extracts have been reported to possess medicinal properties and are currently been used traditionally for the treatment of malaria and several other diseases and infection; however few reports exist in literature that provides supportive scientific evidence in favour of its medicinal use. This study investigated the efficacy of Adansonia digitata stem bark extract in offering protection against experimental malaria and also examined its remediation effect when administered after established infection. Weanling albino mice were used in the study. The mice were transfected intraperitonially with an inoculums size of 1× 10 7 of chloroquine susceptible strain of plasmodium berghei infected erythrocytes. Mechanisms of action of the extract were investigated by measuring the degree of tissue peroxidation and tissue antioxidant status. Severity of malaria was determined by measuring the serum C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and serum and tissue Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. There was a significant increase in serum CRP, TNF-α concentrations and serum and tissue ALP activity in the control mice following Plasmodium berghei infection. All the treatment had effect on the growth of Plasmodium berghei parasites in mice. The extracts showed a significant dose dependent increase packed cell volume (PCV), percentage chemosupression/clearance and a significant decrease in percentage parasitemia at the two doses when administered after established infection. Methanolic extract (MEAD) at 400mg/kg exhibited the highest chemosupressive activity. The extract significantly reduced the degree of tissue peroxidation, increased the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase and superoxide dismutase activity. Administration of the extract after established infection reduced serum CRP and TNF-α concentrations and serum and tissue ALP activity. Our study suggests that Adansonia digitata protects

  18. Long-lasting endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated arteries caused by an extract from the bark of Combretum leprosum

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Francisco das Chagas; Cavalcanti, Paulo Marques da Silva; Passaglia, Rita de Cassia Aleixo Tostes; Ballejo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe and to characterize the relaxing effect of an extract of the bark of Combretum leprosum on isolated arterial rings from different animals. Methods Rings (3 to 4mm) from rabbit, rat, or porcine arteries rings were suspended in an organ bath (Krebs, 37°C, 95%O2/5%CO2) to record isometric contractions. After the stabilization period (2 to 3 hours) contractions were induced by the addition of phenylephrine (0.1 to 0.3µM) or U46619 (10 to 100nM), and Combretum leprosum extract was added on the plateau of the contractions. Experiments were performed to determine the potency, duration, reversibility, and to get insights on the potential mechanism involved in extract-induced relaxations. Results In all rings tested, Combretumleprosum extract (1.5μg/mL) was able to cause relaxations, which were strictly endothelium-dependent. In rabbit or rat thoracic aorta rings, the relaxations were reversed by vitamin B12a or L-NG-nitroarginine. In porcine right coronary arteries and rabbit abdominal aorta, extract caused both L-NG-nitroarginine-sensitive and L-NG-nitroarginine-resistant relaxations. In rabbit thoracic aorta, the extract was relatively potent (EC50=0.20µg/mL) and caused relaxations; intriguingly the endothelium continued to produce relaxing factors for a long period after removing the extract. The magnitude of extract-induced relaxations was significantly reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca2+; in addition, the TRPs channels blocker ruthenium red (10µM) was able to revert extract-induced relaxations. Phytochemical analyses indicated that the extract was rich in polyphenol-like reacting substances. Conclusions Combretum leprosum extract contains bioactive compounds capable of promoting Ca2+-dependent stimulation of endothelial cells which results in a prolonged production of relaxing factors. PMID:26466063

  19. Processing hardwood bark residues by screening

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanuel

    1978-01-01

    Most of the hardwood bark residues removed by floating-cutterhead or rosserhead debarkers can be processed into acceptable bark products by screening alone. And by prescreening bark residues, operators of bark processing plants can use smaller hammermills than otherwise are required, thus lowering investment and energy costs.

  20. Depositional characteristics of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers on tree barks

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Man Young

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to determine the depositional characteristics of several tree barks, including Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), Pine (Pinus densiflora), Platanus (Platanus), and Metasequoia (Metasequoia glyptostroboides). These were used as passive air sampler (PAS) of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methods Tree barks were sampled from the same site. PBDEs were analyzed by highresolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometer, and the lipid content was measured using the gravimetric method by n-hexane extraction. Results Gingko contained the highest lipid content (7.82 mg/g dry), whereas pine (4.85 mg/g dry), Platanus (3.61 mg/g dry), and Metasequoia (0.97 mg/g dry) had relatively lower content. The highest total PBDEs concentration was observed in Metasequoia (83,159.0 pg/g dry), followed by Ginkgo (53,538.4 pg/g dry), Pine (20,266.4 pg/g dry), and Platanus (12,572.0 pg/g dry). There were poor correlations between lipid content and total PBDE concentrations in tree barks (R2=0.1011, p =0.682). Among the PBDE congeners, BDE 206, 207 and 209 were highly brominated PBDEs that are sorbed to particulates in ambient air, which accounted for 90.5% (84.3-95.6%) of the concentration and were therefore identified as the main PBDE congener. The concentrations of particulate PBDEs deposited on tree barks were dependent on morphological characteristics such as surface area or roughness of barks. Conclusions Therefore, when using the tree barks as the PAS of the atmospheric PBDEs, samples belonging to same tree species should be collected to reduce errors and to obtain reliable data. PMID:25116365

  1. Polyphenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts from Uncaria tomentosa Bark and Leaves.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Hoyos, Mirtha; Alvarado-Corella, Diego; Moreira-Gonzalez, Ileana; Arnaez-Serrano, Elizabeth; Monagas-Juan, Maria

    2018-05-11

    Uncaria tomentosa constitutes an important source of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities mainly attributed until recently to alkaloids and triterpenes. We have previously reported for the first-time the polyphenolic profile of extracts from U. tomentosa , using a multi-step process involving organic solvents, as well as their antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity on aerial bacteria, and cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines. These promising results prompted the present study using food grade solvents suitable for the elaboration of commercial extracts. We report a detailed study on the polyphenolic composition of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of U. tomentosa bark and leaves ( n = 16), using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/TQ-ESI-MS). A total of 32 compounds were identified, including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers, procyanidin dimers and trimers, flavalignans⁻cinchonains and propelargonidin dimers. Our findings showed that the leaves were the richest source of total phenolics and proanthocyanidins, in particular propelargonidin dimers. Two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated that the contents of procyanidin and propelargonidin dimers were significantly different ( p < 0.05) in function of the plant part, and leaves extracts showed higher contents. Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) values indicated higher antioxidant capacity for the leaves ( p < 0.05). Further, correlation between both methods and procyanidin dimers was found, particularly between ORAC and propelargonidin dimers. Finally, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) analysis results clearly indicated that the leaves are the richest plant part in proanthocyanidins and a very homogenous material, regardless of their origin. Therefore, our findings revealed that both ethanol and water extraction processes are adequate for the elaboration of potential

  2. Polyphenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts from Uncaria tomentosa Bark and Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Corella, Diego; Moreira-Gonzalez, Ileana; Arnaez-Serrano, Elizabeth; Monagas-Juan, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa constitutes an important source of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities mainly attributed until recently to alkaloids and triterpenes. We have previously reported for the first-time the polyphenolic profile of extracts from U. tomentosa, using a multi-step process involving organic solvents, as well as their antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity on aerial bacteria, and cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines. These promising results prompted the present study using food grade solvents suitable for the elaboration of commercial extracts. We report a detailed study on the polyphenolic composition of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of U. tomentosa bark and leaves (n = 16), using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/TQ-ESI-MS). A total of 32 compounds were identified, including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers, procyanidin dimers and trimers, flavalignans–cinchonains and propelargonidin dimers. Our findings showed that the leaves were the richest source of total phenolics and proanthocyanidins, in particular propelargonidin dimers. Two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated that the contents of procyanidin and propelargonidin dimers were significantly different (p < 0.05) in function of the plant part, and leaves extracts showed higher contents. Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) values indicated higher antioxidant capacity for the leaves (p < 0.05). Further, correlation between both methods and procyanidin dimers was found, particularly between ORAC and propelargonidin dimers. Finally, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) analysis results clearly indicated that the leaves are the richest plant part in proanthocyanidins and a very homogenous material, regardless of their origin. Therefore, our findings revealed that both ethanol and water extraction processes are adequate for the elaboration of potential

  3. Phytochemical and Antibacterial Investigations of the Extracts and Fractions from the Stem Bark of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne and Effect on Ultrastructure of Staphylococcus aureus Induced by Hydroalcoholic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Dimech, Gustavo Santiago; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Ferreira, Magda Assunção; de Oliveira, Anne Gabrielle Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Maria da Conceição; Ximenes, Eulália Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of different extracts and fractions obtained from Hymenaea stigonocarpa stem barks. The cyclohexanic, ethyl acetate, ethanol, aqueous, and hydroalcoholic extracts were obtained by maceration. The hydroalcoholic extract was partitioned, which resulted in the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. All extracts and fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening and evaluation of total phenol and tannin contents. An HPLC-DAD and ultrastructural alterations analysis were performed. Terpenes and coumarins were detected in the cyclohexanic extract. Flavonoids and condensed tannins were present in the other extracts and fractions. The extracts with the highest contents of tannins, ethanol (EE), hydroalcoholic (HE), and aqueous fraction (AF) showed also the highest antimicrobial activity. The MIC values ranged from 64 to 526 µg/mL. The chromatographic fingerprints suggest the presence of astilbin and other flavonoids in EE and HE. Presence of the thick cell wall, undulating outer layer, abnormal septa, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents and absence of cell wall and cell lyses were the main alterations observed on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 after treatment with the Hymenaea stigonocarpa hydroalcoholic extract. The presence of phenolic compounds like flavonoids and tannins is possibly the reason for the antimicrobial activity. PMID:24396311

  4. 78 FR 38024 - Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... land located within Industrial Canal South Shore PLC Tract 475 at the Port of Lake Charles. The... of material to be dredged from the Industrial Canal. The location is zoned for heavy industrial use on an industrial canal off the main Calcasieu River Ship Channel. Magnolia is still in the planning...

  5. Beech bark disease

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston

    1998-01-01

    In forests of North America the beech bark disease (BBD) complex affects American beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. BBD begins when bark tissues, attacked by the exotic beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind. are rendered susceptible to killing attacks by fungi of the genus Nectria. The principal fungus,...

  6. Modification of the semitransparent Prunus serrula bark film: Making rubber out of bark

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.; Zaremba, C.; Stucky, G.D.

    1998-11-01

    The authors report an extensive structural and mechanical characterization of the semitransparent bark of Prunus serrula. Variations in the properties were observed. Mechanical properties along the fiber axis of these films are strongly related to the cell dimensions. Several trends can be seen with increasing cell length: tensile strength and Young`s modulus increase; ductility decreases. Perpendicular to the fiber axis, similar radial dimensions of the bark cells contributes to similar mechanical properties. Plasticization not only shrinks the dimension of the bulk films along the tangential axis, which is unique, but also dramatically changes the mechanical properties. The authors have shown,more » for the first time, that the mechanical properties of the Prunus serrula bark can be effectively tailored with different plasticization and modification agents. The plastic bark can be successfully converted to rubberlike material either temporally or permanently, or it can be strengthened by tensile deformation of the plasticized bark.« less

  7. Beech Bark Disease

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston; James T. O' Brien

    1983-01-01

    Beech bark disease causes significant mortality and defect in American beech, Fagus grandifolia (Ehrh.). The disease results when bark, attacked and altered by the beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind., is invaded and killed by fungi, primarily Nectria coccinea var. faginata Lohman, Watson, and Ayers, and sometimes N. galligena Bres.

  8. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic action of Cinnamomi Cassiae (Cinnamon bark) extract in C57BL/Ks db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hee; Choung, Se Young

    2010-02-01

    In previous study, the anti-diabetic effect of Cinnamomi Cassiae extract (Cinnamon bark: Lauraceae) in a type II diabetic animal model (C57BIKsj db/db) has been reported. To explore their mechanism of action, in present study, the effect of cinnamon extract on anti-hyperglycemia and anti-hyperlipidemia was evaluated by measuring the blood glucose levels, serum insulin, and adiponectin levels, serum and hepatic lipids, PPARalpha mRNA expression in liver and PPARgamma mRNA expression in adipose tissue, respectively. Male C57BIKs db/db mice were divided into a diabetic group and cinnamon extract treated group and examined for a period of 12 weeks (200 mg/kg, p.o). The fasting blood glucose and postprandial 2 h blood glucose levels in the cinnamon treated group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p < 0.01), whereas the serum insulin and adiponectin levels were significantly higher in the cinnamon treated group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The serum lipids and hepatic lipids were improved in the cinnamon administered group. Also the PPARalpha mRNA (liver) and PPARgamma mRNA (adipose tissue) expression levels were increased significantly in the cinnamon treated group (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that cinnamon extract significantly increases insulin sensitivity, reduces serum, and hepatic lipids, and improves hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia possibly by regulating the PPAR-medicated glucose and lipid metabolism.

  9. ANTIPROTOZOAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF ELAEODENDRON TRICHOTOMUM (CELASTRACEAE).

    PubMed

    Roca-Mézquita, Carolina; Graniel-Sabido, Manlio; Moo-Puc, Rosa E; Leon-Déniz, Lorena V; Gamboa-León, Rubí; Arjona-Ruiz, Carely; Tun-Garrido, Juan; Mirón-López, Gumersindo; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease, amebiasis, giardiasis and trichomoniasis represent a serious health problem in Latin America. The drugs employed to treat these illnesses produce important side effects and resistant strains have appeared. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of leaves, stem bark and root bark of Elaeodendron trichotomum , a celastraceus, that is used in Mexico as an anti-infective in febrile-type diseases. Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves, bark and roots of Elaeodendron trichotomum were tested against Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia , Trichomonas vaginalis , and Trypanosoma cruzi . A quantitative HPLC analysis of pristimerin and tingenone was performed. The dichloromethane extract of roots was active against E. histolytica , G. lamblia , T. vaginalis , and T. cruzi , at IC50's of 0.80, 0.44, 0.46, and 2.68 μg/mL, respectively. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of tingenone (3.84%) and pristimerin (0.14%). The dichloromethane extract of the roots bark showed significant activity against all screened protozoa.

  10. Effects of long-term elevated CO 2 treatment on the inner and outer bark chemistry of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) trees

    DOE PAGES

    Eberhardt, Thomas L.; Labbé, Nicole; So, Chi-Leung; ...

    2015-07-23

    Long-term exposure of sweetgum trees to elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations significantly shifted inner bark (phloem) and outer bark (rhytidome) chemical compositions, having implications for both defense and nutrient cycling. Changes in plant tissue chemistry due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) concentrations have direct implications for tissue resistance to abiotic and biotic stress while living, and soil nutrient cycling when senesced as litter. Although the effects of elevated CO 2 concentrations on tree foliar chemistry are well documented, the effects on tree bark chemistry are largely unknown. The objective of our study was to determine the effects ofmore » a long-term elevated CO 2 treatment on the contents of individual elements, extractives, ash, lignin, and polysaccharide sugars of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) bark. Trees were harvested from sweetgum plots equipped with the Free-Air CO 2 Enrichment (FACE) apparatus, receiving either elevated or ambient CO 2 treatments over a 12-year period. Whole bark sections were partitioned into inner bark (phloem) and outer bark (rhytidome) samples before analysis. Moreover, principal component analysis, coupled with either Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data, was also used to screen for differences. Elevated CO 2 reduced the N content (0.42 vs. 0.35 %) and increased the C:N ratio (109 vs. 136 %) of the outer bark. For the inner bark, elevated CO 2 increased the Mn content (470 vs. 815 mg kg -1), total extractives (13.0 vs. 15.6 %), and residual ash content (8.1 vs. 10.8 %) as compared to ambient CO 2; differences were also observed for some hemicellulosic sugars, but not lignin. Shifts in bark chemistry can affect the success of herbivores and pathogens in living trees, and as litter, bark can affect the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients within the forest floor. Our results demonstrate that increasing atmospheric CO 2

  11. Effects of long-term elevated CO 2 treatment on the inner and outer bark chemistry of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) trees

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, Thomas L.; Labbé, Nicole; So, Chi-Leung

    Long-term exposure of sweetgum trees to elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations significantly shifted inner bark (phloem) and outer bark (rhytidome) chemical compositions, having implications for both defense and nutrient cycling. Changes in plant tissue chemistry due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) concentrations have direct implications for tissue resistance to abiotic and biotic stress while living, and soil nutrient cycling when senesced as litter. Although the effects of elevated CO 2 concentrations on tree foliar chemistry are well documented, the effects on tree bark chemistry are largely unknown. The objective of our study was to determine the effects ofmore » a long-term elevated CO 2 treatment on the contents of individual elements, extractives, ash, lignin, and polysaccharide sugars of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) bark. Trees were harvested from sweetgum plots equipped with the Free-Air CO 2 Enrichment (FACE) apparatus, receiving either elevated or ambient CO 2 treatments over a 12-year period. Whole bark sections were partitioned into inner bark (phloem) and outer bark (rhytidome) samples before analysis. Moreover, principal component analysis, coupled with either Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data, was also used to screen for differences. Elevated CO 2 reduced the N content (0.42 vs. 0.35 %) and increased the C:N ratio (109 vs. 136 %) of the outer bark. For the inner bark, elevated CO 2 increased the Mn content (470 vs. 815 mg kg -1), total extractives (13.0 vs. 15.6 %), and residual ash content (8.1 vs. 10.8 %) as compared to ambient CO 2; differences were also observed for some hemicellulosic sugars, but not lignin. Shifts in bark chemistry can affect the success of herbivores and pathogens in living trees, and as litter, bark can affect the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients within the forest floor. Our results demonstrate that increasing atmospheric CO 2

  12. Inhibitory activities of selected Sudanese medicinal plants on Porphyromonas gingivalis and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and isolation of bioactive compounds from Combretum hartmannianum (Schweinf) bark.

    PubMed

    Mohieldin, Ebtihal Abdalla M; Muddathir, Ali Mahmoud; Mitsunaga, Tohru

    2017-04-20

    Periodontal diseases are one of the major health problems and among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Porphyromonas gingivalis is an anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium which has been strongly implicated in the etiology of periodontitis. Additionally, matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) is an important factor contributing to periodontal tissue destruction by a variety of mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the selected Sudanese medicinal plants against P. gingivalis bacteria and their inhibitory activities on MMP-9. Sixty two methanolic and 50% ethanolic extracts from 24 plants species were tested for antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis using microplate dilution assay method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The inhibitory activity of seven methanol extracts selected from the 62 extracts against MMP-9 was determined by Colorimetric Drug Discovery Kit. In search of bioactive lead compounds, Combretum hartmannianum bark which was found to be within the most active plant extracts was subjected to various chromatographic (medium pressure liquid chromatography, column chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20, preparative high performance liquid chromatography) and spectroscopic methods (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)) to isolate and characterize flavogalonic acid dilactone and terchebulin as bioactive compounds. About 80% of the crude extracts provided a MIC value ≤4 mg/ml against bacteria. The extracts which revealed the highest potency were: methanolic extracts of Terminalia laxiflora (wood; MIC = 0.25 mg/ml) followed by Acacia totrtilis (bark), Ambrosia maritima (aerial part), Argemone mexicana (seed), C. hartmannianum (bark), Terminalia brownii (wood) and 50% ethanolic extract of T. brownii (bark) with MIC values of 0.5 mg/ml. T. laxiflora (wood) and C. hartmannianum (bark) which belong to combretaceae family showed an inhibitory activity over 50% at

  13. Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin; Othman, Norinsan Kamil

    2014-09-01

    Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm. Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Phytochemical Screening and Antinociceptive and Antidiarrheal Activities of Hydromethanol and Petroleum Benzene Extract of Microcos paniculata Barks

    PubMed Central

    Moushome, Rafath Ara; Akter, Mst. Irin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Microcos paniculata is traditionally used for treating diarrhea, wounds, cold, fever, hepatitis, dyspepsia, and heat stroke. Objective. To investigate the qualitative phytochemical constituents of hydromethanol (HMPB) and petroleum benzene extract of Microcos paniculata barks (PBMPB) and to evaluate their antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities. Methods. Phytochemical constituents and antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities were determined and evaluated by different tests such as Molisch's, Fehling's, Mayer's, Wagner's, Dragendorff's, frothing, FeCl3, alkali, Pew's, and Salkowski's test, general test of glycosides, Baljet and NH4OH test, formalin-induced paw licking, acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion, and hot plate tests, and castor oil and MgSO4 induced diarrheal tests. Results. These extracts revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, and triterpenoids and significantly (⁎ P < 0.05, versus control) reduced paw licking and abdominal writhing of mice. At 30 min after their administration, PBMPB revealed significant increase in latency (⁎ P < 0.05, versus control) in tail immersion test. In hot plate test, HMPB and PBMPB 200 mg/kg showed significant increase in response latency (⁎ P < 0.05, versus control) at 30 min after their administration. Moreover, both extracts significantly (⁎ P < 0.05, versus control) inhibited percentage of diarrhea in antidiarrheal models. Conclusion. Study results indicate that M. paniculata may provide a source of plant compounds with antinociceptive and antidiarrheal activities. PMID:27777944

  15. Pinus densiflora bark extract ameliorates 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice by regulating Th1/Th2 balance and skin barrier function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Woo; Wu, Qianwen; Jang, Young Pyo; Choung, Se Young

    2018-06-01

    Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora) bark has been traditionally used in Korea and other parts of East Asia to relieve inflammatory diseases. Although many studies using P. densiflora bark have been reported, its effect on atopic dermatitis (AD) has not been elucidated. Thus, we investigated whether the P. densiflora bark extract (PBE) has potential to attenuate AD symptoms and elucidated the molecular mechanism. Oral administration of PBE to mice with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD lessened dermatitis scores and scratching behavior and significantly reduced measures of epidermal thickness, infiltration of mast cells and eosinophils, levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), and IgG 1 /IgG 2a ratio in serum. PBE not only inhibited IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 but also increased IFN-γ in splenic production. Furthermore, PBE significantly suppressed mRNA expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and further downregulated the mRNA expression of Th2 and Th17 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-13, IL-17, IL-31, and TNF-α. In addition, the protein expressions of filaggrin, involucrin, and loricrin in lesional skin were recovered by PBE. These results suggest that PBE attenuates DNCB-induced AD via regulating Th1/Th2 balance and skin barrier function. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Honokiol Dimers and Magnolol Derivatives with New Carbon Skeletons from the Roots of Magnolia officinalis and Their Inhibitory Effects on Superoxide Anion Generation and Elastase Release

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Chung; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Lee, E-Jian; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2013-01-01

    Two honokiol dimers, houpulins A and B (1 and 2), and two magnolol derivatives, houpulins C and D (3 and 4), were isolated and characterized from an ethanol extract obtained from the roots of Magnolia officinalis. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic and physicochemical analyses, which included 1D and 2D NMR, as well as mass spectrometry data. These four oligomers possess new carbon skeletons postulated to be biosynthesized from the coupling of three or four C6-C3 subunits. In addition, the new oligomers were evaluated for inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release, and houpulin B (2) was identified as a new anti-inflammatory lead compound. PMID:23667420

  17. Inhibition of urease by extracts derived from 15 Chinese medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Da-Hua; Liu, Yu-Wei; Liu, Wei-Wei; Gu, Zhi-Feng

    2011-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major causative factor in gastritis-like disorders, and urease plays a key role in Helicobacter pylori colonizing and persisting in the mucous layer of the human stomach. In China, a variety of Chinese medicinal herbs have been prescribed to attenuate or eradicate gastritis-like disorders. However, little is known about the urease inhibition of Chinese medicinal herbs. The present study was conducted to investigate the urease inhibition activities of the ethanol and water extracts of 15 Chinese medicinal herbs. The ethanol and water extracts derived from 15 medicinal herbs, traditionally used for the treatment of gastritis-like disorders in China, were tested for urease-inhibition activity using the phenol red method. Screened at 10 µg/mL, 14 ethanol extracts and 10 water extracts showed urease inhibition. The ethanol extracts of Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils. (Magnoliaceae) and Cassia obtusifolia L. (Leguminosae) possessed inhibition rates higher than 50% with IC₅₀ values of 6.5 and 12.3 µg/mL, respectively. After fractionating successively, the petroleum ether fraction of the ethanol extracts of Magnolia officinalis showed the best activity with 90.8% urease inhibition at a concentration of 10 µg/mL. The bioautography of the petroleum ether fraction indicated the existence of the urease inhibitors in the herb. The present results indicated that some Chinese medicinal herbs might treat gastritis-like disorders via the inhibition of Helicobacter pylori urease and the further possibility for discovering useful novel urease inhibitors from the Chinese medicinal herbs.

  18. Influence of the Oil Phase and Topical Formulation on the Wound Healing Ability of a Birch Bark Dry Extract

    PubMed Central

    Steinbrenner, Isabel; Houdek, Pia; Pollok, Simone; Brandner, Johanna M.; Daniels, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Triterpenes from the outer bark of birch are known for various pharmacological effects including enhanced wound healing (WH). A birch bark dry extract (TE) obtained by accelerated solvent extraction showed the ability to form oleogels when it is suspended in oils. Consistency of the oleogels and the dissolved amount of triterpenes varies largely with the used oil. Here we wanted to know to what extent different oils and formulations (oleogel versus o/w emulsion) influence WH. Looking at the plain oils, medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) enhanced WH (ca. 1.4-fold), while e.g. castor oil (ca.0.3-fold) or light liquid paraffin (LLP; ca. 0.5-fold) significantly decreased WH. Concerning the respective oleogels, TE-MCT showed no improvement although the solubility of the TE was high. In contrast, the oleogel of sunflower oil which alone showed a slight tendency to impair WH, enhanced WH significantly (ca. 1.6-fold). These results can be explained by release experiments where the release rate of betulin, the main component of TE, from MCT oleogels was significantly lower than from sunflower oil oleogels. LLP impaired WH as plain oil and even though it released betulin comparable to sunflower oil it still results in an overall negative effect of the oleogel on WH. As a further formulation option also surfactant free o/w emulsions were prepared using MCT, sunflower oil and LLP as a nonpolar oil phase. Depending on the preparation method (suspension or oleogel method) the distribution of the TE varied markedly and affected also release kinetics. However, the released betulin was clearly below the values measured with the respective oleogels. Consequently, none of the emulsions showed a significantly positive effect on WH. In conclusion, our data show that the oil used as a vehicle influences wound healing not only by affecting the release of the extract, but also by having its own vehicle effect on wound healing. This is also of importance for other applications where drugs

  19. Phytochemicals and antidiabetic activity of Eusideroxylon zwageri stem bark collected from East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuma, I. W.; Rahmini; Ramadhan, R.; Rahmawati, N.; Suwasono, R. A.; Sari, NM

    2018-04-01

    Eusideroxylon zwagery (Lauraceae), a tropical tree species known as ulin or borneo iron wood and traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in the Ethnic of Kutai. Plant extract was prepared by maceration using ethanol. The plant extract was evaluated its DPPH and superoxide radicals scavenging activity, the inhibition on α-glucosidase and α-amylase activity as antidiabetic potential and the analysis of the total phenolic, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidin contents. The ethanolic extract of the stem bark was 8.62% on the dry weight basis. The IC50 values of antioxidant activity of the extract in DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging mechanisms were 44.90 µg/ml and 30.47 µg/ml. In antidiabetic assay, the E. zwageri stem bark extract showed IC50 value 58.45µg/ml in ɑ-glucosidase inhibition, and 9.04 µg/ml in ɑ-amylase inhibition. Quercetin, an antidiabetic activity-having flavonoid, displayed IC50 values 2.00 µg/ml and 4.04 µg/ml in ɑ-glucosidase and ɑ-amylase inhibitory assays. In phytochemical assay, the extract had 31.28 GAE/g extract (mg), 30.48 CE/g extract (mg) and 183.3 PE/g extract (mg) for the total phenolic, total flavonoid and total proanthocyanidin contents. The limited reports of E. zwageri indicated the needs to search the active compounds from plant as potential antidiabetic agents by considering plant conservation status.

