Science.gov

Sample records for maido ajaots mart

  1. Marte Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of catastrophic flooding in Marte Vallis, Mars. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Many of the major valleys on the red planet are named for the word for 'Mars' in the various languages of Earth. This image shows just a very small portion of the hundreds-of-kilometers-long Marte Vallis system.

    Location near: 17.4oN, 174.7o Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  2. Broadband VHF observations for lightning impulses from a small satellite SOHLA-1 (Maido 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Ushio, T.; Kawasaki, Z.; Hidekazu, H.; Aoki, T.

    2009-12-01

    analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to record broadband VHF pulses in orbit. The waveforms of 100 EM pulses in VHF band emitted from a lightning flash are obtained. Three pairs of BMW with accurate synchronized 3-channel-ADC are needed to realize DITF. From the successful satellite observation like TRMM/LIS, the effectiveness and impact of satellite observations for lightning are obvious. The combination of optical and VHF lightning observations are complimentary each other. ISS/JEM is a candidate platform to realize the simplest DITF and synchronous observations with optical sensors. SOHLA-1 was launched by a HII-A rocket at January 23, 2009 and named Maido-1. Then BMW has worked well and recorded VHF EM waveforms. The development of Maido-1 and its observations results will be presented.

  3. BVOCs concentration in the Reunion Island tropical forests and the impact on photooxidants formation during the BIO-MAIDO 2015 campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomb, Aurelie; Duflot, Valentin; Tulet, Pierre; Flores, Olivier; Fournel, Jacques; Strasberg, Dominique; Deguillaume, Laurent; Vaitilingom, Mickael; Burnet, Frederic; Bourrianne, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    In March-April 2015 took place an intensive field campaign in the Reunion Island : BIO-MAÏDO 2015 campaign. The main objective of the campaign was to study the interactions between forests, gases, aerosols and clouds in this unique tropical natural science lab (Duflot at al, in prep). During this campaign volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) were sampled at different part of the Reunion island. BVOCs (including isoprene, terpenes, and some oxygenated compounds) have different temporal and spatial variations depending on vegetation, on plant species and on environmental factors (ambient temperature, light intensity, air pollution..) (Seinfeld and Pandis, 1998, Kesselmeier and Staudt, 1999). BVOCs are important atmospheric constituent of the troposphere. Due to high reactivity they have an important impact on the tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH) and ozone (Granier et al., 2000; Poisson et al., 2000; Pfister et al., 2008), thus thave a significantey influence on the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere (Houweling et al., 1998; Taraborrelli et al., 2012) on regional and global scales. BVOCs were studied at different locations: Maido Observatory (2160m) with semi-continous measurement (12 March - 9 April 2015); Tamarins forest; Cryptomeria forest; Primary forest (Belouve) and Mare Longue forest . BVOCs were sampled on adsorbents cartridges containing 250 mg Tenax TA and analysed later with a gas-chromatography-mass spectrometer. Formaldehyde concentrations were determined at the Maido observatory using an AEROLASER 4021 instrument, based on the so called "Hantzsch"-reaction, and with a 30s resolution. Isoprene was the most important BVOCs concentration found in the Reunion Island forest, especially from the endemic Tamarins trees, followed by limonene and alpha-pinene. Formaldehyde at the Maido facility show a strong diurnal variation and a maximum concentration during day-time from 1 to 4 ppbv. The local emission of

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of European pine marten, Martes martes.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wu, Dan; Malyarchuk, Boris

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We undertook the first sequencing of the entire mitogenome of Martes martes. The genome is 16,486 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a control region. The total base composition of the mitogenome is 31.9% for A, 27. 6% for C, 25.8% for T and 14.7% for G. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage do not differ significantly from other martens. This mitogenome sequence data might be useful for phylogenetic and systematic analyses within the genus Martes.

  5. Marte Vallis Platy Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-442, 4 August 2003

    The Marte Vallis system, located east of Cerberus and west of Amazonis Planitia, is known for its array of broken, platy flow features. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a close-up view of some of these plates; they appear to be like puzzle pieces that have been broken apart and moved away from each other. The Mars science community has been discussing these features for the past several years--either the flows in Marte Vallis are lava flows, or mud flows. In either case, the material was very fluid and had a thin crust on its surface. As the material continued to flow through the valley system, the crust broke up into smaller plates that were then rafted some distance down the valley. This picture is located near 6.9oN, 182.8oW. It is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  6. Curiosity --El nuevo robot explorador de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    El nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte llamado Curiosity tiene grandes preguntas que responder una vez que llegue a Marte. Infórmese sobre la misión con el analista de trayectoria de la NASA Fern...

  7. Wal-Mart Experience: Part One

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, M.; Deru, M.

    2007-09-01

    In 2005, Wal-Mart opened experimental stores in McKinney, Texas (hot climate), and Aurora, Colo. (cold climate). With these projects Wal-Mart can: (1)Learn how to achieve sustainability improvements, (2)Gain experience with the design, design process, and operations for some specific advanced technologies, (3)Understand energy use patterns in their stores more clearly, (4)Lay groundwork for better understanding of how to achieve major carbon footprint reductions; and (5)Measure the potential benefits of specific technologies tested.

  8. The Wal-Mart Experience, Part Two

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, Michael; MacDonald, J Michael

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, Wal-Mart opened major experimental stores in McKinney, Texas, and Aurora, Colo. These two stores incorporate several experiments using recycled materials and energy-saving technologies. Over the three-year period from 2006-2008, the performance of the experiments will be evaluated and lessons learned generated. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is monitoring the Colorado stores, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is monitoring the Texas stores. The construction and evaluation of these stores are part of a commitment to sustainability by Wal-Mart. The evaluation also includes monitoring typical Wal-Mart supercenters for a reference case in close proximity to the experimental stores.

  9. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea mart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as "acai" found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has received c...

  10. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea Mart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as “açai” found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and their phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has rece...

  11. [Analyzing spatial-temporal dynamics of the ecological niche: a marten (Martes martes) population case study].

    PubMed

    Puzachenko, Iu G; Zheltukhin, A S; Sandlerskiĭ, R B

    2010-01-01

    A potential of discriminant analysis is demonstrated in a case study of the common marten (Martes martes L., 1758) ecological niche within the Central Forest Reserve and its buffer zone. The analysis is aimed at identifying how the probability to encounter a marten's footprint along a walking route depends on the relief and other parameters of the environment discerned by remote sensing. The analyses that were done individually for each of the eleven months from a three-year observation period have revealed the pattern of the species spatial distribution and a measure of its association with the environment to be dependent, to a large extent, on the weather conditions. In general, associations with the environment do increase under unfavorable conditions. The methods are suggested that integrate outcomes of the monthly analyses into a general map of habitat types. The technique presented has wide application opportunities in studying the ecology of populations and solving problems of practical ecology.

  12. [Genetic analysis of sympatric sable (Martes zibellina) and Marten (M. martes) populations in the northern urals].

    PubMed

    Rozhnov, V V; Meshcherskiĭ, I G; Pishchulina, S L; Simakin, L V

    2010-04-01

    Analysis of nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (495 bp) of sables (Martes zibellina) and martens (M. martes) from allopatric parts of the species ranges has shown a considerable interspecific genetic distance (3%). In sympatric populations of these species in the northern Urals, differences between two species-specific mtDNA lineages are still large; however, classification of each individual nucleotide sequence with one of the two lineages is not correlated with whether the given animal is phenotypically a sable, a marten, or a potential hybrid (the so-called kidas). This indicates a high degree of mutual introgression of the sable and marten mtDNAs in the northern Urals and suggests that their interspecific hybridization is common in the sympatric zone.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls in a terrestrial predator, the pine marten (Martes martes L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Bremle, G.; Larsson, P.; Helldin, J.O.

    1997-09-01

    A terrestrial predator population, the pine marten (Martes martes, L.), inhabiting an area in mid-Sweden was investigated for polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p{prime}-DDE, lindane, and hexachlorobenzene. The condition of the animals, as shown by intestine fat amounts or fat content of muscle tissue, showed negative relationships with concentration of persistent pollutants. The relationship resulted in a higher concentration of pollutants as intestinal fat amounts of muscle fat content decreased and lower levels of pollutants as these indexes of condition improved. The results indicate that terrestrial predators show changes in pollutant concentration due to condition, caused by food availability and starvation. No differences in pollutant concentration were recorded between males and females and no relationship was found for levels of pollutants and age or reproduction (females). The latter results are in contrast to those found for aquatic predatory mammals.

  14. FIT-MART: Quantum Magnetism with a Gentle Learning Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Larry; Garland, Scott C.; Rainey, Cameron; Freeman, Ray A.

    We present a new open-source software package, FIT-MART, that allows non-experts to quickly get started sim- ulating quantum magnetism. FIT-MART can be downloaded as a platform-idependent executable Java (JAR) file. It allows the user to define (Heisenberg) Hamiltonians by electronically drawing pictures that represent quantum spins and operators. Sliders are automatically generated to control the values of the parameters in the model, and when the values change, several plots are updated in real time to display both the resulting energy spectra and the equilibruim magnetic properties. Several experimental data sets for real magnetic molecules are included in FIT-MART to allow easy comparison between simulated and experimental data, and FIT-MART users can also import their own data for analysis and compare the goodness of fit for different models.

  15. Prenatal development in fishers (Martes pennanti)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, H.C.; Krohn, W.B.; Bezembluk, E.A.; Lott, R.; Wallace, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated and quantified prenatal growth of fishers (Martes pennanti) using ultrasonography. Seven females gave birth to 21 kits. The first identifiable embryonic structures were seen 42 d prepartum; these appeared to be unimplanted blastocysts or gestational sacs, which subsequently implanted in the uterine horns. Maternal and fetal heart rates were monitored from first detection to birth. Maternal heart rates did not differ among sampling periods, while fetal hearts rates increased from first detection to birth. Head and body differentiation, visible limbs and skeletal ossification were visible by 30, 23 and 21 d prepartum, respectively. Mean diameter of gestational sacs and crown-rump lengths were linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001). Biparietal and body diameters were also linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001) and correctly predicted parturition dates within 1-2 d. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Evaluation for anaerobic culture system: Anoxomat Mart II].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yuji; Sasaki, Hiromi; Furuhata, Yukie; Tazawa, Yoko; Horiuchi, Hajime; Okada, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Anoxomat Mart II (Mart Microbiology BV, Lichtenvooorde, Netherlands, Central Scientific Commerce Inc., Tokyo, Japan) is an anaerobic jar apparatus which uses a vacuum pump in combination with catalyst as gas replacement procedure to remove all traces of oxygen. As we had a chance to use Anoxomat Mart II, we compared it with other two anaerobic culture methods; namely AnaeroPack anaero (Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co., Tokyo, Japan) which employs anaerobic jar method, and Concept400 (RUSKINN TECHNOLOGY LTD, England; Central Scientific Commerce INc., Tokyo, Japan) which uses anaerobic chamber method. We used 10 different species of anaerobic bacteria obtained from ATCC. One strain each of 10 species was cultured and examined for measurement of the sensitibity of an anaerobic indicator, th number of bacteria after 48 hour culture, the diameter of colonies, and MIC value. As a result, the time to reach the anaerobic condition was around 30 minutes by the Mart II against around 60 minutes by the AnaeroPack anaero. There was no difference concerning the number of bacteria after 48 hour culture among three methods. But anaerobic bacteria cultured by Mart II tended to make bigger colonies compared to other two methods in the 5 strains out of 9, except for one strain in which the diameter of colonies could not be measured. On the other hand, the comparison of MIC value showed good correlation in 11 antibiotics out of 12 among three methods. The MIC value of 11 antibiotics fitted within 1-fold difference, and 2-fold difference was observed in only one antibiotic. Mart II is so small that it does cheep consumables. From these reasons, we concluded that Mart II can be one of the useful anerobic culture methods.

  17. The coming electric Wal-Mart

    SciTech Connect

    Drzemiecki, J.H.; Augustini, P.

    1993-07-15

    Market power in the competitive electric marketplace will depend on being a low-price leader. Electric utility executives are beginning to peer over the wall into the emerging world of competitive electric markets. Many will be terrified by the uncertainties and disorder associated with new service offerings such as retail wheeling and the transformation of other vestiges of the vertically integrated electric monopolies known for the past 100 years. The potential for increased competition for retail customers promises to have as fundamental an effect on the electric utility industry as Wal-Mart has had on retailing. Firms that are prepared for the new competitive environment will be in the strongest position to respond to the marketplace; those that are not prepared might want to consider the fate of the corner five-and-dime. To remain competitive, utility executives must take proactive steps to redefine their vision of their company's future. Such a redefinition must include a candid assessment of the strategies to be taken to reposition their firm to succeed, not just within the existing service area but in multiple markets.

  18. The MARTE VNIR imaging spectrometer experiment: design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adrian J; Sutter, Brad; Dunagan, Stephen

    2008-10-01

    We report on the design, operation, and data analysis methods employed on the VNIR imaging spectrometer instrument that was part of the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). The imaging spectrometer is a hyperspectral scanning pushbroom device sensitive to VNIR wavelengths from 400-1000 nm. During the MARTE project, the spectrometer was deployed to the Río Tinto region of Spain. We analyzed subsets of three cores from Río Tinto using a new band modeling technique. We found most of the MARTE drill cores to contain predominantly goethite, though spatially coherent areas of hematite were identified in Core 23. We also distinguished non Fe-bearing minerals that were subsequently analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and found to be primarily muscovite. We present drill core maps that include spectra of goethite, hematite, and non Fe-bearing minerals.

  19. The MARTE VNIR Imaging Spectrometer Experiment: Design and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adrian J.; Sutter, Brad; Dunagan, Stephen

    2008-10-01

    We report on the design, operation, and data analysis methods employed on the VNIR imaging spectrometer instrument that was part of the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). The imaging spectrometer is a hyperspectral scanning pushbroom device sensitive to VNIR wavelengths from 400-1000 nm. During the MARTE project, the spectrometer was deployed to the Río Tinto region of Spain. We analyzed subsets of three cores from Río Tinto using a new band modeling technique. We found most of the MARTE drill cores to contain predominantly goethite, though spatially coherent areas of hematite were identified in Core 23. We also distinguished non Fe-bearing minerals that were subsequently analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and found to be primarily muscovite. We present drill core maps that include spectra of goethite, hematite, and non Fe-bearing minerals.

  20. La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Yokoyama, T.

    Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones numéricas, que la rotación de Marte pasó repetidamente por estados caóticos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - órbita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la búsqueda de manifestaciones de vida fósil en dicho planeta. El estudio de la dinámica orbital del satélite más exterior de Marte, Deimos, nos ha permitido comprobar, en el marco de las distintas teorías sobre su orígen, que la oblicuidad de Marte dificilmente pudo haber sufrido variaciones que la aparten más de 10o respecto de actual valor. Este resultado parece ser mucho más robusto que las simulaciones numéricas de Touma y Wisdom asi como las de Laskar y Robutel, lo que permite poner cotas más severas a la evolución paleoclimática de Marte.

  1. "Dateline NBC"'s Persuasive Attack on Wal-Mart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Dorries, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Develops a typology of persuasive attack strategies. Identifies two key components of persuasive attack: responsibility and offensiveness. Describes several strategies for intensifying each of these elements. Applies this analysis to "Dateline NBC"'s allegations that Wal-Mart's "Buy American" campaign was deceptive. Concludes that "Dateline NBC'"s…

  2. Design and implementation of fishery rescue data mart system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jun; Huang, Haiguang; Liu, Yousong

    A novel data mart based system for fishery rescue field was designed and implemented. The system runs ETL process to deal with original data from various databases and data warehouses, and then reorganized the data into the fishery rescue data mart. Next, online analytical processing (OLAP) are carried out and statistical reports are generated automatically. Particularly, quick configuration schemes are designed to configure query dimensions and OLAP data sets. The configuration file will be transformed into statistic interfaces automatically through a wizard-style process. The system provides various forms of reporting files, including crystal reports, flash graphical reports, and two-dimensional data grids. In addition, a wizard style interface was designed to guide users customizing inquiry processes, making it possible for nontechnical staffs to access customized reports. Characterized by quick configuration, safeness and flexibility, the system has been successfully applied in city fishery rescue department.

  3. Factors associated with selling price of cattle at livestock marts.

    PubMed

    Mc Hugh, N; Fahey, A G; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with selling price of animals at livestock marts around Ireland. Data consisted of four distinct maturity categories: calves (2 to 84 days of age, n = 53 838); weanlings (6 to 12 months of age, n = 19 972); post-weanlings (12 to 36 months of age, n = 93 081) and cows (>30 months to 12 years of age, n = 94 839); sold through livestock marts between 2000 and 2008. Factors associated with animal price were determined within each maturity category separately using mixed models; random effects were mart, date of sale nested within mart, and herd of origin nested within year of sale. Mean selling price was €157, €580, €655 and €592 for calves, weanlings, post-weanlings and cows, respectively. The greatest prices were paid for singleton crossbred male calves, weanlings and post-weanlings from older dams. With the exception of the Aberdeen Angus, beef breeds and their crosses consistently received higher prices than their dairy counterparts across all four maturity categories; increased proportion of Belgian Blue and Charolais was associated with greater prices compared with other beef breeds. When live-weight was included in the multiple regression models the association between price and all factors regressed toward zero but most factors remained associated with price. The highest price was recorded in the spring months for calves, post-weanlings and cows, and in the autumn months for weanlings. Results from this study may be used to help farmers make more informed management decisions, as well as provide information for bio-economic models for evaluating alternative production systems or estimating economic values. PMID:22444658

  4. Wal-Mart ''power shift'' promises lower fuel bills

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The all electric HVAC decision projected to help a retail chain store keep utility costs in check is presented. Submitted by Stephen L. Elsea, Commercial Marketing Specialist, Illinois Power Company, Decatur, IL, the report won first prize in the Commercial category of Edison Electric Institute's 1985 Energy Management and Writing Awards contest. The installation and performance of the HVAC system in Wal-Mart Stores are discussed.

  5. Molecular identification of Trichinella britovi in martens (Martes martes) and badgers (Meles meles); new host records in Poland.

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bożena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Bień, Justyna; Bogdaszewski, Marek; Cabaj, Władysław

    2012-12-01

    Trichinella larvae were detected in a marten (Martes martes) and a badger (Meles meles) in Poland. The animals were found dead following car accidents. All examined animals derived from the Mazurian Lake district, north-east Poland, near the village Kosewo Górne where Trichinella infection were earlier confirmed in wildlife; red foxes and wild boars. The muscle samples were examined by artificial pepsin-HCl digestion method. The parasites were identified as Trichinella britovi by multiplex polymerase chain reaction method. Larvae were found in two out of three martens and one out of seven examined badgers. This is the first report of the identification of Trichinella britovi larvae from martens and badgers in Poland.

  6. 78 FR 46952 - Relief-Mart, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Marketing Claims, 77 FR 62, 122, 62,123 (Oct. 11, 2012). Parts III though VI require Relief-Mart to: Keep... Relief-Mart, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY: Federal Trade.... The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations in the draft complaint...

  7. La Ciencia y el Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    el robot más nuevo fabricado para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte o Curiosity. ¡Se encuentra listo para deambular por el planeta rojo con el mayor y más avanzado conjunto de instrumento...

  8. Carmen Martín Gaite and the Writing of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberger, David K.

    2015-01-01

    In this brief article, David Herzberger begins by describing how, with the help of Juan Benet as her interlocutor in 1966, renowned Spanish author Carmen Martín Gaite found her historiographic voice. Herzberger goes on to examine how this relates to Martín Gaite's legacy in historiography and her understanding of the Franco regime and the Spanish…

  9. Concepto de ingeniería del Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    El robot más grande y "más malo", y más nuevo para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte. Tiene el tamaño de un vehículo utilitario deportivo y está provisto de 10 instrumentos, nunca antes h...

  10. Sustaining Higher Education Using Wal-Mart's Best Supply Chain Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comm, Clare L.; Mathaisel, Dennis F. X.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The costs in higher education are increasing and need to be controlled. This paper aims to demonstrate what lessons higher education could learn from Wal-Mart's reasons for its financial success with its focus on efficient and effective supply chain management (SCM) best practices. Design/methodology/approach: Wal-Mart's best practices in…

  11. Dispersal and genetic structure in the American marten, Martes americana.

    PubMed

    Broquet, T; Johnson, C A; Petit, E; Thompson, I; Burel, F; Fryxell, J M

    2006-05-01

    Natal dispersal in a vagile carnivore, the American marten (Martes americana), was studied by comparing radio-tracking data and microsatellite genetic structure in two populations occupying contrasting habitats. The genetic differentiation determined among groups of individuals using F(ST) indices appeared to be weak in both landscapes, and showed no increase with geographical distance. Genetic structure investigated using pairwise genetic distances between individuals conversely showed a pattern of isolation by distance (IBD), but only in the population occurring in a homogeneous high-quality habitat, therefore showing the advantage of individual-based analyses in detecting within-population processes and local landscape effects. The telemetry study of juveniles revealed a leptokurtic distribution of dispersal distances in both populations, and estimates of the mean squared parent-offspring axial distance (sigma2) inferred both from the genetic pattern of IBD and from the radio-tracking survey showed that most juveniles make little contribution to gene flow.

  12. Systemic AL amyloidosis in a Beech Marten (Martes foina).

    PubMed

    Scaglione, F E; Mignone, W; Ferrero, E; Poggi, M; Biolatti, B; Bollo, E

    2013-10-01

    A wild Beech Marten (Martes foina), was referred for necropsy to the Department of Animal Pathology of the University of Turin (Italy). At gross examination, whitish and firm masses, 10-mm in diameter, were found on the heart and in the kidney. Spleen showed lighter color and greater consistency, and the cut surface of the liver appeared scattered with whitish-yellow coalescing foci homogeneously distributed. Amyloid deposits were present in the perivascular and intercellular spaces of the visceral organs, such as the heart, liver, and kidneys. Amyloid stained positively with Congo red with and without 5% potassium permanganate pretreatment and showed green birefringence observable under polarized light. A diagnosis of systemic AL amyloidosis was made. This is the first description of systemic AL amyloidosis in a wild Stone Marten.

  13. Seed oil composition of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke.

    PubMed

    Avato, P; Pesante, M A; Fanizzi, F P; Santos, C Aimbiré de Moraes

    2003-07-01

    The chemical composition of the oil extracted from the seeds of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke (syn. P. sorbilis) was investigated. Cyanolipids constituted 3% of the total oil from guaraná seeds, whereas acylglycerols accounted for 28%. 1H and 13C NMR analyses indicated that type I cyanolipids (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethylprop-2-ene-1-ol diesters) are present in the oil from P. cupana. GC and GC-MS analysis showed that cis-11-octadecenoic (cis-vaccenic acid) and cis-11-eicosenoic acids were the main FA (30.4 and 38.7%) esterified to the nitrile group. Paullinic acid (7.0%) was also an abundant component. Oleic acid (37.4%) was the dominant fatty acyl chain in the acylglycerols.

  14. An efficient and accurate approach to MTE-MART for time-resolved tomographic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, K. P.; Scarano, F.

    2015-03-01

    The motion-tracking-enhanced MART (MTE-MART; Novara et al. in Meas Sci Technol 21:035401, 2010) has demonstrated the potential to increase the accuracy of tomographic PIV by the combined use of a short sequence of non-simultaneous recordings. A clear bottleneck of the MTE-MART technique has been its computational cost. For large datasets comprising time-resolved sequences, MTE-MART becomes unaffordable and has been barely applied even for the analysis of densely seeded tomographic PIV datasets. A novel implementation is proposed for tomographic PIV image sequences, which strongly reduces the computational burden of MTE-MART, possibly below that of regular MART. The method is a sequential algorithm that produces a time-marching estimation of the object intensity field based on an enhanced guess, which is built upon the object reconstructed at the previous time instant. As the method becomes effective after a number of snapshots (typically 5-10), the sequential MTE-MART (SMTE) is most suited for time-resolved sequences. The computational cost reduction due to SMTE simply stems from the fewer MART iterations required for each time instant. Moreover, the method yields superior reconstruction quality and higher velocity field measurement precision when compared with both MART and MTE-MART. The working principle is assessed in terms of computational effort, reconstruction quality and velocity field accuracy with both synthetic time-resolved tomographic images of a turbulent boundary layer and two experimental databases documented in the literature. The first is the time-resolved data of flow past an airfoil trailing edge used in the study of Novara and Scarano (Exp Fluids 52:1027-1041, 2012); the second is a swirling jet in a water flow. In both cases, the effective elimination of ghost particles is demonstrated in number and intensity within a short temporal transient of 5-10 frames, depending on the seeding density. The increased value of the velocity space

  15. [Population aspects of sexual dimorphism in guild of the Mustelidae: Mustela lutreola, Neovison vison, Mustela putorius, Martes martes as an example].

    PubMed

    Korablev, M P; Korablev, N P; Korablev, P N

    2013-01-01

    Size sexual dimorphism was investigated on 695 skulls of four Mustelidae species. By extent of increasing of differences between sexes the species are placed in following order: European pine marten (Martes martes), European mink (Mustela lutreola), American mink (Neovison vison), and European polecat (Mustela putorius). Extent of the dimorphism characterizes ecological plasticity of the species and is population characteristic. It is shown that M. martes takes specific and relatively narrow ecological niche of forest ecosystems, entering into weak competitive relationships with smaller Mustelidae species. The level of sexual dimorphism of M. lutreola, N. vison and M. putorius reflects intensity of its interspecific relationships within study area. High level of sexual dimorphism of M. putorius is determined by further divergence of ecological niches of males and females, and also appears to be compensatory mechanism reducing consequences of hardened environmental requirements. PMID:23662464

  16. [Population aspects of sexual dimorphism in guild of the Mustelidae: Mustela lutreola, Neovison vison, Mustela putorius, Martes martes as an example].

    PubMed

    Korablev, M P; Korablev, N P; Korablev, P N

    2013-01-01

    Size sexual dimorphism was investigated on 695 skulls of four Mustelidae species. By extent of increasing of differences between sexes the species are placed in following order: European pine marten (Martes martes), European mink (Mustela lutreola), American mink (Neovison vison), and European polecat (Mustela putorius). Extent of the dimorphism characterizes ecological plasticity of the species and is population characteristic. It is shown that M. martes takes specific and relatively narrow ecological niche of forest ecosystems, entering into weak competitive relationships with smaller Mustelidae species. The level of sexual dimorphism of M. lutreola, N. vison and M. putorius reflects intensity of its interspecific relationships within study area. High level of sexual dimorphism of M. putorius is determined by further divergence of ecological niches of males and females, and also appears to be compensatory mechanism reducing consequences of hardened environmental requirements.

  17. Optimization of the volume reconstruction for classical Tomo-PIV algorithms (MART, BIMART and SMART): synthetic and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, L.; Tremblais, B.; David, L.

    2014-03-01

    Optimization of multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART), simultaneous MART and block iterative MART reconstruction techniques was carried out on synthetic and experimental data. Different criteria were defined to improve the preprocessing of the initial images. Knowledge of how each reconstruction parameter influences the quality of particle volume reconstruction and computing time is the key in Tomo-PIV. These criteria were applied to a real case, a jet in cross flow, and were validated.

  18. Mitochondrial genomes reveal the pattern and timing of marten (Martes), wolverine (Gulo), and fisher (Pekania) diversification.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yanchun; Zeng, Zhaohui

    2014-11-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding the pattern and timescale of evolutionary diversification in the marten, wolverine, fisher, and tayra subfamily Guloninae (Mustelidae, Carnivora), several important issues still remain contentious. Among these are the phylogenetic position of Gulo relative to the subgenera of Martes (Martes and Charronia), the phylogenetic relationships within the subgenus Martes, and the timing of gulonine divergences. To elucidate these issues we explored nucleotide variation in 11 whole mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from eight gulonine species and two outgroup meline species. Parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses yielded fully resolved and identical patterns of relationships with high support for all divergences. The generic status of Pekania (P. pennanti), the monophyly of the genus Martes containing M. flavigula (subgenus Charronia) to the exclusion of the genus Gulo (G. gulo), and the M. foina (M. americana (M. melampus (M. zibellina, M. martes))) phylogeny of the subgenus Martes were strongly supported. Dating analyses (BEAST) using a set of five newly applied fossil calibrations provided divergence times considerably younger than previous multigene mitochondrial estimates, but similar to multigene nuclear and nuclear-mitochondrial estimates. The 95% confidence (highest posterior density) intervals of our divergence times fell within those inferred from nuclear and nuclear-mitochondrial sequence data, and were markedly narrower than in earlier studies (whether nuclear, mitochondrial, or combined). Notably, and contrary to long-held beliefs, our findings indicate that fossils older than the Tortonian-Messinian transition (late Late Miocene) do not represent Martes, excluding from this genus its putative members from the Early, Middle, and early Late Miocene. This study demonstrates the high informativeness of the mitogenome for phylogenetic inference and divergence time estimation within Guloninae, and

  19. Mitochondrial genomes reveal the pattern and timing of marten (Martes), wolverine (Gulo), and fisher (Pekania) diversification.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yanchun; Zeng, Zhaohui

    2014-11-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding the pattern and timescale of evolutionary diversification in the marten, wolverine, fisher, and tayra subfamily Guloninae (Mustelidae, Carnivora), several important issues still remain contentious. Among these are the phylogenetic position of Gulo relative to the subgenera of Martes (Martes and Charronia), the phylogenetic relationships within the subgenus Martes, and the timing of gulonine divergences. To elucidate these issues we explored nucleotide variation in 11 whole mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from eight gulonine species and two outgroup meline species. Parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses yielded fully resolved and identical patterns of relationships with high support for all divergences. The generic status of Pekania (P. pennanti), the monophyly of the genus Martes containing M. flavigula (subgenus Charronia) to the exclusion of the genus Gulo (G. gulo), and the M. foina (M. americana (M. melampus (M. zibellina, M. martes))) phylogeny of the subgenus Martes were strongly supported. Dating analyses (BEAST) using a set of five newly applied fossil calibrations provided divergence times considerably younger than previous multigene mitochondrial estimates, but similar to multigene nuclear and nuclear-mitochondrial estimates. The 95% confidence (highest posterior density) intervals of our divergence times fell within those inferred from nuclear and nuclear-mitochondrial sequence data, and were markedly narrower than in earlier studies (whether nuclear, mitochondrial, or combined). Notably, and contrary to long-held beliefs, our findings indicate that fossils older than the Tortonian-Messinian transition (late Late Miocene) do not represent Martes, excluding from this genus its putative members from the Early, Middle, and early Late Miocene. This study demonstrates the high informativeness of the mitogenome for phylogenetic inference and divergence time estimation within Guloninae, and

  20. Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE): A Simulated Mars Drilling Mission to Search for Subsurface Life at the Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Lemke, L. G.; Mandell, H.; McKay, D.; George, J.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Amils, R.; Stevens, T.; Miller, D.

    2003-03-01

    MARTE is a Mars analog drilling experiment to search for subsurface life on Mars while also characterizing a sulfide-based subsurface biosphere. MARTE is among the first set of field experiments supported by the ASTEP program.

  1. A mitogenomic phylogeny and genetic history of sable (Martes zibellina).

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina

    2014-10-15

    We assessed phylogeny of sable (Martes zibellina, Linnaeus, 1758) by sequence analysis of nearly complete, new mitochondrial genomes in 36 specimens from different localities in northern Eurasia (Primorye, Khabarovsk and Krasnoyarsk regions, the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands and the Urals). Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequences demonstrates that two clades, A and BC, radiated about 200-300 thousandyears ago (kya) according to results of Bayesian molecular clock and RelTime analyses of different mitogenome alignments (nearly complete mtDNA sequences, protein-coding region, and synonymous sites), while the age estimates of clades A, B and C fall within the Late Pleistocene (~50-140 kya). Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) of sable population size change based on analysis of nearly complete mtDNAs show an expansion around 40 kya in the warm Karganian time, without a decline of population size around the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kya). The BSPs based on synonymous clock rate indicate that M. zibellina experienced demographic expansions later, approximately 22 kya. The A2a clade that colonized Kamchatka ~23-50 kya (depending on the mutation rate used) survived the last glaciation there as demonstrated by the BSP analysis. In addition, we have found evidence of positive selection acting at ND4 and cytochrome b genes, thereby suggesting adaptive evolution of the A2a clade in Kamchatka.

  2. A mitogenomic phylogeny and genetic history of sable (Martes zibellina).

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina

    2014-10-15

    We assessed phylogeny of sable (Martes zibellina, Linnaeus, 1758) by sequence analysis of nearly complete, new mitochondrial genomes in 36 specimens from different localities in northern Eurasia (Primorye, Khabarovsk and Krasnoyarsk regions, the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands and the Urals). Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequences demonstrates that two clades, A and BC, radiated about 200-300 thousandyears ago (kya) according to results of Bayesian molecular clock and RelTime analyses of different mitogenome alignments (nearly complete mtDNA sequences, protein-coding region, and synonymous sites), while the age estimates of clades A, B and C fall within the Late Pleistocene (~50-140 kya). Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) of sable population size change based on analysis of nearly complete mtDNAs show an expansion around 40 kya in the warm Karganian time, without a decline of population size around the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kya). The BSPs based on synonymous clock rate indicate that M. zibellina experienced demographic expansions later, approximately 22 kya. The A2a clade that colonized Kamchatka ~23-50 kya (depending on the mutation rate used) survived the last glaciation there as demonstrated by the BSP analysis. In addition, we have found evidence of positive selection acting at ND4 and cytochrome b genes, thereby suggesting adaptive evolution of the A2a clade in Kamchatka. PMID:25110108

  3. Tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine immobilization of American marten (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Belant, Jerrold L

    2005-07-01

    The effectiveness of tiletamine-zolazepam (Telazol) and xylazine as an immobilizing combination for American martens (Martes americana) was evaluated. Fifteen martens were intramuscularly injected on 19 occasions using a 3:2 mixture of tiletamine-zolazepam (3.2+/-0.6 mg/kg [mean +/- SD]) and xylazine (2.1+/-0.4 mg/kg) at Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan (USA) during May to October 2002-2003. Mean induction time was 2.5+/-1.8 min; mean recovery time was 70.8+/-31.9 min. There was no relation between the amount (mg/kg) of tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine injected and induction (r(2)=0.08, P=0.26). However, there was an inverse relation (r(2)=0.28, P<0.01) between dosage and time to first effect of immobilants. Time to recovery increased (r(2)=0.21, P=0.05) with increased dosage. Mean heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature declined through 10 min postinduction (P<0.05). No mortality occurred and no short-term adverse effects were observed in recaptured individuals. In conclusion, a 3:2 mixture of tiletamine-zolazepam/xylazine is a safe and effective immobilizing agent for martens when conducting non-surgical field procedures. Immobilizing martens with 4.2 mg/kg tiletamine-zolazepam and 2.8 mg/kg xylazine should provide < or =30 min of handling time and allow full recovery in about 70 min.

  4. Rural maternity care: can we learn from Wal-Mart?

    PubMed

    van Teijlingen, E R; Pitchforth, E

    2010-03-01

    In many countries rural maternity care is under threat. Consequently rural pregnant women will have to travel further to attend larger maternity units to receive care and deliver their babies. This trend is not dissimilar from the disappearance of other rural services, such as village shops, banks, post offices and bus services. We use a comparative approach to draw an analogy with large-scale supermarkets, such as the Wal-Mart and Tesco and their effect on the viability of smaller rural shops, depersonalisation of service and the wider community. The closure of a community-maternity unit leads to women attending a different type of hospital with a different approach to maternity care. Thus small community-midwifery units are being replaced, not by a very similar unit that happens to be further away, but by a larger obstetric unit that operates on different models, philosophy and notions of risk. Comparative analysis allows a fresh perspective on the provision of rural maternity services. We argue that previous discussions focusing on medicalisation and change in maternity services can be enhanced by drawing on experience in other sectors and taking a wider societal lens. PMID:20004606

  5. Seismic expression of Marts field (Silurian reef) in Sullivan County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Renick, H.J. Jr.; Rene, R.M.; Hester, N.C.; Stanonis, F.L. )

    1989-08-01

    The Marts field of Sullivan County, Indiana, is associated with a Silurian reef that is part of the Terre Haute bank on the eastern flank of the Illinois basin. Gas production has come from Pennsylvanian sandstones at Marts field, and oil is presently being produced from limestones of the Devonian Muscatatuck Group. Hydrocarbons were trapped in the Devonian limestones because of structural drape over the reef. A 2.8-km (1.8-mi) north-south 24-CDP reflection seismic profile across the Marts field was obtained by using a hydraulic-assisted weight drop with a source array interval of 16.7 m (55 ft). The data were digitally processed through statics corrections, deconvolution, stack, and migration. These data clearly image drape in Carboniferous and Devonian strata, a characteristic change in reflection pattern at the reef flanks, and diffractions associated with the reef flanks. Near Marts field, one well penetrates Silurian strata, and a synthetic seismogram for this off-reef well is tied to the seismic section. Using well data from Marts and other reefs, mirror-imaged cross-plots of depths to tops of formations vs. depth to top of the Devonian limestone aid in examination of the drape. These plots of transformed cross sections approximate those of vertically stacked right circular cones indicative of the linear relationships between depths to formations.

