Science.gov

Sample records for mahogany swietenia macrophylla

  1. Sustained mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) plantation heartwood increment.

    Treesearch

    Frank H. Wadsworth; Edgardo. Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    In a search for an increment-based rotation for plantation mahogany(Swietenia macrophylla King), heartwood volume per tree was regressed on DBH (trunk diameter outside bark at 1.4 m above the ground) and merchantable height measurements. We updated a previous study [Wadsworth, F.H., González González, E., Figuera Colón, J.C., Lugo P...

  2. Conservative nutrient use by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) planted under contrasting environmental conditions

    Treesearch

    E. Medina; E. Cuevas; A.E. Lugo; E. Terezo; J. Jimenez-Osornio; P.A. Macario-Mendoza; P. Montanez

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the nutritional composition and isotope ratios (C and N) of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) leaves in plantations established on contrasting soils and climates in Central America (State of Quintana Roo, Yucatan, Mexico) and South America (State of Para, Brazil). The objective was to determine the adaptability of this species to large...

  3. Regenerating mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) from seed in Quintana Roo, Mexico: the effects of sowing method and clearing treatment.

    Treesearch

    Patricia Negreros-Castilloa; Laura K. Snookb; Carl W. Mize

    2003-01-01

    Honduras or bigleaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) is the most commercially important timber species in the Neotropics, but it often does not regenerate successfully after harvesting. Effective methods are needed to sustain or increase mahogany yields by increasing regeneration. This study evaluates the effects of three treatments (slash, fell and burn; slash,...

  4. Post-logging loss of genetic diversity in a mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) population in Brazilian Amazonia

    Treesearch

    T. André; M.R. Lemes; J. Grogan; R. Gribel

    2008-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) is the most valuable widely traded timber species from the Neotropics. Mahogany has been severely overexploited throughout its natural range, which stretches from southern Mexico through Central and South America as far south as the Bolivian Amazon.We investigated effects of selective logging on the genetic...

  5. Regeneration of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in the Yucatan

    Treesearch

    M.B. Dickinson; D.F. Whigham; D.F. Whigham

    1999-01-01

    Low rates of natural regeneration of big-leaf mahogany were found in gaps due to felling and natural treefalls in the Yucatan. This finding is consistent with low post-logging abundances of reproductive-sized trees as well as relatively low growth rates of planted mahogany seedlings in small felling gaps. High growth rates of seedlings in large felling gaps and...

  6. Flowering phenology and its implications for management of big-leaf mahogany Swietenia macrophylla in Brazilian Amazonia

    Treesearch

    J. Grogan; M. D. Loveless

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study: Flowering phenology is a crucial determinant of reproductive success and offspring genetic diversity in plants. We measure the fl owering phenology of big-leaf mahogany ( Swietenia macrophylla , Meliaceae), a widely distributed neotropical tree, and explore how disturbance from logging impacts its reproductive biology. • Methods: We use a crown...

  7. Survival, growth and reproduction by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in open clearing vs. forested conditions in Brazil

    Treesearch

    James Grogan; Mark Schulze; Jurandir Galvao

    2010-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) trees are often retained in agricultural fields and pastures for seed and timber production after selective logging and forest clearing in the Brazilian Amazon. At a forest management site in southeast Para´, we censused trees growing scattered across a large open clearing after forest removal and in heavily disturbed forest...

  8. Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) seedling survival and growth across a topographic gradient in southeast Pará, Brazil

    Treesearch

    James Grogana; Mark S. Ashtona; Galv& atilde; Jurandir oc

    2003-01-01

    Adult populations of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) occur in aggregations along seasonal streams in transitional evergreen forests of southeast Pará, Brazil. To test whether variable seedling survival and growth across topography may underlie this observed distribution pattern, we planted nursery-grown seedlings in the...

  9. Verifying the geographic origin of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) with DNA-fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Degen, B; Ward, S E; Lemes, M R; Navarro, C; Cavers, S; Sebbenn, A M

    2013-01-01

    Illegal logging is one of the main causes of ongoing worldwide deforestation and needs to be eradicated. The trade in illegal timber and wood products creates market disadvantages for products from sustainable forestry. Although various measures have been established to counter illegal logging and the subsequent trade, there is a lack of practical mechanisms for identifying the origin of timber and wood products. In this study, six nuclear microsatellites were used to generate DNA fingerprints for a genetic reference database characterising the populations of origin of a large set of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) samples. For the database, leaves and/or cambium from 1971 mahogany trees sampled in 31 stands from Mexico to Bolivia were genotyped. A total of 145 different alleles were found, showing strong genetic differentiation (δ(Gregorious)=0.52, F(ST)=0.18, G(ST(Hedrick))=0.65) and clear correlation between genetic and spatial distances among stands (r=0.82, P<0.05). We used the genetic reference database and Bayesian assignment testing to determine the geographic origins of two sets of mahogany wood samples, based on their multilocus genotypes. In both cases the wood samples were assigned to the correct country of origin. We discuss the overall applicability of this methodology to tropical timber trading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Growth response by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) advance seedling regeneration to overhead canopy release in southeast Pará, Brazil

    Treesearch

    James Grogana; R. Matthew Landisc; Mark S. Ashtona; Jurandir Galva˜od

    2005-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) is a valuable neotropical timber species whose seedling survival and growth dynamics in natural forests are poorly understood. To document regeneration dynamics of mahogany in seasonal transitional evergreen forests of southeast Pará, Brazil, we followed naturally established seedlings in the forest understory...

  11. Genetic diversity in mesoamerican populations of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), assessed using RAPDs.

    PubMed

    Gillies, A C; Navarro, C; Lowe, A J; Newton, A C; Hernández, M; Wilson, J; Cornelius, J P

    1999-12-01

    Swietenia macrophylla King, a timber species native to tropical America, is threatened by selective logging and deforestation. To quantify genetic diversity within the species and monitor the impact of selective logging, populations were sampled across Mesoamerica, from Mexico to Panama, and analysed for RAPD DNA variation. Ten decamer primers generated 102 polymorphic RAPD bands and pairwise distances were calculated between populations according to Nei, then used to construct a radial neighbour-joining dendrogram and examine intra- and interpopulation variance coefficients, by analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA). Populations from Mexico clustered closely together in the dendrogram and were distinct from the rest of the populations. Those from Belize also clustered closely together. Populations from Panama, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Honduras, however, did not cluster closely by country but were more widely scattered throughout the dendrogram. This result was also reflected by an autocorrelation analysis of genetic and geographical distance. Genetic diversity estimates indicated that 80% of detected variation was maintained within populations and regression analysis demonstrated that logging significantly decreased population diversity (P = 0.034). This study represents one of the most wide-ranging surveys of molecular variation within a tropical tree species to date. It offers practical information for the future conservation of mahogany and highlights some factors that may have influenced the partitioning of genetic diversity in this species across Mesoamerica.

  12. Growth history and crown vine coverage are principal factors influencing growth and mortality rates of big-leaf mahogany Swietenia macrophylla in Brazil

    Treesearch

    James Grogan; R. Matthew Landis

    2009-01-01

    1. Current efforts to model population dynamics of high-value tropical timber species largely assume that individual growth history is unimportant to population dynamics, yet growth autocorrelation is known to adversely affect model predictions. In this study, we analyse a decade of annual census data from a natural population of big-leaf mahogany Swietenia macrophylla...

  13. What loggers leave behind: Impacts on big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) commercial populations and potential for post-logging recovery in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Treesearch

    James Grogan; Stephen B. Jennings; R. Matthew Landis; Mark Schulze; Anadilza M.V. Baima; do Carmo A. Lopes J.; Julian M. Norghauer; L. Rog& eacute Oliveira; rio; Frank Pantoja; Diane Pinto; Jose Natalino M. Silva; Edson Vidal; Barbara L. Zimmerman

    2008-01-01

    The sustainability of current harvest practices for high-value Meliaceae can be assessed by quantifying logging intensity and projecting growth and survival by post-logging populations over anticipated intervals between harvests. From 100%-area inventories of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) covering 204 ha or more at eight logged and unlogged forest sites...

  14. Performance and genetic variation of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) in provenance and progeny trials in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico.

    Treesearch

    Kevyn E. Wightman; Sheila E. Ward; Jeremy P. Haggar; Bartolo Rodriguez Santiago; Jonathan P. Cornelius

    2008-01-01

    Stocks of the valuable big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) are declining, and trials for growth and pest resistance are needed to select material for plantations. Seeds were collected from 67 open-pollinated trees from five provenances in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico and planted in three provenance/progeny trials in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico, in...

  15. Factors Limiting Post-logging Seedling Regeneration by Big-leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in Southeastern Amazonia, Brazil, and Implications for Sustainable Management

    Treesearch

    James Grogan; Jurandir Galvao

    2006-01-01

    Post-logging seedling regeneration density by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), a nonpioneer light-demanding timber species, is generally reported to be low to nonexistent. To investigate factors limiting seedling density following logging within the study region, we quantified seed production rates, germinability, dispersal patterns, and seed fates on the...

  16. Flowering phenology and its implications for management of big-leaf mahogany Swietenia macrophylla in Brazilian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Grogan, James; Loveless, Marilyn D

    2013-11-01

    Flowering phenology is a crucial determinant of reproductive success and offspring genetic diversity in plants. We measure the flowering phenology of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla, Meliaceae), a widely distributed neotropical tree, and explore how disturbance from logging impacts its reproductive biology. We use a crown scoring system to estimate the timing and duration of population-level flowering at three forest sites in the Brazilian Amazon over a five-year period. We combine this information with data on population structure and spatial distribution to consider the implications of logging for population flowering patterns and reproductive success. Mahogany trees as small as 14 cm diam flowered, but only trees > 30 cm diam flowered annually or supra-annually. Mean observed flowering periods by focal trees ranged from 18-34 d, and trees flowered sequentially during 3-4 mo beginning in the dry season. Focal trees demonstrated significant interannual correlation in flowering order. Estimated population-level flowering schedules resembled that of the focal trees, with temporal isolation between early and late flowering trees. At the principal study site, conventional logging practices eliminated 87% of mahogany trees > 30 cm diam and an estimated 94% of annual pre-logging floral effort. Consistent interannual patterns of sequential flowering among trees create incompletely isolated subpopulations, constraining pollen flow. After harvests, surviving subcommercial trees will have fewer, more distant, and smaller potential partners, with probable consequences for post-logging regeneration. These results have important implications for the sustainability of harvesting systems for tropical timber species.

  17. NIRS Identification of Swietenia Macrophylla is Robust Across Specimens from 27 Countries

    Treesearch

    Maria C.J. Bergo; Tereza C.M. Pastore; Vera T.R. Coradin; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Jez W.B. Braga

    2016-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany is the world’s most valuable widely traded tropical timber species and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) has been applied as a tool for discriminating its wood from similar species using multivariate analysis. In this study four look-alike timbers of Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany or big-leaf mahogany), Carapa...

  18. Swietenia macrophylla extract promotes the ability of Caenorhabditis elegans to survive Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Dharmalingam, Komalavali; Tan, Boon-Khai; Mahmud, Muhd Zulkarnain; Sedek, Saiedatul Akmal Mohamed; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul; Kuah, Meng-Kiat; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Ooi, Kheng Leong; Khan, Nurzalina Abdul Karim; Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku; Tan, Man-Wah; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong

    2012-01-31

    Swietenia macrophylla or commonly known as big leaf mahogany, has been traditionally used as an antibacterial and antifungal agent. The unwanted problem of antibiotic resistance in many bacterial species advocates the need for the discovery of the new anti-infective drugs. Here, we investigated the anti-infective properties of Swietenia macrophylla with an assay involving lethal infection of Caenorhabditis elegans with the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using a slow killing assay, Caenorhabditis elegans was challenged with an infective strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA14). The ability of Swietenia macrophylla seed ethyl acetate extract to promote the survival of infected worms was assessed by comparing the percentage of survival between extract treated and non-treated worm populations. The effect of Swietenia macrophylla towards PA14 growth, Caenorhabditis elegans feeding rate and degree of PA14 colonization in the worm gut was also evaluated. Lastly, using a fluorescent transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strain and real time PCR, the effect of Swietenia macrophylla on the expression of lys-7, an immune response gene was also investigated. Our results demonstrate the ability of Swietenia macrophylla seed ethyl acetate extract in rescuing Caenorhabditis elegans from fatal PA14 infection. Consequently, we showed that the extract promotes the survival without exhibiting any bactericidal effect or perturbation of Caenorhabditis elegans feeding rate. We also showed that Swietenia macrophylla was able to restore the initially repressed lys-7 level in PA14 infected Caenorhabditis elegans. Swietenia macrophylla extract is able to enhance the ability of Caenorhabditis elegans to survive PA14 infection without directly killing the pathogen. We further showed that the extract boosted the expression of a gene pivotal for innate immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Collectively, these findings strongly suggest the presence of compounds within Swietenia

  19. Height Growth of Mahogany Seedlings

    Treesearch

    C. B. Briscoe; R. W. Nobles

    1962-01-01

    Since the recognition of natural hybridization of small-leaf (West Indies) mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni Jacq.) with bigleaf (Honduras) mahogany (S. macrophylla King) there has been conjecture about their relative growth rates. One would expect small-leaf to be the fastest growing on dry sites, the hybrids to be fastest on intermediate sites, and bigleaf to excel on wet...

  20. Over-harvesting driven by consumer demand leads to population decline: big-leaf mahogany in South America

    Treesearch

    James Grogan; Arthur G. Blundell; R. Matthew Landis; Ani Youatt; Raymond E. Gullison; Martha Martinez; Roberto Kometter; Marco Lentini; Richard E. Rice

    2010-01-01

    Consumer demand for the premier neotropical luxury timber, big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), has driven boom-and-bust logging cycles for centuries, depleting local and regional supplies from Mexico to Bolivia. We revise the standard historic range map for mahogany in South America and estimate the extent to which commercial stocks have been depleted using...

  1. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of bioactive saponin from mahogany seed (Swietenia mahogany Jacq)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waziiroh, E.; Harijono; Kamilia, K.

    2018-03-01

    Mahogany is frequently used for medicines for cancer, tumor, and diabetes, as it contains saponin and flavonoid. Saponin is a complex glycosydic compound consisted of triterpenoids or steroids. Saponin can be extracted from a plant by using a solvent extraction. Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) is a non-conventional extraction method that use micro waves in the process. This research was conducted by a Complete Random Design with two factors which were extraction time (120, 150, and 180 seconds) and solvent ratio (10:1, 15:1, and 20:1 v/w). The best treatment of MAE were the solvent ratio 15:1 (v/w) for 180 seconds. The best treatment resulting crude saponin extract yield of 41.46%, containing 11.53% total saponins, and 49.17% of antioxidant activity. Meanwhile, the treatment of maceration method were the solvent ratio 20:1 (v/w) for 48 hours resulting 39.86% yield of saponin crude extract, 9.26% total saponins and 56.23% of antioxidant activity. The results showed MAE was more efficient (less time of extraction and solvent amount) than maceration method.

  2. Big-Leaf Mahogany on CITES Appendix II: Big Challenge, Big Opportunity

    Treesearch

    JAMES GROGAN; PAULO BARRETO

    2005-01-01

    On 15 November 2003, big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae), the most valuable widely traded Neotropical timber tree, gained strengthened regulatory protection from its listing on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species ofWild Fauna and Flora (CITES). CITES is a United Nations-chartered agreement signed by 164...

  3. A novel disease of big-leaf mahogany caused by two Fusarium species in Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Swietenia macrophylla is valued for its high-quality wood and use in urban landscapes in Mexico. During surveys of mango-producing areas in the central western region of Mexico, symptoms of malformation, the most important disease of mango in the area, were observed on big-leaf mahogany trees. The o...

  4. The importance of tree size and fecundity for wind dispersal of big-leaf mahogany

    Treesearch

    Julian M. Norghauer; Charles A. Nock; James Grogan

    2011-01-01

    Seed dispersal by wind is a critical yet poorly understood process in tropical forest trees. How tree size and fecundity affect this process at the population level remains largely unknown because of insufficient replication across adults. We measured seed dispersal by the endangered neotropical timber species big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae)...

  5. Silviculture guide for the mahogany forests of Quintana Roo, Mexico – Criteria and recommendations

    Treesearch

    P. Negreros-Castillo; L. Cámara-Cabrales; Margaret Devall; M.A. Fajvan; M.A. Mendoza Briseño; C.W. Mize

    2014-01-01

    Silviculture is the art, science and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, health, quality and growth of forests to accomplish a set of management objectives. This publication offers an approach to silviculture of the forests of Quintana Roo in which mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King), the commercially most important tree species in Latin America,...

  6. Silviculture of the mahogany forest of Quintana Roo, Mexico: criteria and recommendations

    Treesearch

    P. ​​Negreros-Castillo; L. Camara-Cabrales; MS Devall; Mary Ann Fajvan; M.A. Mendoza Briseno; C.W. Mize; A. Navarro-Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Silviculture is the art, science and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, health, quality and growth of forests to accomplish a set of management objectives. This publication offers an approach to silviculture of the forests of Quintana Roo in which mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King), the commercially most important tree...

  7. Flexible mating system in a logged population of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae): implications for the management of a threatened neotropical tree species

    Treesearch

    Maristerra R. Lemes; Dario Grattapaglia; James Grogan; John Proctor; Rog& eacute Gribel; rio

    2007-01-01

    Microsatellites were used to evaluate the mating system of the remaining trees in a logged population of Swietenia macrophylla, a highly valuable and threatened hardwood species, in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 25 open pollinated progeny arrays of 16 individuals, with their mother trees, were genotyped using eight highly polymorphic...

  8. Big-leaf mahogany Swietenia macrophylla population dynamics and implications for sustainable management

    Treesearch

    James Grogan; R. Matthew Landis; Christopher M. Free; Mark D. Schulze; Marco Lentini; Mark S. Ashton

    2014-01-01

    Summary 1. The impacts of selective harvesting in tropical forests on population recovery and future timber yields by high-value species remain largely unknown for lack of demographic data spanning all phases of life history, from seed to senescence. In this study, we use an individual- based model parameterized using 15 years of annual census data to simulate...

  9. Isolation and Antimicrobial Activity of Flavonoid Compounds from Mahagony Seeds (Swietenia macrophylla, King)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mursiti, S.; Supartono

    2017-02-01

    Flavonoid is one of the secondary metabolites compounds in mahogany seeds. Mahogany seeds can be used as an antimicrobial. This study aims to determine the antimicrobial activity of flavonoid compounds from mahogany seeds against Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Bacillus cereus (B.cereus). Isolation of flavonoid compounds done step by step. First, the maceration using n-hexane, then with methanol. The methanol extract was dissolved in ethyl acetate and aquadest, then separated. Ethyl acetate extract evaporated Flavonoid compounds were. The testing of antimicrobial activity of flavonoid compounds using the absorption method. The results showed that the antimicrobial activity of flavonoid compounds from mahogany seeds shows the inhibitory activity and provide clear zone against bacteria E.coli with value Inhibitory Regional Diameter 18.50 mm respectively, and 14.50 mm to the bacteria. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that flavonoid compounds from mahogany seeds have antimicrobial activity against E.coli and B.cereus.

  10. Shifts in reproductive assurance strategies and inbreeding costs associated with habitat fragmentation in Central American mahogany

    PubMed Central

    Breed, Martin F; Gardner, Michael G; Ottewell, Kym M; Navarro, Carlos M; Lowe, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    The influence of habitat fragmentation on mating patterns and progeny fitness in trees is critical for understanding the long-term impact of contemporary landscape change on the sustainability of biodiversity. We examined the relationship between mating patterns, using microsatellites, and fitness of progeny, in a common garden trial, for the insect-pollinated big-leaf mahogany, Swietenia macrophylla King, sourced from forests and isolated trees in 16 populations across Central America. As expected, isolated trees had disrupted mating patterns and reduced fitness. However, for dry provenances, fitness was negatively related to correlated paternity, while for mesic provenances, fitness was correlated positively with outcrossing rate and negatively with correlated paternity. Poorer performance of mesic provenances is likely because of reduced effective pollen donor density due to poorer environmental suitability and greater disturbance history. Our results demonstrate a differential shift in reproductive assurance and inbreeding costs in mahogany, driven by exploitation history and contemporary landscape context. PMID:22381041

  11. Wood typification by Venturi easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry: the case of the endangered Mahogany tree.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Elaine C; Simas, Rosineide C; Santos, Vanessa G; Queiroga, Carmen L; da Cunha, Valnei S; de Sá, Gilberto F; Daroda, Romeu J; Eberlin, Marcos N

    2012-01-01

    Venturi easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry in both its liquid (V(L) -EASI-MS) and solid sample modes (V(S) -EASI-MS) is shown to provide nearly immediate and secure typification of woods, as demonstrated for Mahogany, an endangered and most valuable type of tropical wood. This reddish wood displays unique phytochemical markers (phragmalin-type limonoids) which are rapidly detected from the wood surface by V(S) -EASI-MS or from a simple methanol extract of a tiny wood chip by V(L) -EASI-MS. Unique profiles were obtained for Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) whereas genuine samples of six other similar types of woods, which are commonly falsified by artificial coloring and commercialized as Mahogany, display also typical but dissimilar pythochemical profiles as compared to that of the authentic wood. Variable and atypical chemical profiles were observed for artificially colored woods. Secure chemical characterization via V(S) -EASI-MS or V(s) -EASI-MS fingerprints of Mahogany and other types of woods with similar appearance should help to control the illegal logging and trade of this and other endangered woods and their falsification, and to create certified standards. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Management implications of long-term tree growth and mortality rates: A modeling study of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in the Brazilian Amazon

    Treesearch

    C.M. Free; R.M. Landis; J. Grogan; M.D. Schulze; M. Lentini; O. Dunisch; NO-VALUE

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of tree age-size relationships is essential towards evaluating the sustainability of harvest regulations that include minimum diameter cutting limits and fixed-length cutting cycles. Although many tropical trees form annual growth rings and can be aged from discs or cores, destructive sampling is not always an option for valuable or threatened species. We...

  13. Estimating the number of trees and forest area necessary to supply internationally traded volumes of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in Amazonia

    Treesearch

    J. Grogan; M. Schulze

    2008-01-01

    requires producer nations to certify that exported supplies were obtained in a manner non-detrimental to the species’ survival in its role in the ecosystem. Non-detriment findings based on annual export quotas should verify that current harvest rates are sustainable with respect to total commercial stocks. In order to assess this impact, a method for converting export...

  14. The Importance of Tree Size and Fecundity for Wind Dispersal of Big-Leaf Mahogany

    PubMed Central

    Norghauer, Julian M.; Nock, Charles A.; Grogan, James

    2011-01-01

    Seed dispersal by wind is a critical yet poorly understood process in tropical forest trees. How tree size and fecundity affect this process at the population level remains largely unknown because of insufficient replication across adults. We measured seed dispersal by the endangered neotropical timber species big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) in the Brazilian Amazon at 25 relatively isolated trees using multiple 1-m wide belt transects extended 100 m downwind. Tree diameter and fecundity correlated positively with increased seed shadow extent; but in combination large, high fecundity trees contributed disproportionately to longer-distance dispersal events (>60 m). Among three empirical models fitted to seed density vs. distance in one dimension, the Student-t (2Dt) generally fit best (compared to the negative exponential and inverse power). When seedfall downwind was modelled in two dimensions using a normalised sample, it peaked furthest downwind (c. 25 m) for large, high-fecundity trees; with the inverse Gaussian and Weibull functions providing comparable fits that were slightly better than the lognormal. Although most seeds fell within 30 m of parent trees, relatively few juveniles were found within this distance, resulting in juvenile-to-seed ratios peaking at c. 35–45 m. Using the 2Dt model fits to predict seed densities downwind, coupled with known fecundity data for 2000–2009, we evaluated potential Swietenia regeneration near adults (≤30 m dispersal) and beyond 30 m. Mean seed arrival into canopy gaps >30 m downwind was more than 3× greater for large, high fecundity trees than small, high-fecundity trees. Tree seed production did not necessarily scale up proportionately with diameter, and was not consistent across years, and this resulting intraspecific variation can have important consequences for local patterns of dispersal in forests. Our results have important implications for management and conservation of big

  15. Organ-coordinated response of early post-germination mahogany seedlings to drought.

    PubMed

    Horta, Lívia P; Braga, Márcia R; Lemos-Filho, José P; Modolo, Luzia V

    2014-04-01

    Water deficit tolerance during post-germination stages is critical for seedling recruitment. In this work, we studied the effect of water deficit on morphological and biochemical responses in different organs of newly germinated mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) seedlings, a woody species that occurs in the Amazon rainforest. The root : shoot ratio increased under water deficit. The leaf number and water potential were not altered, although reductions in leaf area and stomatal conductance were observed. Osmotic potential became more negative in leaves of seedlings under severe stress. Water deficit increased fructose, glucose, sucrose and myo-inositol levels in leaves. Stems accumulated fructose, glucose and l-proline. Nitric oxide (NO) levels increased in the vascular cylinder of roots under severe stress while superoxide anion levels decreased due to augmented superoxide dismutase activity in this organ. Water deficit induced glutathione reductase activity in both roots and stems. Upon moderate or severe stress, catalase activity decreased in leaves and remained unaffected in the other seedling organs, allowing for an increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in leaves. Overall, the increase of signaling molecules in distinct organs-NO in roots, l-proline in stems and H2O2 and myo-inositol in leaves-contributed to the response of mahogany seedlings to water deficit by triggering biochemical processes that resulted in the attenuation of oxidative stress and the establishment of osmotic adjustment. Therefore, this body of evidence reveals that the development of newly germinated mahogany seedlings may occur in both natural habitats and crop fields even when water availability is greatly limited.

  16. Natural resistance of plantation grown African mahogany (Khaya ivorensis and Khaya senegalensis) from Brazil to wood-rot fungi and subterranean termites

    Treesearch

    Tâmara Suely Filgueira Amorim França; Frederico José Nistal França; Rachel A. Arango; Bessie M. Woodward; Marina Donária Chaves Arantes

    2016-01-01

    African mahogany (Khaya spp.) has attracted the interest of the timber market in Brazil because of the quality of the wood and the similarity to the highly demanded, Brazilian mahogany (S. macrophylla King). The goal of this study was to examine natural resistance of plantation-grown African mahogany (

  17. Leaf Size in Swietenia

    Treesearch

    Charles B. Briscoe; F. Bruce Lamb

    1962-01-01

    A study was made of the putative hybrid of bigleaf and small-leaf mahoganies. Initial measurements indicated that bigleaf mahogany can be distinguished from small-leaf mahogany by gross measurements of leaflets. Isolated mother trees yield typical progeny. Typical mother trees in mixed stands yield like progeny plus, usually, mediumleaf progeny. Mediumleaf mother trees...

  18. Herbivores limit the population size of big-leaf mahogany trees in an Amazonian forest

    Treesearch

    Julian M. Norghauer; Christopher M. Free; R. Matthew Landis; James Grogan; Jay R. Malcolm; Sean C. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Janzen -- Connell hypothesis proposes that specialized herbivores maintain high numbers of tree species in tropical forests by restricting adult recruitment so that host populations remain at low densities. We tested this prediction for the large timber tree species, Swietenia macrophylla, whose seeds and seedlings are preyed upon by small mammals and a host-...

  19. A twelve-year comparison of stand changes in a mahogany plantation and a paired natural forest of similar ages.

    Treesearch

    S. Fu; C. Rodr¡guez Pedraza; A. E. Lugo

    1996-01-01

    we compared forest structure over a 12 yr period. 1982-1994 that include measurements before and after a servere hurricaine in two forests: a 64 yr old swietenia macrophylla tree plantantion and a paired natural forest of similar age in a subtropical wet forests

  20. Variation of Specific Gravity in Plantation-Grown Trees of Bigleaf Mahogany

    Treesearch

    C. B. Briscoe; J. B. Harris; D. Wyckoff

    1963-01-01

    As a prelude to tree improvement work in the genus Swietenia, a study was made of specific gravity variation within the bole of six plantation-grown trees of bigleaf mahogany. Variation was appreciable, from 0.36 to 0.65 , and several patterns were determined. Specific gravity of the tree increased with growth rate, as expressed in diameter at breast height, but not...

  1. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of essential oil from Swietenia mahagoni seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norodin, N. S. M.; Salleh, L. M.; Hartati; Mustafa, N. M.

    2016-11-01

    Swietenia mahagoni (Mahogany) is a traditional plant that is rich with bioactive compounds. In this study, process parameters such as particle size, extraction time, solvent flowrate, temperature and pressure were studied on the extraction of essential oil from Swietenia mahagoni seeds by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. Swietenia mahagoni seeds was extracted at a pressure of 20-30 MPa and a temperature of 40-60°C. The effect of particle size on overall extraction of essential oil was done at 30 MPa and 50°C while the extraction time of essential oil at various temperatures and at a constant pressure of 30 MPa was studied. Meanwhile, the effect of flowrate CO2 was determined at the flowrate of 2, 3 and 4 ml/min. From the experimental data, the extraction time of 120 minutes, particle size of 0.5 mm, the flowrate of CO2 of 4 ml/min, at a pressure of 30 MPa and the temperature of 60°C were the best conditions to obtain the highest yield of essential oil.

  2. Cercocarpus Kunth: mountain-mahogany

    Treesearch

    Stanley G. Kitchen

    2008-01-01

    The mountain mahoganies - genus Cercocarpus - are 8 to 10 species of moderately to intricately branched shrubs or small trees that are endemic to dry coastal and interior mountains of the western United States and Mexico (Stutz 1990). Leaves are generally persistent and stems are unarmed. Two of the most widely distributed and utilized species are described here.

  3. Root Pruning of Mahogany Nursery Stock

    Treesearch

    R. W. Nobles; C. B. Briscoe

    1966-01-01

    Root pruning had no effect on growth or survival of either young or held-over mahogany nursery stock. Potted mahogany seedlings may be held in the nursery an extra year or more without reducing-either growth or survival following outplanting. Growth may be slightly better for the older stock.

  4. Pharmacognosy of swietenia mahagoni bark drug.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, M; Datta, P C

    1986-01-01

    Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. (native to tropical America), a common avenue tree of India, yields a bark drug, used as antipyretic, bitter tonic, astringent, and occasionally as a substitute for Cinchona. The district characteristics of the species are : blackish brown colour; cracks and fissures with both clean cut and thick recurved edges; irregular wrinkles; splintery and fibrous fractures; bitter taste; compound sieve plates; mostly biseriate rays; abundant rhomboidal crystals; presence of tannin, saponin, lignin and absence of alkaloids.

  5. PHARMACOGNOSY OF SWIETENIA MAHAGONI BARK DRUG

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Manisha; Datta, P. C.

    1986-01-01

    Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. (native to tropical America), a common avenue tree of India, yields a bark drug, used as antipyretic, bitter tonic, astringent, and occasionally as a substitute for Cinchona. The district characteristics of the species are : blackish brown colour; cracks and fissures with both clean cut and thick recurved edges; irregular wrinkles; splintery and fibrous fractures; bitter taste; compound sieve plates; mostly biseriate rays; abundant rhomboidal crystals; presence of tannin, saponin, lignin and absence of alkaloids. PMID:22557521

  6. Earthworm abundance and species composition in abandoned tropical croplands: comparisons of tree plantations and secondary forests.

    Treesearch

    G. Gonzalez; X. Zou; S. Borges

    1996-01-01

    We compared patterns of earthworms abundance and species composition in tree plantation and secondary forest of Puerto Rico. Tree plantations included pine (Pinus caribea Morelet) and mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) established in the 1930's; 1960's; and 1970's; secondary forests were naturally regenerated in areas adjacent to these plantations. We...

  7. Competition among surface roots in a selectively-logged, semi-deciduous forest in southeastern Mexico - effects on seedlings of two species of contrasting shade tolerance

    Treesearch

    Matthew Dickinson; D.F. Wigham

    2013-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of root competition on naturally established seedlings were conducted across canopy openness and soil depth gradients in a selectively-logged, semideciduous forest on limestone-derived soils in southeastern Mexico. We studied the relatively shade intolerant mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla, Meliaceae) and shade tolerant...

  8. Phyto-SERM Constitutes from Flemingia macrophylla

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wan-Chun; Tsui, Ya-Ting; Singab, Abdel Nasser B.; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Du, Ying-Chi; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Wu, Chin-Chung; Yen, Ming-Hong; Lee, Ching-Kuo; Hou, Ming-Feng; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2013-01-01

    The methanolic extract of Flemingia macrophylla roots exhibited significant estrogenic activity in the transgenic plant assay system which was comparable to the activity of soybean extract. Utilizing estrogenic activity-guided fractionation, one new compound, fleminigin, together with 23 known compounds were isolated from F. macrophylla roots’ methanolic extract. The structure of the new compound was identified based on intensive spectroscopic analysis and the full spectral data for one of the isolated compounds, flemichin E, was introduced for the first time in the current investigation. The estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated revealing that the isolated isoflavonoids may act as partial estrogen agonists, as well as antagonists. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory and the cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were studied. These results suggested the potential applications of F. macrophylla extract and its isolated compounds as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). PMID:23896592

  9. 50 CFR 648.76 - Maine mahogany quahog zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.76 Maine mahogany quahog zone. (a) Landing requirements... Advisory Panel shall make recommendations, through the Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Committee of the Council...