  20. Antimicrobial potential of Dialium guineense (Wild.) stem bark on some clinical isolates in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olajubu, Fa; Akpan, I; Ojo, DA; Oluwalana, Sa

    2012-01-01

    The persistent increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms has led to the development of more potent but also more expensive antibiotics. In most developing countries of the world these antibiotics are not readily affordable, thus making compliance difficult. This calls for research into alternative sources of antimicrobials. Dialium guineense is a shrub of the family Leguminosae. Its stem bark is used for the treatment of cough, toothache, and bronchitis. Despite the acclaimed efficacy of D guineense, there is no scientific evidence in its support. This work was carried out to assess the antimicrobial activity of D guineense in vitro against some clinical isolates. D guineense stem bark was collected and 50 gm of air-dried and powdered stem bark of the plant was soaked for 72 hours in 1 l of each of the six solvents used in this study. Each mixture was refluxed, agitated at 200 rpm for 1 hour, filtered using Whatman No. 1 filter paper and, finally, freeze dried. The extracts were then tested for antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. The highest percentage yield of 23.2% was obtained with ethanol. Phytochemical screening showed that D guineense contains anthraquinone, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts revealed a broad spectrum of activity, with Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureusa showing the greatest zones of inhibition (18.0 mm). Only Candida albicans among the fungi tested was inhibited by the extract. The greatest zone of inhibition among the fractions was 16.0 mm. D guineense exhibited bactericidal activity at the 7th and 9th hours against Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. aureus 25923 while the 10th hour against S. typhi and C. albicans. The greatest activity was noted against S pneumoniae, where there was reduced viable cell count after 6 hours of exposure. Stem bark extract of D guineense (Wild.) has the potential to be developed into an antimicrobial

  1. Antimicrobial potential of Dialium guineense (Wild.) stem bark on some clinical isolates in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olajubu, FA; Akpan, I; Ojo, DA; Oluwalana, SA

    2012-01-01

    Context: The persistent increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms has led to the development of more potent but also more expensive antibiotics. In most developing countries of the world these antibiotics are not readily affordable, thus making compliance difficult. This calls for research into alternative sources of antimicrobials. Dialium guineense is a shrub of the family Leguminosae. Its stem bark is used for the treatment of cough, toothache, and bronchitis. Aims: Despite the acclaimed efficacy of D guineense, there is no scientific evidence in its support. This work was carried out to assess the antimicrobial activity of D guineense in vitro against some clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: D guineense stem bark was collected and 50 gm of air-dried and powdered stem bark of the plant was soaked for 72 hours in 1 l of each of the six solvents used in this study. Each mixture was refluxed, agitated at 200 rpm for 1 hour, filtered using Whatman No. 1 filter paper and, finally, freeze dried. The extracts were then tested for antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Results: The highest percentage yield of 23.2% was obtained with ethanol. Phytochemical screening showed that D guineense contains anthraquinone, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts revealed a broad spectrum of activity, with Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureusa showing the greatest zones of inhibition (18.0 mm). Only Candida albicans among the fungi tested was inhibited by the extract. The greatest zone of inhibition among the fractions was 16.0 mm. D guineense exhibited bactericidal activity at the 7th and 9th hours against Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. aureus 25923 while the 10th hour against S. typhi and C. albicans. The greatest activity was noted against S pneumoniae, where there was reduced viable cell count after 6 hours of exposure. Conclusion: Stem bark extract of D guineense (Wild

  2. Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel

    SciTech Connect

    Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin

    Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm.more » Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.« less

  3. Proteomic analysis of the protective effects of aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) on isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Jahangir Alam, Md; Prabhakar, Pankaj; Ahmad, Sayeed; Maulik, Subir K; Sharma, Manish; Goswami, Shyamal K

    2017-02-23

    Aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) has been in use as an ethnomedicine for cardiovascular ailments in the Indian subcontinent for centuries. Studies using hemodynamic, ROS scavenging and anti-inflammatory parameters in animal models have shown its anti-atherogenic, hypotensive, inotropic, anti-inflammatory effects. However, details analysis on its effects on established molecular and cell biological markers are a prerequisite for its wider acceptance to the medical community. To test the efficacy of TA extract in ameliorating cardiac hypertrophy induced by ISO in rats. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by ISO (5mg/kg/day s.c. for 14 days) in rats and a standardized aqueous extract of TA stem bark was orally administered by gavage. Total RNA and protein were isolated from control, ISO, ISO plus TA and TA treated rat hearts and analyzed for the transcripts for the markers of hypertrophy, signaling kinases, transcription factors and total protein profile. TA extract reversed the induction of fetal genes like β-myosin heavy chain, skeletal α-actin and brain natriuretic peptide in hypertrophic rat hearts. While ISO slightly increased the level of phospho-ERK, TA repressed it to about one third of the base line level. Survival kinase Akt, ER stress marker Grp78 and epigenetic regulator HDAC5 were augmented by ISO and TA restored them by various extents. ISO administration moderately increased the transcription factor NFκB binding activity, while coadministration of TA further increased it. AP-1 binding activity was largely unchanged by ISO treatment but it was upregulated when administered along with TA. MEF2D binding activity was increased by ISO and TA restored it to the baseline level. Global proteomic analysis revealed that TA treatment restored a subset of proteins up- and down-regulated in the hypertrophied hearts. Amongst those restored by TA were purinergic receptor X, myosin light chain 3, tropomyosin, and kininogen; suggesting a nodal role of TA in

  4. Dual function of active constituents from bark of Ficus racemosa L in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Bopage, Nisansala Swarnamali; Kamal Bandara Gunaherath, G M; Jayawardena, Kithsiri Hector; Wijeyaratne, Sushila Chandrani; Abeysekera, Ajita Mahendra; Somaratne, Seneviratne

    2018-01-25

    Different parts including the latex of Ficus racemosa L. has been used as a medicine for wound healing in the Ayurveda and in the indigenous system of medicine in Sri Lanka. This plant has been evaluated for its wound healing potential using animal models. The aim of this study was to obtain an insight into the wound healing process and identify the potential wound healing active substance/s present in F. racemosa L. bark using scratch wound assay (SWA) as the in-vitro assay method. Stem bark extracts of F. racemosa were evaluated using scratch wound assay (SWA) on Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK 21) and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell lines and Kirby Bauer disc diffusion assay on common bacteria and fungi for cell migration enhancing ability and antimicrobial activity respectively. Dichloromethane and hexanes extracts which showed cell migration enhancement activity on SWA were subjected to bioactivity directed fractionation using column chromatography followed by preparative thin layer chromatography to identify the compounds responsible for the cell migration enhancement activity. Dichloromethane and hexanes extracts showed cell migration enhancement activity on both cell lines, while EtOAc and MeOH extracts showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus and Bacillus species and antifungal activity against Saccharomyces spp. and Candida albicans. Lupeol (1) and β-sitosterol (2) were isolated as the potential wound healing active compounds which exhibited significant cell migration enhancement activity on BHK 21 and MDCK cell lines (> 80%) in par with the positive control, asiaticoside at a concentration of 25 μM. The optimum concentration of each compound required for the maximum wound healing has been determined as 30 μM and 35 μM for 1 and 2 respectively on both cell lines. It is also established that lupeol acetate (3) isolated from the hexanes extract act as a pro-drug by undergoing hydrolysis into lupeol in the vicinity of cells. Different

  5. ANTIPROTOZOAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF ELAEODENDRON TRICHOTOMUM (CELASTRACEAE)

    PubMed Central

    Roca-Mézquita, Carolina; Graniel-Sabido, Manlio; Moo-Puc, Rosa E.; Leon-Déniz, Lorena V.; Gamboa-León, Rubí; Arjona-Ruiz, Carely; Tun-Garrido, Juan; Mirón-López, Gumersindo; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chagas disease, amebiasis, giardiasis and trichomoniasis represent a serious health problem in Latin America. The drugs employed to treat these illnesses produce important side effects and resistant strains have appeared. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of leaves, stem bark and root bark of Elaeodendron trichotomum, a celastraceus, that is used in Mexico as an anti-infective in febrile-type diseases. Materials and methods: Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves, bark and roots of Elaeodendron trichotomum were tested against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Trypanosoma cruzi. A quantitative HPLC analysis of pristimerin and tingenone was performed. Results: The dichloromethane extract of roots was active against E. histolytica, G. lamblia, T. vaginalis, and T. cruzi, at IC50’s of 0.80, 0.44, 0.46, and 2.68 μg/mL, respectively. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of tingenone (3.84%) and pristimerin (0.14%). Conclusions: The dichloromethane extract of the roots bark showed significant activity against all screened protozoa. PMID:28852732

  6. Maerua angolensis stem bark extract reverses anxiety and related behaviours in zebrafish-Involvement of GABAergic and 5-HT systems.

    PubMed

    Benneh, Charles Kwaku; Biney, Robert Peter; Mante, Priscilla Kolibea; Tandoh, Augustine; Adongo, Donatus Wewura; Woode, Eric

    2017-07-31

    Maerua angolensis DC (Capparaceae) has been employed in the management of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders including anxiety. This study evaluated the anxiolytic effects of the petroleum ether/ethyl acetate fraction stem bark extract and its possible mechanism(s) using zebrafish anxiety models. Adult zebrafish, tested in the novel tank and light dark tests, have shown by previous authors to be sensitive to the anxiolytic effects of known anxiolytic drugs. Adult zebrafish were treated with M. angolensis extract, fluoxetine, desipramine, and diazepam followed by testing in the novel tank and light dark tests. We further assessed the effect of the extract on anxiety after inducing an anxiogenic phenotype using the ethanol-withdrawal and chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) tests. The anxiolytic effect was further investigated after pretreatment with flumazenil, granisetron, cyproheptadine, methysergide and pizotifen. M. angolensis extract, similar to fluoxetine and desipramine, demonstrated significant anxiolytic behaviour at doses that did not reduce locomotor activity significantly. Similar anxiolytic effects were recorded in the ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety test. Furthermore, the anxiogenic effects induced by the CUS paradigm were significantly reversed by treatment M. angolensis extract and fluoxetine. The anxiolytic effects of M. angolensis extract were however reversed after pre-treatment with flumazenil, granisetron, cyproheptadine, methysergide and pizotifen. Taken together, this suggests that the petroleum ether/ ethyl acetate fraction of M. angolensis possesses significant anxiolytic activity, which could partly be accounted for by an interaction with the serotoninergic system and the GABA A receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Croton urucurana Baillon bark.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Kátia Wolff; Felipe, Josyelen Lousada; Malange, Kauê Franco; do Prado, Pâmela Rafaela; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Patrícia; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; de Cássia Freitas, Karine; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Toffoli-Kadri, Mônica Cristina

    2016-05-13

    Croton urucurana (Euphorbiaceae) is popularly used in Brazil to treat inflammatory processes, pain, and gastric ulcers. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of the methanol extract from the bark of C. urucurana (MECu) in mice and identify its chemical constituents. The extract was characterized by UHPLC-DAD-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Extract doses of 25, 100, and 400mg/kg were employed in the biological assays. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity was based on paw edema and leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity of mice, both induced by carrageenan. Abdominal writhing caused by acetic acid and duration of formalin-induced paw-licking were the models employed to evaluate antinociceptive activity. Ten compounds were identified in the extract: (+)-gallocatechin (1), procyanidin B3 (2), (+)-catechin (3), (-)-epicatechin (4), tembetarine (5), magnoflorine (6), taspine (7), methyl-3-oxo-12-epi-barbascoate (8), methyl-12-epi-barbascoate (9), and hardwickiic acid (10). This is the first report of compounds 2, 4, 6, 7, and 10 in C. urucurana and compound 5 in the genus Croton. In addition to inhibiting paw edema and leukocyte recruitment (particularly of polymorphonuclear cells) into the peritoneal cavity of mice, MECu reduced the number of abdominal writhings induced by acetic acid and the duration of formalin-induced paw licking. The methanol extract of C. urucurana bark exhibited anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties, corroborating its use in folk medicine. These effects may be related to the presence of diterpenes, alkaloids, and flavonoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimating bark thicknesses of common Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the thickness of bark along the stem of a tree is critical to accurately estimate residue and, more importantly, estimate the volume of solid wood available. Determining the volume or weight of bark for a log is important because bark and wood mass are typically separated while processing logs, and accurate determination of volume is problematic. Bark thickness...

  9. Comparative anti-platelet and antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extracts from: berries of Aronia melanocarpa, seeds of grape and bark of Yucca schidigera in vitro.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Tomczak, Anna; Erler, Joachim; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the anti-platelet action of extracts from three different plants: bark of Yucca schidigera, seeds of grape and berries of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry). Anti-platelet action of tested extracts was compared with action of well characterized antioxidative and anti-platelet commercial monomeric polyphenol-resveratrol. The effects of extracts on platelet adhesion to collagen, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and on the production of O2-* in resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong platelet agonist-thrombin were studied. The in vitro experiments have shown that all three tested extracts (5-50 microg/ml) rich in polyphenols reduce platelet adhesion, aggregation and generation of O2-* in blood platelets. Comparative studies indicate that all three plant extracts were found to be more reactive in reduction of platelet processes than the solution of pure resveratrol. The tested extracts due to their anti-platelet effects may play an important role as components of human diet in prevention of cardiovascular or inflammatory diseases, where blood platelets are involved.

  10. Antigenotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Napoleona Vogelii Hook & Planch (Lecythidaceae) In Cyclophosphamide-Induced Genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ikumawoyi, Victor; Agbaje, Esther; Awodele, Olufunsho

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Napoleona vogelii is used in traditional medicine for cancer management. AIM: The study was conducted to evaluate the antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities of methanol stem bark extract of N. vogelii in male Sprague Dawley rats. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into group 1 (control) administered 10 mL/kg distilled water, groups 2 and 3 were co-administered 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg of N. vogelli and 5 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CPA) respectively for 7 days p.o. Groups 4 and 5 were administered only 5 mg/kg CPA and 200 mg/kg NV respectively. RESULTS: The LD50 oral was greater than 4 g/kg. There were significant (p < 0.0001) increases in plasma enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant enzymes and significant (p < 0.0001) decrease in percentage micronuclei in bone marrow of extract treated rats compared to rats administered 5 mg/kg CPA alone. There was steatosis pointing to cytotoxic injury in the liver of rats co-administered 200 mg/kg NV and 5 mg/kg CPA. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the extract showed the presence of phytol and unsaturated fatty acids. CONCLUSION: N. vogelii possesses antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities associated with the presence of phytochemicals, phytol and unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:29362611

  11. Bark structure of southern upland oaks

    Treesearch

    E.T. Howard

    1977-01-01

    Bark structure of eleven oak species commonly found on southern pine sites was examined and described. In inner bark (phloem), groups of thick-walled lignified fibers and sclereids are interspersed among thin-walled cellulosic elements (parenchyma, sieve tube members, and companion cells). These fibers and sclereids greatly influence the bark's density, hardness,...

  12. ESI-MS, ESI-MS/MS fingerprint and LC-ESI-MS analysis of proathocyanidins from Bursera simaruba Sarg bark.

    PubMed

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Montoro, Paola; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo

    2009-12-01

    Direct flow injection/electrospray ionization/ion trap tandem mass spectrometry was used to investigate the presence of proanthocyanidins (PAs) in the methanolic extract of B. simaruba bark. Additionally, an LC-ESI-MS qualitative study was performed by using a monolithic stationary phase. The fragmentation pattern obtained evidenced the presence in B. simaruba bark of PAs belonging to the series of polymers of epicatechin, along with their glycosilated derivatives.

  13. Further drimane sesquiterpenes from Drimys brasiliensis stem barks with cytotoxic potential.

    PubMed

    Fratoni, Eduarda; Claudino, Vanessa Duarte; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Franchi, Gilberto C; Nowill, Alexandre E; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Monache, Franco Delle; Malheiros, Angela

    2016-07-01

    Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae) is used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer. Its anti-tumor activity has been demonstrated in vitro models using extracts and isolated compounds. This study investigates the cytotoxic effects of stem bark extracts of D. brasiliensis as well as isolated compounds that may be responsible for the activitys and evaluates them in leukemia cells. The stem bark extract were subjected to column chromatography, and the structures of compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods by using NMR and infrared spectroscopy and GC/MS. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in chronic myeloid (K562) and acute B lymphoblastic (Nalm6) leukemia cells using tetrazolium assay (MTT). Two new compounds were isolated 1β-O-p-methoxy-E-cinnamoyl-5α-keto-11α-enol-albicanol (1a) and the isomer 1β-O-p-methoxy-E-cinnamoyl-5α-keto-11β-enol-albicanol (1b) and 1β-O-p-methoxy-E-cinnamoyl-isodrimeninol (2). The known compounds polygonal acid (3a) and the isomer isopolygonal acid (3b), fuegin (4a) and the isomer epifuegin (4b), the mixture drimanial (5) and 1β-O-(p-methoxy-E-cinnamoyl)-6α-hydroxypolygodial (6) were also isolated. The drimanes (1-4) and drimanial (5), 1β-(p-coumaroyloxy)-polygodial (7), 1β-(p-methoxycinnamoyl)-polygodial (8), and polygodial (9) isolated previously were assessed in tumor cells. The IC50 values were between 3.56 and 128.91 μM. 1-β-(p-cumaroiloxi)-polygodial showed the best result with IC50 8.18 and 3.56 μM by K562 and Nalm6, respectively. The chloroform extract of the stem bark of D. brasiliensis is a great source of drimane sesquiterpenes. Our experimental data suggest that drimanes are responsible for cytotoxicity activity demonstrated by this species, especially those with the aldehyde group linked to carbons C-11 and C-12.

  14. Determination of Yohimbine in Yohimbe Bark and Related Dietary Supplements Using UHPLC-UV/MS: Single-Laboratory Validation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Bryden, Noella

    2015-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation was performed on a practical ultra-HPLC (UHPLC)-diode array detector (DAD)/tandem MS method for determination of yohimbine in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. Good separation was achieved using a Waters Acquity ethylene bridged hybrid C18 column with gradient elution using 0.1% (v/v) aqueous ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% ammonium hydroxide in methanol as the mobile phases. The method can separate corynanthine from yohimbine in yohimbe bark extract, which is critical for accurate quantitation of yohimbine in yohimbe bark and related dietary supplements. Accuracy of the method was demonstrated using standard addition methods. Both intraday and interday precisions of the method were good. The method can be used without MS since yohimbine concentration in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements are usually high enough for DAD detection, which can make it an easy and economical method for routine analysis of yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. On the other hand, the method can be used with MS if desired for more challenging work such as biological and/or clinical studies.

  15. Antioxidant Capacity and Proanthocyanidin Composition of the Bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengyang; Zhang, Lin; Zong, Shuling; Xu, Shifang; Li, Xiaoyu; Ye, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only living species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng (Taxodiaceae), which is well known as a "living fossil" species. In the Chinese folk medicine, the leaves and bark of M. glyptostroboides are used as antimicrobic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory drug for dermatic diseases. This study is the first to report the free radical scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity, and proanthocyanidin composition of the bark of M. glyptostroboides. We observed total of six extracts and fractions, which were easily obtained by water-ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatography, had significant DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, and metal ions chelating capacity. The fraction MGEB, which was obtained by 60% ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatograph, possessed the highest proanthocyanidin content and the highest free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Furthermore, MGEB could significantly protect against CCl4 induced acute liver injury through inhibition of oxidative stress in mice. In addition, ten proanthocyanidins were isolated from MGEB, and six of them were firstly reported from this plant.

  16. Antioxidant Capacity and Proanthocyanidin Composition of the Bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fengyang; Zhang, Lin; Zong, Shuling; Xu, Shifang; Li, Xiaoyu; Ye, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only living species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng (Taxodiaceae), which is well known as a “living fossil” species. In the Chinese folk medicine, the leaves and bark of M. glyptostroboides are used as antimicrobic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory drug for dermatic diseases. This study is the first to report the free radical scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity, and proanthocyanidin composition of the bark of M. glyptostroboides. We observed total of six extracts and fractions, which were easily obtained by water-ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatography, had significant DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, and metal ions chelating capacity. The fraction MGEB, which was obtained by 60% ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatograph, possessed the highest proanthocyanidin content and the highest free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Furthermore, MGEB could significantly protect against CCl4 induced acute liver injury through inhibition of oxidative stress in mice. In addition, ten proanthocyanidins were isolated from MGEB, and six of them were firstly reported from this plant. PMID:24772177

  17. Isolation and structure determination of a lignan from the bark of Salix alba.

    PubMed

    Du, Qizhen; Jerz, Gerold; Shen, Lianqing; Xiu, Lili; Winterhalter, Peter

    2007-05-01

    A lignan, sisymbrifolin (1) found in the fruits of Solanum sisymbriflolium has been isolated from the bark extract of Salix alba (Salicaceae). Its structure was elucidated by its direct spectrum data of ESI-MS and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy for the first time.

  18. Plant Stem Bark Extractivism in the Northeast Semiarid Region of Brazil: A New Aport to Utilitarian Redundancy Model

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Júnior, Washington Soares; Siqueira, Clarissa Fernanda Queiroz; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-01-01

    We use the model of utilitarian redundancy as a basis for research. This model provides predictions that have not been tested by other research. In this sense, we sought to investigate the stem bark extraction between preferred and less-preferred species by a rural community in Caatinga environment. In addition, we sought to explain local preferences to observe if preferred plants have a higher content of tannins than less-preferred species. For this, we selected seven preferred species and seven less-preferred species from information obtained from semistructured interviews applied to 49 informants. Three areas of vegetation around the community were also selected, in which individuals were tagged, and were measured the diameter at ground level (DGL) diameter at breast height (DBH), and measurements of available and extracted bark areas. Samples of bark of the species were also collected for the evaluation of tannin content, obtained by the method of radial diffusion. From the results, the preferred species showed a greater area of bark removed. However, the tannin content showed no significant differences between preferred and less-preferred plants. These results show there is a relationship between preference and use, but this preference is not related to the total tannins content. PMID:22319546

  19. Bark-peeling, food stress and tree spirits - the use of pine inner bark for food in Scandinavia and North America

    Treesearch

    Lars Ostlund; Lisa Ahlberg; Olle Zackrisson; Ingela Bergman; Steve Arno

    2009-01-01

    The Sami people of northern Scandinavia and many indigenous peoples of North America have used pine (Pinus spp.) inner bark for food, medicine and other purposes. This study compares bark-peeling and subsequent uses of pine inner bark in Scandinavia and western North America, focusing on traditional practices. Pine inner bark contains substances - mainly carbohydrates...

  20. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic Properties, and Phytochemical Characterization of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Anthocleista nobilis

    PubMed Central

    Ngwoke, Kenneth Gerald; Akwagbulam, Amaka Godsaveus; Erhirhie, Ernest Oghenesuvwe; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Okoye, Festus Basden Chiedu; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2018-01-01

    Background: Anthocleista nobilis (Loganiaceae) is used by Mbano people of Imo State, Nigeria, for the treatment of various ailments Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties of the methanol extract, fractions, and subfractions of A. nobilis. Materials and Methods: The powdered stem bark was extracted with methanol and sequentially fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. The constituents of the fractions were analyzed using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the components were identified by dereplication. Antioxidant potential of the extracts and fractions was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging method. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the extract and fractions were also investigated using xylene-induced inflammation and acetic acid-induced writhing models, respectively. Results: A total of five compounds isovitexin (Rt = 18.77 min), isovitexin-2''-O-xyl (Rt = 19.68 min), p-Hydroxybenzoic acid (Rt = 11.88 min), Sarasinoside L (Rt = 19.64 min), isovitexin (Rt = 18.77), and apigenin monoglycoside (Rt = 19.64 min) were identified by HPLC analysis and dereplication. The ethyl acetate fraction and subfraction elicited the best anti-inflammatory activity. The ethyl acetate subfraction also inhibited acetic acid-induced pain by 79% and 85.0% at the doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively, which was better than 71.1% and 81.3% observed for diclofenac at similar doses. Conclusion: A. nobilis could be a potential source of anti-inflammatory and analgesic lead compounds. SUMMARY The extract, fractions and subfractions of Anthocleista nobilis were screened or antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and Analgesic properties in vitro and in mice models. Some of the components were identified by dereplication after HPLC analysis. The results demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic property of the extracts and

  1. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic Properties, and Phytochemical Characterization of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Anthocleista nobilis.

    PubMed

    Ngwoke, Kenneth Gerald; Akwagbulam, Amaka Godsaveus; Erhirhie, Ernest Oghenesuvwe; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Okoye, Festus Basden Chiedu; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2018-01-01

    Anthocleista nobilis ( Loganiaceae ) is used by Mbano people of Imo State, Nigeria, for the treatment of various ailments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties of the methanol extract, fractions, and subfractions of A. nobilis . The powdered stem bark was extracted with methanol and sequentially fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. The constituents of the fractions were analyzed using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the components were identified by dereplication. Antioxidant potential of the extracts and fractions was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free-radical scavenging method. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the extract and fractions were also investigated using xylene-induced inflammation and acetic acid-induced writhing models, respectively. A total of five compounds isovitexin ( R t = 18.77 min), isovitexin-2''-O-xyl ( R t = 19.68 min), p-Hydroxybenzoic acid ( R t = 11.88 min), Sarasinoside L ( R t = 19.64 min), isovitexin ( R t = 18.77), and apigenin monoglycoside ( R t = 19.64 min) were identified by HPLC analysis and dereplication. The ethyl acetate fraction and subfraction elicited the best anti-inflammatory activity. The ethyl acetate subfraction also inhibited acetic acid-induced pain by 79% and 85.0% at the doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively, which was better than 71.1% and 81.3% observed for diclofenac at similar doses. A. nobilis could be a potential source of anti-inflammatory and analgesic lead compounds. The extract, fractions and subfractions of Anthocleista nobilis were screened or antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and Analgesic properties in vitro and in mice models. Some of the components were identified by dereplication after HPLC analysis. The results demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic property of the extracts and fractions. The dereplication analysis also identified vitexin and

  2. Antimicrobial study of bark from five tree species.

    PubMed

    Pérez G, S; Zavala S, M A; Arias G, L; Pérez G, C; Pérez G, R M

    2001-06-01

    The antimicrobial activities of chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of the bark of Gymnanthes lucida, Gliricidia sepium, Lysiloma divaricata, Lysiloma tergemina and Coccolaba cozumelensis were tested against S. lutea, E. coli, S. epidermidis, L. monocytogenes, S. choleraesuis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, B. pumillus, S. typhimurium, P. vulgaris, V. cholerae and C. albicans. It was found that methanol extracts of the two Lysiloma species and G. sepium had antimicrobial effects against S. epidermidis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, B. pumillus and V. cholerae at doses of 200 microg. The major inhibitory effect was observed with L. tergemina which showed a bacteriostatic effect on S. epidermidis at doses of 400 microg/mL. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A new linoleiyl arabinopyranoside from the bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam and a new flavonoidal glycoside from the leaves of Cordia dichotoma Linn.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Azizur; Akhtar, Juber

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation is very valuable for the ethnomedicinally important plants Bauhinia racemosa Lam (BR) and Cordia dichotoma Linn (CD) used for the cure of variety of ailments. This study was thus designed for phytochemical investigation of BR bark and CD leaves. Phytoconstituents were isolated from the methanolic extracts of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel as stationary phase. The structures had been established on the basis of their physicochemical and spectral data, i.e. IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS. Elution of the columns with different solvents furnished six compounds (1-6) from the methanolic extract of BR bark and three compounds (7-9) from the methanolic extract of CD leaves which were structurally elucidated. The present phytochemical investigation reported several new compounds useful in increasing the existing knowledge of phytoconstituents from BR bark and CD leaves which is very valuable, as these drugs are used in the Indian traditional systems of medicine.

  4. Loblolly pine bark flavanoids

    Treesearch

    J.J. Karchesy; R.W. Hemingway

    1980-01-01

    The inner bark of Pinus taeda L. contains (+)-catechin, the procyanidin 8.1 (a C-4 to C-8 linked (-)-epicatechin to (+)-catechin dimer), and three polymeric procyanidins that have distinctly different solubility and chromatographic properties. An ethyl acetate soluble polymer (0.20% of bark, Mn = 1200) was purified by chromatography on LH-20 Sephadex. A water-soluble...

  5. Magnolia Bioactive Constituent 4-O-Methylhonokiol Prevents the Impairment of Cardiac Insulin Signaling and the Cardiac Pathogenesis in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Jing; Zhou, Shanshan; Wang, Shudong; Cai, Xiaohong; Conklin, Daniel J.; Kim, Ki-Soo; Kim, Ki Ho; Tan, Yi; Zheng, Yang; Kim, Young Heui; Cai, Lu

    2015-01-01

    In obesity, cardiac insulin resistance is a putative cause of cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. In our previous study, we observed that Magnolia extract BL153 attenuated high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced cardiac pathogenic changes. In this study, we further investigated the protective effects of the BL153 bioactive constituent, 4-O-methylhonokiol (MH), against HFD-induced cardiac pathogenesis and its possible mechanisms. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet or a HFD with gavage administration of vehicle, BL153, or MH (low or high dose) daily for 24 weeks. Treatment with MH attenuated HFD-induced obesity, as evidenced by body weight gain, and cardiac pathogenesis, as assessed by the heart weight and echocardiography. Mechanistically, MH treatment significantly reduced HFD-induced impairment of cardiac insulin signaling by preferentially augmenting Akt2 signaling. MH also inhibited cardiac expression of the inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-α and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and increased the phosphorylation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) as well as the expression of a Nrf2 downstream target gene heme oxygenase-1. The increased Nrf2 signaling was associated with decreased oxidative stress and damage, as reflected by lowered malondialdehyde and 3-nitrotyrosine levels. Furthermore, MH reduced HFD-induced cardiac lipid accumulation along with lowering expression of cardiac fatty acid translocase/CD36 protein. These results suggest that MH, a bioactive constituent of Magnolia, prevents HFD-induced cardiac pathogenesis by attenuating the impairment of cardiac insulin signaling, perhaps via activation of Nrf2 and Akt2 signaling to attenuate CD36-mediated lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity. PMID:26157343

  6. Antioxidants of Phyllanthus emblica L. Bark Extract Provide Hepatoprotection against Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Damage: A Comparison with Silymarin

    PubMed Central

    Chaphalkar, Renuka; Apte, Kishori G.; Talekar, Yogesh

    2017-01-01

    Phyllanthus emblica L. (amla) has been used in Ayurveda as a potent rasayan for treatment of hepatic disorders. Most of the pharmacological studies, however, are largely focused on PE fruit, while the rest of the parts of PE, particularly, bark, remain underinvestigated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Phyllanthus emblica bark (PEE) in ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity model in rats. Total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin content and in vitro antioxidant activities were determined by using H2O2 scavenging and ABTS decolorization assays. Our results showed that PEE was rich in total phenols (99.523 ± 1.91 mg GAE/g), total flavonoids (389.33 ± 1.25 mg quercetin hydrate/g), and total tannins (310 ± 0.21 mg catechin/g), which clearly support its strong antioxidant potential. HPTLC-based quantitative analysis revealed the presence of the potent antioxidants gallic acid (25.05 mg/g) and ellagic acid (13.31 mg/g). Moreover, one-month PEE treatment (500 and 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) followed by 30-day 70% ethanol (10 mL/kg) administration showed hepatoprotection as evidenced by significant restoration of ALT (p < 0.01), AST (p < 0.001), ALP (p < 0.05), and TP (p < 0.001) and further confirmed by liver histopathology. PEE-mediated hepatoprotection could be due to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity that may be ascribed to its antioxidant components, namely, ellagic acid and gallic acid. Thus, the results of the present study support the therapeutic claims made in Ayurveda about Phyllanthus emblica. PMID:28168009

  7. Hydromulch: a potential use for hardwood bark residue

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanual

    1976-01-01

    Hardwood bark fines and two hardwood bark fibers were compared with wood-cellulose fiber and paper fiber mulch to determine their effectiveness as hydromulches in revegetating disturbed soil. The results showed that either bark fines or bark fibers can be utilized as a hydromulch to aid in the revegetation of strip mines, highway construction sites, and similar earth-...