  6. Occurrence of internal parasites in stone martens (Martes foina) from Cracow and suburbs.

    PubMed

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Wierzbowska, Izabela A; Górski, Paweł; Okarma, Henryk

    2013-01-01

    The pine marten Martes martes and the stone marten Martes foina are the only representatives of the genus Martes in Poland. During the last few decades, an intensive synurbisation of stone martens has been recorded. The aim of the study was to assess the level of infection by internal parasites of Martes foina in the Cracow urban area. Eleven necropsies were performed of stone martens killed during animal-vehicle collisions. Additionally, coprological examination of 129 stone marten scats was included. For further analysis, two standard methods, i.e. flotation and decantation, were used. The intensity of infection by parasites was low. Taenia martis was found to be present in one marten individual by necropsy, while Taeniidae helminths and two genera of nematodes, Capillaria and Toxocara, were identified during coprodiagnosis. The diet analysis of stone marten scats revealed a high proportion of two food categories. Percentage frequency of occurrence for plant material and anthropogenic was calculated as 42.3% and 15.4%, respectively. This type of food composition might suggest lower infection by internal parasites in particular species, especially with an indirect life cycle.

  7. Ketamine and midazolam anesthesia in Pacific martens (Martes caurina).

    PubMed

    Mortenson, Jack A; Moriarty, Katie M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The use of midazolam as a tranquilizer for anesthesia in mustelids in conjunction with the cyclohexamine ketamine is not well documented. Because midazolam is fast acting, inexpensive, and quickly metabolized, it may serve as a good alternative to other more commonly used tranquilizers. We trapped and anesthetized 27 Pacific martens (Martes caurina) in Lassen National Forest (northern California, US) August 2010-April 2013. We assessed anesthesia with ketamine at 18 and 25 mg/kg combined with 0.2 mg/kg of midazolam by comparing mean times of induction, return to consciousness, and recovery, plus physiologic parameters. No reversal was used for the midazolam portion of the anesthetic. Mean (±SD) induction for both ketamine dosages was 1.7±0.5 and 1.8±1.0 min, respectively. Return to consciousness mean times were 8.0 min longer (P<0.001) for martens receiving a 25 mg/kg ketamine dosage. Mean recoveries were 15.1 min longer (P<0.003) for the 25 mg/kg ketamine dosage. Physiologic parameter means were similar for both ketamine dosages with no statistically significant differences. Body temperatures and heart and respiratory rates were generally stable, but percentage of oxygen saturation and end tidal carbon dioxide values were below those seen in previous mustelid studies. The combination of ketamine, at both dosages, and midazolam provided reliable field anesthesia for Pacific martens, and supplemental oxygen is recommended as needed.

  8. [Manuel Martínez Baez: a very personal opinion on tropical diseases].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Romo, A C

    1993-01-01

    The work of doctor Manuel Martínez Baéz (1894-1987) is very vast and it is clearly related to three different areas of medicine: parasitology, public health and medical sociology, and history of medicine. This work studies an aspect of his ideology concerning public health and social medicine which is related to tropical diseases. The contribution of Martínez Báez to this area was important because he adapted to the reality of underdeveloped countries concepts concerning tropical diseases originated in countries foreign to this problem.

  9. Screening a core collection of citrus genetic resources for resistance to Fusarium solani (Mart) Sacc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A causal agent for Dry root rot (DRR) of citrus has not been definitively identified, but the organism most consistently associated with DRR is Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. To efficiently screen a citrus germplasm collection for resistance to F. solani, a core subset of the collection was evaluated...

  10. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Damian; Haider, Syed; Durinck, Steffen; Pandini, Luca; Provero, Paolo; Allen, James; Arnaiz, Olivier; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza; Baldock, Richard; Barbiera, Giulia; Bardou, Philippe; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Bonierbale, Merideth; Brookes, Anthony J; Bucci, Gabriele; Buetti, Iwan; Burge, Sarah; Cabau, Cédric; Carlson, Joseph W; Chelala, Claude; Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Cittaro, Davide; Collin, Olivier; Cordova, Raul; Cutts, Rosalind J; Dassi, Erik; Di Genova, Alex; Djari, Anis; Esposito, Anthony; Estrella, Heather; Eyras, Eduardo; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Forbes, Simon; Free, Robert C; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M; Goodstein, David; Gray, Kristian; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Haggarty, Bernard; Han, Dong-Jin; Han, Byung Woo; Harris, Todd; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hastings, Robert K; Hayes, Richard D; Hoede, Claire; Hu, Shen; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Hutchins, Lucie; Kan, Zhengyan; Kawaji, Hideya; Keliet, Aminah; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kim, Sunghoon; Kinsella, Rhoda; Klopp, Christophe; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Lazarevic, Dejan; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Letellier, Thomas; Li, Chuan-Yun; Lio, Pietro; Liu, Chu-Jun; Luo, Jie; Maass, Alejandro; Mariette, Jerome; Maurel, Thomas; Merella, Stefania; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa; Moreews, Francois; Nabihoudine, Ibounyamine; Ndegwa, Nelson; Noirot, Céline; Perez-Llamas, Cristian; Primig, Michael; Quattrone, Alessandro; Quesneville, Hadi; Rambaldi, Davide; Reecy, James; Riba, Michela; Rosanoff, Steven; Saddiq, Amna Ali; Salas, Elisa; Sallou, Olivier; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Staines, Daniel M; Steinbach, Delphine; Stone, Kevin; Stupka, Elia; Teague, Jon W; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z; Wang, Jun; Ware, Doreen; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Youens-Clark, Ken; Zadissa, Amonida; Zhang, Shi-Jian; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2015-07-01

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by their host organizations. The BioMart data federation technology provides a unified interface to all the available data. The latest version of the portal comes with many new databases that have been created by our ever-growing community. It also comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools. A new addition to our toolbox, the enrichment analysis tool is now accessible through graphical and web service interface. The BioMart community portal averages over one million requests per day. Building on this level of service and the wealth of information that has become available, the BioMart Community Portal has introduced a new, more scalable and cheaper alternative to the large data stores maintained by specialized organizations. PMID:25897122

  11. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories

    PubMed Central

    Smedley, Damian; Haider, Syed; Durinck, Steffen; Pandini, Luca; Provero, Paolo; Allen, James; Arnaiz, Olivier; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza; Baldock, Richard; Barbiera, Giulia; Bardou, Philippe; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Bonierbale, Merideth; Brookes, Anthony J.; Bucci, Gabriele; Buetti, Iwan; Burge, Sarah; Cabau, Cédric; Carlson, Joseph W.; Chelala, Claude; Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Cittaro, Davide; Collin, Olivier; Cordova, Raul; Cutts, Rosalind J.; Dassi, Erik; Genova, Alex Di; Djari, Anis; Esposito, Anthony; Estrella, Heather; Eyras, Eduardo; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Forbes, Simon; Free, Robert C.; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M.; Goodstein, David; Gray, Kristian; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Haggarty, Bernard; Han, Dong-Jin; Han, Byung Woo; Harris, Todd; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hastings, Robert K.; Hayes, Richard D.; Hoede, Claire; Hu, Shen; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Hutchins, Lucie; Kan, Zhengyan; Kawaji, Hideya; Keliet, Aminah; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kim, Sunghoon; Kinsella, Rhoda; Klopp, Christophe; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Lazarevic, Dejan; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Letellier, Thomas; Li, Chuan-Yun; Lio, Pietro; Liu, Chu-Jun; Luo, Jie; Maass, Alejandro; Mariette, Jerome; Maurel, Thomas; Merella, Stefania; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa; Moreews, Francois; Nabihoudine, Ibounyamine; Ndegwa, Nelson; Noirot, Céline; Perez-Llamas, Cristian; Primig, Michael; Quattrone, Alessandro; Quesneville, Hadi; Rambaldi, Davide; Reecy, James; Riba, Michela; Rosanoff, Steven; Saddiq, Amna Ali; Salas, Elisa; Sallou, Olivier; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Staines, Daniel M.; Steinbach, Delphine; Stone, Kevin; Stupka, Elia; Teague, Jon W.; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z.; Wang, Jun; Ware, Doreen; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Youens-Clark, Ken; Zadissa, Amonida; Zhang, Shi-Jian; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2015-01-01

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by their host organizations. The BioMart data federation technology provides a unified interface to all the available data. The latest version of the portal comes with many new databases that have been created by our ever-growing community. It also comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools. A new addition to our toolbox, the enrichment analysis tool is now accessible through graphical and web service interface. The BioMart community portal averages over one million requests per day. Building on this level of service and the wealth of information that has become available, the BioMart Community Portal has introduced a new, more scalable and cheaper alternative to the large data stores maintained by specialized organizations. PMID:25897122

  12. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biologi...

  13. A miniature Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (miniMART) as a compact breaking wave analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, M. Dale; Deane, Grant; Collins, Douglas B.; Cappa, Christopher; Bertram, Timothy; Dommer, Abigail; Schill, Steven; Forestieri, Sara; Survilo, Mathew

    2016-09-01

    In order to understand the processes governing the production of marine aerosols, repeatable, controlled methods for their generation are required. A new system, the miniature Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (miniMART), has been designed after the success of the original MART system, to approximate a small oceanic spilling breaker by producing an evolving bubble plume and surface foam patch. The smaller tank utilizes an intermittently plunging jet of water produced by a rotating water wheel, into an approximately 6 L reservoir to simulate bubble plume and foam formation and generate aerosols. This system produces bubble plumes characteristic of small whitecaps without the large external pump inherent in the original MART design. Without the pump it is possible to easily culture delicate planktonic and microbial communities in the bulk water during experiments while continuously producing aerosols for study. However, due to the reduced volume and smaller plunging jet, the absolute numbers of particles generated are approximately an order of magnitude less than in the original MART design.

  14. EnsMart: A Generic System for Fast and Flexible Access to Biological Data

    PubMed Central

    Kasprzyk, Arek; Keefe, Damian; Smedley, Damian; London, Darin; Spooner, William; Melsopp, Craig; Hammond, Martin; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Cox, Tony; Birney, Ewan

    2004-01-01

    The EnsMart system (www.ensembl.org/EnsMart) provides a generic data warehousing solution for fast and flexible querying of large biological data sets and integration with third-party data and tools. The system consists of a query-optimized database and interactive, user-friendly interfaces. EnsMart has been applied to Ensembl, where it extends its genomic browser capabilities, facilitating rapid retrieval of customized data sets. A wide variety of complex queries, on various types of annotations, for numerous species are supported. These can be applied to many research problems, ranging from SNP selection for candidate gene screening, through cross-species evolutionary comparisons, to microarray annotation. Users can group and refine biological data according to many criteria, including cross-species analyses, disease links, sequence variations, and expression patterns. Both tabulated list data and biological sequence output can be generated dynamically, in HTML, text, Microsoft Excel, and compressed formats. A wide range of sequence types, such as cDNA, peptides, coding regions, UTRs, and exons, with additional upstream and downstream regions, can be retrieved. The EnsMart database can be accessed via a public Web site, or through a Java application suite. Both implementations and the database are freely available for local installation, and can be extended or adapted to `non-Ensembl' data sets. PMID:14707178

  15. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Damian; Haider, Syed; Durinck, Steffen; Pandini, Luca; Provero, Paolo; Allen, James; Arnaiz, Olivier; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza; Baldock, Richard; Barbiera, Giulia; Bardou, Philippe; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Bonierbale, Merideth; Brookes, Anthony J; Bucci, Gabriele; Buetti, Iwan; Burge, Sarah; Cabau, Cédric; Carlson, Joseph W; Chelala, Claude; Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Cittaro, Davide; Collin, Olivier; Cordova, Raul; Cutts, Rosalind J; Dassi, Erik; Di Genova, Alex; Djari, Anis; Esposito, Anthony; Estrella, Heather; Eyras, Eduardo; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Forbes, Simon; Free, Robert C; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M; Goodstein, David; Gray, Kristian; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Haggarty, Bernard; Han, Dong-Jin; Han, Byung Woo; Harris, Todd; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hastings, Robert K; Hayes, Richard D; Hoede, Claire; Hu, Shen; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Hutchins, Lucie; Kan, Zhengyan; Kawaji, Hideya; Keliet, Aminah; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kim, Sunghoon; Kinsella, Rhoda; Klopp, Christophe; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Lazarevic, Dejan; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Letellier, Thomas; Li, Chuan-Yun; Lio, Pietro; Liu, Chu-Jun; Luo, Jie; Maass, Alejandro; Mariette, Jerome; Maurel, Thomas; Merella, Stefania; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa; Moreews, Francois; Nabihoudine, Ibounyamine; Ndegwa, Nelson; Noirot, Céline; Perez-Llamas, Cristian; Primig, Michael; Quattrone, Alessandro; Quesneville, Hadi; Rambaldi, Davide; Reecy, James; Riba, Michela; Rosanoff, Steven; Saddiq, Amna Ali; Salas, Elisa; Sallou, Olivier; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Staines, Daniel M; Steinbach, Delphine; Stone, Kevin; Stupka, Elia; Teague, Jon W; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z; Wang, Jun; Ware, Doreen; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Youens-Clark, Ken; Zadissa, Amonida; Zhang, Shi-Jian; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2015-07-01

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by their host organizations. The BioMart data federation technology provides a unified interface to all the available data. The latest version of the portal comes with many new databases that have been created by our ever-growing community. It also comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools. A new addition to our toolbox, the enrichment analysis tool is now accessible through graphical and web service interface. The BioMart community portal averages over one million requests per day. Building on this level of service and the wealth of information that has become available, the BioMart Community Portal has introduced a new, more scalable and cheaper alternative to the large data stores maintained by specialized organizations.

  16. Exploración del Nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    Únase a Fernando Abilleira, un analista de trayectoria de la NASA para la Oficina de Exploración de Marte, y conozca las nuevas tecnologías que el nuevo robot Curiosity del Laboratorio Científico d...

  17. COMPLEX HOST-PARASITE SYSTEMS IN MARTES: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGY OF ENDEMIC FAUNAS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex assemblages of hosts and parasites reveal insights about biogeography and ecology and inform us about processes which serve to structure faunal diversity and the biosphere in space and time. Exploring aspects of parasite diversity among martens (species of Martes) and other mustelids reveal...

  18. Massive infestation with fur mites (Lynxacarus mustelae) of a stone marten (Martes foina) from Tyrol.

    PubMed

    Visser, Martin; Messner, Christian; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-10-01

    A massive infestation with Lynxacarus mustelae (Megnin, 1885) (Acari, Astigmata, Listrophoridae) was diagnosed in a stone marten (Martes foina) from Tyrol, Austria. In addition, Ixodes rugicollis and Trichodectes retusus are reported for the first time in Austria, and the five species of helminths found (Capillaria aerophila, C. mustelorum, C. paranalis, C. plica, Molineus patens) are first records in the stone marten in the country.

  19. La Verneda-Sant Martí Adult School: A Reference for Neighborhood Popular Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubert, Adrianna; Villarejo, Bea; Cabré, Joan; Santos, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The Adult School of La Verneda Sant Martí, located in Barcelona, Spain, is a reference at the international level because of its trajectory and its contributions to the transformative movement in democratic education. The school was created in 1978 to address the demands of the working-class residents of the La Verneda…

  20. Cytotoxic effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. in malignant cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Euterpe oleracea Mart., a plant from the Amazon region, is commonly known as açaí or juçara; it has high nutritional value and elevated levels of lipids, proteins, and minerals. Açaí is an abundant and much consumed fruit by the Amazon local population, and studies have demonstrated that it is rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test this plant for anticancer activity in different human malignant cell lines. Methods Cell lines derived from breast and colorectal adenocarcinomas were treated with 10, 20, and 40 μg/mL of bark, seed, and total açaí fruit hydroalcoholic extracts for 24 and 48 h. After treatment, cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, and cell morphological features were observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The type of cell death was also evaluated. The data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s or Tukey’s post hoc tests, as appropriate. Results We observed that of all the cell lines tested, MCF-7 was the only line that responded to açaí treatment. The extracts caused significant reduction (p < 0.01) in cell viability and altered cell morphological features by inducing the appearance of autophagic vacuoles, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, increased expression of LC3BII, a protein marker of autophagosome formation, was observed by western blotting. Caspase Glo™ assays and morphologic observations by DAPI nuclear staining and transmission electron microscopy did not indicate any apoptotic events. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that açaí possesses antitumorigenic potential in the MCF-7 cell line. Further studies are needed to identify the compound (s) responsible for this cytotoxic activity and the molecular target in the cell. This discovery of the

  1. The Search for Subsurface Life on Mars: Results from the MARTE Analog Drill Experiment in Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Lemke, L. G.; Cannon, H.; Glass, B.; Dunagan, S.; Zavaleta, J.; Miller, D.; Gomez-Elvira, J.

    2006-03-01

    The Mars Analog Research and Technology (MARTE) experiment has developed an automated drilling system on a simulated Mars lander platform including drilling, sample handling, core analysis and down-hole instruments relevant to searching for life in the Martian subsurface.

  2. Pre-Results of the Real-Time ODIN Validation on MARTe Using Plasma Linearized Model in FTU Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Yahya; Boncagni, Luca

    2012-06-01

    MARTe is a modular framework for real-time control aspects. At present time there are several MARTe systems under development at Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (Boncagni et al. in First steps in the FTU migration towards a modular and distributed real time control architecture based on MARTe and RTNet, 2010) such as the LH power percentage system, the gas puffing control system, the real-time ODIN plasma equilibrium reconstruction system and the position/current feedback control system (in a design phase) (Boncagni et al. in J Fusion Eng Design). The real-time reconstruction of magnetic flux in FTU tokamak is an important issue to estimate some quantities that can be use to control the plasma. This paper addresses the validation of real-time implementation of that task on MARTe.

  3. MART-10, a newly synthesized vitamin D analog, represses metastatic potential of head and neck squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Wei; Tsai, Chi-Ying; Pan, Yi-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Juang, Horng-Heng; Chen, Tai C; Chiang, Kun-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Even with multidisciplinary treatment, the prognosis and quality of life of patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are still not satisfactory. Previously, 19-Nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3 (MART-10), the new brand 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, has been demonstrated to be an effective drug to inhibit HNSCC growth in vitro. Since most cancer patients die of metastasis, in this study, the antimetastatic effect of MART-10 on HNSCC was investigated. Our results reveal that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 effectively repressed the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, with MART-10 being much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. The antimetastatic effect of 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 was mediated by attenuation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was supported by the finding that the expression of EMT-inducing transcriptional factors, Sail and Twist, was inhibited by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10. The upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin in FaDu cells induced by both drugs further confirmed the repression of EMT. In addition, 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 treatment inhibited intracellular MMP-9 expression and extracellular MMP activity in FaDu cells. Collectively, our results suggest that the less-calcemia 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, MART-10, is a promising drug for HNSCC treatment. Further clinical studies are warranted. PMID:27382252

  4. Prevalence and molecular identification of the sinus worm Skrjabingylus petrowi (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) from Martes spp. in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heddergott, M; Müller, F; Frantz, A C

    2015-06-01

    The nematodes of the genus Skrjabingylus (family Metastrongylidae) can parasitise the nasal and frontal sinus cavities of different carnivore species. Until recently, Skrjabingylus petrowi Bageanov & Petrov, 1941, has mainly been described in pine martens (Martes martes Linnaeus, 1758) and sables (Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758) sampled in the European part of the former Soviet Union. Newer finds in the stone marten (Martes foina Erxleben, 1777) and from different parts of Europe suggest, however, that the species might have a broader host-species range than previously assumed and be geographically more widespread as well. Since most S. petrowi records have resulted from chance discoveries rather than systematic surveys, very little is known about the prevalence of S. petrowi in marten populations. Here, we report results of a 20-year extensive survey of fresh marten skulls, where we tested 1.059 marten carcasses originating from 248 localities in Germany for the presence of S. petrowi. We identified an infestation in only four M. martes individuals and one M. foina, despite using a reliable identification method. Based on the spicule lengths of the male nematodes, the parasites were identified as S. petrowi and genetic barcoding confirmed the identification of the samples. In a phylogenetic analysis, S. petrowi and Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1842), formed a sister clade to all the other members of the family Metastrongylidae. The low prevalence of S. petrowi is possibly due to its parasitising in the two marten species that are either not very common (M. martes) or predominantly live in urban habitat (M. foina).

  5. BioMart Central Portal--unified access to biological data.

    PubMed

    Haider, Syed; Ballester, Benoit; Smedley, Damian; Zhang, Junjun; Rice, Peter; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2009-07-01

    BioMart Central Portal (www.biomart.org) offers a one-stop shop solution to access a wide array of biological databases. These include major biomolecular sequence, pathway and annotation databases such as Ensembl, Uniprot, Reactome, HGNC, Wormbase and PRIDE; for a complete list, visit, http://www.biomart.org/biomart/martview. Moreover, the web server features seamless data federation making cross querying of these data sources in a user friendly and unified way. The web server not only provides access through a web interface (MartView), it also supports programmatic access through a Perl API as well as RESTful and SOAP oriented web services. The website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement.

  6. Molecular evidence for the presence of Dirofilaria repens in beech marten (Martes foina) from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpáková, M; Hurníková, Z; Zaleśny, G; Chovancová, B

    2013-09-23

    Herein we present the first finding of Dirofilaria repens, agent of the subcutaneous form of dirofilariosis, in Martes foina. Molecular analyses from the spleen of 3 individuals originated from Tatra National Park, Northern Slovakia, confirmed the presence of D. repens in one of them. Finding of D. repens in beech marten instigates to more intense research on free living carnivores as the potential source of Dirofilaria parasites.

  7. Ensembl BioMarts: a hub for data retrieval across taxonomic space

    PubMed Central

    Kinsella, Rhoda J.; Kähäri, Andreas; Haider, Syed; Zamora, Jorge; Proctor, Glenn; Spudich, Giulietta; Almeida-King, Jeff; Staines, Daniel; Derwent, Paul; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kersey, Paul; Flicek, Paul

    2011-01-01

    For a number of years the BioMart data warehousing system has proven to be a valuable resource for scientists seeking a fast and versatile means of accessing the growing volume of genomic data provided by the Ensembl project. The launch of the Ensembl Genomes project in 2009 complemented the Ensembl project by utilizing the same visualization, interactive and programming tools to provide users with a means for accessing genome data from a further five domains: protists, bacteria, metazoa, plants and fungi. The Ensembl and Ensembl Genomes BioMarts provide a point of access to the high-quality gene annotation, variation data, functional and regulatory annotation and evolutionary relationships from genomes spanning the taxonomic space. This article aims to give a comprehensive overview of the Ensembl and Ensembl Genomes BioMarts as well as some useful examples and a description of current data content and future objectives. Database URLs: http://www.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://metazoa.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://plants.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://protists.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://fungi.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://bacteria.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/ PMID:21785142

  8. The antibody response against MART-1 differs in patients with melanoma-associated leucoderma and vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Teulings, Hansje-Eva; Willemsen, Karin J; Glykofridis, Iris; Krebbers, Gabrielle; Komen, Lisa; Kroon, Marije W; Kemp, E Helen; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; van der Veen, J P Wietze; Luiten, Rosalie M; Tjin, Esther P M

    2014-11-01

    Patients with melanoma may develop skin depigmentation spontaneously or following therapy, referred to as melanoma-associated leucoderma (MAL). As clinical presentation of MAL may precede primary/metastatic melanoma detection, recognition of MAL is important to prevent its misdiagnosis as vitiligo and the subsequent application of immunosuppressive treatment. To reveal the immunity involved in MAL development, we investigated the presence of antibody and T-cell immune responses directed against the melanocyte-differentiation-antigens MART-1 (Melan-A), tyrosinase and gp100 in patients with MAL, as compared to patients with vitiligo. Autoantibodies to gp100 and tyrosinase were commonly found in both diseases. Interestingly, MART-1 antibodies were only present in patients with MAL. Melanocyte antigen-specific T cells were found in all patients, with relatively more specific T cells in patients with active vitiligo. Although MAL and vitiligo may appear clinically similar, our results indicate that the humoral immune responses against MART-1 differ between these diseases, which can help to differentiate MAL from vitiligo.

  9. Ensembl BioMarts: a hub for data retrieval across taxonomic space.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, Rhoda J; Kähäri, Andreas; Haider, Syed; Zamora, Jorge; Proctor, Glenn; Spudich, Giulietta; Almeida-King, Jeff; Staines, Daniel; Derwent, Paul; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kersey, Paul; Flicek, Paul

    2011-01-01

    For a number of years the BioMart data warehousing system has proven to be a valuable resource for scientists seeking a fast and versatile means of accessing the growing volume of genomic data provided by the Ensembl project. The launch of the Ensembl Genomes project in 2009 complemented the Ensembl project by utilizing the same visualization, interactive and programming tools to provide users with a means for accessing genome data from a further five domains: protists, bacteria, metazoa, plants and fungi. The Ensembl and Ensembl Genomes BioMarts provide a point of access to the high-quality gene annotation, variation data, functional and regulatory annotation and evolutionary relationships from genomes spanning the taxonomic space. This article aims to give a comprehensive overview of the Ensembl and Ensembl Genomes BioMarts as well as some useful examples and a description of current data content and future objectives. Database URLs: http://www.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://metazoa.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://plants.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://protists.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://fungi.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://bacteria.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/.

  10. Chemical Characterization and Cytoprotective Effect of the Hydroethanol Extract from Annona coriacea Mart. (Araticum)

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, José G. A. S.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Boris, Ticiana C. C.; Cristo, Janyketchuly S.; Pereira, Nara L. F.; Figueiredo, Fernando G.; Cunha, Francisco A. B.; Aquino, Pedro E. A.; Nascimento, Polyana A. C.; Mesquita, Francisco J. C.; Moreira, Paulo H. F.; Coutinho, Sáskia T. B.; Souza, Ivon T.; Teixeira, Gabriela C.; Ferreira, Najla M. N.; Farina, Eleonora O.; Torres, Cícero M. G.; Holanda, Vanderlan N.; Pereira, Vandbergue S.; Guedes, Maria I. F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Annona coriacea Mart. (araticum) is a widely distributed tree in the cerrado. Its value is attributed principally to the consumption of its fruit which possesses a large nutritive potential. The objective was to identify the chemical profile and evaluate the antimicrobial and cytoprotective activity of the hydroethanol extract of A. coriacea Mart. (HEAC) leaves against the toxicity of mercury chloride. Materials and Methods: The characterization of components was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution method in broth with strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For evaluation of the modulatory and cytoprotective activity of aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin and amikacin) and mercury chloride (HgCl2), the substances were associated with the HEAC at subinhibitory concentrations (MIC/8). Results and Discussion: The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids such as Luteolin (1.84%) and Quercetin (1.19%) in elevated concentrations. The HEAC presented an MIC ≥512 μg/mL and significant antagonistic action in aminoglycosides modulation, and it also showed cytoprotective activity to S. aureus (significance P < 0.0001) and E. coli (significance P < 0.05) bacteria against the mercury chloride heavy metal with significance, this action being attributed to the chelating properties of the flavonoids found in the chemical identification. Conclusions: The results acquired in this study show that the HEAC presents cytoprotective activity over the tested strains in vitro and can also present antagonistic effect when associated with aminoglycosides, reinforcing the necessity of taking caution when combining natural and pharmaceutical products. SUMMARY The hydroalcoholic extract of A. coriacea Mart. presents in vitro cytoprotective activity against the toxic effect of Hg. Abbreviations Used: HPLC-DAD: High

  11. Chemical Characterization and Cytoprotective Effect of the Hydroethanol Extract from Annona coriacea Mart. (Araticum)

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, José G. A. S.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Boris, Ticiana C. C.; Cristo, Janyketchuly S.; Pereira, Nara L. F.; Figueiredo, Fernando G.; Cunha, Francisco A. B.; Aquino, Pedro E. A.; Nascimento, Polyana A. C.; Mesquita, Francisco J. C.; Moreira, Paulo H. F.; Coutinho, Sáskia T. B.; Souza, Ivon T.; Teixeira, Gabriela C.; Ferreira, Najla M. N.; Farina, Eleonora O.; Torres, Cícero M. G.; Holanda, Vanderlan N.; Pereira, Vandbergue S.; Guedes, Maria I. F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Annona coriacea Mart. (araticum) is a widely distributed tree in the cerrado. Its value is attributed principally to the consumption of its fruit which possesses a large nutritive potential. The objective was to identify the chemical profile and evaluate the antimicrobial and cytoprotective activity of the hydroethanol extract of A. coriacea Mart. (HEAC) leaves against the toxicity of mercury chloride. Materials and Methods: The characterization of components was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution method in broth with strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For evaluation of the modulatory and cytoprotective activity of aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin and amikacin) and mercury chloride (HgCl2), the substances were associated with the HEAC at subinhibitory concentrations (MIC/8). Results and Discussion: The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids such as Luteolin (1.84%) and Quercetin (1.19%) in elevated concentrations. The HEAC presented an MIC ≥512 μg/mL and significant antagonistic action in aminoglycosides modulation, and it also showed cytoprotective activity to S. aureus (significance P < 0.0001) and E. coli (significance P < 0.05) bacteria against the mercury chloride heavy metal with significance, this action being attributed to the chelating properties of the flavonoids found in the chemical identification. Conclusions: The results acquired in this study show that the HEAC presents cytoprotective activity over the tested strains in vitro and can also present antagonistic effect when associated with aminoglycosides, reinforcing the necessity of taking caution when combining natural and pharmaceutical products. SUMMARY The hydroalcoholic extract of A. coriacea Mart. presents in vitro cytoprotective activity against the toxic effect of Hg. Abbreviations Used: HPLC-DAD: High

  12. Anatomical studies on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) under the influence of textile wastewater*

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Zheng, Ping; Siddiqi, M. Rehan; Islam, Ejaz ul; Azim, M. Rashid; Hayat, Yousaf

    2005-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) is a prolific free floating aquatic macrohpyte found in tropical and subtropical parts of the earth. The effects of pollutants from textile wastewater on the anatomy of the plant were studied. Water hyacinth exhibits hydrophytic adaptations which include reduced epidermis cells lacking cuticle in most cases, presence of large air spaces (7~50 μm), reduced vascular tissue and absorbing structures. Textile waste significantly affected the size of root cells. The presence of raphide crystals was noted in parenchyma cells of various organs in treated plants. PMID:16187412

  13. Francisella tularensis infection in a stone marten (Martes foina) without classic pathological lesions consistent with tularemia.

    PubMed

    Origgi, Francesco C; Wu, Natacha; Pilo, Paola

    2013-07-01

    The current report describes the isolation and typing of a strain of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, from the spleen of a stone marten (Martes foina) showing no classic lesions consistent with the disease. The identification of this bacterium, belonging to the World Health Organization risk 3 category and considered to have a low infectious dose, could be performed only because of an ongoing project screening F. tularensis in the environment sensu lato. The findings described herein should alert diagnostic laboratories of the possible presence of F. tularensis in clinical samples in countries where tularemia is endemic even in cases with no consistent anamnesis and from unsuspected animal species.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of Korean yellow-throated marten, Martes flavigula (Carnivora, Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Jang, Kuem Hee; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Martes flavigula, which is an endangered and endemic species in South Korea, was determined. The genome is 16,533 bp in length and its gene arrangement pattern, gene content, and gene organization is identical to those of martens. The control region was located between the tRNAPro and tRNAPhe genes and is 1087 bp in length. This mitogenome sequence data might be an important role in the preservation of genetic resources by allowing researchers to conduct phylogenetic and systematic analyses of Mustelidae.

  15. Analysis of bioactivities and chemical composition of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. using HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Brito, Sharlene M O; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Talvani, Andre; Coronel, Cathia; Barbosa, Andreza G R; Vega, Celeste; Figueredo, Fernando G; Tintino, Saulo R; Lima, Luciene F; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Menezes, Irwin R A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile and antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (HELZJ). The antioxidant DPPH and FRAP assays and chemical profile were determined by colorimetric methods and HPLC/DAD. The antiparasitic, antibiotic and antibiotic-modifying activity were evaluated by microdilution assays. The HPLC-DAD assay showed the presence of mostly tannins and flavonoids, such as caffeic acid and quercetin. The levels of polyphenols and flavonoids were 183.136 mg/g extract and 7.37 mg/g extract, respectively. DPPH and FRAP showed low antioxidant activity for the extract. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were not of clinical relevance, showing MIC>1024 μg/mL. However, synergism was observed between HELZJ and the antibiotics amikacin and gentamicin, which resulted in decreased bacterial drug resistance. EHFZJ showed low toxicity in fibroblasts in vitro, while antiparasitic results against Trypnosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum were not clinically relevant. Thus, our results indicate that Z. joazeiro Mart. (HELZJ) could be a source of plant-derived natural products that could lead to the development of promising new antibiotic compounds for infectious diseases.

  16. An analysis of natural ventilation techniques to achieve indoor comfort in Wal-Mart express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, Shona

    Despite global efforts to reduce world fossil fuel dependency the world still obtains 81% of its energy from fossil fuels (IEA,2009). Modern renewable alternatives have been around since the mid twentieth century these alternatives have not been integrated into electrical grid systems at the exponential rate required to eradicate fossil fuels dependency. The problem, world energy demand, is too large to be satisfied by anything other than the energy-dense fossil fuels used today. We must change our energy intensive processes in order to conserve energy and hence reduce the demands that alternatives must satisfy. This research aims to identify sustainable design opportunities through the application of innovative technologies for the largest retailer in the US with the view that a viable conservative design measure could be applied to the store model, which is replicated across the country, causing a cumulative and hence larger impact on the company energy consumption as a whole. This paper will present the literature available on the 'big box' industry and Wal-Mart, comfort, natural ventilation and building simulation software and then perform an analysis into the viability of naturally ventilating the Wal-Mart Express sales zone using Monodraught natural ventilation windcatcher products

  17. SigReannot-mart: a query environment for expression microarray probe re-annotations

    PubMed Central

    Moreews, François; Rauffet, Gaelle; Dehais, Patrice; Klopp, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Expression microarrays are commonly used to study transcriptomes. Most of the arrays are now based on oligo-nucleotide probes. Probe design being a tedious task, it often takes place once at the beginning of the project. The oligo set is then used for several years. During this time period, the knowledge gathered by the community on the genome and the transcriptome increases and gets more precise. Therefore re-annotating the set is essential to supply the biologists with up-to-date annotations. SigReannot-mart is a query environment populated with regularly updated annotations for different oligo sets. It stores the results of the SigReannot pipeline that has mainly been used on farm and aquaculture species. It permits easy extraction in different formats using filters. It is used to compare probe sets on different criteria, to choose the set for a given experiment to mix probe sets in order to create a new one. Database URL: http://sigreannot-mart.toulouse.inra.fr/ PMID:21930501

  18. Searching for Life in the Martian Subsurface: Results from the MARTE Astrobiological Drilling Experiment and Implications for Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.

    2007-07-01

    Drilling for subsurface life should be a goal of future Mars missions. The approach is illustrated by MARTE: A search for subsurface life in Rio Tinto, Spain explored a biosphere using reduced iron and sulfur minerals and demonstrated automated drilling, sample handling, and life detection.