  10. Is There Mahogany Obsidian in Northeastern Sonora, Mexico?

    DOE PAGES

    Dolan, Sean Gregory; Shackley, M. Steven

    2017-01-01

    A piece of mahogany obsidian came to the attention of the senior author during an excavation project near the town of Mata Ortiz, Chihuahua, Mexico in 2015. Because mahogany obsidian in northwestern Mexico is particularly rare, the question was raised, what obsidian source did this sample derive? Here, using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry, we demonstrate it comes from the Agua Fria obsidian source in northeastern Sonora, Mexico. Unfortunately, we do not know where this sample was collected from. We discuss these results and the significance of this find in this paper, but more investigation is certainly warranted.

  11. El bosque del parque central de la urbanización El Paraíso: estructura, composición de especies y crecimiento de árboles

    Treesearch

    E. Román Nunci; H. Marcano Vega; I. Vicéns; G. Bortolamedi; A.E. Lugo

    2005-01-01

    We studied an urban forest established in 1988 by residents of the El Paraíso urbanization. In 2007 the forest had 37 forest species (9 native and 28 introduced) with diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 4 cm in a 1.0785 ha area. The most common species was the hybrid mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla x mahagony) with an Importance Value of 24.3 percent. The forest had two...

  12. Killing Unwanted West Indies Mahogany Trees by Peeling and Frilling

    Treesearch

    R. W. Nobles; C. B. Briscoe

    1966-01-01

    Peeling and frilling each killed approximately 70 percent of treated West Indies mahogany, but peeling killed a higher percentage of trees between 18 and 33 centimeters (7 and 13 inches) than did frilling. Essentially all mortality occurred within the first 15 months following treatment.

  13. Height Growth of Mahogany Seedlings, St. Croix, Virgin Islands

    Treesearch

    R. W. Nobles; C. B. Briscoe

    1966-01-01

    Small-leaf mahogany seedlings grew more rapidly than bigleaf and their hybrids grew more rapidly than either for the first two years. However, by age 4 and continuing through age 7, both hybrids and bigleaf were significantly taller than small-leaf. Bigleaf suffered the most mortality, followed by small-leaf, then the two hybrids.

  14. 50 CFR 648.76 - Maine mahogany quahog zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.76 Maine mahogany quahog zone. Link to... northward toward Atlantic Beach Light in New York to the limit of the state territorial waters of New York... south of 42°20′ N. lat. (b) Areas closed because of small surfclams. Areas may be closed because they...

  15. [Ecology suitability study of Chinese materia medica Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix].

    PubMed

    Lu, You-Yuan; Yang, Yan-Mei; Ma, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Jin, Ling

    2016-09-01

    This paper is aimed to predict ecology suitability distribution of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix and search the main ecological factors affecting the suitability distribution. The 313 distribution information about G. macrophylla, 186 distribution information about G. straminea, 343 distribution information about G. dauricaand 131 distribution information about G. crasicaulis were collected though investigation and network sharing platform data . The ecology suitable distribution factors for production Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix was analyzed respectively by the software of ArcGIS and MaxEnt with 55 environmental factors. The result of MaxEnt prediction was very well (AUC was above 0.9). The results of predominant factors analysis showed that precipitation and altitude were all the major factors impacting the ecology suitable of Getiana Macrophylla Radix production. G. macrophylla ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in south of Gansu, Shanxi, central of Shaanxi and east of Qinghai provinces. G. straminea ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in southwest of Gansu, east of Qinghai, north and northwest of Sichuan, east of Xizang province. G. daurica ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in south and southwest of Gansu, east of Qinghai, Shanxi and north of Shaanxi province. G. crasicaulis ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in Sichuan and north of Yunnan, east of Xizang, south of Gansu and east of Qinghai province. The ecological suitability distribution result of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix was consistent with each species actual distribution. The study could provide reference for the collection and protection of wild resources, meanwhile, provide the basis for the selection of cultivation area of Gentiana Macrophylla Radix. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Use of curlleaf mountain-mahogany by mule deer on a transition range.

    Treesearch

    J. Edward Dealy; Paul J. Edgerton; Wayne G. Williams

    1986-01-01

    Using the pellet-group sampling method, we concluded that migrating mule deer showed no preference in use between two ratios of curlleaf mountain-mahogany cover and openings on a northern California transition range. Where there is a need to develop forage openings in transition habitats dominated by dense thickets of curlleaf mountain-mahogany, manipulation of cover...

  17. Production of triploid Hydrangea macrophylla via unreduced gamete breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser., florist’s or bigleaf hydrangea, is the most economically important member of the Hydrangea genus, which accounted for 73,000,000 in US nursery sales in 2007. Diploid and triploid cultivars exist and there is some evidence triploidy leads to larger plant and flora...

  18. Stand development and population dynamics of curlleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt.) woodlands in Utah's Bear River Mountains

    Treesearch

    Seth A. Ex; Robert DeRose; James N. Long

    2011-01-01

    Curlleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt.) is a little-studied woodland tree that occurs in pure stands throughout the Intermountain West. Stand development and population dynamics of this species are poorly understood, despite their relevance to management. We describe here the development of stand age structures and population dynamics of mahogany...

  19. Implementing CITES regulations for timber.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Arthur G

    2007-03-01

    Foresters are currently confronted with a new challenge. For the first time a commonly traded timber species has been listed on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). At the 12th Conference of the Parties in November 2002, countries voted 68 to 30 to place the premier timber species of Latin America, big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King [Meliaceae]), on CITES Appendix II. Under Appendix II regulations, trade in mahogany requires that exporting countries verify that each shipment was legally obtained and that its harvest was non-detrimental to the survival of the species. Unfortunately, implementation has been weak, in part because countries have yet to develop a common, pragmatic, cost-effective system to make the legal and non-detriment findings. This paper recommends what such a system might include.

  20. An update on Hydrangea macrophylla genomics progress using next generation sequencing methods.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydrangea macrophylla was in cultivation in Japan and China long before it was introduced to England and France in the late 19th to early 20th century. Modern breeding work began in Europe in the early 1900’s, resulting in the development of over 300 cultivars prior to the beginning of the second Wo...

  1. Antioxidative Role of Hatikana (Leea macrophylla Roxb.) Partially Improves the Hepatic Damage Induced by CCl4 in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Samina; Rahman, Md. Atiar; Aklima, Jannatul; Hasan, Md. Rakibul; Hasan Chowdhury, J. M. Kamirul

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the protective role of Leea macrophylla extract on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla (Roxb.) crude extract were subjected to analysis for antioxidative effects. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as normal control, hepatic control, and reference control (silymarin) group and treatment group. Evaluations were made for the effects of the fractions on serum enzymes and biochemical parameters of CCl4-induced albino rat. Histopathological screening was also performed to evaluate the changes of liver tissue before and after treatment. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla showed very potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing effect, superoxide scavenging effect, and iron chelating effect. Carbon tetrachloride induction increased the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. In contrast, treatment of Leea macrophylla reduced the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as biochemical parameters activities. L. macrophylla partially restored the lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. Histopathology showed the treated liver towards restoration. Results evidenced that L. macrophylla can be prospective source of hepatic management in liver injury. PMID:26221590

  2. Sporophyte and gametophyte development of Platycerium coronarium (Koenig) Desv. and P. grande (Fee) C. Presl. (Polypodiaceae) through in vitro propagation.

    PubMed

    Aspiras, Reyno A

    2010-01-01

    The sporophyte and gametophyte development of Platycerium coronarium and P. grande were compared through ex situ propagation using in vitro culture technique and under greenhouse and field conditions. The morphology of the sporophyte and gametophyte, type of spore germination and prothallial development of P. coronarium and P. grande were documented. Gametophytes of P. coronarium and P. grande were cultured in vitro using different media. The gametophytes were then transferred and potted in sterile chopped Cyathea spp. (anonotong) roots and garden soil for sporophyte formation. Sporophytes (plantlets) of the two Platycerium species were attached on the slabs of anonotong and on branches and trunks of Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany) under greenhouse and field conditions. Sporophyte morphology of P. coronarium and P. grande varies but not their gametophyte morphology. P. coronarium and P. grande exhibited rapid spore germination and gametophyte development in both spore culture medium and Knudson C culture medium containing 2% glucose. Gametophytes of P. coronarium and P. grande transferred to potting medium produced more number of sporophytes while the gametophytes inside the culture media did not produce sporophytes. Sporophytes of P. grande attached on mahogany branches produced more number of leaves with bigger leaf area than those attached on anonotong slabs. Likewise, sporophytes of P. coronarium attached on mahogany branches and anonotong slabs did not develop new leaves during two weeks monitoring and are still in a period of adjustment to its environment. Sporophytes of P. grande grown or attached on the trunk of mahogany trees in the field and under shaded environment favored their growth.

  3. Effects of Millettia macrophylla (Fabaceae) extracts on estrogen target organs of female wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Zingue, Stéphane; Njamen, Dieudonné; Tchoumtchoua, Job; Halabalaki, Maria; Simpson, Evan; Clyne, Colin; Magne Nde, Chantal Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the estrogenicity of Millettia macrophylla, a Cameroonian medicinal plant, in ovariectomized rats and to investigate the underlying mechanisms, in order to justify scientifically its traditional use. To accomplish this objective, we used dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of the stem bark of M. macrophylla. In the cell culture based assay, the MeOH extract significantly transactivated estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ); in addition, the estrogen-like effects of both, DCM and MeOH extracts, could be inhibited in vitro by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182,780, indicating that these effects were primarily mediated through ERs. In animal experiments, both DCM and MeOH extracts significantly increased the uterine and vaginal epithelial heights in the 3-day treatment assay, while only the MeOH extract exhibited such effects in the sub-chronic treatment regimen. Furthermore, the MeOH extract significantly decreased fasting serum triglycerides, total cholesterol levels and artherogenic risk in the sub-chronic treatment. These results indicate that M. macrophylla extracts have estrogen-like effects supporting their traditional use in Cameroon to alleviate some menopausal problems (See graphical abstract in Supplementary Fig. 1, available in the online version only).

  4. In vitro antimalarial activity of different extracts of Eremostachys macrophylla Montbr. & Auch.

    PubMed

    Asnaashari, Solmaz; Heshmati Afshar, Fariba; Ebrahimi, Atefeh; Bamdad Moghadam, Sedigheh; Delazar, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    The risk of drug resistance and the use of medicinal plants in malaria prevention and treatment have led to the search for new antimalarial compounds with natural origin. In the current study, six extracts with different polarity from aerial parts and rhizomes of Eremostachys macrophylla Montbr. & Auch., were screened for their antimalarial properties by cell-free β-hematin formation assay. Dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of both parts of plant showed significant antimalarial activities with IC50 values of 0.797 ± 0.016 mg/mL in aerial parts and 0.324 ± 0.039 mg/mL in rhizomes compared to positive control (Chloroquine, IC50 = 0.014 ± 0.003 mg/mL, IC90 = 0.163 ± 0.004 mg/mL). Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the most potent part (DCM extract of rhizomes) by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) afforded seven fractions. Sixty percent ethyl acetate/n-hexane fraction showed considerable antimalarial activity with IC50 value of 0.047 ± 0.0003 mg/mL. From 6 extracts with different polarity of E. macrophylla,s aerial parts and rhizomes, the DCM extract of both parts were the most active extract in this assay. The preliminary phytochemical study on the VLC fractions of the most potent part persuades us to focus on purifying the active components of these extracts and to conduct further investigation towards in vivo evaluation.

  5. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial potential of Actinodaphne macrophylla leaves oils from East Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, A. S.; Purba, F. F.; Kusuma, I. W.; Kuspradini, H.

    2018-04-01

    Essential oils producing plants comprises about 160-200 species, one of which belongs to Lauraceae family. Actinodaphne macrophylla is a plant of the Lauraceae family and widely spread on Kalimantan island. For humans, essential oils are used in cosmetics industry, food industry, and pharmaceutical industry. This research aimed to analyze the characteristics of essential oil and potential of antimicrobial activity from A. macrophylla leaves oils. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation method. Antimicrobial activity was assayed using agar diffusion method which compared with two synthetic standards including chlorhexidine and chloramphenicol. Four microorganisms were used in this study were Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sobrinus. The obtained oil was determined for its characteristics including the yield, refractive index, and chemical components. The attained components were analyzed using GC-MS. The results of this study showed that essential oils of A. macrophylla leaves contained 0.1051% of yield, clearless, and refractive index was 1.425. Based on GC-MS analysis result, it showed chemical components including spathulenol, 2-monopalmitin, (+)-sabinene, copaen, camphene, and β-pinene. This plant potentially can inhibit the growth of S. aureus, C. albicans, S. sobrinus, and S. mutans with inhibition zones of 17.22, 20.89, 22.34 and 22.89 mm, respectively.

  6. Leaf blade structure of Verbesina macrophylla (Cass.) F. S. Blake (Asteraceae): ontogeny, duct secretion mechanism and essential oil composition.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, L D A; Mangabeira, P A O; de Oliveira, R A; Costa, L C D B; Da Cunha, M

    2018-05-01

    Secretory structures are common in Asteraceae, where they exhibit a high degree of morphological diversity. The species Verbesina macrophylla, popularly known as assa-peixe, is native to Brazil where it is widely used for medicinal purposes. Despite its potential medical importance, there have been no studies of the anatomy of this species, especially its secretory structures and secreted compounds. This study examined leaves of V. macrophylla with emphasis on secretory structures and secreted secondary metabolites. Development of secretory ducts and the mechanism of secretion production are described for V. macrophylla using ultrastructure, yield and chemical composition of its essential oils. Verbesina macrophylla has a hypostomatic leaf blade with dorsiventral mesophyll and secretory ducts associated with vascular bundles of schizogenous origin. Histochemistry identified the presence of lipids, terpenes, alkaloids and mucopolysaccharides. Ultrastructure suggests that the secretion released into the duct lumen is produced in plastids of transfer cells, parenchymal sheath cells and stored in vacuoles in these cells and duct epithelial cells. The essential oil content was 0.8%, and its major components were germacrene D, germacrene D-4-ol, β-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene and α-cadinol. Secretory ducts of V. macrophylla are squizogenous. Substances identified in tissues suggest that both secretions stored in the ducts and in adjacent parenchyma cells are involved in chemical defence. The essential oil is rich in sesquiterpenes, with germacrene D and its derivatives being notable components. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Leaf litter production of mahogany along street and campus forest of Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, F. P.; Abdullah, M.; Solichin; Hadiyanti, L. N.; Widianingrum, K.

    2018-03-01

    The leaf litter of trees along the existing streets on campus UNNES if not managed properly will be scattered and become garbage. Leaf litter Production in UNNES campus is not known for certain. UNNES does not own mapping of leaf litter Production of dominant tree species on campus. This cause leaf waste management is not optimal yet. There is still a lot of leaf litter that is discharged (not processed) because it exceeds the capacity of the fertilizer production equipment in the compost house. Aims of this study were to examine leaf litter production of dominant trees in Universitas Negeri Semarang and evaluate the relationship between leaf litter and average rainfall. Purposive sampling method placed pouches of nylon gauze measuring 1 × 1 mm2 as litter trap container with size 1 x l m2 (10 points mounted along street and campus forest). Litter trap mounted at the height of 50 cm above ground level. Leaf litter will be taken once a week for three months to observe the litter production. The litter was then dried by the oven at 70 ° C for 48 hours to obtain constant dry weight. Based on the results of the research, it was known that Mahogany tree in UNNES campus area has the potential to produce the litter of about 10 ton/ha / 3months in campus forest area and 2.5 ton/ha / 3months along campus street. There is a significant relationship between litter production of Mahogany leaves and precipitation during August - October 2017.

  8. Systematic investigation of ethanolic extract from Leea macrophylla: Implications in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Apurva; Joshi, Vinod K; Pandey, Deepali; Hemalatha, S

    2016-09-15

    Leea macrophylla Roxb. ex Hornem. (Leeaceae) commonly known as Hastikarnapalasa is mainly distributed throughout the tropical parts of India. Traditionally, the plant is found to be effective against guinea worm, ringworm and is applied to sores and wounds. The present study aims to validate traditional wound healing claim of Leea macrophylla scientifically. Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the extraction process. The optimized root tuber extract of Leea macrophylla was standardized with chlorogenic acid by HPLC for the first time. Both oral and topical routes were selected as administrative means for the wound healing study using excision and incision wound model. For topical treatment bioadhesive gel was formulated and characterized for mechanical and physical characteristics by texture profile analysis (TPA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect on wound healing was also assessed by evaluating antioxidant enzymes viz. glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), free radicals lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO), inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase (MPO), collagen markers hydroxyproline, hexosamine and hexuronic acid along with the histopathological examination. Furthermore, the effect on the level of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin -6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined. The expression of cell proliferation nuclear marker Ki-67 was also analyzed by Western blot analysis. With mesh openings Sieve no. 20, semi polar nature of solvent (92.5:7.5 ethanol-water blend) and extraction time of 18h, substantially greater extraction efficiency (29%) and phenolic yield (181.54mg/g) were obtained. The content of chlorogenic acid in ethanol extracts of Leea macrophylla was obtained as 9.01% w/w. In incision model, oral treatment with 500mg/kg ethanolic extract increased wound breaking strength by 23

  9. Nutrients and bioactive compounds content of Baillonella toxisperma, Trichoscypha abut and Pentaclethra macrophylla from Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Fungo, Robert; Muyonga, John; Kaaya, Archileo; Okia, Clement; Tieguhong, Juius C; Baidu-Forson, Jojo J

    2015-01-01

    Baillonella toxisperma, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Trichoscypha abut are important foods for communities living around forests in Cameroon. Information on the nutritional value and bioactive content of these foods is required to establish their contribution to the nutrition and health of the communities. Samples of the three foods were obtained from four villages in east and three villages in south Cameroon. The foods were analyzed for proximate composition, minerals and bioactive content using standard chemical analysis methods. T. abut was found to be an excellent source of bioactive compounds; flavonoids (306 mg/100 g), polyphenols (947 mg/100 g), proanthocyanins (61.2 mg/100 g), vitamin C (80.05 mg/100 g), and total oxalates (0.6 mg/100 g). P. macrophylla was found to be a rich source of total fat (38.71%), protein (15.82%) and total fiber (17.10%) and some bioactive compounds; vitamin E (19.4 mg/100 g) and proanthocyanins (65.0 mg/100 g). B. toxisperma, was found to have high content of carbohydrates (89.6%), potassium (27.5 mg/100 g) and calcium (37.5 mg/100 g). Flavonoids, polyphenols, vitamins C and E are the main bioactive compounds in these forest foods. The daily consumption of some of these fruits may coffer protection against some ailments and oxidative stress. Approximately 200 g of either B. toxisperma or P. macrophylla, can supply 100% iron and zinc RDAs for children aged 1–3 years, while 300 g of the two forest foods can supply about 85% iron and zinc RDAs for non-pregnant non-lactating women. The three foods provide 100% daily vitamins C and E requirements for both adults and children. The results of this study show that Baillonella toxisperma, Pentaclethra macrophylla and Trichoscypha abut can considerably contribute towards the human nutrient requirements. These forest foods also contain substantial levels of health promoting phytochemicals notably flavonoids, polyphenols, vitamins C and E. These foods therefore have

  10. In-place oil shale resources of the Mahogany zone sorted by grade, overburden thickness and stripping ratio, Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado and Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    A range of geological parameters relevant to mining oil shale have been examined for the Mahogany zone of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado, and Uinta Basin, Utah, using information available in the U.S. Geological Survey Oil Shale Assessment database. Basinwide discrete and cumulative distributions of resource in-place as a function of (1) oil shale grade, (2) Mahogany zone thickness, (3) overburden thickness, and (4) stripping ratio (overburden divided by zone thickness) were determined for both basins on a per-acre basis, and a resource map showing the areal distribution of these properties was generated. Estimates of how much of the Mahogany zone resource meets various combinations of these parameters were also determined. Of the 191.7 billion barrels of Mahogany zone oil in-place in the Piceance Basin, 32.3 percent (61.8 billion barrels) is associated with oil shale yielding at least 25 gallons of oil per ton (GPT) of rock processed, is covered by overburden 1,000 feet thick or less, and has a stripping ratio of less than 10. In the Uinta Basin, 14.0 percent (29.9 billion barrels) of the 214.5 billion barrels of Mahogany zone oil in-place meets the same overburden and stripping ratio criteria but only for the lower grade cutoff of 15 GPT.

  11. Dormancy and Germination In Vitro Response of Hydrangea Macrophylla and Hydrangea paniculata Seed to Light, Stratification, and Gibberellic Acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed germination was optimized for ten Hydrangea macrophylla cultivars and two Hydrangea paniculata cultivars in vitro. Methods were also developed to assay seed physiology. Best results were obtained with 0.5X Gamborgs solid media in conjunction with Plant Preservative Mixture (PPM), and by sterili...

  12. Major and trace elements in Mahogany zone oil shale in two cores from the Green River Formation, piceance basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, M.L.; Dean, W.E.; Parduhn, N.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Parachute Creek Member of the lacustrine Green River Formation contains thick sequences of rich oil-shale. The richest sequence and the richest oil-shale bed occurring in the member are called the Mahogany zone and the Mahogany bed, respectively, and were deposited in ancient Lake Uinta. The name "Mahogany" is derived from the red-brown color imparted to the rock by its rich-kerogen content. Geochemical abundance and distribution of eight major and 18 trace elements were determined in the Mahogany zone sampled from two cores, U. S. Geological Survey core hole CR-2 and U. S. Bureau of Mines core hole O1-A (Figure 1). The oil shale from core hole CR-2 was deposited nearer the margin of Lake Uinta than oil shale from core hole O1-A. The major- and trace-element chemistry of the Mahogany zone from each of these two cores is compared using elemental abundances and Q-mode factor modeling. The results of chemical analyses of 44 CR-2 Mahogany samples and 76 O1-A Mahogany samples are summarized in Figure 2. The average geochemical abundances for shale (1) and black shale (2) are also plotted on Figure 2 for comparison. The elemental abundances in the samples from the two cores are similar for the majority of elements. Differences at the 95% probability level are higher concentrations of Ca, Cu, La, Ni, Sc and Zr in the samples from core hole CR-2 compared to samples from core hole O1-A and higher concentrations of As and Sr in samples from core hole O1-A compared to samples from core hole CR-2. These differences presumably reflect slight differences in depositional conditions or source material at the two sites. The Mahogany oil shale from the two cores has lower concentrations of most trace metals and higher concentrations of carbonate-related elements (Ca, Mg, Sr and Na) compared to the average shale and black shale. During deposition of the Mahogany oil shale, large quantities of carbonates were precipitated resulting in the enrichment of carbonate-related elements

  13. [Analysis of commercial specifications and grades of wild and cultivated Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix based on multi-indicative constituents].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Mei; Lin, Li; Lu, You-Yuan; Ma, Xiao-Hui; Jin, Ling; Zhu, Tian-Tian

    2016-03-01

    The study is aimed to analyze the commercial specifications and grades of wild and cultivated Gentianae Macrophllae Radix based on multi-indicative constituents. The seven kinds of main chemical components containing in Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix were determined by UPLC, and then the quality levels of chemical component of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix were clustered and classified by modern statistical methods (canonical correspondence analysis, Fisher discriminant analysis and so on). The quality indices were selected and their correlations were analyzed. Lastly, comprehensively quantitative grade division for quality under different commodity-specifications and different grades of same commodity-specifications of wild and planting were divided. The results provide a basis for a reasonable division of specification and grade of the commodity of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix. The range of quality evaluation of main index components (gentiopicrin, loganin acid and swertiamarin) was proposed, and the Herbal Quality Index (HQI) was introduced. The rank discriminant function was established based on the quality by Fisher discriminant analysis. According to the analysis, the quality of wild and cultivated Luobojiao, one of the commercial specification of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix was the best, Mahuajiao, the other commercial specification, was average , Xiaoqinjiao was inferior. Among grades, the quality of first-class cultivated Luobojiao was the worst, of second class secondary, and the third class the best; The quality of the first-class of wild Luobojiao was secondary, and the second-class the best; The quality of the second-class of Mahuajiao was secondary, and the first-class was the best; the quality of first-class Xiaoqinjiao was secondary, and the second-class was the better one between the two grades, but not obvious significantly. The method provides a new idea and method for evaluation of comprehensively quantitative on the quality of Gentianae

  14. Are Tree Species Diversity and Genotypic Diversity Effects on Insect Herbivores Mediated by Ants?

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Navarrete, María José; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A.; Parra-Tabla, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Plant diversity can influence predators and omnivores and such effects may in turn influence herbivores and plants. However, evidence for these ecological feedbacks is rare. We evaluated if the effects of tree species (SD) and genotypic diversity (GD) on the abundance of different guilds of insect herbivores associated with big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) were contingent upon the protective effects of ants tending extra-floral nectaries of this species. This study was conducted within a larger experiment consisting of mahogany monocultures and species polycultures of four species and –within each of these two plot types– mahogany was represented by either one or four maternal families. We selected 24 plots spanning these treatment combinations, 10 mahogany plants/plot, and within each plot experimentally reduced ant abundance on half of the selected plants, and surveyed ant and herbivore abundance. There were positive effects of SD on generalist leaf-chewers and sap-feeders, but for the latter group this effect depended on the ant reduction treatment: SD positively influenced sap-feeders under ambient ant abundance but had no effect when ant abundance was reduced; at the same time, ants had negative effects on sap feeders in monoculture but no effect in polyculture. In contrast, SD did not influence specialist stem-borers or leaf-miners and this effect was not contingent upon ant reduction. Finally, GD did not influence any of the herbivore guilds studied, and such effects did not depend on the ant treatment. Overall, we show that tree species diversity influenced interactions between a focal plant species (mahogany) and ants, and that such effects in turn mediated plant diversity effects on some (sap-feeders) but not all the herbivores guilds studied. Our results suggest that the observed patterns are dependent on the combined effects of herbivore identity, diet breadth, and the source of plant diversity. PMID:26241962

  15. Characteristics and Composition of African Oil Bean Seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhuoria, Esther U.; Aiwonegbe, Anthony E.; Okoli, Peace; Idu, Macdonald

    The African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla) seed was analyzed for its proximate composition. The seed oil was also analyzed for mineral content and physicochemical characteristics. Proximate analysis revealed that the percentage crude protein, crude fibre, moisture and carbohydrate were 9.31, 21.66, 39.05 and 38.95%, respectively. The percentage oil content was 47.90% while the ash content was 3.27%. Results of minerals analysis showed that calcium had the highest concentration of all the elements analyzed and were found to be of the order: Ca > Mg > Pb > Fe > Mn > P > Cu. The low iodine value of the seed oil showed that it can be classified as non-drying oil and thus not suitable for paint and polish production. However, the low acid and free fatty acid values suggest its utilization as edible oil.

  16. Phytochemistry of the fossilized-cuticle frond Macroneuropteris macrophylla (Pennsylvanian seed fern, Canada)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zodrow, E.L.; D'Angelo, J. A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Cleal, C.J.; Keefe, D.

    2010-01-01

    In Canada's Sydney Coalfield, specimens of the extinct Carboniferous seed fern Macroneuropteris macrophylla (Brongniart) invariably show preservation stages intermediate between compression and fossilized-cuticle, even concerning a single pinnule. In this interdisciplinary approach, we study a ca. 300 to 350 mm long fossilized-cuticle-preserved frond section of M. macrophylla (Brongniart) that represents about one third of the length of a frond that was originally 1 m long. Size and preservation allow us to study the phytochemistry of the cuticle biomacropolymers over the length of the frond to assess what impact, if any, results would have on Carboniferous palaeophytochemotaxonomy. For comparison, the phytochemistry of compressions with their extracted cuticles from the same species and the same sample locality is also investigated. We use solid- and liquid-state, semi-quantitative Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for the chemical characterization of the frond.Based on our results, we infer an essentially uniform phytochemistry over the fossilized-cuticle frond, suggesting that only a single pinnule needs to be analyzed to get an overall phytochemical picture of the frond, which has been our long-time working hypothesis. We distinguish between phytochemistry and cutinization. The latter is much less pronounced above than below the frond dichotomy, and we suggest a palaeoecological cause, rather than differing pathways of organic matter transformation. Moreover, cuticles below and above the frond dichotomy have essentially the same epidermal pattern, but those from below have features that may have been an adaptation to prevent stomatal flooding during the tropical, rainy season.This study suggests that chemically the fossilized-cuticle is more similar to the compression than to the cuticle obtained from that compression of the same species which invites reevaluation of the classical compression concept. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Production of prebiotic-xylooligosaccharides from alkali pretreated mahogany and mango wood sawdust by using purified xylanase of Clostridium strain BOH3.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Gobinath; Shanmugavelu, Kavitha; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2017-07-01

    Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are emerging prebiotics which can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass including agro-residues and hardwood. In this study, we report the production of XOS from thermal-alkali pretreated hardwood such as mahogany and mango by using a purified xylanase from Clostridium strain BOH3. In the first approach, pure xylan is extracted from mahogany and mango hardwood and then the pure xylan is hydrolyzed by using the xylanase. In this case, 572 and 504mg XOS/g pure xylan were obtained from mahogany and mango woods, respectively. In the second approach, the same xylanase is employed to hydrolyze sawdust of hardwood after different types of pretreatments. After a thermal (121°C for 15min) pretreatment under a mild alkaline (0.05N NaOH) condition, the pretreated mahogany and mango sawdust can be utilized directly to produce 89.5 and 67.6mg XOS/g pretreated sawdust, respectively. XOS produced from the pretreated sawdust show strong prebiotic effects on Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. This report shows the possibility of producing XOS from pretreated woody wastes without using pure xylan as a substrate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phytochemical investigations and antioxidant potential of roots of Leea macrophylla (Roxb.).

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Zobaer Al; Bachar, Sitesh C; Hasan, Choudhury Mahmood; Emran, Talha Bin; Qais, Nazmul; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir

    2017-07-06

    Oleanolic acid (NZ-15), 7 α, 28-olean diol (NZ-38) and Stigmasterol (NZ-14) were isolated from the ethanolic extracts of the roots of Leea macrophylla (Family: Leeaceae) by using chromatographic analysis. This is the first report of isolation of these compounds from this plant. Their structures were constructed by spectroscopic analysis and by comparing the data with the published one. Subsequently the ethanolic extract was fractionated with two organic solvents and all the fractions were studied to evaluate their in vitro antioxidant property. The ethanolic extract was fractionated with two organic solvents and all the fractions were studied to evaluate their in vitro antioxidant property by DPPH free radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, and reducing power assay. In the DPPH free radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay, the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanolic extract revealed the highest free radical scavenging activity with IC 50 value of 2.65 and 155.62 μg/ml, respectively as compared to standard ascorbic acid (IC 50 value of 5.8 and 99.66 μg/ml). Ethyl acetate fraction also possessed highest reducing power activity with an EC50 value of 15.27 μg/ml compared to ascorbic acid (EC 50 0.91 μg/ml). On the other hand, the carbon tetrachloride fraction exhibited most significant NO scavenging activity with IC 50 value of 277.8 μg/ml that was even higher than that of standard ascorbic acid (IC 50 value 356.04 μg/ml). In addition, the total phenolic contents of these extract and fractions were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and varied from 7.93 to 50.21 mg/g dry weight expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). This study showed that different extracts of roots of L. macrophylla possess potential DPPH, superoxide, and NO free radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activities of the plant extracts might be due to the presence of

  19. Functional characterization of Citrus macrophylla BOR1 as a boron transporter.

    PubMed

    Cañon, Paola; Aquea, Felipe; Rodríguez-Hoces de la Guardia, Amparo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2013-11-01

    Plants have evolved to develop an efficient system of boron uptake and transport using a range of efflux carriers named BOR proteins. In this work we isolated and characterized a boron transporter of citrus (Citrus macrophylla), which was named CmBOR1 for its high homology to AtBOR1. CmBOR1 has 4403 bp and 12 exons. Its coding region has 2145 bp and encodes for a protein of 714 amino acids. CmBOR1 possesses the molecular features of BORs such as an anion exchanger domain and the presence of 10 transmembrane domains. Functional analysis in yeast indicated that CmBOR1 has an efflux boron transporter activity, and transformants have increased tolerance to excess boron. CmBOR1 is expressed in leaves, stem and flowers and shows the greatest accumulation in roots. The transcript accumulation was significantly increased under boron deficiency conditions in shoots. In contrast, the accumulation of the transcript did not change in boron toxicity conditions. Finally, we observed that constitutive expression of CmBOR1 was able to increase tolerance to boron deficiency conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that CmBOR1 is a xylem loading boron transporter. Based on these results, it was determined that CmBOR1 encodes a boric acid/borate transporter involved in tolerance to boron deficiency in plants. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  20. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium from synthetic and electroplating effluent on chemically modified Swietenia mahagoni shell in a packed bed column.