  8. Gastroprotective activity of alkaloid extract and 2-phenylquinoline obtained from the bark of Galipea longiflora Krause (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Francielle; Gandolfi, Renan Becker; Lemos, Marivane; Ticona, Juan Carlos; Gimenez, Alberto; Clasen, Bruna Kurz; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2009-07-15

    As part of our continuing search for bioactive natural products from plants, the present study was carried out in order to evaluate the gastroprotective properties of alkaloid extract and 2-phenylquinoline obtained from the bark of Galipea longiflora (Rutaceae). Anti-ulcer assays were performed using the following protocols in mice: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)/bethanecol-induced ulcer, ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer, and stress-induced ulcer. The effects of the extract on gastric content volume, pH and total acidity were also evaluated, using the pylorus ligated model. Treatment using doses of 50, 125 and 250 mg/kg of G. longiflora alkaloid extract and positive controls (omeprazol or cimetidine) significantly diminished the lesion index, total lesion area, and percentage of lesion, in comparison with the negative control groups in all the models evaluated. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction in volume of gastric juice and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in gastric pH. The main alkaloid of the plant, 2-phenylquinoline, was also evaluated in the ethanol-induced ulcer model. The results showed that at a dose of 50 mg/kg, it significantly inhibited ulcerative lesions. However, this effect was less than that of the alkaloid extract. All these results taken together show that G. longiflora displays gastroprotective activity, as evidenced by its significant inhibition of the formation of ulcers induced by different models. There are indications that mechanisms involved in anti-ulcer activity are related to a decrease in gastric secretion and an increase in gastric mucus content. Also, there is evidence of involvement of NO in the gastroprotector mechanisms. These effects may be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of some alkaloids, particularly 2-phenylquinoline.

  9. Inhibition of secretary PLA₂--VRV-PL-VIIIa of Russell's viper venom by standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, B L; Sudarshan, S

    2015-03-01

    The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic phospholipases A2s, which are the most toxic and lethal component of snake venom is still unknown. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on VRV-PL-VIIIa of Indian Russells viper venom. Mangifera indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIIB sPLA2 (VRV-PL-VIIIa) activity with an IC50 value of 6.8±0.3 μg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 96% at ~40 μg/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract at different concentrations (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. It was found that there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of the extract when examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration. The inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inducing activities. As the inhibition is independent of substrate, calcium concentration and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extracts mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with PLA2 enzyme. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 (Snake venom phospholipase A2) enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate its anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies are interesting to known on the role and mechanism of the principal inhibitory constituents present in the extract, so as to develop them into potent anti-snake venom and as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol isolated from Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ho, K Y; Tsai, C C; Chen, C P; Huang, J S; Lin, C C

    2001-03-01

    The antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol, the main constituents of Magnolia officinalis was investigated. The antimicrobial activity was assayed by the agar dilution method using brain heart infusion medium and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined for each compound using a twofold serial dilution assay. The results showed that honokiol and magnolol have a marked antimicrobial effect (MIC = 25 microg/mL) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, but did not show antimicrobial activity (MIC > or = 100 microg/mL) for Shigella flexneii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results indicate that honokiol and magnolol, although less potent than tetracycline, show a significant antimicrobial activity for periodontal pathogens. Hence we suggest that honokiol and magnolol might have the potential to be an adjunct in the treatment of periodontitis. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Innate catalytic and free radical scavenging activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Dillenia indica bark extract.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Alfa S; Jena, Bhabani S

    2017-06-15

    A green approach was envisaged for the rapid synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles in an aqueous medium using phenolic rich ethanolic bark extract from D. indica with marked free radical scavenging and reducing ability. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was confirmed and characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy, particle size analyzer, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Bio-reduction of Ag+ was confirmed with the appearance of golden yellow coloration within 5-10min at 45°C with maximum absorbance at 421nm. XRD analysis of AgNPs indicated the crystalline nature of metallic Ag. As analyzed by TEM, AgNPs were found to be spherical in shape, well dispersed and size varied from 15 to 35nm and dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average particle size of 29nm with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.280. Synthesized AgNPs were showing surface functionalization as revealed through FTIR studies. These AgNPs were observed to be highly stable at room temperature (28±2°C) for more than 3months, thereby indicating the ethanolic extract of D. indica was a reducing as well as a capping agent for stabilization of AgNPs. Moreover, these green synthesized AgNPs showed enhanced free radical scavenging and excellent catalytic activities when used in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and methylene blue dye, at room temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of the Methanolic Extract of Vitellaria paradoxa Stem Bark Against Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in the Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Foyet, Harquin Simplice; Asongalem, Acha Emmanuel; Oben, Eyong Kenneth; Cioanca, Oana; Hancianu, Monica; Hritcu, Lucian

    2016-10-01

    Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn (Sapotaceae) is a perennial three which naturally grows in the northern part of Cameroon. It has been traditionally used in the Cameroonian folk medicine for treating inflammation and pain. In the present study, we evaluate the possible anti-amnesic and antioxidative effects of the methanolic extract of V. paradoxa stem bark in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat model of scopolamine. Rats received a single injection of scopolamine (1.5 mg/kg) before behavioral testing and were treated with the methanolic extract (25 and 50 mg/kg), daily, for eight continuous days. Also, the antioxidant activity in the hippocampus was assessed using the total content of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde levels. The scopolamine-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease of exploratory time and discrimination index within the novel object recognition test, decrease of spontaneous alternations percentage within Y-maze task, and increase of working memory errors, reference memory errors, and time taken to consume all five baits within radial arm-maze task. Administration of the methanolic extract significantly improved these parameters, suggesting positive effects on memory formation processes and antioxidant potential. Our results suggest that the methanolic extract ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment by attenuation of the oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus.

  13. Bark flammability as a fire-response trait for subalpine trees

    PubMed Central

    Frejaville, Thibaut; Curt, Thomas; Carcaillet, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between the flammability properties of a given plant and its chances of survival after a fire still remain unknown. We hypothesize that the bark flammability of a tree reduces the potential for tree survival following surface fires, and that if tree resistance to fire is provided by a thick insulating bark, the latter must be few flammable. We test, on subalpine tree species, the relationship between the flammability of bark and its insulating ability, identifies the biological traits that determine bark flammability, and assesses their relative susceptibility to surface fires from their bark properties. The experimental set of burning properties was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis to assess the bark flammability. Bark insulating ability was expressed by the critical time to cambium kill computed from bark thickness. Log-linear regressions indicated that bark flammability varies with the bark thickness and the density of wood under bark and that the most flammable barks have poor insulating ability. Susceptibility to surface fires increases from gymnosperm to angiosperm subalpine trees. The co-dominant subalpine species Larix decidua (Mill.) and Pinus cembra (L.) exhibit large differences in both flammability and insulating ability of the bark that should partly explain their contrasted responses to fires in the past. PMID:24324473

  14. Segregating wood and bark chips by photosorting.

    Treesearch

    John A. Sturos; Douglas B. Brumm

    1978-01-01

    Spectral transmittance measurements on aspen, sugar maple, and loblolly pine wood and bark chips resulted in peak wood-to-bark transmission ratio ranges from 10 to 50. Preliminary segregation results from an experimental photosorter indicate than 70 to 80% of the wood fiber can be recovered with less than a 2% bark content.

  15. Hepatoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Simarouba amara Aublet (Simaroubaceae) stem bark against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Hélida M L; Vasconcelos, Carlos F B; Rolim, Larissa A; Neto, Pedro J Rolim; Neto, Jacinto da C Silva; Filho, Reginaldo C da Silva; Fernandes, Mariana P; Costa-Silva, João H; Araújo, Alice V; Wanderley, Almir G

    2014-10-31

    Simarouba amara stem bark decoction has been traditionally used in Brazil to treat malaria, inflammation, fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, wounds and as a tonic. In this study, we investigate the hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of S. amara stem bark (SAAE) on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. SAAE was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The animals were divided into six groups (n = 6/group). Groups I (vehicle-corn oil), II (control-CCl4), III, IV, V and VI were pretreated during 10 consecutive days, once a day p.o, with Legalon® 50 mg/kg b.w, SAAE at doses 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The hepatotoxicity was induced on 11th day with 2 mL/kg of 20% CCl4 solution. 24 h after injury, the blood samples were collected and their livers were removed to biochemical and immunohistochemical analyzes. The SAAE decreased the levels of liver markers and lipid peroxidation in all doses and increased the catalase levels at doses 250 and 500 mg/kg. Immunohistochemical results suggested hepatocyte proliferation in all doses. These results may be related to catechins present in SAAE. Thus, SAAE prevented the oxidative damage at the same time that increased regenerative and reparative capacities of the liver.

  16. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of yohimbe bark and related dietary supplements using UHPLC/UV/MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-03-05

    A practical ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method was developed for fingerprint analysis of and determination of yohimbine in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. Good separation was achieved using a Waters Acquity BEH C(18) column with gradient elution using 0.1% (v/v) aqueous ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% ammonium hydroxide in methanol as the mobile phases. The study is the first reported chromatographic method that separates corynanthine from yohimbine in yohimbe bark extract. The chromatographic fingerprint analysis was applied to the analysis of 18 yohimbe commercial dietary supplement samples. Quantitation of yohimbine, the traditional method for analysis of yohimbe barks, were also performed to evaluate the results of the fingerprint analysis. Wide variability was observed in fingerprints and yohimbine content among yohimbe dietary supplement samples. For most of the dietary supplements, the yohimbine content was not consistent with the label claims. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Identification of new phytoconstituents and antimicrobial activity in stem bark of Mangifera indica (L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Ruchi; Singh, S K; Maharia, R S; Garg, A N

    2015-02-01

    Mangifera indica, commonly called mango or amra belonging to a family of Anacardiaceae, is an important medicinal plant widely used in a variety of Ayurvedic preparations. Extract of its bark, leaves, flowers and kernels are being extensively used for curing various chronic diseases. Mango wood is used in yagya as base fire through which medicated smoke is generated. Three new compounds have been isolated from methanolic and hexane extracts of stem bark: 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl)ester and 9,12-tetradecadiene-1-ol-acetate from the hexane extract and 3-chloro-N-(2-phenylethyl) propanamide from the methanolic extract. These were first separated by thin layer chromatography and later in a silica gel column and identified by characteristic infrared bands corresponding to respective functional groups. The compounds were further confirmed on the basis of GC-MS fragmentation pattern after comparing the data with NIST mass spectral database. All three compounds exhibited antimicrobial activity due to triterpenoids and flavonoids. Elemental analyses by INAA show it to be enriched in essential nutrient elements such as Ca, Fe, K, Mn and Zn which all play an important role in enzymatic processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimating sugar maple bark thickness and volume.

    Treesearch

    Charles L. Stayton; Michael Hoffman

    1970-01-01

    Sugar maple bark thickness and volume were estimated using first a published method, then equations developed by the authors. Both methods gave estimates that compared closely with measured values. Information is also presented on variation in bark thickness and on weight and volume of bark as a percentage of total merchantable stem weight and volume.

  19. Cytoprotective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Pinus eldarica Bark against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Babaee, Fatemeh; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Haghjoo Javanmard, Shaghayegh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pinus eldarica is a widely growing pine in Iran consisting of biologically active constituents with antioxidant properties. This study investigates the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark against oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Methods: The total phenolic content of P. eldarica extract was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The cytotoxicity of P. eldarica extract (25-1000 µg/ml) on HUVECs was assessed using 3-(4,5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. Cytoprotective effect of P. eldarica extract (25-500 µg/ml) on H2O2-induced oxidative stress was also evaluated by MTT assay. The intra- and extra-cellular hydroperoxides concentration and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in pretreated cells. Results: The total phenolic content of P. eldarica extract was estimated as 37.04±1.8% gallic acid equivalent. P. eldarica extract (25-1000 µg/ml) had no cytotoxic effect on HUVECs viability. The pretreatment of HUVECs with P. eldarica extract at the concentrations of 50-500 µg/ml significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of H2O2. P. eldarica extract decreased hydroperoxides concentration and increased FRAP value in intra-cellular fluid at the concentration range of 100-500 µg/ml and in extra-cellular fluid at the concentration range of 25-500 µg/ml. Conclusions: This study revealed the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of P. eldarica extract against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HUVECs. Concerning the high content of phenolic compounds in P. eldarica, more research is needed to evaluate its clinical value in endothelial dysfunction and in other oxidative conditions. PMID:26931383

  20. Evaluating a humane alternative to the bark collar: Automated differential reinforcement of not barking in a home-alone setting.

    PubMed

    Protopopova, Alexandra; Kisten, Dmitri; Wynne, Clive

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a humane alternative to the traditional remote devices that deliver punishers contingent on home-alone dog barking. Specifically, we evaluated the use of remote delivery of food contingent on intervals of not barking during the pet owner's absence. In Experiment 1, 5 dogs with a history of home-alone nuisance barking were recruited. Using an ABAB reversal design, we demonstrated that contingent remote delivery of food decreased home-alone barking for 3 of the dogs. In Experiment 2, we demonstrated that it is possible to thin the differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) schedule gradually, resulting in a potentially more acceptable treatment. Our results benefit the dog training community by providing a humane tool to combat nuisance barking. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  1. New butyrolactone and other metabolites from the bark of Endlicheria arenosa against of the phytopathogen Colletotrichum tamarilloi.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Lady T; Delgado, Wilman; Cuca, Luis Enrique; Ávila, Mónica C

    2017-11-30

    In this work, screening of Lauraceae species for their antifungal activity against Collectotrichum tamarilloi was carried out and the ethanol extract derived from the bark of Endlicheria arenosa was found to be the best candidate. From the ethanolic extract of the bark of E. arenosa, the hexane and chloroform fractions were found to be active, from these five fatty acids were identified and two lactones were isolated. The most active fatty acid was the dodecanoic acid with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 78.0 μM. The butyrolactone 3R,4R-licunolide A, it has not previously reported, and licunolide B show both the lowest MIC (55.3 μM). This is the first report of compounds of natural origin as growth inhibitors of C. tamarilloi.

  2. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus & Culex tritaeniorhynchus.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, C; Bagavan, A; Elango, G; Zahir, A Abduz; Rajakumar, G; Marimuthu, S; Santhoshkumar, T; Rahuman, A Abdul

    2011-07-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4 th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC 50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus.

  3. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus & Culex tritaeniorhynchus

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraj, C.; Bagavan, A.; Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Rajakumar, G.; Marimuthu, S.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Interpretation & Conclusions: Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:21808141

  4. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of acetone and aqueous extracts of the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae).

    PubMed

    Njume, Collise; Afolayan, Anthony J; Ndip, Roland N

    2011-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance and other problems associated with combination therapy have generated a considerable interest in the search for alternative therapeutic agents. In order to identify novel sources of such agents, the antimicrobial activity of five solvent extracts of the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea was investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori and a reference strain NCTC 11638 using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. The active phytocomponents were detected by TLC and indirect bioautography. All the extracts exhibited anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 21 mm. The acetone and aqueous extracts showed potent anti-H. pylori activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC(90)) values ranging from 0.06-2.50 mg/mL, whereas those for the control antibiotics ranged from 0.001-5.0 mg/mL. The acetone extract was highly bactericidal at 1.2 mg/mL with complete elimination of the organisms within 18 h. The activity of both acetone and aqueous extracts was better than metronidazole (p<0.05). Most of the active phytocomponents were located in the acetone extract; R(f)≤0.62 with >90% inhibition. These results demonstrate that the acetone and aqueous extracts of S. birrea may contain compounds with therapeutic activity; therefore, they may represent potential sources of new anti-H. pylori regimen. Copyright © 2011 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Taspine: bioactivity-guided isolation and molecular ligand-target insight of a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor from Magnolia x soulangiana.

    PubMed

    Rollinger, Judith M; Schuster, Daniela; Baier, Elisabeth; Ellmerer, Ernst P; Langer, Thierry; Stuppner, Hermann

    2006-09-01

    A bioactivity-guided approach was taken to identify the acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) inhibitory agent in a Magnolia x soulangiana extract using a microplate enzyme assay with Ellman's reagent. This permitted the isolation of the alkaloids taspine (1) and (-)-asimilobine (2), which were detected for the first time in this species. Compound 1 showed a significantly higher effect on AChE than the positive control galanthamine and selectively inhibited the enzyme in a long-lasting and concentration-dependent fashion with an IC(50) value of 0.33 +/- 0.07 muM. Extensive molecular docking studies were performed with human and Torpedo californica-AChE employing Gold software to rationalize the binding interaction. The results suggested ligand 1 to bind in an alternative binding orientation when compared to galanthamine. While this is located in close vicinity to the catalytic amino acid triad, the 1-AChE complex was found to be stabilized by (i) sandwich-like pi-stacking interactions between the planar aromatic ligand (1) and the Trp84 and Phe330 of the enzyme, (ii) an esteratic site anchoring with the amino side chain, and (iii) a hydrogen-bonding network.

  6. Power mulchers can apply hardwood bark mulch

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanuel

    1971-01-01

    Two makes of power mulchers were evaluated for their ability to apply raw or processed hardwood bark mulch for use in revegetating disturbed soils. Tests were made to determine the uniformity of bark coverage and distance to which coverage was obtained. Moisture content and particle-size distribution of the barks used were also tested to determine whether or not these...

  7. The Mobile Bark Blower: An Evaluation of Performance and Costs

    Treesearch

    Raymond L. Sarles; David M. Emanuel

    1977-01-01

    A custom-built bark blower truck (MOBLOW) developed in Oregon was tested for its effectiveness in applying bark mulches, sawdust, and shavings in the eastern United States. Tests determined the bark blower's performance and cost in mulching grass-legume seedings and shrub beds with 10 bark products or wood residues. Bark blower trucks built to MOBLOW...

  8. Fire and bark beetle interactions

    Treesearch

    Ken Gibson; Jose F. Negron

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetle populations are at outbreak conditions in many parts of the western United States and causing extensive tree mortality. Bark beetles interact with other disturbance agents in forest ecosystems, one of the primary being fires. In order to implement appropriate post-fire management of fire-damaged ecosystems, we need a better understanding of...

  9. Forest health and bark beetles

    Treesearch

    C. J. Fettig

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, bark beetles have caused significant tree mortality in the Sierra Nevada, rivaling mortality caused by wildfire in some locations. This chapter addresses two important questions: How can managers prepare for and influence levels of bark beetle-caused tree mortality given current forest conditions and future climate uncertainties? and How would the...

  10. Bark extract mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and antiproliferative response against osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Debasis; Ashe, Sarbani; Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Kumari, Manisha; Nayak, Bismita

    2016-01-01

    In the current investigation we report the biosynthesis potentials of bark extracts of Ficus benghalensis and Azadirachta indica for production of silver nanoparticle without use of any external reducing or capping agent. The appearance of dark brown color indicated the complete nanoparticle synthesis which was further validated by absorbance peak by UV-vis spectroscopy. The morphology of the synthesized particles was characterized by Field emission- scanning electron microscopy (Fe-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly illustrated the crystalline phase of the synthesized nanoparticles. ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was performed to identify the role of various functional groups in the nanoparticle synthesis. The synthesized nanoparticles showed promising antimicrobial activity against Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae) and Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis) bacteria. The synthesized nano Ag also showed antiproliferative activity against MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line in a dose dependent manner. Thus, these synthesized Ag nanoparticles can be used as a broad spectrum therapeutic agent against osteosarcoma and microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytochemical, antioxidant and protective effect of Rhus tripartitum root bark extract against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Hichem; Mbarki, Sakhria; Barka, Zeineb B; Feriani, Anwer; Bouoni, Zouhour; Hfaeidh, Najla; Sakly, Mohsen; Tebourbi, Olfa; Rhouma, Khémais B

    2013-03-01

    Rhus tripartitum (sumac) is an Anacardiaceae tree with a wide phytotherapeutic application including the use of its roots in the management of gastric ulcer. In the present study the Rhus tripartitum root barks extract (RTE) was phytochemical studied, in vitro tested for their potential antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay and in vivo evaluated for its ability to prevent ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The RTE was rich in phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and polysaccharide contents and exhibited a low but not weak in vitro antioxidant activity when compared with (+)-catechin. Pre-treatment with RTE at oral doses 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against ethanol-induced ulcer by averting the deep ulcer lesions of the gastric epithelium, by reducing gastric juice and acid output, by enhancing gastric mucus production by preserving normal antioxidant enzymes activities, and inhibiting the lipid peroxidation. The antiulcerogenic activity of RTE might be due to a possible synergistic antioxidant and antisecretory effects.

  12. Lack of in vivo embryotoxic and genotoxic activities of orally administered stem bark aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. (Vimang).

    PubMed

    González, J E; Rodríguez, M D; Rodeiro, I; Morffi, J; Guerra, E; Leal, F; García, H; Goicochea, E; Guerrero, S; Garrido, G; Delgado, R; Nuñez-Selles, A J

    2007-12-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark aqueous extract (MSBE) is a new natural product with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects known by the brand name of its formulations as Vimang. Previously, the oral toxicity studies of the extract showed a low toxicity potential up to 2000 mg/kg. This work reports the results about teratogenic and genotoxicologic studies of MSBE. For embryotoxicity study, MSBE (20, 200, or 2000 mg/kg/day) was given to Sprague-Dawley rats by gavage on days 6-15 of gestation. For genotoxicity, MSBE was administered three times during 48 h to NMRI mice. Cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. No maternal or developmental toxicities were observed when the rats were killed on day 20th. The maternal body-weight gain was not affected. No dose-related effects were observed in implantations, fetal viability or external fetal development. Skeletal and visceral development was similar among fetuses from all groups. No genotoxicity was observed in bone marrow erythrocytes and liver cells after administration. MSBE appears to be neither embryotoxic nor genotoxic as measured by bone marrow cytogenetics in rodents.

  13. [Experimental study of bacteriostatic activity of Chinese herbal medicines on primary cariogenic bacteria in vitro].

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Fan, M; Bian, Z

    2001-09-01

    To screen some Chinese herbal medicines for their inhibitory activity on cariogenic bacteria, and investigate their active ingredients, and measure their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Active components were isolated from every tested Chinese herbal medicine by means of aqueous extraction and ethanolic extraction. Berberine was purified from Coptis chinensis Fra. Disk agar diffusion method was employed in screening herbs with inhibiting effect on cariogenic bacteria. MIC and MBC were determined by broth dilution method. Against Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt, MBCs of Magnolia officinalis ethanolic extract, Berberine, Coptis chinensis Fra aqueous extract and Coptis chinensis Fra ethanolic extract were 0.488, 0.625, 7.800 and 1.950 g/L respectively. Against Streptococcus sobrinus 6715, MBCs of Magnolia extract, Coptis chinensis Fra ethanolic extract, Rhus chinensis Mill ethanolic extract and Phellodendron chinen ethanolic extract were 0.488, 0.625, 1.950, 3.900, 3.900 and 3.900 g/L respectively. Against Actinomyces viscosus ATCC 19246, MBCs of Berberine, Coptis chinensis Fra aqueous extract, Coptis chinensis Fra ethanolic extract, Rheum palmatum L aqueous extract and Rheum palmatum L ethanolic extract were 1.250, 3.900, 3.900, 15.600 and 31.250 g/L respectively. Magnolia officinalis, Coptis chinensis Fran, Rheum palmatum L aqueous extracts exhibit strong inhibition on cariogenic bacteria. Magnolia officinalis ethanolic extract has the strongest bactericidal effects on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus.

  14. Effect of composting on the Cd, Zn and Mn content and fractionation in feedstock mixtures with wood chips from a short-rotation coppice and bark.

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, B; Willekens, K; Zwertvaegher, A; Degrande, L; Tack, F M G; Du Laing, G

    2013-11-01

    Micronutrient content and availability in composts may be affected by the addition of wood chips or tree bark as a bulking agent in the compost feedstock. In the first part of this study, micronutrient levels were assessed in bark and wood of poplar and willow clones in a short-rotation coppice. Large differences between species were observed in bark concentrations for Cd, Zn and Mn. In the second part of the study, we aimed to determine the effect of feedstock composition and composting on Cd, Zn and Mn concentrations and availability. By means of three composting experiments we examined the effect of (a) bark of different tree species, (b) the amount of bark, and (c) the use of bark versus wood chips. In general, compost characteristics such as pH, organic matter and nutrient content varied due to differences in feedstock mixture and composting process. During the composting process, the availability of Cd, Zn and Mn decreased, although the use of willow and poplar bark or wood chips resulted in elevated total Cd, Zn or Mn concentrations in the compost. Cd concentrations in some composts even exceeded legal criteria. Cd and Zn were mainly bound in the reducible fraction extracted with 0.5M NH2OH⋅HCl. A higher acid-extractable fraction for Mn than for Cd and Zn was found. Higher Cd concentrations in the compost due to the use of bark or wood chips did not result in higher risk of Cd leaching. The results of the pH-stat experiment with gradual acidification of composts illustrated that only a strong pH decline in the compost results in higher availability of Cd, Zn and Mn. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extractives in eastern hardwoods : a review

    Treesearch

    John W. Rowe

    1979-01-01

    This report extensively reviews the chemistry of extractives from wood and bark of hardwoods from the eastern United States. While such extractives are not used to a great extent commercially, they may influence properties of the wood and performance of wood products. For example, extractives can protect wood from decay, add color and odor to wood, accent grain pattern...

  16. Modelling spruce bark beetle infestation probability

    Treesearch

    Paulius Zolubas; Jose Negron; A. Steven Munson

    2009-01-01

    Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) risk model, based on pure Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) stand characteristics in experimental and control plots was developed using classification and regression tree statistical technique under endemic pest population density. The most significant variable in spruce bark beetle...

  17. Mapping bark pH to better understand the cortisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levia, D. F., Jr.; Köhler, S.; Jungkunst, H. F.; Gerold, G.

    2016-12-01

    The biogeochemistry of the cortisphere is poorly understood, despite the fact that a large variety of microbes, epiphytes, and insects live on, within, and just beneath corticular surfaces. Bark pH is a critical parameter that partially controls the chemodynamics of the cortisphere and its habitability by bark dwelling organisms as well as the chemistry of throughfall and stemflow. This presentation articulates, tests, and validates a method to accurately determine bark pH in situ. We employed agar-agar panels, embedded with a pH marker, to determine the spatiality of bark pH on cacao trees in Indonesia. In contrast to existing ex situ methods, we were able to record spatial differences in bark pH. In particular, bark pH was observed to fluctuate in relation to both morphological features on the bark, possibly corresponding to preferential flowpaths of stemflow, and epiphytic coverage. Due to its simplicity and economical nature, our method may be attractive to a variety of researchers interested in bark pH, its spatial variability, influence on stemflow chemistry, and its effect on organisms dwelling in the cortipshere. Publication note: This presentation is based on the following article: Köhler, S., Levia, D.F., Jungkunst, H.F. and Gerold, G. 2015. An in situ method to measure and map bark pH. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology 35(6): 438-449. [DOI: 10.1080/02773813.2015.1025285

  18. Comparison of protein profiles of beech bark disease-resistant or beech bark disease-susceptible American beech

    Treesearch

    Mary E. Mason; Marek Krasowski; Judy Loo; Jennifer. Koch

    2011-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of beech bark proteins from trees resistant and susceptible to beech bark disease (BBD) was conducted. Sixteen trees from eight geographically isolated stands, 10 resistant (healthy) and 6 susceptible (diseased/infested) trees, were studied. The genetic complexity of the sample unit, the sampling across a wide geographic area, and the complexity of...