  19. Non-fermented and fermented Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Mart.) pomaces of as valuable sources of functional ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Mart) is a non-climacteric, highly perishable fruit native to Brazil, which is consumed both fresh and industrially processed in the form of juices, jams, wines and distilled liqueurs. The processing to obtain these products generates a great amount of by-products (p...

  20. Coinfection with Hepatozoon sp. and Canine Distemper Virus in a Yellow-throated Marten ( Martes flavigula koreana) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Surim; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Hae Beom; Cho, Ho Seong; Kim, Wonil; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2016-04-28

    We describe coinfection with Hepatozoon sp. and canine distemper virus (CDV) in a yellow-throated marten ( Martes flavigula koreana). We found Hepatozoon cysts in muscular tissue and viral inclusion bodies in the brain. Hepatozoon sp., and CDV was confirmed in blood and brain, respectively, by PCR.

  1. Río Tinto Faulted Volcanosedimentary Deposits as Analog Habitats for Extant Subsurface Biospheres on Mars: A Synthesis of the MARTE Drilling Project Geobiology Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Remolar, D. C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rodríguez, N.; Dávila, F.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Stoker, C. R.

    2005-03-01

    Reconstruction of the probable habitats hosting the detected microbial communities through the integration of the geobiological data obtained from the MARTE drilling campaigns, TEM sounding and field surface geological survey

  2. Recent Geological and Hydrological Activity in Amazonis and Elysium Basins and Their Link, Marte Valles (AME): Prime Target for Future Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Robbins, S. J.; Hynek, B. M.

    2012-03-01

    Amazonis and Elysium basins and their link, Marte Vallis (AME), uniquely point to a geologically and hydrologically active Mars. We will present evidence for why AME reconnaissance can help address whether Mars is geologically, hydrologically, and biologically active.

  3. Soboliphyme baturini infection does not affect the nutritional condition of American marten (Martes americana) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J G; Pauli, J N; Donadio, E; Buskirk, S W

    2008-12-01

    Soboliphyme baturini, a stomach-dwelling nematode of American martens (Martes Americana), reaches high levels of infection; however, its effects on the nutritional condition of the host are unknown. To understand the effects of this parasite on American martens, we collected S. baturini and measured abdominal fat deposits from 155 marten carcasses on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska, in the winter 2006-2007. We analyzed how the dried mass of abdominal fat varied as a function of S. baturini intensity. Parasite intensity and nutritional condition were not correlated; these results suggest that American martens were able to withstand even very high levels of S. baturini infection (up to 178 parasites per host). PMID:18576861

  4. Chemical, biological, morphoanatomical and antimicrobial study of Ocotea puchury-major Mart.

    PubMed

    Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Pintore, Giorgio; Foddai, Marzia; Chessa, Mario; Piana, Andrea; Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Masia, Maria Dolores; Mangano, Giuseppe; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Ocotea puchury-major Mart. is a tree native to the Brazilian rain forest, where it is popularly known as puxurì. In local folk medicine the leaves are used for their sedative, gastroenteric and antireumatic properties. The morphoanatomical study determined those features useful in distinguishing this species from other closely related taxa. Chemical analysis was focused on the study of the volatile oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses indicated safrol as the main compound of the volatile oil (39%). The results confirm and authenticate the use of its leaves in folk medicine. Furthermore, safrol is economically important as the starting material for hemisynthesis of several products. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was studied which showed promising activity against environmental microorganisms as well as anti-inflammatory activity.

  5. Genetic diversity of the Japanese Marten (Martes melampus) and its implications for the conservation unit.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun J; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Hosoda, Tetsuji

    2009-07-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of combined mitochondrial DNA sequences (2814 bp; cytochrome b gene, displacement loop region, and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene) identified nine groups among 49 individual Japanese martens, Martes melampus, collected from several areas in Japan. The grouping was not correlated with winter coat color, but was consistent with geography. In particular, the monophyly of 29 Tsushima martens, M. m. tsuensis, was supported by strong clade support and topological tests. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities were much lower for the Tsushima population than for any population on the Japanese main islands. In addition, analyses of heterozygosity in nuclear growth hormone receptor gene sequences (654 bp) showed genetic homogeneity for the Tsushima population. This evidence supports the view that the Tsushima marten's long history of isolation on small islands is responsible for its genetic distinctiveness and uniformity, validating the Tsushima population as an evolutionarily significant unit.

  6. Soboliphyme baturini infection does not affect the nutritional condition of American marten (Martes americana) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J G; Pauli, J N; Donadio, E; Buskirk, S W

    2008-12-01

    Soboliphyme baturini, a stomach-dwelling nematode of American martens (Martes Americana), reaches high levels of infection; however, its effects on the nutritional condition of the host are unknown. To understand the effects of this parasite on American martens, we collected S. baturini and measured abdominal fat deposits from 155 marten carcasses on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska, in the winter 2006-2007. We analyzed how the dried mass of abdominal fat varied as a function of S. baturini intensity. Parasite intensity and nutritional condition were not correlated; these results suggest that American martens were able to withstand even very high levels of S. baturini infection (up to 178 parasites per host).

  7. Triterpene Esters and Biological Activities from Edible Fruits of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard, Sapotaceae

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Caio P.; Corrêa, Arthur L.; Lobo, Jonathas F. R.; Caramel, Otávio P.; de Almeida, Fernanda B.; Castro, Elaine S.; Souza, Kauê F. C. S.; Burth, Patrícia; Amorim, Lidia M. F.; Santos, Marcelo G.; Ferreira, José Luiz P.; Falcão, Deborah Q.; Carvalho, José C. T.; Rocha, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard (Sapotaceae) is popularly known in Brazil as “guracica.” Studies with Manilkara spp indicated the presence of triterpenes, saponins, and flavonoids. Several activities have been attributed to Manilkara spp such as antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antitumoral, which indicates the great biological potential of this genus. In all, 87.19% of the hexanic extract from fruits relative composition were evaluated, in which 72.81% were beta- and alpha-amyrin esters, suggesting that they may be chemical markers for M. subsericea. Hexadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, (E)-9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester, and octadecanoic acid ethyl ester were also identified. Ethanolic crude extracts from leaves, stems, and hexanic extract from fruits exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. These extracts had high IC50 values against Vero cells, demonstrating weak cytotoxicity. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that beta- and alpha-amyrin caproates and caprylates are described for Manilkara subsericea. PMID:23509702

  8. Genetic variability in the sable (Martes zibellina L.) with respect to genes encoding blood proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kashtanov, S.N.; Kazakova, T.I.

    1995-02-01

    Electrophoresis of blood proteins was used to determine, for the first time, the level of genetic variability of certain loci in the sable (Martes zibellina L., Mustelidae). Variation of 23 blood proteins encoded by 25 genes was analyzed. Polymorphism was revealed in six genes. The level of heterozygosity was estimated at 0.069; the proportion of polymorphic loci was 24%. Data on the history of the sable population maintained at the farm, on geographical distribution of natural sable populations, and on the number of animals selected for reproduction in captivity is presented. The great number of animals studies and the extensive range of natural sable populations, on the basis of which the population maintained in captivity was obtained, suggest that the results of this work can be used for estimating the variability of the gene pool of sable as a species. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Peltomexicanin, a Peltogynoid Quinone Methide from Peltogyne Mexicana Martínez Purple Heartwood.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Macías, Paulina; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Borja-de-la-Rosa, Amparo; Barragán-Huerta, Blanca E

    2016-02-04

    Peltomexicanin (7,10-dihydroxy-6,12-dioxa-5H-tetraphen-3-one) is a new peltogynoid quinone methide isolated from Palo Morado (Peltogyne mexicana Martínez) heartwood by column chromatography. Its chemical structure was elucidated by IR, NMR (¹H, (13)C), 2D NMR experiments (COSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HSQC), ESI-MS, and UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis. According to HPLC quantification, this compound is the main pigment and accounts for 1.21% of Palo Morado heartwood material. The antioxidant activity of peltomexicanin and dried methanolic extract (DEx) of purple heartwood was evaluated using the radical of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and the corresponding values expressed as Trolox equivalents (µmol TE/mg sample) were 4.25 and 4.57, respectively.

  10. Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE): A Simulated Mars Drilling Mission to Search for Subsurface Life at the Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol; Lemke, Larry; Mandell, Humboldt; McKay, David; George, Jeffrey; Gomez-Alvera, Javier; Amils, Ricardo; Stevens, Todd; Miller, David

    2003-01-01

    The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project was selected by the new NASA ASTEP program, which supports field experiments having an equal emphasis on Astrobiology science and technology development relevant to future Astrobiology missions. MARTE will search for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Tinto River in southwestern Spain while also demonstrating technology needed to search for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The experiment is informed by the strategy for searching for life on Mars.

  11. New brachypterous species of Dichotomius Hope, with taxonomic notes in the subgenus Luederwaldtinia Martínez (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae).

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rafael V; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2013-01-01

    An overview of the subgenus Dichotomius (Luederwaldtnia) and its species groups is presented with species groups proposed and a provisional identification key provided. Dichotomius (Luederwaldtnia) vidaurrei, a brachypterous new species from Bolivia, is described. Another brachypterous species, from Brazil, D. mysticus (Luederwaldt) is redescribed. Dichotomius paraguayanus Gandini & Aguilar is synonymized with Canthidium kelleri (Martínez, Halffter & Pereira). Some aspects of the evolution of flightlessness in Dichotomius are discussed.

  12. Adoptive transfer of MART-1 T cell receptor transgenic lymphocytes and dendritic cell vaccination in patients with metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Chodon, Thinle; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Koya, Richard C; Wu, Zhongqi; Auerbach, Martin; Ng, Charles; Avramis, Earl; Seja, Elizabeth; Villanueva, Arturo; McCannel, Tara A.; Ishiyama, Akira; Czernin, Johannes; Radu, Caius G.; Wang, Xiaoyan; Gjertson, David W.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Cornetta, Kenneth; Wong, Deborah J.L.; Kaplan-lefko, Paula; Hamid, Omid; Samlowski, Wolfram; Cohen, Peter A.; Daniels, Gregory A.; Mukherji, Bijay; Yang, Lili; Zack, Jerome A.; Kohn, Donald B.; Heath, James R.; Glaspy, John A.; Witte, Owen N.; Baltimore, David; Economou, James S.; Ribas, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Purpose It has been demonstrated that large numbers of tumor-specific T cells for adoptive cell transfer (ACT) can be manufactured by retroviral genetic engineering of autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes and expanding them over several weeks. In mouse models, this therapy is optimized when administered with dendritic cell (DC) vaccination. We developed a short one-week manufacture protocol to determine the feasibility, safety and antitumor efficacy of this double cell therapy. Experimnetal Design A clinical trial (NCT00910650) adoptively transferring MART-1 T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic lymphocytes together with MART-1 peptide pulsed DC vaccination in HLA-A2.1 patients with metastatic melanoma. Autologous TCR transgenic cells were manufactured in 6 to 7 days using retroviral vector gene transfer, and re-infused with (n = 10) or without (n = 3) prior cryopreservation. Results 14 patients with metastatic melanoma were enrolled and nine out of 13 treated patients (69%) showed evidence of tumor regression. Peripheral blood reconstitution with MART-1-specific T cells peaked within two weeks of ACT indicating rapid in vivo expansion. Administration of freshly manufactured TCR transgenic T cells resulted in a higher persistence of MART-1-specific T cells in the blood as compared to cryopreserved. Evidence that DC vaccination could cause further in vivo expansion was only observed with ACT using non-cryopreserved T cells. Conclusion Double cell therapy with ACT of TCR engineered T cells with a very short ex vivo manipulation and DC vaccines is feasible and results in antitumor activity, but improvements are needed to maintain tumor responses. PMID:24634374

  13. Human Macrophages and Dendritic Cells Can Equally Present MART-1 Antigen to CD8+ T Cells after Phagocytosis of Gamma-Irradiated Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, María Marcela; Abes, Riad; Colombo, Marina; Pizzurro, Gabriela; Boix, Charlotte; Roberti, María Paula; Gélizé, Emmanuelle; Rodriguez-Zubieta, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) can achieve cross-presentation of naturally-occurring tumor-associated antigens after phagocytosis and processing of dying tumor cells. They have been used in different clinical settings to vaccinate cancer patients. We have previously used gamma-irradiated MART-1 expressing melanoma cells as a source of antigens to vaccinate melanoma patients by injecting irradiated cells with BCG and GM-CSF or to load immature DC and use them as a vaccine. Other clinical trials have used IFN-gamma activated macrophage killer cells (MAK) to treat cancer patients. However, the clinical use of MAK has been based on their direct tumoricidal activity rather than on their ability to act as antigen-presenting cells to stimulate an adaptive antitumor response. Thus, in the present work, we compared the fate of MART-1 after phagocytosis of gamma-irradiated cells by clinical grade DC or MAK as well as the ability of these cells to cross present MART-1 to CD8+ T cells. Using a high affinity antibody against MART-1, 2A9, which specifically stains melanoma tumors, melanoma cell lines and normal melanocytes, the expression level of MART-1 in melanoma cell lines could be related to their ability to stimulate IFN-gamma production by a MART-1 specific HLA-A*0201-restricted CD8+ T cell clone. Confocal microscopy with Alexa Fluor®647-labelled 2A9 also showed that MART-1 could be detected in tumor cells attached and/or fused to phagocytes and even inside these cells as early as 1 h and up to 24 h or 48 h after initiation of co-cultures between gamma-irradiated melanoma cells and MAK or DC, respectively. Interestingly, MART-1 was cross-presented to MART-1 specific T cells by both MAK and DC co-cultured with melanoma gamma-irradiated cells for different time-points. Thus, naturally occurring MART-1 melanoma antigen can be taken-up from dying melanoma cells into DC or MAK and both cell types can induce specific CD8+ T cell cross-presentation thereafter. PMID:22768350

  14. Design and practices for use of automated drilling and sample handling in MARTE while minimizing terrestrial and cross contamination.

    PubMed

    Miller, David P; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Davis, Kiel

    2008-10-01

    Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) investigators used an automated drill and sample processing hardware to detect and categorize life-forms found in subsurface rock at Río Tinto, Spain. For the science to be successful, it was necessary for the biomass from other sources--whether from previously processed samples (cross contamination) or the terrestrial environment (forward contamination)-to be insignificant. The hardware and practices used in MARTE were designed around this problem. Here, we describe some of the design issues that were faced and classify them into problems that are unique to terrestrial tests versus problems that would also exist for a system that was flown to Mars. Assessment of the biomass at various stages in the sample handling process revealed mixed results; the instrument design seemed to minimize cross contamination, but contamination from the surrounding environment sometimes made its way onto the surface of samples. Techniques used during the MARTE Río Tinto project, such as facing the sample, appear to remove this environmental contamination without introducing significant cross contamination from previous samples.

  15. The InterPro BioMart: federated query and web service access to the InterPro Resource.

    PubMed

    Jones, Philip; Binns, David; McMenamin, Conor; McAnulla, Craig; Hunter, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The InterPro BioMart provides users with query-optimized access to predictions of family classification, protein domains and functional sites, based on a broad spectrum of integrated computational models ('signatures') that are generated by the InterPro member databases: Gene3D, HAMAP, PANTHER, Pfam, PIRSF, PRINTS, ProDom, PROSITE, SMART, SUPERFAMILY and TIGRFAMs. These predictions are provided for all protein sequences from both the UniProt Knowledge Base and the UniParc protein sequence archive. The InterPro BioMart is supplementary to the primary InterPro web interface (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), providing a web service and the ability to build complex, custom queries that can efficiently return thousands of rows of data in a variety of formats. This article describes the information available from the InterPro BioMart and illustrates its utility with examples of how to build queries that return useful biological information. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/biomart/martview.

  16. Design and Practices for Use of Automated Drilling and Sample Handling in MARTE While Minimizing Terrestrial and Cross Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David P.; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Davis, Kiel

    2008-10-01

    Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) investigators used an automated drill and sample processing hardware to detect and categorize life-forms found in subsurface rock at Río Tinto, Spain. For the science to be successful, it was necessary for the biomass from other sources -- whether from previously processed samples (cross contamination) or the terrestrial environment (forward contamination) -- to be insignificant. The hardware and practices used in MARTE were designed around this problem. Here, we describe some of the design issues that were faced and classify them into problems that are unique to terrestrial tests versus problems that would also exist for a system that was flown to Mars. Assessment of the biomass at various stages in the sample handling process revealed mixed results; the instrument design seemed to minimize cross contamination, but contamination from the surrounding environment sometimes made its way onto the surface of samples. Techniques used during the MARTE Río Tinto project, such as facing the sample, appear to remove this environmental contamination without introducing significant cross contamination from previous samples.

  17. The proteasome immunosubunits, PA28 and ER-aminopeptidase 1 protect melanoma cells from efficient MART-126-35 -specific T-cell recognition.

    PubMed

    Keller, Martin; Ebstein, Frédéric; Bürger, Elke; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Gorny, Xenia; Urban, Sabrina; Zhao, Fang; Dannenberg, Tanja; Sucker, Antje; Keller, Christin; Saveanu, Loredana; Krüger, Elke; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dahlmann, Burkhardt; Henklein, Petra; Voigt, Antje; Kuckelkorn, Ulrike; Paschen, Annette; Kloetzel, Peter-Michael; Seifert, Ulrike

    2015-12-01

    The immunodominant MART-1(26(27)-35) epitope, liberated from the differentiation antigen melanoma antigen recognized by T cells/melanoma antigen A (MART-1/Melan-A), has been frequently targeted in melanoma immunotherapy, but with limited clinical success. Previous studies suggested that this is in part due to an insufficient peptide supply and epitope presentation, since proteasomes containing the immunosubunits β5i/LMP7 (LMP, low molecular weight protein) or β1i/LMP2 and β5i/LMP7 interfere with MART-1(26-35) epitope generation in tumor cells. Here, we demonstrate that in addition the IFN-γ-inducible proteasome subunit β2i/MECL-1 (multicatalytic endopeptidase complex-like 1), proteasome activator 28 (PA28), and ER-resident aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) impair MART-1(26-35) epitope generation. β2i/MECL-1 and PA28 negatively affect C- and N-terminal cleavage and therefore epitope liberation from the proteasome, whereas ERAP1 destroys the MART-1(26-35) epitope by overtrimming activity. Constitutive expression of PA28 and ERAP1 in melanoma cells indicate that both interfere with MART-1(26-35) epitope generation even in the absence of IFN-γ. In summary, our results provide first evidence that activities of different antigen-processing components contribute to an inefficient MART-1(26-35) epitope presentation, suggesting the tumor cell's proteolytic machinery might have an important impact on the outcome of epitope-specific immunotherapies.

  18. Reviewers required major changes, including rearranging the two articles, so the new title of the first paper is: HVAC and Refrigeration Experiments at Wal-Mart Experimental Supercenters in Texas and Colorado --- original title: ASHRAE Journal DRAFT article McKinney and Aurora Wal-Mart Stores, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, J Michael; Deru, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, Wal-Mart opened experimental stores in McKinney, Texas (hot climate), and Aurora, Colo. (cold climate). With these projects Wal-Mart can: * Learn how to achieve sustainability improvements; * Gain experience with the design, design process, and operations for some specific advanced technologies; * Understand energy use patterns in their stores more clearly; * Lay groundwork for better understanding of how to achieve major carbon footprint reductions; and * Measure the potential benefits of specific technologies tested.

  19. New MHD feedback control schemes using the MARTe framework in RFX-mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piron, Chiara; Manduchi, Gabriele; Marrelli, Lionello; Piovesan, Paolo; Zanca, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    Real-time feedback control of MHD instabilities is a topic of major interest in magnetic thermonuclear fusion, since it allows to optimize a device performance even beyond its stability bounds. The stability properties of different magnetic configurations are important test benches for real-time control systems. RFX-mod, a Reversed Field Pinch experiment that can also operate as a tokamak, is a well suited device to investigate this topic. It is equipped with a sophisticated magnetic feedback system that controls MHD instabilities and error fields by means of 192 active coils and a corresponding grid of sensors. In addition, the RFX-mod control system has recently gained new potentialities thanks to the introduction of the MARTe framework and of a new CPU architecture. These capabilities allow to study new feedback algorithms relevant to both RFP and tokamak operation and to contribute to the debate on the optimal feedback strategy. This work focuses on the design of new feedback schemes. For this purpose new magnetic sensors have been explored, together with new algorithms that refine the de-aliasing computation of the radial sideband harmonics. The comparison of different sensor and feedback strategy performance is described in both RFP and tokamak experiments.

  20. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Garzón, G Astrid; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry

    2017-02-15

    Berries of Colombian Euterpe oleracea Mart. were analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC), anthocyanin (ACN) content, and antioxidant activity. Additionally, reversed-phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (RP-UHPLC-PDA) and heated electrospray ionization (HESI) multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n)) were used to determine the composition of phenolic compounds. Anthocyanin content was 0.57±0.39mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/g fresh weight (FW) and TPC was 6.07±2.17mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g FW. The ABTS radical scavenging activity was 3.1±1.3μmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/100g FW, whereas the DPPH value was 2693.1±332.8μmol TE/100g FW. Overall, results show that Colombian açai has a more diverse polyphenolic profile and higher antioxidant activity than Brazilian açai. This information could be useful in authentification procedures to differentiate Brazilian açai from Colombian açai when used as an alternative for the supply of this fruit during the time of shortage in Brazil. PMID:27664647

  1. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of acetonic extract from Paullinia cupana Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Conte, Barbara; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Sorbo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the acetone extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, were assessed against selected bacterial and fungal strains. We tested the extract against both standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinically isolated (CI) bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for bacteria and MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration for fungi were determined. The extract showed an activity against the nine bacterial strains tested, both CI and ATCC strains (MIC comprised between 32 and 128 μm/mL and MBC between 128 and 512 μm/mL), showing a significant antibacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Also, the tested fungi were sensitive to the extract (MIC between 125 and 250 μm/mL). The contemporaneous presence of different bioactivities in the extract from guarana suggests this plant as a source of bioactive substances. PMID:23672664

  2. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Martín García Island, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ronderos, María M; Marino, Pablo I; Díaz, Florentina; Estévez, Ana L

    2011-09-01

    Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. PMID:22017124

  3. Using a genetic network to parameterize a landscape resistance surface for fishers, Martes pennanti.

    PubMed

    Garroway, Colin J; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J

    2011-10-01

    Knowledge of dispersal-related gene flow is important for addressing many basic and applied questions in ecology and evolution. We used landscape genetics to understand the recovery of a recently expanded population of fishers (Martes pennanti) in Ontario, Canada. An important focus of landscape genetics is modelling the effects of landscape features on gene flow. Most often resistance surfaces in landscape genetic studies are built a priori based upon nongenetic field data or expert opinion. The resistance surface that best fits genetic data is then selected and interpreted. Given inherent biases in using expert opinion or movement data to model gene flow, we sought an alternative approach. We used estimates of conditional genetic distance derived from a network of genetic connectivity to parameterize landscape resistance and build a final resistance surface based upon information-theoretic model selection and multi-model averaging. We sampled 657 fishers from 31 landscapes, genotyped them at 16 microsatellite loci, and modelled the effects of snow depth, road density, river density, and coniferous forest on gene flow. Our final model suggested that road density, river density, and snow depth impeded gene flow during the fisher population expansion demonstrating that both human impacts and seasonal habitat variation affect gene flow for fishers. Our approach to building landscape genetic resistance surfaces mitigates many of the problems and caveats associated with using either nongenetic field data or expert opinion to derive resistance surfaces. PMID:21883589

  4. Non-fermented and fermented jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Mart.) pomaces as valuable sources of functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Dias, Maria Inês; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ramirez Asquieri, Eduardo; Berrios, José De J

    2016-10-01

    Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora. Mart) is a highly perishable fruit native to Brazil, which is consumed both fresh and industrially processed in the form of juices, jams, wines and distilled liqueurs. This processing generates a large amount of waste by-products, which represent approximately 50% of the fruit weight. The by-products are of interest for obtaining valuable bioactive compounds that could be used as nutraceuticals or functional ingredients. In this study, fermented and non-fermented jabuticaba pomaces were studied regarding their hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds, as well as their antioxidant properties, including: soluble sugars, organic acids and tocopherols (using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to refraction index, diode array and fluorescence detector, respectively); phenolics and anthocyanins, (using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection, and mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization); and fatty acids (using gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection). The analytical data demonstrated that jabuticaba pomaces are a rich source of bioactive compounds such as tocopherols, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds (namely hydrolyzable tannins and anthocyanins) with antioxidant potential. Therefore, jabuticaba pomace may have good potential as a functional ingredient in the fabrication of human foods and animal feed. PMID:27132843

  5. Genetic differentiation of Euterpe edulis Mart. populations estimated by AFLP analysis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, S R; Eloy, N B; Provan, J; Cardoso, M A; Ferreira, P C

    2000-11-01

    Heart-of-palm (Euterpe edulis Mart.) is a wild palm with a wide distribution throughout the Atlantic Rainforest. Populations of E. edulis represent important renewable natural resources but are currently under threat from predatory exploitation. Furthermore, because the species is indigenous to the Atlantic Rainforest, which is located in the most economically developed and populated region of Brazil, social and economic pressures have devastated heart-of-palm forests. In order to estimate the partitioning of genetic variation of endangered E. edulis populations, 429 AFLP markers were used to analyse 150 plants representing 11 populations of the species distribution range. Analysis of the genetic structure of populations carried out using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed moderate genetic variation within populations (57. 4%). Genetic differentiation between populations (FST = 0.426) was positively correlated with geographical distance. These results could be explained by the historical fragmentation of the Atlantic coastal region, together with the life cycle and mating system. The data obtained in this work should have important implications for conservation and future breeding programmes of E. edulis. PMID:11091311

  6. Garcinielliptone FC, a polyisoprenylated benzophenone from Platonia insignis Mart., promotes vasorelaxant effect on rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; da Costa-Júnior, Joaquim Soares; Moura, Lucas Henrique Porfírio; Ferraz, Alexandre Barros Falcão; Rossatto, Raíssa Rebés; David, Jorge Maurício; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses; Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes; de Oliveira, Aldeídia Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Polyisoprenylated benzophenones represent a group of chemical compounds commonly identified in Clusiaceae species and are responsible for a large amount of biological activities. In this work, the vasorelaxant effect induced by garcinielliptone FC (GFC) isolated from Platonia insignis Mart. (Clusiaceae), a monotype species from Platonia genus, was investigated. GFC promoted an endothelium-independent vasorelaxation on phenylephrine (PHE, 10(-5) mol L(-1))-induced vasoconstriction, but not on KCl (80 mmol L(-1))-induced vasoconstriction, on rat superior mesenteric artery rings. In addition, a concentration-dependent decrease of PHE- or serotonin-induced cumulative concentration-response curves was observed for GFC, and a slight decrease of pD₂ value on CaCl₂-induced vasoconstriction. In a Ca(2+)-free medium, GFC interfered in calcium mobilisation from PHE (10(-5) mol L(-1))-sensitive intracellular stores. GFC-induced vasorelaxant effect is probably mediated by a dual effect on mobilisation of calcium intracellular stores and attenuation of transmembrane calcium influx. PMID:24579922

  7. Diet composition and feeding strategies of the stone marten (Martes foina) in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Bakaloudis, Dimitrios E; Vlachos, Christos G; Papakosta, Malamati A; Bontzorlos, Vasileios A; Chatzinikos, Evangelos N

    2012-01-01

    Stone martens (Martes foina) are documented as generalist throughout their distributional range whose diet composition is affected by food availability. We tested if this occurs and what feeding strategies it follows in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem in Central Greece by analysing contents from 106 stomachs, seasonally collected from three different habitats during 2003-2006. Seasonal variation in diet and feeding strategies was evident and linked to seasonal nutritional requirements, but possibly imposed by strong interference competition and intraguild predation. Fleshy fruits and arthropods predominated in the diet, but also mammals and birds were frequently consumed. An overall low dietary niche breadth (B(A) = 0.128) indicated a fruit specialization tendency. A generalised diet occurred in spring with high individual specialisation, whereas more animal-type prey was consumed than fruits. A population specialization towards fruits was indicated during summer and autumn, whereas insects were consumed occasionally by males. In those seasons it switched to more clumped food types such as fruits and insects. In winter it selectively exploited both adult and larvae insects and partially fruits overwinter on plants. The tendency to consume particular prey items seasonally reflected both the population specialist behaviour and the individual flexibility preyed on different food resources.

  8. Field use of isoflurane as an inhalant anesthetic in the American marten (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Marion; Cheveau, Marianne; Imbeau, Louis; Lair, Stéphane

    2007-10-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness and practicality of using isoflurane as an inhalation anesthetic with oxygen as a gas carrier for American martens (Martes americana) in a field setting. Sixty-eight martens were trapped in the Waswanipi Cree Model Forest (Québec, Canada) from October to November 2005 and anesthetized with isoflurane in 100% oxygen (1 l/min) using a face mask. Induction setting of isoflurane was 3% for all animals. Mean (+/-SD) length of induction was 1.8+/-1.2 min. Maintenance isoflurane settings ranged from 1% to 4%. Procedures lasted an average of 16.4+/-7.1 min and were uneventful. Length of recovery, defined as the interval between the end of the procedure and animal release, was short (6.3+/-2.8 min), and well below reported lengths of recovery using injectable anesthetics (>/=70 min). As compared to open drop administration of isoflurane described in previous studies, the use of an anesthesia machine prevents the risk of potential fatal anesthetic overdose. We conclude that among anesthesia techniques currently available, isoflurane with oxygen as a gas carrier is a safe and useful field anesthetic in martens, when issues with equipment portability can be overcome.

  9. Distribution, occupancy, and habitat correlates of American martens (Martes americana) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    A clear understanding of habitat associations of martens (Martes americana) is necessary to effectively manage and monitor populations. However, this information was lacking for martens in most of their southern range, particularly during the summer season. We studied the distribution and habitat correlates of martens from 2004 to 2006 in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) across 3 spatial scales: site-specific, home-range, and landscape. We used remote-sensored cameras from early August through late October to inventory occurrence of martens and modeled occurrence as a function of habitat and landscape variables using binary response (BR) and binomial count (BC) logistic regression, and occupancy modeling (OM). We also assessed which was the most appropriate modeling technique for martens in RMNP. Of the 3 modeling techniques, OM appeared to be most appropriate given the explanatory power of derived models and its incorporation of detection probabilities, although the results from BR and BC provided corroborating evidence of important habitat correlates. Location of sites in the western portion of the park, riparian mixed-conifer stands, and mixed-conifer with aspen patches were most frequently positively correlated with occurrence of martens, whereas more xeric and open sites were avoided. Additionally, OM yielded unbiased occupancy values ranging from 91% to 100% and 20% to 30% for the western and eastern portions of RMNP, respectively. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  10. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of acetonic extract from Paullinia cupana Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Conte, Barbara; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Sorbo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the acetone extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, were assessed against selected bacterial and fungal strains. We tested the extract against both standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinically isolated (CI) bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for bacteria and MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration for fungi were determined. The extract showed an activity against the nine bacterial strains tested, both CI and ATCC strains (MIC comprised between 32 and 128 μm/mL and MBC between 128 and 512 μm/mL), showing a significant antibacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Also, the tested fungi were sensitive to the extract (MIC between 125 and 250 μm/mL). The contemporaneous presence of different bioactivities in the extract from guarana suggests this plant as a source of bioactive substances.

  11. Ontogenesis secretion and senescence of Tocoyena bullata (Vell.) Mart. (Rubiacaeae) colleters.

    PubMed

    Miguel, E C; Da Cunha, M; Miguel, T B A R; Barros, C F

    2016-09-01

    Colleters are secretory structure present on many families including Rubiaceae. Particular characteristics have been described about colleters secretory cells, however senescence process are still under debate. Tocoyena bullata (Vell.) Mart. (Rubiaceae) shoot apex were collected at Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, RJ/Brazil. Stipules were separated and fragments were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde and 4.0% formaldehyde in 0.05 m sodium cacodylate buffer, pH 7.2, post fixed in 1.0% osmium tetroxide in the same buffer, dehydrated in acetone, critical-point-drying, sputtered coated and observed. For light microscopy fragments were fixed and dehydrated, infiltrated with historesin and stained with 1% toluidine blue. For transmission electron microscopy, the samples were infiltrated with Epoxi resin. Colleters are present on stipule adaxial surface. On the beginning of development, these structures are recognized as small projections. Later on, colleters differentiated and secrete by cuticle rupture. The colleters senescence occurs in a concomitant and indissoluble way of programmed cell death. Ultrastructural analyses during the process strongly suggest the senescence is based on a non-autolitic programmed cell death. T. bullata colleters, present at stipule abaxial surface are cylindrical secretory structures. Colleters secretory cells originated as stipule projections; differentiate; secrete and senesce by programmed cell death. The secretion and the cell dead occurs in a concomitantly and indissoluble way. PMID:27208391

  12. Gastric Antiulcerogenic and Hypokinetic Activities of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paulo Humberto M.; Martins, Maria do Carmo C.; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia M.; Chaves, Mariana H.; Sousa, Elcilene A.; Leite, José Roberto S. A.; Véras, Leiz Maria; Almeida, Fernanda Regina C.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE) from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae) and of its aqueous (TFAqF), hydroalcoholic (TFHAF), and hexanic (TFHEXF) partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall. PMID:24900960

  13. Genetic diversity of four populations of Qualea grandiflora Mart. in fragments of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Antiqueira, Lia Maris Orth Ritter; Kageyama, Paulo Yoshio

    2014-02-01

    We analyzed the genetic structure and diversity of Qualea grandiflora Mart., the most abundant woody species in the Brazilian Cerrado. Eight microsatellite loci were used to analyze samples from four populations subjected to different types of anthropic pressure, distributed throughout the state of São Paulo in the regions of Assis, Brotas, Itirapina and Pedregulho. Results indicated a mean number of 12 alleles per locus, but only six effective alleles. Alleles private to particular populations and rare alleles were also detected. An excess of homozygotes and moderate levels of inbreeding were observed. No clones were identified. All populations departed from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p < 0.05). Spatial structure was observed in the distribution of specimens in distance classes ranging from 30 to 40 km and three genetic clusters were identified, with genotypes in the Pedregulho population differing from the others by up to 90 %. The influence of the Wahlund effect on the studied populations lies between 8.5 and 53.3 %. Estimates of effective population size were low (<10), and the minimum viable area for conservation in the short-, medium- and long-term was estimated to be between 4 and 184 ha. Gene flow was high enough to counter the effects of genetic drift. The genetic diversity and divergence between the studied populations indicated that the Pedregulho population should be considered an Evolutionary Significant Unit and a Management Unit.

  14. Impact of solar dehydration on composition and antioxidant properties of acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sangronis, Elba; Sanabria, Neida

    2011-03-01

    Commercial products derived from the acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) are available in Brazil, but in Venezuela, it is only known by ethnic indigenous groups of the Amazon. In this study, acai flour was made by solar dehydration and the effect of processing on the composition, microbiological quality, and antioxidant properties of such flour were evaluated. The fruit was purchased in Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela, and a portion was manually pulped. Microbiological quality, proximal composition, minerals, polyphenols, tannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. The remaining portion of fruit was blanched in a solution of ascorbic acid and citric acid at 98 degrees C for 1 min in the same manner, manually pulped, dried by solar dehydration and the acai flour was also analysed. From the composition of the acai flour, its high content of fat (22.9%), protein (13.7%), dietary fibre (20.5%), total polyphenols (1.60 g/kg) and antioxidant capacity (79.97%) stood out. The blanching of the fruit and the solar dehydrating of the acai pulp did not modify the composition, but they improved its microbiological quality and reduced phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The flour obtained is stable and innocuous and could be used to diversify the diet of the indigenous people of the Amazon region.