    PubMed

    Rangabhashiyam, S; Nandagopal, M S Giri; Nakkeeran, E; Selvaraju, N

    2016-07-01

    Packed bed column studies were carried out to evaluate the performance of chemically modified adsorbents for the sequestration of hexavalent chromium from synthetic and electroplating industrial effluent. The effects of parameters such as bed height (3-9 cm), inlet flow rate (5-15 mL/min), and influent Cr(VI) concentration (50-200 mg/L) on the percentage removal of Cr(VI) and the adsorption capacity of the adsorbents in a packed bed column were investigated. The breakthrough time increased with increasing bed height and decreased with the increase of inlet flow rate and influent Cr(VI) concentration. The adsorption column models such as Thomas, Adams-Bohart, Yoon-Nelson, and bed depth service time (BDST) were successfully correlated with the experimental data. The Yoon-Nelson and BDST model showed good agreement with the experimental data for all the studied parameter conditions. Results of the present study indicated that the chemically modified Swietenia mahagoni shell can be used as an adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater in a packed bed column.

  1. Sporophyte and gametophyte development of Platycerium coronarium (Koenig) Desv. and P. grande (Fee) C. Presl. (Polypodiaceae) through in vitro propagation

    PubMed Central

    Aspiras, Reyno A.

    2009-01-01

    The sporophyte and gametophyte development of Platycerium coronarium and P. grande were compared through ex situ propagation using in vitro culture technique and under greenhouse and field conditions. The morphology of the sporophyte and gametophyte, type of spore germination and prothallial development of P. coronarium and P. grande were documented. Gametophytes of P. coronarium and P. grande were cultured in vitro using different media. The gametophytes were then transferred and potted in sterile chopped Cyathea spp. (anonotong) roots and garden soil for sporophyte formation. Sporophytes (plantlets) of the two Platycerium species were attached on the slabs of anonotong and on branches and trunks of Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany) under greenhouse and field conditions. Sporophyte morphology of P. coronarium and P. grande varies but not their gametophyte morphology. P. coronarium and P. grande exhibited rapid spore germination and gametophyte development in both spore culture medium and Knudson C culture medium containing 2% glucose. Gametophytes of P. coronarium and P. grande transferred to potting medium produced more number of sporophytes while the gametophytes inside the culture media did not produce sporophytes. Sporophytes of P. grande attached on mahogany branches produced more number of leaves with bigger leaf area than those attached on anonotong slabs. Likewise, sporophytes of P. coronarium attached on mahogany branches and anonotong slabs did not develop new leaves during two weeks monitoring and are still in a period of adjustment to its environment. Sporophytes of P. grande grown or attached on the trunk of mahogany trees in the field and under shaded environment favored their growth. PMID:23961053

  2. Differentiation of Corynespora cassiicola and Cercospora sp. in leaf-spot diseases of Hydrangea macrophylla using a PCR-mediated method

    Treesearch

    M. T. Mmbaga; L. Mackasmiel; Ned Klopfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Corynespora cassiicola and Cercospora sp. have been identified as the most prevalent and destructive leaf-spot pathogens of garden hydrangea [Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunberg) Seringe] in the southeastern USA, but they are often difficult to accurately detect and distinguish because they often occur together in a disease complex with other pathogenic leaf-spot...

  3. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Vismia macrophylla leaves and fruits collected in Táchira-Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Alexis; Rojas, Janne; Rojas, Luis; Velasco, Judith; Morales, Antonio; Peñaloza, Yonel; Díaz, Clara

    2015-02-01

    Hydrodistillation of Vismia macrophylla Kunth (Hypericaceae) leaves (L) and fruits (F) yielded 1.3%, v/w, and 5.6%, v/w, of essential oil, respectively. GC and GC-MS analyses showed the presence of twenty-four (96.4%, L) and thirty-one (96.6%, F) components, respectively. Major compounds identified in the leaf oil were γ-bisabolene (44.4%) and β-bisabolol (14.9%), while those in the fruit oil were germacrene-D (12.1%), 6-cadinene (10.7%) and γ-bisabolene (22.3 %). Oil obtained from the fruits of V. macrophylla showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (S. aureus ATCC 25923 and E. faecalis ATCC 29212) as well as Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli ATCC 25922), with MIC values ranging from 150 μL/mL to 740 μL/mL. Oil obtained from leaves were active only on the Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus (100 μL/mL) and E. faecalis (500 μL/mL), but also showed antiyeast activity against Candida albicans CDC-B385 and C. krusei ATCC 6258 (600 μL/mL, each).

  4. Preparative separation of six rhynchophylla alkaloids from Uncaria macrophylla wall by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghai; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Luo, Aiqin

    2013-12-12

    pH-Zone refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to the preparative isolation and purification of six alkaloids from the ethanol extracts of Uncaria macrophylla Wall. Because of the low content of alkaloids (about 0.2%, w/w) in U. macrophylla Wall, the target compounds were enriched by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-isopropanol-water (2:6:3:9, v/v), adding 10 mM triethylamine in organic stationary phase and 5 mM hydrochloric acid in aqueous mobile phase. Then pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using the other two-phase solvent system was used for final purification. Six target compounds were finally isolated and purified by following two-phase solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-acetonitrile-water (4:0.5:5, v/v), adding triethylamine (TEA) (10 mM) to the organic phase and HCl (5 mM) to aqueous mobile phase. The separation of 2.8 g enriched total alkaloids yielded 36 mg hirsutine, 48 mg hirsuteine, 82 mg uncarine C, 73 mg uncarine E, 163 mg rhynchophylline, and 149 mg corynoxeine, all with purities above 96% as verified by HPLC Their structures were identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and 1H-NMR spectroscopy.

  5. Reduced density due to logging and its consequences on mating system and pollen flow in the African mahogany Entandrophragma cylindricum.

    PubMed

    Lourmas, M; Kjellberg, F; Dessard, H; Joly, H I; Chevallier, M-H

    2007-08-01

    In tropical forests, selective logging removes large trees that are often the main contributors to pollination. We studied pollination patterns of the African mahogany, Entandrophragma cylindricum (Sapelli). We investigated two plots in Cameroon corresponding to three tree densities: unlogged forest (Ndama 2002), a mildly logged forest 1 year after logging (Ndama 2003) and a severely logged forest 30 years after logging (Dimako). We used four microsatellite markers to perform paternity analysis. Selfing remained below 2% in all treatments. Pollen flow was mainly long distance but with some proximity effects. Average observed within-plot pollination distances were 338, 266 and 385 m, and pollination by trees outside the plots was 70% (Ndama 2002), 74% (Ndama 2003) and 66% (Dimako). Despite sampling a limited number of seeds from a limited number of mother trees, we obtained seeds sired by 35.6-38.3% of the potential within-plot pollen donors. While trees 20 cm in diameter contributed to pollination, results in Dimako suggest that individual larger trees contribute more to pollination than small ones. This effect was not detected in the other treatments. The results suggest extensive pollen flow in Sapelli. Hence, in Sapelli, the main limiting factor for regeneration after logging may be a reduction in the number of trees capable of producing seeds rather genetic effects due to limits to pollen dispersal.

  6. Recently evolved diversity and convergent radiations of rainforest mahoganies (Meliaceae) shed new light on the origins of rainforest hyperdiversity.

    PubMed

    Koenen, Erik J M; Clarkson, James J; Pennington, Terence D; Chatrou, Lars W

    2015-07-01

    Tropical rainforest hyperdiversity is often suggested to have evolved over a long time-span (the 'museum' model), but there is also evidence for recent rainforest radiations. The mahoganies (Meliaceae) are a prominent plant group in lowland tropical rainforests world-wide but also occur in all other tropical ecosystems. We investigated whether rainforest diversity in Meliaceae has accumulated over a long time or has more recently evolved. We inferred the largest time-calibrated phylogeny for the family to date, reconstructed ancestral states for habitat and deciduousness, estimated diversification rates and modeled potential shifts in macro-evolutionary processes using a recently developed Bayesian method. The ancestral Meliaceae is reconstructed as a deciduous species that inhabited seasonal habitats. Rainforest clades have diversified from the Late Oligocene or Early Miocene onwards. Two contemporaneous Amazonian clades have converged on similar ecologies and high speciation rates. Most species-level diversity of Meliaceae in rainforest is recent. Other studies have found steady accumulation of lineages, but the large majority of plant species diversity in rainforests is recent, suggesting (episodic) species turnover. Rainforest hyperdiversity may best be explained by recent radiations from a large stock of higher level taxa. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Physiological and Molecular Responses to Excess Boron in Citrus macrophylla W

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Quiñones, Ana; Ruiz, Marta; Iglesias, Domingo J.; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Forner-Giner, M. Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    This work provides insight into several mechanisms involved in boron (B) regulation pathway in response to high B conditions in Citrus. The study was carried out in Citrus macrophylla W. (Cm) seedlings cultured “in vitro” in media with 50 or 400 μM H3BO3 (control, Ct, and B-excess, +B, plants, respectively). Growth parameters, B concentration, leaf chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, the expression of the main putative genes involved in B transport and distribution, and leaf and root proline and malonaldehyde (MDA) concentrations, were assessed. Excess B led to high B concentration in +B plants (3.8- and 1.4-fold in leaves and roots, respectively) when compared with Ct ones. However, a minor effect was recorded in the plant (incipient visual symptoms, less than 27% reduction in root growth and 26% decrease in Chl b concentration). B toxicity down-regulated by half the expression level of putative B transporter genes NIP5 and PIP1. CmBOR1 gene was not repressed in +B plants and B accumulated in the shoots. High B level increased the transcripts of putative gene TIP5, involved in B transport across the tonoplast, by 3.3- and 2.4-fold in leaves and roots, respectively. The activity of V-PPiase proton pump, related with the electrochemical gradient in the vacuole, was also enhanced in +B organs. B toxicity up-regulated putative BOR4 gene (2.1- and 2.7-fold in roots and leaves, respectively), which codifies for an active efflux B transporter. Accordingly, B was located in +B plants preferently in an insoluble form on cell walls. Finally, excess B caused a significant rise in proline concentration (51% and 34% in roots and leaves, respectively), while the MDA level did not exceed 20%. In conclusion, Cm tolerance to a high B level is likely based on the synergism of several specific mechanisms against B toxicity, including: 1/ down-regulation of NIP5 and PIP1 boron transporters; 2/ activation of B efflux from cells due to the up-regulation of putative BOR4 gene; 3

  8. Physiological and Molecular Responses to Excess Boron in Citrus macrophylla W.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Quiñones, Ana; Ruiz, Marta; Iglesias, Domingo J; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Forner-Giner, M Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    This work provides insight into several mechanisms involved in boron (B) regulation pathway in response to high B conditions in Citrus. The study was carried out in Citrus macrophylla W. (Cm) seedlings cultured "in vitro" in media with 50 or 400 μM H3BO3 (control, Ct, and B-excess, +B, plants, respectively). Growth parameters, B concentration, leaf chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, the expression of the main putative genes involved in B transport and distribution, and leaf and root proline and malonaldehyde (MDA) concentrations, were assessed. Excess B led to high B concentration in +B plants (3.8- and 1.4-fold in leaves and roots, respectively) when compared with Ct ones. However, a minor effect was recorded in the plant (incipient visual symptoms, less than 27% reduction in root growth and 26% decrease in Chl b concentration). B toxicity down-regulated by half the expression level of putative B transporter genes NIP5 and PIP1. CmBOR1 gene was not repressed in +B plants and B accumulated in the shoots. High B level increased the transcripts of putative gene TIP5, involved in B transport across the tonoplast, by 3.3- and 2.4-fold in leaves and roots, respectively. The activity of V-PPiase proton pump, related with the electrochemical gradient in the vacuole, was also enhanced in +B organs. B toxicity up-regulated putative BOR4 gene (2.1- and 2.7-fold in roots and leaves, respectively), which codifies for an active efflux B transporter. Accordingly, B was located in +B plants preferently in an insoluble form on cell walls. Finally, excess B caused a significant rise in proline concentration (51% and 34% in roots and leaves, respectively), while the MDA level did not exceed 20%. In conclusion, Cm tolerance to a high B level is likely based on the synergism of several specific mechanisms against B toxicity, including: 1/ down-regulation of NIP5 and PIP1 boron transporters; 2/ activation of B efflux from cells due to the up-regulation of putative BOR4 gene; 3

  9. Antibacterial effects of afzelin isolated from Cornus macrophylla on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a leading cause of illness in immunocompromised individuals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Yeol; So, Young-Jin; Shin, Moon Sam; Cho, Jae Youl; Lee, Jongsung

    2014-03-17

    The crude ethyl acetate extract of the leaves of Cornus macrophylla showed antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a leading cause of illness in immunocompromised individuals. Bioactivity-guided separation led to the isolation of kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (afzelin). The structure was determined based on evaluation of its spectroscopic (UV, MS, and NMR) data. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of afzelin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be 31 µg/mL. In addition, the results indicated that a hydroxyl group at C3 of the C-ring of the flavone skeleton and the rhamnose group may act as a negative factor and an enhancing factor, respectively, in the antibacterial activities of afzelin.

  10. Supercritical fluid chromatography for separation and preparation of tautomeric 7-epimeric spiro oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria macrophylla.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Yibei; Pan, Huiqin; Yao, Changliang; Hou, Jinjun; Yao, Shuai; Cai, Luying; Feng, Ruihong; Wu, Wanying; Guo, Dean

    2017-02-05

    Increasing challenge arising from configurational interconversion in aqueous solvent renders it rather difficult to isolate high-purity tautomeric reference standards and thus largely hinders the holistic quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Spiro oxindole alkaloids (SOAs), as the markers for the medicinal Uncaria herbs, can easily isomerize in polar or aqueous solvent via a retro-Mannich reaction. In the present study, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is utilized to separate and isolate two pairs of 7-epimeric SOAs, including rhynchophylline (R) and isorhynchophylline (IR), corynoxine (C) and corynoxine B (CB), from Uncaria macrophylla. Initially, the solvent that can stabilize SOA epimers was systematically screened, and acetonitrile was used to dissolve and as the modifier in SFC. Then, key parameters of ultra-high performance SFC (ultra-performance convergence chromatography, UPC 2 ), comprising stationary phase, additive in modifier, column temperature, ABPR pressure, and flow rate, were optimized in sequence. Two isocratic UPC 2 methods were developed on the achiral Torus 1-AA and Torus Diol columns, suitable for UV and MS detection, respectively. MCI gel column chromatography fractionated the U. macrophylla extract into two mixtures (R/IR and C/CB). Preparative SFC, using a Viridis Prep Silica 2-EP OBD column and acetonitrile-0.2% diethylamine in CO 2 as the mobile phase, was finally employed for compound purification. As a result, the purity of four SOA compounds was all higher than 95%. Different from reversed-phase HPLC, SFC, by use of water-free mobile phase (inert CO 2 and aprotic modifier), provides a solution to rapid analysis and isolation of tautomeric reference standards for quality control of TCM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of water in hydrocarbon generation from Type-I kerogen in Mahogany oil shale of the Green River Formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewan, M.D.; Roy, S.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrous and anhydrous closed-system pyrolysis experiments were conducted on a sample of Mahogany oil shale (Eocene Green River Formation) containing Type-I kerogen to determine whether the role of water had the same effect on petroleum generation as reported for Type-II kerogen in the Woodford Shale. The experiments were conducted at 330 and 350??C for 72h to determine the effects of water during kerogen decomposition to polar-rich bitumen and subsequent bitumen decomposition to hydrocarbon-rich oil. The results showed that the role of water was more significant in bitumen decomposition to oil at 350??C than in kerogen decomposition to bitumen at 330??C. At 350??C, the hydrous experiment generated 29% more total hydrocarbon product and 33% more C15+ hydrocarbons than the anhydrous experiment. This is attributed to water dissolved in the bitumen serving as a source of hydrogen to enhance thermal cracking and facilitate the expulsion of immiscible oil. In the absence of water, cross linking is enhanced in the confines of the rock, resulting in formation of pyrobitumen and molecular hydrogen. These differences are also reflected in the color and texture of the recovered rock. Despite confining liquid-water pressure being 7-9 times greater in the hydrous experiments than the confining vapor pressure in the anhydrous experiments, recovered rock from the former had a lighter color and expansion fractures parallel to the bedding fabric of the rock. The absence of these open tensile fractures in the recovered rock from the anhydrous experiments indicates that water promotes net-volume increase reactions like thermal cracking over net-volume decrease reactions like cross linking, which results in pyrobitumen. The results indicate the role of water in hydrocarbon and petroleum formation from Type-I kerogen is significant, as reported for Type-II kerogen. ?? 2010.

  12. Growth of four tropical tree species in petroleum-contaminated soil and effects of crude oil contamination.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Hernández, I; Ochoa-Gaona, S; Adams, R H; Rivera-Cruz, M C; Pérez-Hernández, V; Jarquín-Sánchez, A; Geissen, V; Martínez-Zurimendi, P

    2017-01-01

    Under greenhouse conditions, we evaluated establishment of four tree species and their capacity to degrade crude oil recently incorporated into the soil; the species were as follows: Cedrela odorata (tropical cedar), Haematoxylum campechianum (tinto bush), Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany), and Tabebuia rosea (macuilis). Three-month-old plants were planted in soil with three treatments of heavy petroleum and a control (C0 0 mg kg -1 ; C1 18,000 mg kg -1 ; C2 31,700 mg kg -1 ; C3 47,100 mg kg -1 ) with four repetitions per treatment and species; the experiment was carried out for 245 days. Height and biomass of all species significantly diminished as petroleum concentration increased, although plant survival was not affected. The quantity of colony-forming units (CFU) of rhizospheric bacteria varied among tree species and treatments; petroleum stimulated bacterial CFU for S. macrophylla. The number of fungi CFU for S. macrophylla and T. rosea was significantly greater in C0 than in soil with petroleum, but among species and among different concentrations, no significant differences were found. The greatest percentage of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation was found in C1 for soil without plants (45 %). Differences from the remaining treatments (petroleum concentrations in soil and plant species) were not significant (P < 0.05). Among all trees, H. campechianum had the greatest TPH degradation (32.5 % in C2). T. rosea (C1) and H. campechianum (C2) resulted in petroleum degradation at levels ranging from 20.5 to 32.5 %. On the basis of this experiment, the tree species used did not improve TPH degradation. However, all of them showed high rates of survival and vigor. So, as tree species provide goods and services, experiments with inoculation of hydrocarbonclastic microorganisms, addition of fertilizers, and mixture of tree and grasses are recommended.

  13. Bioactive metabolites produced by Penicillium sp. 1 and sp. 2, two endophytes associated with Alibertia macrophylla (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila M; Silva, Geraldo H; Regasini, Luis O; Zanardi, Lisinéia M; Evangelista, Alana H; Young, Maria C M; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Araujo, Angela R

    2009-01-01

    In the course of our continuous search for bioactive metabolites from endophytic fungi living in plants from the Brazilian flora, leaves of Alibertia macrophylla (Rubiaceae) were submitted to isolation of endophytes, and two species of Penicillium were isolated. The acetonitrile fraction obtained in corn from a culture of Penicillium sp. 1 afforded orcinol (1). On the other hand, Penicillium sp. 1 cultivated in potato-dextrose-broth furnished two different compounds, cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Val) (2) and uracil (3). The chromatographic fractionation of the acetonitrile fraction obtained from Penicillium sp. 2 led to three dihydroisocoumarins, 4-hydroxymellein (4), 8-methoxymellein (5) and 5-hydroxymellein (6). Compounds 5 and 6 were obtained from the Penicillium genus for the first time. Additionally, metabolites 1-6 were evaluated for their antifungal and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. The most active compounds 1 and 4 exhibited detection limits of 5.00 and 10.0 microg against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, respectively. Compound 2 showed a detection limit of 10.0 microg, displaying potent AChE inhibitory activity.

  14. Rapid microsatellite marker development for African mahogany (Khaya senegalensis, Meliaceae) using next-generation sequencing and assessment of its intra-specific genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Karan, M; Evans, D S; Reilly, D; Schulte, K; Wright, C; Innes, D; Holton, T A; Nikles, D G; Dickinson, G R

    2012-03-01

    Khaya senegalensis (African mahogany or dry-zone mahogany) is a high-value hardwood timber species with great potential for forest plantations in northern Australia. The species is distributed across the sub-Saharan belt from Senegal to Sudan and Uganda. Because of heavy exploitation and constraints on natural regeneration and sustainable planting, it is now classified as a vulnerable species. Here, we describe the development of microsatellite markers for K. senegalensis using next-generation sequencing to assess its intra-specific diversity across its natural range, which is a key for successful breeding programs and effective conservation management of the species. Next-generation sequencing yielded 93,943 sequences with an average read length of 234 bp. The assembled sequences contained 1030 simple sequence repeats, with primers designed for 522 microsatellite loci. Twenty-one microsatellite loci were tested with 11 showing reliable amplification and polymorphism in K. senegalensis. The 11 novel microsatellites, together with one previously published, were used to assess 73 accessions belonging to the Australian K. senegalensis domestication program, sampled from across the natural range of the species. STRUCTURE analysis shows two major clusters, one comprising mainly accessions from west Africa (Senegal to Benin) and the second based in the far eastern limits of the range in Sudan and Uganda. Higher levels of genetic diversity were found in material from western Africa. This suggests that new seed collections from this region may yield more diverse genotypes than those originating from Sudan and Uganda in eastern Africa. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Responses of two understory herbs, Maianthemum canadense and Eurybia macrophylla, to experimental forest warming: early emergence is the key to enhanced reproductive output.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Marie-Hélène; Lapointe, Line; Rice, Karen; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Stefanski, Artur; Reich, Peter B

    2015-10-01

    Understory herbs might be the most sensitive plant form to global warming in deciduous forests, yet they have been little studied in the context of climate change. A field experiment set up in Minnesota, United States simulated global warming in a forest setting and provided the opportunity to study the responses of Maianthemum canadense and Eurybia macrophylla in their natural environment in interaction with other components of the ecosystem. Effects of +1.7° and +3.4°C treatments on growth, reproduction, phenology, and gas exchange were evaluated along with treatment effects on light, water, and nutrient availability, potential drivers of herb responses. Overall, growth and gas exchanges of these two species were modestly affected by warming. They emerged up to 16 (E. macrophylla) to 17 d (M. canadense) earlier in the heated plots than in control plots, supporting early-season carbon gain under high light conditions before canopy closure. This additional carbon gain in spring likely supported reproduction. Eurybia macrophylla only flowered in the heated plots, and both species had some aspect of reproduction that was highest in the +1.7°C treatment. The reduced reproductive effort in the +3.4°C plots was likely due to reduced soil water availability, counteracting positive effects of warming. Global warming might improve fitness of herbaceous species in deciduous forests, mainly by advancing their spring emergence. However, other impacts of global warming such as drier soils in the summer might partly reduce the carbon gain associated with early emergence. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  16. Global Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Distinct Aluminum-Tolerance Pathways in the Al-Accumulating Species Hydrangea macrophylla and Marker Identification

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haixia; Lu, Changping; Jiang, Hui; Peng, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla) is a well known Al-accumulating plant, showing a high level of aluminum (Al) tolerance and accumulation. Although the physiological mechanisms for detoxification of Al and the roles of Al in blue hydrangea sepals have been reported, the molecular mechanisms of Al tolerance and accumulation are poorly understood in hydrangea. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Al-response genes in the roots and leaves of hydrangea by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). The assembly of hydrangea transcriptome provides a rich source for gene identification and mining molecular markers, including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR). A total of 401,215 transcripts with an average length of 810.77bp were assembled, generating 256,127 unigenes. After annotation, 4,287 genes in the roots and 730 genes in the leaves were up-regulated by Al exposure, while 236 genes in the roots and 719 genes in the leaves were down-regulated, respectively. Many transporters, including MATE and ABC families, were involved in the process of Al-citrate complex transporting from the roots in hydrangea. A plasma membrane Al uptake transporter, Nramp aluminum transporter was up-regulated in roots and leaves under Al stress, indicating it may play an important role in Al tolerance by reducing the level of toxic Al. Although the exact roles of these candidate genes remain to be examined, these results provide a platform for further functional analysis of the process of detoxification of Al in hydrangea. PMID:26660093

  17. Medicinal flowers. XXXX . Structures of dihydroisocoumarin glycosides and inhibitory effects on aldose reducatase from the flowers of Hydrangea macrophylla var.thunbergii.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Nakamura, Seikou; Zhuang, Yan; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Hussein, Ghazi Mohamed Eisa; Matsuo, Kyohei; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    Six dihydroisocoumarin glycosides, florahydrosides I and II, thunberginol G 8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, thunberginol C 8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, 4-hydroxythunberginol G 3'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and thunberginol D 3'-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, have been isolated from the flowers of Hydrangea macrophylla Seringe var. thunbergii Makino (Saxifragaceae) together with 20 known compounds. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Among the constituents, acylated quinic acid analog, neochlorogenic acid, was shown to substantially inhibit aldose reductase [IC50=5.6 µm]. In addition, the inhibitory effects on aldose reductase of several caffeoylquinic acid analogs were examined for structure-activity relationship study. As the results, 4,5-O-trans-p-dicaffeoyl-d-quinic acid was found to exhibit a potent inhibitory effect [IC50=0.29 µm].

  18. [Discover potential inhibitors of 5-LOX and LTA4H from Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix and Genitana Macrophyllae Radix based on molecular simulation methods].

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Yan-Kun; Zhao, Bo-Wen; Zhang, Yan-Ling

    2017-12-01

    5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), as the major targets of 5-LOX branch in the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic pathway, play an important role in the treatment of inflammation. Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix and Genitana Macrophyllae Radix have clear anti-inflammation activities. In this paper, the targets of 5-LOX and LTA4H were used as the research carrier, and Hiphop module in DS4.0 (Discovery studio) was used to construct ingredients database for preliminary screening of three traditional Chinese medicines based on target inhibitor pharmacophore, so as to obtain 5-LOX and LTA4H potential active ingredients. The ingredients obtained in initial pharmacophore screening were further screened by using CDOCKER module, and the screening rules were established based on the score of initial compound and the key amino acids to obtain 12 potential 5-LOX inhibitors and 7 potential LTA4H inhibitors. To be more specific, the potential 5-LOX inhibitors included 6 ingredients in Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, such as procyanidins B2-3,3'-O-double gallate and revandchinone 2; four ingredients in notopterygium, such as dodecanoic acid and so on. On the other hand, potential LTA4H inhibitors included revandchinone 1, revandchinone 4 in Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, tridecanoic acid, tetracosanoic acid and methyl eicosanoate in Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix, montanic acid methyl ester and N-docosanoyl-O-aminobenzoate in Genitana Macrophyllae Radix and so on. The molecular simulation methods were highly efficient and time-saving to obtain the potential inhibitors of 5-LOX and LTA4H, which could provide assistance for discovering the chemical quality indicators of anti-inflammatory efficacy of three Chinese herbs, and may be helpful to promote the whole-process quality control of three Chinese herbs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Antidiabetic Potentiality of the Aqueous-Methanolic Extract of Seed of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Correlative and Evidence-Based Approach with Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Activities.

    PubMed

    De, Debasis; Chatterjee, Kausik; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ghosh, Debidas

    2011-01-01

    Antidiabetic, antioxidative, and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous-methanolic (2 : 3) extract of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. (family Meliaceae) seed studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Feeding with seed extract (25 mg 0.25 mL distilled water(-1)100 gm b.w.(-1)rat(-1) day(-1)) for 21 days to diabetic rat lowered the blood glucose level as well as the glycogen level in liver. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, and levels of the products of free radicals like conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver, kidney, and skeletal muscles were corrected towards the control after this extract treatment in this model. Furthermore, the seed extract corrected the levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins towards the control level in this experimental diabetic model. The results indicated the potentiality of the extract of S. mahagoni seed for the correction of diabetes and its related complications like oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. The extract may be a good candidate for developing a safety, tolerable, and promising neutraceutical treatment for the management of diabetes.

  20. The impact of annual and seasonal rainfall patterns on growth and phenology of emergent tree species in Southeastern Amazonia, Brazil

    Treesearch

    James Grogan; Mark Schulze

    2012-01-01

    Understanding tree growth in response to rainfall distribution is critical to predicting forest and species population responses to climate change. We investigated inter-annual and seasonal variation in stem diameter by three emergent tree species in a seasonally dry tropical forest in southeast Pará, Brazil. Annual diameter growth rates by Swietenia macrophylla...

  1. Supplementation of Flemingia macrophylla and cassava foliage as a rumen enhancer on fermentation efficiency and estimated methane production in dairy steers.

    PubMed

    Phesatcha, Burarat; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Ampapon, Thiwakorn; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-10-01

    Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers, 3 years old with 180 ± 15 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to investigate on the effect of Flemingia macrophylla hay meal (FMH) and cassava hay meal (CH) supplementation on rumen fermentation efficiency and estimated methane production. The treatments were as follows: T1 = non-supplement, T2 = CH supplementation at 150 g/head/day, T3 = FMH supplementation at 150 g/head/day, and T4 = CH + FMH supplementation at 75 and 75 g/head/day. All steers were fed rice straw ad libitum and concentrate was offered at 0.5 % of BW. Results revealed that supplementation of CH and/or FMH did not affect on feed intake (P > 0.05) while digestibility of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were increased especially in steers receiving FMH and CH+FMH (P < 0.05). Ruminal pH, temperature, and blood urea nitrogen were similar among treatments while ammonia nitrogen was increased in all supplemented groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, propionic acid (C3) was increased while acetic acid (C2), C2:C3 ratio, and estimated methane production were decreased by dietary treatments. Protozoa and fungi population were not affected by dietary supplement while viable bacteria count increased in steers receiving FMH. Supplementation of FMH and/or FMH+CH increased microbial crude protein and efficiency of microbial nitrogen supply. This study concluded FMH (150 g/head/day) and/or CH+FMH (75 and 75 g/head/day) supplementation could be used as a rumen enhancer for increasing nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation efficiency, and microbial protein synthesis while decreasing estimated methane production without adverse effect on voluntary feed intake of dairy steers fed rice straw.

  2. High electrochemical performances of hierarchical hydrangea macrophylla like NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} and NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4} as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Rencheng, E-mail: jinrc427@126.com; Liu, Gang; Liu, Chunping

    2016-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Mesoporous hydrangea macrophylla like NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} and NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4} have been fabricated, which present excellent electrochemical performances as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. - Highlights: • Hierarchical NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} is successfully fabricated. • Hierarchical NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4} is prepared via sulfide anion exchange. • The hierarchical NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} and NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4} exhibit good electrochemical properties. - Abstract: In this work, hierarchical hydrangea macrophylla like NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been synthesized by solvothermal method followed by calcination treatment in air. By using Na{sub 2}S as sulfur source, the NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} is converted intomore » NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}. Such hierarchical NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibits a high specific capacity and excellent cycling stability (928 mAh g{sup −1} at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1} after 100 cycles). Even at high current density of 2000 mA g{sup −1}, the electrode still delivers a specific capacity of 371 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. When the NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4} is used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, a high discharge capacity of 1204 mAh g{sup −1} can be achieved. Meanwhile, the NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4} electrode displays good cycling stability and rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performances can be attributed to the unique porous structure, which can effectively reduce the diffusion length for lithium ions and electrons, and alleviate volume expansion during the charge-discharge processes.« less

  3. Plant Guide: Cutleaf balsamroot: Balsamorhiza macrophylla Nutt.

    Treesearch

    Loren St. John; Derek Tilley

    2012-01-01

    Livestock and big game utilize cutleaf balsamroot. It is moderately palatable to grazing animals during the spring and early summer but has low protein content (Walter, 2007). Leaves are grazed lightly and flowers are often eaten. Horses are especially fond of the flowers (Plants of Utah, Online). The plant becomes dry and worthless as forage by midsummer (Forest...

  4. Vasorelaxation Study and Tri-Step Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Malaysian Local Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chu Shan; Loh, Yean Chun; Ahmad, Mariam; Zaini Asmawi, Mohd.; Yam, Mun Fei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate the activities of Malaysian local herbs (Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, Strobilanthes crispus, Murdannia bracteata, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia bleo, Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Vernonia amygdalina, and Swietenia macrophylla King) for anti-hypertensive and vasorelaxant activity. An infrared (IR) macro-fingerprinting technique consisting of conventional fourier transform IR (FTIR), second-derivative IR (SD-IR), and two-dimensional correlation IR (2D-correlation IR) analyses were used to determine the main constituents and the fingerprints of the Malaysian local herbs. Methods: The herbs were collected, ground into powder form, and then macerated by using three different solvents: distilled water, 50% ethanol, and 95% ethanol, respectively. The potentials of the extracts produced from these herbs for use as vasorelaxants were determined. Additionally, the fingerprints of these herbs were analyzed by using FTIR spectra, SD-IR spectra, and 2D-correlation IR spectra in order to identify their main constituents and to provide useful information for future pharmacodynamics studies. Results: Swietenia macrophylla King has the highest potential in terms of vasorelaxant activity, followed by Vernonia amygdalina, Pereskia bleo, Strobilanthes crispus, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, and Murdannia bracteata. The tri-step IR macro-fingerprint of the herbs revealed that most of them contained proteins. Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia Haw. were found to contain calcium oxalate while Swietenia macrophylla King was found to contain large amounts of flavonoids. Conclusion: The flavonoid content of the herbs affects their vasorelaxant activity, and the tri-step IR macro- fingerprint method can be used as an analytical tool to determine the activity of a herbal medicine in terms of its vasorelaxant effect. PMID:27386148

  5. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Neem, margosa. Meliaceae. Mahogany family.