  19. A survey of public attitudes towards barking dogs in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Flint, E L; Minot, E O; Perry, P E; Stafford, K J

    2014-11-01

    To investigate public attitudes towards barking dogs in New Zealand in order to quantify the extent to which people perceive barking dogs to be a problem, to compare tolerance of barking with that of other common suburban noises, to assess the level of public understanding about the function of barking, to determine risk factors for intolerance of barking and to assess knowledge of possible strategies for the investigation and management of problem barking. A 12-page questionnaire was sent to 2,000 people throughout New Zealand randomly selected from the electoral roll. Risk factors for being bothered by barking were examined using logistic regression analysis. A total of 1,750 questionnaires were successfully delivered; of these, 727 (42%) were returned. Among respondents, 356/727 (49.0%) indicated that frequent barking during the day would bother them while 545/727 (75.0%) would be bothered by barking at night. Barking and howling were ranked above other suburban noises as a cause of annoyance. Risk factors for being bothered by daytime barking were not being home during the day, not owning a dog, and considering a dog bite to be a serious health risk. Risk factors for being bothered by night-time barking were not being home during the day, marital status, considering dog bites to pose a serious health risk, and having been frightened by a dog. Overall, 510/699 (73%) respondents understood that barking was a form of communication. Action likely to be taken by 666 respondents hearing frequent barking included notifying and offering to help the owner (119; 17.8%), complaining to the owner (127; 19.1%) or the authorities (121; 18.2%), or doing nothing (299; 48%). Possible responses by 211 dog owners if they had a barking dog included seeking help from dog trainers (59; 28%) or behaviourists (54; 26%), buying an anti-barking device (33; 15%) or getting rid of the dog (20; 10%). Barking was considered to be potentially disturbing by respondents to this survey

  20. Effects of sub-acute methanol extract treatment of Calliandra portoricensis root bark on antioxidant defence capacity in an experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Siemuri, Ese O; Akintunde, Jacob K; Salemcity, Anuoluwapo J

    2015-07-01

    The attendant side effects associated with some synthetic drugs used in the management of diseases have led to the search for safer alternative therapies that are relatively cheaper with minimal side effects. The methanol extract of Calliandra portoricensis root bark (CPRB) was orally administered at the doses of 5, 10, 20, and 25 mg/kg body weight for 14 consecutive days of 5 rats in each group. The control rats were given distilled water. The 95% methanol extract of CPRB significantly (p<0.05) scavenged NO• and OH• radicals compared to vitamin C. The level of lipid peroxidative products (malondialdehyde, MDA) was significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. Antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (p<0.05) exercabated in both liver and kidney in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, serum AST, alanine aminotransaminase and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity depicted non-significant (p>0.05) increase in the treated animals. The histological examination showed mild vacuolar, portal congestion and cell infiltration by mononuclear of the hepatic tissues. The study then concluded that a therapeutic dose of the methanol extract of CPRB triggered the antioxidant defence systems in male rats. It is, therefore, recommended that the doses should be carefully and clinically chosen because higher doses may cause some health risks.

  1. Boring in response to bark and phloem extracts from North American trees does not explain host acceptance behavior of Orthotomicus erosus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Treesearch

    Abigail J. Walter; Stephen A. Kells; Robert C. Venette; Steven J. Seybold

    2010-01-01

    When invasive herbivorous insects encounter novel plant species, they must determine whether the novel plants are hosts. The Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), an exotic bark beetle poised to expand its range in North America, accepts hosts after contacting the bark. To test the hypothesis that O. erosus...

  2. Gastroprotective Effect of Combination of Hot Water Extracts of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari Stem Bark (Alyxia reinwardtii), and Sembung Leaf (Blumea balsamifera) Against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Model Rats.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Wijayanti, Agustin; Mutmainah, Mutmainah; Susilowati, Rina; Rahmawati, Nuning

    2016-10-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari stem bark (Alyxia reinwardtii) and Sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) are traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate gastroprotective effect of hot water extracts combination of those herbal against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. The combination consisted of fixed doses of Licorice 273 mg/kg BW and Sembung leaf 457.5 mg/kg BW, and also consisted of Pulasari stem in various doses i.e. 100 mg/kg BW (first group), 200 mg/kg BW (second and sixth group) and 300 mg/kg BW (third group). The fourth grup rats received sucralfate 360 mg/kg BW. Ten minute after seven consecutive days of drug administration, the rats were induced with aspirin 450 mg/kg BW except sixth group rats. The fifth group rats only received aspirin without any protective agents. The number and area of gastric ulcers were evaluated macroscopically. Whereas, histopatological observation was used for evaluation of mucosal damage score, and the number of eosinophils and mast cells. In the study, herbal extracts combination markedly exhibited protective effects indicated by less number and smaller area of gastric ulcers in comparison to those of aspirin group (P < 0.05). The score of mucosal damages were also decreased in herbal extracts combination groups. The number of eosinophils and mast cells of herbal combination groups were observed to be smaller than those of aspirin group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, herbal combination of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari stem bark (Alyxia reinwardtii) and Sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) is potential to develop as a gastroprotective agent. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro anti-helicobacter pylori activity of extracts of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Okeleye, Benjamin I; Bessong, Pascal O; Ndip, Roland N

    2011-07-25

    Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer. This study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Bridelia. micrantha on H. pylori isolated in South Africa. Extracts and clarithromycin were tested against 31 clinical strains, including a standard strain (NCTC 11638) of H. pylori, by measuring the diameters of the corresponding inhibition zones, followed by determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) (using metronidazole, and amoxicillin as control antibiotics) and the rate of kill. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also done. Inhibition zone diameters which ranged from 0-23 mm were observed for all five of the extracts and 0-35 mm for clarithromycin. Marked susceptibility of strains (100%) was noted for the acetone extract (P < 0.05), followed by ethyl acetate extract (93.5%). The MIC₅₀ values ranged from 0.0048 to 0.156 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.0048 to 0.313 mg/mL for the acetone extract. The MIC₉₀ values ranged from 0.0048 to 2.5 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.078 to > 0.625 mg/mL for the acetone extract, respectively. Insignificant statistical difference in potency was observed when comparing the crude ethyl acetate extract to metronidazole and amoxicillin (P > 0.05). Complete killing of strain PE430C by the ethyl acetate extract was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC) and 0.2 mg/mL (4 × MIC) at 66 and 72 h. For strain PE369C, 100% killing was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC) in 66 and 72 h. The ethyl acetate extract could thus be a potential source of lead molecules for the design of new anti-Helicobacter pylori therapies as this study further confirmed the presence of phytochemicals including alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, tannins and saponins.

  4. A new flavanolignan and a new alkane from the Stem bark of Newtonia griffoniana.

    PubMed

    Kinyok, Mc Jesus; Bonnet, Susan; Noté, Olivier Placide; Ngo Mbing, Joséphine; Kamto, Eutrophe Ledoux; Van der Westhuizen, Jan Hendrik; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel

    2017-10-01

    Two new compounds a flavanolignan (1), and an alkane (2) along with four known compounds including two fatty acid esters (3-4) and two isocoumarins (5-6) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the stem bark of Newtonia griffoniana. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods including extensive 1-D and 2-D NMR experiments.

  5. Simulation of the interaction of karstic lakes Magnolia and Brooklyn with the upper Floridan Aquifer, southwestern Clay County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The stage of Lake Brooklyn, in southwestern Clay County, Florida, has varied over a range of 27 feet since measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey began in July 1957. The large stage changes have been attributed to the relation between highly transient surface-water inflow to the lake and subsurface conduits of karstic origin that permit a high rate of leakage from the lake to the Upper Floridan aquifer. After the most recent and severe stage decline (1990-1994), the U.S. Geological Survey began a study that entailed the use of numerical ground-water flow models to simulate the interaction of the lake with the Upper Floridan aquifer and the large fluctuations of stage that were a part of that process. A package (set of computer programs) designed to represent lake/aquifer interaction in the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Finite-Difference Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW-96) and the Three-Dimensional Method-of-Characteristics Solute-Transport Model (MOC3D) simulators was prepared as part of this study, and a demonstration of its capability was a primary objective of the study. (Although the official names are Brooklyn Lake and Magnolia Lake (Florida Geographic Names), in this report the local names, Lake Brooklyn and Lake Magnolia, are used.) In the simulator of lake/aquifer interaction used in this investigation, the stage of each lake in a simulation is updated in successive time steps by a budget process that takes into account ground-water seepage, precipitation upon and evaporation from the lake surface, stream inflows and outflows, overland runoff inflows, and augmentation or depletion by artificial means. The simulator was given the capability to simulate both the division of a lake into separate pools as lake stage falls and the coalescence of several pools into a single lake as the stage rises. This representational capability was required to simulate Lake Brooklyn, which can divide into as many as 10 separate pools at sufficiently low stage. In the

  6. Characterization of the molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata and Mimusops elengi plant extracts against the fasciola vector Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanchan Lata; Singh, D K; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The molluscicidal activity of Bauhinia variegata leaf and Mimusops elengi bark was studied against vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. The toxicity of both plants was time and concentration-dependent. Among organic extracts, ethanol extracts of both plants were more toxic. Toxicity of B. variegata leaf ethanolic extract (96h LC50- 14.4 mg/L) was more pronounced than M. elengi bark ethanolic extract (96h LC50-15.0 mg/L). The 24h LC50 of column purified fraction of B. variegata and M. elengi bark were 20.3 mg/L and 18.3 mg/L, respectively. Saponin and quercetin were characterized and identified as active molluscicidal component. Co-migration of saponin (Rf 0.48) and quercetin (Rf 0.52) with column purified bark of M. elengi and leaf of B. variegata on thin layer chromatography demonstrate same Rf value i.e. 0.48 and 0.52, respectively. The present study clearly indicates the possibility of using M. elengi and/or B. variegata as potent molluscicide.

  7. Isolation of bergenin from the root bark of Securinega virosa and evaluation of its potential sleep promoting effect.

    PubMed

    Magaji, Mohammed Garba; Musa, Aliyu Muhammad; Abdullahi, Musa Ismail; Ya'u, Jamilu; Hussaini, Isa Marte

    2015-01-01

    Securinega virosa Roxb (Ex Willd) Baill (Euphorbaiceae) root bark has been reportedly used in African traditional medicine in the management of mental illnesses. Previously, the sleep-inducing potential of the crude methanol root bark of Securinega virosa extract and its butanol fraction have been reported. The study aimed to isolate and characterize the bioactive constituent that may be responsible for the sleep inducing property of the root of the plant. The phytochemical investigation of the S. virosa root bark was carried out leading to the isolation of a compound from the butanol-soluble fraction of the methanol extract. The structure of the compound was elucidated on the basis of its spectral data, including IR, 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectrometry as well as X-ray diffraction analysis. The compound was investigated for sleep-inducing potential using diazepam-induced sleeping time test and beam walking assay in mice. This is the first report on the isolation of bergenin from the root of the plant. It significantly decreased the mean onset of sleep [F (2, 15) =7.167; p< 0.01] at the dose of 10 mg/kg, without significantly affecting the total sleep duration [F (2, 15) = 0.090, p=0.914]. Conversely, it did not significantly affect the number of foot slips at the doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg tested. Bergenin isolated from the root bark of S. virosa possesses sleep-inducing property and could be partly responsible for the sedative potential of the root of S. virosa.

  8. Antioxidant and orofacial anti-nociceptive activities of the stem bark aqueous extract of Anadenanthera colubrina (Velloso) Brenan (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Damascena, N P; Souza, M T S; Almeida, A F; Cunha, R S; Damascena, N P; Curvello, R L; Lima, A C B; Almeida, E C V; Santos, C C S; Dias, A S; Paixão, M S; Souza, L M A; Quintans Júnior, L J; Estevam, C S; Araujo, B S

    2014-01-01

    The anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activities of the Anadenantheracolubrina stem bark aqueous extract (AEAC) were investigated. AEAC (30 μg/mL) reduced 94.8% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and prevented 64% (200 μg/mL) of lipid peroxidation caused by 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride-induced peroxyl radicals. AEAC treatment (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.001) reduced mice orofacial nociception in the first (61.4% and 62.6%, respectively) and second (48.9% and 61.9%, respectively) phases of the formalin test. Nociception caused by glutamate was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced by up to 79% at 400 mg/kg, while 56-60% of the nociceptive behaviour induced by capsaicin was significantly inhibited by AEAC (100-400 mg/kg). Mice treated with AEAC did not show changes in motor performance in the Rota-rod apparatus. It appears that AEAC is of pharmacological importance in treating pain due to its anti-nociceptive effects, which were shown to be mediated by central and peripheral mechanisms.

  9. Thickness and roughness measurements for air-dried longleaf pine bark

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2015-01-01

    Bark thicknesses for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) were investigated using disks collected from trees harvested on a 70-year-old plantation. Maximum inner bark thickness was relatively constant along the tree bole whereas maximum outer bark thickness showed a definite decrease from the base of the tree to the top. The minimum whole bark thickness followed the...

  10. Some ecological, economic, and social consequences of bark beetle infestations

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Progar; Adris Eglitis; John E. Lundquist

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are powerful agents of change in dynamic forest ecosystems. Most assessments of the effects of bark beetle outbreaks have been based on negative impacts on timber production. The positive effects of bark beetle activities are much less well understood. Bark beetles perform vital functions at all levels of scale in forest ecosystems. At the landscape...

  11. Ameliorative effects of pine bark extract on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Chul; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Shin, Na-Rae; Shin, In-Sik; Kim, Yun-Bae; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the dose-response effects of pine bark extract (PBE, pycnogenol ® ) on oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic changes induced by cisplatin (Csp) in rats. The ameliorating potential of PBE was evaluated after orally administering PBE at doses of 10 or 20 mg/kg for 10 days. Acute kidney injury was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of Csp at 7 mg/kg on test day 5. Csp treatment caused acute kidney injury manifested by elevated levels of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) with corresponding histopathological changes, including degeneration of tubular epithelial cells, hyaline casts in the tubular lumen, and inflammatory cell infiltration (interstitial nephritis). Csp also induced significant apoptotic changes in renal tubular cells. In addition, Csp treatment induced high levels of oxidative stress, as evidenced by an increased level of malondialdehyde, depletion of the reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and decreased activities of glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in kidney tissues. On the contrary, PBE treatment lowered BUN and CRE levels and effectively attenuated histopathological alterations and apoptotic changes induced by Csp. Additionally, treatment with PBE suppressed lipid peroxidation, prevented depletion of GSH, and enhanced activities of the antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissue. These results indicate that PBE has a cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic changes caused by Csp in the rat kidney, which may be attributed to both increase of antioxidant enzyme activities and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  12. Bark beetles in a changing climate

    Treesearch

    John E. Lundquist; Barbara J. Bentz

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, native bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have killed billions of trees across millions of hectares of forest from Alaska to Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several current outbreaks occurring simultaneously across western North America are the largest and most...

  13. UP601, a standardized botanical composition composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate and Magnolia officinalis for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2017-02-16

    The prevalence of obesity is surging in an alarming rate all over the world. Pharmaceutical drugs are considered potential adjunctive therapy to lifestyle modification. However, for most, besides being too expensive, their long term usages are hindered by their severe adverse effects. Here we describe the effect of UP601, a standardized blend of extracts from Morus alba, Yerba mate and Magnolia officinalis, in modulating a number of obesity-related phenotypic and biochemical markers in a high-fat high-fructose (HFF)-induced C57BL/6J mouse model of obesity. Adipogenesis activity of the composition was assessed in 3T3-L1 cells in vitro. Effects of UP601 on body weight and metabolic markers were evaluated. It was administered at oral doses of 300 mg/kg, 450 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg for 7 weeks. Orlistat (40 mg/kg/day) was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Serum biomarkers were measured for liver function and lipid profiling. Relative organ weights were determined. Histopathological analysis was performed for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) scoring. UP601 at 250 μg/ml resulted in 1.8-fold increase in lipolysis. Statistically significant changes in body weight (decreased by 9.1, 19.6 and 25.6% compared to the HFF group at week-7) were observed for mice treated with UP601 at 300, 450 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. Reductions of 9.1, 16.9, and 18.6% in total cholesterol; 45.0, 55.0, 63.6% in triglyceride; 34.8, 37.1 and 41.6% in LDL; 3.2, 21.6 (P = 0.03) and 33.7% (P = 0.005) in serum glucose were observed for UP601 at 300, 450 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. Body fat distribution was found reduced by 31.6 and 17.2% for the 450 mg/kg UP601 and orlistat, respectively, from the DEXA scan analysis. Up to an 89.1% reduction in mesenteric fat deposit was observed for UP601 in relative organ weight. Statistically significant improvements in NASH scores were observed for mice treated

  14. Antihyperalgesic effects of an aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L.: role of mangiferin isolated from the extract.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Suárez, Bárbara B; Garrido, Gabino; García, Mary Elena; Delgado-Hernández, René

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of a Mangifera indica stem bark extract (MSBE) and mangiferin (MG) on pain-related acute behaviors in the formalin 5% test. Rats received repeated oral MSBE (125-500 mg/kg) once daily for 7 days before formalin injection. Other four groups with the same treatments were performed in order to study the effect of MSBE on the formalin-induced long-term secondary mechano-hyperalgesia at 7 days after the injury by means of the pin-prick method. Additional groups received a single oral MSBE dose (250 mg/kg) plus ascorbic acid (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Also, repeated oral MG doses (12.5-50 mg/kg) during 7 days were administered. MSBE decreased licking/biting and flinching behaviors only in phase II and reduced the long-term formalin injury-induced secondary chronic mechano-hyperalgesia. The combination of MSBE plus ascorbic acid produced a reinforcement of this effect for flinching behavior, advising that antioxidant mechanisms are involved, at least in part, in these actions. Chronic administration of MG reproduced the effects of MSBE. For the first time, the antihyperalgesic effects of MSBE and MG in formalin 5% test, a recommended concentration for studying the antinociceptive activity of nitric oxide-related and N-methyl-d-aspartate-related compounds, were reported. These results could represent an important contribution to explain the analgesic ethnobotanical effects recognized to M. indica and other species containing MG. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Antihypernociceptive and antioxidant effects of Petersianthus macrocarpus stem bark extracts in rats with complete Freund's adjuvant-induced persistent inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Bomba, Francis Desire Tatsinkou; Wandji, Bibiane Aimée; Fofié, Christian Kuete; Kamanyi, Albert; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoit

    2017-03-14

    Background Petersianthus macrocarpus (P. Beauv.) Liben (Lecythidaceae) is a plant used in Cameroonian folk medicine to cure ailments such as inflammation and pain. Previous work showed that aqueous (AEPM) and methanol (MEPM) extracts from the stem bark of P. macrocarpus possess acute analgesic activities. The present study evaluates whether the same extracts could inhibit persistent hyperalgesia induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in rats. Methods Inflammatory pain was induced by intraplantar injection of CFA into the left hind paw of Wistar rats. AEPM and MEPM were administered either acutely or chronically by the oral route at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day. The mechanical hyperalgesia was tested using an analgesimeter, while the locomotion activity at the end of experiment was evaluated with an open-field device. Nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) contents were assayed in the brain and spinal cord of rats subjected to 14 days chronic treatment. Results AEPM and MEPM at both doses significantly (p<0.001) inhibited the acute and chronic mechanical hyperalgesia induced by CFA. Although not significant, both extracts increased the mobility of CFA-injected animals. AEPM significantly (p<0.01) reduced the level of nitrate at 100 mg/kg, MDA at 200 mg/kg and significantly (p<0.05) increased the SOD in the spinal cord. MEPM significantly increased the SOD content and reduced the MDA concentration in the brain but had no effect on the nitrate. Conclusions AEPM and MEPM exhibit acute and chronic antihyperalgesic activities. In addition, both extracts possess antioxidant properties that might strengthen their chronic antihyperalgesic effects.

  16. Taspine: Bioactivity-Guided Isolation and Molecular Ligand–Target Insight of a Potent Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor from Magnolia x soulangiana

    PubMed Central

    Rollinger, Judith M.; Schuster, Daniela; Baier, Elisabeth; Ellmerer, Ernst P.; Langer, Thierry; Stuppner, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    A bioactivity-guided approach was taken to identify the acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) inhibitory agent in a Magnolia x soulangiana extract using a microplate enzyme assay with Ellman’s reagent. This permitted the isolation of the alkaloids taspine (1) and (−)-asimilobine (2), which were detected for the first time in this species. Compound 1 showed a significantly higher effect on AChE than the positive control galanthamine and selectively inhibited the enzyme in a long-lasting and concentration-dependent fashion with an IC50 value of 0.33 ± 0.07 μM. Extensive molecular docking studies were performed with human and Torpedo californica-AChE employing Gold software to rationalize the binding interaction. The results suggested ligand 1 to bind in an alternative binding orientation when compared to galanthamine. While this is located in close vicinity to the catalytic amino acid triad, the 1–AChE complex was found to be stabilized by (i) sandwich-like π-stacking interactions between the planar aromatic ligand (1) and the Trp84 and Phe330 of the enzyme, (ii) an esteratic site anchoring with the amino side chain, and (iii) a hydrogen-bonding network. PMID:16989531

  17. The standard aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. inhibits toxic PLA2 - NN-XIb-PLA2 of Indian cobra venom.

    PubMed

    Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Sudarshan, Shivalingaiah; Dongol, Yashad; More, Sunil S

    2016-05-01

    The aqueous extract of Mangifera indica is known to possess diverse medicinal properties, which also includes anti-snake venom activities. However, its inhibitory potency and mechanism of action on multi-toxic snake venom phospholipases A2s are still unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the modulatory effect of standard aqueous bark extract of M. indica on NN-XIb-PLA2 of Indian cobra venom. The in vitro sPLA2, in situ hemolytic and in vivo edema inhibition effect were carried out as described. Also the effect of substrate and calcium concentration was carried out. M. indica extract dose dependently inhibited the GIA sPLA2 (NN-XIb-PLA2) activity with an IC50 value of 7.6 μg/ml. M. indica extract effectively inhibited the indirect hemolytic activity up to 98% at ∼40 μg/ml concentration. Further, M. indica extract (0-50 μg/ml) inhibited the edema formed in a dose dependent manner. When examined as a function of increased substrate and calcium concentration, there was no relieve of inhibitory effect of M. indica extract on the NN-XIb-PLA2. Further, the inhibition was irreversible as evident from binding studies. The in vitro inhibition is well correlated with in situ and in vivo edema inhibiting activities of M. indica. As the inhibition is independent of substrate and calcium and was irreversible, it can be concluded that M. indica extract mode of inhibition could be due to direct interaction of components present in the extract with the PLA2 enzyme. The aqueous extract of M. indica effectively inhibits svPLA2 enzymatic and its associated toxic activities, which substantiate their anti-snake venom properties. Further in-depth studies on the role and mechanism of the principal constituents present in the extract, responsible for the anti-PLA2 activity will be interesting to develop them into potent antisnake component and also as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  18. Bark structure of the southern pines

    Treesearch

    Elaine T. Howard

    1971-01-01

    The living inner bark is composed of thin-walled elements - soeve cells, albuminous cells, longitudinal and ray parenchyma, and epithelial cells. the rhytidome or outer bark is dead and has alternating areas of distorted phloem enclosed by periderm layers. Periderms consist of phellogen and its derivative cells -- phelloderm and phellem. Phelloderm cells, to the inside...

  19. Antinociceptive effects of the extracts of Xylopia parviflora bark and its alkaloidal components in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yumi; Moriyasu, Masataka; Ichimaru, Momoyo; Iwasa, Kinuko; Kato, Atsushi; Mathenge, Simon G; Chalo Mutiso, Patrick B; Juma, Francis D

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the antinociceptive activity of Xylopia parviflora bark using the acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot plate test, and formalin test in mice. The MeOH extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, administered intraperitoneally (i.p.)) had an antinociceptive effect demonstrated by its inhibitory effects on writhing number induced by acetic acid. Three alkaloidal fractions exhibited significant antinociceptive effects in three animal models; the chloroform-soluble fraction, including secondary and tertiary alkaloids, exhibited the strongest effect. This result supported its use in folk medicine as an analgesic agent. We tested the main alkaloids of these fractions for their antinociceptive effects to clarify the active components. (+)-Corytuberine (6.3 and 12.5 mg/kg, i.p.) showed very strong activity, had a significant antinociceptive effect in the acetic acid-induced writhing test (with 49.4 and 98.9% reduction of writhes), in the hot plate test, and in the formalin test (with 55.4 and 90.6% inhibition during the first phase, and 73.9 and 99.9% during the second phase, respectively). (+)-Glaucine (12.5 and 25 mg/kg, i.p.) showed strong activity in three animal models, too. The activity of these compounds was also observed following oral administration in the acetic acid-induced writhing test.

  20. Bark analysis as a guide to cassava nutrition in Sierra Leone

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey-Sam-Aggrey, W.; Garber, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Cassava main stem barks from two experiments in which similar fertilizers were applied directly in a 2/sup 5/ confounded factorial design were analyzed and the bark nutrients used as a guide to cassava nutrition. The application of multiple regression analysis to the respective root yields and bark nutrient concentrations enable nutrient levels and optimum adjusted root yields to be derived. Differences in bark nutrient concentrations reflected soil fertility levels. Bark analysis and the application of multiple regression analysis to root yields and bark nutrients appear to be useful tools for predicting fertilizer recommendations for cassava production.

  1. What's in your Douglas-fir bark?

    Treesearch

    M. Gabriela Buamscha; James E. Altland

    2008-01-01

    Douglas-fir bark is a common waste product of forest industry, and has potential use as a substrate in container nurseries. Douglas-fir bark (DFB) is strongly acidic and contains amounts of phosphorus, potassium, iron, copper and manganese within or above the levels recommended for growing container crops. As the pH of DFB decreases, electrical conductivity and amounts...

  2. Antibacterial properties studies of trunk barks of Terminalia ivorensis, a commercial and medicinal species on some methicillin-resistant Staphylococci species strains.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, K; Zirihi, G N; Guessennd-Kouadio, N; Oussou, K R; Dosso, M

    2014-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infections are a worldwide concern. Terminalia ivorensis, of Combretaceae family plant, is widely used traditional medicinal in Côte d'Ivoire to treat dermal diseases (affection in which Staphylococci are implied) including local inflammation and also to treat voice-loss. This study focused to investigate the effect in vitro of the extracts of trunk barks of Terminalia ivorensis on some methicillin/oxacillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, coagulase-negative S. and reference strain of S. aureus ATCC 25923. Antibacterial activity of aqueous, 70% ethanolic 70% and aqueous residue extracts was assessed using agar disc-diffusion method and liquid medium microdilution method in 96 multi-well micro-titer plates. This method led us to determine minimum inhibition concentration (M.I.C.) and minimum bactericidal concentration (M.B.C.). The presence of chemical groups major was detected qualitatively. Aqueous and 70% ethanolic 70% extracts showed significant activity against all the bacteria except aqueous residue when compared with the standard antibiotic oxacillin (5 µg/ml). M.I.C. for aqueous and 70% ethanolic 70% extracts ranged from 0,83-16,67 mg/ml and 0,156-13,33 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell determination revealed the bactericidal nature of the two barks extracts. The 70% ethanolic 70% extract exhibited the highest activity according to the M.B.C. values. The phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpen/sterols, coumarins, polyphenols and traces of alkaloid. The in-vitro antibacterial efficacy shown by the barks of this plant and his lushness in chimical compounds, would justify use of this one in the traditional treatment of some diseases of microbial origin. These compounds could be suggested to provide alternative solution to the development of new therapeutic agents.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-κB and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-κB activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking IκB-α degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3β. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. Conclusions These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. PMID:24962785

  4. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark.

    PubMed

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Park, Jae Ho; Park, Gwang Hun; Lee, Man Hyo; Lee, Jeong Rak; Koo, Jin Suk; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2014-06-25

    Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-κB and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-κB activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking IκB-α degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3β. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity.

  5. Absorption of sound by tree bark

    Treesearch

    G. Reethof; L. D. Frank; O. H. McDaniel

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted with a standing wave tube to measure the acoustic absorption of normally incident sound by the bark of six species of trees. Twelve bark samples, 10 cm in diameter, were tested. Sound of seven frequencies between 400 and 1600 Hz was used in the measurements. Absorption was generally about 5 percent; it exceeded 10 percent for only three...

  6. In vitro antioxidant and anti-lipoperoxidative activities of bark extracts of Xylopia aethiopica against ion-mediated toxicity on liver homogenates.

    PubMed

    Moukette Moukette, Bruno; Pieme, Constant Anatole; Nya Biapa, Prosper Cabral; Ngogang, Jeanne Yonkeu

    2015-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), products of normal cell metabolism may cause damage to biological macromolecules leading to severe health threats when they are present in high concentrations. Aromatic plants contain phytochemicals rich of antioxidants that prevent oxidant formation or scavenge oxidants produced under oxidative stress conditions. In the present study, we investigated the free radical scavenging effects, the antioxidant and ion toxicity preventive effect of Xylopia aethiopica (X. aethiopica), a plant of the family of Annonaceae used as spice in Cameroon. The scavenging properties of extracts of X. aethiopica were tested on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyl (OH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The total antioxidant capacity was assayed by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), phosphomolybdenum antioxidant power (PAP), reduction assays. The protective potential was carried on superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and peroxidases. The results showed that both the ethanolic (BEE) and the hydroethanolic (BEH) extracts from the barks of X. aethiopica scavenged all the tested radicals. The sample BEH showed the highest total antioxidant capacity both in the FRAP and the PAP. This result was positively correlated to its higher phenolic content (30.74±0.44 CAE/g dried extract). The higher protective capacity of BEH on SOD, catalase and peroxidase activities was comparable to that of the vitamin C used as standard. In conclusion, X. aethiopica has a higher antioxidant and protective potential against ion-mediated oxidative damage and may be considered as a potential drug against metal-mediated toxicity.