  15. Subsurface Organics in Aseptic Cores From the MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment: Ground truth and Contamination Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. This includes the search for past/present life on Mars where possible subsurface life could exist [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars robotic drilling at the RT Borehole#7 Site ~6.07m, atop a massive-pyrite deposit from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The RT site is considered an important analog of Sinus Meridiani on Mars, an ideal model analog for a subsurface Martian setting [2], and a relevant example of deep subsurface microbial community including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs [4-5]. Searching for microbes or bulk organics of biological origin in a subsurface sample from a planet is a key scientific objective of Robotic drilling missions. During the 2005 Field experiment 28 minicores were robotically handled and subsampled for life detection experiments under anti-contamination protocols. Ground truth included visual observation of cores and lab based Elemental and Isotope Ratios Mass Spectrometry analysis (EA-IRMS) of bulk organics in Hematite and Gohetite-rich gossanized tuffs, gossan and clay layers within 0-6m-depth. C-org and N-tot vary up to four orders of magnitude among the litter (~11Wt%, 0-1cm) and the mineralized (~3Wt%, 1-3cm) layers, and the first 6 m-depth (C-org=0.02-0.38Wt%). Overall, the distribution/ preservation of plant and soil-derived organics (d13C-org = 26 per mil to 24 per mil) is ten times higher (C-org=0.33Wt%) that in hematite-poor clays, or where rootlets are present, than in hematite- rich samples (C-org=<0.01Wt%). This is consistent with ATP assay (Lightning-MVP, Biocontrol) for total biomass in subsurface (Borehole#7 ~6.07m, ~avg. 153RLU) vs. surface soil samples (~1,500-81,449RLU) [5]. However, the in-situ ATP assay failed in detecting presence of roots during the in-situ life detection experiment. Furthermore, cm-sized roots were overlooked during remote observations. Finally, ATP

  16. A taxonomic review of the Neotropical genus Hansreia Halffter & Martínez, 1977 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae).

    PubMed

    Valois, Marcely; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z; Silva, Fernando A B

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of the genus Hansreia Halffter & Martínez is reviewed. The genus consists of six species, including three new species: H. peugeoti sp. nov., H. grossii sp. nov., H. krinskii sp. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Hansreia affinis (Fabricius 1801), H. oxygona (Perty 1830) [here considered a valid species] and H. coriacea (Schmidt 1922). The species status of H. coriacea is recognized. A detailed literature review, synonymies, description, illustration of key morphological characters as well as data of the studied material and geographic distribution is provided for each species.

  17. Prevalence of Soboliphyme baturini in marten (Martes americana) populations from three regions of Alaska, 1990-1998.

    PubMed

    Zarnke, Randall L; Whitman, Jackson S; Flynn, Rodney W; Ver Hoef, Jay M

    2004-07-01

    Marten (Martes americana) carcasses were collected from trappers in three regions of Alaska. Stomachs were examined for the nematode parasite Soboliphyme baturini. Both prevalence and intensity of infection exhibited an increase from north to south. Prevalence was higher in adults (compared with juveniles) from the two mainland study areas. Prevalences in these two age classes were similar for the southeastern region. There were no sex-specific differences in prevalence. No pathologic changes were observed in the gastrointestinal tract. Impact of the parasite on either individual animals or populations was not detected.

  18. Salinity effects on water potential components and bulk elastic modulus of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. ) Griseb

    SciTech Connect

    Bolanos, J.A.; Longstreth, D.J.

    1984-06-01

    Pressure volume curves for Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Grixeb. (alligator weed) grown in 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl were used to determine water potential (PSI), osmotic potential (psi/sub s/), turgor potential (psi/sub p/) and the bulk elastic modulus (element of) of shoots at different tissue water contents. Values of psi decreased with increasing salinity and tissue PSI was always lower than rhizosphere PSI. The relationship between psi/sub p/ and tissue water content changed because element of increased with salinity. As a results, salt-stressed plants had larger ranges of positive turgor but smaller ranges of tissue water content over which psi/sub p/ was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a salinity effect on element of in higher plants. These increases in element of with salinity provided a mechanism by which a large difference between plant PSI and rhizosphere PSI, the driving force for water uptake, could be produced with relatively little water loss by the plant. A time-course study of response after salinization to 400 millimolar NaCl showed PSI was constant with 1 day, psi/sub s/ and psi/sub p/ continued to change for 2 to 4 days, and element of continued to change for 4 to 12 days. Changes in element of modified the capacity of alligator weed to maintain a positive water balance and consideration of such changes in other species of higher plants should improve our understanding of salt stress. 24 references, 6 figures.

  19. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of ethanol extract from Paullinia cupana Mart.

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Ferrara, Lydia; Pezzo, Marisa Del; Mele, Guido; Sorbo, Sergio; Bassi, Paola; Montesano, Domenico

    2005-10-31

    The antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, was assessed towards selected bacteria as well as in different antioxidant models. The extract, at a concentration between 16 and 128 microg/ml, showed a significant antibacterial effect expressed as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC=16 microg/ml), Proteus mirabilis (MIC=32 microg/ml), Proteus vulgaris (MIC=32 microg/ml) and Escherichia coli (MIC=32 microg/ml) were the most inhibited. The antioxidant activity was determined by the malonyldialdehyde (MDA) test, measuring the MDA concentration in 3T3-L1 cells after induced cellular damage using ferric ammonium citrate (FAC). The reduction of lipid peroxidation was 62.5% using a guarana extract with a concentration of 2 microg/ml. This effect was dose/dependent. The ethanol extract from Paullinia cupana seeds was analysed by spectrophotometry to determine the concentration of catechol substances after treatment of the extract with p-aminophenol. The total phenolics content in the ethanol extract was also determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The concentration of catechol equivalent was 6.06+/-0.13 mg/g (mean+/-S.D.), while the total phenolic content was 8.43+/-0.21 mg/g (mean+/-S.D.). The correlation index between antioxidant activity and catechol content was 0.96.

  20. SOLID2: An Antibody Array-Based Life-Detector Instrument in a Mars Drilling Simulation Experiment (MARTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parro, Víctor; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Rodríguez Manfredi, José A.; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Rivas, Luis A.; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; González-Pastor, José Eduardo; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Davidson, Mark; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    A field prototype of an antibody array-based life-detector instrument, Signs Of LIfe Detector (SOLID2), has been tested in a Mars drilling mission simulation called MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment). As one of the analytical instruments on the MARTE robotic drilling rig, SOLID2 performed automatic sample processing and analysis of ground core samples (0.5 g) with protein microarrays that contained 157 different antibodies. Core samples from different depths (down to 5.5 m) were analyzed, and positive reactions were obtained in antibodies raised against the Gram-negative bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, a species of the genus Acidithiobacillus (both common microorganisms in the Río Tinto area), and extracts from biofilms and other natural samples from the Río Tinto area. These positive reactions were absent when the samples were previously subjected to a high-temperature treatment, which indicates the biological origin and structural dependency of the antibody-antigen reactions. We conclude that an antibody array-based life-detector instrument like SOLID2 can detect complex biological material, and it should be considered as a potential analytical instrument for future planetary missions that search for life.

  1. TCRs Used in Cancer Gene Therapy Cross-React with MART-1/Melan-A Tumor Antigens via Distinct Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Santhanagopolan, Sujatha M.; Hossain, Moushumi; Baker, Brian M.

    2013-09-18

    T cells engineered to express TCRs specific for tumor Ags can drive cancer regression. The first TCRs used in cancer gene therapy, DMF4 and DMF5, recognize two structurally distinct peptide epitopes of the melanoma-associated MART-1/Melan-A protein, both presented by the class I MHC protein HLA-A*0201. To help understand the mechanisms of TCR cross-reactivity and provide a foundation for the further development of immunotherapy, we determined the crystallographic structures of DMF4 and DMF5 in complex with both of the MART-1/Melan-A epitopes. The two TCRs use different mechanisms to accommodate the two ligands. Although DMF4 binds the two with a different orientation, altering its position over the peptide/MHC, DMF5 binds them both identically. The simpler mode of cross-reactivity by DMF5 is associated with higher affinity toward both ligands, consistent with the superior functional avidity of DMF5. More generally, the observation of two diverging mechanisms of cross-reactivity with the same Ags and the finding that TCR-binding orientation can be determined by peptide alone extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying TCR cross-reactivity.

  2. Paleoecological and biogeographical implications of late Pleistocene noble marten ( Martes americana nobilis) in eastern Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, R. Lee

    2011-01-01

    A mandible identified as noble marten ( Martes americana nobilis) recovered from sediments dating to 11,800 cal yr BP and a humerus identified as M. a. cf. nobilis recovered from sediments dating from 13,100 to 12,500 cal yr BP at the Marmes Rockshelter archaeological site in southeastern Washington represent the first record of this taxon in the state. Mammalian taxa associated with the Marmes Rockshelter noble marten represent a diversity of open mesic habitats corroborating earlier analyses of other records of the noble marten in the western United States and exemplify how paleozoologists determine the ecology and environmental predilections of extinct taxa. The recovery site represents the topographically lowest record of this species in western North America and the farthest north record in the United States. Future research should examine known late-Quaternary Martes spp. remains from British Columbia and Alberta to fill in the 2200-km geographic gap in the known distribution of this taxon between a record in the northern Yukon and those in the western United States, and to refine our knowledge of noble marten paleoecology.

  3. SOLID2: an antibody array-based life-detector instrument in a Mars Drilling Simulation Experiment (MARTE).

    PubMed

    Parro, Víctor; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Rodríguez Manfredi, José A; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Rivas, Luis A; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; González-Pastor, José Eduardo; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schuerger, Andrew C; Davidson, Mark; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    A field prototype of an antibody array-based life-detector instrument, Signs Of LIfe Detector (SOLID2), has been tested in a Mars drilling mission simulation called MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment). As one of the analytical instruments on the MARTE robotic drilling rig, SOLID2 performed automatic sample processing and analysis of ground core samples (0.5 g) with protein microarrays that contained 157 different antibodies. Core samples from different depths (down to 5.5 m) were analyzed, and positive reactions were obtained in antibodies raised against the Gram-negative bacterium Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, a species of the genus Acidithiobacillus (both common microorganisms in the Río Tinto area), and extracts from biofilms and other natural samples from the Río Tinto area. These positive reactions were absent when the samples were previously subjected to a high-temperature treatment, which indicates the biological origin and structural dependency of the antibody-antigen reactions. We conclude that an antibody array-based life-detector instrument like SOLID2 can detect complex biological material, and it should be considered as a potential analytical instrument for future planetary missions that search for life. PMID:19105755

  4. Small parts: Crisóstomo Martínez (1638-1694), bone histology, and the visual making of body wholeness.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Nuria

    2009-09-01

    The Valencian engraver Crisóstomo Martínez (ca. 1638-1694) arrived in Paris in July 1687, commissioned to create an anatomical atlas. Impressed by Govard Bidloo's Anatomia humani corporis (1685), Martínez decided to make a comparable work on osteology. His unpublished atlas of anatomy was exceptional in its choice of topic, its quality, and its overall visual approach. Martínez's work revolves around the dissolving effects of microscopic study on the traditional understanding of the connections between parts and whole. Underlying his investigation into the most effective composition of an anatomical atlas was the idea of the self-organizing and complex nature of the body as itself a composition, an idea rooted in the way observation and judgment, the seen and the unseen, and notions about collections and communities were connected in the vanitas culture. This essay explores the links between Martínez's work and the cultures of a time in which observation and interpretation of the processes of death, decay, and fragmentation played a primary role in defining a common human nature around which notions of destiny could be articulated.

  5. Pharmacological Evidence of α2-Adrenergic Receptors in the Hypotensive Effect of Platonia insignis Mart.

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Marcelo Bezerra; da Silva-Filho, José Couras; Sabino, Carla Kelly Barroso; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Sousa, Cleyton Marcos Melo; Costa, Isabella Cristhina Gonçalves; Chaves, Mariana Helena; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Platonia insignis Mart. (Clusiaceae) is a medicinal plant from the Brazilian Amazon region. The present study evaluated the biological potential of the ethanol extract (Pi-EtOH) and ethyl acetate fraction (Pi-EtOAc) of the P. insignis fruit shells on the cardiovascular system of rats. Pi-EtOH or Pi-EtOAc (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg) was administered intravenously in normotensive rats (260–300 g), and the mean arterial pressure and the heart rate were monitored. The Pi-EtOH induced hypotension (−11.56±0.89, −7.43±0.85, and −17.56±1.97 mmHg) followed by bradycardia in two highest doses (−8.89±3.62 and −15.79±1.83 beats/min) and Pi-EtOAc, at the same doses, induced hypotension (−11.2±1.03, −14.48±1.13, −29.89±2.67 mmHg) more intensively, followed by tachycardia at the dose 12.5 and 25 mg/kg (15.64±2.06, 19.31±1.92 beats/min) and bradycardia at a dose of 50 mg/kg (−9.98±7.33 beats/min). The hypotensive response from Pi-EtOAc was not attenuated when used in the pretreatment with L-NAME, verapamil, propranolol, and hexamethonium. However, when using yohimbine, the hypotensive effect was inhibited (−4.42±1.28 (P<.05), −3.29±0.99 (P<.05), 2.06±1.18 mmHg (P<.05); Student's t-test). Hence, the Pi-EtOAc seems to act similarly to the α2-adrenergic agonist in this hypotensive effect. PMID:25055183

  6. Using remote sensing to monitor herbicide injury and biomass of waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Wilfredo

    Aquatic vegetation plays an important role in the ecological interactions and processes within a water body. However, the presence of the invasive exotic aquatic plant species, waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms], negatively affects those interactions as well as interfering with water use for recreation and navigation. An implemented management plan for waterhyacinth control relies on the use of herbicides. Efficacy is commonly assessed using visual injury and control ratings as well as estimating biomass. The problem is that those approaches are labor intensive only assessing single points throughout the entire water body. Therefore, technology like remote sensing, which is the focus of this research, is recommended as an additional tool to assess implemented management plans. Studies were conducted in a mesocosm research facility to evaluate the relationship between simulated spectral bands 3, 4, 5, and 7 Landsat 5 TM and waterhyacinth treated with the herbicides imazapyr and glyphosate. Results indicate that injury is better detected and predicted with band 4 and that relationship is negative when either herbicide was used. However, prediction is better when plants have developed sufficient injury to influence the spectral response of band 4. In the second study, the biomass of waterhyacinth was estimated using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using simulated data from Landsat 5 TM. This study was conducted over natural populations of waterhyacinth in Lakes Columbus and Aberdeen, MS over two growing seasons. Results indicate that the use of NDVI alone is a weak predictor of biomass; however, its combination with morphometric parameters like leaf area index enhanced predictive capabilities. In order to assess field herbicide treatments for waterhyacinth control and its consequent impact on native aquatic vegetation, lake-wide surveys were performed in Lake Columbus, MS using a point-intercept method. The herbicide assessed was 2

  7. Cardiotonic and sedative effects of Cecropia pachystachya Mart. (ambay) on isolated rat hearts and conscious mice.

    PubMed

    Consolini, Alicia E; Ragone, María Inés; Migliori, Graciela N; Conforti, Paula; Volonté, María G

    2006-06-15

    Cecropia pachystachya Mart. is popularly called "ambay" and extensively used in herbal medicine of South America for cough and asthma. In Argentina it grows in neotropical rainforest (Ntr C.p.) and in a temperate region (Tp C.p.). In a previous work we showed their hypotensive properties with different potency and toxicity, and now we studied the Tp C.p. effects in isolated heart from rats and central effects of both plants on the open-field test for mice. Tp C.p. produced a positive inotropic effect on isolated rat hearts, which was not affected by 1 microM propranolol, suggesting that it is not due to a beta-adrenergic effect. In contrast, it was prevented by pretreatment with high [K](o) media, which stimulates the Na,K-ATPase pump, suggesting an inhibition of the pump by "ambay", as digital do. In the open-field test, both Ntr C.p. and Tp C.p. similarly decreased the spontaneous locomotion and exploratory behavior of mice at doses between 180 and 600 mg/kg. Ntr C.p. potentiated the effect of 3 mg/kg diazepam to one similar to 10 mg/kg diazepam, but was not antagonized by 0.5 mg/kg flumazenil. Amphetamine at 5 mg/kg prevented the sedative effect of Ntr C.p. Chromatographic analysis showed that both plants have a qualitatively similar fingerprint but quantitatively differed in at least three components. Although the purpose was not to identify them, both plants have at least 10 compounds. Two of them were in higher amount in Tp C.p. than in Ntr C.p., and then, they could be responsible for the cardiovascular toxicity of Tp C.p. In conclusion, the results suggest that ambay has cardiotonic and sedative properties. The sedative effect could be useful in cough treatment. The extract resulted additive to benzodiazepines but it did not bind to the same site on GABA-A receptor, and it was interfered by the dopamine release produced with amphetamine.

  8. MART-1 peptide vaccination plus IMP321 (LAG-3Ig fusion protein) in patients receiving autologous PBMCs after lymphodepletion: results of a Phase I trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunotherapy offers a promising novel approach for the treatment of cancer and both adoptive T-cell transfer and immune modulation lead to regression of advanced melanoma. However, the potential synergy between these two strategies remains unclear. Methods We investigated in 12 patients with advanced stage IV melanoma the effect of multiple MART-1 analog peptide vaccinations with (n = 6) or without (n = 6) IMP321 (LAG-3Ig fusion protein) as an adjuvant in combination with lymphodepleting chemotherapy and adoptive transfer of autologous PBMCs at day (D) 0 (Trial registration No: NCT00324623). All patients were selected on the basis of ex vivo detectable MART-1-specific CD8 T-cell responses and immunized at D0, 8, 15, 22, 28, 52, and 74 post-reinfusion. Results After immunization, a significant expansion of MART-1-specific CD8 T cells was measured in 83% (n = 5/6) and 17% (n = 1/6) of patients from the IMP321 and control groups, respectively (P < 0.02). Compared to the control group, the mean fold increase of MART-1-specific CD8 T cells in the IMP321 group was respectively >2-, >4- and >6-fold higher at D15, D30 and D60 (P < 0.02). Long-lasting MART-1-specific CD8 T-cell responses were significantly associated with IMP321 (P < 0.02). At the peak of the response, MART-1-specific CD8 T cells contained higher proportions of effector (CCR7− CD45RA+/−) cells in the IMP321 group (P < 0.02) and showed no sign of exhaustion (i.e. were mostly PD1−CD160−TIM3−LAG3−2B4+/−). Moreover, IMP321 was associated with a significantly reduced expansion of regulatory T cells (P < 0.04); consistently, we observed a negative correlation between the relative expansion of MART-1-specific CD8 T cells and of regulatory T cells. Finally, although there were no confirmed responses as per RECIST criteria, a transient, 30-day partial response was observed in a patient from the IMP321 group. Conclusions Vaccination with IMP321 as an

  9. [The Martín Larios affair and the beginnings of neurology in Spain. Charcot refuted by Escuder, Vera and Simarro].

    PubMed

    Corral Corral, I; Corral Corral, C

    2000-01-01

    Jean Martin Charcot travelled to Spain in December 1887 in the company of Alfred Hardy for the medical examination of Martin Larios y Larios, a member of the Spanish parliament. Martín Larios had shown behavioral disturbances and had married secretly for the second time against the advice of his family, one of the richest and more dominating families in Spain during the 19th century. In their report Charcot and Hardy gave a diagnosis of mental insanity probably due to general paresis, as they had noted memory deficits and delusion of grandeur. With this and other medical reports, the family tried to obtain the legal incapacity of Martín Larios. Initially the judgements favoured the incapacity, but Martín Larios and his wife appealed with the support of the Spanish doctors José María Escuder, Jaime Vera and Luis Simarro. They demonstrated, in an exhaustive and clinically rigorous report, the normality of the mental status of Martín Larios, and refuted the diagnosis given by Charcot and Hardy. This report is one of the first examples of the clinical evaluation of a neurologic patient in Spain and shows the high clinical standards achieved by the precursors of the neurological school of Madrid. The great influence of Charcot's own school over Spanish neurology in its beginnings stands out in this report. Charcot and Hardy wrote a second report in reply to Escuder, Vera and Simarro. After a complex lawsuit, the opinion of the Spanish doctors finally prevailed against the legal incapacity of Martín Larios.

  10. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Populations of Annona crassiflora Mart. of Brazilian Savanna and Its Association with Chemical Variability.

    PubMed

    Egydio-Brandão, Anary Priscila Monteiro; Furlan, Claudia Maria; Dos Santos, Déborah Yara Alves Cursino

    2016-08-01

    Annona crassiflora Mart. is a native tree from Brazilian savanna. Isoquinoline alkaloids are characteristic of species of Annonaceae. This work aimed to assess the magnitude of genetic diversity among different populations of A. crassiflora using AFLP markers, and verify the existence of any correlation between the AFLP data and previous reported alkaloid composition. A. crassiflora from eight populations in the states of São Paulo, Goiás, Minas Gerais, and Distrito Federal were analyzed. The data suggest a low, moderate, and high level of genetic diversity from different populations of A. crassiflora. Concentration of alkaloids was significantly correlated with AFLP data, suggesting interaction between chemical and molecular markers in A. crassiflora. The data of association between the chemical and genetic differentiation of A. crassiflora may be useful to establish cultivation areas allowing the definition of strategies to preserve their genetic diversity with an interest in specific chemotypes for genetic improvement programs focused on sustainable utilization of this specie. PMID:27286480

  11. Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): 2003 Drilling Campaign to Search for a Subsurface Biosphere at Rio Tinto Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol; Dunagan, Stephen; Stevens, Todd; Amils, Ricardo; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Fernandez, David; Hall, James; Lynch, Kennda; Cannon, Howard; Zavaleta, Jhony

    2004-01-01

    The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project, an ASTEP field experiment, is exploring for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Tinto River- or Rio Tinto- in southwestern Spain. It is also demonstrating technology needed to search for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The project has three primary objectives: (1) search for and characterize subsurface life at Rio Tinto along with the physical and chemical properties and sustaining energy sources of its environment, (2) perform a high fidelity simulation of a robotic Mars drilling mission to search for life, and (3) demonstrate the drilling, sample handling, and instrument technologies relevant to searching for life on Mars. The simulation of the robotic drilling mission is guided by the results of the aseptic drilling campaign to search for life at Rio Tinto. This paper describes results of the first phase of the aseptic drilling campaign.

  12. Endoparasites of American marten (Martes americana): Review of the literature and parasite survey of reintroduced American marten in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Maria C; Kaloustian, Lisa L; Gerhold, Richard W

    2016-12-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) was reintroduced to both the Upper (UP) and northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan during the 20th century. This is the first report of endoparasites of American marten from the NLP. Faeces from live-trapped American marten were examined for the presence of parasitic ova, and blood samples were obtained for haematocrit evaluation. The most prevalent parasites were Capillaria and Alaria species. Helminth parasites reported in American marten for the first time include Eucoleus boehmi, hookworm, and Hymenolepis and Strongyloides species. This is the first report of shedding of Sarcocystis species sporocysts in an American marten and identification of 2 coccidian parasites, Cystoisospora and Eimeria species. The pathologic and zoonotic potential of each parasite species is discussed, and previous reports of endoparasites of the American marten in North America are reviewed. PMID:27536551

  13. Endoparasites of American marten (Martes americana): Review of the literature and parasite survey of reintroduced American marten in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Maria C; Kaloustian, Lisa L; Gerhold, Richard W

    2016-12-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) was reintroduced to both the Upper (UP) and northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan during the 20th century. This is the first report of endoparasites of American marten from the NLP. Faeces from live-trapped American marten were examined for the presence of parasitic ova, and blood samples were obtained for haematocrit evaluation. The most prevalent parasites were Capillaria and Alaria species. Helminth parasites reported in American marten for the first time include Eucoleus boehmi, hookworm, and Hymenolepis and Strongyloides species. This is the first report of shedding of Sarcocystis species sporocysts in an American marten and identification of 2 coccidian parasites, Cystoisospora and Eimeria species. The pathologic and zoonotic potential of each parasite species is discussed, and previous reports of endoparasites of the American marten in North America are reviewed.

  14. Acute effects of guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) on mouse behaviour in forced swimming and open field tests.

    PubMed

    Campos, A R; Barros, A I S; Albuquerque, F A A; M Leal, L K A; Rao, V S N

    2005-05-01

    Guarana, a herbal extract from the seeds of Paullinia cupana Mart. has been evaluated in comparison with caffeine on mouse behaviour in forced swimming and open field tests. Guarana (25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) and caffeine (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) each significantly reduced the duration of immobility in the forced swimming test suggesting an antidepressant-like effect in mice. At these doses, neither substance affected ambulation in the open field test. However, a high dose of guarana (100 mg/kg) and caffeine (30 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the locomotor activity in the open field test. Caffeine, but not guarana, could effectively block an adenosine agonist, cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA)-induced increase in swimming immobility suggesting that mechanism(s) other than the adenosinergic mechanism are involved in the antidepressant-like activity of guarana.

  15. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Populations of Annona crassiflora Mart. of Brazilian Savanna and Its Association with Chemical Variability.

    PubMed

    Egydio-Brandão, Anary Priscila Monteiro; Furlan, Claudia Maria; Dos Santos, Déborah Yara Alves Cursino

    2016-08-01

    Annona crassiflora Mart. is a native tree from Brazilian savanna. Isoquinoline alkaloids are characteristic of species of Annonaceae. This work aimed to assess the magnitude of genetic diversity among different populations of A. crassiflora using AFLP markers, and verify the existence of any correlation between the AFLP data and previous reported alkaloid composition. A. crassiflora from eight populations in the states of São Paulo, Goiás, Minas Gerais, and Distrito Federal were analyzed. The data suggest a low, moderate, and high level of genetic diversity from different populations of A. crassiflora. Concentration of alkaloids was significantly correlated with AFLP data, suggesting interaction between chemical and molecular markers in A. crassiflora. The data of association between the chemical and genetic differentiation of A. crassiflora may be useful to establish cultivation areas allowing the definition of strategies to preserve their genetic diversity with an interest in specific chemotypes for genetic improvement programs focused on sustainable utilization of this specie.

  16. Biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nitrogen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Dilhani, Jayakodi A T; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2007-06-01

    This paper reports the biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nitrogen concentrations of 1-fold [28 mg/L of total nitrogen (TN)], 2-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold and plants harvested from a polluted water body. This study was carried out for a period of 4 months at ambient mesophilic temperatures of 30.3-31.3 degrees C using six 3-barreled batch-fed reactors with the innermost barrel (45 L) being used as the digester. There was no marked variation in the C/N ratios of the plants cultured under different nitrogen concentrations. The addition of fresh cow dung having a low C/N of 8 resulted in a significant reduction in the C/N ratios of the water hyacinth substrates. However, gas production commenced 3 days after charging the reactors and gas production rates peaked in 4-7 days. The volatile solids (VS) degradation and gas production patterns manifested that in conventional single-stage batch digesters acidogenesis and methanogenesis of water hyacinth requires a retention time of around 27-30 days and 27-51 days, respectively. Substrates in the f-1 digester (i.e., the digester containing plants grown under 28 TN mg/L) having the lowest VS content of 45.3 g/L with a highest C/N ratio of 16 showed fairly higher gas production rates consistently (10-27 days) with higher gas yields containing around 50-65% of CH4 (27-51 days). Moreover the highest overall VS (81.7%) removal efficiencies were reported from the f-1 digester. Fairly higher gas production rates and gas yields with fairly higher CH4 contents were also noticed from the f-2 digester containing substrates having a C/N of 14 and f-out digester (containing the plants harvested from the polluted water body) having the lowest C/N ratio of 9.7 with a fairly high VS content of 56 g/L. CH4 production was comparatively low in the f-1/8, f-1/4 and f-1/2 digesters having VS rich substrates with varying C/N ratios. We conclude that water hyacinth could be

  17. Physiochemical Properties of the Pulp and Almonds of TUCUMÃ (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) for Oil Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, R. M.; Ribeiro, A. I.; Melo, W. J.; Queiroz, M. R.; Russo, A. C.; Amaral, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) it is a palm tree commonly found at the Amazonian forest of firm earth, it produces nutritious fruits, quite appreciated by the local population. The seeds are for the obtaining of eatable olive oil and soap, the endocarp is employee for the local population in the making of earrings, rings, bracelets, necklaces and other workmanships. This species has occurrence also in Acre, Rondônia, Pará, Mato Grosso, Roraima, Trindad, Guyana and Bolivia. The objective of this work was to accomplish mechanical tests on the fruits with the purpose of studying the rupture of the shell and the whole income almonds and to obtain the impact loads in tucumã fruits. It was also characterized biochemical compositions of the pulp and the almond seeking the use for the other ends. The physiochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture content, fats gray, total protein, fiber, carbohydrate, calorie, fats acids and vitamins, just in the pulp: vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B5, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D3 and vitamin E. The obtained results revealed that the maximum force of rupture was of approximately 6200 N for the direction apex-insert and 7200 N for the perpendicular direction; then this the tucumã fruit with high shell hardness when compared to the other types of chestnuts, being necessary studies to design machines capable to promote mechanical breaking and thus facilitating, its commercial exploration. The pulp of the tucumã fruits, presented a significant amount of fats (32%), following by carbohydrates (19,7%) and fibers (18,4). The caloric value was of 380 Kcal/g. Also the pulp presented good amount of vitamin B3 (niacin - 76,7%) and C (acid ascorbic - 23,6%). In relation to the fat acids the pulp presents contents of acid oleic (C18.1) about 72,8% following for linoléico (C18.2), being a good product for the human and animal feeding,. In the almond 24,2% of fiber, 10,7% of fats, 17,0% of

  18. Structures of MART-126/27-35Peptide/HLA-A2 Complexes Reveal a Remarkable Disconnect between Antigen Structural Homology and T Cell Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Borbulevych, Oleg Y; Insaidoo, Francis K; Baxter, Tiffany K; Powell, Jr., Daniel J.; Johnson, Laura A; Restifo, Nicholas P; Baker, Brian M

    2008-09-17

    Small structural changes in peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules often result in large changes in immunogenicity, supporting the notion that T cell receptors are exquisitely sensitive to antigen structure. Yet there are striking examples of TCR recognition of structurally dissimilar ligands. The resulting unpredictability of how T cells will respond to different or modified antigens impacts both our understanding of the physical bases for TCR specificity as well as efforts to engineer peptides for immunomodulation. In cancer immunotherapy, epitopes and variants derived from the MART-1/Melan-A protein are widely used as clinical vaccines. Two overlapping epitopes spanning amino acid residues 26 through 35 are of particular interest: numerous clinical studies have been performed using variants of the MART-1 26-35 decamer, although only the 27-35 nonamer has been found on the surface of targeted melanoma cells. Here, we show that the 26-35 and 27-35 peptides adopt strikingly different conformations when bound to HLA-A2. Nevertheless, clonally distinct MART-1{sub 26/27-35}-reactive T cells show broad cross-reactivity towards these ligands. Simultaneously, however, many of the cross-reactive T cells remain unable to recognize anchor-modified variants with very subtle structural differences. These dichotomous observations challenge our thinking about how structural information on unligated peptide/MHC complexes should be best used when addressing questions of TCR specificity. Our findings also indicate that caution is warranted in the design of immunotherapeutics based on the MART-1 26/27-35 epitopes, as neither cross-reactivity nor selectivity is predictable based on the analysis of the structures alone.

  19. A psychology of liberation for Central America: the unfinished work of Ignacio Martín-Baró (1942-1989).

    PubMed

    Gondra, José María

    2013-01-01

    On November 16, 1989 the world was shocked by the news of the assassination of six Jesuits at the campus of the Universidad Centro Americana José Simeón Cañas (UCA) in San Salvador, El Salvador. Among those murdered by government soldiers was Ignacio Martín-Baró, a PhD in social psychology from the University of Chicago who at that time was the Vice-Rector for Academic Affairs and Vice-President of the Interamerican Society of Psychology (SIP). Drawing on Martín-Baró's published writings and non-published academic papers and correspondence, this article traces the evolution of the Spanish-born Jesuit who became a leading authority among Latin American social psychologists. In particular, it analyzes his project of becoming a clinical psychologist under the influence of psychoanalysis, his critical social psychology aimed to "de-ideologize" the oppressed social classes of El Salvador, and his ultimate project of a psychology of liberation for Latin America. Martín-Baró's work came to a tragic end just when it began to bear fruit, but it stands as a testimony to a lifetime committed to the human values of democracy, social justice and service to society's poorest and most neglected. PMID:23866226

  20. The ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) G-protein-coupled receptor functions with MART-1 at early stages of melanogenesis to control melanosome identity and composition.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Francesca; Bonetti, Ciro; Surace, Enrico M; Marigo, Valeria; Raposo, Graça

    2009-12-01

    OA1 (GPR143; GPCR, G-protein-coupled receptor), the protein product of the ocular albinism type 1 gene, encodes a pigment-cell-specific GPCR that localizes intracellularly to melanosomes. OA1 mutations result in ocular albinism due to alterations in melanosome formation, suggesting that OA1 is a key player in the biogenesis of melanosomes. To address the function of OA1 in melanosome biogenesis, we have used siRNA inactivation and combined morphological and biochemical methods to investigate melanosome ultrastructure, melanosomal protein localization and expression in human pigmented melanocytic cells. OA1 loss of function leads to decreased pigmentation and causes formation of enlarged aberrant premelanosomes harboring disorganized fibrillar structures and displaying proteins of mature melanosomes and lysosomes at their membrane. Moreover, we show that OA1 interacts biochemically with the premelanosomal protein MART-1. Inactivation of MART-1 by siRNA leads to a decreased stability of OA1 and is accompanied by similar defects in premelanosome biogenesis and composition. These data show for the first time that melanosome composition and identity are regulated at early stages by OA1 and that MART-1 likely acts as an escort protein for this GPCR. PMID:19717472

  1. Serological analysis of Melan-A(MART-1), a melanocyte-specific protein homogeneously expressed in human melanomas.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y T; Stockert, E; Jungbluth, A; Tsang, S; Coplan, K A; Scanlan, M J; Old, L J

    1996-01-01

    Recent progress in the structural identification of human melanoma antigens recognized by autologous cytotoxic T cells has led to the recognition of a new melanocyte differentiation antigen, Melan-A(MART-1). To determine the properties of the Melan-A gene product, Melan-A recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and used to generate mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Two prototype mAbs, A103 and A355, were selected for detailed study. Immunoblotting results with A103 showed a 20-22-kDa doublet In Melan-A mRNA positive melanoma cell lines and no reactivity with Melan-A mRNA-negative cell lines. A355, in addition to the 20-22-kDa doublet, recognized several other protein species in Melan-A mRNA-positive cell lines. Immunocytochemical assays on cultured melanoma cells showed specific and uniform cytoplasmic staining in Melan-A mRNA-positive cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal human tissues with both mAbs showed staining of adult melanocytes and no reactivity with the other normal tissues tested. Analysis of 21 melanoma specimens showed homogenous staining of tumor cell cytoplasm in 16 of 17 Melan-A mRNA-positive cases and no reactivity with the three Melan-A mRNA-negative cases. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8650193

  2. Açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) berry extract exerts neuroprotective effects against β-amyloid exposure in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wong, Daphne Yiu San; Musgrave, Ian Francis; Harvey, Benjamin Scott; Smid, Scott Darryl

    2013-11-27

    The native South American palm açaí berry (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) has high polyphenolic and antioxidant levels. This study examined whether açaí berry extract afforded protection against β-amyloid (Aβ)-mediated loss of cell viability and oxidative stress associated with anti-fibrillar effects. PC12 cells were exposed to either Aβ1-42, Aβ25-35 or tert butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), alone or in the presence of açaí extract (0.5-50μg/ml). Thioflavin T (ThT) binding assay and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine effects of açaí extract on Aβ1-42 fibril morphology and compared to açaí phenolics gallic acid, cyanidin rutinoside and cyanidin glucoside. Exposure to Aβ1-42, Aβ25-35 or t-BHP decreased PC12 cell viability. Pretreatment with açaí extract significantly improved cell viability following Aβ1-42 exposure, however Aβ25-35 or t-BHP-mediated viability loss was unaltered. Açaí extract inhibited ThT fluorescence and disrupted Aβ1-42 fibril and aggregate morphology. In comparison with other phenolics, açaí was most effective at inhibiting Aβ1-42 aggregation. Inhibition of β-amyloid aggregation may underlie a neuroprotective effect of açaí.