    Treesearch

    J. A. Parrotta; A. N. Chaturvedi

    1994-01-01

    AzadirachJa indica A. Juss., commonly known as neem in English and Hindi and margosa and paraiso de India in Spanish, is a medium-sized to large tree characterized by its short, straight bole, furrowed, dark-brown to gray bark. and dense, rounded crown of pinnate leaves. Native to south Asia, neem is widely planted and naturalized in semiarid areas throughout Asia and...

  6. Inheritance of floral and plant size traits in hydrangea macrophylla

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transgressive segregation occurs when trait values for offspring in experimental crosses fall outside (either above or below) the range of values recorded for the parents. Transgressive segregation is important to plant breeders as a source of novel or extreme traits. While widespread, it is diffic...

  7. Evaluation of artificial diets for Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R; Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate artificial diets that can be used to successfully culture the atlas silk moth, Attacus atlas L. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) indoors. Four plant species were evaluated as the basic component of each diet, barringtonia (Barringtonia asiatica), cheesewood (Nauclea orientalis), soursop (Annona muricata), and mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). Evaluation of the nutritional value of each diet was determined by an analysis of the hemolymph proteins of sixth instars using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Survivorship, cocoon quality, and hemolymph protein content of larvae fed the barringtonia diet were higher than those of larvae fed mahogany-, cheesewood-, and soursop-based artificial diets. The average adult emergence of those fed the barringtonia-based diet was 74.5%. The weights of the cocoon in this treatment with the pupa and the empty cocoons were 7.0 and 1.1 g, respectively. Hemolymph of the larvae fed the barringtonia-based artificial diet had the highest concentration of protein with an average of 28.06 mg/ml. The atlas moth reared on the barringtonia-based artificial diet was comparable with those reared only on barringtonia leaves. However, the weight of empty cocoons, adult wingspan, and amount of hemolymph protein were lower than in those reared on barringtonia leaves only. This may suggest that the artificial barringtonia-based diet requires additional protein for maximum efficiency.

  8. Transpiration efficiency over an annual cycle, leaf gas exchange and wood carbon isotope ratio of three tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Winter, Klaus; Aranda, Jorge; Virgo, Aurelio; Garcia, Milton

    2009-09-01

    Variation in transpiration efficiency (TE) and its relationship with the stable carbon isotope ratio of wood was investigated in the saplings of three tropical tree species. Five individuals each of Platymiscium pinnatum (Jacq.) Dugand, Swietenia macrophylla King and Tectona grandis Linn. f. were grown individually in large (760 l) pots over 16 months in the Republic of Panama. Cumulative transpiration was determined by repeatedly weighing the pots with a pallet truck scale. Dry matter production was determined by destructive harvest. The TE, expressed as experiment-long dry matter production divided by cumulative water use, averaged 4.1, 4.3 and 2.9 g dry matter kg(-1) water for P. pinnatum, S. macrophylla and T. grandis, respectively. The TE of T. grandis was significantly lower than that of the other two species. Instantaneous measurements of the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO(2) partial pressures (c(i)/c(a)), taken near the end of the experiment, explained 66% of variation in TE. Stomatal conductance was lower in S. macrophylla than in T. grandis, whereas P. pinnatum had similar stomatal conductance to T. grandis, but with a higher photosynthetic rate. Thus, c(i)/c(a) and TE appeared to vary in response to both stomatal conductance and photosynthetic capacity. Stem-wood delta(13)C varied over a relatively narrow range of just 2.2 per thousand, but still explained 28% of variation in TE. The results suggest that leaf-level processes largely determined variation among the three tropical tree species in whole-plant water-use efficiency integrated over a full annual cycle.

  9. Long-distance dispersal helps germinating mahogany seedlings escape defoliation by a specialist caterpillar

    Treesearch

    Julian M. Norghauer; James Grogan; Jay R. Malcolm; Jeanine M. Felfili

    2010-01-01

    Herbivores and pathogens with acute host specificity may promote high tree diversity in tropical forests by causing distance- and density-dependent mortality of seedlings, but evidence is scarce. Although Lepidoptera larvae are the most abundant and host-specific guild of herbivores in these forests, their impact upon seedling distributions remains largely unknown. A...

  10. H NMR analyses of Citrus macrophylla subjected to Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) feeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is a phloem feeding insect that can host and transmit the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), which is the putative causative agent of the economically important citrus disease, Huanglongbing (HLB). ACP are widespread in Florida, and are spreading in Ca...

  11. Classification of CITES-listed and other neotropical Meliaceae wood images using convolutional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Prabu; Costa, Adriana; Soares, Richard; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2018-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art for field wood identification to combat illegal logging relies on experienced practitioners using hand lenses, specialized identification keys, atlases of woods, and field manuals. Accumulation of this expertise is time-consuming and access to training is relatively rare compared to the international demand for field wood identification. A reliable, consistent and cost effective field screening method is necessary for effective global scale enforcement of international treaties such as the Convention on the International Trade in Endagered Species (CITES) or national laws (e.g. the US Lacey Act) governing timber trade and imports. We present highly effective computer vision classification models, based on deep convolutional neural networks, trained via transfer learning, to identify the woods of 10 neotropical species in the family Meliaceae, including CITES-listed Swietenia macrophylla , Swietenia mahagoni , Cedrela fissilis , and Cedrela odorata . We build and evaluate models to classify the 10 woods at the species and genus levels, with image-level model accuracy ranging from 87.4 to 97.5%, with the strongest performance by the genus-level model. Misclassified images are attributed to classes consistent with traditional wood anatomical results, and our species-level accuracy greatly exceeds the resolution of traditional wood identification. The end-to-end trained image classifiers that we present discriminate the woods based on digital images of the transverse surface of solid wood blocks, which are surfaces and images that can be prepared and captured in the field. Hence this work represents a strong proof-of-concept for using computer vision and convolutional neural networks to develop practical models for field screening timber and wood products to combat illegal logging.

  12. Entomofauna Associated with Agroforestry Systems of Timber Species and Cacao in the Southern Region of the Maracaibo Lake Basin (Mérida, Venezuela).

    PubMed

    Mazón, Marina; Sánchez-Angarita, Daniel; Díaz, Francisco A; Gutiérrez, Néstor; Jaimez, Ramón

    2018-04-20

    Agroforestry systems are environment-friendly production systems which help to preserve biodiversity while providing people with a way of earning a living. Cacao is a historically important crop in Venezuela that traditionally has been produced in agroforestry systems. However, few studies have evaluated how different trees used in those systems affect the dynamics and abundance of insects. The present study evaluated the entomofauna assemblages associated with different combinations of four timber-yielding trees and four Criollo cacao cultivars established in a lowland tropical ecosystem in Venezuela. A randomized block design with two replicates was used, each block having 16 plots which included all 16 possible combinations of four native timber trees ( Cordia thaisiana , Cedrela odorata , Swietenia macrophylla , and Tabebuia rosea ) and four Criollo cacao cultivars (Porcelana, Guasare, Lobatera and Criollo Merideño). Insects were collected with yellow pan traps and sorted to order. Coleoptera and parasitoid Hymenoptera were determined to the family level. In total, 49,538 individuals of seven orders were collected, with Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera being the most abundant, although only Lepidoptera and Coleoptera abundances were significantly influenced by the timber tree species. Twenty-three families of parasitoid Hymenoptera and 26 of Coleoptera were found. Significant differences in insects’ assemblages were found both in parasitoid Hymenoptera and Coleoptera families associated to every shade tree, with the families Eulophidae and Lycidae being indicators for Cordia , and Chalcididae for Swietenia . The entomofauna relationship with the cacao cultivar was barely significant, although Scydmaenidae and Scarabaeidae were indicators for Lobatera and Merideño, respectively. No significant effects were found for interaction with cacao cultivars and native trees. We concluded that the particular insect assemblages found in Cedrela

  13. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

    2001-04-01

    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo.

  14. The effects of seeding sterile triticale on a native plant community after wildfire in a pinyon pinemountain mahogany woodland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waitman, B.A.; Draper, T.M.; Esque, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    Post-fire seeding with grasses is a common practice for emergency rehabilitation of burned woodlands. However, most post-seeding monitoring does not address consequences to native flora. In November 2004, the US Forest Service hand-seeded triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus), a sterile wheatrye hybrid, on a small burned area in the Spring Mountains of southern Nevada, United States. A monitoring project using paired plots was designed to quantify the effects of seeding triticale on density and species richness of native annual and perennial plants, cover of perennial plants, and aboveground production of annual plants. We did not find any effects of triticale seeding on annual plant species or most responses of perennial plants. However, the density of woody perennial seedlings was significantly lower 2 years after triticale was added. Although we found a smaller impact from seeding with exotic grass than other studies, quantifiable costs to native vegetation were observed. We caution against the use of non-native grass for seeding in areas with naturally low perennial recruitment. ?? IAWF 2009.

  15. Insights into plant water uptake from xylem-water isotope measurements in two tropical catchments with contrasting moisture conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evaristo, Jaivime; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Scholl, Martha A.; Bruijnzeel, L. Adrian; Chun, Kwok P.

    2016-01-01

    Water transpired by trees has long been assumed to be sourced from the same subsurface water stocks that contribute to groundwater recharge and streamflow. However, recent investigations using dual water stable isotopes have shown an apparent ecohydrological separation between tree-transpired water and stream water. Here we present evidence for such ecohydrological separation in two tropical environments in Puerto Rico where precipitation seasonality is relatively low and where precipitation is positively correlated with primary productivity. We determined the stable isotope signature of xylem water of 30 mahogany (Swietenia spp.) trees sampled during two periods with contrasting moisture status. Our results suggest that the separation between transpiration water and groundwater recharge/streamflow water might be related less to the temporal phasing of hydrologic inputs and primary productivity, and more to the fundamental processes that drive evaporative isotopic enrichment of residual soil water within the soil matrix. The lack of an evaporative signature of both groundwater and streams in the study area suggests that these water balance components have a water source that is transported quickly to deeper subsurface storage compared to waters that trees use. A Bayesian mixing model used to partition source water proportions of xylem water showed that groundwater contribution was greater for valley-bottom, riparian trees than for ridge-top trees. Groundwater contribution was also greater at the xeric site than at the mesic–hydric site. These model results (1) underline the utility of a simple linear mixing model, implemented in a Bayesian inference framework, in quantifying source water contributions at sites with contrasting physiographic characteristics, and (2) highlight the informed judgement that should be made in interpreting mixing model results, of import particularly in surveying groundwater use patterns by vegetation from regional to global scales. 

  16. Tree-ring δ18O in African mahogany (Entandrophragma utile) records regional precipitation and can be used for climate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sleen, Peter; Groenendijk, Peter; Zuidema, Pieter A.

    2015-04-01

    The availability of instrumental climate data in West and Central Africa is very restricted, both in space and time. This limits the understanding of the regional climate system and the monitoring of climate change and causes a need for proxies that allow the reconstruction of paleoclimatic variability. Here we show that oxygen isotope values (δ18O) in tree rings of Entandrophragma utile from North-western Cameroon correlate to precipitation on a regional to sub-continental scale (1930-2009). All found correlations were negative, following the proposed recording of the 'amount effect' by trees in the tropics. The capacity of E. utile to record the variability of regional precipitation is also confirmed by the significant correlation of tree-ring δ18O with river discharge data (1944-1983), outgoing longwave radiation (a proxy for cloud cover; 1974-2011) and sea surface salinity in the Gulf of Guinea (1950-2011). Furthermore, the high values in the δ18O chronology from 1970 onwards coincide with the Sahel drought period. Given that E. utile presents clear annual growth rings, has a wide-spread distribution in tropical Africa and is long lived (> 250 years), we argue that the analysis of oxygen isotopes in growth rings of this species is a promising tool for the study of paleoclimatic variability during the last centuries in West and Central Africa.

  17. Red oak in southern New England and big-leaf mahogany in the Yucatan Peninsula: can mixed-species forests be sustainably managed for single-species production?

    Treesearch

    M. Kelty; L. Camara-Cabrales; J. Grogan

    2011-01-01

    Complex mixed-species forests are the focus of conservation efforts that seek to maintain native biodiversity. However, much of this forestland is privately owned and is managed for timber income as well as for conservation. Management of these high-diversity forests is particularly difficult when only one tree species produces the majority of high-value timber. We...

  18. Interesterification of engkabang (Shorea macrophylla) fat--canola oil blend with lipase from Candida antarctica to simulate the properties of lard.

    PubMed

    Illiyin, Mohamed Roslan Nur; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohamed Nazrim; Loke, Mei Key; Shuhaimi, Musthafa; Mahiran, Basri; Miskandar, Mat Saari

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to compare the composition and thermal properties of lard (LD) and engkabang fat (EF) - canola oil (CaO) blend interesterified with Candida antartica lipase (C. antartica). A fat blend EF-4 (40% EF in CaO) was prepared and interesterified using C. antartica lipase at 60°C for different time intervals (6 h, 12 h and 24 h) with 200 rpm agitation. The fat blends before and after interesterification were compared to LD with respect to their slip melting points (SMP), fatty acid and triacyglycerol (TAG) compositions, melting, solidification and polymorphic properties. Result showed that the slip melting point (SMP) of the fat blend interesterified for 6 h was the closest to that of LD. The solid fat content (SFC) values of fat blends interesterified for 12 and 24 h were found to become equal to those of LD within the temperature range of 0 to 20°C. In addition, all three interesterified blends had SFC values similar to those of LD within the temperature range of 30-40°C. According to thermal analysis, the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 24 h appearing at -2.39°C was similar to the low melting thermal transition of LD and the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 12 h appearing at 26.25°C was similar to the high melting thermal transition of LD. However, there is no compatibility between LD and all three interesterified blends with regard to polymorphic behaviour.

  19. Drivers of Tree Growth, Mortality and Harvest Preferences in Species-Rich Plantations for Smallholders and Communities in the Tropics

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huong; Vanclay, Jerome; Herbohn, John; Firn, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in multi-species tropical plantations but little information exists to guide their design and silviculture. The Rainforestation Farming system is the oldest tropical polyculture planting system in the Philippines and provides a unique opportunity to understand the underlying processes affecting tree performance within diverse plantings. Data collected from 85 plots distributed across the 18 mixed-species plantations in the Philippines was used to identify the factors influencing growth, probability of harvest, and death of trees in these complex plantings. The 18 sites (aged from 6 to 11 years at time of first measurement) were measured on three occasions over a 6-year period. We used data from the first period of data collection to develop models predicting harvesting probability and growth of trees in the second period. We found little evidence that tree species diversity had an effect on tree growth and tree loss at the community level, although a negative effect was found on tree growth of specific species such as Parashorea plicata and Swietenia macrophylla. While tree density of stands at age 10+ years (more than 1000 trees/ha with diameter > 5cm) did not have an impact on growth, growth rates were decreasing in stands with a high basal area. Tree size in the first period of measure was a good predictor for both tree growth and tree status in the next period, with larger trees tending to grow faster and having a greater chance of being harvested, and a lower possibility of mortality than smaller trees. Shade-intolerant trees were both more likely to be harvested, and had a higher probability of death, than shade-tolerant individuals. Native species and exotic species were equally likely to have been lost from the plots between measurement periods. However, shade-tolerant native trees were likely to grow faster than the others at age 10+ years. Our findings suggest that species traits (e.g. shade tolerance) could play an important

  20. Drivers of Tree Growth, Mortality and Harvest Preferences in Species-Rich Plantations for Smallholders and Communities in the Tropics.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong; Vanclay, Jerome; Herbohn, John; Firn, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in multi-species tropical plantations but little information exists to guide their design and silviculture. The Rainforestation Farming system is the oldest tropical polyculture planting system in the Philippines and provides a unique opportunity to understand the underlying processes affecting tree performance within diverse plantings. Data collected from 85 plots distributed across the 18 mixed-species plantations in the Philippines was used to identify the factors influencing growth, probability of harvest, and death of trees in these complex plantings. The 18 sites (aged from 6 to 11 years at time of first measurement) were measured on three occasions over a 6-year period. We used data from the first period of data collection to develop models predicting harvesting probability and growth of trees in the second period. We found little evidence that tree species diversity had an effect on tree growth and tree loss at the community level, although a negative effect was found on tree growth of specific species such as Parashorea plicata and Swietenia macrophylla. While tree density of stands at age 10+ years (more than 1000 trees/ha with diameter > 5cm) did not have an impact on growth, growth rates were decreasing in stands with a high basal area. Tree size in the first period of measure was a good predictor for both tree growth and tree status in the next period, with larger trees tending to grow faster and having a greater chance of being harvested, and a lower possibility of mortality than smaller trees. Shade-intolerant trees were both more likely to be harvested, and had a higher probability of death, than shade-tolerant individuals. Native species and exotic species were equally likely to have been lost from the plots between measurement periods. However, shade-tolerant native trees were likely to grow faster than the others at age 10+ years. Our findings suggest that species traits (e.g. shade tolerance) could play an important

  1. Protein Binding Capacity of Different Forages Tannin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusiati, L. M.; Kurniawati, A.; Hanim, C.; Anas, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Eight forages of tannin sources(Leucaena leucocephala, Arachis hypogaea, Mimosa pudica, Morus alba L, Swietenia mahagoni, Manihot esculenta, Gliricidia sepium, and Bauhinia purpurea)were evaluated their tannin content and protein binding capacity. The protein binding capacity of tannin were determined using precipitation of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Swietenia mahagonihas higest total tannin level and condensed tannin (CT) compared with other forages (P<0.01). The Leucaena leucocephala has highest hydrolysable tannin (HT) level (P<0.01). The total and condensed tannin content of Swietenia mahagoni were 11.928±0.04 mg/100 mg and 9.241±0.02mg/100mg dry matter (DM) of leaves. The hydrolysable tannin content of Leucaena leucocephala was 5.338±0.03 mg/100 mg DM of leaves. Binding capacity was highest in Swietenia mahagoni and Leucaena leucocephala compared to the other forages (P<0.01). The optimum binding of BSA to tannin in Leucaena leucocephala and Swietenia mahagoniwere1.181±0.44 and 1.217±0.60mg/mg dry matter of leaves. The present study reports that Swietenia mahagoni has highest of tannin content and Leucaena leucocephala and Swietenia mahagoni capacity of protein binding.

  2. Preliminary Stratigraphic Cross Sections of Oil Shale in the Eocene Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyni, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Oil shale units in the Eocene Green River Formation are shown on two east-west stratigraphic sections across the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah. Several units have potential value for recovery of shale oil, especially the Mahogany oil shale zone, which is a high grade oil shale that can be traced across most of the Uinta Basin and into the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado. Many thin medium to high grade oil shale beds above the Mahogany zone can also be traced for many miles across the basin. Several units below the Mahogany that have slow velocities on sonic logs may be low grade oil shale. These may have value as a source for shale gas.

  3. SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Sean Gregory; Shackley, M. Steven

    A piece of mahogany obsidian came to the attention of the senior author during an excavation project near the town of Mata Ortiz, Chihuahua, Mexico in 2015. Because mahogany obsidian in northwestern Mexico is particularly rare, the question was raised, what obsidian source did this sample derive? Here, using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry, we demonstrate it comes from the Agua Fria obsidian source in northeastern Sonora, Mexico. Unfortunately, we do not know where this sample was collected from. We discuss these results and the significance of this find in this paper, but more investigation is certainly warranted.

  4. 50 CFR 648.73 - Surfclam and ocean quahog Accountability Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Accountability Measures. (a) Commercial ITQ fishery. (1) If the ACL for surfclam or ocean quahog is exceeded, and... an ACL overage that cannot be otherwise attributed to an ITQ allocation holder will be deducted from the appropriate ACL in the following fishing year. (b) Maine mahogany quahog fishery. If the ocean...

  5. 50 CFR 648.73 - Surfclam and ocean quahog Accountability Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Accountability Measures. (a) Commercial ITQ fishery. (1) If the ACL for surfclam or ocean quahog is exceeded, and... an ACL overage that cannot be otherwise attributed to an ITQ allocation holder will be deducted from the appropriate ACL in the following fishing year. (b) Maine mahogany quahog fishery. If the ocean...

  6. 50 CFR 648.73 - Closed areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ocean quahog Accountability Measures. (a) Commercial ITQ fishery. (1) If the ACL for surfclam or ocean.... (2) Any amount of an ACL overage that cannot be otherwise attributed to an ITQ allocation holder will be deducted from the appropriate ACL in the following fishing year. (b) Maine mahogany quahog fishery...

  7. 50 CFR 648.73 - Surfclam and ocean quahog Accountability Measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Accountability Measures. (a) Commercial ITQ fishery. (1) If the ACL for surfclam or ocean quahog is exceeded, and... an ACL overage that cannot be otherwise attributed to an ITQ allocation holder will be deducted from the appropriate ACL in the following fishing year. (b) Maine mahogany quahog fishery. If the ocean...

  8. Forest nurseries in Venezuela: Current efforts and future perspectives

    Treesearch

    J. A. Wright

    2002-01-01

    Current production of forest seedlings in Venezuela totals more than 100 million plants per year. There are four large nurseries that account for more than 75% of the total production with several hundred small nurseries that account for the remainder. Major species used are pines, eucalyptus, mahogany, and numerous other native tree species. Limitations in forest...

  9. A Key for the Identification of Eighteen Common Timbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Dichotomous key for 18 woods in common domestic and architectural use in Britain is provided. It is based upon structures visible with the naked eye and a hand-lens. Descriptions of the necessary anatomy and terminology are given. Timbers include yew, pine, spruce, oak, sweet chestnut, elm, ash, teak, cherry, walnut, mahogany, box, beech,…

  10. 50 CFR 622.185 - Size limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...), TL. (3) Blackfin, cubera, dog, gray, mahogany, queen, silk, and yellowtail snappers—12 inches (30.5 cm), TL. (4) Mutton snapper—16 inches (40.6 cm), TL. (5) Lane snapper—8 inches (20.3 cm), TL. (b...), TL. (2) Gray triggerfish in the South Atlantic EEZ off Florida—12 inches (30.5 cm), TL. (3) Hogfish...

  11. 50 CFR 622.185 - Size limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...), TL. (3) Blackfin, cubera, dog, gray, mahogany, queen, silk, and yellowtail snappers—12 inches (30.5 cm), TL. (4) Mutton snapper—16 inches (40.6 cm), TL. (5) Lane snapper—8 inches (20.3 cm), TL. (b...), TL. (2) Gray triggerfish in the South Atlantic EEZ off Florida—12 inches (30.5 cm), TL. (3) Hogfish...

  12. Visual cues are relevant in behavioral control measures for Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Raman, A

    2011-04-01

    Trap designs for banana root borer, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), have been done essentially on the understanding that C. sordidus rely primarily on chemical cues. Our present results indicate that these borers also rely on visual cues. Previous studies have demonstrated that among the eight differently colored traps tested in the field, brown traps were the most effective compared with the performances of yellow, red, gray, blue, black, white, and green traps; mahogany-brown was more effective than other shades of brown.In the current study, efficiency of ground traps with different colors was evaluated in the laboratory for the capture of C. sordidius. Response of C. sordidus to pheromone-baited ground traps of several different colors (used either individually or as 1:1 mixtures of two different colors) were compared with the standardized mahogany-brown traps. Traps with mahogany-brown mixed with different colors had no significant effect. In contrast, a laboratory color-choice tests indicated C. sordidus preferred black traps over other color traps, with no specific preferences for different shades of black. Here again, traps with black mixed with other colors (1:1) had no influence on the catches. Therefore, any other color that mixes with mahogany-brown or black does not cause color-specific dilution of attractiveness. By exploiting these results, it may be possible to produce efficacious trapping systems that could be used in a behavioral approach to banana root borer control.

  13. Variation in leader length of bitterbrush

    Treesearch

    Richard L. Hubbard; David. Dunaway

    1958-01-01

    The estimation of herbage production and· utilization in browse plants has been a problem for many years. Most range technicians have simply estimated the average length of twigs or leaders. then expressed use by deer and livestock as a percentage thereof based on the estimated average length left after grazing. Riordan used this method on mountain mahogany (

  14. Direct seeding trials of three major timber species in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Gerald A. Waiters; Craig D. Whitesell

    1971-01-01

    Trials are underway to detemine the feasibility of direct seeding timber species to specific sites. Three major timber species were direct seeded on a moist, cindery, low-elevation site on the island of Hawaii. After 1 year, West Indies mahogany and monkey-god had acceptable stocking; stocking of lemon-gum eucalyptus was considered poor. All thee species made rapid...

  15. 77 FR 54434 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ...) other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence. We reviewed all available scientific...) (Eastwood 1905, p. 201; Chasse et al. 2009, p. 39). Its mahogany brown fruits are about 6 to 8 millimeters..., fruits that are smaller and less red in color, and flowers that are smaller and more spherical (Service...

  16. 75 FR 48294 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... manmade factors affecting its continued existence. (3) The potential effects of climate change on this.... 39). Its mahogany brown fruits are about 6 to 8 millimeters (mm) (0.24 to 0.32 in) wide, while its... prostrate growth habit, more rounded leaves, smaller and less reddish fruits, and smaller and more spherical...

  17. U.S. Hardwood Imports Grow as World Supplies Expand

    Treesearch

    William C. Siegel; Clark Row

    1965-01-01

    Rapidly increasing imports have captured a significant share of America's hardwood markets. Total imports of hardwood raw materials and building products are now four times as large as exports. Before World War II the U. S. was a net exporter of hardwoods, and imports were limited to high-quality mahogany and specialty logs and lumber. Availability of large...

  18. CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    SciTech Connect

    Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,

    An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warmingmore » events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.« less

  19. A comparison of plant species for rearing Asian citrus psyllid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five plant genotypes were compared with respect to Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) reproduction potential: Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantiifolia, C. macrophylla, C. taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Asian citrus psyllid reproduction is dependent on young flush and thus Asian citrus psyllid production po...

  20. City of Freeport, Florida, State Road 20 Water Main Installation, Final Environmental Assessment, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    tracked Species, Eglin AFB Scientific Name Common Name Status State Federal Fish Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi Gulf Sturgeon LS LT Awaous banana River...West’s Flax LE - Litsea aestivalis Pondspice LE - Lupinus westianus Gulfcoast Lupine LT - Macranthera flammea Hummingbird Flower LE - Magnolia ashei...Pinguicula primuliflora Primrose- Flowered Butterwort LE - Platanthera integra Southern Yellow Fringeless Orchid LE - Polygonella macrophylla Large-Leaved

  1. Interstitial Area Final Range Environmental Assessment, Revision 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Scientific Name Common Name State Federal Fish Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi Gulf Sturgeon LS LT Awaous banana River Goby - - Etheostoma okaloosae...Litsea aestivalis Pondspice LE - Lupinus westianus Gulfcoast Lupine LT - Macranthera flammea Hummingbird Flower LE - Magnolia ashei Ashe’s Magnolia...Butterwort LT - Pinguicula primuliflora Primrose- Flowered Butterwort LE - Platanthera integra Southern Yellow Fringeless Orchid LE - Polygonella macrophylla

  2. Effect of fertilization and irrigation on nursery production of hydrangea using alternative containers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Container production of nursery plants using biodegradable containers has been studied in recent years as a sustainable alternative to traditional plastic containers. Plant growth and photosynthetic performance of Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Merritt’s Supreme’ were investigated in this study when they we...

  3. Technical Analysis and Characterization of Southern Cayo, Belize for Tropical Testing and Evaluation of Foliage Penetration Remote Sensing Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Characterization of Test Sites 57 Appendix 4 – Interactive Maps and Images...issued by the tropical test study panel, reporting the results of work conducted at 24 sites. The evolution of tropical testing to the suite of sites...macrophylla, Terminalia amazonia, Virola brachycarpa, and the palm Astrocaryum mexicanum. The mangrove and littoral forest are ecologically important to the

  4. Dynamics of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' Colonization of New Growth of Citrus.

    PubMed

    Hilf, Mark E; Luo, Weiqi

    2018-05-14

    'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' is a phloem-colonizing intracellular bacterial pathogen of citrus associated with the disease huanglongbing. A study of patterns of colonization and bacterial population growth in new growth of different citrus types was conducted by pruning infected citron, sweet orange, sour orange, mandarin, citrange and Citrus macrophylla trees to force the growth of axillary and adventitious shoots. The first three leaves on newly emerged shoots were collected at 30, 60 and 90 days to assess colonization and population growth of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' using real time PCR (qPCR). Single trials were conducted with mandarin and citron, two trials each for citrange, sour orange and sweet orange, and four trials for C. macrophylla. In citron the proportion of colonized leaves increased significantly over time, with 67, 85 and 96% of leaves colonized at 30, 60 and 90 days, respectively. For the other citrus types the exact proportion of colonized leaves differed, but colonization exceeded 60% in mandarin, sour orange, and citrange, and exceeded 80% at 30 days in two trials with sweet orange and three trials with C. macrophylla, but there was no significant increase in the proportion of colonized leaves at 60 and 90 days. Bacteria were readily detected by 30 days in new leaves of all citrus types. Differences in the growth of the bacterial population between citrus types and at different times of the year were noted, but common trends were apparent. In general, bacterial titers peaked at 60 days, except in leaves of C. macrophylla where bacterial titers peaked at 30 days. The early and consistently high proportion of leaf colonization observed for new growth of sweet orange during two trials and for C. macrophylla during three trials indicates a near synchronous colonization of new leaves by 30 days.

  5. Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties of Soil under Decaying Wood in a Tropical Wet Forest in Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Marcela Zalamea; Grizelle Gonzalez; D. Jean Lodge

    2016-01-01

    Decaying wood is related to nutrient cycling through its role as either a sink or source of nutrients. However, at micro scales, what is the effect of decaying logs on the physical, chemical,and biotic characteristics of the soil underneath? We took samples from a 0 to 5 cm depth under and a 50 cm distance away from decaying logs (Dacryodes excelsa and Swietenia...

  6. Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, Oil Shale Geodatabase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    This geodatabase is a digital reproduction of three legacy USGS oil shale publications--MF-958 (Pitman and Johnson, 1978), MF-1069 (Pitman, 1979), and OC-132 (Pitman and others, 1990). The database consists of 106 feature classes in three feature datasets organized by publication. Each dataset contains isopach contours, isoresource contours, isoresource polygons, and corehole and drillhole locations with resource values for 12 kerogen-rich (R) and kerogen-lean (L) oil shale zones in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado. The uppermost zones, Mahogany and R-6, also contain detailed structure files. The zones in descending order are: Mahogany, R-6, L-5, R-5, L-4, R-4, L-3, R-3, L-2, R-2, L-1, and R-1.

  7. Lesser used species of Bolivia and their relevance to sustainable forest management

    Treesearch

    Marc Barany; A. L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2003-01-01

    Bolivia has extensive forest resources and potential to become one of the world’s largest producers of tropical wood. However, this potential is currently constrained due to the depletion of Bolivia’s top commercial timber species (mahogany, Spanish cedar, and South American oak). To insure that Bolivia’s forestry sector contributes to the growth of the national...

  8. Developments in Oil Shale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-17

    shale oil.7 The Mahogany zone can reach 200 feet in thickness in the Uinta Basin of Utah, and thus could represent a technical potential of producing...undiscovered technically recoverable conventional oil and natural gas liquids are estimated to underlie the Uinta -Piceance Basin of Utah-Colorado and...River formation over maps of access categories prepared for the EPCA inventory (Figure 6). The Uinta basin in Utah is shown as being subject to

  9. Vegetation response to western juniper slash treatments.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Casey; Miller, Rick; Bates, Jonathan D

    2013-09-01

    The expansion of piñon-juniper woodlands the past 100 years in the western United States has resulted in large scale efforts to kill trees and recover sagebrush steppe rangelands. It is important to evaluate vegetation recovery following woodland control to develop best management practices. In this study, we compared two fuel reduction treatments and a cut-and-leave (CUT) treatment used to control western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis spp. occidentalis Hook.) of the northwestern United States. Treatments were; CUT, cut-and-broadcast burn (BURN), and cut-pile-and-burn the pile (PILE). A randomized complete block design was used with five replicates of each treatment located in a curl leaf mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray)/mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle)/Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis Elmer) association. In 2010, 4 years after tree control the cover of perennial grasses (PG) [Sandberg's bluegrass (Poa secunda J. Pres) and large bunchgrasses] were about 4 and 5 % less, respectively, in the BURN (7.1 ± 0.6 %) than the PILE (11.4 ± 2.3 %) and CUT (12.4 ± 1.7 %) treatments (P < 0.0015). In 2010, cover of invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) was greater in the BURN (6.3 ± 1.0 %) and was 50 and 100 % greater than PILE and CUT treatments, respectively. However, the increase in perennial bunchgrass density and cover, despite cheatgrass in the BURN treatment, mean it unlikely that cheatgrass will persist as a major understory component. In the CUT treatment mahogany cover increased 12.5 % and density increased in from 172 ± 25 to 404 ± 123 trees/ha. Burning, killed most or all of the adult mahogany, and mahogany recovery consisted of 100 and 67 % seedlings in the PILE and BURN treatments, respectively. After treatment, juniper presence from untreated small trees (<1 m tall; PILE and CUT treatments) and seedling emergence (all treatments) represented 25-33 % of

  10. Vegetation Response to Western Juniper Slash Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Casey; Miller, Rick; Bates, Jonathan D.