  7. The root barks of Morus alba and the flavonoid constituents inhibit airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hun Jai; Jin, Hong-Guang; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Lee, Sang Kook; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2013-08-26

    The root barks of Morus alba have been used in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory drug, especially for treating lung inflammatory disorders. To find new alternative agents against airway inflammation and to establish the scientific rationale of the herbal medicine in clinical use, the root barks of Morus alba and its flavonoid constituents were examined for the first time for their pharmacological activity against lung inflammation. For in vivo evaluation, an animal model of lipopolysaccharide-induced airway inflammation in mice was used. An inhibitory action against the production of proinflammatory molecules in lung epithelial cells and lung macrophages was examined. Against lipopolysaccharide-induced airway inflammation, the ethanol extract of the root barks of Morus alba clearly inhibited bronchitis-like symptoms, as determined by TNF-α production, inflammatory cells infiltration and histological observation at 200-400mg/kg/day by oral administration. In addition, Morus alba and their major flavonoid constituents including kuwanone E, kuwanone G and norartocarpanone significantly inhibited IL-6 production in lung epithelial cells (A549) and NO production in lung macrophages (MH-S). Taken together, it is concluded that Morus alba and the major prenylated flavonoid constituents have a potential for new agents to control lung inflammation including bronchitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  9. Trophic habits of mesostigmatid mites associated with bark beetles in Mexico

    Treesearch

    M. Patricia Chaires-Grijalva; Edith G. Estrada-Venegas; Armando Equihua-Martinez; John C. Moser; Stacy R. Blomquist

    2016-01-01

    Samples of bark and logs damaged by bark beetles were collected from 16 states of Mexico from 2007 to 2012. Fifteen bark beetle species were found within the bark and log samples and were examined for phoretic mites and arthropod associates. Thirty-three species of mesostigmatid mites were discovered within the samples. They were identified in several trophic guilds...

  10. Hydroethanolic extract of the inner stem bark of Cedrela odorata has low toxicity and reduces hyperglycemia induced by an overload of sucrose and glucose.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Morenna Alana; Collicchio, Thiago Carvalho Mamede; Ascêncio, Sergio Donizeti; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira; Balogun, Sikiru Olaitan; Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; da Silva, Leilane Aparecida; Colodel, Edson Moleta; de Souza, Roberto Lopes; de Souza, Damiana Luiza Pereira; de França, Suélem Aparecida; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda

    2015-03-13

    Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae) is a native plant of the Amazon region and its inner stem bark is used in the treatment of diabetes in the form of maceration in Brazilian popular medicine. Until now, there is no scientific study on this activity. The present study was aimed at evaluating the anti-hyperglycemic activity, anti-diabetic, toxicity, antioxidant and potential mechanism of action of hydroethanolic extract of the inner stem bark of Cedrela odorata. The inner stem bark extract of Cedrela odorata was prepared by maceration in 70% ethanol for 7 days to obtain hydroethanolic extract of Cedrela odorata (HeECo). The preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed according to procedures described in the literature. Selected secondary metabolites detected were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Acute toxicity of HeECo was investigated in male and female mice with oral administration of graded doses of HeECo from 10 to 5000 mg/kg. Subchronic oral toxicity study was done by oral administration of HeECo (500 mg/kg) and vehicle for 30 days to both sexes of Wistar rats. Clinical observations and toxicological related parameters were determined. Blood was collected for biochemical and hematological analyses, while histological examinations were performed on selected organs. Anti-hiperglycemic and antidiabetic effects were evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In acute evaluation, the animals received pretreatment with 250 and 500 mg/kg of HeECo, before carbohydrate overload. For subchronic effect, the antidiabetic activity of HeECo was evaluated using the same doses for 21 days. At the end of the treatments, the levels of triacylglycerols, malondialdehyde, total antioxidant status, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were evaluated in the plasma. The extract showed low acute toxicity. HeECo exhibited inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and caused a lowering in the peak levels of blood glucose in

  11. BOREAS TE-8 Aspen Bark Spectral Reflectance Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Spencer, Shannon L.; Rock, Barrett N.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-08 team collected in-lab spectral reflectance data for aspen bark and leaves from three sites within the BOREAS SSA from 24-May-1994 to 16-Jun-1994 (IFC 1), 19-Jul-1994 to 08-Aug-1994 (IFC 2), and 30-Aug-1994 to 19-Sep-1994 (IFC 3). One to nine trees from each site were sampled during the three IFCs. Each tree was sampled in five different locations for bark spectral properties: BS, US, BR, BT, and BO. Additionally, a limited number of LV were collected. Bark samples were removed from the stem of the tree and placed in ziplock bags for transport to UNH, where they were scanned with a spectroradiometer in a controlled environment. Each sample was scanned twice: the first set of measurements was made with the bark surface moistened, and the second set was made with the bark surface air-dried for a period of 30 minutes. These data represent continuous spectra of bark reflectance. Each sample was scanned three times, rotating the sample when possible. The reported values for each sample are an average over the three scans. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  12. Sound absorption characteristics of tree bark and forest floor

    Treesearch

    G. Reethof; O. H. McDaniel; G. M. Heisler

    1977-01-01

    Results of basic research on absorption of sound by tree bark and forest floors are presented. Amount of sound absorption by tree bark was determined by laboratory experiments with bark samples in a standing-wave tube. A modified portable standing-wave tube was used to measure absorption of sound by forest floors with different moisture contents, with and without leaf...

  13. Multiparametric evaluation of the cytoprotective effect of the Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract and mangiferin in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Laia; Rodeiro, Idania; Donato, M Teresa; Herrera, José A; Delgado, René; Castell, José V; Gómez-Lechón, M José

    2013-07-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark extract (MSBE) is a natural product with biological properties and mangiferin is the major component. This paper reported the evaluation of the protective effects of MSBE and mangiferin against the toxicity induced in HepG2 cells by tert-butyl hydroperoxide or amiodarone. Nuclear morphology, cell viability, intracellular calcium concentration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were measured by using a high-content screening multiparametric assay. MSBE and mangiferin produced no toxicity below 500 mg/ml doses. A marked recovery in cell viability, which was reduced by the toxicants, was observed in cells pre-exposed to MSBE or mangiferin at 5-100 mg/ml doses. We also explored the possible interaction of both products over P-glycoprotein (P-gp). MSBE and mangiferin above 100 mg/ml inhibited the activity of P-gp in HepG2 cells. MSBE and mangiferin showed cytoprotective effects of against oxidative damage and mitochondrial toxicity induced by xenobiotics to human hepatic cells but it seemed that other constituents of the extract could contribute to MSBE protective properties. In addition, the drug efflux should be taken into account because of the inhibition of the P-gp function observed in those cells exposed to both natural products. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Volatile Compounds with Characteristic Odor of Essential Oil from Magnolia obovata Leaves by Hydrodistillation and Solvent-assisted Flavor Evaporation.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Nakashima, Yoshimi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Hara, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Hiroki; Usami, Atsushi; Chavasiri, Warinthorn

    2015-01-01

    The present study focuses on the volatile compounds with characteristic odor of essential oil from the leaves of Magnolia obovata by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) method. Eighty-seven compounds, representing 98.0% of the total oil, were identified using HD. The major compounds of HD oil were (E)-β-caryophyllene (23.7%), α-humulene (11.6%), geraniol (9.1%), and borneol (7.0%). In SAFE oil, fifty-eight compounds, representing 99.7% of the total oil, were identified. The main compounds of SAFE oil were (E)-β-caryophyllene (48.9%), α-humulene (15.7%), and bicyclogermacrene (4.2%). In this study, we newly identified eighty-five compounds of the oils from M. obovata leaves. These oils were also subjected to aroma evaluation by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). As a result, twenty-four (HD) and twenty-five (SAFE) aroma-active compounds were detected. (E)-β-Caryophyllene, α-humulene, linalool, geraniol, 1,8-cineole, and bicyclogermacrene were found to impart the characteristic odor of M. obovata leaves. These results imply that the oils of M. obovata leaves must be investigated further to clarify their potential application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  15. Interactions of Root Disease and Bark Beetles

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell; J. Richard Parmeter Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Associations between root diseases and bark beetles (Scolytidae) constitute some of the most serious pest complexes affecting forests in North America and elsewhere. The interactive functioning of these pests derives from the following relationships: 1) root diseases predispose trees to bark beetle infestation by lowering resistance, and perhaps...

  16. Evaluation of the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. bark in the micronucleus assay

    PubMed Central

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Resende, Marielly Reis; da Silva, Thaísla Andrielle; Públio, Juliana Yoshida; Souza, Luiz Silva; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; de Mello Silva Oliveira, Nelma; Fiorini, João Evangelista

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity (clastogenicity/aneugenicity) of a glycolic extract of Ziziphus joazeiro bark (GEZJ) by the micronucleus assay in mice bone marrow. Antimutagenic activity was also assessed using treatments associated with GEZJ and doxorubicin (DXR). Mice were evaluated 24–48 h after exposure to positive (N-nitroso-N-ethylurea, NEU - 50 mg.kg−1 and DXR - 5 mg.kg−1) and negative (150 mM NaCl) controls, as well as treatment with GEZJ (0.5–2 g.kg−1), GEZJ (2 g.kg−1) + NEU and GEZJ (2 g.kg−1) + DXR. There were no significant differences in the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in mice treated with GEJZ and GEJZ + DXR compared to the negative controls, indicating that GEZJ was not mutagenic. Analysis of the polychromatic:normochromatic erythrocyte ratio revealed significant differences in the responses to doses of 0.5 g.kg−1 and 1–2 g.kg−1 and the positive control (NEU). These results indicated no systemic toxicity and moderate toxicity at lower and higher doses of GEZJ. The lack of mutagenicity and systemic toxicity in the antimutagenic assays, especially for treatment with GEZJ + DXR, suggested that phytochemical compounds in Z. joazeiro bark attenuated DXR-induced mutagenicity and the moderate systemic toxicity of a high dose of Z. joazeiro bark (2 g.kg−1). Further studies on the genotoxicity of Z. joazeiro extracts are necessary to establish the possible health risk in humans and to determine the potential as a chemopreventive agent for therapeutic use. PMID:25071409

  17. Antimutagenic properties of Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract and evaluation of its effects on hepatic CYP1A1.

    PubMed

    Morffi, Janet; Rodeiro, Idania; Hernández, Sandra Luz; González, Leonora; Herrera, Jose; Espinosa-Aguirre, J Javier

    2012-09-01

    Mangifera indica stem bark extract (MSBE) is a Cuban natural product which has shown strong antioxidant properties. In this work, the antimutagenic effect of MSBE was tested against 10 well-known mutagens/carcinogens in the Ames test in the absence or presence of metabolic fraction (S9). The chemical mutagens tested included: cyclophosphamide, mitomycin C, bleomycin, cisplatin, dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA), benzo[a]pyrene (BP), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), sodium azide, 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and picrolonic acid. Protective effects of the extract were also evaluated by comparing the efficiency of S9 fraction obtained from rats treated during 28 days with oral doses of MSBE (50-500 mg/kg) with that obtained from rats treated with vehicle (control) to activate bleomycin and cyclophosphamide in the Ames test. MSBE concentrations between 50 and 500 μg/plate significantly reduced the mutagenicity mediated by all the chemicals tested with the exception of sodium azide. Higher mutagenicity was found when bleomycin and cyclophosphamide (CP) were activated by control S9 than by MSBE S9. In addition, inhibition of CYP1A1 microsomal activity was observed in the presence of MSBE (10-20 μg/ml). We can conclude that besides its potent antioxidant activity previously reported, MSBE may also exert a chemoprotective effect due to its capacity to inhibit CYP activity.

  18. Salty bark as a soil amendment

    Treesearch

    W.B. Bollen

    1971-01-01

    Bark from Douglas-fir logs floated in sea water contained 0.75 to 1.94 percent salt (NaCl). Leaching by natural and simulated rainfall and by soaking readily removed this salt. Bush bean and tomato plants were grown in the greenhouse on a sandy loam soil to which bark of three different proportions of salt was applied as a mulch and as an incorporation at the rate of...

  19. Functional and environmental determinants of bark thickness in fire-free temperate rain forest communities.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Sarah J; Laughlin, Daniel C; Lawes, Michael J; Holdaway, Robert J; Wilmshurst, Janet M; Wright, Monique; Curran, Timothy J; Bellingham, Peter J; McGlone, Matt S

    2015-10-01

    In fire-prone ecosystems, variation in bark thickness among species and communities has been explained by fire frequency; thick bark is necessary to protect cambium from lethal temperatures. Elsewhere this investment is deemed unnecessary, and thin bark is thought to prevail. However, in rain forest ecosystems where fire is rare, bark thickness varies widely among species and communities, and the causes of this variation remain enigmatic. We tested for functional explanations of bark thickness variation in temperate rain forest species and communities. We measured bark thickness in 82 tree species throughout New Zealand temperate rain forests that historically have experienced little fire and applied two complementary analyses. First, we examined correlations between bark traits and leaf habit, and leaf and stem traits. Second, we calculated community-weighted mean (CWM) bark thickness for 272 plots distributed throughout New Zealand to identify the environments in which thicker-barked communities occur. Conifers had higher size-independent bark thickness than evergreen angiosperms. Species with thicker bark or higher bark allocation coefficients were not associated with "slow economic" plant traits. Across 272 forest plots, communities with thicker bark occurred on infertile soils, and communities with thicker bark and higher bark allocation coefficients occurred in cooler, drier climates. In non-fire-prone temperate rain forest ecosystems, investment in bark is driven by soil resources, cool minimum temperatures, and seasonal moisture stress. The role of these factors in fire-prone ecosystems warrants testing. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  20. Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol(®)) improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin.

    PubMed

    Furumura, Minao; Sato, Noriko; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Takagaki, Kinya; Nakayama, Juichiro

    2012-01-01

    French maritime pine bark extract (PBE) has gained popularity as a dietary supplement in the treatment of various diseases due to its polyphenol-rich ingredients. Oligometric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), a class of bioflavonoid complexes, are enriched in French maritime PBE and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have suggested that French maritime PBE helps reduce ultraviolet radiation damage to the skin and may protect human facial skin from symptoms of photoaging. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of French maritime PBE in the improvement of photodamaged facial skin, we conducted a randomized trial of oral supplementation with PBE. One hundred and twelve women with mild to moderate photoaging of the skin were randomized to either a 12-week open trial regimen of 100 mg PBE supplementation once daily or to a parallel-group trial regimen of 40 mg PBE supplementation once daily. A significant decrease in clinical grading of skin photoaging scores was observed in both time courses of 100 mg daily and 40 mg daily PBE supplementation regimens. A significant reduction in the pigmentation of age spots was also demonstrated utilizing skin color measurements. Clinically significant improvement in photodamaged skin could be achieved with PBE. Our findings confirm the efficacy and safety of PBE.

  1. Fungistatic activity of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. bark extracts against fungal plant pathogens and investigation on mechanism of action in Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Carotenuto, Gennaro; Carrieri, Raffaele; Tarantino, Paola; Alfieri, Mariaevelina; Leone, Antonella; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Lahoz, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived compounds are emerging as an alternative choice to synthetic fungicides. Chloroform-methanol extract, obtained from the bark of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a member of Rutaceae, showed a fungistatic effect on Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Clonostachys rosea, when added to the growth medium at different concentrations. A fraction obtained by gel separation and containing the alkaloid O-Methylcapaurine showed significant fungistatic effect against B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum, two of the most destructive phytopathogenic fungi. The underlying mechanism of such an inhibition was further investigated in B. cinerea, a fungus highly prone to develop fungicide resistance, by analysing the expression levels of a set of genes (BcatrB, P450, CYP51 and TOR). O-Methylcapaurine inhibited the expression of all the analysed genes. In particular, the expression of BcatrB gene, encoding a membrane drug transporter involved in the resistance to a wide range of xenobiotic compounds, was strongly inhibited (91%).

  2. Opportunities to use bark polyphenols in specialty chemical markets

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway

    1998-01-01

    Current forestry practice in North America is to transport pulpwood and logs from the harvest site to the mill with the bark on the wood. Approximately 18 percent of the weight of logs from conifers such as southern pine is bark. The majority of this bark is burned as hog fuel, but its fuel value is low. When compared with natural gas at an average of $2.50/MBTU or...

  3. Assessing chemical constituents of Mimosa caesalpiniifolia stem bark: possible bioactive components accountable for the cytotoxic effect of M. caesalpiniifolia on human tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Monção, Nayana Bruna Nery; Araújo, Bruno Quirino; Silva, Jurandy do Nascimento; Lima, Daisy Jereissati Barbosa; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Airoldi, Flavia Pereira da Silva; Pessoa, Cláudia; Citó, Antonia Maria das Graças Lopes

    2015-03-05

    Mimosa caesalpiniifolia is a native plant of the Brazilian northeast, and few studies have investigated its chemical composition and biological significance. This work describes the identification of the first chemical constituents in the ethanolic extract and fractions of M. caesalpiniifolia stem bark based on NMR, GC-qMS and HRMS analyses, as well as an assessment of their cytotoxic activity. GC-qMS analysis showed fatty acid derivatives, triterpenes and steroid substances and confirmed the identity of the chemical compounds isolated from the hexane fraction. Metabolite biodiversity in M. caesalpiniifolia stem bark revealed the differentiated accumulation of pentacyclic triterpenic acids, with a high content of betulinic acid and minor amounts of 3-oxo and 3β-acetoxy derivatives. Bioactive analysis based on total phenolic and flavonoid content showed a high amount of these compounds in the ethanolic extract, and ESI-(-)-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS identified caffeoyl hexose at high intensity, as well as the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Furthermore, the evaluation of the ethanolic extract and fractions, including betulinic acid, against colon (HCT-116), ovarian (OVCAR-8) and glioblastoma (SF-295) tumour cell lines showed that the crude extract, hexane and dichloromethane fractions possessed moderate to high inhibitory activity, which may be related to the abundance of betulinic acid. The phytochemical and biological study of M. caesalpiniifolia stem bark thus revealed a new alternative source of antitumour compounds, possibly made effective by the presence of betulinic acid and by chemical co-synergism with other compounds.

  4. Inhibitory activity of cinnamon bark species and their combination effect with acarbose against intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase.

    PubMed

    Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Lerdsuwankij, Orathai; Poputtachai, Ubonwan; Minipun, Aukkrapon; Suparpprom, Chaturong

    2011-06-01

    Inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase is one of the therapeutic approaches for delaying carbohydrate digestion, resulting in reduced postprandial glucose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical analysis and the inhibitory effect of various cinnamon bark species against intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase. The results showed that the content of total phenolic, flavonoid, and condensed tannin ranged from 0.17 to 0.21 g gallic acid equivalent/g extract, from 48.85 to 65.52 mg quercetin equivalent/g extract, and from 0.12 to 0.15 g catechin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The HPLC fingerprints of each cinnamon species were established. Among cinnamon species, Thai cinnamon extract was the most potent inhibitor against the intestinal maltase with the IC(50) values of 0.58 ± 0.01 mg/ml. The findings also showed that Ceylon cinnamon was the most effective intestinal sucrase and pancreatic α-amylase inhibitor with the IC(50) values of 0.42 ± 0.02 and 1.23 ± 0.02 mg/ml, respectively. In addition, cinnamon extracts produced additive inhibition against intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase when combined with acarbose. These results suggest that cinnamon bark extracts may be potentially useful for the control of postprandial glucose in diabetic patients through inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase.

  5. IN VITRO ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF DIFFERENT Senna didymobotrya (FRESEN.) H.S. IRWIN & BARNEBY PLANT PARTS.

    PubMed

    P, Jeruto; P F, Arama; B, Anyango; T, Akenga; R, Nyunja; D, Khasabuli

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been in use for many years and remain widespread in developing countries; whereas, the use of complementary alternative medicine is on the increase in developed countries. Senna didymobotrya is important for its medicinal benefits among most communities in treating a wide range of ailments. Plants were collected from a cluster in Siaya, Nandi and Nakuru counties (Kenya). Stem bark, root bark, leaves, flowers and immature pods were obtained; air-dried and ground into fine powder. Methanol was used to extract the plant extracts. The extracts were reconstituted in water and incorporated into growth media to obtain 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%. Bioassays were carried out on T. tonsurans (ATCC 28942) and C. albicans (14053). The growth of cultures on the plates was measured over a period of sixteen days. The area under disease progress stairs was determined and subjected to ANOVA and comparison of means using LSD. Results indicated that the growth of C. albicans was not significantly affected by the plant extracts. Growth of T. tonsurans was completely inhibited by immature pods extract at 10%, the leaves and flowers extracts inhibited the growth at 7.5%. The stem and root bark extracts inhibited growth at low dosages of 2.5- 5 %. There is need to carry out research on root and stem barks to identify the active phytochemicals that contribute to their high efficacies. On species conservation, harvesting of roots may lead to depletion of S. didymobotrya .

  6. Effects of a Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract and mangiferin on radiation-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes and lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Rodeiro, I; Delgado, R; Garrido, G

    2014-02-01

    Mangifera indica L. (mango) stem bark aqueous extract (MSBE) that has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, can be obtained in Cuba. It is rich in polyphenols, where mangiferin is the main component. In this study, we have tested DNA damage and protection effects of MSBE and mangiferin on primary human lymphocytes and lymphoblastoid cells. Cell suspensions were incubated with the products (50-1000 μg/ml) for experiments on damage induction, and evaluation of any potential protective effects (5-100 μg/ml) for 60 min at 37 °C. Irradiation was performed using a γ-ray source, absorbed dose 5 Gy. At the end of exposure, DNA damage, protection and repair processes were evaluated using the comet assay. MSBE (100-1000 μg/ml) induced DNA damage in a concentration dependent manner in both cell types tested, primary cells being more sensitive. Mangiferin (200 μg/ml) only induced light DNA damage at higher concentrations. DNA repair capacity was not affected after MSBE or mangiferin exposure. On the other hand, MSBE (25 and 50 μg/ml) and mangiferin (5-25 ug/ml) protected against gamma radiation-induced DNA damage. These results show MSBE has protector or harmful effects on DNA in vitro depending on the experimental conditions, which suggest that the extract could be acting as an antioxidant or pro-oxidant product. Mangiferin was involved in protective effects of the extract. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Extracts of Tectona grandis and Vernonia amygdalina have anti-Toxoplasma and pro-inflammatory properties in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dégbé, Mlatovi; Debierre-Grockiego, Françoise; Tété-Bénissan, Amivi; Débare, Héloïse; Aklikokou, Kodjo; Dimier-Poisson, Isabelle; Gbeassor, Messanvi

    2018-01-01

    Tectona grandis (teak) and Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) are plants used in traditional medicine in West Africa. In this study, we tested ethanolic and hydro-ethanolic extracts of bark and leaves of T. grandis and ethanolic extract of leaves of V. amygdalina for their inhibitory effect on Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite responsible for toxoplasmosis. Ethanolic extract of V. amygdalina leaves had proportional contents of phenols, tannins, flavonoids, and polysaccharides. This extract presented the highest efficacy against T. gondii, the lowest cytotoxicity to mammalian cells, but moderate anti-oxidant activity compared to other plant extracts. Ethanolic extract of T. grandis bark also had elevated anti-T. gondii activity, low cytotoxicity on mammalian cells, and one of the highest anti-oxidant activities. However, the phytochemical content of this extract was not very different from the hydro-ethanolic extract, which had no anti-T. gondii activity. In addition, ethanolic extract of V. amygdalina leaves, but not of T. grandis bark, significantly increased the production of TNF-α and NO by antigen-presenting cells. Both extracts had the tendency to decrease expression of major histocompatibility complex molecules at the surface of antigen-presenting cells, while they did not modulate the percentage of apoptotic cells. A study of signalling pathways would help to determine the mechanisms of action of these plant extracts. © M. Dégbé et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2018.

  8. In Vitro Ion Chelating, Antioxidative Mechanism of Extracts from Fruits and Barks of Tetrapleura tetraptera and Their Protective Effects against Fenton Mediated Toxicity of Metal Ions on Liver Homogenates

    PubMed Central

    Moukette, Bruno Moukette; Pieme, Anatole Constant; Biapa, Prosper Cabral Nya; Njimou, Jacques Romain; Bravi, Marco; Yonkeu Ngogang, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant activity and protective potential of T. tetraptera extracts against ion toxicity. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was investigated spectrophotometrically against several radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•), hydroxyl radical (HO•), and nitric oxide (NO•)), followed by the ferric reducing power, total phenols, flavonoid, and flavonol contents. The effects of the extracts on catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase activities were also determined using the standard methods as well as the polyphenol profile using HPLC. The results showed that the hydroethanolic extract of T. tetraptera (CFH) has the lowest IC50 value with the DPPH, ABTS, OH, and NO radicals. The same extract also exhibited the significantly higher level of total phenols (37.24 ± 2.00 CAE/g dried extract); flavonoids (11.36 ± 1.88 QE/g dried extract); and flavonols contents (3.95 ± 0.39 QE/g dried extract). The HPLC profile of T. tetraptera revealed that eugenol (958.81 ± 00 mg/g DW), quercetin (353.78 ± 00 mg/g DW), and rutin (210.54 ± 00 mg/g DW) were higher in the fruit than the bark extracts. In conclusion, extracts from T. tetraptera may act as a protector against oxidative mediated ion toxicity. PMID:26356679

  9. Dengue antiviral activity of polar extract from Melochia umbellata (Houtt) Stapf var. Visenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariani Soekamto, Nunuk; Liong, S.; Fauziah, S.; Wahid, I.; Firdaus; Taba, P.; Ahmad, F.

    2018-03-01

    A research on the dengue antiviral activity test on the polar bark extract of M. umbelatta (Houtt.) Stapf var. Vicenia have been done to determine the relation to its activity againts brine shrimp Artemia salina. The bark was extracted by maceration with n-hexane, chloroform, and ethylacetate. The activity of the ethyl acetate extract was then tested against A. salina and dengue virus. It was found that the ethyl acetate extract was active to A. salina with the LC50 value of 101.66 μg/mL and also very active to dengue virus with the IC50 value of 1.67μg/mL. It is clear that the toxicity to brine shrimp A. salina has a positive correlation with the dengue anti virus.

  10. Influence of the Extractive Method on the Recovery of Phenolic Compounds in Different Parts of Hymenaea martiana Hayne

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Fernanda Granja da Silva; de Lima-Saraiva, Sarah Raquel Gomes; Oliveira, Ana Paula; Rabêlo, Suzana Vieira; Rolim, Larissa Araújo; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Background: Popularly known as “jatobá,” Hymenaea martiana Hayne is a medicinal plant widely used in the Brazilian Northeast for the treatment of various diseases. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different extractive methods in the production of phenolic compounds from different parts of H. martiana. Materials and Methods: The leaves, bark, fruits, and seeds were dried, pulverized, and submitted to maceration, ultrasound, and percolation extractive methods, which were evaluated for yield, visual aspects, qualitative phytochemical screening, phenolic compound content, and total flavonoids. Results: The highest results of yield were obtained from the maceration of the leaves, which may be related to the contact time between the plant drug and solvent. The visual aspects of the extracts presented some differences between the extractive methods. The phytochemical screening showed consistent data with other studies of the genus. Both the vegetal part as the different extractive methods influenced significantly the levels of phenolic compounds, and the highest content was found in the maceration of the barks, even more than the content found previously. No differences between the levels of total flavonoids were significant. The highest concentration of total flavonoids was found in the ultrasound of the barks, followed by maceration on this drug. According to the results, the barks of H. martiana presented the highest total flavonoid contents. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that both the vegetable and the different extractive methods influenced significantly various parameters obtained in the various extracts, demonstrating the importance of systematic comparative studies for the development of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. SUMMARY The phytochemical screening showed consistent data with other studies of the genus HymenaeaBoth the vegetable part and the different extractive methods influenced significantly various parameters

  11. Mites associated with bark beetles and their hyperphoretic ophiostomatoid fungi

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hofstetter; John Moser; Stacy Blomquist

    2014-01-01

    The role that mites play in many ecosystems is often overlooked or ignored. Within bark beetle habitats, more than 100 mite species exist and they have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity of bark beetle systems. Mites use bark beetles to access and disperse among beetle-infested trees and the associations may range from...