  3. Genotoxicity investigation of araticum(Annona crassiflora Mart., 1841, Annonaceae) using SOS-Inductest and Ames test.

    PubMed

    Vilar, J B; Ferri, P H; Chen-Chen, L

    2011-02-01

    Although the use of medicinal plants or natural products has increased in recent decades all over the world, little information is available on their potential risk to health. Annona crassiflora Mart., a plant commonly known as araticum in Brazil, has been widely used in folk medicine for a long time since its seeds and leaves are often utilised in the treatment of cancer, snake bites, and venereal diseases, its fruits are consumed as tonic and astringent, and its bark powder has anti-fungal and anti-rheumatic properties. To evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic properties induced by the ethanolic extract of araticum leaves, we performed the prophage λ induction (Inductest) and bacterial mutagenicity assays. We used Escherichia coli WP2s(λ) and RJF013 strains in the lysogenic induction test, whereas the mutagenic studies were carried out using Salmonella typhimurium histidine auxotroph strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102. Each experiment was performed three times in duplicate and included positive and negative controls. No statistically significant (p > 0.05) positive results were obtained for any of the strains tested, which suggests that the ethanolic extract of araticum leaves did not exhibit direct mechanisms of genotoxicity or mutagenicity that could be detected by the tests used in the present work. PMID:21437418

  4. Estimated Seed Shadow Generated by Japanese Martens(Martes melampus): Comparison with Forest-Dwelling Animals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yamato; Okumura, Tadanobu; Kitahara, Masahiko; Jiang, Zhaowen

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the seed shadow generated by wild Japanese martens (Martes melampus), we combined data on their ranging behavior from the northern foot of Mt. Fuji, central Japan (seven males and three females) with data on gut passage time obtained from martens in Toyama Municipal Family Park Zoo (three males and one female). The movement distances varied, and mean distances for 0-1, 2-3, and 4-5 h intervals were 152.4, 734.7, and 1,162.4 m, respectively, with no significant sex difference. The mean gut passage time of ingested seeds was 7.4 h (range: 0.6-51.7 h), and two-thirds were defecated within 12 h. Seeds of fleshy fruits was frequently transported to 501-1,000 m, and 20% of ingested seeds were transported > 1,000 m from feeding sites. We found positive correlations between body size and home range of the animals in Japan and their seed dispersal distances. We conclude that Japanese martens are medium-range dispersers that can transport seeds from the source to open habitats conducive for germination and/or growth, partly due to scent marking behaviors. PMID:27498794

  5. Genetic diversity and recruitment of the tropical palm, Euterpe edulis Mart., in a natural population from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Conte, R; Nodari, R O; Vencovsky, R; dos Reis, M Sedrez

    2003-10-01

    The genetic diversity and recruitment of plants of heart-of-palm tree (Euterpe edulis Mart.) were investigated in a natural population located in Southern Brazil. Five categories of plants, from seedlings to adults, were analysed using 16 allozymic loci. The results showed an average population level of genetic diversity (He=0.278) greater than the average of plant species already studied. The recruitment process of E. edulis is related to its genetic characteristics. A significant increase in the heterozygote frequency towards the adult stages was observed at three loci (Pgdh-2, G6pdh-1 and Mdh-1). This suggests the possible action of natural selection in promoting such heterozygote increase. In the same way, a linear increase in allele frequencies was observed at four loci (Prx-3, Prx-4, Pgdh-2 and G6pdh-1), indicating that recruitment is also related to a greater survival of individuals that are carriers of certain alleles. The maintenance of high diversity levels, as well as the increase in the heterozygote frequency, are positive aspects for in situ conservation. Furthermore, an increase in heterozygote frequency is favourable to the management of the species, since the maintenance of a stock of reproductive individuals with high heterozygosity levels favours the maintenance of the population dynamic and structure. PMID:14512956

  6. Genetic structure, mating system, and long-distance gene flow in heart of palm (Euterpe edulis Mart.).

    PubMed

    Gaiotto, F A; Grattapaglia, D; Vencovsky, R

    2003-01-01

    We report a detailed analysis of the population genetic structure, mating system, and gene flow of heart of palm (Euterpe edulis Mart.-Arecaceae) in central Brazil. This palm is considered a keystone species because it supplies fruits for birds and rodents all year and is intensively harvested for culinary purposes. Two populations of this palm tree were examined, using 18 microsatellite loci. The species displays a predominantly outcrossed mating system (tm = 0.94), with a probability of full sibship greater than 70% within open-pollinated families. The following estimates of interpopulation genetic variation were calculated and found significant: FIT = 0.17, FIS = 0.12, FST = 0.06, and RST = 0.07. This low but significant level of interpopulation genetic variation indicates high levels of gene flow. Two adult trees were identified as likely seed parents (P > 99.9%) of juveniles located at a distance of 22 km. Gene flow over such distances has not been reported before for tropical tree species. The establishment and management of in situ genetic reserves or ex situ conservation and breeding populations for E. edulis should contemplate the collection of several hundreds open-pollinated maternal families from relatively few distant populations to maximize the genetic sampling of a larger number of pollen parents. PMID:14557393

  7. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Modulates Oxidative Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans by Direct and Indirect Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bonomo, Larissa de Freitas; Silva, David Nunes; Boasquivis, Patrícia Ferreira; Paiva, Franciny Aparecida; Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Martins, Talita Alves Faria; de Jesus Torres, Álvaro Gustavo; de Paula, Igor Thadeu Borges Raposo; Caneschi, Washington Luiz; Jacolot, Philippe; Grossin, Nicolas; Tessier, Frederic J.; Boulanger, Eric; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; de Paula Oliveira, Riva

    2014-01-01

    Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Despite its claimed pharmacological and nutraceutical value, studies regarding the effects of açaí in vivo are limited. In this study, we use the Caenorhabditis elegans model to evaluate the in vivo antioxidant properties of açaí on an organismal level and to examine its mechanism of action. Supplementation with açaí aqueous extract (AAE) increased both oxidative and osmotic stress resistance independently of any effect on reproduction and development. AAE suppressed bacterial growth, but this antimicrobial property did not influence stress resistance. AAE-increased stress resistance was correlated with reduced ROS production, the prevention of sulfhydryl (SH) level reduction and gcs-1 activation under oxidative stress conditions. Our mechanistic studies indicated that AAE promotes oxidative stress resistance by acting through DAF-16 and the osmotic stress response pathway OSR-1/UNC-43/SEK-1. Finally, AAE increased polyglutamine protein aggregation and decreased proteasome activity. Our findings suggest that natural compounds available in AAE can improve the antioxidant status of a whole organism under certain conditions by direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:24594796

  8. Fasting in the American marten (Martes americana): a physiological model of the adaptations of a lean-bodied animal.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Saarela, Seppo; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2007-10-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) is a boreal forest marten with low body adiposity throughout the year. The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptations of this lean-bodied species to fasting for an ecologically relevant duration (48 h) by exposing eight farm-bred animals to total food deprivation with seven control animals. Selected morphological and hematological parameters, plasma and serum biochemistry, endocrinological variables and liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) enzyme activities were determined. After 48 h without food, the marten were within phase II of fasting with depleted liver and muscle glycogen stores, but with active lipid mobilization indicated by the high lipase activities in several WAT depots. The plasma ghrelin concentrations were higher due to food deprivation, possibly increasing appetite and enhancing foraging behavior. The lower plasma insulin and higher cortisol concentrations could mediate augmented lipolysis and the lower triiodothyronine levels could suppress the metabolic rate. Fasting did not affect the plasma levels of stress-associated catecholamines or variables indicating tissue damage. In general, the adaptations to short-term fasting exhibited some differences compared to the related farm-bred American mink (Mustela vison), an example of which was the better ability of the marten to hydrolyze lipids despite its significantly lower initial fat mass.

  9. Protective effects of guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis) against DEN-induced DNA damage on mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Fukumasu, H; Avanzo, J L; Heidor, R; Silva, T C; Atroch, A; Moreno, F S; Dagli, M L Z

    2006-06-01

    Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis) is a plant originally from Brazil, which is rich in tannins. Some tannins are known to present protective effects against DNA damage. This study was performed to investigate the anti-genotoxic/cytotoxic properties of guarana in hepatocytes of mice injected with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN). The protective effect of guarana was evaluated both by comet assay and DNA smear fragmentation technique in two month-old female BALB/c mice. These were treated previously with 2.0 mg/g bw of guarana for 16 days and then injected with DEN (160 microg/g body weight) to induce DNA damage. The DEN-only treated group presented higher comet image length than the guarana plus DEN and untreated groups (116.06+/-5.0 microm, 104.09+/-3.3 microm and 93.28+/-14.4 microm, respectively; p<0.01). Guarana treatment presented a 52.54% reduction in comet image length when animals were exposed to DEN (p<0.05). DNA samples from the guarana plus DEN group clearly showed less EtBr fluorescence intensity when compared to the DEN-only group, reinforcing the comet assay data. These results show, for the first time, that guarana has a protective effect against DEN-induced DNA damage in mouse liver.

  10. Study on the Cytotoxic, Genotoxic and Clastogenic Potential of Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. Oil Pulp In Vitro and In Vivo Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Lima Tolouei Menegati, Sara Emilia; Karenina Traesel, Giseli; Souza de Araújo, Flávio Henrique; Honaiser Lescano, Caroline; Moraes Peixoto, Sara; Mao Silva, Felipe Ariel; Heredia Vieira, Silvia Cristina; do Carmo Vieira, Maria; Oesterreich, Silvia Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (Arecaceae), popularly known as “bacuri”, is used in Brazilian folk medicine. Its oil is used orally to relieve pulmonary congestion and joint pain. In topical applications, it is applied as an effective hair tonic and anti-dandruff. The in natura pulp and its nuts are used as food because of its nutritional value. Despite its use in folk medicine, there is a lack of data regarding its in vivo/in vitro cytotoxic/genotoxic and clastogenic effects. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and clastogenic effects of Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. oil (APMO) in vitro and in vivo. For the analysis of cytotoxic potential, the Artemia salina and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethizzol-zyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays were performed. Possible cytotoxic, genotoxic and clastogenic effects of APMO intake were determined by performing the comet and micronucleus assays. Male and female Wistar rats were orally treated with doses of 125, 250, 500 or 1000 mg.kg-1 of the APMO daily for 28 consecutive days (four weeks). The results showed that the APMO did not induce cell death in the experiments of Artemia salina and MTT, indicating that it has no cytotoxicity. The APMO did not cause significant damage to the DNA of the rats in the four doses used when compared to the negative control group (saline + Tween® 80). The APMO did not present any significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) for the four tested doses. When compared to the positive control group, all groups (comet and micronucleus tests) were statistically different. These data suggest that the administration of Attalea phalerata Mart oil. ex Spreng does not cause cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and clastogenicity in experimental models in vitro and in vivo following oral administration in this study. PMID:27764219

  11. Fatty acid profiles and relative mobilization during fasting in adipose tissue depots of the American marten (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Collinsb, Danielle; Grant, Judy; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2006-03-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) is a boreal forest marten with low body adiposity but high metabolic rate. The study describes the FA composition in white adipose tissue depots of the species and the influence of food deprivation on them. American marten (n = 8) were fasted for 2 d with 7 control animals. Fasting resulted in a 13.4% weight loss, while the relative fat mass was >25% lower in the fasted animals. The FA composition of the fat depots of the trunk was quite similar to other previously studied mustelids with 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, and 18:2n-6 as the most abundant FA. In the extremities, there were higher proportions of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and PUFA. Food deprivation decreased the proportions of 16:0 and 16:1 n-7, while the proportion of long-chain MUFA increased in the trunk. The mobilization of FA was selective, as 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, and particular n-3 PUFA were preferentially mobilized. Relative mobilization correlated negatively with the carbon chain length in saturated FA (SFA) and n-9 MUFA. The delta9-desaturation of SFA enhanced the mobilization of the corresponding MUFA, but the positional isomerism of the first double bond did not correlate consistently with relative mobilization in MUFA or PUFA. In the marten, the FA composition of the extremities was highly resistant to fasting, and the tail tip and the paws contained more long-chain PUFA to prevent the solidification of lipids and to maintain cell membrane fluidity during cooling.

  12. Post-glacial colonization of northwestern North America by the forest-associated American marten (Martes americana, Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Stone, Karen D; Flynn, Rodney W; Cook, Joseph A

    2002-10-01

    Phylogeographic patterns were used to assess intraspecific diversification of American martens (Martes americana). Within martens, two morphological groups (americana and caurina) have been recognized, though the level of distinction between them has been debated. We examined mitochondrial cytochrome b gene haplotypes from 680 martens to explore the colonization history of the Pacific Northwest and found two clades that correspond to the morphological groups. The widespread americana clade extends from interior Alaska south to Montana and eastward to Newfoundland and New England (i.e. northwestern, north-central and northeastern North America). The caurina clade occurs in western North America, minimally extending from Admiralty Island (southeastern Alaska) south to Oregon and Wyoming. Our data indicated two colonization events for the Pacific Northwest (one by members of each clade) and were consistent with the persistence of populations throughout past glacial periods in eastern and western refugia. Due to vegetational and geological history following the past deglaciation, we hypothesize that martens of the caurina clade spread along the North Pacific Coast, and into southeastern Alaska, earlier than martens of the americana clade. Mismatch distributions for the americana clade were indicative of populations that recently experienced demographic expansion, while mismatch distributions for the caurina clade suggested that populations were at equilibrium. These clades are reciprocally monophyletic and distinctive (interclade divergence ranged from 2.5 to 3.0% (uncorrected p), whereas, intraclade divergence was < 0.7%), and two regions of sympatry have been identified. Genetic signatures of past admixture in hybrid zones may have been extinguished during subsequent glacial periods when ranges contracted. This recurrent pattern of relatively restricted western, or Pacific coastal, lineages and more widespread eastern, or interior continental, lineages exists across

  13. Evaluation of antinociceptive and antihyperglycemic activities in methanol extracts of whole plants of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. (Amaranthaceae) in mice.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Fatema; Zaman, Farhana; Mosaiab, Tamim; Mostafa, Fariha; Zaman, Marzia; Rehana, Fatema; Nasrin, Dilruba; Jamal, Farhana; Nahar, Nusratun; Rahmatullah, Mohammed

    2012-07-01

    The present study evaluated the antinociceptive and antihyperglycemic effects of crude methanol extract of whole plants of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. (Amaranthaceae) in Swiss albino mice. Antin(o)Ciceptive activity was evaluated by attenuation of the number of constrictions in acetic acid-induced gastric pain, while antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated through oral glucose tolerance tests in glucose-loaded mice. Dose-dependent and significant inhibitions in the number of constrictions were seen in mice administered with extract at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight. At these concentrations, the numbers of constrictions were reduced, respectively, by 31.0, 32.7, 37.9 and 44.8%. In comparison, a standard antinociceptive drug, aspirin reduced the number of constrictions by 37.9 and 67.2%, when administered at doses, respectively, of 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight. The extract also exhibited dose-dependent and significant antihyperglycemic activity when administered to mice at the afore-mentioned four doses. Serum glucose concentrations were reduced, respectively, by 36.3, 58.6, 65.0 and 65.6% at the four doses administered. The results compare favorably with a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, which when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight reduced serum glucose level by 42.7%. Taken together, the results obtained indicate that the extract merit further scientific studies towards discovery of components, which may prove beneficial in ameliorating pain, as well as high sugar levels of diabetic patients.

  14. American marten (Martes americana) in the Pacific Northwest: population differentiation across a landscape fragmented in time and space.

    PubMed

    Small, Maureen P; Stone, Karen D; Cook, Joseph A

    2003-01-01

    American marten (Martes americana) have a close association with mature temperate forests, a habitat that expanded throughout the Pacific Northwest as glaciers receded at the end of the Pleistocene. Similar to several other forest-associated mammals in North America (e.g. black bear), genetic analysis of the marten shows a deep phylogeographical subdivision that reflects populations with distinctive evolutionary histories. Using a suite of 14 microsatellite markers, we explored the genetic structure of marten populations in two reciprocally monophyletic clades in the Pacific Northwest identified previously as M. caurina and M. americana by mitochondrial haplotypes and morphology. Microsatellite phylogeographical patterns were congruent with mitochondrial analyses. These independent data sets shed light upon hybridization patterns, population structure and evolutionary histories. Hybridization between M. caurina and M. americana individuals was documented in two regions of sympatry (Kuiu Island in southeastern Alaska and southern Montana). Northern insular populations of M. caurina exhibited higher differentiation and lower variability relative to northern populations of M. americana. Greater divergence among M. caurina populations may reflect longer isolation and persistence in coastal forest habitat that was fragmented by rising sea level in the early Holocene. Lower differentiation among northern M. americana populations and close relationship to other continental M. americana populations may reflect more recent expansion into the Pacific Northwest and/or continued gene flow among populations. Differentiation among M. caurina populations was attributed to habitat fragmentation (i.e. rising sea level), as opposed to isolation-by-distance; oceanic straits pose significant barriers to gene flow among M. caurina populations and between populations of M. caurina and M. americana.

  15. Determining the Shape of the Orbit of Mars in the High School. (Spanish Title: Determinación de la Forma de la Órbita de Marte en la Escuela Secundaria.) Determinando a Forma da Órbita de Marte no Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Carlos Maximiliano; Rossini Goulart, Andressa

    2014-12-01

    In the present work, in order to supply the lacks of practical activities related to the content of Kepler's Laws in high school physics textbooks, we present a practical activity to determine the shape of the orbit of Mars. In this activity the student can experience the discovery the shape of the orbit of Mars in a way similar to that realized by Johannes Kepler combining the physical concepts with geometry. We applied the activity to eighteen high school teachers participating in a Postgraduate Course in Science Education. After two hours of work the group obtained the shape of the orbit of Mars and estimated its orbital parameters with a relative error less than 14%. En el presente trabajo y con el objetivo de reducir la escasez de actividades prácticas relacionadas con el contenido de las leyes de Kepler en libros de texto de física de la escuela secundaria, se presenta una actividad práctica para determinar la forma de la órbita de Marte. En esta actividad el estudiante puede vivir la experiencia de descubrir la forma de la órbita de Marte de una manera similar a la realizada por Johannes Kepler combinando los conceptos físicos con la geometría. Aplicamos la actividad a dieciocho maestros de escuelas secundarias en un Curso de Especialización en Enseñanza de las Ciencias. Después de dos horas de trabajo el grupo obtuvo la forma de la órbita de Marte com error inferior al 14% en los parámetros orbitales. No presente trabalho, visando suprir a deficiência de atividades práticas relacionadas ao conteúdo de Leis de Kepler nos livros-textos de Física do 1º ano do Ensino Médio, apresentamos uma atividade prática de determinação da órbita de Marte. O aluno, combinando conceitos físicos com a geometria poderá vivenciar a experiência da descoberta da forma da órbita de Marte de modo similar ao realizado por Johannes Kepler. Aplicamos a metodologia proposta junto a dezoito professores do Curso de Especialização em Educação em Ciências e

  16. Structural and functional characterization of peptide-{beta}{sub 2}m fused HLA-A2/MART1{sub 27-35} complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Chuanlai . E-mail: scl_xia@yahoo.com.cn; Chang Chienchung; Zhang Jianqiong; Guo Wei; Xia Lingzhi; Meng Fanyan; Xie Wei

    2006-03-31

    The uses of soluble HLA class I/peptide complexes to monitor antigen reactive T cells are often hampered by their low-yield and high-cost production. As an alternative strategy, the peptide-{beta}{sub 2}m fused, 2-component (2C) HLA class I/peptide complex has been developed, but its application is limited due to the lack of the comparison of its structural and functional characteristics with those of its conventional 3-component (3C) counterpart. In this study, we have demonstrated that the 2C and 3C HLA-A2/MART1{sub 27-35} complexes have a similar chromatographical profile and comparable stability, but the former has 2.5 times higher yield and significantly higher binding ability with HLA-A2/MART1{sub 27-35} complex-specific receptors than the latter. Furthermore, the 2C complex has a comparable ability to stimulate specific CTL proliferation, but appears to be more effective in eliciting the cytotoxicity of antigen-specific CTL, as compared to its 3C counterpart.

  17. Psidium guajava L. and Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC.: Chemical composition and anti - Candida effect in association with fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Sales, Débora L; Carneiro, Joara Nalyda P; Machado, Antonio Júdson T; Dos Santos, Antonia Thassya L; de Freitas, Maria Audilene; Martins, Gioconda Morais de A Bezerra; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; de Matos, Yedda Maria L S; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Djair S L; Menezes, Irwin R A; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2016-06-01

    The therapeutic combinations have been increasingly used against fungal resistance. Natural products have been evaluated in combination with pharmaceutical drugs in the search for new components able to work together in order to neutralize the multiple resistance mechanisms found in yeasts from the genus Candida. The aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts from Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC. and Psidium guajava L. species were evaluated for their potential to change the effect of commercial pharmaceutical drugs against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis strains. The tests were performed according to the broth microdilution method. Plate readings were carried out by spectrophotometry, and the data generated the cell viability curve and IC50 of the extracts against the yeasts. A chemical analysis of all the extracts was performed for detection and characterization of the secondary metabolites. The total phenols were quantified in gallic acid eq/g of extract (GAE/g) and the phenolic composition of the extracts was determined by HPLC. Fluconazole and all extracts presented high Minimum Inhibitories Concentrations (MICs). However, when associated with the extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations (MIC/16), fluconazole had its effect potentiated. A synergistic effect was observed in the combination of fluconazole with Psidium brownianum extracts against all Candida strains. However, for Psidium guajava extracts the synergistic effect was produced mainly against the Candida albicans LM77 and Candida tropicalis INCQS 400042 strains. The IC50 values of fluconazole ranged from 19.22 to 68.1 μg/mL when it was used alone, but from 2.2 to 45.4 μg/mL in the presence of the extracts. The qualitative chemical characterization demonstrated the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins among the secondary metabolites. The concentration of total phenols ranged from 49.25 to 80.77 GAE/g in the P. brownianum extracts and from 68.06 to 82.18 GAE/g in the P. guajava extracts

  18. Psidium guajava L. and Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC.: Chemical composition and anti - Candida effect in association with fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Sales, Débora L; Carneiro, Joara Nalyda P; Machado, Antonio Júdson T; Dos Santos, Antonia Thassya L; de Freitas, Maria Audilene; Martins, Gioconda Morais de A Bezerra; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; de Matos, Yedda Maria L S; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Djair S L; Menezes, Irwin R A; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2016-06-01

    The therapeutic combinations have been increasingly used against fungal resistance. Natural products have been evaluated in combination with pharmaceutical drugs in the search for new components able to work together in order to neutralize the multiple resistance mechanisms found in yeasts from the genus Candida. The aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts from Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC. and Psidium guajava L. species were evaluated for their potential to change the effect of commercial pharmaceutical drugs against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis strains. The tests were performed according to the broth microdilution method. Plate readings were carried out by spectrophotometry, and the data generated the cell viability curve and IC50 of the extracts against the yeasts. A chemical analysis of all the extracts was performed for detection and characterization of the secondary metabolites. The total phenols were quantified in gallic acid eq/g of extract (GAE/g) and the phenolic composition of the extracts was determined by HPLC. Fluconazole and all extracts presented high Minimum Inhibitories Concentrations (MICs). However, when associated with the extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations (MIC/16), fluconazole had its effect potentiated. A synergistic effect was observed in the combination of fluconazole with Psidium brownianum extracts against all Candida strains. However, for Psidium guajava extracts the synergistic effect was produced mainly against the Candida albicans LM77 and Candida tropicalis INCQS 400042 strains. The IC50 values of fluconazole ranged from 19.22 to 68.1 μg/mL when it was used alone, but from 2.2 to 45.4 μg/mL in the presence of the extracts. The qualitative chemical characterization demonstrated the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins among the secondary metabolites. The concentration of total phenols ranged from 49.25 to 80.77 GAE/g in the P. brownianum extracts and from 68.06 to 82.18 GAE/g in the P. guajava extracts

  19. Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey in the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the outcome of a Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey carried out in the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE), during May and June of 2003. The MARTE Peña de Hierro field area is located between the towns of Rio Tinto and Nerva in the Andalucia region of Spain. It is about one hour drive West of the city of Sevilla, and also about one hour drive North of Huelva. The high concentration of dissolved iron (and smaller amounts of other metals) in the very acidic water in the Rio Tinto area gives the water its characteristic wine red color, and also means that the water is highly conductive, and such an acidic and conductive fluid is highly suited for exploration by electromagnetic methods. This naturally acidic environment is maintained by bacteria in the groundwater and it is these bacteria that are the main focus of the MARTE project overall, and of this supporting geophysical work. It is the goal of this study to be able to map the subsurface extent of the high conductivity (low resistivity) levels, and thus by proxy the subsurface extent of the acidic groundwater and the bacteria populations. In so doing, the viability of using electromagnetic methods for mapping these subsurface metal-rich water bodies is also examined and demonstrated, and the geophysical data will serve to support drilling efforts. The purpose of this field survey was an initial effort to map certain conductive features in the field area, in support of the drilling operations that are central to the MARTE project. These conductive features include the primary target of exploration for MARTE, the very conductive acidic groundwater in the area (which is extremely rich in metals). Other conductive features include the pyretic ore bodies in the area, as well as extensive mine tailings piles.

  20. Concentrations of trace elements in tissues of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and stone marten (Martes foina) from suburban and rural areas in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Dežđek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Dokić, Maja; Solomun, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Knežević, Zorka; Slavica, Alen

    2010-11-01

    Trace elements concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) were determined in the liver, kidney and muscle of 28 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and 16 stone marten (Martes foina) from suburban and rural habitats from Croatia. Rural and suburban habitats affected Cd and Hg levels in the muscle, liver and kidney of red fox. Significant differences in metal concentrations in the muscle, liver and kidney were detected among species. Suburban stone marten accumulated the highest levels of trace elements (mg/kg w.w.): in muscle 0.019 for Hg; in liver 0.161 for Cd, 36.1 for Cu and 0.349 for Pb; in kidney 1.34 for Cd and 0.318 for Pb. Values observed were higher than those found in suburban red fox and therefore, may represent an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic metals in urbanized habitats.

  1. Teaching Money "$marts" Smarts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Economics can be a tough subject, so good teachers find creative ways to teach it. However, only a few economic literacy programs promote "an economic way of thinking" and teach students how to analyze relevant economic problems, says Burton Folsom. Having examined several economic education programs, the author has found that many programs are…

  2. Health Impact Assessments for Environmental Restoration: The Case of Caño Martín Peña

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Perry; Agu, Damiris; Rodríguez, Lyvia; Avilés, Katia

    2014-01-01

    Background Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a methodology for predicting health impacts of a proposed policy or plan. A proposed environmental restoration and development plan presented an opportunity for an HIA in an environmental justice community surrounding the Martín Peña channel in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The HIA focused on the dredging of the channel, debris removal, road, sewer, and storm water infrastructure improvements, housing demolition, and resident relocation. Objective The HIA sought to determine the potential health impacts of the proposed plan on the community to inform the funding decision by the Puerto Rican legislature. As the first HIA in Puerto Rico, a secondary objective was to build HIA capacity in Puerto Rico. Methods This HIA used a community training, literature reviews, existing local studies, focus groups, interviews, and disease surveillance data to assess baseline health, determine expected impacts, and build capacity. Findings The Martín Peña community is experiencing deteriorating environmental conditions. Flooding and negative environmental exposures, such as mold, limits to physical activity, stress, chemical toxicants, pathogenic bacteria, and pests, are worsening. The higher rates of diseases, such as asthma and diarrhea, in the community compared to elsewhere in Puerto Rico appear to be largely attributable to these factors. Overall, the proposed plan is expected to improve many of these health disparities but the successful implementation depends on continued community acceptance and participation, particularly with the relocation process. Recommendations are for full financing and several mitigation efforts to avoid negative and preserve beneficial health consequences. Conclusions As the first HIA in Puerto Rico, this assessment provided specific recommendations to benefit the health of the community affected by an environmental restoration and development plan and also capacity building for a larger audience in Puerto

  3. Molecular Mechanism of MART-1+/A*0201+ Human Melanoma Resistance to Specific CTL-Killing Despite Functional Tumor-CTL Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Jazirehi, Ali R.; Baritaki, Stavroula; Koya, Richard C.; Bonavida, Benjamin; Economou, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Durable responses in metastatic melanoma patients remain generally difficult to achieve. Adoptive cell therapy with ex vivo engineered lymphocytes expressing high affinity T cell receptors TCRα/β for the melanoma antigen MART-127-35/HLA A*0201 (recognized by F5 cytotoxic T lymphocytes [F5 CTLs]) has been found to benefit certain patients. However, many other patients are inherently unresponsive and/or relapse for unknown reasons. To analyze the basis for the acquired-resistance and strategies to reverse it, we established F5 CTLresistant (R) human melanoma clones from relatively sensitive parental lines under selective F5 CTL pressure. Surface MART-127-35/HLA-A*0201 in these clones was unaltered and F5 CTLs recognized and interacted with them similarly to the parental lines. Nevertheless, the R clones were resistant to F5 CTL killing, exhibited hyperactivation of the NF-κB survival pathway, and overexpression of the anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Sensitivity to F5 CTL-killing could be increased by pharmacological inhibition of the NF-κB pathway, Bcl-2 family members, or the proteasome, the latter of which reduced NF-κB activity and diminished anti-apoptotic gene expression. Specific gene-silencing (by siRNA) confirmed the protective role of anti-apoptotic factors by reversing R clone resistance. Together, our findings suggest that long-term immunotherapy may impose a selection for the development of resistant cells that are unresponsive to highly avid and specific melanoma-reactive CTLs, despite maintaining expression of functional peptide:MHC complexes, due to activation of anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. Though unresponsive to CTL, our results argue that resistant cells can be re-sensitized to immunotherapy with co-administration of targeted inhibitors to anti-apoptotic survival pathways. PMID:21159666

  4. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress. PMID:27642496

  5. RIO Tinto Faulted Volcanosedimentary Deposits as Analog Habitats for Extant Subsurface Biospheres on Mars: A Synthesis of the MARTE Drilling Project Geobiology Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rodriquez, N.; Davila, F.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Stoker, C.

    2005-01-01

    Geochemistry and mineralogy on Mars surface characterized by the MER Opportunity Rover suggest that early Mars hosted acidic environments in the Meridiani Planum region [1, 2]. Such extreme paleoenvironments have been suggested to be a regional expression of the global Mars geological cycle that induced acidic conditions by sulfur complexation and iron buffering of aqueous solutions [3]. Under these assumptions, underground reservoirs of acidic brines and, thereby, putative acidic cryptobiospheres, may be expected. The MARTE project [4, 5] has performed a drilling campaign to search for acidic and anaerobic biospheres in R o Tinto basement [6] that may be analogs of these hypothetical communities occurring in cryptic habitats of Mars. This Rio Tinto geological region is characterized by the occurrence of huge metallic deposits of iron sulfides [7]. Late intensive diagenesis of rocks driven by a compressive regimen [8] largely reduced the porosity of rocks and induced a cortical thickening through thrusting and inverse faulting and folding. Such structures play an essential role in transporting and storing water underground as any other aquifers do in the Earth. Once the underground water reservoirs of the Ro Tinto basement contact the hydrothermal pyrite deposits, acidic brines are produced by the release of sulfates and iron through the oxidation of sulfides [9].

  6. The subsurface geology of Río Tinto: material examined during a simulated Mars drilling mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE).

    PubMed

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Bell, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undisclosed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions.

  7. The Subsurface Geology of Río Tinto: Material Examined During a Simulated Mars Drilling Mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Bell Johnson, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undis closed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions.

  8. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: Objectives, Approach, and Results of a Simulated Mission to Search for Life in the Martian Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Cannon, Howard N.; Dunagan, Stephen E.; Lemke, Lawrence G.; Glass, Brian J.; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding.

  9. Patch occupancy by stone martens Martes foina in fragmented landscapes of central Spain: the role of fragment size, isolation and habitat structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgós, Emilio; García, Francisco J.

    2002-08-01

    We studied the response to forest fragmentation of a generalist carnivore, the stone marten Martes foina, in highly fragmented landscapes of central Spain. Five different areas ( n = 178 fragments) in central Spain were surveyed. This paper analyses the relationship between fragment use by martens (measured through scat presence) and a series of variables related to the size, isolation and vegetation structure of each fragment by means of stepwise logistic regression. Size and isolation have an important effect on stone marten presence in fragments. Our results were similar to those found for other marten species in landscapes with coarse-grain fragmentation, but they contrast with other studies conducted in landscapes with fine-grain fragmentation. These data suggested that in highly fragmented landscapes, size and isolation factors resulting from forest fragmentation were responsible for determining marten responses, irrespective of their habitat generalism. Management policies for the stone marten in highly fragmented scenarios require the maintenance of large forests near continuous forest tracts in mountains or riparian woodlands.

  10. Consumption of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) functional beverage reduces muscle stress and improves effort tolerance in elite athletes: a randomized controlled intervention study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Peixoto, Jacqueline; Moura, Mirian Ribeiro Leite; Cunha, Felipe Amorim; Lollo, Pablo Christiano B; Monteiro, Walace David; Carvalho, Lucia Maria Jaeger de; Farinatti, Paulo de Tarso Veras

    2015-07-01

    The study analyzed the effect of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) functional beverage (AB) on muscle and oxidative stress markers, cardiorespiratory responses, perceived exertion, and time-to-exhaustion during maximal treadmill running. The beverage was developed as an ergogenic aid for athletes and contained 27.6 mg of anthocyanins per dose. Fourteen athletes performed 3 exercise tests: a ramp-incremental maximal exercise test and 2 maximal exercise bouts performed in 2 conditions (AB and without AB (control)) at 90% maximal oxygen uptake. Blood was collected at baseline and after maximal exercise in both conditions to determine biomarkers. AB increased time to exhaustion during short-term high-intensity exercise (mean difference: 69 s, 95% confidence interval = -296 s to 159 s, t = 2.2, p = 0.045), attenuating the metabolic stress induced by exercise (p < 0.05). AB also reduced perceived exertion and enhanced cardiorespiratory responses (p < 0.05). The AB may be a useful and practical ergogenic aid to enhance performance during high-intensity training. PMID:26140415

  11. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) prevents β-amyloid aggregation, generation of advanced glycation-end products (AGEs), and acrolein-induced cytotoxicity on human neuronal-like cells.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Leonardo da Silva; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Yatsu, Francini Kiyono Jorge; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Kolling, Eduardo Antônio; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Bassani, Valquiria Linck; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2014-11-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are considered potent molecules capable of promoting neuronal cell death and participating in the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that AGEs exacerbate β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and AGE-related cross-links are also detected in senile plaques. Acrolein (ACR) is an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde found in the environment and thermally processed foods, which can additionally be generated through endogenous metabolism. The role of ACR in AD is widely accepted in the literature. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) is popularly consumed by the population in Brazil, mainly for its stimulant activity. In the present study, we showed that guarana (10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL) is able to prevent protein glycation, β-amyloid aggregation, in vitro methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and ACR (20 μM)-induced toxicity on neuronal-like cells (SH-SY5Y). Since these are considered typical AD pathological hallmarks, we propose that guarana may deserve further research as a potential therapeutic agent in such a neurodegenerative disease. PMID:24840232

  12. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress.

  13. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Renata Rebeca; de Abreu, Isabel Cristina Mallosto Emerich; Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; Silva, Maísa; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress. PMID:27642496

  14. Genetic distinctness and variation in the Tsushima Islands population of the Japanese marten, Martes melampus (Carnivora: Mustelidae), revealed by microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Shouko; Moteki, Shusaku; Baba, Minoru; Ochiai, Keiji; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2012-12-01

    A carnivoran mammal endemic to Japan, the Japanese marten (Martes melampus) is native in forested regions on Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu (main islands of Japan), and the Tsushima Islands. The Tsushima population is classified as a different subspecies (M. m. tsuensis) from populations on the main islands (M. m. melampus). To elucidate the genetic structure of the Tsushima population, we genotyped 101 individuals from the Tsushima Islands and 43 individuals from Honshu and Kyushu using 10 microsatellite loci, and performed population genetic analyses on the genotype data. Genetic diversity was lower in the Tsushima population than in three geographic populations on the main islands: heterozygosity was 0.189-0.364 in the former, compared to 0.457-0.747 in the latter. In addition, high pairwise Fst values (0.485-0.682) and Nei's standard distance (0.550-1.183) between the Tsushima and main-island populations indicated a high degree of genetic differentiation. Finally, a Bayesian clustering analysis showed that the Tsushima population is apparently differentiated from the main-island populations and comprises two genetic clusters. A factorial correspondence analysis corroborated these results. Our results suggest that restricted gene flow or inbreeding may have reduced genetic diversity in the Tsushima population, which has been geographically isolated from the main-island populations since the formation of Tsushima Strait.