    2013-09-01

    The expansion of piñon-juniper woodlands the past 100 years in the western United States has resulted in large scale efforts to kill trees and recover sagebrush steppe rangelands. It is important to evaluate vegetation recovery following woodland control to develop best management practices. In this study, we compared two fuel reduction treatments and a cut-and-leave (CUT) treatment used to control western juniper ( Juniperus occidentalis spp. occidentalis Hook.) of the northwestern United States. Treatments were; CUT, cut-and-broadcast burn (BURN), and cut-pile-and-burn the pile (PILE). A randomized complete block design was used with five replicates of each treatment located in a curl leaf mahogany ( Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray)/mountain big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Nutt. spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle)/Idaho fescue ( Festuca idahoensis Elmer) association. In 2010, 4 years after tree control the cover of perennial grasses (PG) [Sandberg's bluegrass ( Poa secunda J. Pres) and large bunchgrasses] were about 4 and 5 % less, respectively, in the BURN (7.1 ± 0.6 %) than the PILE (11.4 ± 2.3 %) and CUT (12.4 ± 1.7 %) treatments ( P < 0.0015). In 2010, cover of invasive cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum L.) was greater in the BURN (6.3 ± 1.0 %) and was 50 and 100 % greater than PILE and CUT treatments, respectively. However, the increase in perennial bunchgrass density and cover, despite cheatgrass in the BURN treatment, mean it unlikely that cheatgrass will persist as a major understory component. In the CUT treatment mahogany cover increased 12.5 % and density increased in from 172 ± 25 to 404 ± 123 trees/ha. Burning, killed most or all of the adult mahogany, and mahogany recovery consisted of 100 and 67 % seedlings in the PILE and BURN treatments, respectively. After treatment, juniper presence from untreated small trees (<1 m tall; PILE and CUT treatments) and seedling emergence (all treatments) represented 25-33 % of pre-treatment tree

  11. Determination of absolute configuration of an isopimarane-type diterpenoid by experimental and theoretical electronic circular dichroism and vibrational circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Cheng-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Hui; Huang, Chao; Huang, Jian; Wang, Jin-Hui; Sun, Tie-Min

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the stereochemistry of a new isopimarane-type diterpenoid isolated from the Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl, Callicapene M3, was studied by experimental electronic circular dichroism and vibrational circular dichroism with the aid of TDDFT theoretical calculations. The good consistence between the experimental and simulated circular dichroism has clearly confirmed the absolute configuration of the title compound as (4S, 5S, 9S, 10S, 13S, 14S)-14α-hydroxy-7,15-isopimaradien-18-oic acid.

  12. Leucaena: promising forage and tree crop for the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    A report mainly on L. leucocephala with similar chapters to those found in the first edition, and additional chapters on: experiences with Leucaena - illustrating the growth and use of L. leucocephala throughout the tropics and subtropics; and other Leucaena species - giving very brief descriptions of L. diversifolia, L. esulenta, L. macrophylla, L. pulverulenta, L. shannoni, L. retusa, L. lanceolata, L. collinsii and L. trichodes. 34 references.

  13. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  14. The effect of filler addition and oven temperature to the antioxidant quality in the drying of Physalis angulata leaf extract obtained by subcritical water extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanti, R. F.; Natalia, Desy

    2016-11-01

    In traditional medicine, Physalis angulata which is well known as ceplukan in Indonesia, has been utilized to cure several diseases by conventional extraction in hot water. The investigation of the Swietenia mahagoni extract activity in modern medicine typically utilized organic solvents such as ethanol, methanol, chloroform and hexane in extraction. In this research, subcritical water was used as a solvent instead of organic solvent to extract the Pysalis angulata leaf part. The focus of this research was the investigation of extract drying condition in the presence of filler to preserve the quality of antioxidant in Swietenia mahagoni extract. Filler, which is inert, was added to the extract during drying to help absorb the water while protect the extract from exposure in heat during drying. The effects of filler types, concentrations and oven drying temperatures were investigated to the antioxidant quality covering total phenol and antioxidant activity. Aerosil and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were utilized as fillers with concentration was varied from 0-30 wt% for MCC and 0-15 wt% for aerosil. The oven drying temperature was varied from 40-60 oC. The results showed that compare to extract dried without filler, total phenol and antioxidant activity were improved upon addition of filler. The higher the concentration of filler, the better the antioxidant; however it was limited by the homogeneity of filler in the extract. Both of the variables (oven temperature and concentration) played an important role in the improvement of extract quality of Swietenia mahagoni leaf. It was related to the drying time which can be minimized to protect the deterioration of extract from heat. In addition, filler help to provide the powder form of extract instead of the typical extract form which is sticky and oily.

  15. Intertonguing of the Lower Part of the Uinta Formation with the Upper Part of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin During the Late Stages of Lake Uinta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnell, John R.

    2009-01-01

    During most of middle Eocene time, a 1,500-mi2 area between the Colorado and White Rivers in northwestern Colorado was occupied by the Piceance lobe of Lake Uinta. This initially freshwater lake became increasingly saline throughout its history. Sediments accumulating in the lake produced mostly clay shale, limestone, and dolomite containing varying concentrations of organic matter. At the time of the maximum extent of the lake, the organic-rich Mahogany bed of the Green River Formation was deposited throughout the area. Shortly after its deposition, stream deposits began infilling the lake from the north through a series of contractions interspersed with minor expansions. This fluctuation of the shoreline resulted in the intertonguing of the stream sediments of the lower part of the overlying Uinta Formation with the lacustrine sediments of the upper part of the Green River over a distance of about 40 mi; construction of regional stratigraphic cross sections show the pattern of intertonguing in considerable detail. The data utilized in this study, which covered parts of Rio Blanco, Garfield, and Mesa counties, was derived from (1) geologic mapping of thirty-four 7 1/2-minute quadrangles and stratigraphic studies by geologists of the U.S. Geological Survey, and (2) shale-oil assay information from numerous cores. As a result of this previous work and the additional effort involved in the compilation here presented, more than a dozen Green River Formation tongues have been named, some formally, others informally. Middle Eocene strata above the Mahogany bed in the northern part of the study area are dominantly coarse clastics of the Uinta Formation. The sedimentary sequence becomes more calcareous and organic-rich to the south where, in a 400-mi2 area, a 250 ft-thick sequence of oil shale above the Mahogany bed contains an average of 16 gallons of oil per ton of shale and is estimated to contain 73 billion barrels of oil.

  16. Modern Pathologic Diagnosis of Renal Oncocytoma.

    PubMed

    Wobker, Sara E; Williamson, Sean R

    2017-01-01

    Oncocytoma is a well-defined benign renal tumor, with classic gross and histologic features, including a tan or mahogany-colored mass with central scar, microscopic nested architecture, bland cytology, and round, regular nuclei with prominent central nucleoli. As a result of variations in this classic appearance, difficulty in standardizing diagnostic criteria, and entities that mimic oncocytoma, such as eosinophilic variant chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and succinate dehydrogenase-deficient renal cell carcinoma, pathologic diagnosis remains a challenge. This review addresses the current state of pathologic diagnosis of oncocytoma, with emphasis on modern diagnostic markers, areas of controversy, and emerging techniques for less invasive diagnosis, including renal mass biopsy and advanced imaging.

  17. In-place oil shale resources in the saline-mineral and saline-leached intervals, Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Dietrich, John D.

    2014-01-01

    A recent U.S. Geological Survey analysis of the Green River Formation of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado shows that about 920 and 352 billion barrels of oil are potentially recoverable from oil shale resources using oil-yield cutoffs of 15 and 25 gallons per ton (GPT), respectively. This represents most of the high-grade oil shale in the United States. Much of this rich oil shale is found in the dolomitic Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation and is associated with the saline minerals nahcolite and halite, or in the interval where these minerals have been leached by groundwater. The remaining high-grade resource is located primarily in the underlying illitic Garden Gulch Member of the Green River Formation. Of the 352 billion barrels of potentially recoverable oil resources in high-grade (≥25 GPT) oil shale, the relative proportions present in the illitic interval, non-saline R-2 zone, saline-mineral interval, leached interval (excluding leached Mahogany zone), and Mahogany zone were 3.1, 4.5, 36.6, 23.9, and 29.9 percent of the total, respectively. Only 2 percent of high-grade oil shale is present in marginal areas where saline minerals were never deposited.

  18. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Biomorphic Silicon Carbide Ceramics Fabricated from Wood Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Salem, J. A.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon carbide based, environment friendly, biomorphic ceramics have been fabricated by the pyrolysis and infiltration of natural wood (maple and mahogany) precursors. This technology provides an eco-friendly route to advanced ceramic materials. These biomorphic silicon carbide ceramics have tailorable properties and behave like silicon carbide based materials manufactured by conventional approaches. The elastic moduli and fracture toughness of biomorphic ceramics strongly depend on the properties of starting wood preforms and the degree of molten silicon infiltration. Mechanical properties of silicon carbide ceramics fabricated from maple wood precursors indicate the flexural strengths of 3441+/-58 MPa at room temperature and 230136 MPa at 1350C. Room temperature fracture toughness of the maple based material is 2.6 +/- 0.2 MPa(square root of)m while the mahogany precursor derived ceramics show a fracture toughness of 2.0 +/- 0.2 Mpa(square root of)m. The fracture toughness and the strength increase as the density of final material increases. Fractographic characterization indicates the failure origins to be pores and chipped pockets of silicon.

  19. Development of an efficient pheromone-based trapping method for the banana root borer Cosmopolites sordidus.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G V P; Cruz, Z T; Guerrero, A

    2009-01-01

    The banana root borer Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of bananas throughout the world. Chemical control is both undesirable and expensive, where biological control alternatives are limited, and pheromone-based trapping results in low captures. In this study, several important factors that affect pheromone-based catches, such as trap type, trap dimensions, and color and position of the traps, were optimized. Ground traps were found to be superior to ramp and pitfall traps, and larger traps (40 x 25 cm and above) were more efficient than smaller ones (30 x 15 cm). In a color-choice test, the banana weevil clearly preferred brown traps over yellow, red, gray, blue, black, white, and green, with mahogany being more attractive than other shades of brown. In addition, pheromone baited ground traps positioned in the shade of the canopy caught significantly more adults than those placed in sunlight. Therefore, mahogany-brown ground traps 40 x 25 cm appear to be the most efficient at catching C. sordidus adults and have the greatest potential for use in mass trapping and programs for eradication of this pest.

  20. An Eye on Trafficking Genes: Identification of Four Eye Color Mutations in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Paaqua; Maga, Tara; Loshakov, Anna; Singhal, Rishi; Wali, Aminah; Nwankwo, Jennifer; Baron, Kaitlin; Johnson, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Genes that code for proteins involved in organelle biogenesis and intracellular trafficking produce products that are critical in normal cell function . Conserved orthologs of these are present in most or all eukaryotes, including Drosophila melanogaster. Some of these genes were originally identified as eye color mutants with decreases in both types of pigments found in the fly eye. These criteria were used for identification of such genes, four eye color mutations that are not annotated in the genome sequence: chocolate, maroon, mahogany, and red Malpighian tubules were molecularly mapped and their genome sequences have been evaluated. Mapping was performed using deletion analysis and complementation tests. chocolate is an allele of the VhaAC39-1 gene, which is an ortholog of the Vacuolar H+ ATPase AC39 subunit 1. maroon corresponds to the Vps16A gene and its product is part of the HOPS complex, which participates in transport and organelle fusion. red Malpighian tubule is the CG12207 gene, which encodes a protein of unknown function that includes a LysM domain. mahogany is the CG13646 gene, which is predicted to be an amino acid transporter. The strategy of identifying eye color genes based on perturbations in quantities of both types of eye color pigments has proven useful in identifying proteins involved in trafficking and biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles. Mutants of these genes can form the basis of valuable in vivo models to understand these processes. PMID:27558665

  1. Host plant affects morphometric variation of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Thomson M.; Hall, David G.; Hentz, Matthew G.; Hetesy, Gabriella; Stansly, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most serious citrus pests worldwide due to its role as vector of huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. While some optimal plant species for ACP oviposition and development have been identified, little is known of the influence of host plants on ACP size and shape. Our goal was to determine how size and shape of ACP wing and body size varies when development occurs on different host plants in a controlled rearing environment. ACP were reared on six different rutaceous species; Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus macrophylla, Citrus maxima, Citrus taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Adults were examined for morphometric variation using traditional and geometric analysis based on 12 traits or landmarks. ACP reared on C. taiwanica were consistently smaller than those reared on the other plant species. Wing aspect ratio also differed between C. maxima and C. taiwanica. Significant differences in shape were detected with those reared on M. paniculata having narrower wings than those reared on C. macrophylla. This study provides evidence of wing size and shape differences of ACP based on host plant species which potentially may impact dispersal. Further study is needed to determine if behavioral and physiological differences are associated with the observed phenotypic differences. PMID:27833820

  2. The proximate, mineral, and toxicant compositions of four possible food security crops from southeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojiako, Okey A; Ogbuji, Chiza A; Agha, Ngozi C; Onwuliri, Viola A

    2010-10-01

    The proximate, nutritional, and antinutritional compositions of the raw, cooked, and roasted samples of four Nigerian indigenous seeds-Sphenostylis stenocarpa, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Mucuna flagellipes, and Citrullus colocynthis-were evaluated. Also estimated were zinc and divalent cation bioavailability of the seeds using millimolar ratios/kg dry weight of [calcium]/[phytate], [phytate]/[zinc], [calcium][phytate]/[Zn], and [phytate]/[total phosphorus]. The results obtained revealed that the seeds of P. macrophylla and C. colocynthis had high protein and lipid levels. All the seeds were also found to have high energy value and low moisture content. Mineral analysis showed the presence of Na, K, Ca, and Mg in appreciable quantities and Zn, I, Fe, and Se in minute quantities. Antinutritional analyses indicated the presence of traces of tannin, oxalate, phytate, saponin, and cyanide in the samples. The various processing techniques had significant (P ≤ .05) effects on the measured parameters. The calculated [Ca][phytate]/[Zn] molar ratios revealed that these seeds had values above the critical level of 0.5 mL/kg, thus indicating reduced bioavailability of zinc. In view of the high nutrient contents, low antinutritional contents after processing, and their superabundance, these seeds could be cheap nutrient sources. The implications of these findings with regards to food security are enormous.

  3. Host plant affects morphometric variation of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Paris, Thomson M; Allan, Sandra A; Hall, David G; Hentz, Matthew G; Hetesy, Gabriella; Stansly, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is one of the most serious citrus pests worldwide due to its role as vector of huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. While some optimal plant species for ACP oviposition and development have been identified, little is known of the influence of host plants on ACP size and shape. Our goal was to determine how size and shape of ACP wing and body size varies when development occurs on different host plants in a controlled rearing environment. ACP were reared on six different rutaceous species; Bergera koenigii , Citrus aurantifolia , Citrus macrophylla , Citrus maxima , Citrus taiwanica and Murraya paniculata . Adults were examined for morphometric variation using traditional and geometric analysis based on 12 traits or landmarks. ACP reared on C. taiwanica were consistently smaller than those reared on the other plant species. Wing aspect ratio also differed between C. maxima and C. taiwanica . Significant differences in shape were detected with those reared on M. paniculata having narrower wings than those reared on C. macrophylla . This study provides evidence of wing size and shape differences of ACP based on host plant species which potentially may impact dispersal. Further study is needed to determine if behavioral and physiological differences are associated with the observed phenotypic differences.

  4. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF WEATHERING ON A 50-YEAR OLD RETORTED OIL-SHALE WASTE PILE, RULISON EXPERIMENTAL RETORT, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Dean, Walter E.; Ackerman, Daniel J.; ,

    1985-01-01

    An oil-shale mine and experimental retort were operated near Rulison, Colorado by the U. S. Bureau of Mines from 1926 to 1929. Samples from seven drill cores from a retorted oil-shale waste pile were analyzed to determine 1) the chemical and mineral composition of the retorted oil shale and 2) variations in the composition that could be attributed to weathering. Unweathered, freshly-mined samples of oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River Formation and slope wash collected away from the waste pile were also analyzed for comparison. The waste pile is composed of oil shale retorted under either low-temperature (400-500 degree C) or high-temperature (750 degree C) conditions. The results of the analyses show that the spent shale within the waste pile contains higher concentrations of most elements relative to unretorted oil shale.

  5. A Functional Trait Approach for Evaluation of Agroforestry Species Adaptation Potentiel to Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munson, A. D.; Marone, D.; Olivier, A.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional agroforestry systems have been used for generations in the Sahel region of Africa to assure local food security. However, an understanding of the functional ecology of these systems is lacking, which would contribute to assessing both the provision of current ecological services, and the potential for adaptation to global change. We have studied five native tree and shrub species across a transect of different soil types in the semi-arid zone of the Niayes region of Senegal, to document changes in above and belowground traits in response to soil and land use change. Root traits in particular influence access to limiting resources such as water and nutrients. We studied fine root depth distribution and specific root length (SRL) with soil depth of Acacia raddiana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Euphorbia balsamifera, Faidherbia albida, Neocarya macrophylla, on three different soil textures for three systems (fallow, parkland and rangeland), in order to understand potential exploitation of soil resources and potential contribution of roots to soil carbon stocks at different depths. The maximum root biomass of four of the species (Acacia raddiana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Euphorbia balsamifera, Neocarya macrophylla) occurred in the 40-60 cm layer, where the two evergreen species (A. raddiana, N. macrophylla) developed the most biomass. Root biomass decreased for all species except F. albida, after 60 cm depth. The Mimosaceae species (A. raddiana, F. albida) developed the most root biomass within the 100 cm sampling depth. The maximum fine root biomass was found in fallow lands and clay soils. For all species, the highest SRL was observed during the hot dry season, in sandy or sandy loam soil. The SRL was lowest in the rainy season on clay soil. Evergreens had higher SRL than deciduous species, regardless of soil texture and growing season conditions. Parkland and rangelands exhibited higher SRL than fallow land, most likely due to higher soil fertility. Differences

  6. The abundance and importance value of tree in “Sendang Kalimah Toyyibah” surrounding and its implication to the spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiryani, Erry; Murningsih; Jumari

    2018-05-01

    One important factor affecting sustainability of spring is composition of vegetation around it. “Sendang Kalimah Toyyibah” is one of many springs in Semarang with intensive utilization. Vulnerability of spring can be monitored by dominant vegetation species indicated by vegetation importance value indices, especially for tree. This research aimed to study the variation of tree species around “Sendang Kalimah Toyyibah”, to analyze the importance value index of tree species and to analyze the implication of tree species which had dominant importance value index on “Sendang Kalimah Toyyibah” spring. Data collection was conducted via line transect with the length of 200 m on 4 directions which were defined based on the stream direction and the spring as the central point. Each transect has 4 observation plots occupying 20 x 20 m2. Data collection was including tree species, abundance, presence frequency and basal area of tree. Data analysis was conducted for vegetation importance value index. The result showed that around “Sendang Kalimah Toyyibah” there were 28 tree species inwhich the abundance was dominated by Mahogany (33 individuals stands), Albizia (31 stands), Coffee (20 stands), Coconut (18 stands), Mangosteen (16 stands) and Banana (16 stands). Vegetation importance value index around “Sendang Kalimah Toyyibah” was dominated by the above 7 treeswith important values (IV) respectively species including Mahogany (28,97%), Albizia (26,70%), Mangosteen (23,47%), Java Black Bamboo (22,18%), Coffee (19,23%), Coconut (17,98%) and Durian (16,41%). Cumulatively, these 7 treesspecieses dominated the importance value of tree around “Sendang Kalimah Toyyibah” which was 154,95%. These dominant species had represented the ecosystem function in infiltration, filtration and absorption of water which were required for spring ecosystem sustainability.

  7. Strontium isotopic evidence of shifting inflows to Eocene Lake Uinta in the Laramide foreland of Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.; Wiegand, B. A.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2007-12-01

    Isotopic records from the Uinta basin in Utah are evidence of an evolving landscape during the early Cenozoic. Combined with studies of provenance and paleoflow, oxygen and carbon isotopic results have recently been interpreted to reflect changes in hydrology and catchment hypsometry as the basin responded to developing relief in the foreland. We now present strontium isotope data from lacustrine limestones indicating significant and rapid (< 1 my) shifts in the source of inflowing surface waters. Provenance of Eocene sediments has been used to argue that water spilling south from an overfilled Lake Gosiute in the Greater Green River basin caused a highstand of the lake in the Piceance Creek basin, which in turn overtopped the Douglas Creek Arch and connected with Lake Uinta in the Uinta basin. The lake highstand was extremely productive, and resulted in the deposition of the rich "Mahogany zone" oil shales. New data shows that the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of lacustrine limestones collected in the Uinta basin is generally low (< 0.7105) for most of the Eocene, but spikes higher (to 0.7122) in samples of the Main Body of the Green River Formation near and within the Mahogany zone. We interpret this data to reflect a period of input of water from Lake Gosiute, where that lake's catchments included exposed basement that was much more radiogenic. The strontium data further supports the interpretation that intraforeland basin development in the central North American Cordillera was largely controlled by shifting drainage patterns as the landscape responded to ongoing Laramide tectonism.

  8. Multi-scale Multi-dimensional Imaging and Characterization of Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Saif, T.; Lin, Q.; Al-Khulaifi, Y.; Blunt, M. J.; Bijeljic, B.

    2017-12-01

    The microstructural evaluation of fine grained rocks is challenging which demands the use of several complementary methods. Oil shale, a fine-grained organic-rich sedimentary rock, represents a large and mostly untapped unconventional hydrocarbon resource with global reserves estimated at 4.8 trillion barrels. The largest known deposit is the Eocene Green River Formation in Western Colorado, Eastern Utah, and Southern Wyoming. An improved insight into the mineralogy, organic matter distribution and pore network structure before, during and after oil shale pyrolysis is critical to understanding hydrocarbon flow behaviour and improving recovery. In this study, we image Mahogany zone oil shale samples in two dimensions (2-D) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in three dimensions (3-D) using focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), laboratory-based X-ray micro-tomography (µCT) and synchrotron X-ray µCT to reveal a complex and variable fine grained microstructure dominated by organic-rich parallel laminations which are tightly bound in a highly calcareous and heterogeneous mineral matrix. We report the results of a detailed µCT study of the Mahogany oil shale with increasing pyrolysis temperature. The physical transformation of the internal microstructure and evolution of pore space during the thermal conversion of kerogen in oil shale to produce hydrocarbon products was characterized. The 3-D volumes of pyrolyzed oil shale were reconstructed and image processed to visualize and quantify the volume and connectivity of the pore space. The results show a significant increase in anisotropic porosity associated with pyrolysis between 300-500°C with the formation of micron-scale connected pore channels developing principally along the kerogen-rich lamellar structures.

  9. Salt tolerances of some mainland tree species select as through nursery screening.

    PubMed

    Miah, Md Abdul Quddus

    2013-09-15

    A study of salt tolerance was carried out on germination, survival and height growth performance of important mesophytic species such as Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Acacia nilotica, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolaia, Emblica officinalis, Leucaena leucocephala, Samania saman, Swetenia macrophylla, Terminalia arjuna, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia bellirica and Thespesia populnea in nursery stage using fresh water and salt (NaCl) solutions of 10, 15 and 20 ppm. Effect of salt on germination, survival performance and height growth performance were examined in this condition. Based on the observation, salt tolerance of these species has been determined Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Tamarindus indica has showed the best capacity to perform in different salinity conditions. Acacia nilotica, Emblica officinalis, Thespesia populnea has performed better. Albizia procera, Samania saman and Terminalia bellirica, germination and height performance showed good but when salinity increases survivability were decreases.

  10. Which ornamental plant species effectively remove benzene from indoor air?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan-Ju; Mu, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ding, Hui; Crystal Arens, Nan

    Phytoremediation—using plants to remove toxins—is an attractive and cost effective way to improve indoor air quality. This study screened ornamental plants for their ability to remove volatile organic compounds from air by fumigating 73 plant species with 150 ppb benzene, an important indoor air pollutant that poses a risk to human health. The 10 species found to be most effective at removing benzene from air were fumigated for two more days (8 h per day) to quantify their benzene removal capacity. Crassula portulacea, Hydrangea macrophylla, Cymbidium Golden Elf., Ficus microcarpa var. fuyuensis, Dendranthema morifolium, Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, Dieffenbachia amoena cv. Tropic Snow; Spathiphyllum Supreme; Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Bostoniensis; Dracaena deremensis cv. Variegata emerged as the species with the greatest capacity to remove benzene from indoor air.

  11. Rauvolfianine, a new antimycobacterial glyceroglycolipid and other constituents from Rauvolfia caffra. Sond (Apocynaceae).

    PubMed

    Ebeh Messanga, Robert; Dominique Serge, Ngono Bikobo; Abouem A Zintchem, Auguste; Norbert, Mbabi Nyemeck Ii; Esther Del Florence, Moni Ndedi; Patrick Hervé, Betote Diboué; Maximilienne Ascension, Nyegue; Alex De Théodore, Atchadé; Dieudonné Emmanuel, Pegnyemb; Christian G, Bochet; Koert, Ulrich

    2017-08-16

    The chemical investigation of the extract of the dried leaves of Rauvolfia caffra (Sond) (synonym Rauvolfia macrophylla) (Apocynaceae) led to isolation of a new glycoside derivative, rauvolfianine (1) as well as six known compounds: oleanolic acid (2), sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), betulinic acid (4), vellosimine (5), sarpagine (6) and D-fructofuranosyl-β-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (7). Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 were evaluated for antitubercular activity. Compounds 1 and 2 were the most active (MIC = 7.8125 and 31.25 μg/mL) towards the Isoniazid resistant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis AC45. Their structures and relative stereochemistry were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  12. Food potentials of some unconventional oilseeds grown in Nigeria--a brief review.

    PubMed

    Badifu, G I

    1993-05-01

    A brief review of literature on kernels of Citrullus and Cucumeropsis ('egusi' melon) species, Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin), Lagenaria (gourd) species of all of Cucurbitaceae family and other oilseeds such as Pentaclethra macrophylla (African oil bean), Parkia spp. (African locust bean) both of Mimosaceae family and Butyrospermum paradoxum (shea butter) of Sapotaceae family which are grown and widely used as food in Nigeria is presented. The kernels of species of Cucurbitaceae form the bulk of unconventional oilseeds used for food in Nigeria. The nutritional value of some of the kernels and the physicochemical properties and storage stability of the oils obtained from them are discussed. The various consumable forms in which they exist are also described. The problems and prospects of these neglected oilseeds in Nigeria are highlighted.

  13. Influence of the Sting Nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudalus, on Young Citrus Trees.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D T

    1985-10-01

    The sting nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, was associated with poor growth of citrus in a central Florida nursery. Foliage of trees was sparse and chlorotic. Affected rootstocks included Changsha and Cleopatra mandarin orange; Flying Dragon, Rubidoux, and Jacobsen trifoliate orange; Macrophylla and Milam lemon; Palestine sweet lime; sour orange; and the hybrids - Carrizo, Morton, and Rusk citrange and Swingle citrumelo. Root symptoms included apical swelling, development of swollen terminals containing 3-5 apical meristems and hyperplastic tissue, coarse roots, and a reduction in the number of fibrous roots. Population densities as high as 392 sting nematodes per liter soil were detected, with 80% of the population occurring in the top 30 cm of soil; however, nematodes were detected to 107 cm deep. Although an ectoparasite, the nematode was closely associated with citrus root systems and was transported with bare root nursery stock. Disinfestation was accomplished by hot water treatment (49 C for 5 minutes).

  14. Antimicrobial activity of Marcetia DC species (Melastomataceae) and analysis of its flavonoids by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled-diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Leite, Tonny Cley Campos; de Sena, Amanda Reges; Dos Santos Silva, Tânia Regina; Dos Santos, Andrea Karla Almeida; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Branco, Alexsandro

    2012-07-01

    Marcetia genera currently comprises 29 species, with approximately 90% inhabiting Bahia (Brazil), and most are endemic to the highlands of the Chapada Diamantina (Bahia). Among the species, only M. taxifolia (A.St.-Hil.) DC. populates Brazil (state of Roraima to Paraná) and also Venezuela, Colombia, and Guyana. This work evaluated the antimicrobial activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of three species of Marcetia (Marcetia canescens Naud., M. macrophylla Wurdack, and M. taxifolia A.StHil) against several microorganism. In addition, the flavonoids were analyzed in extracts by HPLC-DAD. The tests were made using Gram-positive (three strains of Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (two strains of Escherichia coli, a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and another of Salmonella choleraesius) bacteria resistant and nonresistant to antibiotics and yeasts (two strains of Candida albicans and one of C. parapsilosis) by the disk diffusion method. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed on the above extracts to isolate flavonoids, which were subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Results showed that extracts inhibited the Gram-positive bacteria and yeast. The hexane extracts possessed the lowest activity, while the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts were more active. Marcetia taxifolia was more effective (active against 10 microorganisms studied), and only its methanol extract inhibited Gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesius). SPE and HPLC-DAD analysis showed that M. canescens and M. macrophylla contain glycosylated flavonoids, while the majority of extracts from M. taxifolia were aglycone flavonoids.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of Marcetia DC species (Melastomataceae) and analysis of its flavonoids by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled-diode array detector

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Tonny Cley Campos; de Sena, Amanda Reges; dos Santos Silva, Tânia Regina; dos Santos, Andrea Karla Almeida; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Branco, Alexsandro

    2012-01-01

    Background: Marcetia genera currently comprises 29 species, with approximately 90% inhabiting Bahia (Brazil), and most are endemic to the highlands of the Chapada Diamantina (Bahia). Among the species, only M. taxifolia (A.St.-Hil.) DC. populates Brazil (state of Roraima to Paraná) and also Venezuela, Colombia, and Guyana. Objective: This work evaluated the antimicrobial activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of three species of Marcetia (Marcetia canescens Naud., M. macrophylla Wurdack, and M. taxifolia A.StHil) against several microorganism. In addition, the flavonoids were analyzed in extracts by HPLC-DAD. Materials and methods: The tests were made using Gram-positive (three strains of Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (two strains of Escherichia coli, a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and another of Salmonella choleraesius) bacteria resistant and nonresistant to antibiotics and yeasts (two strains of Candida albicans and one of C. parapsilosis) by the disk diffusion method. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed on the above extracts to isolate flavonoids, which were subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Results: Results showed that extracts inhibited the Gram-positive bacteria and yeast. The hexane extracts possessed the lowest activity, while the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts were more active. Conclusion: Marcetia taxifolia was more effective (active against 10 microorganisms studied), and only its methanol extract inhibited Gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesius). SPE and HPLC-DAD analysis showed that M. canescens and M. macrophylla contain glycosylated flavonoids, while the majority of extracts from M. taxifolia were aglycone flavonoids. PMID:23060695

  16. Catalytic and synergistic antibacterial potential of green synthesized silver nanoparticles: Their ecotoxicological evaluation on Poecillia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Borase, Hemant P; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were fabricated at a rapid rate from leaf extract of medicinally important plant Alstonia macrophylla. Biosynthesized AgNPs are of spherical shape and narrow size (70 nm), exhibiting a surface plasmon resonance peak at 435 nm, and a zeta potential of -30.8 mV and have a crystalline nature. A diverse biochemical consortium of protein, terpenoids, phenolics, and flavonoids in leaf extract of A. macrophylla was found to be responsible for AgNP synthesis as evidenced from qualitative-quantitative chemical analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies. Nitroaromatic compounds are anthropogenic pollutants with long-lasting environmental persistence and are needed to transform into less toxic derivatives. 4-Nitrophenol and p-nitroaniline were reduced to less hazardous and commercially useful 4-aminophenol and p-phenylenediamine by phytosynthesized AgNPs. Rate constants of 0.052 and 0.040 Min(-1) were calculated for 4-nitrophenol and p-nitroaniline reduction, respectively. Thin-layer chromatography also confirms the reduction of these nitroaromatic compounds. Combinational studies could be one of the strategies to overcome microbial resistance to antibiotics. In synergistic antibacterial assay, the highest increase in a fold area of 3.84 was reported against Staphylococcus aureus using a combination of AgNPs with penicillin. Biosynthesized AgNPs were found to be less toxic (LC50 = 9.13 ppm) than chemically synthesized AgNPs having a LC50 value of 2.86 ppm against nontarget fish Poecillia reticulata. Our green nanosynthesis method offers a faster rate of formation of stable AgNPs having antibacterial and catalytic potential with lower environmental toxicity. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Intraspecific diversity in Sinningia speciosa (Gesneriaceae: Sinningieae), and possible origins of the cultivated florist's gloxinia

    PubMed Central

    Zaitlin, David

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The florist's gloxinia is a familiar houseplant in the Gesneriaceae, the botanical family that includes the African violet (Saintpaulia) and other ornamental species. The gloxinia's wild progenitor is Sinningia speciosa (Lodd.) Hiern, a Brazilian endemic. Although it has been cultivated for almost 200 years, little is known about the genetic diversity in S. speciosa, how the wild populations relate to one another or even where the cultivated forms originated. Using available wild collections, preliminary phenetic and phylogenetic investigations were conducted to elucidate the interspecific relationships within S. speciosa and to infer the origins of the cultivars. Methodology Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was applied to 24 accessions of S. speciosa (17 wild collections, seven cultivars) and one accession each of Sinningia guttata and Sinningia macrophylla. A maximum likelihood (ML) tree was also calculated from an alignment of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence from the same 26 accessions. Principal results Dice/UPGMA and principal coordinates analysis of the AFLP data partitioned S. speciosa into several distinct clusters, one of which included S. macrophylla. All cultivated ‘gloxinias’ grouped together in a major cluster with plants from Rio de Janeiro. The AFLP results were compared with a phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal spacer region, which was informative in S. speciosa. The ML tree generally supported the AFLP results, although several clades lacked strong statistical support. Conclusions Independent analyses of two different data sets show that S. speciosa is a diverse species comprised of several lineages. Genetic distance estimates calculated from the AFLP data were positively correlated with geographic distances between populations, indicating that reproductive isolation could be driving speciation in this taxon. Molecular markers are under development for population genetic

  18. Comparative study on "long-dan", "qin-jiao" and their adulterants by HPLC analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang-Fang; Wang, Yan-Ming; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2014-10-01

    "Long-Dan" and "Qin-Jiao" are two important TCM herbs since ancient times in China. In the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the dried roots and rhizomes of four species from the genus Gentiana, e.g. Gentiana manshurica, G. scabra, G. triflora and G. rigescens, are recorded under the name of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma ("Long-Dan" in Chinese), while the other four species from the same genus including G. macrophylla, G. crassicaulis, G. straminea and G. duhurica are recorded and used as the raw materials of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix ("Qin-Jiao" in Chinese). On the basis of the establishment of a validated HPLC-UV method for quantifying simultaneously, five iridoid glycosides, e.g. loganic acid (1), swertiamarinin (2), gentiopicroside (3), sweroside (4) and 2'-(o,m-dihydroxybenzyl)sweroside (5) have been used successfully as chemical markers for the comparison of the species used as "Long-Dan", "Qin-Jiao" and their adulterants in the present study. The results suggested that four iridoid glycosides 1-4 commonly existed in both "Long-Dan" and "Qin-Jiao", while 2'-(o,m-dihydroxybenzyl)sweroside (5) also existed as one of the major components in "Dian-Long-Dan" species. Moreover, the contents of compounds 1-5 were various in different "Long-Dan" and "Qin-Jiao" species. Herein, we profiled and compared three "Long-Dan" species, four "Qin-Jiao" species and five adulterants by applying multivariate statistical techniques to their HPLC data sets to establish the differences and/or similarities.