  12. (BOREAS) BOREAS TE-8 Aspen Bark Chemistry Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Spencer, Shannon L.; Rock, Barrett N.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-8 team collected pigment density data from aspen bark and leaves from four sites within the BOREAS SSA from 24-May-1994 to 16-Jun-1994 (IFC-1), 19-Jul-1994 to 08-Aug- 1994 (IFC-2), and 30-Aug-1994 to 19-Sep-1994 (IFC-3). One to nine trees from each site were sampled during the three IFCs. Each tree was sampled in five different locations for bark pigment properties: basal stem section, which was any bark sample taken below one-half the tree height; upper stem section, which was any bark sample taken from the main stem above one-half the tree height; bark taken from branches up to 3 years old; a 2-year-old branch segment, and a 1-year-old branch segment. Additionally, a limited number of leaves were collected. Bark samples were removed from the stem of the tree, placed in ziplock bags, and transported to UNH, where they were processed and analyzed by a spectrophotometer. In each data file, samples are identified by Site, Date, Tree#, and Sample Location (see I st paragraph above. Pigment density values are normalized to mg/m2. Density values for the following pigments are provided: Chi a, Chi b, Total Chi (Chi a+b), Carotenoids, Chi a to b ratio, and the Total Chi to carotenoids ratio. The data are stored in ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distrobuted Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  13. Modulatory potentials of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Awodele, Olufunsho; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-01-01

    Among Yoruba herbalists (Southwest Nigeria), hot water infusion of Mangifera indica L. (芒果 Máng Guǒ) stem bark is reputedly used for the treatment of fever, jaundice and liver disorders. The present study, therefore, investigates the protective effects and mechanism(s) of chemopreventive and curative effects of 125–500 mg/kg/day of Mangifera indica aqueous stem bark extract (MIASE) in acute CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day of MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 20% CCl4, i.p.). The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total bilirubin (TB), conjugated bilirubin (CB) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were estimated. In addition, hepatic tissue reduced glutathione (GSH) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities in the hepatic homogenate, and histopathological changes in the rat liver sections were determined. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds in MIASE was also conducted. Results showed that oral treatment with 125–500 mg/kg/day of MIASE significantly attenuated the increase in serum ALT, AST, ALP, FBG, TB, CB and LDL-c levels in acute liver injury induced by CCl4 treatment. Findings also revealed significant elevations in the serum TC, TG, HDL-c, TP and ALB levels. There was marked architectural remodeling in the hepatic lesions of hepatocyte vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis induced by CCl4 treatment, coupled with significant weight loss. MIASE also markedly enhanced SOD and CAT activities while reducing MAD formation; and increased GSH concentration in the hepatic homogenate compared with untreated CCl4-intoxicated

  14. Evaluation of the mechanism of gelation of an oleogel based on a triterpene extract from the outer bark of birch.

    PubMed

    Grysko, M; Daniels, R

    2013-07-01

    Oleogels are known for their high physical, chemical, and mechanical stability and good in vivo efficacy, which make them appropriate vehicles for dermal drug delivery and skin care for very dry skin. Modern formulation research focusses on well tolerated and sustainable formulation concepts. This paper deals with an innovative oleogel, which is based on a triterpene dry extract from the outer bark of birch (TE). In this formulation TE does not only act as an excipient but provides interesting pharmacological properties at the same time. The oleogel was formulated using solely Simmondsia Chinensis seed oil (jojoba oil) and TE. Fluorescence microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy showed that suspended TE particles arrange in a three-dimensional gel network. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the formation of hydrogen bonds between TE particles is responsible for the self-assembly of TE in oil. Moreover, the influence of TE concentration and morphology of the TE particles on the viscoelasticity of the resulting oleogels was analyzed. Gel strength increased with TE concentration and was critical to the specific surface area of the TE particles.

  15. In vitro modulation of Drimys winteri bark extract and the active compound polygodial on Salmo salar immune genes after exposure to Saprolegnia parasitica.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Torres, D; Gonçalves, A T; Ulloa, V; Martínez, R; Carrasco, H; Olea, A F; Espinoza, L; Gallardo-Escárate, C; Astuya, A

    2016-12-01

    The rapid development of the aquaculture industry has global concerns with health management and control strategies to prevent and/or treat diseases and increase sustainability standards. Saprolegniosis is a disease caused by Saprolegnia parasitica, and is characterized by promoting an immunosuppression in the host. This study evaluated in vitro the extract and one active compound (polygodial) of Drimys winteri, a Chilean medicinal tree as a potential early immunostimulatory aid in Saprolegniosis control. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) head kidney cells (ASK-1) were incubated with both extract and pure polygodial before exposure to S. parasitica mycelium, and the expression of the immune-related genes interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interferon α (IFNα), and major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) was evaluated. Both evidenced immunomodulatory capacities by increasing gene expressions. This immunomodulation related to a mitigatory action counteracting the immunosuppressing effects of S. parasitica. Despite that most immune-related genes were up-regulated, the down-regulation of MHCII, characteristic of S. parasitica infection, was lessened by pre-incubation with the compounds. This study provides the first insight on the potential of D. winteri bark extract as a possible immunomodulatory and defensive strategy against this oomycete infection in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF DRACONTOMELON DAO EXTRACTS ON METHICILLIN-RESISTANT S. AUREUS (MRSA) AND E. COLI MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE (MDR).

    PubMed

    Yuniati, Yuniati; Hasanah, Nurul; Ismail, Sjarif; Anitasari, Silvia; Paramita, Swandari

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus , methicillin-resistant and Escherichia coli , multidrug-resistant included in the list of antibiotic-resistant priority pathogens from WHO. As multidrug-resistant bacteria problem is increasing, it is necessary to probe new sources for identifying antimicrobial compounds. Medicinal plants represent a rich source of antimicrobial agents. One of the potential plants for further examined as antibacterial is Dracontomelon dao (Blanco) Merr. & Rolfe. The present study designed to find the antibacterial activity of D. dao stem bark extracts on Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and E. coli Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR), followed by determined secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity and determined the value of MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration). D. dao stem bark extracted using 60% ethanol. Disc diffusion test methods used to find the antibacterial activity, following by microdilution methods to find the value of MIC and MBC. Secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity determined by bioautography using TLC (thin layer chromatography) methods. D. dao stem bark extracts are sensitive to MSSA, MRSA and E.coli MDR bacteria. The inhibition zone is 16.0 mm in MSSA, 11.7 mm in MRSA and 10.7 mm in E. coli MDR. The entire MBC/MIC ratios for MSSA, MRSA and E.coli MDR is lower than 4. The ratio showed bactericidal effects of D. dao stem bark extracts. In TLC results, colorless bands found to be secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. D. dao stem bark extracts are potential to develop as antibacterial agent especially against MRSA and E. coli MDR strain.

  17. High molecular compounds (polysaccharides and proanthocyanidins) from Hamamelis virginiana bark: influence on human skin keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation and influence on irritated skin.

    PubMed

    Deters, A; Dauer, A; Schnetz, E; Fartasch, M; Hensel, A

    2001-11-01

    Although extracts from Hamamelis bark have long been used in therapy of skin diseases and in cosmetic formulas there are only few pharmacological investigations verifying the activity of distinct Hamamelis bark constituents. Therefore two major classes of constituents, namely polymeric proanthocyanidins and polysaccharides were isolated from Hamamelis bark and tested concerning their influence on proliferation and differentiation of cultured human keratinocytes. While the polysaccharide fraction, consisting mainly of arabans and arabinogalactans, did not effect human keratinozytes, the proanthocyanidins strongly increased the proliferation of the cells, while the differentiation was not influenced significantly. Within a preliminary cumulative in vivo study on SLS-irritated skin, proanthocyanidins (ProcyanoPlus) were proven to reduce transepidermal water loss and erythema formation. Furthermore, a clinical scoring indicated that procyanidins can influence irritative processes significantly.

  18. Ferulaldehyde and lupeol as direct and indirect antimicrobial compounds from Cordia gilletii (Boraginaceae) root barks.

    PubMed

    Okusa, Philippe N; Stévigny, Caroline; Névraumont, Marie; Gelbcke, Michel; Van Antwerpen, Pierre; Braekman, Jean Claude; Duez, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Cordia gilletii De Wild (Boraginaceae), a medicinal plant used against infectious diseases in the Democratic Republic of Congo, was investigated for direct and indirect antimicrobial properties. On one hand, the methanol extract is active against many pathogenic bacteria, including resistant strains. Its bio-guided fractionation led to the isolation of ferulaldehyde; this compound showed antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that may support the activity we observed for the methanol extract and some of the traditional uses of C. gilletii. On the other hand, the n-hexane extract of root barks possesses indirect antimicrobial properties, enhancing the activity of antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of lupeol, which decreases the minimum inhibitory concentration of several antibiotics (4 to 8 fold) against MRSA and contributes to the effects observed for the raw n-hexane extract.

  19. Male contraceptive efficacy of Ricinus communis L. extract.

    PubMed

    Nath, Sushmita; Dutta Choudhury, Manabendra; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Talukdar, Anupam Das; Misro, Man Mohan

    2013-08-26

    Ricinus communis L. (Rc), of Euphorbiaceae family is a widespread plant in tropical regions and it is used in traditional medicines as an antifertility agent in India and different parts of the world. The aim of the present study is to revalidate the ethnobotanical knowledge by evaluating the activity of only crude stem bark extracts of Rc. In this study, effects of extracts on male contraceptive efficacy were experimented in vitro with human sperm sample. The work is based on primordial and contemporary therapeutic uses of this plant. In this study, dose of petroleum ether extract, ethyl acetate extract, acetone extract and lyophilised aqueous extract of Rc were added to fresh human semen in 1:1 volumetric ratio. As the aqueous extract showed a promising result in 1:1 ratio, therefore, the Hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS), Nuclear chromatin decondensation test (NCD) and Acrosomal status and function test (AFT) were also carried out with the aqueous extract of Rc. The sperm immobilisation effects of the extract appeared immediately in a dose-dependent manner when the samples were treated with four different extracts of this plant. At a concentration of 100mg/mL, 100% (p<0.001 and p<0.05) sperms lost their progressive motility. At a concentration of 300 mg/mL, 100% (p<0.001 and p<0.05) became immotile when treated with aqueous extract. There was 88% (p<0.001 and p<0.05) morphological deformities in sperm sample due the effect of aqueous extract when they were tested for HOS and 91% (p<0.05) sperms behaved against NCD as compared to control group. Also there was a distinct decline (p<0.05) in AFT with increase in dosage concentration. The findings of the study revealed that aqueous stem bark extract of the plant showed dose dependent loss of sperm motility by influencing the morphological deformation, blockage in nuclear envelope and distinct declination in acrosomal status of spermatozoa. This research, thus, opens up scope for future exploration of bark of the

  20. Clinical efficacy of water extract of stem bark of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn. in patients of chronic heart failure: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Maulik, Subir K; Wilson, Vinu; Seth, Sandeep; Bhargava, Balram; Dua, Pamila; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Katiyar, Chandra K

    2016-10-15

    The stem bark of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight and Arn. (Arjuna) is used in Indian system of medicine (Ayurveda) for treatment of various cardiac diseases, including heart failure. However, well designed clinical trials exploring its efficacy and safety in chronic heart failure (CHF) are lacking. To ascertain the add-on efficacy and safety of a standardized water extract of stem bark of Arjuna (Arjuna extract) in CHF patients on standard pharmacotherapy. Double-blind, parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled add-on clinical trial. After approval of institutional ethics committee, 100 patients of CHF of New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II on standard pharmacotherapy having an echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 40% were consecutively recruited with informed consent and randomized 1:1 to Arjuna extract 750 mg or matching placebo twice daily. The primary outcome measure was change in LVEF at 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included changes in (i) NYHA functional class, (ii) distance covered in 6 min walk test (6MWT), (iii) quality of life (QoL), as determined by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), (iv) plasma brain natriuretic peptide, (v) plasma cytokines (interleukin-6, high sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α) and (vi) oxidative stress markers [serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), red blood cell (RBC) superoxide dismutase (SOD), RBC catalase and RBC glutathione (GSH)] at 6 and 12 weeks. Safety assessment was done by adverse event monitoring and laboratory investigations. Results were expressed as mean ± SD or median (interquartile range) and analysed with intention-to- treat principle using appropriate two-sided statistical tests. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Arjuna extract was well-tolerated, but did not change LVEF (24.3 ± 7.1 versus 25.5 ± 7.7%; p = 0.4) or secondary outcome measures except preservation of RBC catalase

  1. Management, morphological, and environmental factors influencing Douglas-fir bark furrows in the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheridan, Christopher D.; Puettmann, Klaus J.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hagar, Joan C.; Falk, Kristen R.

    2013-01-01

    Many land managers in the Pacific Northwest have the goal of increasing late-successional forest structures. Despite the documented importance of Douglas-fir tree bark structure in forested ecosystems, little is known about factors influencing bark development and how foresters can manage development. This study investigated the relative importance of tree size, growth, environmental factors, and thinning on Douglas-fir bark furrow characteristics in the Oregon Coast Range. Bark furrow depth, area, and bark roughness were measured for Douglas-fir trees in young heavily thinned and unthinned sites and compared to older reference sites. We tested models for relationships between bark furrow response and thinning, tree diameter, diameter growth, and environmental factors. Separately, we compared bark responses measured on trees used by bark-foraging birds with trees with no observed usage. Tree diameter and diameter growth were the most important variables in predicting bark characteristics in young trees. Measured environmental variables were not strongly related to bark characteristics. Bark furrow characteristics in old trees were influenced by tree diameter and surrounding tree densities. Young trees used by bark foragers did not have different bark characteristics than unused trees. Efforts to enhance Douglas-fir bark characteristics should emphasize retention of larger diameter trees' growth enhancement.

  2. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  3. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles. PMID:22474508

  4. Study of pharmacological properties of the methanolic extract of Dichrostachys cinerea bark (L.) Wight et Arn (Leguminosae) in isolated myometrium from pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Aworet Samseny, Reine Rr; Angone, Sophie Aboughe; Madingou, Noreen Koumba; Mounanga, Marlaine Boukandou; Datté, Jacques Y

    2015-07-01

    The use of medicinal plants in Gabon contributes widely to the primary health care of the people of this area of Central Africa. This paper investigates the pharmacological properties of Dichrostachys cinerea, the plant barks are traditionally used by Gabonese and Ivorian populations to treat bronchial asthma, rheumatism, and other various diseases. Although D. cinerea barks have been reported to be used by population to facilitate childbirth, to the best of our knowledge no scientific evidence has been published. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacological properties of D. cinerea methanolic extract, on isolated uterine smooth muscle and compared its effects to those of oxytocin, which is used by obstetricians to facilitate childbirth. We also explored the possible mechanism pathways of the in vitro uterine contraction induced by D. cinerea. The effects of different concentrations (3.2µg/ml, 16µg/ml, 80µg/ml, 400µg/ml, and 2mg/ml) of the methanolic extract of D. cinerea on isolated strips of the uteri of pregnant rats were studied. These effects were compared to those of oxytocin (8.4×10(-5)µg/ml, 8.4×10(-4)µg/ml, 8.4×10(-3)µg/ml, 8.4×10(-2)µg/ml). The EC (50) and E (max) was determined graphically and statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA and Dunnett post hoc test. Cumulative concentrations of D. cinerea have caused rise in the contractile force of the uterine fragments that were isolated from the pregnant rats, as seen with oxytocin concentrations. We observed contractions amplitude of 30.41mN (12%) at 80µg/ml and amplitude of 39.68mN (14.17%) at 400µg/ml for D. cinerea. In parallel, oxytocin concentration of 8.4×10(-3)µg/ml induced contractions of 45.82mN with the highest concentration (8.4×10(-2)µg/ml) that induced contractions of 55.82mN. Our results revealed that D. cinerea increased the contractile force and the frequency of muscle contractions. These findings support the use of D. cinerea to facilitate childbirth, as it

  5. A Comparative Study on Phytochemical Profiles and Biological Activities of Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst Leaf and Bark Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Daniela; Miglionico, Rocchina; Carmosino, Monica; Bisaccia, Faustino; Armentano, Maria Francesca

    2018-01-01

    Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst (Anacardiaceae) is a savannah tree that has long been used in sub-Saharan Africa as a medicinal remedy for numerous ailments. The purpose of this study was to increase the scientific knowledge about this plant by evaluating the total content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in the methanol extracts of the leaves and bark (MLE and MBE, respectively), as well as the in vitro antioxidant activity and biological activities of these extracts. Reported results show that MLE is rich in flavonoids (132.7 ± 10.4 mg of quercetin equivalents/g), whereas MBE has the highest content of tannins (949.5 ± 29.7 mg of tannic acid equivalents/g). The antioxidant activity was measured using four different in vitro tests: β-carotene bleaching (BCB), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), O2−•, and nitric oxide (NO•) assays. In all cases, MBE was the most active compared to MLE and the standards used (Trolox and ascorbic acid). Furthermore, MBE and MLE were tested to evaluate their activity in HepG2 and fibroblast cell lines. A higher cytotoxic activity of MBE was evidenced and confirmed by more pronounced alterations in cell morphology. MBE induced cell death, triggering the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which led to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential with subsequent cytochrome c release from the mitochondria into the cytosol. Moreover, MBE showed lower cytotoxicity in normal human dermal fibroblasts, suggesting its potential as a selective anticancer agent. PMID:29316691

  6. A Comparative Study on Phytochemical Profiles and Biological Activities of Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst Leaf and Bark Extracts.

    PubMed

    Russo, Daniela; Miglionico, Rocchina; Carmosino, Monica; Bisaccia, Faustino; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Milella, Luigi; Armentano, Maria Francesca

    2018-01-08

    Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst (Anacardiaceae) is a savannah tree that has long been used in sub-Saharan Africa as a medicinal remedy for numerous ailments. The purpose of this study was to increase the scientific knowledge about this plant by evaluating the total content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in the methanol extracts of the leaves and bark (MLE and MBE, respectively), as well as the in vitro antioxidant activity and biological activities of these extracts. Reported results show that MLE is rich in flavonoids (132.7 ± 10.4 mg of quercetin equivalents/g), whereas MBE has the highest content of tannins (949.5 ± 29.7 mg of tannic acid equivalents/g). The antioxidant activity was measured using four different in vitro tests: β-carotene bleaching (BCB), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), O₂ -• , and nitric oxide (NO • ) assays. In all cases, MBE was the most active compared to MLE and the standards used (Trolox and ascorbic acid). Furthermore, MBE and MLE were tested to evaluate their activity in HepG2 and fibroblast cell lines. A higher cytotoxic activity of MBE was evidenced and confirmed by more pronounced alterations in cell morphology. MBE induced cell death, triggering the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which led to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential with subsequent cytochrome c release from the mitochondria into the cytosol. Moreover, MBE showed lower cytotoxicity in normal human dermal fibroblasts, suggesting its potential as a selective anticancer agent.

  7. Antibacterial activity of cinnamon ethanol extract (cinnamomum burmannii) and its application as a mouthwash to inhibit streptococcus growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waty, Syahdiana; Suryanto, Dwi; Yurnaliza

    2018-03-01

    Cinnamon bark has been commonly used as spicy and traditional medicine. It contains several antibacterial compounds such as flavonoids, saponins, and cinnamaldehyde. Several studies have been done to know the antibacterial effect on bacteria such as Streptococcus in vitro. This study aimed to examine the antibacterial activity of cinnamon ethanol extract against Streptococcus and its application as mouthwash to inhibit the bacteria. The cinnamon bark was macerated followed by extracted in 80% ethanol. Bacterial samples were isolated from dental plaque of patients visiting dental clinic drg. Syahdiana Waty in Medan, North Sumatra. The isolates were identified using Vitek 2 compact. Secondary metabolites were detected using previously described method. Antibacterial assay was done at extract concentration of 6.25%, 12.5%, and 25%. The result showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and glycoside were detected in the extract. Nine bacterial species were identified as Streptococcus mitis, S. sanguinis, S. salivarius, S. pluranimalium, S. pneumoniae, S. alactolyticus, Kocuria rosea, Kocuria kristinae, and Spingomonas paucimolis. It showed that the extract of Cinnamon bark significantly inhibited Streptococcus growth, and it was effective as mouthwash.

  8. Antinociceptive and antiplasmodial activities of cassane furanoditerpenes from Caesalpinia volkensii H. root bark.

    PubMed

    Ochieng', Charles O; Owuor, P Okinda; Mang'uro, Lawrence A O; Akala, Hosea; Ishola, Ismail O

    2012-01-01

    The chloroform and ethyl acetate extract (100mg/kg) of Caesalpinia volkensii H. exhibited significant (P ≤ 0.05) antinociceptive activities using hot plate and writhing tests in mice while the later showed antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) 0.23 ± 0.07 and 4.39 ± 2.49 μg/ml) against chloroquine sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2), respectively. Two new furanoditerpenes [rel. 1β,5α-dihydroxyvoucapane (1) and rel. 1β,6β-dihydroxyvoucapane; 19β-methyl ester (2)] together with seven known compounds [voucapane (3), voucapan-5-ol (4), deoxycaesaldekarin C (5), caesaldekarin C (6), 5-hydroxyvinhaticoic acid (7), triacontanyl-(E)-ferulate (8), triacontanyl-(E)-caffaete (9) and 30'-hydroxytriacontanyl-(E)-ferulate (10)] were isolated from the two extracts. The administration of 3, 4, 5 and 6 (100mg/kg i.p) caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in the number of writhing episodes induced by acetic acid and (P ≤ 0.01) increased pain latency threshold in hot-plate test compared to control. However, the pure compounds indicated relatively (P ≤ 0.05) low antiplasmodial activity. The phytochemical constituents from the root bark of C. volkensii had better analgesic properties than antimalarial properties, justifying the use of the plant root bark as a remedy for pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. IN VITRO ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF DIFFERENT Senna didymobotrya (FRESEN.) H.S. IRWIN & BARNEBY PLANT PARTS

    PubMed Central

    P., Jeruto; P. F., Arama; B., Anyango; T., Akenga; R., Nyunja; D., Khasabuli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicines have been in use for many years and remain widespread in developing countries; whereas, the use of complementary alternative medicine is on the increase in developed countries. Senna didymobotrya is important for its medicinal benefits among most communities in treating a wide range of ailments. Materials and methods: Plants were collected from a cluster in Siaya, Nandi and Nakuru counties (Kenya). Stem bark, root bark, leaves, flowers and immature pods were obtained; air-dried and ground into fine powder. Methanol was used to extract the plant extracts. The extracts were reconstituted in water and incorporated into growth media to obtain 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%. Bioassays were carried out on T. tonsurans (ATCC 28942) and C. albicans (14053). The growth of cultures on the plates was measured over a period of sixteen days. The area under disease progress stairs was determined and subjected to ANOVA and comparison of means using LSD. Results: Results indicated that the growth of C. albicans was not significantly affected by the plant extracts. Growth of T. tonsurans was completely inhibited by immature pods extract at 10%, the leaves and flowers extracts inhibited the growth at 7.5%. The stem and root bark extracts inhibited growth at low dosages of 2.5- 5 %. Conclusion: There is need to carry out research on root and stem barks to identify the active phytochemicals that contribute to their high efficacies. On species conservation, harvesting of roots may lead to depletion of S. didymobotrya. PMID:28480375

  10. Elemental analyses of pine bark and wood in an environmental study.

    PubMed

    Saarela, K-E; Harju, L; Rajander, J; Lill, J-O; Heselius, S-J; Lindroos, A; Mattsson, K

    2005-05-01

    Bark and wood samples were taken from the same individuals of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from a polluted area close to a Cu-Ni smelter in Harjavalta and from some relatively unpolluted areas in western Finland. The samples were analysed by thick-target particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) after preconcentration by dry ashing at 550 degrees C. The elemental contents of pine bark and wood were compared to study the impact of heavy metal pollution on pine trees. By comparison of the elemental contents in ashes of bark and wood, a normalisation was obtained. For the relatively clean areas, the ratios of the concentration in bark ash to the concentration in wood ash for different elements were close to 1. This means that the ashes of Scots Pine wood and bark have quite similar elemental composition. For the samples from the polluted area the mean concentration ratios for some heavy metals were elevated (13-28), reflecting the effect of direct atmospheric contamination. The metal contents in the ashes of pine bark and wood were also compared to recommendations for ashes to be recycled back to the forest environment. Bark from areas close to emission sources of heavy metal pollution should be considered with caution if aiming at recycling the ash. Burning of bark fuel of pine grown within 6 km of the Cu-Ni smelter is shown to generate ashes with high levels of Cu, Ni as well as Cd, As and Pb.

  11. Divergence among barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, Caren S.; Sullivan, Brian K.; Malone, John H.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2004-01-01

    Barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) are distributed from southern Mexico along the Sierra Madre Occidental into Arizona and the Sierra Madre Oriental into Texas and New Mexico. Barking frogs in Arizona and most of Texas live in rocky areas in oak woodland, while those in New Mexico and far western Texas live in rodent burrows in desertscrub. Barking frogs in each of the three states have distinct coloration and differ in sexually dimorphic characters, female vocalization, and skin toxicity. We analyzed advertisement call variation and conducted a phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2 and tRNA regions) for barking frogs from these three states. Advertisement calls of frogs from Arizona were significantly longer in duration, higher in frequency, and had longer duration pulses than those of frogs from either New Mexico or Texas; frogs from these latter two sites were indistinguishable in these call variables. Phylogenetic analysis showed deep divisions among barking frogs from the three states. Differences in call structure, coloration, and mitochondrial DNA sequences strongly suggest that barking frogs in Arizona are reproductively isolated from those in New Mexico and Texas. Our results indicate that either northern populations are connected via gene flow through southern Mexico (i.e., they are subspecies as currently recognized), or represent independent lineages as originally described (i.e., western barking frogs, E. cactorum in AZ, and the eastern barking frogs, E. latrans in NM, TX).

  12. Cholinesterase inhibitory triterpenoids from the bark of Garcinia hombroniana.

    PubMed

    Jamila, Nargis; Khairuddean, Melati; Yeong, Khaw Kooi; Osman, Hasnah; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2015-02-01

    Context: Garcinia hombroniana Pierre, known as manggis hutan in Malaysia is a rich source of xanthones and benzophenones. This study was aimed to isolate and characterize potential cholinesterase inhibitors from the extracts of G. hombroniana bark and investigate their interactions with the enzymes. The dichloromethane extract afforded five triterpenoids which were characterized by NMR and mass spectral techniques. Cholinesterase inhibitory assay and molecular docking were performed to get insight of the inhibitory activity and molecular interactions of the compounds. The compounds were also tested for their antioxidant capacity. The isolated triterpenoids were identified as: 2β-hydroxy-3α-O-caffeoyltaraxar-14-en-28-oic acid (1), taraxerol (2), taraxerone (3), betulin (4) and betulinic acid (5). Compound 1 was the most active dual inhibitor of both AChE and BChE. Compound 1 also showed good antioxidant activities. Compound 1 had dual and moderate inhibitory activity on AChE and BChE worthy for further investigations.

  13. Quadruple high-resolution α-glucosidase/α-amylase/PTP1B/radical scavenging profiling combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for identification of antidiabetic constituents in crude root bark of Morus alba L.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Kongstad, Kenneth Thermann; Jäger, Anna Katharina; Nielsen, John; Staerk, Dan

    2018-06-29

    In this paper, quadruple high-resolution α-glucosidase/α-amylase/PTP1B/radical scavenging profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR were used for studying the polypharmacological properties of crude root bark extract of Morus alba L. This species is used as an anti-diabetic principle in many traditional treatment systems around the world, and the crude ethyl acetate extract of M. alba root bark was found to inhibit α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with IC 50 values of 1.70 ± 0.72, 5.16 ± 0.69, and 5.07 ± 0.68 μg/mL as well as showing radical scavenging activity equaling a TEAC value of (3.82 ± 0.14) × 10 4  mM per gram extract. Subsequent investigation of the crude extract using quadruple high-resolution α-glucosidase/α-amylase/PTP1B/radical scavenging profiling provided a quadruple biochromatogram that allowed direct correlation of the HPLC peaks with one or more of the tested bioactivities. This was used to target subsequent HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR analysis towards peaks representing bioactive analytes, and led to identification of a new Diels-Alder adduct named Moracenin E as well as a series of Diels-Alder adducts and isoprenylated flavonoids as potent α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitors with IC 50 values in the range of 0.60-27.15 μM and 1.22-69.38 μM, respectively. In addition, these compounds and two 2-arylbenzofurans were found to be potent PTP1B inhibitors with IC 50 values ranging from 4.04 to 21.67 μM. The high-resolution radical scavenging profile also revealed that almost all of the compounds possess radical scavenging activity. In conclusion the quadruple high-resolution profiling method presented here allowed a detailed profiling of individual constituents in crude root bark extract of M. alba, and the method provides a general tool for detailed mapping of bioactive constituents in polypharmacological herbal remedies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel extract SB-300 from the stem bark latex of Croton lechleri inhibits CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in human colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Horst; Machen, Terry E; Widdicombe, Jonathan H; Carlson, Thomas J S; King, Steven R; Chow, John W S; Illek, Beate

    2004-08-01

    An oligomeric proanthocyanidin (SP-303) extracted from the bark latex of the tree Croton lechleri (family Euphorbiaceae) is a potent inhibitor of cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation and chloride secretion. The manufacturing process for SP-303 was optimized and simplified to produce an increased yield of the herbal extract. The novel extract (named SB-300) contained on average 70.6+/-7.2% SP-303 by weight (mean +/- S.D.; n=56 lots). Here, we describe the effectiveness of SB-300 on cAMP-regulated chloride secretion, which is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel (CFTR) in human colonic T84 cells. Exposure of the apical surface to SB-300 blocked forskolin-stimulated Cl- secretion by 92.2+/-3.0% with a half-maximal inhibition constant (KB) of 4.8+/-0.8 microM. For SP-303, stimulated Cl- currents were decreased by 98.0+/-7.2 % and KB averaged 4.1+/-1.3 microM. There was no significant difference between the blocking kinetics of SP-303 and SB-300. Forskolin-stimulated whole cell Cl- currents were effectively blocked by extracellular addition of SB-300 (63+/-8.5%; n=3) and to a similar extent by SP-303 (83 +/- 0.6%; n=2; at 50 microM each). Both extracts inhibited a time- and voltage-independent Cl- conductance, which indicated the involvement of CFTR Cl- channels. We conclude that both SP-303 (used in Provir) and SB-300 (used in NSF Normal Stool Formula) are novel natural products that target the CFTR Cl- channel. SB-300 is a low cost herbal extract and may present a complementary and alternative medicine approach for the treatment of fluid loss in watery diarrhea.