  15. Encephalitis in a stone marten (Martes foina) after natural infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1.

    PubMed

    Klopfleisch, R; Wolf, P U; Wolf, C; Harder, T; Starick, E; Niebuhr, M; Mettenleiter, T C; Teifke, J P

    2007-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of disease in different avian species, caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), have involved infection by subtype H5N1 of the virus. This virus has also crossed species barriers and infected felines and humans. Here, we report the natural infection of a stone marten (Martes foina) from an area with numerous confirmed cases of H5N1 HPAIV infection in wild birds. Histopathological examination of tissues from this animal revealed a diffuse nonsuppurative panencephalitis with perivascular cuffing, multifocal gliosis and neuronal necrosis. Additionally, focal necrosis of pancreatic acinar cells was observed. Immunohistochemically, lesions in these organs were associated with avian influenza virus antigen in neurons, glial cells and pancreatic acinar cells. Thus, the microscopical lesions and viral antigen distribution in this stone marten differs from that recently described for cats naturally and experimentally infected with the same virus subtype. This is the first report of natural infection of a mustelid with HPAIV H5N1.

  16. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) prevents β-amyloid aggregation, generation of advanced glycation-end products (AGEs), and acrolein-induced cytotoxicity on human neuronal-like cells.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Leonardo da Silva; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Yatsu, Francini Kiyono Jorge; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Kolling, Eduardo Antônio; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Bassani, Valquiria Linck; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2014-11-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are considered potent molecules capable of promoting neuronal cell death and participating in the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that AGEs exacerbate β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and AGE-related cross-links are also detected in senile plaques. Acrolein (ACR) is an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde found in the environment and thermally processed foods, which can additionally be generated through endogenous metabolism. The role of ACR in AD is widely accepted in the literature. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) is popularly consumed by the population in Brazil, mainly for its stimulant activity. In the present study, we showed that guarana (10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL) is able to prevent protein glycation, β-amyloid aggregation, in vitro methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and ACR (20 μM)-induced toxicity on neuronal-like cells (SH-SY5Y). Since these are considered typical AD pathological hallmarks, we propose that guarana may deserve further research as a potential therapeutic agent in such a neurodegenerative disease.

  17. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: objectives, approach, and results of a simulated mission to search for life in the Martian subsurface.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Carol R; Cannon, Howard N; Dunagan, Stephen E; Lemke, Lawrence G; Glass, Brian J; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible-near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding.

  18. Consumption of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) functional beverage reduces muscle stress and improves effort tolerance in elite athletes: a randomized controlled intervention study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Peixoto, Jacqueline; Moura, Mirian Ribeiro Leite; Cunha, Felipe Amorim; Lollo, Pablo Christiano B; Monteiro, Walace David; Carvalho, Lucia Maria Jaeger de; Farinatti, Paulo de Tarso Veras

    2015-07-01

    The study analyzed the effect of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) functional beverage (AB) on muscle and oxidative stress markers, cardiorespiratory responses, perceived exertion, and time-to-exhaustion during maximal treadmill running. The beverage was developed as an ergogenic aid for athletes and contained 27.6 mg of anthocyanins per dose. Fourteen athletes performed 3 exercise tests: a ramp-incremental maximal exercise test and 2 maximal exercise bouts performed in 2 conditions (AB and without AB (control)) at 90% maximal oxygen uptake. Blood was collected at baseline and after maximal exercise in both conditions to determine biomarkers. AB increased time to exhaustion during short-term high-intensity exercise (mean difference: 69 s, 95% confidence interval = -296 s to 159 s, t = 2.2, p = 0.045), attenuating the metabolic stress induced by exercise (p < 0.05). AB also reduced perceived exertion and enhanced cardiorespiratory responses (p < 0.05). The AB may be a useful and practical ergogenic aid to enhance performance during high-intensity training.

  19. Histology and gametogenesis in Heleobia piscium (Cochliopidae) from the Multiple Use Reserve “Isla Martín García,” Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Ana C.

    2016-01-01

    Heleobia piscium (d’Orbigny, 1835), a member of the Cochliopidae family found only in South America, is distributed from Entre Ríos, Delta del Paraná, and the littoral of the Río de la Plata down as far as to Punta Indio (Buenos Aires), the southernmost limit of the snail’s geographical distribution. To date, little information is available regarding the reproductive cycle of species within this family either in Argentina or throughout South America. The present work analyzed the histology of the reproductive system of the gonochoric species H. piscium and determined the stages oogenesis and spermatogenesis under natural conditions. Specimens of H. piscium were collected in the Multiple-Use Natural Reserve Isla Martín García, located in the Upper Río de la Plata estuary to the south of the mouth of the Uruguay River. The gametogenic cycle in both sexes was found to consist of the following stages: early maturation, maturation, and evacuation. The maturation period was found to extend from January to October and evacuation of the gametes to start in November and end in February (summer in the Southern Hemisphere). The results indicated the H. piscium exhibit a reproductive cycle without a resting period. PMID:27761336

  20. Effects of clarification on physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant capacity and quality attributes of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Leiliane Teles; de Freitas Cabral, Marília; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; de Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane; de Miranda, Maria Raquel Alcântara; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Gomes, Carmen Luiza

    2014-11-01

    The effects of a clarifying process using pectinases and chitosan on the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant capacity and quality attributes of açaí fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice were evaluated. Clarification of acaí pulp resulted (P ≤ 0.05) in a 50 % loss of total anthocyanin (4.2730 mg/100 mL) and 29 % reduction in antioxidant capacity (33.60 μM FeSO4/g). A high association (P ≤ 0.05) was found between the decrease of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin loss. The use of pectinases associated with chitosan as an aid for clarification of açaí juice proved to be highly effective and resulted in a clear juice with a brighter purple to red color that was free of lipids, insoluble solids, and others substances that cause hazes. The obtained clarified açaí juice is a genuinely high-value anthocyanin-rich product that could be used as colorant and functional ingredient to fruit juices and soft drinks. PMID:26396323

  1. The subsurface geology of Río Tinto: material examined during a simulated Mars drilling mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE).

    PubMed

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Bell, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undisclosed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions. PMID:19105757

  2. The 2005 MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment in Río Tinto, Spain: objectives, approach, and results of a simulated mission to search for life in the Martian subsurface.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Carol R; Cannon, Howard N; Dunagan, Stephen E; Lemke, Lawrence G; Glass, Brian J; Miller, David; Gomez-Elvira, Javier; Davis, Kiel; Zavaleta, Jhony; Winterholler, Alois; Roman, Matt; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Bell, Mary Sue; Brown, Adrian; Battler, Melissa; Chen, Bin; Cooper, George; Davidson, Mark; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gonzales-Pastor, Eduardo; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Parro, Victor; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sutter, Brad; Schuerger, Andrew C; Schutt, John; Rull, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) simulated a robotic drilling mission to search for subsurface life on Mars. The drill site was on Peña de Hierro near the headwaters of the Río Tinto river (southwest Spain), on a deposit that includes massive sulfides and their gossanized remains that resemble some iron and sulfur minerals found on Mars. The mission used a fluidless, 10-axis, autonomous coring drill mounted on a simulated lander. Cores were faced; then instruments collected color wide-angle context images, color microscopic images, visible-near infrared point spectra, and (lower resolution) visible-near infrared hyperspectral images. Cores were then stored for further processing or ejected. A borehole inspection system collected panoramic imaging and Raman spectra of borehole walls. Life detection was performed on full cores with an adenosine triphosphate luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay and on crushed core sections with SOLID2, an antibody array-based instrument. Two remotely located science teams analyzed the remote sensing data and chose subsample locations. In 30 days of operation, the drill penetrated to 6 m and collected 21 cores. Biosignatures were detected in 12 of 15 samples analyzed by SOLID2. Science teams correctly interpreted the nature of the deposits drilled as compared to the ground truth. This experiment shows that drilling to search for subsurface life on Mars is technically feasible and scientifically rewarding. PMID:19032053

  3. Crystal Structures of HLA-A*0201 Complexed with Melan-A/MART-1[subscript 26(27L)-35] Peptidomimetics Reveal Conformational Heterogeneity and Highlight Degeneracy of T Cell Recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Douat-Casassus, Celine; Borbulevych, Oleg; Tarbe, Marion; Gervois, Nadine; Jotereau, Francine; Baker, Brian M.; Quideau, Stphane

    2010-10-07

    There is growing interest in using tumor associated antigens presented by class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) proteins as cancer vaccines. As native peptides are poorly stable in biological fluids, researchers have sought to engineer synthetic peptidomimetics with greater biostability. Here, we demonstrate that antigenic peptidomimetics of the Melan-A/MART-1{sub 26(27L)-35} melanoma antigen adopt strikingly different conformations when bound to MHC-I, highlighting the degeneracy of T cell recognition and revealing the challenges associated with mimicking native peptide conformation.

  4. Assessment of the mutagenic, antimutagenic and cytotoxic activities of ethanolic extract of araticum (Annona crassiflora Mart. 1841) by micronucleus test in mice.

    PubMed

    Vilar, J B; Ferreira, F L; Ferri, P H; Guillo, L A; Chen Chen, L

    2008-02-01

    A typical Brazilian plant, araticum (Annona crassiflora Mart.), is widely used in humans as therapeutic medicine to treat several diseases such as diarrhea, rheumatism and syphilis. It contains acetogenins which present cytotoxic, antitumogenic, and antiparasitic properties. In this study, mutagenic, antimutagenic and cytotoxic effects of araticum leaves ethanolic extract were evaluated by micronucleus test in mice. To evaluate the mutagenic activity, animals were treated with ethanolic extract of araticum (EEA) using 10, 20, 50, 100 and 160 mg.kg(-1). For all doses, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) frequency was evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 hours after treatment. To evaluate the antimutagenic activity, animals were treated with 10, 20, 50 and 100 mg.kg(-1) of EEA and 4 mg.kg(-1) of MMC simultaneously. The frequency of MNPCE was evaluated 36 hours after exposure. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes ratio (PCE/NCE). In the mutagenicity assessment, all doses of EEA resulted in no significant increase of MNPCE (P > 0.05), compared to solvent- control group. Regarding administration time, no significant difference among three evaluation periods was observed (P > 0.05). Such results indicate that EEA did not exert mutagenic activity. Cytotoxicity was evident in doses of 50, 100 and 160 mg.kg(-1) at 24 and 48 hours after exposure. Concerning antimutagenicity, except the 10 mg.kg(-1) co-administered with 4 mg/kg of MMC, all doses reduced significantly the frequency of MNPCE compared to the positive control group (P < 0.05). These results, therefore, indicate an antimutagenic activity of the EEA. Cytotoxicity was significantly increased (P < 0.01) at 100 mg.kg(-1) EEA doses co-administered with 4 mg.kg(-1) of MMC. PMID:18470389

  5. Molecular characterization of the endophytic fungal community associated with Eichhornia azurea (Kunth) and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) (Pontederiaceae) native to the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, T T; Orlandelli, R C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2015-05-11

    Endophytic fungi live in the interior of healthy plants without causing them any damage. These fungi are of biotechnological interest; they may be used in the biological control of pests and plant diseases, and in the pharmaceutical industry. The aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia azurea (Kunth) and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) belong to the Pontederiaceae family. The first is a fixed-floating species and the second is a free-floating species that is known for its phytoremediation potential. The fungal endophytes associated with the leaves of E. azurea and E. crassipes, native to the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil, were isolated. The sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA was performed and the nucleotide sequences obtained were compared with those available in the GenBank database for the molecular identification of the isolates. The construction of phylogenetic trees was performed using the MEGA5 software. The results showed that high colonization frequencies were obtained from the 610 foliar fragments sampled from each plant: 87.86% for E. azurea and 88.85% for E. crassipes. At the genus level, it was possible to identify 19 fungal endophytes belonging to the genera Alternaria, Bipolaris, Cercospora, Diaporthe, Gibberella, Pestalotiopsis, Plectosphaerella, Phoma, and Saccharicola. Two other endophytes were identified at the species level (Microsphaeropsis arundinis). Genera Bipolaris, Cercospora, Microsphaeropsis, and Phoma were found as endophytes in the two macrophytes and the other genera were host-specific, being isolated from only one macrophyte, proving that there is a small difference in the endophytic diversity of the two Eichhornia species analyzed.

  6. A new laboratory-based surveillance system (Respiratory DataMart System) for influenza and other respiratory viruses in England: results and experience from 2009 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Green, H; Lackenby, A; Donati, M; Ellis, J; Thompson, C; Bermingham, A; Field, J; Sebastianpillai, P; Zambon, M; Watson, Jm; Pebody, R

    2014-01-01

    During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, a new laboratory-based virological sentinel surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), was established in a network of 14 Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England (PHE)) and National Health Service (NHS) laboratories in England. Laboratory results (both positive and negative) were systematically collected from all routinely tested clinical respiratory samples for a range of respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The RDMS also monitored the occurrence of antiviral resistance of influenza viruses. Data from the RDMS for the 2009–2012 period showed that the 2009 pandemic influenza virus caused three waves of activity with different intensities during the pandemic and post pandemic periods. Peaks in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positivity (defined as number of positive samples per total number of samples tested) were seen in summer and autumn in 2009, with slightly higher peak positivity observed in the first post-pandemic season in 2010/2011. The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain almost completely disappeared in the second postpandemic season in 2011/2012. The RDMS findings are consistent with other existing community-based virological and clinical surveillance systems. With a large sample size, this new system provides a robust supplementary mechanism, through the collection of routinely available laboratory data at minimum extra cost, to monitor influenza as well as other respiratory virus activity. A near real-time, daily reporting mechanism in the RDMS was established during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Furthermore, this system can be quickly adapted and used to monitor future influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks of respiratory infectious disease, including novel pathogens. PMID:24480060

  7. Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis protects human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Diêgo Madureira; Barreto, George; Galeano, Pablo; Romero, Juan Ignacio; Holubiec, Mariana Inés; Badorrey, Maria Sol; Capani, Francisco; Alvarez, Lisandro Diego Giraldez

    2011-09-01

    Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis, commonly known as Guaraná, is a Brazilian plant frequently cited for its antioxidant properties and different pharmacological activities on the central nervous system. The potential beneficial uses of Guaraná in neurodegenerative disorders, such as in Parkinson's disease (PD), the pathogenesis of which is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, has not yet been assessed. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to evaluate if an extract of commercial powdered seeds of Guaraná could protect human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity. Two concentration of Guaraná dimethylsulfoxide extract (0.312 and 0.625 mg/mL) were added to SH-SY5Y cells treated with 300 nM rotenone for 48 h, and the cytoprotective effects were assessed by means of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, and analyzing nuclear integrity with Hoechst33258 stain. Results showed that the addition of Guaraná extract significantly increased the cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells treated with rotenone, in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, LDH levels were significantly reduced by addition of 0.312 mg/mL of Guaraná, but unexpectedly, no changes were observed with the higher concentration. Moreover, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were significantly reduced by addition of any of both concentrations of the extract. The results obtained in this work could provide relevant information about the mechanisms underlying the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in PD and precede in vivo experiments. Further studies are needed to investigate which active constituent is responsible for the cytoprotective effect produced by Paullinia cupana.

  8. Paullinia cupana Mart var. sorbilis, guaraná, reduces cell proliferation and increases apoptosis of B16/F10 melanoma lung metastases in mice.

    PubMed

    Fukumasu, H; Avanzo, J L; Nagamine, M K; Barbuto, J A; Rao, K V; Dagli, M L Z

    2008-04-01

    We showed that guaraná (Paullinia cupana Mart var. sorbilis) had a chemopreventive effect on mouse hepatocarcinogenesis and reduced diethylnitrosamine-induced DNA damage. In the present experiment, we evaluated the effects of guaraná in an experimental metastasis model. Cultured B16/F10 melanoma cells (5 x 10(5) cells/animal) were injected into the tail vein of mice on the 7th day of guaraná treatment (2.0 mg P. cupana/g body weight, per gavage) and the animals were treated with guaraná daily up to 14 days until euthanasia (total treatment time: 21 days). Lung sections were obtained for morphometric analysis, apoptotic bodies were counted to calculate the apoptotic index and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells were counted to determine the proliferation index. Guaraná-treated (GUA) animals presented a 68.6% reduction in tumor burden area compared to control (CO) animals which were not treated with guaraná (CO: 0.84 +/- 0.26, N = 6; GUA: 0.27 +/- 0.24, N = 6; P = 0.0043), a 57.9% reduction in tumor proliferation index (CO: 23.75 +/- 20.54, N = 6; GUA: 9.99 +/- 3.93, N = 6; P = 0.026) and a 4.85-fold increase in apoptotic index (CO: 66.95 +/- 22.95, N = 6; GUA: 324.37 +/- 266.74 AB/mm(2), N = 6; P = 0.0152). In this mouse model, guaraná treatment decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of tumor cells, consequently reducing the tumor burden area. We are currently investigating the molecular pathways of the effects of guaraná in cultured melanoma cells, regarding principally the cell cycle inhibitors and cyclins.

  9. A new laboratory-based surveillance system (Respiratory DataMart System) for influenza and other respiratory viruses in England: results and experience from 2009 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Green, H; Lackenby, A; Donati, M; Ellis, J; Thompson, C; Bermingham, A; Field, J; Sebastianpillai, P; Zambon, M; Watson, Jm; Pebody, R

    2014-01-23

    During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, a new laboratory-based virological sentinel surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), was established in a network of 14 Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England (PHE)) and National Health Service (NHS) laboratories in England. Laboratory results (both positive and negative) were systematically collected from all routinely tested clinical respiratory samples for a range of respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The RDMS also monitored the occurrence of antiviral resistance of influenza viruses. Data from the RDMS for the 2009–2012 period showed that the 2009 pandemic influenza virus caused three waves of activity with different intensities during the pandemic and post pandemic periods. Peaks in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positivity (defined as number of positive samples per total number of samples tested) were seen in summer and autumn in 2009, with slightly higher peak positivity observed in the first post-pandemic season in 2010/2011. The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain almost completely disappeared in the second postpandemic season in 2011/2012. The RDMS findings are consistent with other existing community-based virological and clinical surveillance systems. With a large sample size, this new system provides a robust supplementary mechanism, through the collection of routinely available laboratory data at minimum extra cost, to monitor influenza as well as other respiratory virus activity. A near real-time, daily reporting mechanism in the RDMS was established during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Furthermore, this system can be quickly adapted and used to monitor future influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks of respiratory infectious disease, including novel pathogens.

  10. Visible-near infrared point spectrometry of drill core samples from Río Tinto, Spain: results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling exercise.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis.

  11. Visible-Near Infrared Point Spectrometry of Drill Core Samples from Río Tinto, Spain: Results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) Drilling Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J.; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis.

  12. Visible-near infrared point spectrometry of drill core samples from Río Tinto, Spain: results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling exercise.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis. PMID:19105759

  13. Experimental study on the survival of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms--Pontederiaceae) under different oil doses and times of exposure.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Aline; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez

    2014-12-01

    In the last decades, petroleum activities have increased in the Brazilian Amazon where there is oil exploration on the Urucu River, a tributary of the Amazon River, about 600 km from the city of Manaus. Particularly, transportation via the Amazon River to reach the oil refinery in Manaus may compromise the integrity of the large floodplains that flank hundreds of kilometers of this major river. In the Amazon floodplains, plant growth and nutrient cycling are related to the flood pulse. When oil spills occur, floating oil on the water surface is dispersed through wind and wave action in the littoral region, thus affecting the vegetation of terrestrial and aquatic environments. If pollutants enter the system, they are absorbed by plants and distributed in the food chain via plant consumption, mortality, and decomposition. The effect of oil on the growth and survival of vegetation in these environments is virtually unknown. The water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] has a pantropical distribution but is native to the Amazon, often growing in high-density populations in the floodplains where it plays an important role as shelter and food source for aquatic and terrestrial biota. The species is well known for its high capacity to absorb and tolerate high levels of heavy metal ions. To study the survival and response of water hyacinth under six different oil doses, ranging from 0 to 150 ml l(-1), and five exposure times (1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days), young individuals distributed in a completely randomized design experiment composed of vessels with a single individual each were followed over a 50-day period (30-day acclimatization, 20 days under oil treatments). Growth parameters, biomass, visual changes in the plants, and pH were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days. Increasing the time of oil exposure caused a decrease in biomass, ratio of live/dead biomass and length of leaves, and an increase in the number of dead leaves. Dose of oil and time of exposure

  14. Effects of Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry preparation on metabolic parameters in a healthy overweight population: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of açai fruit pulp on risk factors for metabolic disorders in overweight subjects. The açaí palm (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), which is native to South America, produces a small, black-purple fruit which is edible. The fruit has recently become popular as a functional food due to its antioxidant potential. Although several studies have been conducted in vitro and with animals, little is known about the potential health benefits in humans aside from an increase in plasma anti-oxidant capacity. Metabolic syndrome is a condition which is defined by a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and/or type-2 diabetes. Preliminary studies indicate that a reduction in reactive oxygen species can assist in the normalization of the metabolic pathways involved in this syndrome. Methods This was an open label pilot study conducted with 10 overweight adults (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and ≤ 30 kg/m2) who took 100 g açai pulp twice daily for 1 month. The study endpoints included levels of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, exhaled (breath) nitric oxide metabolites (eNO) and plasma levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). The response of blood glucose, blood pressure and eNO to a standardized meal was determined at baseline and following the 30 day treatment. Results Compared to baseline, there were reductions in fasting glucose and insulin levels following the 30 day treatment (both p < 0.02). There was also a reduction in total cholesterol (p = 0.03), as well as borderline significant reductions in LDL-cholesterol and the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol (both p = 0.051). Compared to baseline, treatment with açai ameliorated the post-prandial increase in plasma glucose following the standardized meal, measured as the area under the curve (p = 0.047). There was no effect on blood pressure, hs-CRP or eNO. Conclusion In this uncontrolled pilot study, consumption

  15. [Effect of consumption of bread with amaranth (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.) on glycemic response and biochemical parameters in Sprague dawley rats].

    PubMed

    Montero-Quintero, Keyla Carolina; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Molina, Edgar Alí; Colina-Barriga, Máximo Segundo; Sánchez-Urdaneta, Adriana Beatriz

    2014-11-01

    Introducción: La incorporación de ingredientes funcionales como el amaranto (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.) en la elaboración de pan es una estrategia para aumentar el consumo de fibra, el cual está relacionado con efectos beneficiosos para la salud, mejorando la respuesta glicémica y el perfil lipídico. Materiales y métodos: Treinta ratas machos Sprague dawley se distribuyeron al azar en tres grupos: dieta de pan con 0% de amaranto (PA0, control), dieta de pan con 10% de amaranto (PA10) y dieta de pan con 20% de amaranto (PA20) para determinar el consumo de alimento, ganancia en peso, triglicéridos, colesterol total, VLDL-C, LDL-C, HDL-C, proteínas y la respuesta glicémica postpandrial. Los datos fueron analizados a través de un análisis completamente aleatorizado con 10 repeticiones, utilizando la prueba de comparación de medias de Tukey para los parámetros bioquímicos. La respuesta glicémica postprandial fue analizada por el método de medidas repetidas en el tiempo. Resultados y discusión: La ingesta diaria y la ganancia de peso no se afecto (p>0,05) en los grupos con PA10 y PA20. La concentración de glucosa, triglicéridos y proteína presentó diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p>0,05) por la diferencia de contenido de amaranto de las dietas. Los valores de colesterol total, LDL-C, factor de riesgo e índice aterogénico presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p>0,05) resultando el grupo de menor valor el formado por PA10 y PA20. En los grupos PA10 y PA20 el pico de hiperglucemia y la fase de hiperglucemia total fue más bajo, mostrando una mejor respuesta glicémica. Conclusión: el amaranto podría ser utilizado como ingrediente funcional en la elaboraciones de panes ya que permitió mejorar el perfil lipídico así como la respuesta glicémica postpandrial.

  16. Experimental study on the survival of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms--Pontederiaceae) under different oil doses and times of exposure.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Aline; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez

    2014-12-01

    In the last decades, petroleum activities have increased in the Brazilian Amazon where there is oil exploration on the Urucu River, a tributary of the Amazon River, about 600 km from the city of Manaus. Particularly, transportation via the Amazon River to reach the oil refinery in Manaus may compromise the integrity of the large floodplains that flank hundreds of kilometers of this major river. In the Amazon floodplains, plant growth and nutrient cycling are related to the flood pulse. When oil spills occur, floating oil on the water surface is dispersed through wind and wave action in the littoral region, thus affecting the vegetation of terrestrial and aquatic environments. If pollutants enter the system, they are absorbed by plants and distributed in the food chain via plant consumption, mortality, and decomposition. The effect of oil on the growth and survival of vegetation in these environments is virtually unknown. The water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] has a pantropical distribution but is native to the Amazon, often growing in high-density populations in the floodplains where it plays an important role as shelter and food source for aquatic and terrestrial biota. The species is well known for its high capacity to absorb and tolerate high levels of heavy metal ions. To study the survival and response of water hyacinth under six different oil doses, ranging from 0 to 150 ml l(-1), and five exposure times (1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days), young individuals distributed in a completely randomized design experiment composed of vessels with a single individual each were followed over a 50-day period (30-day acclimatization, 20 days under oil treatments). Growth parameters, biomass, visual changes in the plants, and pH were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days. Increasing the time of oil exposure caused a decrease in biomass, ratio of live/dead biomass and length of leaves, and an increase in the number of dead leaves. Dose of oil and time of exposure

  17. Contribution of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nutrient conditions to Fe-removal mechanisms in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Kasturiarachchi, Jagath C; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2008-05-01

    Severe contamination of water resources including groundwater with iron (Fe) due to various anthropogenic activities has been a major environmental problem in industrial areas of Sri Lanka. Hence, the use of the obnoxious weed, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in constructed wetlands (floating aquatic macrophyte-based plant treatment systems) to phytoremediate Fe-rich wastewaters seems to be an appealing option. Although several studies have documented that hyacinths are good metal-accumulating plants none of these studies have documented the ability of this plant grown under different nutrient conditions to remove heavy metals from wastewaters. This paper, therefore, reports the phytoremediation efficiencies of water hyacinth grown under different nutrient conditions for Fe-rich wastewaters in batch-type constructed wetlands. This study was conducted for 15 weeks after 1-week acclimatization by culturing young water hyacinth plants (average height of 20+/-2cm) in 590L capacity fiberglass tanks under different nutrient concentrations of 1-fold [28 and 7.7mg/L of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP), respectively], 2-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold with synthetic wastewaters containing 9.27Femg/L. Another set-up of hyacinths containing only Fe as a heavy metal but without any nutrients (i.e., 0-fold) was also studied. A mass balance was carried out to investigate the phytoremediation efficiencies and to determine the different mechanisms governing Fe removal from the wastewaters. Fe removal was largely due to phytoremediation mainly through the process of rhizofiltration and chemical precipitation of Fe2O3 and FeOH3 followed by flocculation and sedimentation. However, chemical precipitation was more significant especially during the first 3 weeks of the study. Plants grown in the 0-fold set-up showed the highest phytoremediation efficiency of 47% during optimum growth at the 6th week with a highest accumulation of 6707Femg/kg dry

  18. An account of the taxonomy and distribution of Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaetes) in the eastern Mediterranean, with notes on the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Faulwetter, Sarah; Chatzigeorgiou, Georgios; Galil, Bella S.; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The syllid fauna of three locations in Crete and Israel (eastern Mediterranean Sea) was studied, yielding 82 syllid species, many of which were found for the first time in the respective areas: Seventeen species were recorded for the first time on the Israeli coasts and 20 in Greek waters. Perkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979) and Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis Olivier et al., 2011 are new records for the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed information is given on the morphology, ecology and distribution of the species recorded for the first time in the studied areas. In addition, an update on the distribution of the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean is given and an identification key to the Mediterranean species is provided. PMID:22207817

  19. Oral treatment with Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) extract improves cardiac dysfunction and exercise intolerance in rats subjected to myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart., popularly known as “açaí”, on rats subjected to myocardial infarction (MI). Methods Hydroalcoholic extracts of açaí were obtained from a decoction of the seeds. Two male Wistar rat groups were delineated: 1) the sham-operated group (control, n = 6), with no surgical amendment, and 2) the MI group (n = 12), in which the anterior descendent coronary artery was occluded during surgery. MI group was divided into two subgroups, in which rats were either treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Euterpe oleracea seeds (100 mg/kg/day p.o.) or received no treatment. Treatment began on the day of surgery, and lasted 4 weeks. Subsequently, rats were subject to an exercise test protocol, hemodynamic evaluation, and histological analysis of the left ventricle. Groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s test. Results The total running distance of sham rats was 1339.0 ± 276.6 m, MI rats was 177.6 ± 15.8 m (P < 0.05), and MI-açaí rats was 969.9 ± 362.2 m. Systolic arterial pressure was significantly decreased in MI rats (86.88 ± 4.62 mmHg) compared to sham rats (115.30 ± 7.24 mmHg; P < 0.05). Açaí treatment prevented a reduction in systolic arterial pressure (130.00 ± 8.16 mmHg) compared to MI rats (P < 0.05). Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure was significantly augmented in MI rats (17.62 ± 1.21 mmHg) compared to sham rats (4.15 ± 1.60 mmHg; P < 0.05), but was 3.69 ± 2.69 mmHg in açaí-treated rats (P < 0.05 vs. MI). The LV relaxation rate (-dp/dt) was reduced in MI rats compared to the sham group, whereas açaí treatment prevented this reduction. Açaí treatment prevented cardiac hypertrophy and LV fibrosis in MI rats. Conclusions Euterpe oleracea treatment of MI rats prevented the development of exercise intolerance, cardiac

  20. Proyecto multidisciplinar `Marte nos visita'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, D.; Merlo, N.; Parodi, B.; Garis, A.; Peralta, G.; Rovessi, V.; Urrutia, S.; Calderón, J.; Bustos Fierro, I.; Melia, R.

    The planets Earth and Mars reached in August 2003 the most approximation in the last 58,000 years. In order to that we carried out a transversal study of red planet, joining the knowledges from several subjects of second school year of unified basic cycle (eighth basic general education) at I.P.E.M. No 249 "Nicolás Copérnico" (a public secondary institution from Córdoba, Argentine). In this study, activities in accordance with current contents has been proposed by common consents of each teacher. Besides, students visited Córdoba Astronomical Observatory in order to search informations and received a multimedia exposition about of astronomical event and a performance of the "Carl Sagan" Moveable Planetary. Finally, each student carried out practical works and wrote an integrative report, which one has been evaluated and exposed at ExpoIPEM 2003, an annual exhibition of several specialities that Institution offers in its specialization cycle (10-12 grade), where the annual students' activities are exhibited too (workshops, school projects, etc.).

  1. Middle atmospheric water vapour measurements obtained at the Maido observatory on la Réunion with a ground-based microwave radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschanz, Brigitte; Duflot, Valentin; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2014-05-01

    The ground-based microwave radiometer MIAWARA-C measures middle atmospheric water vapour profiles and is especially designed for the use on campaigns. The instrument is of a compact design, has a simple set up procedure and can be operated remotely. It has been operational for five years and has successfully participated in measurement campaigns under various climatic conditions in Germany, Switzerland, California, Finland and has started to measure on la Réunion (21S, 56E) in September 2013. Under most tropospheric conditions, the instrument can obtain water vapour profiles with a temporal resolution of approximately 2 hours. MIAWARA-C is a reliable instrument and has been validated against similar instruments and satellite experiments. The data sets obtained with MIAWARA-C offer the possibility of comparison with other ground-based instruments and with satellites as well as case studies of atmospheric dynamics. In the southern hemisphere and particularly in the tropical region ground-based measurements of the middle atmosphere are scarce. In MIAWARA-C's water vapour data set a strong seasonal cycle in the stratosphere and signatures of the Semi-Annual Oscillation in the mesosphere are expected. Additionally, the high temporal resolution of the measured data set allows the investigation of short period signals such as diurnal variations. First results after four months of measurements are presented including signatures of the Semi-Annual Oscillation and a first transition to summer condition. In addition, short-term variations observed by MIAWARA-C are analysed.

  2. Pain Reduction and Improvement in Range of Motion After Daily Consumption of an Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Pulp–Fortified Polyphenolic-Rich Fruit and Berry Juice Blend

    PubMed Central

    Ager, David M.; Redman, Kimberlee A.; Mitzner, Marcie A.; Benson, Kathleen F.; Schauss, Alexander G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Dietary interventions involving antioxidants are of interest for reducing inflammation, improving joint motion, and altering pain perception. We evaluated the effect of oral consumption of a fruit and berry blend on pain and range of motion (ROM). This open-label clinical pilot study involved 14 study participants with limitations in ROM that was associated with pain and affected daily living. Participants included but were not limited to those with age-related osteoarthritis. Study participants consumed 120 mL MonaVie Active® fruit juice, predominantly containing açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and other fruit concentrates, daily for 12 weeks. Study participants were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks by structured nurse interviews, pain and activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaires, blood samples, and ROM assessment. Pain was scored by using a visual analogue scale. ROM was assessed by using dual digital inclinometry as recommended by American Medical Association guidelines. Consumption of the juice resulted in significant pain reduction, improved ROM measures, and improvement in ADLs. Serum antioxidant status, as monitored by the cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, was improved within 2 weeks and continued to improve throughout the 12 weeks of study participation (P<.01). The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein was reduced at 12 weeks, but this change did not reach statistical significance. Lipid peroxidation decreased mildly at 12 weeks. The antioxidant status, as measured by the CAP-e bioassay, showed the best correlation with improvements in physical well-being (pain, ROM, and ADL). The significant association among increased antioxidant status, improved ROM, and pain reduction warrants further study. PMID:21470042

  3. Mollusks (Gastropoda and Bivalvia) of the Multiple-Use Reserve Martín García Island, Río de la Plata River: biodiversity and ecology.