  19. New Insights into Early Cenozoic Carbon Cycling: Continental Ecosystem Response to Orbital Forcing in the Lacustrine Green River Formation (Western US) at the Conclusion of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musher, D.; Grogan, D. S.; Whiteside, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    A series of extreme warming events, known as hyperthermals, interrupted the equable climate conditions predominant during the early Cenozoic hothouse. In marine sediments, these hyperthermals are marked by prominent negative carbon isotope excursions, indicative of dramatic and abrupt changes in the global exogenic carbon pool, as well as carbonate dissolution horizons and benthic foraminiferal extinctions. Hyperthermals are well documented in the marine record, but it is less clear how patterns of global carbon cycling manifested in early Cenozoic terrestrial environments, although some studies have documented amplified excursions relative to that of the marine record. The lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation of Utah is an excellent system for studying the continental environmental context of global carbon cycle dynamics during this time. These sediments span a ~15 Myr time interval, including the entire Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) and the transition to the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend. To investigate the relationship between the continental carbon record and global carbon cycling, climate, and orbital forcing, we studied a detailed section from the P-4 core drilled in the Uinta Basin bracketing the famous “Mahogany Bed”, a petroliferous layer of oil shale recording a period of enhanced productivity and carbon burial near the end of the EECO. Our carbon isotope measurements of high molecular weight n-alkanes across this boundary suggest a stable global carbon cycle and climate regime persisting ~400 kyr at the terminal EECO. Frequency spectra of published oil yield and gamma ray data from this section reveal concentrated power at Milankovitch frequencies, permitting the assembly of a robust age model. In concert with radioisotopic age control, our orbital chronology allows for comparison of our carbon cycle record to early Eocene astronomical solutions. We show that the Mahogany Bed corresponds to strong minima in short and long eccentricity

  20. Vegetation Structure of Ebony Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus auratus) Habitat in Kecubung Ulolanang Nature Preservation Central Java-Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ervina, Rahmawati; Wasiq, Hidayat Jafron

    2018-02-01

    Kecubung Ulolanang Nature Preservation is ebony leaf monkey's habitats in Central Java Indonesia. Continuously degradation of their population is caused by illegal hunting and habitat degradation that made this species being vulnerable. Habitat conservation is one of important aspects to prevent them from extinction. The purpose of this research was to analyze the vegetation's structure and composition, which was potentially, becomes habitat and food source for the monkeys. Data collected using purposive sampling with line transect method of four different level of vegetation. Data analysis used Important Value Index and Diversity Index. There were 43 species of vegetation at seedling stage, 18 species at sapling stage, 8 species at poles stage and 27 species at trees stage. Species that had the highest important value index at seedling was Stenochlaena palustri , at the sapling was Gnetum gnemon, at pole was Swietenia mahagoni and at tree was Tectona grandis . Species of trees those were potentially to become habitat (food source) for ebony leaf monkey were T. grandis, Dipterocarpus gracilis, Quercus sundaica and Ficus superba. The highest diversity index was at seedling gwoth stage.

  1. Traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in rural and urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh--an ethnobotanical survey.

    PubMed

    Ocvirk, Soeren; Kistler, Martin; Khan, Shusmita; Talukder, Shamim Hayder; Hauner, Hans

    2013-06-24

    The usage of medicinal plants is traditionally rooted in Bangladesh and still an essential part of public healthcare. Recently, a dramatically increasing prevalence brought diabetes mellitus and its therapy to the focus of public health interests in Bangladesh. We conducted an ethnobotanical survey to identify the traditional medicinal plants being used to treat diabetes in Bangladesh and to critically assess their anti-diabetic potentials with focus on evidence-based criteria. In an ethnobotanical survey in defined rural and urban areas 63 randomly chosen individuals (health professionals, diabetic patients), identified to use traditional medicinal plants to treat diabetes, were interviewed in a structured manner about their administration or use of plants for treating diabetes. In total 37 medicinal plants belonging to 25 families were reported as being used for the treatment of diabetes in Bangladesh. The most frequently mentioned plants were Coccinia indica, Azadirachta indica, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia chebula, Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Swietenia mahagoni. Traditional medicinal plants are commonly used in Bangladesh to treat diabetes. The available data regarding the anti-diabetic activity of the detected plants is not sufficient to adequately evaluate or recommend their use. Clinical intervention studies are required to provide evidence for a safe and effective use of the identified plants in the treatment of diabetes.

  2. Summit Lake landslide and geomorphic history of Summit Lake basin, northwestern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curry, B. Brandon; Melhorn, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    The Summit Lake landslide, northwestern Nevada, composed of Early Miocene pyroclastic debris, Ashdown Tuff, and basalt and rhyolite of the Black Rock Range, blocked the upper Soldier Creek-Snow Creek drainage and impounded Summit Lake sometimes prior to 7840 yr B.P. The slide covers 8.2 km2 and has geomorphic features characteristic of long run-out landslides, such as lobate form, longitudinal and transverse ridges, low surface gradient (7.1 ??), and preservation of original stratigraphic position of transported blocks. However, estimated debris volume is the smallest reported (2.5 ?? 105 m3) for a landslide of this type. The outflow channel of the Summit Lake basin was a northward-flowing stream valley entrenched by Mahogany Creek. Subsequent negative tectonic adjustment of the basin by about 35 m, accompanied by concommitant progradation of a prominent alluvial fan deposited by Mahogany Creek, argues for a probable diversion of drainage from the Alvord basin southward into the Lahontan basin. The landslide occurred while the creek flowed southward, transferring about 147 km2 of watershed from the Lahontan basin back to the Alvord basin. Overflow northward occurred during high stands of Pluvial Lake Parman in the basin; otherwise, under drier climates, the Summit Lake basin has been closed. Within large depressions on the slide surface, the ca. 6800 yr old Mazama Bed and other sediments have buried a weakly developed soil. Disseminated humus in the soil yields an age of 7840 ?? 310 yr B.P. Absence of older tephra (such as St. Helens M) brackets the slide age between 7840 and 19,000 yr B.P. Projectile points found on the highest strandlines of Pluvial Lake Parman suggest a ca 8700 yr B.P. age by correlation with cultural artifacts and radiocarbon ages from nearby Last Supper Cave, Nevada. Organic matter accumulation in landslide soils suggests ages ranging from 9100 to 16,250 yr B.P. Estimation of the age of the slide from morphologic data for the isolated Summit

  3. Changes in in vitro ruminal and post-ruminal degradation of tropical tannin-rich legumes due to varying levels of polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Knowles, M M; Pabón, M L; Hess, H D; Carulla, J E

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of tannins from Flemingia macrophylla (CIAT 17403) and Calliandra calothyrsus (San Ramón CIAT 22310 and Patulul CIAT 22316) on in vitro ruminal and post-ruminal dry matter and apparent protein degradation. For each tannin source (legumes), different dosages of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (8000 Da) in McDougall buffer were added to achieve ratios of 0:3, 1:3, 2:3 and 3:3 PEG:condensed tannin (CT). Ruminal fluid mixed with McDougall buffer (1:4) was added to tubes containing only legume foliage (control) or PEG-treated legume foliage. For both Calliandra varieties, a higher ruminal dry matter degradation was observed at a PEG:CT ratio of 3:3. For F. macrophylla, no differences were found between 2:3 and 3:3 ratios (p > 0.05), indicating that a PEG:CT ratio of 2:3 might be enough to bind tannins. Increasing PEG:CT ratios increased apparent ruminal degraded protein and ammonia concentration (p < 0.0001) differing among species (species × ratio: p < 0.0001). The degradation of bypass crude protein (dBCP) was influenced by both legume type and PEG:CT ratio (p < 0.0001). For Patulul, as PEG:CT ratio increased, dBCP increased, but after tannin ratio of 2:3, there was not a significant increase, and for San Ramón, dBCP degradation was higher as PEG:CT ratio increased up to 2:3. For Flemingia, dBCP was higher than PEG:CT ratio of 0:3 but not different among 1:3, 2:3 or 3:3. Low concentration of CT (116 mg/g DM) increased the proportion of protein digested in the abomasum, but higher levels of CT (252 mg/g) clearly reduced the proportion of digested CP. For Flemingia, PEG:CT ratio of 2:3 is enough to inactivate tannins, while PEG:CT ratio of 3:3 was needed for Calliandra and consequently increased ruminal degradation of dry mater (rdDM), and crude protein (rdCP), total degradation of dry matter (tdDM), crude protein (tdCP) and ammonia levels. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Predator effects on reef fish settlement depend on predator origin and recruit density.

    PubMed

    Benkwitt, Cassandra E

    2017-04-01

    During major life-history transitions, animals often experience high mortality rates due to predation, making predator avoidance particularly advantageous during these times. There is mixed evidence from a limited number of studies, however, regarding how predator presence influences settlement of coral-reef fishes and it is unknown how other potentially mediating factors, including predator origin (native vs. nonnative) or interactions among conspecific recruits, mediate the non-consumptive effects of predators on reef fish settlement. During a field experiment in the Caribbean, approximately 52% fewer mahogany snapper (Lutjanus mahogoni) recruited to reefs with a native predator (graysby grouper, Cephalopholis cruentata) than to predator-free control reefs and reefs with an invasive predator (red lionfish, Pterois volitans) regardless of predator diet. These results suggest that snapper recruits do not recognize nonnative lionfish as a threat. However, these effects depended on the density of conspecific recruits, with evidence that competition may limit the response of snapper to even native predators at the highest recruit densities. In contrast, there was no effect of predator presence or conspecific density on the recruitment of bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus). These context-dependent responses of coral-reef fishes to predators during settlement may influence individual survival and shape subsequent population and community dynamics. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. The melanocortins and melanin-concentrating hormone in the central regulation of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Nahon, Jean-Louis

    2006-08-01

    A number of different neuropeptides exert powerful concerted controls on feeding behavior and energy balance, most of them being produced in hypothalamic neuronal networks under stimulation by anabolic and catabolic peripheral hormones such as ghrelin and leptin, respectively. These peptide-expressing neurons interconnect extensively to integrate the multiple opposing signals that mediate changes in energy expenditure. In the present review I have summarized our current knowledge about two key peptidic systems involved in regulating appetite and energy homeostasis, the melanocortin system (alpha-MSH, agouti and Agouti-related peptides, MC receptors and mahogany protein) and the melanin-concentrating hormone system (proMCH-derived peptides and MCH receptors) that contribute to satiety and feeding-initiation, respectively, with concurrent effects on energy expenditure. I have focused particularly on recent data concerning transgenic mice and the ongoing development of MC/MCH receptor antagonists/agonists that may represent promising drugs to treat human eating disorders on both sides of the energy balance (anorexia, obesity).

  6. Assessment of Palm Press Fibre and Sawdust-Based Substrate Formulas for Efficient Carpophore Production of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer

    PubMed Central

    Chiejina, Nneka Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Development of efficient substrate formulas to improve yield and shorten production time is one of the prerequisites for commercial cultivation of edible mushrooms. In this study, fifteen substrate formulas consisting of varying ratios of palm press fibre (PPF), mahogany sawdust (MS), Gmelina sawdust, wheat bran (WB), and fixed proportions of 1% calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and 1% sucrose were assessed for efficient Lentinus squarrosulus production. Proximate compositions of mushrooms produced on the different substrate formulas were also analysed and compared. Substrate formulations containing 85% PPF, 13% WB, 1% CaCO3, and 1% sucrose were found to produce the highest carpophore yield, biological efficiency and size (206.5 g/kg, 61.96%, and 7.26 g, respectively). Days to production (first harvest) tended to increase with an increase in the amount of WB in the substrate formulas, except for PPF based formulas. The addition of WB in amounts equivalent to 8~18% in substrate formulas containing 80~90% PPF resulted in a decrease in the time to first harvest by an average of 17.7 days compared to 80~90% MS with similar treatment. Nutritional content of mushrooms was affected by the different substrate formulas. Protein content was high for mushrooms produced on formulas containing PPF as the basal substrate. Thus, formulas comprising PPF, WB, CaCO3, and sucrose at 85% : 13% : 1% : 1%) respectively could be explored as starter basal ingredients for efficient large scale production of L. squarrosulus. PMID:26839507

  7. Tertiary geology and oil-shale resources of the Piceance Creek basin between the Colorado and White Rivers, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnell, John R.

    1961-01-01

    several key beds and zones which can be traced throughout most of the mapped area. One of these, the Mahogany ledge or zone, is a group of very rich oil-shale beds at the base of the upper oil-shale zone. Drilling for oil and gas in the northeastern part of the area has revealed rich oil-shale zones in the Garden Gulch member also.Local unconformities within and at the base of the Evacuation Creek member are exposed at several places along Piceance Creek and at one place near the mouth of Yellow Creek; otherwise, the rock sequence is conformable. The mapped area is the major part of a large syncline, modified by numerous smaller structural features. Fractures, probably associated genetically with the minor structural features, are present in the central part of the area. These fractures are high-angle normal faults with small displacement. They occur in pairs with the intervening block downdropped. Two sets of joints are prominent, one trending northwest and the other northeast. The joint systems control the drainage pattern in the south-central part of the area. More than 20,000 feet of sedimentary rocks underlies the area. Many of the formations yield oil or gas in northwestern Colorado, northeastern Utah, and southwestern Wyoming. The Piceance Creek gas field, in which gas occurs in the Douglas Creek member of the Green River formation, is the largest oil or gas field discovered thus far within the area. About 7,000 million barrels of oil is contained in oil shale that yields an average of 45 gallons per ton from a continuous sequence 5 or more feet thick in the Mahogany zone. Oil shale in the Mahogany zone and adjacent beds that yields an average of 30 gallons of oil per ton from a continuous sequence 15 or more feet thick contains about 91,000 million barrels of oil. Similar shale in deeper zones in the northern part of the area, for which detailed estimates have not been prepared, are now known to contain at least an additional 72,000 million barrels of oil. Oil

  8. delta 15N and non-carbonate delta 13C values for two petroleum source rock reference materials and a marine sediment reference material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennen, Kristin O.; Johnson, Craig A.; Otter, Marshall L.; Silva, Steven R.; Wandless, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    Samples of United States Geological Survey (USGS) Certified Reference Materials USGS Devonian Ohio Shale (SDO-1), and USGS Eocene Green River Shale (SGR-1), and National Research Council Canada (NRCC) Certified Marine Sediment Reference Material (PACS-2), were sent for analysis to four separate analytical laboratories as blind controls for organic rich sedimentary rock samples being analyzed from the Red Dog mine area in Alaska. The samples were analyzed for stable isotopes of carbon (delta13Cncc) and nitrogen (delta15N), percent non-carbonate carbon (Wt % Cncc) and percent nitrogen (Wt % N). SDO-1, collected from the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale, near Morehead, Kentucky, and SGR-1, collected from the Mahogany zone of the Green River Formation are petroleum source rocks used as reference materials for chemical analyses of sedimentary rocks. PACS-2 is modern marine sediment collected from the Esquimalt, British Columbia harbor. The results presented in this study are, with the exceptions noted below, the first published for these reference materials. There are published information values for the elemental concentrations of 'organic' carbon (Wt % Corg measured range is 8.98 - 10.4) and nitrogen (Wt % Ntot 0.347 with SD 0.043) only for SDO-1. The suggested values presented here should be considered 'information values' as defined by the NRCC Institute for National Measurement Reference Materials and should be useful for the analysis of 13C, 15N, C and N in organic material in sedimentary rocks.

  9. Treatment of urea manufacturing facility effluent by Hopea odorata and Khaya ivorensis.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Sara; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Sapari, Nasiman B; Yavari, Saba

    2017-04-01

    Phytoremediation is an environmentally friendly and sustainable alternative for treatment of nitrogen-enriched wastewaters. In this study, Ta-khian (Hopea odorata) and Lagos mahogany (Khaya ivorensis), two tropical timber plants, were investigated for their performances in treatment of urea manufacturing factory effluent with high nitrogen (N) content. Plant seedlings received four concentrations of N (190, 240, 290 and 340 mg/L N) in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands every 4 days for a duration of 8 weeks. The solution volumes supplied to each container, amount of N recovered by plants and plant growth characteristics were measured throughout the experiment. Results showed that Ta-khian plants were highly effective at reducing N concentration and volume of water. A maximum of 63.05% N recovery was obtained by Ta-khian plants grown in 290 mg/L N, which was assimilated in the chlorophyll molecule structure and shoot biomass. Significant positive correlations have been shown between N recovery percentages and plant growth parameters. Ta-Khian plants can be applied as suitable phytoremediators for mitigating N pollution in water sources.

  10. Molecular characterization and comparison of shale oils generated by different pyrolysis methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Jin, Jang Mi; Kim, Sunghwan

    2012-01-01

    Shale oils generated using different laboratory pyrolysis methods have been studied using standard oil characterization methods as well as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric photoionization (APPI) to assess differences in molecular composition. The pyrolysis oils were generated from samples of the Mahogany zone oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation collected from outcrops in the Piceance Basin, Colorado, using three pyrolysis systems under conditions relevant to surface and in situ retorting approaches. Significant variations were observed in the shale oils, particularly the degree of conjugation of the constituent molecules and the distribution of nitrogen-containing compound classes. Comparison of FT-ICR MS results to other oil characteristics, such as specific gravity; saturate, aromatic, resin, asphaltene (SARA) distribution; and carbon number distribution determined by gas chromatography, indicated correspondence between higher average double bond equivalence (DBE) values and increasing asphaltene content. The results show that, based on the shale oil DBE distributions, highly conjugated species are enriched in samples produced under low pressure, high temperature conditions, and under high pressure, moderate temperature conditions in the presence of water. We also report, for the first time in any petroleum-like substance, the presence of N4 class compounds based on FT-ICR MS data. Using double bond equivalence and carbon number distributions, structures for the N4 class and other nitrogen-containing compounds are proposed.

  11. Performance of Elaeis Guineensis Leaves Compost in Filter Media for Stormwater Treament Through Column Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaijudin, H.; Ghani, A. A.; Zakaria, N. A.; Tze, L. L.

    2016-07-01

    Compost based materials arv e widely used in filter media for improving soil capability and plant growth. The aim of this paper is to evaluate different types of compost materials used in engineered soil media through soil column investigation. Three (3) column, namely C1 (control), C2 and C3 had different types compost (10%) which were, commercial compost namely PEATGRO, Compost A and Compost B were prepared with 60% medium sand and 30% of topsoil. The diluted stormwater runoff was flushed to the columns and it was run for six (6) hour experiment. The influent and effluent samples were collected and tested for Water Quality Index (WQI) parameters. The results deduced that C3 with Elaeis Guineensis leaves compost (Compost B) achieved 90.45 (Class II) better than control condition which accomplished 84 (Class II) based on WQI Classification. C3 with Compost A (African Mahogany Leaves Compost) obtained only 59.39 (Class III). C3 with the composition of Compost B effectively removed most pollutants, including Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N), were reduced by 89±4% and 96.6±0.9%, respectively. The result concluded that Elaeis Guineensis leaves compost is recommended to be used as part of engineered soil media due to its capabilities in eliminating stormwater pollutants.

  12. 2-methylanthraquinone as a marker of occupational exposure to teak wood dust in boatyards.

    PubMed

    Gori, Giampaolo; Carrieri, Mariella; Scapellato, Maria Luisa; Parvoli, Giorgio; Ferrara, Daniela; Rella, Rocco; Sturaro, Alberto; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista

    2009-01-01

    A new gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) method was developed to detect 2-methylanthraquinone (2-MeA) in wood dust. 2-MeA is present in teak wood (a suspected human carcinogen) but not in oak, beech, mahogany, birch, ash or pine. The method involved collection of workplace dust on filters and extraction of 2-MeA with methanol and GC/MS analysis. The method was tested on teak wood dust samples (n = 43) collected on polyvinylchloride membrane filters during various work operations in four small factories making furniture and fittings for leisure craft and boatyards (air teak wood dust concentration: range 0.32-14.32 mg m(-3)). A high correlation coefficient for the content of 2-MeA versus teak dust was obtained (logarithmic correlation: y = 1.5308x + 0.0998, r = 0.9215). Determination of airborne 2-MeA is a useful technique to confirm occupational exposure to teak wood dust.

  13. THE APPLICATION OF NUCLEAR ENERGY TO AGRICULTURE. Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Moh, C.C.

    1963-07-01

    Progress is reported in basic and applied agricultural research using nuclear energy as a tool. Emphasis was placed on tropical agriculture and student training. Results are reported on studies of mutations induced by irradiation of seeds or plant parts of plant species for food crops or local industrial uses. Seeds of 7 pine species that grow at altitudes of 1600 to over 3000 meters, papaya, beans, cassava branches with nodes, and young mahogany plants were irradiated and progenies were examined for mutation frequency and morphology, disease resistance, sensitivity to low temperatures, and other characteristics. Tracer studies of plant physiology includedmore » sulfur metabolism in photosynthetic bacteria and plants, iron metabolism in plants, and the effects of iron on growth of coffee and cacao seediings. Results are included from tracer studies on dispersion and longevity of the Mediterranean fruit fly under natural conditions and the effects of radiosterilization at various developmental stages on eradication of these flies. A list of publications during the period covered by this report is included. (C.H.)« less

  14. Stratigraphic architecture of a fluvial-lacustrine basin-fill succession at Desolation Canyon, Uinta Basin, Utah: Reference to Walthers’ Law and implications for the petroleum industry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, Grace L.; David R. Pyles,; Dechesne, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    Two large-scale (member-scale) upward patterns are noted: Waltherian, and non-Waltherian. The upward successions in Waltherian progressions record progradation or retrogradation of a linked fluvial-lacustrine system across the area; whereas the upward successions in non-Waltherian progressions record large-scale changes in the depositional system that are not related to progradation or retrogradation of the ancient lacustrine shoreline. Four Waltherian progressions are noted: 1) the Flagstaff Limestone to lower Wasatch Formation member records the upward transition from lacustrine to fluvial—or shallowing-upward succession; 2) the upper Wasatch to Uteland Butte records the upward transition from fluvial to lacustrine—or a deepening upward succession; 3) the Uteland Butte to Renegade Tongue records the upward transition from lacustrine to fluvial—a shallowing-upward succession; and 4) the Renegade Tongue to Mahogany oil shale interval records the upward transition from fluvial to lacustrine—a deepening upward succession. The two non-Waltherian progressions in the study area are: 1) the lower to middle Wasatch, which records the abrupt shift from low to high net-sand content fluvial system, and 2) the middle to upper Wasatch, which records the abrupt shift from high to intermediate net-sand content fluvial system.

  15. Understanding the genetic effects of recent habitat fragmentation in the context of evolutionary history: Phylogeography and landscape genetics of a southern California endemic Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.; Weissman, D.B.; Fisher, R.N.

    2007-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation due to urbanization are the most pervasive threats to biodiversity in southern California. Loss of habitat and fragmentation can lower migration rates and genetic connectivity among remaining populations of native species, reducing genetic variability and increasing extinction risk. However, it may be difficult to separate the effects of recent anthropogenic fragmentation from the genetic signature of prehistoric fragmentation due to previous natural geological and climatic changes. To address these challenges, we examined the phylogenetic and population genetic structure of a flightless insect endemic to cismontane southern California, Stenopelmatus 'mahogani' (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae). Analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequence data suggest that diversification across southern California began during the Pleistocene, with most haplotypes currently restricted to a single population. Patterns of genetic divergence correlate with contemporary urbanization, even after correcting for (geographical information system) GIS-based reconstructions of fragmentation during the Pleistocene. Theoretical simulations confirm that contemporary patterns of genetic structure could be produced by recent urban fragmentation using biologically reasonable assumptions about model parameters. Diversity within populations was positively correlated with current fragment size, but not prehistoric fragment size, suggesting that the effects of increased drift following anthropogenic fragmentation are already being seen. Loss of genetic connectivity and diversity can hinder a population's ability to adapt to ecological perturbations commonly associated with urbanization, such as habitat degradation, climatic changes and introduced species. Consequently, our results underscore the importance of preserving and restoring landscape connectivity for long-term persistence of low vagility native species. Journal compilation ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. In vitro antioxidant activity and qualitative phytochemical analysis of two Vismia (Hypericaceae) species collected in Los Andes, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Buitrago D, Alexis; Rojas-Vera, Janne; Peñaloza, Yonel

    2016-12-01

    Vismia genus is distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of Central, South America and some areas of Africa. According to previous investigations, antioxidant potential of Vismia species might be related to anthrones, anthraquinones, flavonoids and phenol derivatives biosynthesized by these plants. In this investigation, phytochemical screening of Vismia baccifera (VB) from Mérida-Venezuela and Vismia macrophylla (VM) from Táchira-Venezuela methanolic extracts, carried out using various chemical assays, revealed an abundant presence of anthraquinones in both species analyzed. Glycosides were also present while flavones and dehydroflavones were observed abundantly in VB but moderated in VM. Triterpenes were also detected and steroids showed to be abundant in VM but moderate in VB. On the other hand, antioxidant capacity measured by the DPPH assay showed that VM possesses a stronger antioxidant activity than VB with IC50 5.50 µg mL-1. Phenol and flavonoid assays carried out by Folin-Ciocalteu and colorimetric test also revealed that methanol extracts of both species contain high concentrations of these metabolites. A relationship between the antioxidant activity, total phenol and flavonoids content of the extracts analyzed was demonstrated in this investigation since those samples with higher phenolic concentrations showed likewise higher antioxidant activity.

  17. Antimycobacterial and nitric oxide production inhibitory activities of Ocotea notata from Brazilian restinga.

    PubMed

    Costa, Isabela Francisca Borges; Calixto, Sanderson Dias; Heggdorne de Araujo, Marlon; Konno, Tatiana Ungaretti Paleo; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Guimarães, Denise Oliveira; Lasunskaia, Elena B; Leal, Ivana Ramos Correa; Muzitano, Michelle Frazão

    2015-01-01

    The genus Ocotea (Lauraceae) is distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. Some species of this genus as O. puberula and O. quixos have been described in the literature, showing antibacterial activity. And Ocotea macrophylla showed anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, and LOX-5. The purpose of this study was the phytochemical investigation of the plant species Ocotea notata from Restinga Jurubatiba National Park, Macaé, RJ, Brazil, and the search for antimycobacterial fractions and compounds. The crude extract was evaluated for antimycobacterial activity and presented 95.75 ± 2.53% of growth inhibition at 100 µg/mL. Then, it was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition and subsequently was chemically investigated by HPLC, revealing the major presence of flavonoids. In this process the partition fractions hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol are shown to be promising in the antimycobacterial assay. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction was chromatographed and afforded two flavonoids identified by MS and NMR as afzelin and isoquercitrin. The isolated flavonoids afzelin and isoquercitrin were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity and for their ability to inhibit NO production by macrophages stimulated by LPS; both flavonoids isoquercitrin (Acet22) and afzelin (Acet32) were able to inhibit the production of NO by macrophages. The calculated IC50 of Acet22 and Acet32 was 1.03 and 0.85 µg/mL, respectively.

  18. Ethnopharmacological survey of Annonaceae medicinal plants used to treat malaria in four areas of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Tsabang, Nolé; Fokou, Patrick Valère Tsouh; Tchokouaha, Lauve Rachel Yamthe; Noguem, Béatrice; Bakarnga-Via, Issakou; Nguepi, Mireille Sylviane Dongmo; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2012-01-06

    Malaria endemic countries have vital resources that are medicinal plants on which their traditional medicines depend. In some Cameroonian settings, in addition to the commonly used potions from plants like Alstonia boonei, Zanthoxylum macrophylla and Mangifera indica, other herbal species are being increasingly used to treat malaria. So, specialized traditional healers have developed alternative reasonably priced therapies, relying on the signs and/or symptoms of malaria. Within this framework, Annonaceae plants were found to be increasingly utilized and therefore, highlighting the need to document this traditional knowledge for better malaria control. Interview approach was used to document indigenous knowledge, usage customs and practices of Annonaceae species in the treatment of malaria in four Cameroonian areas (Yaoundé and its surroundings, Ngoyang, Kon-Yambetta and Mbalmayo). A total of 19/30 users of plants accepted to share their experiences during a semi-structured survey. Twelve of the respondents were men and seven were women. Thirty recipes based on twenty-one plants were recorded. Annickia chlorantha was the only plant commonly found in the four study sites. Seven species of Annonaceae were found to be used to treat malaria, while 14 were used to treat symptoms that might be related to malaria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomedical properties and potentiality of Lippia microphylla Cham. and its essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Evelyne Rolim Braun; Santos, Evelyne Alves; de Abreu, Maria Carolina; Silva, Jurandy do Nascimento; Nunes, Nárcia Mariana Fonseca; da Costa, Marcília Pinheiro; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia Loiola; Pessoa, Cláudia; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    Lippia microphylla Cham. (Verbenaceae) is an endemic underexploited Brazilian vegetal. This work reviewed the biological potentialities of Lippia microphylla, emphasizing the properties of essential oils (EOs) and analyzed scientific indicators about genus Lippia and L. microphylla. Databases from 1948 to the present were searched and a software (vantage point 7.1) associated with Derwent Innovation Index was used to identify the indicators of the genus Lippia, and biological activities and compounds in the L. macrophylla species. Ethnopharmacological records report use of L. microphylla leaves to treat gastrointestinal disorders, influenza, bronchitis, cough, nasal congestion, and sinusitis during vaporization, whose aromatic volatile oils are rich in monoterpenes, especially cineole, terpineol, and thymol. Other EOs have larvicidal activity on Aedes aegypti larvae, and antifungal, antibacterial and cytotoxic and antitumor action on human and murine cancer cells. Brazil is the country with more articles about Lippia species, but it deposited only 9 patents since 1993. Most of the publications about L. microphylla are concentrated in food and chemical sciences. This bioprospection helps to choice areas of interest for capital investment and to give support for Brazilian Institutions to establish cooperation and improve technological impact at the point of view of creation and innovation. PMID:26401417

  20. Antimycobacterial and Nitric Oxide Production Inhibitory Activities of Ocotea notata from Brazilian Restinga

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Isabela Francisca Borges; Calixto, Sanderson Dias; Heggdorne de Araujo, Marlon; Konno, Tatiana Ungaretti Paleo; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Guimarães, Denise Oliveira; Lasunskaia, Elena B.; Leal, Ivana Ramos Correa; Muzitano, Michelle Frazão

    2015-01-01

    The genus Ocotea (Lauraceae) is distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. Some species of this genus as O. puberula and O. quixos have been described in the literature, showing antibacterial activity. And Ocotea macrophylla showed anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, and LOX-5. The purpose of this study was the phytochemical investigation of the plant species Ocotea notata from Restinga Jurubatiba National Park, Macaé, RJ, Brazil, and the search for antimycobacterial fractions and compounds. The crude extract was evaluated for antimycobacterial activity and presented 95.75 ± 2.53% of growth inhibition at 100 µg/mL. Then, it was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition and subsequently was chemically investigated by HPLC, revealing the major presence of flavonoids. In this process the partition fractions hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol are shown to be promising in the antimycobacterial assay. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction was chromatographed and afforded two flavonoids identified by MS and NMR as afzelin and isoquercitrin. The isolated flavonoids afzelin and isoquercitrin were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity and for their ability to inhibit NO production by macrophages stimulated by LPS; both flavonoids isoquercitrin (Acet22) and afzelin (Acet32) were able to inhibit the production of NO by macrophages. The calculated IC50 of Acet22 and Acet32 was 1.03 and 0.85 µg/mL, respectively. PMID:25789338

  1. Trap geometry in three giant montane pitcher plant species from Borneo is a function of tree shrew body size.

    PubMed

    Chin, Lijin; Moran, Jonathan A; Clarke, Charles

    2010-04-01

    *Three Bornean pitcher plant species, Nepenthes lowii, N. rajah and N. macrophylla, produce modified pitchers that 'capture' tree shrew faeces for nutritional benefit. Tree shrews (Tupaia montana) feed on exudates produced by glands on the inner surfaces of the pitcher lids and defecate into the pitchers. *Here, we tested the hypothesis that pitcher geometry in these species is related to tree shrew body size by comparing the pitcher characteristics with those of five other 'typical' (arthropod-trapping) Nepenthes species. *We found that only pitchers with large orifices and lids that are concave, elongated and oriented approximately at right angles to the orifice capture faeces. The distance from the tree shrews' food source (that is, the lid nectar glands) to the front of the pitcher orifice precisely matches the head plus body length of T. montana in the faeces-trapping species, and is a function of orifice size and the angle of lid reflexion. *Substantial changes to nutrient acquisition strategies in carnivorous plants may occur through simple modifications to trap geometry. This extraordinary plant-animal interaction adds to a growing body of evidence that Nepenthes represents a candidate model for adaptive radiation with regard to nitrogen sequestration strategies.