  15. Induction of apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells by an extract from Erythrina suberosa stem bark.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Satyam Kumar; Agrawal, Madhunika; Sharma, Parduman Raj; Gupta, Bishan Datt; Arora, Saroj; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the apoptosis-inducing effect of an alcoholic extract from Erythrina suberosa stem bark (ESB) was investigated using human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells. Cell viability was estimated by MTT assay. We found that the ESB inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A series of well-documented morphological changes, such as cell shrinkage, condensation of nuclear chromatin, and nuclear fragmentation, were observed by fluorescence microscopy. The gold standard scanning electron micrographs showed apoptotic bodies and formation of blebs. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in Sub G(0) population of cells above 50 μg/ml. ESB treatment resulted in a dose-dependent increase in annexin V positive cells. Increase in intracellular ROS production up to sixfold was detected in ESB-treated HL60 cells by DCFH-DA assay. Dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential of intact cells accompanied by increase in cytosolic cytochrome c was observed, which was followed by activation of caspase-9 and -3 but not caspase-8. DNA fragmentation analysis revealed typical ladders as early as 18 h indicative of caspase-3 role in the apoptotic pathway. The overall results suggest that ESB induces mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway in HL60 cells and might have therapeutic value against human leukemia.

  16. Effect of Pterocarpus santalinus bark, on blood glucose, serum lipids, plasma insulin and hepatic carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kondeti, Vinay Kumar; Badri, Kameswara Rao; Maddirala, Dilip Rajasekhar; Thur, Sampath Kumar Mekala; Fatima, Shaik Sameena; Kasetti, Ramesh Babu; Rao, Chippada Appa

    2010-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of bark of Pterocarpus santalinus, an ethnomedicinal plant, on blood glucose, plasma insulin, serum lipids and the activities of hepatic glucose metabolizing enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated (acute/short-term and long-term) with ethyl acetate:methanol fractions of ethanolic extract of the bark of P. santalinus. Fasting blood glucose, HbA(1C), plasma insulin and protein were estimated before and after the treatment, along with hepatic glycogen, and activities of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Further anti-hyperlipidemic activity was studied by measuring the levels of serum lipids and lipoproteins. Phytochemical analysis of active fraction showed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides and phenols. Biological testing of the active fraction demonstrated a significant antidiabetic activity by reducing the elevated blood glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin, improving hyperlipidemia and restoring the insulin levels in treated experimental induced diabetic rats. Further elucidation of mechanism of action showed improvement in the hepatic carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes after the treatment. Our present investigation suggests that active fraction of ethanolic extract of bark of P. santalinus decreases streptozotocin induced hyperglycemia by increasing glycolysis and decreasing gluconeogenesis. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparisons of protein profiles of beech bark disease resistant and susceptible American beech (Fagus grandifolia)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Beech bark disease is an insect-fungus complex that damages and often kills American beech trees and has major ecological and economic impacts on forests of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canadian forests. The disease begins when exotic beech scale insects feed on the bark of trees, and is followed by infection of damaged bark tissues by one of the Neonectria species of fungi. Proteomic analysis was conducted of beech bark proteins from diseased trees and healthy trees in areas heavily infested with beech bark disease. All of the diseased trees had signs of Neonectria infection such as cankers or fruiting bodies. In previous tests reported elsewhere, all of the diseased trees were demonstrated to be susceptible to the scale insect and all of the healthy trees were demonstrated to be resistant to the scale insect. Sixteen trees were sampled from eight geographically isolated stands, the sample consisting of 10 healthy (scale-resistant) and 6 diseased/infested (scale-susceptible) trees. Results Proteins were extracted from each tree and analysed in triplicate by isoelectric focusing followed by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Gels were stained and protein spots identified and intensity quantified, then a statistical model was fit to identify significant differences between trees. A subset of BBD differential proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry and matched to known protein sequences for identification. Identified proteins had homology to stress, insect, and pathogen related proteins in other plant systems. Protein spots significantly different in diseased and healthy trees having no stand or disease-by-stand interaction effects were identified. Conclusions Further study of these proteins should help to understand processes critical to resistance to beech bark disease and to develop biomarkers for use in tree breeding programs and for the selection of resistant trees prior to or in early stages of BBD development in stands. Early

  18. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the extract JMM6 from the stem-barks of the Chinese Juglans mandshurica Maxim on human hepatoma cell line BEL-7402.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongli; Cui, Yuqiang; Zhu, Jiayong; Li, Hongzhi; Mao, Jianwen; Jin, Xiaobao; Wang, Xiangsheng; Du, Yifan; Lu, Jiazheng

    2013-01-01

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim is a traditional herbal medicines in China, and its anti-tumor bioactivities are of research interest. Bioassay-guided fractionation method was employed to isolate anti-tumor compounds from the stem barks of the Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the extracted compound JMM6 were studied in BEL-7402 cells by MTT, Cell cycle analysis, Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V-FITC/PI assay and Detection of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). After treatment with the JMM6, the growth of BEL-7402 cells was inhibited and cells displayed typical morphological apoptotic characteristics. Further investigations revealed that treatment with JMM6 mainly caused G2/M cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells. To evaluate the alteration of mitochondria in JMM6 induced apoptosis. The data showed that JMM6 decreased significantly the ΔΨm, causing the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. Our results show that the JMM6 will have a potential advantage of anti-tumor, less harmful to normal cells. This paper not only summarized the JMM6 pick-up technology from Juglans mandshurica Maxim and biological characteristic, but also may provide further evidence to exploit the potential medicine compounds from the stem-barks of the Chinese Juglans mandshurica Maxim.

  19. Attraction of bark beetle predator, Thanasimus undatulus (Coleoptera: Cleridae), to pheromones of the spruce beetle and two secondary bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Treesearch

    Therese M. Poland; John H. Borden

    1997-01-01

    The bark beetle predator Thanasimus undatulus Say was captured in statistically significant numbers (total catch = 470, 713, and 137) in three field experiments using multiple-funnel traps baited with various combinations of pheromones for the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby, and the secondary bark beetles ...

  20. Proceedings from the Third Workshop on Genetics of Bark Beetles and Associated Microorganisms

    Treesearch

    Barbara Bentz; Anthony Cognato; Kenneth Raffa

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings provide a synopsis of the Third Workshop on Genetics of Bark Beetles and Association Microorganisms, which was held May 20-2, 2006 in Asheville, NC. Twenty- five participants from five countries attended the meeting. The proceedings are structured into four parts: Phylogenetics of Bark Beetles, Population Genetics of Bark Beetles, Bark Beetle Gene...

  1. Evaluation of micron-sized wood and bark particles as filler in thermoplastic composites

    Treesearch

    David P. Harper; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2010-01-01

    Micron-sized particles, prepared from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) wood and bark, were evaluated for use in wood-plastic composites (WPCs). Particles were also prepared from hard (periderm) and soft (obliterated phloem) components in the bark and compared to whole wood (without bark) filler commonly used by the WPC industry. All bark fillers had...

  2. Progress in the chemistry of shortleaf and loblolly pine bark flavonoids

    Treesearch

    R.W. Hemingway

    1976-01-01

    The forest products industries of the southern United States harvest approximately 7 million dry tons of pine bark each year. This resource receives little utilization other than recovery of fuel values. approximately 2 million dry tons (30-40% of bark dry weight) of potentially valuable polyflavonoids are burned annually. Conifer bark flavonoids have potential...

  3. Bioactive annonaceous acetogenins from the bark of Xylopia aromatica.

    PubMed

    Colman-Saizarbitoria, T; Zambrano, J; Ferrigni, N R; Gu, Z M; Ng, J H; Smith, D L; McLaughlin, J L

    1994-04-01

    Bioactive Annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from the EtOH extract of the bark of Xylopia aromatica by bioactivity-directed fractionation using lethality to brine shrimp. These acetogenins include xylopianin [1 , xylopiacin [2], and xylomaticin [3], which are three new mono-tetrahydrofuran ring type acetogenins, in addition to the known compounds, annomontacin, gigantetronenin, gigantetrocin A, and annonacin. Compounds 1 and 2 are unusual in having hydroxylation at C-8; 3 has the same functionalities as annonacin but with 37 carbons instead of 35 carbons. The structures were elucidated by spectral analysis of the parent compounds and/or simple chemical derivatives. These acetogenins showed cytotoxicities, comparable to adriamycin, against three human solid tumor cell lines.

  4. Invasive Bark Beetles, Forest Insect& Disease Leaflet 176

    Treesearch

    J.C. Lee; R.A. Haack; J.F. Negron; J.J. Witcosky; S.J. Seybold

    2007-01-01

    Bark beetles (Scolytidae) are among the most damaging insects in Northern Hemisphere forests, killing trees by direct feeding and by vectoring fungal pathogens. In addition to an already formidable native bark beetle complex, the number of exotic scolytids in U.S. forests has increased rapidly, with 53 known species established as of June 2007.

  5. Hydroalcoholic extract from bark of Persea major (Meisn.) L.E. Kopp (Lauraceae) exerts antiulcer effects in rodents by the strengthening of the gastric protective factors.

    PubMed

    Somensi, Lincon Bordignon; Boeing, Thaise; Cury, Benhur Judah; Steimbach, Viviane Miranda Bispo; Niero, Rivaldo; de Souza, Lauro Mera; da Silva, Luisa Mota; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2017-09-14

    The Persea major (Meisn.) L.E. Kopp (Lauraceae) (botanical synonym: Persea pyrifolia (D. Don) Spreng, Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart., Persea cordata var. major (Meisn.) Mez and Persea willdenovii Kosterm) is a medicinal plant native in the south of Brazil, where is popularly known as Pau de Andrade, Maçaranduba or Abacate-do-Mato. Its barks are commonly used to prepare an infusion which is administered orally or topically to treat ulcers and wounds, respectively. Thus, this study has been undertaken to contribute to the validation of the popular use of P. major to treat of ulcerative disorders from gastrointestinal system, using different experimental models in rodents. Firstly, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrophotometer has been performed. Next, the potential gastroprotective of hydroalcoholic extract of P. major barks (HEPM) (30-300mg/kg) has been evaluated in ulcer models acute as: ethanol, ethanol/HCl and indomethacin-induced ulcer. The extract (300mg/kg) has been also tested in acetic acid-induced chronic ulcer model. Histological, toxicological, histochemical, oxidative stress and gastric secretion parameters were analyzed. The main compounds found in HEPM were polyphenols as condensed tannins, flavonoids heterosides derivatives from quercetin and kaempferol. HEPM (300mg/kg, p.o) prevented gastric lesions induced by ethanol or indomethacin in rats by 58.98% and 97.48%, respectively, compared to vehicle group (148.00±14.83mm 2 and 12.07±1.61mm 2 , respectively). In acetic acid-induced chronic ulcer model the HEPM (300mg/kg, p.o) reduced the ulcer are by 40.58%, compared to vehicle group (127.90±12.04mm 2 ). The healing effect was confirmed histologically, by an increase in mucin content and by the reduction in oxidative and inflammatory parameters at the ulcer site. Neither significant effect on gastric acid secretion nor toxicological effects and cytotoxicity were provoked by administration of HEPM. The results allows to

  6. Target guided isolation, in-vitro antidiabetic, antioxidant activity and molecular docking studies of some flavonoids from Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. bark.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Danish; Kumar, Vikas; Sharma, Manju; Verma, Amita

    2014-05-13

    Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. is traditionally important plant and is reported to possess a variety of pharmacological actions. The present research exertion was undertaken to isolate and characterized the flavonoids from the extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. and to evaluate the efficacy of the isolated flavonoids on in-vitro models of type-II diabetes. Furthermore, the results of in-vitro experimentation inveterate by the molecular docking studies of the isolated flavonoids on α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. Isolation of the flavonoids from the methanolic extract of stem bark of A. Lebbeck Benth was executed by the Silica gel (Si) column chromatography to yield different fractions. These fractions were then subjected to purification to obtain three important flavonoids. The isolated flavonoids were then structurally elucidated with the assist of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and Mass spectroscopy. In-vitro experimentation was performed with evaluation of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and DPPH inhibition capacity. Molecular docking study was performed with GLIDE docking software. Three flavonoids, (1) 5-deoxyflavone (geraldone), (2) luteolin and (3) Isookanin were isolated from the EtOAc fraction of the methanolic extract of Albizzia lebbeck Benth bark. (ALD). All the compounds revealed to inhibit the α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes in in-vitro investigation correlating to reduce the plasma glucose level. Molecular docking study radically corroborates the binding affinity and inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. The present research exertion demonstrates the anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of the important isolated flavonoids with inhibition of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and DPPH which is further supported by molecular docking analysis.

  7. Target guided isolation, in-vitro antidiabetic, antioxidant activity and molecular docking studies of some flavonoids from Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. bark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. is traditionally important plant and is reported to possess a variety of pharmacological actions. The present research exertion was undertaken to isolate and characterized the flavonoids from the extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. and to evaluate the efficacy of the isolated flavonoids on in-vitro models of type-II diabetes. Furthermore, the results of in-vitro experimentation inveterate by the molecular docking studies of the isolated flavonoids on α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. Methods Isolation of the flavonoids from the methanolic extract of stem bark of A. Lebbeck Benth was executed by the Silica gel (Si) column chromatography to yield different fractions. These fractions were then subjected to purification to obtain three important flavonoids. The isolated flavonoids were then structurally elucidated with the assist of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and Mass spectroscopy. In-vitro experimentation was performed with evaluation of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and DPPH inhibition capacity. Molecular docking study was performed with GLIDE docking software. Results Three flavonoids, (1) 5-deoxyflavone (geraldone), (2) luteolin and (3) Isookanin were isolated from the EtOAc fraction of the methanolic extract of Albizzia lebbeck Benth bark. (ALD). All the compounds revealed to inhibit the α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes in in-vitro investigation correlating to reduce the plasma glucose level. Molecular docking study radically corroborates the binding affinity and inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. Conclusion The present research exertion demonstrates the anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of the important isolated flavonoids with inhibition of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and DPPH which is further supported by molecular docking analysis. PMID:24886138

  8. The involvement of cyclin D1 degradation through GSK3β-mediated threonine-286 phosphorylation-dependent nuclear export in anti-cancer activity of mulberry root bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Eo, Hyun Ji; Park, Gwang Hun; Jeong, Jin Boo

    2016-02-15

    Mulberry root bark was shown to induce cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation in the human colorectal cancer cells. Still, the molecular mechanisms whereby mulberry root bark induces cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation remain largely unknown. In this study, the inhibitory effect of mulberry root bark (MRB) on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells and the mechanism of action were examined to evaluate its anti-cancer activity. Anti-proliferative effect was determined by MTT assay. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to assess the mRNA and protein expression of related proteins. MRB inhibited markedly the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116, SW480 and LoVo). In addition, the proliferation of human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) was suppressed by MRB treatment. However, MRB did not affect the growth of HepG-2 cells as a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. MRB effectively decreased cyclin D1 protein level in human colorectal cancer cells and breast cancer cells, but not in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Contrast to protein levels, cyclin D1 mRNA level did not be changed by MRB treatment. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation by MG132 attenuated MRB-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in the cells treated with MRB. In addition, MRB increased phosphorylation of cyclin D1 at threonine-286 and a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine attenuated MRB-mediated cyclin D1 degradation. Inhibition of GSK3β by LiCl suppressed cyclin D1 phosphorylation and downregulation by MRB. MRB decreased the nuclear level of cyclin D1 and the inhibition of nuclear export by LMB attenuated MRB-mediated cyclin D1 degradation. MRB has anti-cancer activity by inducing cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation through cyclin D1 nuclear export via GSK3β-dependent threonine-286 phosphorylation. These findings suggest that possibly its extract could be used for treating colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  9. Factors controlling bark decomposition and its role in wood decomposition in five tropical tree species

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Gbadamassi G. O.; Paudel, Ekananda; Cao, Kunfang; Schaefer, Douglas; Harrison, Rhett D.

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter decomposition represents a vital ecosystem process by which nutrients are made available for plant uptake and is a major flux in the global carbon cycle. Previous studies have investigated decomposition of different plant parts, but few considered bark decomposition or its role in decomposition of wood. However, bark can comprise a large fraction of tree biomass. We used a common litter-bed approach to investigate factors affecting bark decomposition and its role in wood decomposition for five tree species in a secondary seasonal tropical rain forest in SW China. For bark, we implemented a litter bag experiment over 12 mo, using different mesh sizes to investigate effects of litter meso- and macro-fauna. For wood, we compared the decomposition of branches with and without bark over 24 mo. Bark in coarse mesh bags decomposed 1.11–1.76 times faster than bark in fine mesh bags. For wood decomposition, responses to bark removal were species dependent. Three species with slow wood decomposition rates showed significant negative effects of bark-removal, but there was no significant effect in the other two species. Future research should also separately examine bark and wood decomposition, and consider bark-removal experiments to better understand roles of bark in wood decomposition. PMID:27698461

  10. Factors controlling bark decomposition and its role in wood decomposition in five tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Gbadamassi G O; Paudel, Ekananda; Cao, Kunfang; Schaefer, Douglas; Harrison, Rhett D

    2016-10-04

    Organic matter decomposition represents a vital ecosystem process by which nutrients are made available for plant uptake and is a major flux in the global carbon cycle. Previous studies have investigated decomposition of different plant parts, but few considered bark decomposition or its role in decomposition of wood. However, bark can comprise a large fraction of tree biomass. We used a common litter-bed approach to investigate factors affecting bark decomposition and its role in wood decomposition for five tree species in a secondary seasonal tropical rain forest in SW China. For bark, we implemented a litter bag experiment over 12 mo, using different mesh sizes to investigate effects of litter meso- and macro-fauna. For wood, we compared the decomposition of branches with and without bark over 24 mo. Bark in coarse mesh bags decomposed 1.11-1.76 times faster than bark in fine mesh bags. For wood decomposition, responses to bark removal were species dependent. Three species with slow wood decomposition rates showed significant negative effects of bark-removal, but there was no significant effect in the other two species. Future research should also separately examine bark and wood decomposition, and consider bark-removal experiments to better understand roles of bark in wood decomposition.

  11. Bark thermal properties of selected central hardwood species

    Treesearch

    Gretel E. Hengst; Jeffery O. Dawson

    1993-01-01

    Some physical, thermal, and chemical properties of bark of eleven tree species native to the central hardwood region were measured to determine their potential to protect the vascular cambium from damage by fire. The relationship between dbh and bark thickness for each of sixteen species was determined. For purposes of monitoring seasonal trends, two species (Quercus...

  12. Strip-Bark Morphology and Radial Growth Trends in Ancient Pinus sibirica Trees From Central Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leland, Caroline; Cook, Edward R.; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Pederson, Neil; Hessl, Amy; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa; Nachin, Baatarbileg; Davi, Nicole; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Griffin, Kevin; Bishop, Daniel A.; Rao, Mukund Palat

    2018-03-01

    Some of the oldest and most important trees used for dendroclimatic reconstructions develop strip-bark morphology, in which only a portion of the stem contains living tissue. Yet the ecophysiological factors initiating strip bark and the potential effect of cambial dieback on annual ring widths and tree-ring estimates of past climate remain poorly understood. Using a combination of field observations and tree-ring data, we investigate the causes and timing of cambial dieback events in Pinus sibirica strip-bark trees from central Mongolia and compare the radial growth rates and trends of strip-bark and whole-bark trees over the past 515 years. Results indicate that strip bark is more common on the southern aspect of trees, and dieback events were most prevalent in the 19th century, a cold and dry period. Further, strip-bark and whole-bark trees have differing centennial trends, with strip-bark trees exhibiting notably large increases in ring widths at the beginning of the 20th century. We find a steeper positive trend in the strip-bark chronology relative to the whole-bark chronology when standardizing with age-dependent splines. We hypothesize that localized warming on the southern side of stems due to solar irradiance results in physiological damage and dieback and leads to increasing tree-ring increment along the living portion of strip-bark trees. Because the impact of cambial dieback on ring widths likely varies depending on species and site, we suggest conducting a comparison of strip-bark and whole-bark ring widths before statistically treating ring-width data for climate reconstructions.

  13. Peroxynitrite scavenging activity of herb extracts.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye Rhi; Choi, Jae Sue; Han, Yong Nam; Bae, Song Ja; Chung, Hae Young

    2002-06-01

    Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is a cytotoxicant with strong oxidizing properties toward various cellular constituents, including sulphydryls, lipids, amino acids and nucleotides and can cause cell death, lipid peroxidation, carcinogenesis and aging. The aim of this study was to characterize ONOO(-) scavenging constituents from herbs. Twenty-eight herbs were screened for their ONOO(-) scavenging activities with the use of a fluorometric method. The potency of scavenging activity following the addition of authentic ONOO(-) was in the following order: witch hazel bark > rosemary > jasmine tea > sage > slippery elm > black walnut leaf > Queen Anne's lace > Linden flower. The extracts exhibited dose-dependent ONOO(-) scavenging activities. We found that witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.) bark showed the strongest effect for scavenging ONOO(-) of the 28 herbs. Hamamelitannin, the major active component of witch hazel bark, was shown to have a strong ability to scavenge ONOO(-). It is suggested that hamamelitannin might be developed as an effective peroxynitrite scavenger for the prevention of ONOO(-) involved diseases. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Enhancing the hydrophobicity of mangrove bark by esterification for oil adsorption.

    PubMed

    Asadpour, Robabeh; Sapari, Nasiman Bin; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Orji, Kalu Uka

    2014-01-01

    Oil spills generally cause worldwide concern due to their detrimental effects on the environment and the economy. An assortment of commercial systems has been developed to control these spills, including the use of agricultural wastes as sorbents. This work deals with raw and modified mangrove barks (Rhizophora apiculata), an industrial lignocellulosic waste, as a low cost adsorbent for oil-product-spill cleanup in the aquatic environment. Mangrove bark was modified using fatty acids (oleic acid and palmitic acid) to improve its adsorption capacity. The oil sorption capacity of the modified bark was studied and compared with that of the raw bark. Kinetic tests were conducted with a series of contact times. The influence of particle size, oil dosage, pH and temperature on oil sorption capacity was investigated. The results showed that oleic acid treated bark has a higher sorption capacity (2,860.00 ± 2.00 mg/g) than untreated bark for Tapis crude oil. A correlation between surface functional groups, morphology and surface area of the adsorbent was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectrum, field emission scanning electron microscopy images and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. Isotherm study was conducted using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The result showed that adsorption of crude oil on treated mangrove bark could be best described by the Langmuir model.

  15. Inhibition of proinflammatory biomarkers in THP1 macrophages by polyphenols derived from chamomile, meadowsweet and willow bark.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Elaine M; Harbourne, Niamh; Marete, Eunice; Martyn, Danika; Jacquier, Jc; O'Riordan, Dolores; Gibney, Eileen R

    2013-04-01

    Antiinflammatory compounds in the diet can alleviate excessive inflammation, a factor in the pathogenesis of common diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis and diabetes. This study examined three European herbs, chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria L.) and willow bark (Salix alba L.), which have been traditionally used to treat inflammation and their potential for use as antiinflammatory agents. Aqueous herbal extracts and isolated polyphenolic compounds (apigenin, quercetin and salicylic acid, 0-100 μM) were incubated with THP1 macrophages, and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured. At concentrations of 10 μM, both apigenin and quercetin reduced IL-6 significantly ( p < 0.05). Apigenin at 10 μM and quercetin at 25 μM reduced TNF-α significantly ( p < 0.05). Amongst the herbal extracts, willow bark had the greatest antiinflammatory activity at reducing IL-6 and TNF-α production. This was followed by meadowsweet and then chamomile. The lowest effective antiinflammatory concentrations were noncytotoxic (MTT mitochondrial activity assay). The Comet assay, which was used to study the protective effect of the isolated phenols against oxidative damage, showed positive results for all three polyphenols. These are the first findings that demonstrate the antiinflammatory capacity of these herbal extracts. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Polyphenol contents and radical scavenging capacities of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) extracts.

    PubMed

    Royer, Mariana; Diouf, Papa Niokhor; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2011-09-01

    The crude ethanol and water extracts of different red maple (Acer rubrum L.) tissues: whole branches (WB), wood of branches (BW), bark of branches (BB), stem bark (SB) and whole twigs (T), were examined in order to determine their phenolic contents as well as their radical scavenging capacities. The total phenols (TP), total extractable tanins (TET) and non-precipitable phenols (NPP), were determined by combination of spectrophotometric and precipitation methods, while total flavonoids, hydroxy cinanmic acids and proanthocyanidins were determined spectrophotometrically. The radical scavenging activities of the extracts were determined against five reactive oxygen species (ROS): superoxide anion (O(2)(·-)), hydroxyl radical (HO(·)), peroxyl radical (ROO(·)), hypochlorite ion (ClO(-)), and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and one reactive nitrogen species (RNS): nitric oxide (NO). The extracts of stem bark were significantly more efficient (exhibiting the highest antioxidant efficiencies, AE) than the other studied extracts against all ROS (at p<0.05, Duncan statistical tests), except against NO. The correlation coefficients determined between total phenolic (TP) content and antiradical efficiencies were R(2)=0.12 for O(2)(·-); R(2)=0.29 for HO(·); R(2)=0.40 for H(2)O(2); R(2)=0.86 for ROO(·); R(2)=0.03 for NO(·) and R(2)=0.73 for ClO(-). Our results indicate potential utilisation of extracts as natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bark- and wood-borer colonization of logs and lumber after heat treatment to ISPM 15 specifications: the role of residual bark

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice

    2009-01-01

    Wood packaging material (WPM) is a major pathway for international movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects. ISPM 15, the first international standard for treating WPM, was adopted in 2002 and first implemented in the United States in 2006. ISPM 15 allows bark to remain on WPM after treatment, raising concerns that insects could infest after treatment, especially...

  18. Current status of beech bark disease in France

    Treesearch

    R. Perrin

    1983-01-01

    The two organisms involved in beech bark disease are endemic everywhere in France. Nevertheless the disease is restricted to the northern part of the beech's range, where it grows on the plains. During the last five years beech bark disease has shown a general decrease in severity but there have been local increases in the north and north-eastern parts of forests...

  19. In vitro effects of aqueous extract from Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell stem bark on egg hatching, larval migration and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Zangueu, Calvin Bogning; Olounlade, Abiodoun Pascal; Ossokomack, Marlyse; Djouatsa, Yolande Noelle Nangue; Alowanou, Goue Géorcelin; Azebaze, Anatole Guy Blaise; Llorent-Martínez, Eulogio José; de Córdova, Maria Luisa Fernández; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Hounzangbe-Adote, Mawulé Sylvie

    2018-05-02

    Maytenus senegalensis is a common shrub which is scattered in tropical Africa. Different parts of this plant have been reported to be useful in traditional medicine against gastrointestinal disorders and intestinal worms. This study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous stem bark extract of M. senegalensis using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA) and adult worms' motility inhibition assay (AMIA). On EHA, the extract concentrations tested resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) inhibition of egg hatching in concentration-dependent manner and ranged between 31.86% at 75 μg.mL - 1 to 54.92% at 2400 μg.mL - 1 after a 48 h post-exposure with eggs. For the LMI assays, the aqueous extract of M. senegalensis showed a significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of larval migration in a concentration-dependent manner. The highest concentration used (2400 μg.mL - 1 ) showed a 37.77% inhibition. The use of polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) indicated that tannins and flavonoids were partly involved in the effect since the larval migration was inhibited by 15.5%, but other biochemical compounds were also implicated. On AMIA, M. senegalensis was associated with a reduced worm motility after a 24 h post exposure compared to phosphate buffered saline as control (p < 0.05). By this time 66.66% of the worms' were found immotile or dead in the wells containing plant extract at 2400 μg.mL - 1 . The Phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of M. senegalensis by HPLC-ESI-MS n detected the presence of proanthocyanidins (20%) and flavonoids (> 50%). These in vitro results suggest the presence of some anthelmintic properties in M. senegalensis extract, which is traditionally used by small farmers in west and central Africa. These effects may be due to the flavonoids and proanthocyanidins present in the extract and need to be studied under in vivo conditions.