    PubMed

    César, I I; Martín, S M; Rumi, A; Tassara, M

    2012-02-01

    The Island of Martin Garcia is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of mouth the Uruguay River. The aim of the present study was to analyse the biodiversity of the island freshwater mollusks and their relationships to environmental variables. Twelve sampling sites were selected, five were along the littoral section of the island and seven were Inland ponds. Seven major environmental variables were measured: water and air temperature, percentage of oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and pH. Twenty-seven mollusk species were found, Antillorbis nordestensis, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila , B. t. guaibensis, B. straminea, B. peregrina, Drepanotrema kermatoides, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Chilina fluminea, C. rushii, C. megastoma, Uncancylus concentricus, Hebetancylus moricandi, Stenophysa marmorata, Heleobia piscium, H. parchappii, Potamolithus agapetus, P. buschii, P. lapidum, Pomacea canaliculata, P. megastoma, Asolene platae, Corbicula fluminea, Eupera platensis, Pisidium sterkianum, P. taraguyense and Limnoperna fortunei. UPGMA clustering of species based on their occurrence in different ecological conditions revealed two main species groups. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis suggests that the species distribution is related to the physico-chemical condition of water. Axis two of the ordination diagram displayed the approximately 95.6% of the correlation between species and environmental variables. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, water temperature and pH showed the highest fluctuations during the sampling period. The species richness (S) showed relationships mainly with water temperature and conductivity. The biodiversity of the gastropods and bivalves from Martín García Island amounts to up to 26 species. Among the Gastropoda, the Planorbidae family made the most sizeable contribution. The Lithogliphidae P. agapetus (26.28%) and P. buschii (9.50%) showed the highest relative

  4. Amino acid substitutions at position 97 in HLA-A2 segregate cytolysis from cytokine release in MART-1/Melan-A peptide AAGIGILTV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Maeurer, M J; Chan, H W; Karbach, J; Salter, R D; Knuth, A; Lotze, M T; Storkus, W J

    1996-11-01

    CD8+ T lymphocytes recognize antigenic peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Individual peptide termini appear to be fixed at the C- and N-terminal ends. In contrast, central peptide side chains residues may point in different directions and exhibit limited flexibility, dependent on the MHC class I structural variation. For instance, position 97 in HLA-A201 has been shown to shift individual peptide species into different coordinations, one oriented towards the peptide N terminus, or more towards the C-terminal end. The conformational shape of such non-anchor peptide residues may affect the affinity of MHC/peptide/TCR interaction, resulting in quantitative, or qualitative different T cell effector functions. To characterize the impact of different amino acid residues occupying position 97 in HLA-A2 on peptide binding and presentation to CTL, we generated a panel of mutated HLA-A2 molecules containing either M, K, T, V, G, Q, W, P or H at position 97. The HLA-A0201 presented melanoma-associated MART-1/Melan-A derived peptide AAGIGILTV was employed to assess the impact of such position-97 mutations on HLA-A2 in peptide binding measured in an HLA-A2 reconstitution assay and presentation to AAGIGILTV-specific polyclonal or clonal T lymphocytes as measured by cytotoxicity, or interferon (IFN)-gamma and granulocyte/ macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) secretion. The high-affinity AAGIGILTV peptide bound to all position-97 mutants, albeit with differential efficiencies, and elicited specific release of IFN-gamma and GM-CSF by CTL. CTL responses were triggered only by the HLA-A2 wild type, by HLA-A2-H97 (histidine position 97 mutant), and HLA-A2-W97. The HLA-A2-M97 presenting molecule elicited enhanced cytokine release and CTL effector functions by polyclonal and by clonal effector T cells. These results indicate that MHC class I-bound peptides can trigger specific cytokine release by effector T cells independently of

  5. Comportamento stagionale delle calote polari di Marte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Giovanni, Giovanni

    2004-08-01

    The rhythms of progression and retraction of the polar ice caps on Mars have been studied to establish possible variations in polar meteorology over the course of the last centuries. The applied theoretical procedure offers a mathematical function that contains some significant physical parameters, for example the length and the beginning of spring and another parameter which depends on temperature. The numerical data for the South Polar Cap during the grand oppositions of the last 130 years has been studied with the suggested theory. Evident correlations emerge between parameters and form of the diagram of cap amplitude versus time.

  6. Secondary Metabolites from Leaves of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Fernanda Borges; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Romao, Wanderson; Vanini, Gabriela; Costa, Helber Barcelos; França, Hildegardo Seibert; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; Rocha, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Manilkara subsericea (Sapotaceae) is a species widely spread in the sandbanks of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). It is commonly known as “maçaranduba”, “maçarandubinha” and “guracica”, being used in this locality as food, and timber. However, M. subsericea remains almost unexplored regarding its chemical constituents, including secondary metabolites from the leaves. Objective: Identify the chemical constituents from the leaves of M. subsericea. Materials and Methods: Leaves were macerated with ethanol (96% v/v), and dried crude ethanolic extract was sequentially washed with the organic solvents in order to obtain an ethyl acetate fraction. Substances from this fraction were identified by different techniques, such as negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Fresh leaves from M. subsericea were also submitted to hydrodistillation in order to obtain volatile substances, which were identified by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Results: NMR1H and 13C spectra allowed for the identification of the compounds myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol from the ethyl acetate fraction. The negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry mass spectrum also revealed the presence in this fraction of a polyhydroxytriterpene acid (pomolic acid), and some flavonoids, such as quercitrin, and myricitrin. In all 34 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and long chain hydrocarbons. Conclusion: This study describes the first reports concerning the phytochemical information about leaves from M. subsericea. SUMMARY Manilkara subsericea fruits proved to be a rich source of triterpenes. However, no phytochemical studies were carried out with leaves. Thus, we described identification of volatile substances from its essential oils, in addition to non-reported triterpene and flavonoids from this species. PMID:27013790

  7. Getting Involved in the City: Teaching $mart $chool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradiso, James R.

    1992-01-01

    A community college business teacher describes his experiences in teaching innercity teenagers the basics of economics and business. The summer course used a television sitcom and participatory activities to explore success, attracting mentors, time management, and related topics. Student formative evaluations gave insight into class management…

  8. Karyotype and genome size in Euterpe Mart. (Arecaceae) species.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ludmila Cristina; de Oliveira, Maria do Socorro Padilha; Davide, Lisete Chamma; Torres, Giovana Augusta

    2016-01-01

    Euterpe (Martius, 1823), a genus from Central and South America, has species with high economic importance in Brazil, because of their palm heart and fruits, known as açaí berries. Breeding programs have been conducted to increase yield and establish cultivation systems to replace the extraction of wild material. These programs need basic information about the genome of these species to better explore the available genetic variability. The aim of this study was to compare Euterpe edulis (Martius, 1824), Euterpe oleracea (Martius, 1824) and Euterpe precatoria (Martius, 1842), with regard to karyotype, type of interphase nucleus and nuclear DNA amount. Metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei from root tip meristematic cells were obtained by the squashing technique and solid stained for microscope analysis. The DNA amount was estimated by flow cytometry. There were previous reports on the chromosome number of Euterpe edulis and Euterpe oleracea, but chromosome morphology of these two species and the whole karyotype of Euterpe precatoria are reported for the first time. The species have 2n=36, a number considered as a pleisomorphic feature in Arecoideae since the modern species, according to floral morphology, have the lowest chromosome number (2n=28 and 2n=30). The three Euterpe species also have the same type of interphase nuclei, classified as semi-reticulate. The species differed on karyotypic formulas, on localization of secondary constriction and genome size. The data suggest that the main forces driving Euterpe karyotype evolution were structural rearrangements, such as inversions and translocations that alter chromosome morphology, and either deletion or amplification that led to changes in chromosome size.

  9. Karyotype and genome size in Euterpe Mart. (Arecaceae) species

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ludmila Cristina; de Oliveira, Maria do Socorro Padilha; Davide, Lisete Chamma; Torres, Giovana Augusta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euterpe (Martius, 1823), a genus from Central and South America, has species with high economic importance in Brazil, because of their palm heart and fruits, known as açaí berries. Breeding programs have been conducted to increase yield and establish cultivation systems to replace the extraction of wild material. These programs need basic information about the genome of these species to better explore the available genetic variability. The aim of this study was to compare Euterpe edulis (Martius, 1824), Euterpe oleracea (Martius, 1824) and Euterpe precatoria (Martius, 1842), with regard to karyotype, type of interphase nucleus and nuclear DNA amount. Metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei from root tip meristematic cells were obtained by the squashing technique and solid stained for microscope analysis. The DNA amount was estimated by flow cytometry. There were previous reports on the chromosome number of Euterpe edulis and Euterpe oleracea, but chromosome morphology of these two species and the whole karyotype of Euterpe precatoria are reported for the first time. The species have 2n=36, a number considered as a pleisomorphic feature in Arecoideae since the modern species, according to floral morphology, have the lowest chromosome number (2n=28 and 2n=30). The three Euterpe species also have the same type of interphase nuclei, classified as semi-reticulate. The species differed on karyotypic formulas, on localization of secondary constriction and genome size. The data suggest that the main forces driving Euterpe karyotype evolution were structural rearrangements, such as inversions and translocations that alter chromosome morphology, and either deletion or amplification that led to changes in chromosome size. PMID:27186334

  10. EVALUATION OF THE MART CORPORATION'S EQ-1 WASTEWATER PROCESSING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA has created the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the ETV Program is to further environment...

  11. Pharmacological activity of Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Espinola, E B; Dias, R F; Mattei, R; Carlini, E A

    1997-02-01

    Mice that ingested a suspension of guarana (Paullinia cupana, Sapindaceae) in a dose of 0.3 mg/ml showed a significant increase in physical capacity when subjected to a stressful situation such as forced swimming after 100 and 200 days of treatment. Such an effect, however, was not obtained with a concentration of 3.0 mg/ml, nor with the ingestion of a suspension of ginseng 5.0 mg/ml, nor of a solution of caffeine 0.1 mg/ml. Guarana, both after a single (3.0 and 30 mg/kg) or chronic administrations (0.3 mg/ml), was able to partially reverse the amnesic effect of scopolamine as measured through a passive avoidance test in mice and rats, indicating a positive effect on memory acquisition. However, no effect was observed when an active avoidance task was used in rats, even after 20 days of guarana administration. There was also a tendency of rats treated with 0.3 mg/ml of guarana to better maintain the memory of a Lashley III maze path. The animals had the same average lifespan, indicating a low toxicity of guarana, even after 23 months of treatment.

  12. The first report on flavonoid isolation from Annona crassiflora Mart.

    PubMed

    Lage, Gisele Avelar; Medeiros, Felipe da Silva; Furtado, Werônica de Lima; Takahashi, Jacqueline Aparecida; de Souza Filho, José Dias; Pimenta, Lúcia Pinheiro Santos

    2014-01-01

    Annona crassiflora, a native tree from Brazilian Cerrado, is reported to possess several ethnomedical uses. Here, we report the isolation and unambiguous characterisation of the flavonoids quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosil(1 → 6)-O-α-L-arabinoside (1), known as peltatoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (2), quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (3), quercetin-3-O-β-L-arabinopiranoside (4) and the ( - )-epicatechin (5) from the hydroalcoholic portion of the leaf ethanolic extract. Their structures were elucidated by using 1D and 2D NMR, ESI-MS, UV/Vis spectroscopy, optical rotation analysis and literature data comparison. The leaf ethanolic extract and its isolated compounds were evaluated by using antimicrobial, antioxidant and larvicidal assays, expressing antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. This is the first report on flavonoid isolation from A. crassiflora.

  13. Landscape Genetics for the Empirical Assessment of Resistance Surfaces: The European Pine Marten (Martes martes) as a Target-Species of a Regional Ecological Network

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-González, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A.; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a direct means to investigate the effects of landscape structure on gene flow. The goals of this study are (1) to evaluate the landscape features that drive gene flow of an EN target species (European pine marten), and (2) evaluate the optimality of a regional EN design in providing connectivity for this species within the Basque Country (North Spain). Using partial Mantel tests in a reciprocal causal modeling framework we competed 59 alternative models, including isolation by distance and the regional EN. Our analysis indicated that the regional EN was among the most supported resistance models for the pine marten, but was not the best supported model. Gene flow of pine marten in northern Spain is facilitated by natural vegetation, and is resisted by anthropogenic landcover types and roads. Our results suggest that the regional EN design being implemented in the Basque Country will effectively facilitate gene flow of forest dwelling species at regional scale. PMID:25329047

  14. Landscape genetics for the empirical assessment of resistance surfaces: the European pine marten (Martes martes) as a target-species of a regional ecological network.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a direct means to investigate the effects of landscape structure on gene flow. The goals of this study are (1) to evaluate the landscape features that drive gene flow of an EN target species (European pine marten), and (2) evaluate the optimality of a regional EN design in providing connectivity for this species within the Basque Country (North Spain). Using partial Mantel tests in a reciprocal causal modeling framework we competed 59 alternative models, including isolation by distance and the regional EN. Our analysis indicated that the regional EN was among the most supported resistance models for the pine marten, but was not the best supported model. Gene flow of pine marten in northern Spain is facilitated by natural vegetation, and is resisted by anthropogenic landcover types and roads. Our results suggest that the regional EN design being implemented in the Basque Country will effectively facilitate gene flow of forest dwelling species at regional scale. PMID:25329047

  15. Landscape genetics for the empirical assessment of resistance surfaces: the European pine marten (Martes martes) as a target-species of a regional ecological network.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a direct means to investigate the effects of landscape structure on gene flow. The goals of this study are (1) to evaluate the landscape features that drive gene flow of an EN target species (European pine marten), and (2) evaluate the optimality of a regional EN design in providing connectivity for this species within the Basque Country (North Spain). Using partial Mantel tests in a reciprocal causal modeling framework we competed 59 alternative models, including isolation by distance and the regional EN. Our analysis indicated that the regional EN was among the most supported resistance models for the pine marten, but was not the best supported model. Gene flow of pine marten in northern Spain is facilitated by natural vegetation, and is resisted by anthropogenic landcover types and roads. Our results suggest that the regional EN design being implemented in the Basque Country will effectively facilitate gene flow of forest dwelling species at regional scale.

  16. [A formal description of mammals' behavior based on data on snow tracking, with pine marten (Martes martes) as a case study].

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, É D; Morozov, V V

    2014-01-01

    The formalism allowing to describe animals' behavior is based on the model of informational interactions between an animal and its environment. The model may be represented as an assemblage consisting of two blocks. The first block, which corresponds to the perception system, is a probabilistic operator: it selects an object of certain class out of many objects randomly encountered by an animal while it moves around. The selected object keeps its actuality as an input symbol for the second block of the assemblage during one or several cycles of the block operation. The second block, being afinite structural probabilistic automaton, generates output reactions to the input symbol. The structural automaton, which consists of elementary automata, produces a sequence of output reactions in course of interactions with the selected object: After exhaustion of the previous input actuality, the assemblage moves to the next cycle. At that, the probabilistic operator comes back to the receptive state and produces next output. Automaton "inputs" correspond to objects of certain classes, selectively perceived by an animal; "outputs" correspond to a sequence of elementary motor reactions. Based on data on snow tracking of pine marten foraging activity, there have been composed: the assemblage input and output alphabets, a conjugation matrix of input signals and internal states of the first elementary automaton that is contained in the second block structure, and transition probability matrices for the states of the second block elementary automata, which are defined for a class of environmental objects when foraging activity occurs. The proposed formalism makes it possible to convert field data on tracking into the unified form, detect key circumstances of animals' behavioral activity, and analyze this natural phenomenon in detail.

  17. [Genetic variability of sable Martes zibellina L., pine marten M. martes L., and their hybrids in Western Siberia: protein and DNA polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Zhigileva, O N; Politov, D V; Golovacheva, I M; Petrovicheva, S V

    2014-05-01

    Using four types of markers, the genetic variability of sable and pine marten inhabiting Western Siberia was examined. Izoenzyme and restriction endonuclease analysis of the mtDNA cytochrome b gene fragment, as well as the ISSR-PCR and analysis of microsatellite variation, revealed a low differentiation level of sable and pine marten and confirmed the hybrid origin of atypical representatives of these species. The hybrids were characterized by an increased heterozygosity level and were genetically closer to sable than to pine marten. In atypical martens, the presence of mtDNA haplotypes of eastern sable was identified. This could be the consequence of the reintroduction of the Barguzin sable in the 20th century. In Western Siberia, the introgression of genes between sable and pine marten was massive and symmetrical. It apparently occurred in the past and continues in the present.

  18. Lead tolerance of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart. - Pontederiaceae) as defined by anatomical and physiological traits.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Fabricio J; Castro, Evaristo M de; Oliveira, Cynthia de; Pires, Marinês F; Pereira, Marcio P; Ramos, Silvio J; Faquin, Valdemar

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at verifying the lead tolerance of water hyacinth and at looking at consequent anatomical and physiological modifications. Water hyacinth plants were grown on nutrient solutions with five different lead concentrations: 0.00, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00 and 4.00 mg L-1 by 20 days. Photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and the Ci/Ca rate were measured at the end of 15 days of experiment. At the end of the experiment, the anatomical modifications in the roots and leaves, and the activity of antioxidant system enzymes, were evaluated. Photosynthetic and Ci/Ca rates were both increased under all lead treatments. Leaf anatomy did not exhibit any evidence of toxicity effects, but showed modifications of the stomata and in the thickness of the palisade and spongy parenchyma in the presence of lead. Likewise, root anatomy did not exhibit any toxicity effects, but the xylem and phloem exhibited favorable modifications as well as increased apoplastic barriers. All antioxidant system enzymes exhibited increased activity in the leaves, and some modifications in roots, in the presence of lead. It is likely, therefore, that water hyacinth tolerance to lead is related to anatomical and physiological modifications such as increased photosynthesis and enhanced anatomical capacity for CO2 assimilation and water conductance.

  19. Salinity Effects on Photosynthesis and Growth in Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. 1

    PubMed Central

    Longstreth, David J.; Bolaños, Jorge A.; Smith, James E.

    1984-01-01

    Alternanthera philoxeroides, alligator weed, was grown at five different NaCl concentrations to determine the effect of salinity on factors related to the net rate of CO2 uptake (Pn). Over the range of 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl, Pn declined 51%. Stomatal conductance declined in parallel with Pn and as a result there was no reduction in intercellular CO2 concentration and therefore no reduction in the amount of CO2 available for photosynthesis. The CO2 compensation point did not change with salt stress. Increases in leaf thickness tended to compensate slightly for the negative effects of salinity on leaf cell metabolism, at least in relation to Pn. On a mesophyll cell area basis, soluble protein was relatively constant in leaves developed at 100 to 400 millimolar NaCl while total chlorophyll decreased at all salinities. Dry weight production and Pn were closely correlated in alligator weed grown at different salinities. Plants produced less leaf area per unit dry weight as salinity increased, which may aid in water conservation. PMID:16663731

  20. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from leaves of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Camila de Souza; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Lima, Rafaely Nascimento; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Diniz, Tâmara Coimbra; da Silva Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Background: Annona vepretorum (AV) is a native tree from Caatinga biome (semiarid region of Brazil) popularly known as “araticum” and “pinha da Caatinga.” Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity (AA) of the essential oil from the leaves from AV (EO-Av) collected in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Fresh leaves of AV were cut into pieces, and subjected to distillation for 2 h in a clevenger-type apparatus. Gas chromatograph (GC) analyses were performed using a mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector. The identification of the constituents was assigned on the basis of comparison of their relative retention indices. The antioxidant ability of the EO was investigated through two in vitro models such as radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and β-carotene-linoleate-model system. The positive controls (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene) were those using the standard solutions. Assays were carried out in triplicate. Results: The oil showed a total of 21 components, and 17 were identified, representing 93.9% of the crude EO. Spathulenol (43.7%), limonene (20.5%), caryophyllene oxide (8.1%) and α-pinene (5.5%) were found to be the major individual constituents. Spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide could be considered chemotaxonomic markers of these genera. The EO demonstrated weak AA. PMID:26246740

  1. L'apparizione di Marte 2007-2008: il volto mutevole del pianeta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanga, P.

    2010-02-01

    Results of visual observations and CCD imaging of Mars during the 2007-2008 are presented. The aspect of the planet was greatly influenced by an encircling dust storm starting in June 2007. The atmosphere remained dusty for several months, lowering the contrast of albedo markings. The albedo spots themselves have been modified on a large scale, producing the most relevant surface changes of the last apparitions.

  2. Phytochemical and nutrient composition of the freeze-dried amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai).

    PubMed

    Schauss, Alexander G; Wu, Xianli; Prior, Ronald L; Ou, Boxin; Patel, Dinesh; Huang, Dejian; Kababick, James P

    2006-11-01

    Euterpe oleraceae is a large palm tree indigenous to the Amazon River and its tributaries and estuaries in South America. Its fruit, known as acai, is of great economic value to native people. In this study, a standardized freeze-dried acai fruit pulp/skin powder was used for all analyses and tests. Among many findings, anthocyanins (ACNs), proanthocyanidins (PACs), and other flavonoids were found to be the major phytochemicals. Two ACNs, cyandin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside were found to be predominant ACNs; three others were also found as minor ACNs. The total content of ACNs was measured as 3.1919 mg/g dry weight (DW). Polymers were found to be the major PACs. The concentration of total PACs was calculated as 12.89 mg/g DW. Other flavonoids, namely, homoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, scoparin, and taxifolin deoxyhexose, along with several unknown flavonoids, were also detected. Resveratrol was found but at a very low concentration. In addition, components including fatty acids, amino acids, sterols, minerals, and other nutrients were analyzed and quantified. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid, total monounsaturated fatty acid, and total saturated fatty acids contributed to 11.1%, 60.2%, and 28.7% of total fatty acid. Oleic acid (53.9%) and palmitic acid (26.7%) were found to be the two dominant fatty acids. Nineteen amino acids were found; the total amino acid content was determined to be 7.59% of total weight. The total sterols accounted for 0.048% by weight of powder. The three sterols B-sitosterol, campesterol, and sigmasterol were identified. A complete nutrient analysis is also presented. Microbiological analysis was also performed.

  3. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil's Native Fruit.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Fernanda R; Arruda, Andréa F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2016-03-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit. PMID:26907338

  4. Biological Activities of Libidibia (Caesalpinia) ferrea var. parvifolia (Mart. ex Tul.) L. P. Queiroz Pod Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, A. C. C.; Ximenes, N. C. A.; Aguiar, J. S.; Nascimento, S. C.; Lins, T. U. L.; Magalhães, L. R.; Coelho, L. C. B. B.; Carneiro-da-Cunha, M. G.; Gonçalves-Silva, T.; Correia, M. T. S.

    2012-01-01

    Libidibia ferrea has been used in folk medicine throughout Brazil, and this study evaluated the biological activities of crude extract (CE) as well as a partially purified fraction (F80) obtained from its pods. Results from the MTT assay revealed that only F80 inhibited NCI-H292 cell growth; however, neither CE nor F80 reduced HEp-2 cell growth or sarcoma 180 tumor weight with the in vivo assay. Acute oral toxicity of the extract and fraction was evaluated following the steps of Guideline 423, using female mice; LD50 for both preparations was determined as 2,500 mg/kg body weight. CE and F80 promoted a reduction of the leukocyte number and nitrite level in inflammatory exudates when the anti-inflammatory assay (carrageenan-induced peritonitis) was performed. CE and F80 inhibited writhing regarding antinociceptive activity (acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice). In conclusion, CE and F80 have no significant cytotoxic or antitumor activities in cell lines showing low toxicity and no action against tumors in vivo. Both preparations revealed anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, corroborating the pharmacological basis of L. ferrea for ethnomedical use. PMID:22675382

  5. Searching for an Acidic Aquifer in the Rio Tinto Basin: First Geobiology Results of MARTE Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Stoker, C.

    2004-01-01

    Among the conceivable modern habitats to be explored for searching life on Mars are those potentially developed underground. Subsurface habitats are currently environments that, under certain physicochemical circumstances, have high thermal and hydrochemical stability [1, 2]. In planets like Mars lacking an atmospheric shield, such systems are obviously protected against radiation, which strongly alters the structure of biological macromolecules. Low porosity but fractured aquifers currently emplaced inside ancient volcano/sedimentary and hydrothermal systems act as excellent habitats [3] due to its thermal and geochemical properties. In these aquifers the temperature is controlled by a thermal balance between conduction and advection processes, which are driven by the rock composition, geological structure, water turnover of aquifers and heat generation from geothermal processes or chemical reactions [4]. Moreover, microbial communities based on chemolithotrophy can obtain energy by the oxidation of metallic ores that are currently associated to these environments. Such a community core may sustain a trophic web composed of non-autotrophic forms like heterotrophic bacteria, fungi and protozoa.

  6. Vellozia flavicans Mart. ex Schult. hydroalcoholic extract inhibits the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Snakebite is a significant public health issue in tropical countries. In Brazil, some of the most common snake envenomations are from Bothrops. Bothrops bites trigger local and systemic effects including edema, pain, erythema, cyanosis, infections, and necrosis. Vellozia flavicans is a plant from the Brazilian “cerrado” (savanna) that is popularly used as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Since inflammation develops quickly after Bothrops bites, which can lead to infection, the aim of the present study was to observe possible anti-snake venom and antimicrobial activities of V. flavicans (Vf). Methods The chromatographic profile of the main constituents from the Vf leaf hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The anti-snake venom activity was measured by Vf’s ability to neutralize the in vitro neuromuscular blockade caused by Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu) in a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm model (PND). After a 20 min incubation, preparations of PND were added to Tyrode’s solution (control); Vf (0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL); 40 μg/mL Bjssu; pre-incubation for 30 min with Bjssu and 1 mg/mL Vf; and a Bjssu pretreated preparation (for 10 min) followed by 1 mg/mL Vf. Myographic recording was performed, and the contractile responses were recorded. The antimicrobial activity (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] and minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC]) was obtained for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis, using gentamicin and vancomycin as positive controls. Results TLC analysis yielded several compounds from Vf, such as flavonoids (quercetin) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). Bjssu completely blocked the contractile responses of PND preparations, while Vf preserved 97% (±10%) of the contractile responses when incubated with Bjssu. In the PND pretreated with Bjssu, Vf was able to inhibit the neuromuscular blockade progress. MIC and MBC of Vf ranged from 2.5 to 5.0 mg/mL for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus strains, while no antimicrobial activity was observed for E. coli and E. faecalis. Conclusions The hydroalcoholic extract from Vf leaves was able to neutralize and decrease the in vitro neuromuscular blockade caused by Bjssu. However, it did not show significant antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria. PMID:24507387

  7. [Influence of anthropogenous factors on the genetic variety of the sable (Martes zibellina L.)].

    PubMed

    Kashtanov, S N; Svishcheva, G R; Lazebny, O E; Kolobkov, D S; Pishchulina, I G; Meshchersky, S L; Rozhnov, V V

    2015-01-01

    The genetic variety of seven geographic populations of sable has been studied; its distribution area stretches from the Urals to the Far East. It was shown using the panel of eight nuclear microsatellite markers that the sable populations from different geographical regions retain their individual genetic characteristics, despite the influence of anthropogenous factors (overhunting and introduction). There is a significant genetic similarity between the three populations of Central Siberia (Reynolds distances are 0.170-0.200) due to the influence of natural migrations that weaken genetic differentiation, while genetic difference is maximum (0.361) between populations located at the edges of the sable' habitat. The population of the Kamchatka Peninsula is isolated and exists as an independent phylogenetic group. An analysis of the topology of the phylogenetic tree suggests that the populations of Kamchatka and the Sikhote-Alin are closest to the ancestral form. Despite the existence of interspecific hybrids of sable and marten, the level of interspecific genetic differentiation between them is maximal.

  8. Effect of storage in overcoming seed dormancy of Annona coriacea Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Dresch, Daiane M; Scalon, Silvana P Q; Masetto, Tathiana E

    2014-10-14

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments on overcoming dormancy of A. coriacea seeds. Seeds were processed and stored in polyethylene bags at temperatures of at -18°C (42% RH), 5°C (34% RH), 15°C (60% RH) and 25°C (34% RH), during 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. After storage, seeds were immersed in 350 mg.L-1 gibberellic acid for 144 hours. Sowing was carried out in plastic bags containing Red Latosol + Bioplant®. Moisture content, emergence percentage, emergence speed index, length and dry mass of seedlings, were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial with four replications of 50 seeds each. The seed storage at 5°C and subsequent immersion in gibberellic acid was efficient to reach high percentage, emergence speed and plant growth. A. coriacea seeds showed non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy wherein the physiological component can be overcome after the seeds are storage at 5°C for a maximum period of 53 days and subsequent immersed in exogenous GA (350 mg.L-1 for 144 hours). PMID:25317731

  9. Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. attenuates the inflammatory response to carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Gustavo Oliveira; Vicente, Geison; de Carvalho, Francieli Kanumfre; Heller, Melina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) from the aerial parts of Croton antisyphiliticus, its fractions and isolated compounds derived from it on the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. The aerial parts of C. antisyphiliticus were dried, macerated and extracted with ethanol to obtain the CHE, which was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with increasing polarity to obtain hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EA) and aqueous (Aq) fractions. Vitexin and quinic acid were isolated from Aq fraction. Capillary electrophoresis analysis, physical characteristics and spectral data produced by infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify and elucidate the structure of the isolated compounds. The experimental model of pleurisy was induced in mice by a single intrapleural injection of carrageenan (1 %). Leukocytes, exudate concentrations, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine-deaminase (ADA) activities and nitrate/nitrite (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels were determined in the pleural fluid leakage at 4 h after pleurisy induction. Animals pre-treated with CHE, Hex, EA, Aq, vitexin and quinic acid exhibited decreases in leukocytes, exudate concentrations, MPO and ADA activities and NOx levels (p < 0.05). Also CHE, Hex, EA and vitexin but not quinic acid inhibited TNF-α and IL-17 levels (p < 0.05). C. antisyphiliticus caused anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activated leukocytes, exudate concentrations, NOx, TNF-α, and IL-17 levels. The compounds vitexin and quinic acid may be responsible for this anti-inflammatory action.

  10. Chromate-tolerant bacteria for enhanced metal uptake by Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.).

    PubMed

    Abou-Shanab, R A I; Angle, J S; van Berkum, P

    2007-01-01

    A total of 85 chromate-resistant bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of water hyacinth grown in Mariout Lake, Egypt, as well as the sediment and water of this habitat. Only 4 (11%), 2 (8%), and 2 (8%) of isolates from each of the environments, respectively, were able to tolerate 200 mg Cr (VI) L(-1). When these eight isolates were tested for their ability to tolerate other metals or to reduce chromate, they were shown to also be resistant to Zn, Mn, and Pb, and to display different degrees of chromate reduction (28% to 95%) under aerobic conditions. The isolates with the higher chromate reduction rates from 42% to 95%, (RA1, RA2, RA3, RA5, RA7, and RA8) were genetically diverse according to RAPD analysis using four differentprimers. Bacterial isolates RA1, RA2, RA3, RAS, and RA8 had 16 S rRNA gene sequences that were most similar to Pseudomonas diminuta, Brevundimonas diminuta, Nitrobacteria irancium, Ochrobactrum anthropi, and Bacillus cereus, respectively. Water hyacinth inoculated with RA5 and RA8 increased Mn accumulation in roots by 2.4- and 1.2-fold, respectively, compared to uninoculated controls. The highest concentrations of Cr (0.4 g kg(-1)) and Zn (0.18 g kg(-1)) were accumulated in aerial portions of water hyacinth inoculated with RA3. Plants inoculated with RA1, RA2, RA3, RA5, RA7, and RA8 had 7-, 11-, 24-, 29-, 35-, and 21-fold, respectively, higher Cr concentrations in roots compared to the control. These bacterial isolates are potential candidates in phytoremediation for chromium removal. PMID:18246718

  11. Evaluation of the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. bark in the micronucleus assay

    PubMed Central

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Resende, Marielly Reis; da Silva, Thaísla Andrielle; Públio, Juliana Yoshida; Souza, Luiz Silva; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; de Mello Silva Oliveira, Nelma; Fiorini, João Evangelista

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity (clastogenicity/aneugenicity) of a glycolic extract of Ziziphus joazeiro bark (GEZJ) by the micronucleus assay in mice bone marrow. Antimutagenic activity was also assessed using treatments associated with GEZJ and doxorubicin (DXR). Mice were evaluated 24–48 h after exposure to positive (N-nitroso-N-ethylurea, NEU - 50 mg.kg−1 and DXR - 5 mg.kg−1) and negative (150 mM NaCl) controls, as well as treatment with GEZJ (0.5–2 g.kg−1), GEZJ (2 g.kg−1) + NEU and GEZJ (2 g.kg−1) + DXR. There were no significant differences in the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in mice treated with GEJZ and GEJZ + DXR compared to the negative controls, indicating that GEZJ was not mutagenic. Analysis of the polychromatic:normochromatic erythrocyte ratio revealed significant differences in the responses to doses of 0.5 g.kg−1 and 1–2 g.kg−1 and the positive control (NEU). These results indicated no systemic toxicity and moderate toxicity at lower and higher doses of GEZJ. The lack of mutagenicity and systemic toxicity in the antimutagenic assays, especially for treatment with GEZJ + DXR, suggested that phytochemical compounds in Z. joazeiro bark attenuated DXR-induced mutagenicity and the moderate systemic toxicity of a high dose of Z. joazeiro bark (2 g.kg−1). Further studies on the genotoxicity of Z. joazeiro extracts are necessary to establish the possible health risk in humans and to determine the potential as a chemopreventive agent for therapeutic use. PMID:25071409

  12. Inhibitory effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. on nitric oxide production and iNOS expression.

    PubMed

    Matheus, Maria Eline; de Oliveira Fernandes, Sidnei Bessa; Silveira, Cristiane Silva; Rodrigues, Verônica Pinto; de Sousa Menezes, Fabio; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2006-09-19

    The palm Euterpe oleracea is a plant of great economic value in Brazil. Although the heart of palm extracted from its trunk is considered a delicacy the world over, its fruits are popular only among Brazilians. In some poor regions of Brazil, there are reports on the popular use of its juice in the treatment of several disorders, mainly those of oxidative onset as cardiovascular ones. Because of its wide utilization; because there are very few scientific studies of this species, and to discover if its use in folk medicine for problems related with oxidation is in fact justifiable, we decided, in this study, to evaluate the effects of Euterpe oleracea flowers, fruits and spikes fractions on: nitric oxide (NO) production, NO scavenger capacity, and on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase enzyme, as well. Results showed that the fractions obtained from fruits were the most potent in inhibiting NO production, followed by those from flowers and spikes. Only in high doses, did some fractions reduce cell viability. Reduction on NO production was not due to NO scavenger activity. These results were accompanied by inhibition of iNOS expression. The more pronounced effect was observed in the fractions in which the concentration of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rhamnoside were higher. To sum up, our results indicate that fractions from Euterpe oleracea inhibits NO production by reducing the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. PMID:16635558

  13. Carnivore Translocations and Conservation: Insights from Population Models and Field Data for Fishers (Martes pennanti)

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Powell, Roger A.; Zielinski, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Translocations are frequently used to restore extirpated carnivore populations. Understanding the factors that influence translocation success is important because carnivore translocations can be time consuming, expensive, and controversial. Using population viability software, we modeled reintroductions of the fisher, a candidate for endangered or threatened status in the Pacific states of the US. Our model predicts that the most important factor influencing successful re-establishment of a fisher population is the number of adult females reintroduced (provided some males are also released). Data from 38 translocations of fishers in North America, including 30 reintroductions, 5 augmentations and 3 introductions, show that the number of females released was, indeed, a good predictor of success but that the number of males released, geographic region and proximity of the source population to the release site were also important predictors. The contradiction between model and data regarding males may relate to the assumption in the model that all males are equally good breeders. We hypothesize that many males may need to be released to insure a sufficient number of good breeders are included, probably large males. Seventy-seven percent of reintroductions with known outcomes (success or failure) succeeded; all 5 augmentations succeeded; but none of the 3 introductions succeeded. Reintroductions were instrumental in reestablishing fisher populations within their historical range and expanding the range from its most-contracted state (43% of the historical range) to its current state (68% of the historical range). To increase the likelihood of translocation success, we recommend that managers: 1) release as many fishers as possible, 2) release more females than males (55–60% females) when possible, 3) release as many adults as possible, especially large males, 4) release fishers from a nearby source population, 5) conduct a formal feasibility assessment, and 6) develop a comprehensive implementation plan that includes an active monitoring program. PMID:22479336

  14. Phytochemical and nutrient composition of the freeze-dried amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euterpe oleraceae is a large palm tree indigenous to the Amazon River and its tributaries and estuaries in South America. Its fruit, known as acai, is of great economic value to native people. In this study, a standardized freeze-dried acai fruit pulp/skin powder was used for all analyses and tests....

  15. ACE inhibition by astilbin isolated from Erythroxylum gonocladum (Mart.) O.E. Schulz.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Filho, M D; Silva, G C; Cortes, S F; Mares-Guia, T R; Perpétua Ferraz, V; Serra, C P; Braga, F C

    2010-04-01

    Erythroxylum species have several traditional uses in different countries, including the treatment of hypertension. The ethanol extract from E. gonocladum aerial parts, a species endemic to the Brazilian cerrado, elicited a concentration-dependent inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) (pIC(50)=4.53+/-0.05). Extract fractionation led to the isolation of two compounds, whose structures were assigned by spectrometric data as astilbin and beta-sitosterol, along with a mixture of palmitic, stearic and linolenic acids. This is the first report on the occurrence of these compounds on E. gonocladum. Astilbin promoted significant ACE inhibition in vitro (pIC(50)=5.86+/-0.33) and its activity did not differ from captopril, when both compounds were assayed at 10 microM concentration.

  16. [Approaches to pregnancy diagnosis in the sable (Martes zibellina, Mustelidae, Carnivora) by noninvasive methods: postimplantation period].

    PubMed

    Rozhnov, V V; Chernova, I E; Naĭdenko, S V

    2008-01-01

    To develop a reliable approach to pregnancy diagnosis in sables based on noninvasive methods of hormonal status assessment, the concentrations of immunoreactive compounds (IRC) binding with antibodies to progesterone have been measured in the feces of females at different stages of the reproductive cycle. The results show that this concentration is higher in truly pregnant than in mated but nonreproducing females. An increase in the IRC concentration relative to its individual baseline level may be regarded as a reliable indication of true pregnancy.