  2. The Biotechnology of Ugba, a Nigerian Traditional Fermented Food Condiment

    PubMed Central

    Olasupo, Nurudeen A.; Okorie, Chimezie P.; Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes and oil bean seeds used for the production of condiments in Africa are inedible in their natural state; they contain some anti-nutritional factors especially undigestible oligosaccharides and phytate. Fermentation impact desirable changes by reducing anti-nutritional factors and increasing digestibility. Ugba is an alkaline fermented African oil bean cotyledon (Pentaclethra macrophylla) produced by the Ibos and other ethnic groups in southern Nigeria. Seen as a family business in many homes, its preparation is in accordance with handed-down tradition from previous generations and serves as a cheap source of plant protein. Its consumption as a native salad is made possible by fermentation of the cotyledon for 2–5 days, but could also serve as a soup flavoring agent when fermentation last for 6–10 days. The fermentation process involved is usually natural with an attendant issue of product safety, quality and inconsistency. The production of this condiment is on a small scale and the equipment used are very rudimentary, devoid of good manufacturing procedures that call to question the issue of microbial safety. This paper therefore reviews the production process and the spectrum of microbial composition involved during fermentation. In addition, potential spoilage agents, nutritional and biochemical changes during production are examined. Furthermore, information that can support development of starter cultures for controlled fermentation process in order to guarantee microbiological safety, quality and improved shelf life are also discussed. PMID:27540371

  3. Biomedical properties and potentiality of Lippia microphylla Cham. and its essential oils.

    PubMed

    Simões, Evelyne Rolim Braun; Santos, Evelyne Alves; de Abreu, Maria Carolina; Silva, Jurandy do Nascimento; Nunes, Nárcia Mariana Fonseca; da Costa, Marcília Pinheiro; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia Loiola; Pessoa, Cláudia; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    Lippia microphylla Cham. (Verbenaceae) is an endemic underexploited Brazilian vegetal. This work reviewed the biological potentialities of Lippia microphylla, emphasizing the properties of essential oils (EOs) and analyzed scientific indicators about genus Lippia and L. microphylla. Databases from 1948 to the present were searched and a software (vantage point 7.1) associated with Derwent Innovation Index was used to identify the indicators of the genus Lippia, and biological activities and compounds in the L. macrophylla species. Ethnopharmacological records report use of L. microphylla leaves to treat gastrointestinal disorders, influenza, bronchitis, cough, nasal congestion, and sinusitis during vaporization, whose aromatic volatile oils are rich in monoterpenes, especially cineole, terpineol, and thymol. Other EOs have larvicidal activity on Aedes aegypti larvae, and antifungal, antibacterial and cytotoxic and antitumor action on human and murine cancer cells. Brazil is the country with more articles about Lippia species, but it deposited only 9 patents since 1993. Most of the publications about L. microphylla are concentrated in food and chemical sciences. This bioprospection helps to choice areas of interest for capital investment and to give support for Brazilian Institutions to establish cooperation and improve technological impact at the point of view of creation and innovation.

  4. DNA barcoding survey of Trichoderma diversity in soil and litter of the Colombian lowland Amazonian rainforest reveals Trichoderma strigosellum sp. nov. and other species.

    PubMed

    López-Quintero, Carlos A; Atanasova, Lea; Franco-Molano, A Esperanza; Gams, Walter; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Theelen, Bart; Müller, Wally H; Boekhout, Teun; Druzhinina, Irina

    2013-11-01

    The diversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) colonizing leaf litter as well as the rhizosphere of Garcinia macrophylla (Clusiaceae) was investigated in primary and secondary rain forests in Colombian Amazonia. DNA barcoding of 107 strains based on the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and 2) of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and the partial sequence of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1) gene revealed that the diversity of Trichoderma was dominated (71 %) by three common cosmopolitan species, namely Trichoderma harzianum sensu lato (41 %), Trichoderma spirale (17 %) and Trichoderma koningiopsis (13 %). Four ITS 1 and 2 phylotypes (13 strains) could not be identified with certainty. Multigene phylogenetic analysis and phenotype profiling of four strains with an ITS1 and 2 phylotype similar to Trichoderma strigosum revealed a new sister species of the latter that is described here as Trichoderma strigosellum sp. nov. Sequence similarity searches revealed that this species also occurs in soils of Malaysia and Cameroon, suggesting a pantropical distribution.

  5. Reconstruction of the ancestral plastid genome in Geraniaceae reveals a correlation between genome rearrangements, repeats, and nucleotide substitution rates.

    PubMed

    Weng, Mao-Lun; Blazier, John C; Govindu, Madhumita; Jansen, Robert K

    2014-03-01

    Geraniaceae plastid genomes are highly rearranged, and each of the four genera already sequenced in the family has a distinct genome organization. This study reports plastid genome sequences of six additional species, Francoa sonchifolia, Melianthus villosus, and Viviania marifolia from Geraniales, and Pelargonium alternans, California macrophylla, and Hypseocharis bilobata from Geraniaceae. These genome sequences, combined with previously published species, provide sufficient taxon sampling to reconstruct the ancestral plastid genome organization of Geraniaceae and the rearrangements unique to each genus. The ancestral plastid genome of Geraniaceae has a 4 kb inversion and a reduced, Pelargonium-like small single copy region. Our ancestral genome reconstruction suggests that a few minor rearrangements occurred in the stem branch of Geraniaceae followed by independent rearrangements in each genus. The genomic comparison demonstrates that a series of inverted repeat boundary shifts and inversions played a major role in shaping genome organization in the family. The distribution of repeats is strongly associated with breakpoints in the rearranged genomes, and the proportion and the number of large repeats (>20 bp and >60 bp) are significantly correlated with the degree of genome rearrangements. Increases in the degree of plastid genome rearrangements are correlated with the acceleration in nonsynonymous substitution rates (dN) but not with synonymous substitution rates (dS). Possible mechanisms that might contribute to this correlation, including DNA repair system and selection, are discussed.

  6. Antimicrobial and antimalarial properties of medicinal plants used by the indigenous tribes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    PubMed

    Chander, M Punnam; Pillai, C R; Sunish, I P; Vijayachari, P

    2016-07-01

    In this study, methanol extracts of six medicinal plants (Alstonia macrophylla, Claoxylon indicum, Dillenia andamanica, Jasminum syringifolium, Miliusia andamanica and Pedilanthus tithymaloides) traditionally used by Nicobarese tribes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands were studied for antimicrobial and antimalarial activities as well as preliminary photochemical analysis. Plants were collected from Car Nicobar of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the ethnobotanical data were gathered from traditional healers who inhabit the study area. The methanol extracts were obtained by cold percolation method and the antimicrobial activity was found using agar well diffusion method. Among the plants tested, J. syringifolium, D. andamanica, C. indicum were most active. The antimalarial activity was evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive MRC-2 isolate. The crude extract of M. andamanica showed excellent antimalarial activity followed by extracts of P. tithymaloides, J. syringifolium and D. andamanica. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out and it showed that, there were no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the methanol crude extracts. The in vitro antimicrobial and antimalarial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, sterols, tannins and saponins in the methanol extracts of tested plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Large-scale carbon stock assessment of woody vegetation in tropical dry deciduous forest of Sathanur reserve forest, Eastern Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Durai Sanjay; Sundarapandian, Somaiah

    2017-04-01

    Tropical dry forests are one of the most widely distributed ecosystems in tropics, which remain neglected in research, especially in the Eastern Ghats. Therefore, the present study was aimed to quantify the carbon storage in woody vegetation (trees and lianas) on large scale (30, 1 ha plots) in the dry deciduous forest of Sathanur reserve forest of Eastern Ghats. Biomass of adult (≥10 cm DBH) trees was estimated by species-specific allometric equations using diameter and wood density of species whereas in juvenile tree population and lianas, their respective general allometric equations were used to estimate the biomass. The fractional value 0.4453 was used to convert dry biomass into carbon in woody vegetation of tropical dry forest. The mean aboveground biomass value of juvenile tree population was 1.86 Mg/ha. The aboveground biomass of adult trees ranged from 64.81 to 624.96 Mg/ha with a mean of 245.90 Mg/ha. The mean aboveground biomass value of lianas was 7.98 Mg/ha. The total biomass of woody vegetation (adult trees + juvenile population of trees + lianas) ranged from 85.02 to 723.46 Mg/ha, with a mean value of 295.04 Mg/ha. Total carbon accumulated in woody vegetation in tropical dry deciduous forest ranged from 37.86 to 322.16 Mg/ha with a mean value of 131.38 Mg/ha. Adult trees accumulated 94.81% of woody biomass carbon followed by lianas (3.99%) and juvenile population of trees (1.20%). Albizia amara has the greatest biomass and carbon stock (58.31%) among trees except for two plots (24 and 25) where Chloroxylon swietenia contributed more to biomass and carbon stock. Similarly, Albizia amara (52.4%) showed greater carbon storage in juvenile population of trees followed by Chloroxylon swietenia (21.9%). Pterolobium hexapetalum (38.86%) showed a greater accumulation of carbon in liana species followed by Combretum albidum (33.04%). Even though, all the study plots are located within 10 km radius, they show a significant spatial variation among

  8. Germination and initial growth of tree seedlings on deforested and natural forest soil at Dulhazara, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Mohitul

    2012-12-01

    The destruction of natural forest is increasing due to urbanization, industrialization, settlement and for the agricultural expansion over last few decades, and studies for their recovery need to be undertaken. With this aim, this comparative study was designed to see the effects of deforested soil on germination and growth performance of five different tree species. In the experiment, five species namely Gmelina arborea, Swietenia mahagoni, Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Acacia auriculiformis and Syzygium grande were germinated for six weeks on seedbeds and raised in pots (25cm diameter, 30cm height), that were filled with two soil and type of land use: deforested and adjacent natural forest of Dulhazara Safari Park. Growth performance of seedling was observed up to 15 months based on height, collar diameter and biomass production at the end. Our results showed that the germination rate was almost similar in both type of land uses. Height growth of D. turbinatus, G. arborea and S. mahagoni seedlings was almost similar and A. auriculi formis and S. grande lower in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil, while collar diameter ofA. auriculi formis, G. arborea, S. grande and S. mahagoni lower and D. turbinatus similar in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil. After uprooting at 19 months, S. mahagoni seedlings were showed significantly (p< or =0.05) higher oven dry biomass, D. turbinatus and A. auriculiformis higher, while G. arborea showed significantly (p< or =0.05) lower and S. grande almost similar oven dry biomass in deforested soil compared to natural forest soil. Oven dry biomass of D. turbinatus seedlings at 19 month age in deforested soil was 21.96g (n=5) and in natural forest soil 18.86g (n=5). However, differences in germination rate and growth performance for different tree species indicated that soil are not too much deteriorated through deforestation at Dulhazara and without any failure such deforested lands would be possible to bring under

  9. Distribution and ecology of the big-eared bat, Corynorhinus (=Plecotus) townsendii in Californa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Elizabeth D.; Fellers, Gary M.

    1998-01-01

    This study had two primary objectives: to conduct roost surveys C. townsendii in two parts of California where distributional information was most limited or lacking, and to obtain information on roosting and foraging ecology in two distinctly different habitats. This project was urgently needed because 1) recent California Department of Fish and Game surveys (conducted in 1987-1991) documented significant population declines in most surveyed areas, 2) distribution was still unknown in areas with suitable roosting habitat, and 30 the impact of various land management practices (e.g. prescribed fire, timber, harvest, agriculture, and grazing) on foraging behavior was unknown. A total of 95 abandoned mines, 18 caves, 11 man-made water tunnels, and 7 buildings were surveys for bats. Twenty-pne structures (twelve caves and nine mines) showed significant use by C. townsendii. Eleven are located in the western Sierra Nevada foothills, and ten in the Trinity Mountain area, Six maternity colonies, ranging in size from 48 to about 250 adult females, were identifies. Three were in caves, and three were in mines. Distribution for this species is somewhat patchy, and appears to be limited by the availability of roosting habitat. Historic and recent records would suggest that populations are concentrated in areas with abundant caves (especially the large lava flows in the northeastern portion of the state and karstic regions in the Sierra Nevada and Trinity Alps) or extensive abandoned mine working (particularly in the desert regions to the east and southeast of the Sierra Nevada). Radiotracking studies were conducted in two different habitats: 1) coastal forest (California bay, Douglas fir, and redwood) and grazed grassland at Pt. Reyes National Seashore, and 2) a mixture of scrub (with juniper and mountain mahogany) and ponderosa pine forest at Lava Beds National Monument. At Point Reyes they study colony resided in an abandoned ranch house, and at Lava Beds in a lava tube

  10. Tectonic implications of flexural modeling of the Uinta Mountains and surrounding basins since early Eocene time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratigan, D.; Heller, P.; Trampush, S. M.; Chen, P.; Dueker, K.

    2012-12-01

    Basin subsidence patterns provide a record of the evolution of regional loading during orogenesis. As such, flexural analysis provides insight on the impact of topographic growth in adjacent ranges, as well as documenting lithospheric behavior and timing of deformation. Flexural analysis of a north-south transect across the Uinta Mountains and associated basins shows much of the topographic load of the Uinta Mts developed long after initiation of Uinta deformation in latest Cretaceous time, and that sharply contrasting rigidities are necessary to explain regional subsidence patterns. Two paleohorizontal datums, c. 48 Ma, exist in the Green River Formation. The Mahogany bed is found in the Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah, and the Laney Member is in the Green River Basin of southwestern Wyoming. Deflections of these beds result from regional loading since early middle Eocene time due to shortening and topographic development of the Uinta Mts. Downward deflection of the Mahogany bed is at least 2800 m over a distance of 90 km with respect to an inflection point at 2250 m above sea level, while the Laney Member is deflected only 600 m over a horizontal distance of 140 km with an inflection point at 1850 m above sea level. Two-dimensional flexural modeling along a transect at 110.66° W using the present topography of the Uinta Mts and densities for the mountain load, basin fill and mantle lid of 2800, 2400 and 3300 kg/m3, respectively, indicates strongly varying rigidity between the two basins. Best-fit rigidities are 1022 N●m to the south, and 1024 N●m to the north. The contrast in rigidities is coincident with the projected position of the Archean-Proterozoic suture of the Cheyenne Belt — the older crust to the north being more rigid than younger crust to the south. To achieve the best fit, all of the present topography of the Uinta Mts, as much as 1.7 km above the basin floor, must have developed after deposition of the 48 Ma datum. The estimated rigidity

  11. Wooden Bay Window (Rowshan) Conservation in Saudi-Hejazi Heritage Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adas, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    A prominent feature of the architectural style of heritage buildings in western Saudi Arabia (Hijaz) cities such as Jeddah is the extensive use in their facades of projected intricately carved wooden bay window (Rowshan sl, Rawasheen pl). Throughout Balad or the old town in Jeddah, the element of Rowshan can be found made from many different types of woods such as teak, Javan, mahogany, other types of african and middle eastern woods and with different sizes, proportions, and varied intricate ornamentations and motifs. Besides its aesthetic value, the rawasheen and their many components and parts provide other functions such as ventilation, lighting, and spatial and visual privacy for building interiors from the outside. The profound degradation of Rawasheen is impacting the authenticity and heritage value of old buildings in historical Jeddah because of many factors that include: extensive moisture damage, using improper repair methods and joinery techniques to maintain rawasheen, using unsuitable cleaning products and wood paints, and replacing damaged parts with unkown types of wood. In order to prevent any further deterioration of Rawasheen, documentation of rawasheen and its components using recent digital methodologies and the utilization of proper repair techniques must be followed when working with these elements to ensure longevity of conservation, and preservation of value and authenticity.Through the disucssion of Rowshan repair methodology that was developed that include the digital documentation of all intricate details of rowshan panels and wood engraving which allowed replicating damaged elements beyond repair and applied to a listed building in old Jeddah, the paper provides Rowshan repair guidelines which relate to documentation, diagnostic methods, investigations and tests, repair methodology and reinforcement.

  12. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.

    1995-12-31

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposedmore » Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area.« less

  13. Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Staten, Josh; Tiwari, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of oil shale pyrolysis at various scales and the subsequent development a model for in situ production of oil from oil shale. Oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River formation was used in all experiments. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at four scales, powdered samples (100 mesh) and core samples of 0.75”, 1” and 2.5” diameters. The batch, semibatch and continuous flow pyrolysis experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature (300°C to 500°C), heating rate (1°C/min to 10°C/min), pressure (ambient and 500 psig) and size of the sample on product formation.more » Comprehensive analyses were performed on reactants and products - liquid, gas and spent shale. These experimental studies were designed to understand the relevant coupled phenomena (reaction kinetics, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamics) at multiple scales. A model for oil shale pyrolysis was developed in the COMSOL multiphysics platform. A general kinetic model was integrated with important physical and chemical phenomena that occur during pyrolysis. The secondary reactions of coking and cracking in the product phase were addressed. The multiscale experimental data generated and the models developed provide an understanding of the simultaneous effects of chemical kinetics, and heat and mass transfer on oil quality and yield. The comprehensive data collected in this study will help advance the move to large-scale in situ oil production from the pyrolysis of oil shale.« less

  14. Root-shoot allometry of tropical forest trees determined in a large-scale aeroponic system.

    PubMed

    Eshel, Amram; Grünzweig, José M

    2013-07-01

    This study is a first step in a multi-stage project aimed at determining allometric relationships among the tropical tree organs, and carbon fluxes between the various tree parts and their environment. Information on canopy-root interrelationships is needed to improve understanding of above- and below-ground processes and for modelling of the regional and global carbon cycle. Allometric relationships between the sizes of different plant parts will be determined. Two tropical forest species were used in this study: Ceiba pentandra (kapok), a fast-growing tree native to South and Central America and to Western Africa, and Khaya anthotheca (African mahogany), a slower-growing tree native to Central and Eastern Africa. Growth and allometric parameters of 12-month-old saplings grown in a large-scale aeroponic system and in 50-L soil containers were compared. The main advantage of growing plants in aeroponics is that their root systems are fully accessible throughout the plant life, and can be fully recovered for harvesting. The expected differences in shoot and root size between the fast-growing C. pentandra and the slower-growing K. anthotheca were evident in both growth systems. Roots were recovered from the aeroponically grown saplings only, and their distribution among various diameter classes followed the patterns expected from the literature. Stem, branch and leaf allometric parameters were similar for saplings of each species grown in the two systems. The aeroponic tree growth system can be utilized for determining the basic allometric relationships between root and shoot components of these trees, and hence can be used to study carbon allocation and fluxes of whole above- and below-ground tree parts.

  15. Phytostabilization of mine tailings using compost-assisted direct planting: Translating greenhouse results to the field.

    PubMed

    Gil-Loaiza, Juliana; White, Scott A; Root, Robert A; Solís-Dominguez, Fernando A; Hammond, Corin M; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M

    2016-09-15

    Standard practice in reclamation of mine tailings is the emplacement of a 15 to 90cm soil/gravel/rock cap which is then hydro-seeded. In this study we investigate compost-assisted direct planting phytostabilization technology as an alternative to standard cap and plant practices. In phytostabilization the goal is to establish a vegetative cap using native plants that stabilize metals in the root zone with little to no shoot accumulation. The study site is a barren 62-hectare tailings pile characterized by extremely acidic pH as well as lead, arsenic, and zinc each exceeding 2000mgkg(-1). The study objective is to evaluate whether successful greenhouse phytostabilization results are scalable to the field. In May 2010, a 0.27ha study area was established on the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund (IKMHSS) site with six irrigated treatments; tailings amended with 10, 15, or 20% (w/w) compost seeded with a mix of native plants (buffalo grass, arizona fescue, quailbush, mountain mahogany, mesquite, and catclaw acacia) and controls including composted (15 and 20%) unseeded treatments and an uncomposted unseeded treatment. Canopy cover ranging from 21 to 61% developed after 41 months in the compost-amended planted treatments, a canopy cover similar to that found in the surrounding region. No plants grew on unamended tailings. Neutrophilic heterotrophic bacterial counts were 1.5 to 4 orders of magnitude higher after 41months in planted versus unamended control plots. Shoot tissue accumulation of various metal(loids) was at or below Domestic Animal Toxicity Limits, with some plant specific exceptions in treatments receiving less compost. Parameters including % canopy cover, neutrophilic heterotrophic bacteria counts, and shoot uptake of metal(loids) are promising criteria to use in evaluating reclamation success. In summary, compost amendment and seeding, guided by preliminary greenhouse studies, allowed plant establishment and sustained growth over 4years

  16. A terrestrial Eocene stack: tying terrestrial lake ecology to marine carbon cycling through the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogan, D. S.; Whiteside, J. H.; Musher, D.; Rosengard, S. Z.; Vankeuren, M. A.; Pancost, R. D.

    2010-12-01

    The lacustrine Green River Formation is known to span ≥15 million years through the early-middle Eocene, and recent work on radioisotopic dating has provided a framework on which to build ties to the orbitally-tuned marine Eocene record. Here we present a spliced stack of Fischer assay data from drilled cores of the Green River Formation that span both an East-West and a North-South transect of the Uinta Basin of Utah. Detailed work on two cores demonstrate that Fischer assay measurements covary with total organic carbon and bulk carbon isotopes, allowing us to use Fisher assay results as a representative carbon cycling proxy throughout the stack. We provide an age model for this core record by combining radioisotopic dates of tuff layers with frequency analysis of Fischer assay measurements. Identification of orbital frequencies tied directly to magnetochrons through radioisotopic dates allows for a direct comparison of the terrestrial to the marine Eocene record. Our analysis indicates that the marker beds used to correlate the stack cores represent periods of enhanced lake productivity and extreme carbon burial; however, unlike the hyperthermal events that are clearly marked in the marine Eocene record, the hydrocarbon-rich "Mahogany Bed" period of burial does not correspond to a clear carbon isotope excursion. This suggests that the terrestrial realm may have experienced extreme ecological responses to relatively small perturbations in the carbon cycle during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum. To investigate the ecological responses to carbon cycle perturbations through the hydrocarbon rich beds, we analyzed a suite of microbial biomarkers, finding evidence for cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, and potentially green sulfur bacteria. These taxa indicate fluctuating oxic/anoxic conditions in the lake during abrupt intervals of carbon burial, suggesting a lake biogeochemical regime with no modern analogues.

  17. Characterization of oil shale, isolated kerogen, and post-pyrolysis residues using advanced 13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Birdwell, Justin E.; Chappell, Mark A.; Li, Yuan; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of oil shale kerogen and organic residues remaining in postpyrolysis spent shale is critical to the understanding of the oil generation process and approaches to dealing with issues related to spent shale. The chemical structure of organic matter in raw oil shale and spent shale samples was examined in this study using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Oil shale was collected from Mahogany zone outcrops in the Piceance Basin. Five samples were analyzed: (1) raw oil shale, (2) isolated kerogen, (3) oil shale extracted with chloroform, (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C to mimic surface retorting, and (5) oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C to simulate in-situ retorting. The NMR methods applied included quantitative direct polarization with magic-angle spinning at 13 kHz, cross polarization with total sideband suppression, dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy filtering, and 1H-13C long-range recoupled dipolar dephasing. The NMR results showed that, relative to the raw oil shale, (1) bitumen extraction and kerogen isolation by demineralization removed some oxygen-containing and alkyl moieties; (2) unpyrolyzed samples had low aromatic condensation; (3) oil shale pyrolysis removed aliphatic moieties, leaving behind residues enriched in aromatic carbon; and (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C contained larger aromatic clusters and more protonated aromatic moieties than oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C, which contained more total aromatic carbon with a wide range of cluster sizes.

  18. Digestive strategies in two species of leaf-eating land crabs (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae) in a rain forest.

    PubMed

    Greenaway, P; Raghaven, S

    1998-01-01

    Two species of herbivorous land crabs from Christmas Island, Cardisoma hirtipes and Gecarcoidea natalis, overlap in both diet and distribution. This study compared the dietary preferences and digestive capabilities of these two species on a diet of leaf litter to establish the digestive strategies each adopts and the likely degree of competition for food. C. hirtipes preferred green to yellow or brown leaves of Ficus macrophylla in short-term food-choice experiments. Brown leaves were least favoured. G. natalis showed no preference for the different leaf types and in the field ate chiefly brown and decomposing leaf litter. When fed green leaves, C. hirtipes had a low food intake (4.5+/-0.36 g kg-1 d-1) and a short retention time for food, and the readily digestible components of the diet constituted greater than 84% of the dry matter assimilated. When fed brown leaves, the intake was increased 3.3 times, but retention time remained short, and assimilation coefficients for all nutrients were low. The readily digestible fraction of the diet made the chief contribution to dry matter assimilation (69%), and hemicellulose (19%) and cellulose (21%) were also significantly used. This pattern of food intake and assimilation contrasts with that for G. natalis, which had a low intake of brown leaves and a longer retention time associated with higher nutrient assimilation, particularly of complex polysaccharides. It is suggested that through their feeding preferences and habits, these two sympatric species use opposite ends of the leaf litter quality spectrum on Christmas Island.

  19. A multidisciplinary overview of intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere.

    PubMed

    de Smet, P A

    1985-03-01

    Part one of the paper discusses ethnobotanical, chemical and general pharmacological aspects of intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere. Four categories of ritual snuff ingredients arise from this multidisciplinary approach: It is well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles and the Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is confirmed or quite probable: Anadenanthera, Erythroxylum, Nicotiana, Virola; It is well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles, but the Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is not well recorded or even unlikely: Banisteriopsis, Cannabis, Datura, Ilex guayusa; The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is confirmed or quite probable, but it is not well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles: Justicia pectoralis, Pagamea macrophylla, Tanaecium nocturnum; The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is not well recorded, and it is not well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles: Acorus calamus, Capsicum, Macquira sclerophylla, Piper interitum. Part two of the paper discusses the nasal pharmacokinetics and efficacy of possible ritual snuff constituents. The literature yields convincing clinical evidence that atropine, cocaine, nicotine and scopolamine are effective following nasal application, but experimental confirmation of the efficacy of nasal tryptamine alkaloids is still awaited. In self-experiments, 6.4 mg/kg of caffeine produced substantial plasma levels via the nasal route, but 0.5 mg/kg of harmine did not produce measurable plasma levels, when taken as a nasal powder. Without additional experiments, it is difficult to give a definite explanation for this negative result.

  20. Phyllodulcin, a Natural Sweetener, Regulates Obesity-Related Metabolic Changes and Fat Browning-Related Genes of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunju; Lim, Soo-Min; Kim, Min-Soo; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yuri

    2017-09-21

    Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii . This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks of supplementation with phyllodulcin (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day). Stevioside (40 mg/kg b.w./day) was used as a positive control. Phyllodulcin supplementation reduced subcutaneous fat mass, levels of plasma lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improved the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and fasting blood glucose. In subcutaneous fat tissues, supplementation with stevioside or phyllodulcin significantly decreased mRNA expression of lipogenesis-related genes, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α ( C/EBPα ), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ ( PPARγ ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1C ( SREBP-1c ) compared to the high-fat group. Phyllodulcin supplementation significantly increased the expression of fat browning-related genes, including PR domain containing 16 ( Prdm16 ), uncoupling protein 1 ( UCP1 ), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α ( PGC-1α ), compared to the high-fat group. Hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (BDNF-TrkB) signaling was upregulated by phyllodulcin supplementation. In conclusion, phyllodulcin is a potential sweetener that could be used to combat obesity by regulating levels of leptin, fat browning-related genes, and hypothalamic BDNF-TrkB signaling.

  1. Vulnerability of native savanna trees and exotic Khaya senegalensis to seasonal drought.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Stefan K; Sanders, Gregor J; Bristow, Mila; Hutley, Lindsay B; Beringer, Jason; Livesley, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    Seasonally dry ecosystems present a challenge to plants to maintain water relations. While native vegetation in seasonally dry ecosystems have evolved specific adaptations to the long dry season, there are risks to introduced exotic species. African mahogany, Khaya senegalensis Desr. (A. Juss.), is an exotic plantation species that has been introduced widely in Asia and northern Australia, but it is unknown if it has the physiological or phenotypic plasticity to cope with the strongly seasonal patterns of water availability in the tropical savanna climate of northern Australia. We investigated the gas exchange and water relations traits and adjustments to seasonal drought in K. senegalensis and native eucalypts (Eucalyptus tetrodonta F. Muell. and Corymbia latifolia F. Muell.) in a savanna ecosystem in northern Australia. The native eucalypts did not exhibit any signs of drought stress after 3 months of no rainfall and probably had access to deeper soil moisture late into the dry season. Leaf water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis all remained high in the dry season but osmotic adjustment was not observed. Overstorey leaf area index (LAI) was 0.6 in the native eucalypt savanna and did not change between wet and dry seasons. In contrast, the K. senegalensis plantation in the wet season was characterized by a high water potential, high stomatal conductance and transpiration and a high LAI of 2.4. In the dry season, K. senegalensis experienced mild drought stress with a predawn water potential -0.6 MPa. Overstorey LAI was halved, and stomatal conductance and transpiration drastically reduced, while minimum leaf water potentials did not change (-2 MPa) and no osmotic adjustment occurred. Khaya senegalensis exhibited an isohydric behaviour and also had a lower hydraulic vulnerability to cavitation in leaves, with a P50 of -2.3 MPa. The native eucalypts had twice the maximum leaf hydraulic conductance but a much higher P50 of -1.5 MPa

  2. Expanding NevCAN capabilities: monitoring cold air drainage flow along a narrow wash within a Montane to PJ ecotone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, B. M.; Devitt, D.