  20. Green and Efficient Processing of Cinnamomum cassia Bark by Using Ionic Liquids: Extraction of Essential Oil and Construction of UV-Resistant Composite Films from Residual Biomass.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Mohit J; Kumar, Arvind

    2017-12-14

    There is significant interest in the development of a sustainable and integrated process for the extraction of essential oils and separation of biopolymers by using novel and efficient solvent systems. Herein, cassia essential oil enriched in coumarin is extracted from Cinnamomum cassia bark by using a protic ionic liquid (IL), ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), through dissolution and the creation of a biphasic system with the help of diethyl ether. The process has been perfected, in terms of higher biomass dissolution ability and essential oil yield through the addition of aprotic ILs (based on the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (C 4 mim) cation and chloride or acetate anions) to EAN. After extraction of oil, cellulose-rich material and free lignin were regenerated from biomass-IL solutions by using a 1:1 mixture of acetone-water. The purity of the extracted essential oil and biopolymers were ascertained by means of FTIR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and GC-MS techniques. Because lignin contains UV-blocking chromophores, the oil-free residual lignocellulosic material has been directly utilized to construct UV-light-resistant composite materials in conjunction with the biopolymer chitosan. Composite material thus obtained was processed to form biodegradable films, which were characterized for mechanical and optical properties. The films showed excellent UV-light resistance and mechanical properties, thereby making it a material suitable for packaging and light-sensitive applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Suitability of DPPH spiking for antioxidant screening in natural products: the example of galloyl derivatives from red maple bark extract.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Thibaud R; Meda, Naamwin R; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the antioxidant potential in natural products, radical scavenging tests (ABTS, DPPH, ORAC, etc.) are usually considered as the first approach. In addition to the standard colorimetric assays, methods using separation techniques (on-line and pre-column assays) have been developed in the past decades. Based on the peak area (PA) reductions of compounds monitored by HPLC, the pre-column spiking method allows rapid characterisation of natural matrices avoiding laborious isolation steps. However, available information about the significance of the results produced remains scarce. Here, we report, for the first time, a discussion of the potential of the pre-column DPPH spiking method to pinpoint antioxidant compounds using red maple bark extract (RMBE). First, DPPH spiking was conventionally applied to the galloyl compounds in the extract showing the inadequacy of assessing results by PA reductions. The method was then applied to pure galloyl derivatives, evaluating their molar amount reacted (MAR) for more significance. The comparison with the standard DPPH-HPLC/AE method directly monitoring DPPH • inhibition highlighted the inability to retrieve the respective antioxidant efficiencies (AE) of each compound by using DPPH spiking. Despite its limitations, the DPPH spiking method brought to light an autoxidation phenomenon and a matrix/mixture effect investigated through tertiary mixtures of galloyl compounds. Although restricted to the compounds from one natural matrix, this study questions the validity of the spiking method as usually performed and could serve as a basis for further investigations (explorations of other natural products, kinetics considerations). Graphical abstract Investigation of the pre-column DPPH spiking method through the case of galloyl derivatives.

  2. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D + → $$\\bar{K}$$ 0 e + ν e via $$\\bar{K}$$0 → π0 π0

    SciTech Connect

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.

    By analyzing 2.93 fb–1 data collected at the center-of-mass energy with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction of the semileptonic decay D+ →more » $$\\bar{K}$$0 e+νe to be Β(D + → $$\\bar{K}$$ 0 e +ν e) = (8.59 ± 0.14 ± 0.21)% using $$\\bar{K}$$ 0 → K 0 s → π 0π 0, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. Finally, our result is consistent with previous measurements within uncertainties..« less

  3. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D + → $$\\bar{K}$$ 0 e + ν e via $$\\bar{K}$$0 → π0 π0

    DOE PAGES

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; ...

    2016-11-01

    By analyzing 2.93 fb–1 data collected at the center-of-mass energy with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction of the semileptonic decay D+ →more » $$\\bar{K}$$0 e+νe to be Β(D + → $$\\bar{K}$$ 0 e +ν e) = (8.59 ± 0.14 ± 0.21)% using $$\\bar{K}$$ 0 → K 0 s → π 0π 0, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. Finally, our result is consistent with previous measurements within uncertainties..« less

  4. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Increase the Phenolic Compounds Concentration in the Bark of the Stem of Libidibia Ferrea in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Emanuela Lima; Alves da Silva, Francineyde; Barbosa da Silva, Fábio Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    Background: Libidibia ferrea is a species particular to the caatinga presenting medicinal properties for containing bioactive compounds. The use of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) can increase the production of biomolecules in the legume leaves; however, no light has been shed on the role of symbiosis in maximizing metabolites production in the bark of L. ferrea stem. Objective: The aim was to select AMF that are efficient at increasing the production of phenolic compounds with medicinal properties in the bark of the L. ferrea stem. Methods: The experiment was designed in randomized blocks with four inoculation treatments (plants pre-inoculated with Claroideoglomus etunicatum, with Gigaspora albida, with Acaulospora longula, and non-inoculated plants – control) with six repetitions. Thirteen months after the transplanting, the plants were pruned and the bark of the stem was collected; subsequently, this plant material was dried in a chamber. After the drying process, fractions of the bark of the stem were macerated in methanol. The extracts were further used for analyses of the biomolecules. Results: The flavonoids concentration had an increase of, respectively, 236% and 186% in relation to the control for the treatments with A. longula and C. etunicatum; plants inoculated with A. longula had an increase of 47% in total tannins concentration compared with the non-inoculated control – a benefit that the proanthocyanidins did not present. Conclusion: Applying inoculation with A. longula may be an alternative to increase the production of biomolecules of the secondary metabolism in the bark of the L. ferrea stem in field conditions. PMID:29204223

  5. Analysis of commercial proanthocyanidins. Part 4: solid state (13)C NMR as a tool for in situ analysis of proanthocyanidin tannins, in heartwood and bark of quebracho and acacia, and related species.

    PubMed

    Reid, David G; Bonnet, Susan L; Kemp, Gabre; van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2013-10-01

    (13)C NMR is an effective method of characterizing proanthocyanidin (PAC) tannins in quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii) heartwood and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark, before and after commercial extraction. The B-rings of the constituent flavan-3-ols, catechols (quebracho) or pyrogallols (wattle), are recognized in unprocessed source materials by "marker" signals at ca. 118 or 105ppm, respectively. NMR allows the minimum extraction efficiency to be calculated; ca. 30%, and ca. 80%, for quebracho heartwood and black wattle bark, respectively. NMR can also identify PAC tannin (predominantly robinetinidin), and compare tannin content, in bark from other acacia species; tannin content decreases in the order A. mearnsii, Acacia pycnantha (87% of A. mearnsii), Acacia dealbata and Acacia decurrens (each 74%) and Acacia karroo (30%). Heartwood from an underexploited PAC tannin source, Searsia lancea, taxonomically close to quebracho, shows abundant profisetinidin and catechin PACs. NMR offers the advantage of being applicable to source materials in their native state, and has potential applications in optimizing extraction processes, identification of tannin sources, and characterization of tannin content in cultivar yield improvement programmes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development.

  7. Substitution pattern elucidation of hydroxypropyl Pinus pinaster (Ait.) bark polyflavonoid derivatives by ESI(-)-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    García Marrero, Danny E; Glasser, Wolfgang G; Pizzi, Antonio; Paczkowski, Sebastian; Laborie, Marie-Pierre G

    2014-10-01

    The structure of condensed tannins (CTs) from Pinus pinaster bark extract and their hydroxypropylated derivatives with four degrees of substitution (DS 1, 2, 3 and 4) has been characterized for the first time using negative-ion mode electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI(-)-MS/MS). The results showed that P. pinaster bark CTs possess structural homogeneity in terms of monomeric units (C(15), catechin). The oligomer sizes were detected to be dimers to heptamers. The derivatives showed typical phenyl-propyl ether mass fragmentation by substituent elimination (58 amu) and inherent C(15) flavonoid fissions. The relative abundance of the product ions revealed a preferential triple, tetra-/penta- and octa- hydroxypropylation substitution pattern in the monomer, dimer and trimer derivatives, respectively. A defined order of -OH reactivity towards propylene oxide was established by means of multistage experiments (A-ring ≥ B-ring > C-ring). A high structural heterogeneity of the modified oligomers was detected. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Phenolic compounds from Byrsonima crassifolia L. bark: phytochemical investigation and quantitative analysis by LC-ESI MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Montoro, Paola; Pizza, Cosimo

    2011-08-25

    Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of Byrsonima crassifolia's bark led to the isolation of 8 known phenolic compounds 5-O-galloylquinic acid, 3-O-galloylquinic acid, 3,4-di-O-galloylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-galloylquinic acid, 3,4,5-tri-O-galloylquinic acid, (+)-epicatechin-3-gallate along with (+)-catechin and (+)-epicatechin. Due to their biological value, in the present study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, working in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, has been developed to quantify these compounds. B. crassifolia bark resulted in a rich source of phenolic compounds and particularly of galloyl derivates. The proposed analytical method is promising to be applied to other galloyl derivatives to quantify these bioactive compounds in raw material and final products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A reassessment of the compressive strength properties of southern yellow pine bark

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2007-01-01

    Samples of southern yellow pine outer bark and wood were tested in compression to determine values for modulus of elasticity, stress at proportional limit, and maximum crushing strength. Results reported here resolve inconsistencies in the compressive strength data previously reported by others for pine bark. Testing of solvent-treated bark blocks suggests that...

  10. Toxicological evaluation of Terminalia paniculata bark extract and its protective effect against CCl4-induced liver injury in rodents.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Sahil; Jagani, Hitesh V; Nayak, Pawan G; Kumar, Nitesh; Kishore, Anoop; Bansal, Punit; Shenoy, Rekha R; Nandakumar, Krishnadas

    2013-06-06

    Based on the reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Terminalia paniculata, the bark aqueous extract (TPW) was investigated against liver damage. Intrinsic cytotoxicity was tested on normal human liver (Chang) cell lines, followed by acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies in mice. TPW was then evaluated against CCl4-induced liver toxicity in rats. Liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP) and antioxidant markers were assessed. The effect of TPW on isolated hepatic cells, post-CCl4 administration, was assessed by isolated mitochondrial membrane staining. The actions of TPW on apoptotic pathway in CCl4-treated Chang cells were also elucidated. TPW was found to be safe at all doses tested in both in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies. TPW (400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (*p <0.05) improved liver enzyme activity as compared to CCl4. Also, it improved antioxidant status (GSH, GST, MDA and total thiol) and preserved hepatic cell architecture. TPW pre-treatment significantly attenuated the levels of phospho-p53, p53, cleaved caspase-3, phospho-Bad, Bad and cleaved PARP in CCl4-treated Chang cells, improving the viability considerably. The findings support a protective role for Terminalia paniculata in pathologies involving oxidative stress.

  11. The Utilization of Bark to Make Rigid Polyurethane Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Jason

    This work focused on the characterization of polyols derived from the liquefaction or alkoxylation of bark. Regarding liquefaction, it was found that both temperature and solvent structure played a significant role in polyol properties. High temperature liquefaction resulted in the degradation of sugars, while liquefaction at mild temperatures preserved sugar structures as shown by 31P-NMR. It was also shown that liquefaction at 130°C was ideal in terms of producing a polyol with a relatively at, broad, plateau of molecular weight distribution, whereas liquefaction at 90 and 160°C produced polyols with a large amount of low molecular weight compounds. Regarding solvent structure, it was found that polyhydric alcohols with short chain primary hydroxyls resulted in less sugar degradation products and less formation of condensation side-products. It is proposed that the highly polar environment promoted grafting and prevented condensation onto other biopolymers. Using organic solvents it was found that ketonic solvents like acetyl acetone and cyclohexanone, through their highly polar carbonyl group could engage in hydrogen bonding through electron donation/proton accepting interactions. These enabled the solvent to reduce the amount of condensation reactions and improve liquefaction yield. The liquefied bark-based polyols were then used to make polyurethane foams. It was found that when a diversity of hydroxyl groups were present the foaming rate was reduced and this may react a slower rate of curing and explain why the bark foams had a greater amount of cells that underwent coalescence. It was also observed that the bark foams had a low amount of closed-cell content. Since closed-cell content plays a role in dictating elastic compression, this may explain why the bark foams exhibited a lower elastic modulus. Finally, as a contrast to liquefaction, bark was alkoxylated. It was observed that the conversion yield was higher than liquefaction. The polyols had a high

  12. A Common Fungal Associate of the Spruce Bark Beetle Metabolizes the Stilbene Defenses of Norway Spruce1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hammerbacher, Almuth; Schmidt, Axel; Wadke, Namita; Wright, Louwrance P.; Schneider, Bernd; Bohlmann, Joerg; Brand, Willi A.; Fenning, Trevor M.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Paetz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests suffer periodic fatal attacks by the bark beetle Ips typographus and its fungal associate, Ceratocystis polonica. Norway spruce protects itself against fungal and bark beetle invasion by the production of terpenoid resins, but it is unclear whether resins or other defenses are effective against the fungus. We investigated stilbenes, a group of phenolic compounds found in Norway spruce bark with a diaryl-ethene skeleton with known antifungal properties. During C. polonica infection, stilbene biosynthesis was up-regulated, as evidenced by elevated transcript levels of stilbene synthase genes. However, stilbene concentrations actually declined during infection, and this was due to fungal metabolism. C. polonica converted stilbenes to ring-opened, deglycosylated, and dimeric products. Chromatographic separation of C. polonica protein extracts confirmed that these metabolites arose from specific fungal enzyme activities. Comparison of C. polonica strains showed that rapid conversion of host phenolics is associated with higher virulence. C. polonica is so well adapted to its host’s chemical defenses that it is even able to use host phenolic compounds as its sole carbon source. PMID:23729780

  13. Direct assessment by electron spin resonance spectroscopy of the antioxidant effects of French maritime pine bark extract in the maxillofacial region of hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Ayaka; Yoshino, Fumihiko; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Nakamura, Takeshi; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-il

    2011-01-01

    Flavangenol, one of extract of French maritime pine bark, is a complex mixture of bioflavonoids with oligometric proanthocyanidins as the major constituents. These constituents, catechin and procyanidin B1, are water-soluble derivatives of flavangenol. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant effects of flavangenol on reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion and singlet oxygen using electron spin resonance and spin trapping. The effect of flavangenol on oxidative stress in the skin from the maxillofacial region of hairless mice was investigated using an in vivo L-band electron spin resonance imaging system. Flavangenol attenuated oxidative stress in the maxillofacial skin by acting as a reactive oxygen species scavenger, as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo electron spin resonance imaging analysis. The absorption and metabolism of flavangenol were also examined. After oral administration of flavangenol in human and rat, most of the catechin in plasma was in the conjugated form, while 45% to 78% of procyanidin B1 was unconjugated, indicating that non-conjugated procyanidin B1 would be active in the circulation. The ability of flavangenol to reduce reactive oxygen species levels in the circulation of the maxillofacial region suggests that this extract may be beneficial for skin protection from exposure to ultraviolet irradiation. PMID:21980222

  14. Influence of predators and parisitoids on bark beetle productivity

    Treesearch

    Jan Weslien

    1991-01-01

    In an earlier field experiment, natural enemies of the bark beetle, Ips typographus (L) were estimated to have reduced bark beetle productivity by more than 80 percent. To test this hypothesis, spruce logs (Picea abies) were placed in the forest in the spring, prior to commencement of flight by I. typographus....

  15. Geographic variation in prey preference in bark beetle predators

    Treesearch

    John D. Reeve; Brian L. Strom; Lynne K. Rieske; Bruce D. Ayers; Arnaud Costa

    2009-01-01

    1. Bark beetles and their predators are useful systems for addressing questions concerning diet breadth and prey preference in arthropod natural enemies. These predators use bark beetle pheromones to locate their prey, and the response todifferent pheromones is a measure of prey preference. 2. Trapping experiments were conducted to examine geographic...

  16. Spatially distinct responses within willow to bark stripping by deer: effects on insect herbivory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Motonobu; Nakamura, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Within individual plants, cervid herbivory may cause positive or negative plant-mediated effects on insect herbivores, depending on where it occurs. Using a combination of field observations and artificial bark-stripping experiments in Hokkaido, Japan, we examined the plant-mediated effects of bark stripping by sika deer ( Cervus nippon yesoensis) on insect herbivory in two spatially distinct parts of willow ( Salix udensis) trees: resprouting leaves below bark-stripping wounds and canopy leaves above. Natural and artificial bark stripping stimulated resprouting from trunks below wounds. Resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees had lower total phenolics, condensed tannin, and C/N ratios than did canopy leaves on control trees. Herbivory rates were higher in resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees than in canopy leaves on controls. Conversely, above-wound canopy leaves on bark-stripped trees had higher total phenolics than did those on controls, while herbivory rates were lower in the canopy leaves of bark-stripped trees than in those on controls. These results demonstrate that plant-mediated effects of bark stripping diverge between plant tissues below and above wounds in individual willow trees. We submit that focusing on multiple plant parts can elucidate plant-mediated effects at the whole-plant scale.

  17. [Interspecific allelopathic effect of different organs' aqueous extracts of Betula platyphylla and Larix olgensis on their seed germination and seedling growth].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Ling; Wang, Qing-Cheng; Hao, Long-Fei

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the Betula platyphylla root-, branch-, and foliage aqueous extracts and Larix olgensis root-, branch-, foliage-, and bark aqueous extracts over a range of concentrations 5.0, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0, and 100.0 mg x mL(-1) were used to study their interspecific allelopathic effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of the two tree species. All the L. olgensis organs' extracts, except its root extracts at concentration 5.0 mg x mL(-1), had inhibition effect on B. platyphylla seed germination rate, which was 54%, 58%, 59%, and 66% under the effects of L. olgensis foliage-, branch-, bark-, and root extracts, respectively, as compared with the control. With increasing concentration, the inhibition effect of L. olgensis root- and branch extracts increased while that of L. olgensis foliage- and bark extracts decreased. The L. olgensis organs' extracts, especially the foliage extracts at concentration 100.0 mg x mL(-1), had strong inhibition effect on B. platyphylla seed radicle- and hypocotyl length growth, with a decrement of 38% and 55% (P < 0.05), respectively. L. olgensis branch- and foliage extracts promoted, but root- and bark extracts inhibited B. platyphylla seedling growth and biomass production. B. platyphylla organs' extracts promoted L. olgensis seed germination, root- and branch extracts promoted hypocotyl length growth, but foliage extracts at 50.0 and 100.0 mg x mL(-1) decreased the hypocotyl length growth by 27% and 28% (P < 0.05), respectively. B. platyphylla organs' extracts mainly promoted L. olgensis seedling growth, with the height- and collar diameter growth and biomass accumulation at B. platyphylla foliage extracts concentration 5.0 mg x mL(-1) increased by 54%, 60%, and 100% (P < 0.05), respectively. Our results suggested that there existed obvious allelopathic effect between B. platyphylla and L. olgensis, and thus, mixed planting B. platyphylla and L. olgensis could have promotion effects on the growth of the two tree species.

  18. 4. Hopper was used to collect bark from the Chipper ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Hopper was used to collect bark from the Chipper Building. Processed bark was loaded into trucks for disposal at a pit on site. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Log Peeling Operation, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  19. Inhibitory effects of Pycnogenol® (French maritime pine bark extract) on airway inflammation in ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Shin, In-Sik; Shin, Na-Rae; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Hong, Ju-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Kim, Jong-Choon; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Hahn, Kyu-Woung; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2013-12-01

    Pycnogenol® (PYC) is a standardized extracts from the bark of the French maritime pine (Pinus maritime) and used as a herbal remedy for various diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PYC on airway inflammation using a model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and RAW264.7 cells. PYC decreased nitric oxide production and reduced the interleukine (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. PYC also reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and enhanced the expression of hemeoxygenase (HO)-1. In the in vivo experiment, PYC decreased the inflammatory cell count and the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and immunoglobulin (Ig) E in BALF or serum. These results are consistent with the histological analysis findings, which showed that PYC attenuated the airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion induced by OVA challenge. In addition, PYC enhanced the expression of HO-1. In contrast, PYC inhibited the elevated expression of iNOS and MMP-9 proteins induced by OVA challenge. In conclusion, PYC exhibits protective effects against OVA-induced asthma and LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that PYC has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic asthma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Amate Bark Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a beautiful bookmark one of the author's students made for him as a gift, he began a lesson exploring the vibrant bark paintings popular all over Mexico. The majority of his students have Mexican ancestry, so exploring the arts of Mexico is always popular and well received. Amate paintings can also be a great way to introduce the…

  1. Steaming Chips Facilitates Bark Removal

    Treesearch

    John R. Erickson

    1976-01-01

    Whole tree chipping is a productive and economical harvesting system. The resultant product, however, is barky chips. THis paper outlines a promising method for removing the bark particles from whole tree chips.

  2. Monitoring atmospheric nitrogen pollution in Guiyang (SW China) by contrasting use of Cinnamomum Camphora leaves, branch bark and bark as biomonitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu; Xiao, Huayun; Guan, Hui; Long, Chaojun

    2018-02-01

    Moss (as a reference material) and camphor (Cinnamomum Camphora) leaf, branch bark and bark samples were systematically collected across an urban-rural gradient in Guiyang (SW China) to determine the efficacy of using these bio-indicators to evaluate nitrogen (N) pollution. The tissue N concentrations (0.13%-2.70%) and δ 15 N values (-7.5‰ to +9.3‰) of all of these bio-indicators exhibited large spatial variations, as they recorded higher values in urban areas that quickly decreased with distance from the city center; moreover, both soil N concentrations and soil δ 15 N values were found no significant differences within each 6 km from the urban to the rural area. This not only suggests that the different N uptake strategies and variety of N responses of these bio-indicators can be reflected by their different susceptibilities to variations in N deposition but also reveals that they are able to indicate that urban N deposition is mostly from traffic and industry (NO x -N), whereas rural N deposition is mainly from agriculture (NH x -N). Compared to previously collected urban moss and camphor leaf samples, the significantly increased δ 15 N values in current urban moss and camphor leaf samples further indicate a greater contribution of NO x -N than NH x -N to urban N deposition. The feasibility of using the N concentrations and δ 15 N values of branch bark and bark as biomarkers of N deposition thus was further confirmed through the comparative use of these bio-indicators. It can be concluded that vascular plant leaves, branch bark and bark can be used as useful biomonitoring tools for evaluating atmospheric N pollution. For further study, quantitative criteria for the practical use of these bio-indicators in response to N deposition should be developed and the differences in the δ 15 N values of different plant parts should also be considered, particularly in urban environments that are severely disrupted by atmospheric pollution. Copyright © 2017

  3. Polyphenols isolated from Acacia mearnsii bark with anti-inflammatory and carbolytic enzyme inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jia; Grace, Mary H; Esposito, Debora; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Wang, Fei; Lila, Mary Ann

    2017-11-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the polyphenols isolated from Acacia mearnsii bark crude extract (B) and fractions (B1-B7) obtained by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and evaluate their anti-inflammatory and carbolytic enzymes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) inhibitory activities. Fractions B4, B5, B6, B7 (total phenolics 850.3, 983.0, 843.9, and 572.5 mg·g -1 , respectively; proanthocyanidins 75.7, 90.5, 95.0, and 44.8 mg·g -1 , respectively) showed significant activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) production, and expression of pro-inflammatory genes interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. All the extracts suppressed α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities, two primary enzymes responsible for carbohydrate digestion. A. mearnsii bark samples possessed significantly stronger inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase enzyme (IC 50 of 0.4-1.4 μg·mL -1 ) than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC 50 141.8 μg·mL -1 ). B6 and B7 (IC 50 17.6 and 11.7 μg·mL -1 , respectively) exhibited α-amylase inhibitory activity as efficacious as acarbose (IC 50 15.4 μg·mL -1 ). Moreover, B extract, at 25 µg·mL -1 , significantly decreased the non-mitochondrial oxidative burst that is often associated with inflammatory response in human monocytic macrophages. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytotoxic effect of triterpenoids from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Li-Shian; Wu, Chao-Hsuan; Yang, Te-Chun; Yao, Chen-Wen; Lin, Hang-Ching; Chang, Wen-Liang

    2014-09-01

    In this study, 4 new triterpenoids-3β- acetoxy-olean-11-en,28,13β-olide (1), 3β- acetoxy-11α,12α-epoxy-olean-28,13β-olide (2), 19α-epi-betulin (3), and 20, 28-epoxy-17β,19β-lupan-3β-ol (4)-and 12 known compounds, were isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus L. by using acetone extraction. Their structures were characterized by extensive spectroscopic analysis. To investigate cytotoxicity, A549 human lung cancer cells were exposed to the extract and the compounds identified from it. Significantly reduced cell viability was observed with betulin-3-caffeate (12) (IC50, 4.3 μM). The results of this study indicate that betulin-3-caffeate (12) identified from H. syriacus L. may warrant further investigation for potential as anticancer therapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Plant Extracts Formulated in Different Ointment Bases on MDR Strains.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Pallavi L; Nabar, Bela M

    2010-05-01

    Extracts of Aloe vera whole plant, Eucalyptus globulus leaves, Ficus infectoria bark, Ficus religiosa bark and Piper betel leaves were studied for antibacterial activity on resistant and sensitive strains, isolated from skin and soft tissue infections. A combination of hot alcoholic extracts of Ficus infectoria, Ficus religiosa and Piper betel were found to be more effective against all the isolates. The combined extract was formulated in different ointment bases such as polyethylene glycol, gelatin, sodium alginate, carbopol, cream base and honey. These were then evaluated to find a suitable base for preparation of an ointment. In vitro study of the release of antimicrobials and kill-time studies of the herbal ointments was carried out against multi-drug resistant isolate of Pseudomonas. The ointment showed bactericidal activity within 2 h against the resistant strain of Pseudomonas spp.

  6. Retrospective determination of 137Cs specific activity distribution in spruce bark and bark aggregated transfer factor in forests on the scale of the Czech Republic ten years after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Suchara, I; Rulík, P; Hůlka, J; Pilátová, H

    2011-04-15

    The (137)Cs specific activities (mean 32Bq kg(-1)) were determined in spruce bark samples that had been collected at 192 sampling plots throughout the Czech Republic in 1995, and were related to the sampling year. The (137)Cs specific activities in spruce bark correlated significantly with the (137)Cs depositions in areas affected by different precipitation sums operating at the time of the Chernobyl fallout in 1986. The ratio of the (137)Cs specific activities in bark and of the (137)Cs deposition levels yielded bark aggregated transfer factor T(ag) about 10.5×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1). Taking into account the residual specific activities of (137)Cs in bark 20Bq kg(-1) and the available pre-Chernobyl data on the (137)Cs deposition loads on the soil surface in the Czech Republic, the real aggregated transfer factor after and before the Chernobyl fallout proved to be T*(ag)=3.3×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1) and T**(ag)=4.0×10(-3)m(-2)kg(-1), respectively. The aggregated transfer factors T*(ag) for (137)Cs and spruce bark did not differ significantly in areas unequally affected by the (137)Cs fallout in the Czech Republic in 1986, and the figures for these aggregated transfer factors were very similar to the mean bark T(ag) values published from the extensively affected areas near Chernobyl. The magnitude of the (137)Cs aggregated transfer factors for spruce bark for the pre-Chernobyl and post-Chernobyl period in the Czech Republic was also very similar. The variability in spruce bark acidity caused by the operation of local anthropogenic air pollution sources did not significantly influence the accumulation and retention of (137)Cs in spruce bark. Increasing elevation of the bark sampling plots had a significant effect on raising the remaining (137)Cs specific activities in bark in areas affected by precipitation at the time when the plumes crossed, because the sums of this precipitation increased with elevation (covariable). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bark Beetle-Fungal Symbiosis: Context Dependency in Complex Associations

    Treesearch

    Kier D. Klepzig; D.L. Six

    2004-01-01

    Recent thinking in symbiosis research has emphasized a holistic consideration of these complex interactions. Bark beetles and their associated microbes are one group which has previously not been addressed in this manner. We review the study of symbiotic interactions among bark beetles and microbes in light of this thinking. We describe the considerable progress...

  8. The Ethanolic Extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ort.) Sarg. Bark and Its Fractions Delay the Progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Show Antinociceptive Activity in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Pablo-Pérez, Saudy Saret; Parada-Cruz, Benjamín; Barbier, Olivier Christophe; Meléndez-Camargo, María Estela

    2018-01-01

    Eysenhardtia polystachya is widely used in folk medicine as an anti-rheumatic and analgesic agent, but no systematic study of its effects on several markers associated with rheumatoid arthritis and its ethnomedical use as analgesic agent has been performed. We evaluated the anti-arthritic and antinociceptive properties of an ethanolic extract of E. polystachya (EE) bark and its rich-flavonoids fractions in murine models. The EE was administered orally at doses of 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day, and its fractions at 25 mg/kg/day in all animal models. Anti-arthritic activity was evaluated using a complete Freund´s adjuvant (CFA)-induced rheumatoid arthritis model in rats. The severity of arthritis was evaluated by changes in paw oedema, body weight, arthritic index, radiological scores, histological assessment of synovial joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, haematocrit, haemoglobin, serum rheumatoid factor, serum C-reactive protein and serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-18, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-13. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using an acetic acid-induced abdominal contraction test and a hot-plate test in mice. EE and its rich-flavonoids fractions inhibited secondary inflammatory reactions, diminished the specific histopathological alterations in the joint capsule and reduced the serum concentrations of the