    2012-12-01

    Cold air drainage flows are a naturally occurring physical process of mountain systems. Plant communities that exist in cold air drainage basins respond to these localized cold air trends, and have been shown to be decoupled from larger global climate weather systems. The assumption that air temperature decreases with altitude is violated within these systems and climate model results based on this assumption would ultimately be inaccurate. In arid regions, high radiation loads lead to significant long wave radiation being emitted from the ground later in the day. As incoming radiation ceases, the surface very quickly loses energy through radiative processes, leading to surface inversions and enhanced cold air drainage opportunities. This study is being conducted in the Mojave desert on Sheep Mountain located between sites 3 and 4 of the NSF EPSCoR network. Monitoring of cold air drainage was initiated in September of 2011within a narrow ravine located between the 2164 and 2350 meter elevation. We have installed 25 towers (5 towers per location situated at the central low point in a ravine and at equal distances up the sides of the ravine on both the N and S facing slopes) to assess air temperatures from 0.1 meters to a height of 3 meters at 25m intervals. Our goal is to better understand the connection between cold air movement and plant physiological response. The species monitored in this study include: Pinus ponderosa (common name: Ponderosa Pine), Pinus pinyon (Pinyon Pine), Juniperus osteosperma (Utah juniper), Cercocarpus intricatus (Mountain Mahogany) and Symphoricarpos (snowberry). Hourly air temperature measurements within the wash are being captured from 100 ibuttons placed within PVC solar radiation shields. We are also developing a modeling approach to assess the three dimensional movement of cold air over time by incorporating wind vectors captured from 5 2D sonic anemometers. Wind velocities will be paired with air temperatures to better understand

  3. Astronomical pacing of ecosystem function in the Green River Formation of Utah and Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Keuren, M. A.; Whiteside, J. H.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2008-12-01

    Part of one of the largest petroleum reserves in the world, the Green River Formation of the Uinta and Piceance Creek basins of Utah and Colorado, formed in a huge Eocene lake system during the warmest, most equable period in recent Earth history. Despite the unit's great potential economic importance and correspondingly large number of geochemical analyses and the preeminent role of these strata in Milankovitch theory (Bradley, 1929), there are surprisingly few systematic studies of the geochemistry of the characteristic permeating cyclicity. Here, we report multiple proxies of lacustrine ecosystem dynamics including oil shale yields, sedimentary facies, carbon and nitrogen isotopes, and molecule-level carbon isotopes from the most oil-rich parts (including the Mahogany oil shale zone) from a series of cores and outcrops in a transect across the Uinta and Piceance Creek basins spanning ~500 m stratigraphically and 3.2 m.y. temporally. Our initial results show covariation in sedimentary facies, oil shale yield, TOC, C/N ratios, and δ13Corg in the expected Milankovitch periodicities, although significant lateral and vertical changes in accumulation make the relative spectral power in the precessional range rather weak. There are, however, differences in the mode of response with oil shale yield, TOC, and sedimentary facies showing more power in the precessional range, while C/N ratios track the 100 ky cycle. C/N ratios tend to be high through multiple precessional cycles dominated by kerogen derived from microbial organic matter suggesting persistent anoxia and a large resulting pool of hypolimnetic ammonium. This pool was eliminated during low lake stands and C/N values then fluctuate through several precession controlled steps. The δ13Corg record, while showing a signal coherent with that of other proxies, has a rather complicated relationship with other proxies, the analysis of which is in its early stages. Molecule-level δ13Corg analysis of n-alkanes suggests

  4. Carbon Cycle Dynamics through the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum: Orbital Couplings to Lacustrine Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengard, S. Z.; Grogan, D. S.; Whiteside, J. H.; van Keuren, M.; Musher, D.

    2010-12-01

    The early Eocene represents the most recent hothouse climate state of Earth history, a period during which Earth’s surface temperatures warmed and reached a steady peak at the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), 53.5-50 Ma. Interspersed through the primary warming interval were several hyperthermals, or rapid peaks in surface temperature and pulses of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, followed by rapid declines, lasting 10^4 to 10^5 years. Various hypotheses have been offered to explain the climatic triggers during the hothouse interval, including changes in ocean circulation, methane release from hydrates, volcanism, and turnover of terrestrial organic matter, implicating various couplings and feedbacks in the global carbon cycle. The present study investigates the prevailing changes in carbon cycle dynamics that occurred during a specific subinterval of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum. We sampled a carbon-rich 300-ft ( 1100 kyr) section of lacustrine Green River Formation sediments from the TOSCO core in the Uinta Basin at a one-foot resolution for organic carbon content and δ^{13}C. The compiled data comprise a high-resolution profile of total organic carbon and isotopic organic carbon composition through the section, showing cyclic patterns that we hypothesize reflect orbital signals. Bulk isotopic carbon and shale oil measurements from an earlier Fischer Assay across TOSCO’s entire 1030-ft core were then filtered using the expected frequency of a 23-kyr precession cycle. The overlaid cycles reveal δ^{13}C and oil content to be anti-phase through the 300-ft section, except for an interval of 50 feet (180 kyr) from the Mahogany Zone to the B-groove of the core, where the two measurements are in-phase. Given that shale oil, a proxy for lake primary productivity and carbon burial, and δ^{13}C typically correlate inversely, this short, 180-kyr interval of in-phase variation suggests a significant alteration in the local carbon cycle. These preliminary

  5. The effect of drainage reorganization on paleoaltimetry studies: An example from the Paleogene Laramide foreland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Steven J.; Wiegand, Bettina A.; Carroll, Alan R.; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2008-11-01

    Using multiple isotope systems, we examine the complex effects of drainage reorganization in the Laramide Foreland in the context of stable isotope paleoaltimetry. Strontium, oxygen and carbon isotopic data from lacustrine carbonates formed in the southwestern Uinta Basin, Utah between the Late Cretaceous and late Middle Eocene reveal a two stage expansion in the drainage basin of Lake Uinta beginning at ~ 53 Ma culminating in the Mahogany highstand at 48.6 Ma. A marked increase in 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of samples from the Main Body of the Green River Formation is interpreted as the result of water overflowing the Greater Green River Basin in Wyoming and entering Lake Uinta from the east via the Piceance Creek Basin of northwestern Colorado. This large new source of water caused a rapid expansion of Lake Uinta and was accompanied by a significant and rapid increase in the O isotope record of carbonate samples by ~ 6‰. The periodic overspilling of Lake Gosiute probably became continuous at ~ 49 Ma, when the lake captured low- δ18O water from the Challis and Absaroka Volcanic Fields to the north. However, evaporation in the Greater Green River and Piceance Creek Basins meant that the waters entering Lake Uinta were still enriched in 18O. By ~ 46 Ma, inflows from the Greater Green River Basin ceased, resulting in a lowstand of Lake Uinta and the deposition of bedded evaporites in the Saline Facies of the Green River Formation. We thus show that basin development and lake hydrology in the Laramide foreland were characterized by large-scale changes in Cordilleran drainage patterns, capable of confounding paleoaltimetry studies premised on too few isotopic systems, samples or localities. In the case of the North American Cordillera of the Paleogene, we further demonstrate the likelihood that (1) topographic evolution of distal source areas strongly influenced the isotopic records of intraforeland basins and (2) a pattern of drainage integration between the hinterland and

  6. Application of uniaxial confining-core clamp with hydrous pyrolysis in petrophysical and geochemical studies of source rocks at various thermal maturities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewan, Michael D.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Baez, Luis; Beeney, Ken; Sonnenberg, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Understanding changes in petrophysical and geochemical parameters during source rock thermal maturation is a critical component in evaluating source-rock petroleum accumulations. Natural core data are preferred, but obtaining cores that represent the same facies of a source rock at different thermal maturities is seldom possible. An alternative approach is to induce thermal maturity changes by laboratory pyrolysis on aliquots of a source-rock sample of a given facies of interest. Hydrous pyrolysis is an effective way to induce thermal maturity on source-rock cores and provide expelled oils that are similar in composition to natural crude oils. However, net-volume increases during bitumen and oil generation result in expanded cores due to opening of bedding-plane partings. Although meaningful geochemical measurements on expanded, recovered cores are possible, the utility of the core for measuring petrophysical properties relevant to natural subsurface cores is not suitable. This problem created during hydrous pyrolysis is alleviated by using a stainless steel uniaxial confinement clamp on rock cores cut perpendicular to bedding fabric. The clamp prevents expansion just as overburden does during natural petroleum formation in the subsurface. As a result, intact cores can be recovered at various thermal maturities for the measurement of petrophysical properties as well as for geochemical analyses. This approach has been applied to 1.7-inch diameter cores taken perpendicular to the bedding fabric of a 2.3- to 2.4-inch thick slab of Mahogany oil shale from the Eocene Green River Formation. Cores were subjected to hydrous pyrolysis at 360 °C for 72 h, which represents near maximum oil generation. One core was heated unconfined and the other was heated in the uniaxial confinement clamp. The unconfined core developed open tensile fractures parallel to the bedding fabric that result in a 38 % vertical expansion of the core. These open fractures did not occur in the

  7. Some notes on an early nineteenth century manuscript medical receipt book.

    PubMed

    Jackson, W A

    2003-06-01

    There are 97 remedies listed, including 11 veterinary ones. These numbers include several that are duplicates. The commonest types of medicament are salves or ointments, of which there are ten, but these ten do not include ointments for specific complaints such as haemorrhoids or scurvy. The most frequently found cures are for the itch (10), rheumatism (5), gravel (4), pain (4), and piles (3), all the others having only one or two entries. They were intended to treat 39 human complaints and 9 animal ones. In addition there were formulae for killing lice, making rat poison, and preparing damson wine! The number of different medicaments that were used in the recipes was relatively small, but more than were to be found in the smaller sizes of domestic medicine cabinet. In 1820 Reece's Traveller's Dispensary that was flat and would fit in the pocket of a carriage, only contained ten drugs plus court plaster, lint, scales and weights with a book of directions and cost L3.10s.0d. (L3.50). The Lady's Dispensary which contained twenty medicines, including two pills, with some dispensing equipment and a book of directions cost L5.10s.0d. (L5.50). In all, he listed twenty different cabinets and a sea medicine chest ranging in price from L3.10s.0d. to L32.10s.0d. They included ones suitable for the family, country clergymen, and travellers on the continent and in the tropics. In 1862 Savory and Moore stocked a range of sixty-seven different medicine chests and cases in rosewood, mahogany, walnut, boxwood and leather that were fitted with 'modern appliances and conveniences adapted for the requirements of families, clergymen, officers, owners of yachts, and travellers.' Unfortunately no prices are quoted. I think that we can safely assume that the treatment received at the hands of Evan Jones was likely to be rather rough and ready when compared to the ministrations of a physician, surgeon, clergyman or local 'Lady Bountiful', but, nevertheless, must have been of great value

  8. Wild food plants and wild edible fungi in two valleys of the Qinling Mountains (Shaanxi, central China).

    PubMed

    Kang, Yongxiang; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Kang, Jin; Zhang, Shijiao

    2013-04-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants in two mountain valleys separated by Mount Taibai--the highest peak of northern China and one of its biodiversity hotspots, each adjacent to species-rich temperate forest vegetation. Seventy two free lists were collected among the inhabitants of two mountain valleys (36 in each). All the studied households are within walking distance of primary forest vegetation, however the valleys differed in access to urban centers: Houzhenzi is very isolated, and the Dali valley has easier access to the cities of central Shaanxi. Altogether, 185 wild food plant species and 17 fungi folk taxa were mentioned. The mean number of freelisted wild foods was very high in Houzhenzi (mean 25) and slightly lower in Dali (mean 18). An average respondent listed many species of wild vegetables, a few wild fruits and very few fungi. Age and male gender had a positive but very low effect on the number of taxa listed.Twelve taxa of wild vegetables (Allium spp., Amaranthus spp., Caryopteris divaricata, Helwingia japonica, Matteucia struthiopteris, Pteridium aquilinum, Toona sinensis, Cardamine macrophylla, Celastrus orbiculatus, Chenopodium album, Pimpinella sp., Staphylea bumalda &S. holocarpa), two species of edible fruits (Akebia trifoliata, Schisandra sphenanthera) and none of the mushrooms were freelisted by at least half of the respondents in one or two of the valleys. The high number of wild vegetables listed is due to the high cultural position of this type of food in China compared to other parts of the world, as well as the high biodiversity of the village surroundings. A very high proportion of woodland species (42%, double the number of the ruderal species used) among the listed taxa is contrary to the general stereotype that wild vegetables in Asia are mainly ruderal species. The very low interest in wild mushroom collecting is noteworthy and is difficult to explain. It may arise from the easy access to

  9. Temperature-dependent growth of Botrytis cinerea isolates from potted plants.

    PubMed

    Martínez, J A; Gómez-Bellot, M J; Bañón, S

    2009-01-01

    Botrytis cinereo is a common aggressive saprophyte fungus which also invades injured plant tissues, causing Botrytis blight (Grey mould) in many ornamental plants, including potted flowering plants. Several B. cinerea isolates from potted plants (Pelargonium x hortorum, Lantana camara, Lonicera japonica, Hydrangea macrophylla, and Cyclamen persicum) affected by Botrytis blight in the south of Spain were studied and identified by PCR. The isolates showed phenotypic differences between them, as previously reported by the authors. In this work we demonstrate that these isolates show different temperature-dependent growth phenomena, expressed as mycelial growth rates, conidiation (measured as the number of conidia per colony and time of appearance), mass of both aerial and submerged mycelia, and sclerotia production. Growth rates were assessed from differences in colony area and mass of both aerial and submerged mycelium growing in potato dextrose agar culture medium (PDA). Three temperatures were used to measure these variables (6, 16, and 26 degrees C) and to establish the differences among isolates by modelling the effects of temperature on the growth variables. B. cinerea showed a high degree of phenotypic variability and differences in its growth kinetics, depending on temperature and isolate in question. The isolate from P. x hortorum showed the greatest conidiation although this process did not depend on the temperatures assayed. The growth rate of the isolates from P. x hortorum was the highest. The growth rates in all the isolates were determined and the growth kinetics could be fitted to a typical equation of fungi growing on solid culture medium. The isolate from P. x hortorum was the most vigorous, while the least vigorous was the isolate from L. japonica. A relationship between mycelial growth rate, conidiation and aerial mycelium could be established. A temperature of 26 degrees C accelerated sclerotia production, but only in the isolate from C. persicum

  10. The chemical composition and trypanocidal activity of volatile oils from Brazilian Caatinga plants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira de Souza, Larissa Isabela; Bezzera-Silva, Patrícia Cristina; do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Daniela Maria; da Silva, Alexandre Gomes; Dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz

    2017-12-01

    Essential/volatile oils (EOs) from plants used in the traditional medicine are known as a rich source of chemically diverse compounds with relevant biological activities. In this work we analysed the chemical composition and the in vitro effects of EOs from leaves of Eugenia brejoensis (EBEO), Hyptis pectinata (HPEO), Hypenia salzmannii (HSEO), Lippia macrophylla (LMEO) and seeds of Syagrus coronata (SCEO) on Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. The EOs were extracted through hydrodistillation and its chemical composition analysed by GC/MS. The trypanocidal activity against epi- and trypomastigotes was evaluated by optical microscopy and the cytotoxicity to mammalian cells by MTT. The effects of EOs on parasite infection in macrophages were estimated by determining the survival index and the percentage of infection inhibition. The cytotoxicity against mammalian cells was compared to those of parasite by determining the Selectivity Index (SI). Overall, 114 compounds were identified: The main constituents of EOS were: δ-cadinene (15.88%), trans-caryophyllene (9.77%) e α-Muurolol (9.42%) for EBEO; trans-caryophyllene (15.24%), bicyclogermacrene (7.33%) e cis-calamenene (7.15%) for HFEO; trans-caryophyllene (30.91%), caryophyllene oxide (13.19%) and spathulenol (5.68%) for HPEO; Xanthoxylin (17.20%) trans-caryophyllene (14.34%) and methyl-eugenol (5.60%) for HSEO; Thymol (49.81%), carvacrol (31.6%) and σ-cimene (10.27%) for LMEO and octanoic acid (38.83%) dodecanoic acid (38.45%) and decanoic acid (20.51%) for SCEO. All the tested oils showed an inhibitory effect on the growth and survival of all forms of T. cruzi and moderate cytotoxicity towards the mammalian cells (100 < CC 50  < 500 μg/mL). The EO of E. brejoensis was the most effective against the parasite presenting higher Selectivity Index for trypo- (SI = 14.45) and amastigote forms (SI = 20.11). Except for SCEO, which was the most cytotoxic for both parasite and

  11. Wild food plants and wild edible fungi in two valleys of the Qinling Mountains (Shaanxi, central China)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants in two mountain valleys separated by Mount Taibai – the highest peak of northern China and one of its biodiversity hotspots, each adjacent to species-rich temperate forest vegetation. Methods Seventy two free lists were collected among the inhabitants of two mountain valleys (36 in each). All the studied households are within walking distance of primary forest vegetation, however the valleys differed in access to urban centers: Houzhenzi is very isolated, and the Dali valley has easier access to the cities of central Shaanxi. Results Altogether, 185 wild food plant species and 17 fungi folk taxa were mentioned. The mean number of freelisted wild foods was very high in Houzhenzi (mean 25) and slightly lower in Dali (mean 18). An average respondent listed many species of wild vegetables, a few wild fruits and very few fungi. Age and male gender had a positive but very low effect on the number of taxa listed. Twelve taxa of wild vegetables (Allium spp., Amaranthus spp., Caryopteris divaricata, Helwingia japonica, Matteucia struthiopteris, Pteridium aquilinum, Toona sinensis, Cardamine macrophylla, Celastrus orbiculatus, Chenopodium album, Pimpinella sp., Staphylea bumalda &S. holocarpa), two species of edible fruits (Akebia trifoliata, Schisandra sphenanthera) and none of the mushrooms were freelisted by at least half of the respondents in one or two of the valleys. Conclusion The high number of wild vegetables listed is due to the high cultural position of this type of food in China compared to other parts of the world, as well as the high biodiversity of the village surroundings. A very high proportion of woodland species (42%, double the number of the ruderal species used) among the listed taxa is contrary to the general stereotype that wild vegetables in Asia are mainly ruderal species. The very low interest in wild mushroom collecting is noteworthy and is difficult to

  12. Phylogenetic origin of limes and lemons revealed by cytoplasmic and nuclear markers.

    PubMed

    Curk, Franck; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The origin of limes and lemons has been a source of conflicting taxonomic opinions. Biochemical studies, numerical taxonomy and recent molecular studies suggested that cultivated Citrus species result from interspecific hybridization between four basic taxa (C. reticulata,C. maxima,C. medica and C. micrantha). However, the origin of most lemons and limes remains controversial or unknown. The aim of this study was to perform extended analyses of the diversity, genetic structure and origin of limes and lemons. The study was based on 133 Citrus accessions. It combined maternal phylogeny studies based on mitochondrial and chloroplastic markers, and nuclear structure analysis based on the evaluation of ploidy level and the use of 123 markers, including 73 basic taxa diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and indel markers. The lime and lemon horticultural group appears to be highly polymorphic, with diploid, triploid and tetraploid varieties, and to result from many independent reticulation events which defined the sub-groups. Maternal phylogeny involves four cytoplasmic types out of the six encountered in the Citrus genus. All lime and lemon accessions were highly heterozygous, with interspecific admixture of two, three and even the four ancestral taxa genomes. Molecular polymorphism between varieties of the same sub-group was very low. Citrus medica contributed to all limes and lemons and was the direct male parent for the main sub-groups in combination with C. micrantha or close papeda species (for C. aurata, C. excelsa, C. macrophylla and C. aurantifolia--'Mexican' lime types of Tanaka's taxa), C. reticulata(for C. limonia, C. karna and C. jambhiri varieties of Tanaka's taxa, including popular citrus rootstocks such as 'Rangpur' lime, 'Volkamer' and 'Rough' lemons), C. aurantium (for C. limetta and C. limon--yellow lemon types--varieties of Tanaka's taxa) or the C. maxima × C. reticulate hybrid (for C. limettioides--'Palestine sweet' lime types--and C

  13. The local knowledge of medicinal plants trader and diversity of medicinal plants in the Kabanjahe traditional market, North Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Silalahi, Marina; Nisyawati; Walujo, Eko Baroto; Supriatna, Jatna; Mangunwardoyo, Wibowo

    2015-12-04

    ) Steud., Dischidia nummularia R.Br., Hoya macrophylla Blume, and Hoya coriacea Blume] have been used for cancer treatment by local communities, but pharmacologically unknown, hence they are promising candidates for further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of the rootstock and interstock grafted in lemon tree (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) on the flavonoid content of lemon juice.

    PubMed

    Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Riquelme, María T; Porras, Ignacio; Ferreres, Federico

    2004-01-28

    The grafting of the rootstock with the lemon tree is an agronomical technique used to improve production and/or quality of the fruit. The interstock has been used with different fruit trees to modulate the tree size, fruit production and quality, and the aging of the tree. The lemon trees grafted with interstocks increase their longevity, lemon production and quality; interstocks are also used to decrease the thickness of the trunk at the grafting point. This enlarging of the trunk provokes a decrease of the sap flow. In our study, "Verna" lemon trees were grafted with interstock between the rootstock and the lemon tree to follow the flavonoid content of the lemon juice. The lemon juice was obtained from the lemons collected of the grafted lemon trees. Two types of rootstocks were used: Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus macrophylla L. Seven interstocks from five cultivars of orange tree, one cultivar of lime tree, and one cultivar of tangerine tree were used. "Verna" lemon trees were also grafted directly to the rootstock. The rootstock was more important agronomic factor than the interstock on the total flavonoid content of lemon juice. The interstock grafting had only a small influence on the flavonoid content of the lemon juice, and it modulated the individual flavonoid content. Citrus aurantium L. rootstock and "Berna" and "Washington Navel" interstocks were the most appropriate to graft in the lemon tree. This interstock grafting technique does not increase the flavonoid content of the lemon juice. Regarding the individual flavonoids, the 6,8-di-C-glucosyl diosmetin was the most affected flavonoid by the type of rootstock used. The interstock used is able to alter the individual quantitative flavonoid order of eriocitrin, diosmin, and hesperidin. In addition, the HPLC-ESI/MS(n) analyses provided the identification of two new flavonoids in the lemon juice: Quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside and chrysoeriol 6,8-di-C-glucoside (stellarin-2). The occurrence of

  15. Phylogenetic origin of limes and lemons revealed by cytoplasmic and nuclear markers

    PubMed Central

    Curk, Franck; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The origin of limes and lemons has been a source of conflicting taxonomic opinions. Biochemical studies, numerical taxonomy and recent molecular studies suggested that cultivated Citrus species result from interspecific hybridization between four basic taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica and C. micrantha). However, the origin of most lemons and limes remains controversial or unknown. The aim of this study was to perform extended analyses of the diversity, genetic structure and origin of limes and lemons. Methods The study was based on 133 Citrus accessions. It combined maternal phylogeny studies based on mitochondrial and chloroplastic markers, and nuclear structure analysis based on the evaluation of ploidy level and the use of 123 markers, including 73 basic taxa diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and indel markers. Key Results The lime and lemon horticultural group appears to be highly polymorphic, with diploid, triploid and tetraploid varieties, and to result from many independent reticulation events which defined the sub-groups. Maternal phylogeny involves four cytoplasmic types out of the six encountered in the Citrus genus. All lime and lemon accessions were highly heterozygous, with interspecific admixture of two, three and even the four ancestral taxa genomes. Molecular polymorphism between varieties of the same sub-group was very low. Conclusions Citrus medica contributed to all limes and lemons and was the direct male parent for the main sub-groups in combination with C. micrantha or close papeda species (for C. aurata, C. excelsa, C. macrophylla and C. aurantifolia – ‘Mexican’ lime types of Tanaka’s taxa), C. reticulata (for C. limonia, C. karna and C. jambhiri varieties of Tanaka’s taxa, including popular citrus rootstocks such as ‘Rangpur’ lime, ‘Volkamer’ and ‘Rough’ lemons), C. aurantium (for C. limetta and C. limon – yellow lemon types – varieties of Tanaka’s taxa) or the C. maxima

  16. Wooden shell of M2-F1 being assembled at El Mirage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Wooden shell of the M2-F1 being assembled at El Mirage, CA. While Flight Research Center technicians built the internal steel structure of the M2-F1, sailplane builder Gus Briegleb built the vehicle's outer wooden shell. Its skin was 3/32-inch mahogany plywood, with 1/8-inch mahogany rib sections reinforced with spruce. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to

  17. Field-trip guide to Columbia River flood basalts, associated rhyolites, and diverse post-plume volcanism in eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferns, Mark L.; Streck, Martin J.; McClaughry, Jason D.

    2017-08-09

    calc-alkaline lava flows overlying the CRBG across the northern and central parts of the LOEA. The Day 2 field route migrates to southern parts of the LOEA, where rocks of the CRBG are associated in space and time with lesser known and more complex silicic volcanic stratigraphy associated with middle Miocene, large-volume, bimodal basalt-rhyolite vent complexes. Key stops will provide a broad overview of the structure and stratigraphy of the middle Miocene Mahogany Mountain caldera and middle to late Miocene calc-alkaline lavas of the Owyhee basalt. Stops on Day 3 will progress westward from the eastern margin of the LOEA, examining a transition linking the Columbia River Basalt-Yellowstone province with a northwestward-younging magmatic trend of silicic volcanism that underlies the High Lava Plains of eastern Oregon. Initial field stops on Day 3 will examine key outcrops demonstrating the intercalated nature of middle Miocene tholeiitic CRBG flood basalts, prominent ash-flow tuffs, and “Snake River-type” large-volume rhyolite lava flows exposed along the Malheur River. Subsequent stops on Day 3 will focus upon the volcanic stratigraphy northeast of the town of Burns, which includes regional middle to late Miocene ash-flow tuffs, and lava flows assigned to the Strawberry Volcanics. The return route to Portland on Day 4 traverses across the western axis of the Blue Mountains, highlighting exposures of the widespread, middle Miocene Dinner Creek Tuff and aspects of Picture Gorge Basalt flows and northwest-trending feeder dikes situated in the central part of the CRBG province.

  18. The Basal Ediacaran Noonday Formation, Eastern California, and implications for Laurentian equivalents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petterson, R.; Prave, A. R.; Wernicke, B. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian succession in the Death Valley region of SW Laurentia is among the best exposed and easily accessible in the world, and comprises one of the most complete sections in Laurentia. The largest single exposure of these strata occurs in the Panamint Range on the west flank of Death Valley, but this area has received little attention in comparison to exposures to the east of Death Valley, primarily because of structural complexity and metamorphism. The eastern strata, though unmetamorphosed, occur in isolated fault-bounded exposures and are relatively incomplete compared to the Panamint stratigraphy. This, combined with a lack of fossil or radiometric age control, has hindered confident regional correlation, as well as placement in the context of hallmark Neoproterozoic events observed in other successions around the globe. New mapping, measured sections and high-resolution C-isotope data reported here from the Noonday Formation in the Panamints delineate its regional stratigraphic architecture and establish its age through correlation with sections with radiometric age control. Carbon isotopic trends in the Panamints match to within 1-2‰ reproducibility previous results obtained for correlative strata in the eastern sections, indicating that metamorphism did not significantly alter C isotopic ratios. The combined litho- and chemostratigraphic data form the basis for a revised stratigraphic framework for the Noonday Formation. A composite section shows that, where most complete, the Noonday consists of three members, from the base upward, the Sentinel Peak, Radcliff, and Mahogany Flats members. New mapping and chemostratigraphic data permit robust regional correlation of a thin dolostone marker horizon at the base of the Noonday in the Panamints as little as 2 m thick (Sentinel Peak Member) with a tube-bearing microbial dolostone in the eastern Death Valley region more than 200 m thick. The data also reveal that the Radcliff Member is

  19. Testing marine shales' ability to generate catalytic gas at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, L.; Schimmelmann, A.; Drobniak, A.; Sauer, P. E.; Mastalerz, M.

    2013-12-01

    C also yielded ethane and propane. As of July 2013, our preliminary dataindicate that the amount of light hydrocarbon gasesincreases with temperature and decreases with increasing pressure.Gas yields after 1 year are typically about twice as large as after 6 months. Decreasing the pressure from 3x107 Pato 107 Payields 3 to 6 times more gases, all other factors being equal. A temperature increase from 60°C to 200°C increases gas yields by a factor of ~40. For example, at 60°C over 6 months at 107 Pa, MowryShale can generate 0.4 μmol methane per gram TOC, and the yield decreases to 0.06 μmolat3x107 Pa.δ2HCH4 from Springfield Coal and Mowry Shale decreases with time and temperature, whereas pressure's influence on δ2HCH4value seems to varyamong source rocks.δ2HCH4from Mowry, Wilcox and Mahogany shales andδ2HH2Oare not correlated, which stands in contrast tothe results of traditional hydrous pyrolysis experimentsat temperatures above 300°C (Schimmelmann et al., 1999). If the methane from gold cells was indeed generated via catalysis, the hydrogen isotope data would suggest that the mechanism of catalytic gas generation is different from thermogenesis.

  20. Catalytic generation of methane at 60-100 °C and 0.1-300 MPa from source rocks containing kerogen Types I, II, and III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lin; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Mastalerz, Maria; Lahann, Richard W.; Sauer, Peter E.; Drobniak, Agnieszka; Strąpoć, Dariusz; Mango, Frank D.

    2018-06-01

    Low temperature (60 and 100 °C) and long-term (6 months to 5 years) heating of pre-evacuated and sterilized shales and coals containing kerogen Types I (Mahogany Shale), II (Mowry Shale and New Albany Shale), and III (Springfield Coal and Wilcox Lignite) with low initial maturities (vitrinite reflectance Ro 0.39-0.62%) demonstrates that catalytically generated hydrocarbons may explain the occurrence of some non-biogenic natural gas accumulations where insufficient thermal maturity contradicts the conventional thermal cracking paradigm. Extrapolation of the observed rate of catalytic methanogenesis in the laboratory suggests that significant amounts of sedimentary organic carbon can be converted to relatively dry natural gas over tens of thousands of years in sedimentary basins at temperatures as low as 60 °C. Our laboratory experiments utilized source rock (shale and coal) chips sealed in gold and Pyrex® glass tubes in the presence of hydrogen-isotopically contrasting waters. Parallel heating experiments applied hydrostatic pressures from 0.1 to 300 MPa. Control experiments constrained the influence of pre-existing and residual methane in closed pores of rock chips that was unrelated to newly generated methane. This study's experimental methane yields at 60 and 100 °C are 5-11 orders of magnitude higher than the theoretically predicted yields from kinetic models of thermogenic methane generation, which strongly suggests a contribution of catalytic methanogenesis. Higher temperature, longer heating time, and lower hydrostatic pressure enhanced catalytic methanogenesis. No clear relationships were observed between kerogen type or total organic carbon content and methane yields via catalysis. Catalytic methanogenesis was strongest in Mowry Shale where methane yields at 60 °C amounted to ∼2.5 μmol per gram of organic carbon after one year of hydrous heating at ambient pressure. In stark contrast to the earlier findings of hydrogen isotopic exchange between

  1. Dale Reed with model in front of M2-F1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Briegleb Glider Company. The budget was $30,000. NASA craftsmen and engineers built the tubular steel interior frame. Its mahogany plywood shell was hand-made by Gus Briegleb and company. Ernie Lowder, a NASA craftsman who had worked on the Howard Hughes 'Spruce Goose,' was assigned to help Briegleb. The prototype of a 21st Century spacecraft required the fabrication of hundreds of small wooden parts meticulously nailed and glued together. It was a product of craftsmanship that was nearly obsolete in the 1940s. Final assembly of the remaining components (including aluminum tail surfaces, push rod controls, and landing gear from a Cessna 150) was done back at the NASA facility. In the meantime, other NASA engineers devised a special M2-F1 flight simulator, and a hot rod shop near Long Beach souped-up a Pontiac convertible to be used as the lifting body ground-tow vehicle. The M2-F1 did not have ailerons. Instead, it had elevons which were attached to each of the two rudders. A large flap on the trailing edge of the body acted as an elevator. This unconventional arrangement prompted the engineers to rethink the flight control system as well. They eventually devised two schemes. One system was fairly traditional. It used rudder pedal inputs to move the rudders for yaw control, and stick inputs to provide differential deflections of the elevons for roll. The other system used stick inputs to control the rudders for yaw, while rudder pedal deflections moved the elevons for roll. Milt Thompson tried both systems in the simulator and surprised the design team when he said he preferred system number two. He reasoned that although sideslip delayed roll (which was a result of dihedral effect), the roll rate was twice as high using the rudders instead of the elevons. He said he would rather have the higher roll rates available to him if needed, while the slip could be overcome with proper piloting technique. This was the system that Thompson practiced on the simulator, and he used it

  2. M2-F1 on lakebed with pilots Milt Thompson, Chuck Yeager, Don Mallick, and Bruce Peterson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    After the initial M2-F1 airtow flights, the NASA Flight Research Center used the vehicle to check out other pilots. Bruce Peterson was scheduled to take over as the M2-F1 project pilot from Milt Thompson, while Don Mallick was to be his backup. Col. (later Brig. Gen.) Charles (Chuck) Yeager, then commandant of the Air Force's Aerospace Research Pilots School, wanted to evaluate a possible lifting-body trainer for the school. This photo shows all of these distinguished pilots on or in the M2-F1, with Col. Yeager in the pilot's seat. The lifting body concept evolved in the mid-1950s as researchers considered alternatives to ballistic reentries of piloted space capsules. The designs for hypersonic, wingless vehicles were on the boards at NASA Ames and NASA Langley facilities, while the US Air Force was gearing up for its Dyna-Soar program, which defined the need for a spacecraft that would land like an airplane. Despite favorable research on lifting bodies, there was little support for a flight program. Dryden engineer R. Dale Reed was intrigued with the lifting body concept, and reasoned that some sort of flight demonstration was needed before wingless aircraft could be taken seriously. In February 1962, he built a model lifting body based upon the Ames M2 design, and air-launched it from a radio controlled 'mothership.' Home movies of these flights, plus the support of research pilot Milt Thompson, helped pursuade the facilities director, Paul Bikle, to give the go-ahead for the construction of a full-scale version, to be used as a wind-tunnel model and possibly flown as a glider. Comparing lifting bodies to space capsules, an unofficial motto of the project was, 'Don't be Rescued from Outer Space--Fly Back in Style.' The construction of the M2-F1 was a joint effort by Dryden and a local glider manufacturer, the Briegleb Glider Company. The budget was $30,000. NASA craftsmen and engineers built the tubular steel interior frame. Its mahogany plywood shell was hand