  17. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) offers protection against gastric lesions induced by ethanol and indomethacin in rats.

    PubMed

    Campos, A R; Barros, A I S; Santos, F A; Rao, V S N

    2003-12-01

    The effects of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract were analyzed in rats on acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol and indomethacin and were compared to those produced by caffeine, a methylxanthine. Guarana (50 and 100 mg/kg p.o.) pretreated animals showed a significant reduction in the severity of gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol in a manner similar to caffeine (20 and 30 mg/kg p.o.). Against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration, guarana at a higher dose offered significant protection but caffeine was ineffective at the doses tested. In 4 h pylorus-ligated rats, both guarana and caffeine caused significant diminution in the gastric secretory volume as well as the total acidity. Gastrointestinal transit in mice was not significantly affected by either of these agents. These findings indicate that guarana has a gastroprotective property that needs further elucidation as regards to its mechanism.

  18. Chemopreventive effects of Paullinia cupana Mart var. sorbilis, the guaraná, on mouse hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fukumasu, Heidge; da Silva, Tereza Cristina; Avanzo, José Luis; de Lima, Cyntia Esteves; Mackowiak, Ivone Isabel; Atroch, André; de Souza Spinosa, Helenice; Moreno, Fernando Salvador; Dagli, Maria Lucia Zaidan

    2006-02-20

    Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) is originally from Amazon, Brazil. Its effects on mouse hepatocarcinogenesis have been investigated in this study. Mice were treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN), received three different doses of P. cupana added to commercial food, and euthanized after 25 weeks. Gross lesions were quantified, and preneoplastic lesions (PNL) were histologically measured. Cellular proliferation was evaluated by immunobloting for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The incidence and multiplicity of macroscopic lesions were reduced. The PNL number and PCNA expression were reduced in the highest P. cupana dose. According to these results, guaraná presented inhibitory effects on DEN hepatocarcinogenesis in mice.

  19. Low Titers of Canine Distemper Virus Antibody in Wild Fishers (Martes pennanti) in the Eastern USA.

    PubMed

    Peper, Steven T; Peper, Randall L; Mitcheltree, Denise H; Kollias, George V; Brooks, Robert P; Stevens, Sadie S; Serfass, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects species in the order Carnivora. Members of the family Mustelidae are among the species most susceptible to CDV and have a high mortality rate after infection. Assessing an animal's pathogen or disease load prior to any reintroduction project is important to help protect the animal being reintroduced, as well as the wildlife and livestock in the area of relocation. We screened 58 fishers for CDV antibody prior to their release into Pennsylvania, US, as part of a reintroduction program. Five of the 58 (9%) fishers had a weak-positive reaction for CDV antibody at a dilution of 1:16. None of the fishers exhibited any clinical sign of canine distemper while being held prior to release.

  20. Salinity effects on photosynthesis and growth in Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. ) Griseb

    SciTech Connect

    Longstreth, D.J.; Bolanos, J.A.; Smith, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    Alternanthera philoxeroides, alligator weed, was grown at five different NaCl concentrations to determine the effect of salinity on factors related to the net rate of CO/sub 2/ uptake (P/sub n/). Over the range of 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl, P/sub n/ declined 51%. Stomatal conductance declined in parallel with P/sub n/ and as a result there was no reduction in intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentrations and therefore no reduction in the amount of CO/sub 2/ available for photosynthesis. The CO/sub 2/ compensation point did not change with salt stress. Increases in leaf thickness tended to compensate slightly for the negative effects of salinity on leaf cell metabolism, at least in relation to P/sub n/. On a mesophyll cell area basis, soluble protein was relatively constant in leaves developed at 100 to 400 millimolar NaCl while total chlorophyll decreased at all salinities. Dry weight production and P/sub n/ were closely correlated in alligator weed grown at different salinities. Plants produced less leaf area per unit dry weight as salinity increased, which may aid in water conservation. 26 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  1. [Etiological factors of fungemia in the Hospital San Martín in La Plata].

    PubMed

    Mestroni, S C; Verna, J A; Smolkin, A; Bava, A J

    2003-01-01

    To determine the distribution of etiologic agents of fungemia in San Martin Hospital, La Plata, we retrospectively studied 81 consecutive episodes of fungemia, diagnosed in 46 adults and 35 preterm newborn (PNB) hospitalized from November 1998 to August 2001. The diagnosis was achieved by blood culture obtained by venipuncture and by catheter aspiration and was processed using BactAlert and lysis-centrifugation technique. Isolated yeasts were identified employing API 32C system and additional tests. Candida parapsilosis (28.4%), C. albicans (25.9%) and C. tropicalis (25.9%) were predominant as etiological agents (80%). Other species of Candida (C. pelliculosa, C. kefyr and C. guillermondii), Malassezia pachydermatis, Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum were recovered in low percentage (each one < or = 7%). C. parapsilosis was predominant as causative agent among PNB male (47.4%), C. albicans among adult women (41.7%) and C. tropicalis among adult men (32.3%). The species of Candida (C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. albicans) were predominant as etiologic agents of fungemia, with a different distribution in the episodes which occurred in adults and PNB patients, and also according to gender in both groups. PMID:12920994

  2. Liver metabolic and histopathological profile in finishing lambs fed licuri (Syagrus coronata(Mart.)Becc.) cake.

    PubMed

    Costa, Jonival Barreto; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Silva, Thadeu Mariniello; Ayres, Maria Consuêlo Caribé; Estrela-Lima, Alessandra; Carvalho, Silvana Texeira; Ribeiro, Rebeca Dantas Xavier; de Cruz, Géssica Ariane Melo

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of including licuri cake in the diet of Santa Inês crossbred finishing lambs by examining their liver metabolic and histopathological profile. Forty-four uncastrated lambs with an average age of 6 months and an average weight of 21.2 kg ± 2.7 kg. The animals were fed diets with 40 % Tifton 85 hay and 60 % of a mixture consisting of corn and soybean meal, 1 % urea, a mineral-vitamin premix, and an inclusion of licuri cake at a level of 0, 8, 16, and 24 % of the dietary dry matter (DM), which composed the treatments. The experimental design was completely randomized, and the data were analyzed by variance and regression analyses. The animals were confined in individual stalls for 70 days. Blood was collected on the last day of the experimental period, and metabolite, protein, energy, and enzyme profiles of the liver were determined for these samples. Histopathological evaluations of the liver parenchyma were also undertaken. The increase in the level of the licuri cake in the diet caused a linear increase (P < 0.05) in the serum urea content. The protein metabolism was not affected by the licuri cake inclusion levels in the diet. Regarding energy metabolism, a linear increase (P < 0.01) was observed in the serum triglyceride concentrations, but there were no effects on serum cholesterol levels. Regarding the functioning of the liver and muscle, the inclusion of the licuri cake had no effect on the enzymatic activities, except on gamma-glutamyltransferase, which decreased linearly (P < 0.05). The values found for the evaluated parameters varied within a range considered normal for this species. In the postmortem examination at slaughter, no macroscopic alterations in the liver were observed. Histopathological analysis revealed the presence of discrete and nonspecific alterations common to all treatments, suggesting no effect of the level of inclusion of the licuri cake. The use of the licuri cake in composing up to 24 % of the diet did not cause metabolic or liver disorders in the lambs.

  3. In vivo antimalarial efficacy of acetogenins, alkaloids and flavonoids enriched fractions from Annona crassiflora Mart.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Lúcia Pinheiro Santos; Garcia, Giani Martins; Gonçalves, Samuel Geraldo do Vale; Dionísio, Bárbara Lana; Braga, Erika Martins; Mosqueira, Vanessa Carla Furtado

    2014-01-01

    Annona crassiflora and Annonaceae plants are known to be used to treat malaria by traditional healers. In this work, the antimalarial efficacy of different fractions of A. crassiflora, particularly acetogenin, alkaloids and flavonoid-rich fractions, was determined in vivo using Plasmodium berghei-infected mice model and toxicity was accessed by brine shrimp assay. The A. crassiflora fractions were administered at doses of 12.5 mg/kg/day in a 4-day test protocol. The results showed that some fractions from woods were rich in acetogenins, alkaloids and terpenes, and other fractions from leaves were rich in alkaloids and flavonoids. The parasitaemia was significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.001) reduced (57-75%) with flavonoid and alkaloid-rich leaf fractions, which also increased mean survival time of mice after treatment. Our results confirm the usage of this plant in folk medicine as an antimalarial remedy.

  4. Effect of storage in overcoming seed dormancy of Annona coriacea Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Dresch, Daiane M; Scalon, Silvana P Q; Masetto, Tathiana E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments on overcoming dormancy of A. coriacea seeds. Seeds were processed and stored in polyethylene bags at temperatures of at -18°C (42% RH), 5°C (34% RH), 15°C (60% RH) and 25°C (34% RH), during 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. After storage, seeds were immersed in 350 mg.L-1 gibberellic acid for 144 hours. Sowing was carried out in plastic bags containing Red Latosol + Bioplant®. Moisture content, emergence percentage, emergence speed index, length and dry mass of seedlings, were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial with four replications of 50 seeds each. The seed storage at 5°C and subsequent immersion in gibberellic acid was efficient to reach high percentage, emergence speed and plant growth. A. coriacea seeds showed non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy wherein the physiological component can be overcome after the seeds are storage at 5°C for a maximum period of 53 days and subsequent immersed in exogenous GA (350 mg.L-1 for 144 hours).

  5. Low Titers of Canine Distemper Virus Antibody in Wild Fishers (Martes pennanti) in the Eastern USA.

    PubMed

    Peper, Steven T; Peper, Randall L; Mitcheltree, Denise H; Kollias, George V; Brooks, Robert P; Stevens, Sadie S; Serfass, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects species in the order Carnivora. Members of the family Mustelidae are among the species most susceptible to CDV and have a high mortality rate after infection. Assessing an animal's pathogen or disease load prior to any reintroduction project is important to help protect the animal being reintroduced, as well as the wildlife and livestock in the area of relocation. We screened 58 fishers for CDV antibody prior to their release into Pennsylvania, US, as part of a reintroduction program. Five of the 58 (9%) fishers had a weak-positive reaction for CDV antibody at a dilution of 1:16. None of the fishers exhibited any clinical sign of canine distemper while being held prior to release. PMID:26555109

  6. [Topological Conflicts in Phylogenetic Analysis of Different Regions of the Sable (Martes zibellina L.) Mitochondrial Genome].

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, B A; Derenko, M V; Denisova, G A; Litvinov, A N

    2015-08-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of different regions of the mitochondrial genome of the sable showed the presence of several topologies of phylogenetic trees, but the most statistically significant topology is A-BC, which was obtained as a result of the analysis of the mitochondrial genome as a whole, as well as of the individual CO1, ND4, and ND5 genes. Analysis of the intergroup divergence of the mtDNA haplotypes (Dxy) indicated that the maximum Dxy values between A and BC groups were accompanied by minimum differences between B and C groups only for six genes showing the A-BC topology (12S rRNA; CO1, CO2, ND4, ND5, and CYTB). It is assumed that the topological conflicts observed in the analysis of individual sable mtDNA genes are associated with the uneven distribution of mutations along the mitochondrial genome and the mitochondrial tree. This may be due to random causes, as well as the nonuniform effect of selection. PMID:26601491

  7. Antimicrobial, antiviral and cytotoxic activity of extracts and constituents from Polygonum spectabile Mart.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Geraldo Célio; Kroon, Erna Gessien; Duarte, Maria Gorette R; Braga, Fernão Castro; de Souza Filho, José Dias; de Oliveira, Alaíde Braga

    2010-10-01

    Polygonum spectabile is used in Brazil for treatment of several infection diseases. Extracts and constituents isolated from this species were evaluated for cytotoxicity and effects on 15 bacterias and yeasts as well on 4 viruses strains (HHV-1, VACV-WR, EMCV, DEN-2). Less polar extracts were effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtillis, Micrococcus luteus, M. canis and Tricophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum. Two known chalcones and 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-β-sitosterol were isolated. The ethanol extract was the only one to show antiviral activity (CE50 < 30 μg/ml). One chalcone has inhibited the growth of several bacteria and was significantly active against dermathophytes. The 3 compounds isolated have shown moderate cytotoxicity against Vero and LLCMK(2) cells (CC(50) < 50 μg/ml). These results support the use of P. spectabile as antimicrobial agent. PMID:20382006

  8. Effect of storage in overcoming seed dormancy of Annona coriacea Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Dresch, Daiane M; Scalon, Silvana P Q; Masetto, Tathiana E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments on overcoming dormancy of A. coriacea seeds. Seeds were processed and stored in polyethylene bags at temperatures of at -18°C (42% RH), 5°C (34% RH), 15°C (60% RH) and 25°C (34% RH), during 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. After storage, seeds were immersed in 350 mg.L-1 gibberellic acid for 144 hours. Sowing was carried out in plastic bags containing Red Latosol + Bioplant®. Moisture content, emergence percentage, emergence speed index, length and dry mass of seedlings, were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial with four replications of 50 seeds each. The seed storage at 5°C and subsequent immersion in gibberellic acid was efficient to reach high percentage, emergence speed and plant growth. A. coriacea seeds showed non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy wherein the physiological component can be overcome after the seeds are storage at 5°C for a maximum period of 53 days and subsequent immersed in exogenous GA (350 mg.L-1 for 144 hours). PMID:25590742

  9. Neuroprotective Effects of Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) against Rotenone In Vitro Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Andreazza, Ana Cristina; da Silva, Tatiane Morgana; do Nascimento, Vanusa; Duong, Angela; Ribeiro, Euler Esteves

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric diseases, such as bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), have a very complex pathophysiology. Several current studies describe an association between psychiatric illness and mitochondrial dysfunction and consequent cellular modifications, including lipid, protein, and DNA damage, caused by cellular oxidative stress. Euterpe oleracea (açaí) is a powerful antioxidant fruit. Açaí is an Amazonian palm fruit primarily found in the lowlands of the Amazonian rainforest, particularly in the floodplains of the Amazon River. Given this proposed association, this study analyzed the potential in vitro neuropharmacological effect of Euterpe oleracea (açaí) extract in the modulation of mitochondrial function and oxidative metabolism. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with rotenone to induce mitochondrial complex I dysfunction and before and after we exposed the cells to açaí extract at 5 μg/mL. Treated and untreated cells were then analyzed by spectrophotometric, fluorescent, immunological, and molecular assays. The results showed that açaí extract can potentially increase protein amount and enzyme activity of mitochondrial complex I, mainly through NDUFS7 and NDUFS8 overexpression. Açaí extract was also able to decrease cell reactive oxygen species levels and lipid peroxidation. We thus suggest açaí as a potential candidate for drug development and a possible alternative BD therapy. PMID:27781077

  10. Faculty Distance Courseware Ownership and the "Wal-Mart" Approach to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talab, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    Whether by choice or necessity, colleges and universities are in competition with each other for the burgeoning web-based course market. Spurred by the growth of the for-profits such as the University of Phoenix, institutions have reasons, both practical and philosophical,"...to secure a position in ownership and control of faculty-produced…

  11. From Wall Street to Wal-Mart: Why College Graduates Are Not Getting Good Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard; Denhart, Christopher; Denhart, Matthew; Matgouranis, Christopher; Robe, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    There are many reasons for pursing a higher education. For most persons, a significant, maybe even the dominant reason, for going to college is that it supposedly will improve one's prospect of acquiring a good job. In a sense, a college degree has long been considered a ticket to the middle class--an adult life with a good income and relatively…

  12. Determining Value in Higher Education: The Future of Instructional Technology in a Wal-Mart Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Wilfred

    1992-01-01

    Discusses value and the economy and examines the changing definition of educational value regarding higher education. Trends in instructional technology resulting from changes in expected educational value are described, including resource sharing, specialization, market expansion, privatization, easier human-machine interfaces, feedback systems,…

  13. Mercury heavy-metal-induced physiochemical changes and genotoxic alterations in water hyacinths [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)].

    PubMed

    Malar, Srinivasan; Sahi, Shivendra Vikram; Favas, Paulo J C; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2015-03-01

    Mercury heavy metal pollution has become an important environmental problem worldwide. Accumulation of mercury ions by plants may disrupt many cellular functions and block normal growth and development. To assess mercury heavy metal toxicity, we performed an experiment focusing on the responses of Eichhornia crassipes to mercury-induced oxidative stress. E. crassipes seedlings were exposed to varying concentrations of mercury to investigate the level of mercury ions accumulation, changes in growth patterns, antioxidant defense mechanisms, and DNA damage under hydroponics system. Results showed that plant growth rate was significantly inhibited (52 %) at 50 mg/L treatment. Accumulation of mercury ion level were 1.99 mg/g dry weight, 1.74 mg/g dry weight, and 1.39 mg/g dry weight in root, leaf, and petiole tissues, respectively. There was a decreasing trend for chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids with increasing the concentration of mercury ions. Both the ascorbate peroxidase and malondialdehyde contents showed increased trend in leaves and roots up to 30 mg/L mercury treatment and slightly decreased at the higher concentrations. There was a positive correlation between heavy metal dose and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase antioxidative enzyme activities which could be used as biomarkers to monitor pollution in E. crassipes. Due to heavy metal stress, some of the normal DNA bands were disappeared and additional bands were amplified compared to the control in the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profile. Random amplified polymorphic DNA results indicated that genomic template stability was significantly affected by mercury heavy metal treatment. We concluded that DNA changes determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA assay evolved a useful molecular marker for detection of genotoxic effects of mercury heavy metal contamination in plant species.

  14. Dietary supplementation with the polyphenol-rich açaí pulps (Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart.) improves cognition in aged rats and attenuates inflammatory signaling in BV-2 microglial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: The present study was carried out to determine if lyophilized acai fruit pulp (genus, Euterpe), rich in polyphenolics and other bioactive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals, is efficacious in reversing age-related cognitive deficits in aged rats. Methods: The diets of 19-mo...

  15. Açai Palm Fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Pulp Improves Survival of Flies on a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoping; Seeberger, Jeanne; Alberico, Thomas; Wang, Chunxu; Wheeler, Charles T.; Schauss, Alexander G.; Zou, Sige

    2010-01-01

    Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at the organismal level. Here we evaluated the effect of açai pulp on modulating lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that açai supplementation at 2% in the food increased the lifespan of female flies fed a high fat diet compared to the non-supplemented control. We measured transcript changes induced by açai for age-related genes. Although transcript levels of most genes tested were not altered, açai increased the transcript level of l(2)efl, a small heat-shock-related protein, and two detoxification genes, gstD1 and mtnA, while decreasing the transcript level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck), a key gene involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, açai increased the lifespan of oxidative stressed females caused by sod1 RNAi. This suggests that açai improves survival of flies fed a high fat diet through activation of stress response pathways and suppression of Pepck expression. Açai has the potential to antagonize the detrimental effect of fat in the diet and alleviate oxidative stress in aging. PMID:20080168

  16. Production, partial purification and characterization of protease from a phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria solani (Ell. and Mart.) Sorauer.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2014-08-01

    An alkaline serine protease producing strain Alternaria solani was optimized for its enzyme production under submerged conditions. The maximum production of protease by A. solani was achieved by using sodium nitrate at the optimum concentration of 0.2% w/v. A. solani produced higher quantities (3.75 [unit/mg of protein]) of an inducible extracellular proteases on day 9 after incubation in czapek's dox broth medium amended with 1% casein as an inducer at pH 8.5, temperature 27 °C and 3% sucrose as carbon source. Extracellular proteases were precipitated by ammonium sulphate saturation (80%) method and purified on Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The molecular mass of SDS-PAGE and Sephadex G-100 Column Gel permeation chromatography purified protease was estimated to 42 kDa. In addition, trypsin digestion of 42 kDa protein band was carried out and analyzed by MALDI-TOF for the identification of protease. The sequence IKELATNGVVTNVK (378-391) segment of the alkaline serine protease was found by using MS/MS spectrum at 1485 m/z from the purified fraction. It showed optimal activity at 50 °C and pH 9-10 and broad pH stability between pH 6-12. The protease activity was inhibited by phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), all the results indicated that the presence of a serine residue in the active site and is thus most likely a member of the serine protease family. This may function as a virulence protein during pathogenesis by A. solani. The results suggested that the presence of appreciable extracellular proteolytic activity in filamentous fungi may serve as a marker of their phytopathogenicity.

  17. Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): 2003 Drilling Campaign to Search for a Subsurface Biosphere at Rio Tinto Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C.; Dunagan, S.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Fernández, D.; Hall, J.; Lynch, K.; Cannon, H.; Zavaleta, J.; Glass, B.; Lemke, L.

    2004-03-01

    The results of an drilling experiment to search for a subsurface biosphere in a pyritic mineral deposit at Rio Tinto, Spain, are described. The experiment provides ground truth for a simulation of a Mars drilling mission to search for subsurface life.

  18. Açai palm fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp improves survival of flies on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoping; Seeberger, Jeanne; Alberico, Thomas; Wang, Chunxu; Wheeler, Charles T; Schauss, Alexander G; Zou, Sige

    2010-03-01

    Reducing oxidative damage is thought to be an effective aging intervention. Açai, a fruit indigenous to the Amazon, is rich in phytochemicals that possesses high anti-oxidant activities, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular disease properties. However, little is known about its potential anti-aging properties especially at the organismal level. Here we evaluated the effect of açai pulp on modulating lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that açai supplementation at 2% in the food increased the lifespan of female flies fed a high fat diet compared to the non-supplemented control. We measured transcript changes induced by açai for age-related genes. Although transcript levels of most genes tested were not altered, açai increased the transcript level of l(2)efl, a small heat-shock-related protein, and two detoxification genes, GstD1 and MtnA, while decreasing the transcript level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck), a key gene involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, açai increased the lifespan of oxidative stressed females caused by sod1 RNAi. This suggests that açai improves survival of flies fed a high fat diet through activation of stress response pathways and suppression of Pepck expression. Açai has the potential to antagonize the detrimental effect of fat in the diet and alleviate oxidative stress in aging.

  19. Inhibitory effect of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp on IgE-mediated mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Tomoko; Ishiguro, Nahoko; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Ogi, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao; Hori-Tamura, Naoko

    2011-05-25

    The palm fruit açaí is known to have potential health benefits due to its antioxidant scavenging capacities. Pretreatment of IgE-sensitized mouse primary cultured mast cells with açaí pulp resulted in the dramatic suppression of antigen-induced degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, açaí suppressed IgE-mediated degranulation and transcription of the cytokine genes from a cultured mast cell line of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Açaí could selectively inhibit FcεRI signaling pathways. Furthermore, the FcεRI-mediated complementary signaling pathway was also suppressed by açaí. These results demonstrate that açaí is a potent inhibitor of IgE-mediated mast cell activation.

  20. Antioxidant capacity and other bioactivities of the freeze-dried Amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai).

    PubMed

    Schauss, Alexander G; Wu, Xianli; Prior, Ronald L; Ou, Boxin; Huang, Dejian; Owens, John; Agarwal, Amit; Jensen, Gitte S; Hart, Aaron N; Shanbrom, Edward

    2006-11-01

    The fruit of Euterpe oleraceae, commonly known as acai, has been demonstrated to exhibit significantly high antioxidant capacity in vitro, especially for superoxide and peroxyl scavenging, and, therefore, may have possible health benefits. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of freeze-dried acai fruit pulp/skin powder (OptiAcai) were evaluated by different assays with various free radical sources. It was found to have exceptional activity against superoxide in the superoxide scavenging (SOD) assay, the highest of any food reported to date against the peroxyl radical as measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay with fluorescein as the fluorescent probe (ORACFL), and mild activity against both the peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radical by the peroxynitrite averting capacity (NORAC) and hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) assays, respectively. The SOD of acai was 1614 units/g, an extremely high scavenging capacity for O2*-, by far the highest of any fruit or vegetable tested to date. Total phenolics were also tested as comparison. In the total antioxidant (TAO) assay, antioxidants in acai were differentiated into "slow-acting" and "fast-acting" components. An assay measuring inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in freshly purified human neutrophils showed that antioxidants in acai are able to enter human cells in a fully functional form and to perform an oxygen quenching function at very low doses. Furthermore, other bioactivities related to anti-inflammation and immune functions were also investigated. Acai was found to be a potential cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibitor. It also showed a weak effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide but no effect on either lymphocyte proliferation and phagocytic capacity.

  1. Lipid composition of wild ecuadorian Theobroma subincanum Mart. seeds and comparison with two varieties of Theobroma cacao L.

    PubMed

    Bruni, R; Bianchini, E; Bettarello, L; Sacchetti, G

    2000-03-01

    The present work analyzes the lipid fraction from seeds of wild Ecuadorian Theobroma subincanum and selected commercial varieties of Theobroma cacao from Mexico (var. Criollo) and Ecuador (var. Arriba). The lipid fraction was obtained from the seeds through supercritical fluid extraction and analysis performed by preparatory thin-layer chromatography followed by gas chromatography. The results revealed that in T. subincanum the triglycerides contain fatty acids with longer chains. The melting point and peroxide and saponifiable numbers were determined for each Theobroma sample. The results lead to the conclusion that T. subincanum would produce a poorer quality butter than T. cacao. Nevertheless, the results do point toward a significant commercial use of T. subincanum for low-profile products.

  2. Polyphenolic Composition and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Osmotic Fragility and Cytotoxic Effects of Raphiodon echinus (Nees & Mart.) Schauer.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Antonia Eliene; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Roversi, Katiane; da Silva, Maria Arlene Pessoa; Barros, Luiz Marivando; da Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Burger, Marilise Escobar

    2015-12-29

    Raphiodon echinus (R. echinus) is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, coughs, and infectious diseases. However, no information is available on the potential antioxidant, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of this plant. In this study, the polyphenolic constituents, antioxidant capacity and potential toxic effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of R. echinus on human erythrocytes and leukocytes were investigated for the first time. R. echinus extracts showed the presence of Gallic, chlorogenic, caffeic and ellagic acids, rutin, quercitrin and quercetin. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of R. echinus exhibited antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging with IC50 = 111.9 μg/mL (EtOH extract) and IC50 = 227.9 μg/mL (aqueous extract). The extracts inhibited Fe(2+) (10 μM) induced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation in rat brain and liver homogenates. The extracts (30-480 μg/mL) did not induce genotoxicity, cytotoxicity or osmotic fragility in human blood cells. The findings of this present study therefore suggest that the therapeutic effect of R. echinus may be, in part, related to its antioxidant potential. Nevertheless, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to ascertain the safety margin of its use in folk medicine.

  3. No More Shopping for Grades at B-Mart; Re-Establishing Grades as Indicators of Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Gregory; Baines, Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    The report card grade has come to serve a variety of purposes: (1) Substantiation for state funding; (2) A public relations opportunity to help generate positive feelings between a school and the community; (3) A vehicle used by the teacher to increase a student's self-esteem; (4) An opportunity to reward a student's likability; and (5) A chance…

  4. Advantage of Guaraná (Paullinia cupana Mart.) supplementation on cadmium-induced damages in testis of adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rodrigo P; Predes, Fabrícia S; Monteiro, Juliana C; Freitas, Karine M; Wada, Ronaldo S; Dolder, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Paullinia cupana is an Amazonian bush whose seeds have long been used in folk medicine. However, most of the therapeutic properties attributed to this plant are broad and nonspecific, although an antioxidant activity has been reported.  On the other hand, cadmium is a heavy metal known for increasing free radicals, hence resulting in cellular oxidative damages. This study was designed to evaluate whether Paullinia cupana is able to reduce cadmium-induced morphological impairment in Wistar rat testis. Adult male Wistar rats 110 days old were ip injected with cadmium (1.15 mg/kg BW [body weight]) and subsequently treated with P. cupana during 56 days.  Furthermore, groups receiving either P. cupana extract or cadmium are mentioned. After the treatment period, testis samples were subjected to histological and stereological analyses. Moderate to severe testicular impairments were shown by the animals exposed to cadmium. However, the animals supplemented with P. cupana after cadmium exposure showed a significant decrease in the proportion of damaged seminiferous tubules. Also, P. cupana supplementation was effective in maintaining the number of Leydig cells per testis in the animals exposed to cadmium. In conclusion, P. cupana supplementation was partially efficient in preventing cadmium from damaging the testis of adult Wistar rats. PMID:22659242

  5. Phytochemical Analysis and Modulation of Antibiotic Activity by Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) in Multiresistant Clinical Isolates of Candida Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Calixto Júnior, João T.; Morais, Selene M.; Martins, Clécio G.; Vieira, Larissa G.; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B.; Carneiro, Joara N. P.; Machado, Antonio J. P.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of fungal infections has led to the continuous search for new drugs. Extracts of Luehea paniculata, a tree of multiple medicinal uses, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity, as well as its modulator potential of the Fluconazole antibiotic. Chemical prospecting of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark was carried out, the quantification of total phenols and flavonoids, characterized by the HPLC-DAD technique. The rosmarinic acid and the vitexin flavonoid were observed as major constituents in ELELP and ESWELP, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated by the method of scavenging the free radical DPPH, and quercetin was used as standard, obtaining IC50 values: 0.341 (mg/mL) for ELELP and 0.235 (mg/mL) for ESWELP. The microdilution assay was performed for antifungal activity against strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values ≥1024 μg/mL. In the modulator action of extracts on Fluconazole against multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida (subinhibitory concentration minimum of 128 μg/mL), a significant synergism was observed, indicating that the extracts potentiated the antifungal effect against C. tropicalis, where antioxidant flavonoids could be responsible. This is the first report about modifying activity of the antibiotic action of a species of the genus Luehea. PMID:25821822

  6. SoMART, a web server for miRNA, tasiRNA and target gene analysis in Solanaceae plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant micro(mi)RNAs and trans-acting small interfering (tasi)RNAs mediate posttranscriptional silencing of genes and play important roles in a variety of biological processes. Although bioinformatics prediction and small (s)RNA cloning are the key approaches used for identification of miRNAs, tasiRN...

  7. Human perceptions of landscape change: The case of a monodominant forest of Attalea speciosa Mart ex. Spreng (Northeast Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Gabriela M A; Ramos, Marcelo A; Araújo, Elcida L; Baldauf, Cristina; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2016-05-01

    From the perception of human populations, we can assess the changes occurring in certain landscapes and the factors that cause those changes. Such studies have proven helpful in increasing the knowledge of the history of a landscape, recognizing past formations and projecting its future. Our research objective was to determine how a landscape dominated by the palm tree Attalea speciosa, a species of ecological, economic, and cultural importance, has been changing over time by synthesizing and comparing historical documents and local perceptions. This study was conducted in Araripe Environmental Protection Area, Northeast Region, Brazil. To understand local landscape change, we interviewed active harvesters in four communities in which A. speciosa use has been documented. Historical documents were evaluated as a complement to the interview data. According to local informants, areas previously used for cultivation and animal husbandry that were abandoned or decimated by droughts in the region may have fostered the expansion of a monodominant A. speciosa forest. Furthermore, other forms of landscape management resulting from human population growth may also have affected the current and past distribution of this forest.

  8. Inferring Population Genetic Structure in Widely and Continuously Distributed Carnivores: The Stone Marten (Martes foina) as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Vergara, María; Basto, Mafalda P; Madeira, María José; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamín J; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Fernandes, Carlos; Ruiz-González, Aritz

    2015-01-01

    The stone marten is a widely distributed mustelid in the Palaearctic region that exhibits variable habitat preferences in different parts of its range. The species is a Holocene immigrant from southwest Asia which, according to fossil remains, followed the expansion of the Neolithic farming cultures into Europe and possibly colonized the Iberian Peninsula during the Early Neolithic (ca. 7,000 years BP). However, the population genetic structure and historical biogeography of this generalist carnivore remains essentially unknown. In this study we have combined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing (621 bp) and microsatellite genotyping (23 polymorphic markers) to infer the population genetic structure of the stone marten within the Iberian Peninsula. The mtDNA data revealed low haplotype and nucleotide diversities and a lack of phylogeographic structure, most likely due to a recent colonization of the Iberian Peninsula by a few mtDNA lineages during the Early Neolithic. The microsatellite data set was analysed with a) spatial and non-spatial Bayesian individual-based clustering (IBC) approaches (STRUCTURE, TESS, BAPS and GENELAND), and b) multivariate methods [discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and spatial principal component analysis (sPCA)]. Additionally, because isolation by distance (IBD) is a common spatial genetic pattern in mobile and continuously distributed species and it may represent a challenge to the performance of the above methods, the microsatellite data set was tested for its presence. Overall, the genetic structure of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula was characterized by a NE-SW spatial pattern of IBD, and this may explain the observed disagreement between clustering solutions obtained by the different IBC methods. However, there was significant indication for contemporary genetic structuring, albeit weak, into at least three different subpopulations. The detected subdivision could be attributed to the influence of the rivers Ebro, Tagus and Guadiana, suggesting that main watercourses in the Iberian Peninsula may act as semi-permeable barriers to gene flow in stone martens. To our knowledge, this is the first phylogeographic and population genetic study of the species at a broad regional scale. We also wanted to make the case for the importance and benefits of using and comparing multiple different clustering and multivariate methods in spatial genetic analyses of mobile and continuously distributed species. PMID:26222680

  9. Short Communication Mendelian inheritance, linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium in microsatellite loci of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Moraes, M A; Kubota, T Y K; Silva, E C B; Silva, A M; Cambuim, J; Moraes, M L T; Furlani Junior, E; Sebbenn, A M

    2016-01-01

    Hymenaea stigonocarpa is a deciduous and monoecious Neotropical tree species pollinated by bats. Due to overexploitation and habitat destruction, the population size has drastically diminished in nature. No previous study has investigated Mendelian inheritance, linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium in the available microsatellite markers in this species. So, our aim was to estimate these parameters using six microsatellite loci in a sample of 470 adults and 219 juveniles from two populations of H. stigonocarpa. In addition, 30 seeds per tree from 35 seed-trees were collected. Each seed was kept record of the seed-trees and fruit origin. Based on the six microsatellite loci, we found that only 10.6% of the cases showed significant deviations from Mendelian segregation and 15.3% showed linkage. We detected no evidence of genotypic disequilibrium between the loci in the adult trees or juveniles. Thus, our results suggest that these loci can be used with great accuracy in future genetic analyses of H. stigonocarpa populations. PMID:27525897

  10. Antiproliferative action of aqueous extracts of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. (Fabaceae) on the cell cycle of Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Lourran P; Malaquias, Geiz; Peron, Ana Paula

    2014-09-01

    In this study we evaluated the action of crude aqueous extracts obtained from rhytidome of Hymenaea stigonocarpa (jatobá-do-cerrado) on Allium cepa meristematic root cells in three concentrations: 0.082, 0.164, 0.328g/mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. The slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5000 for each control group and concentration. It was found that all three concentrations, including the lowest which is considered ideal for use, in all exposure times, had significant antiproliferative action on the cell cycle of this test system. For cells under division, we observed a high number of cells in prophase. Therefore, under the conditions studied H. stigonocarpa indicated to be cytotoxic. PMID:25029361

  11. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil’s Native Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Fernanda R.; Arruda, Andréa F.; Siqueira, Egle M. A.; Arruda, Sandra F.

    2016-01-01

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit. PMID:26907338

  12. Purification, partial characterization and immobilization of a mannose-specific lectin from seeds of Dioclea lasiophylla mart.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Júnior, Vanir Reis; de Santiago, Mayara Queiroz; Osterne, Vinícius José da Silva; Correia, Jorge Luis Almeida; Pereira-Júnior, Francisco Nascimento; Cajazeiras, João Batista; de Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; do Nascimento, Antônia Sâmia Fernandes; Miguel, Thaiz Batista Azevedo Rangel; Miguel, Emilio de Castro; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Lectin from the seeds of Dioclea lasiophylla (DlyL) was purified in a single step by affinity chromatography on a Sephadex® G-50 column. DlyL strongly agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes and was inhibited by monosaccharides (D-mannose and α-methyl-D-mannoside) and glycoproteins (ovalbumin and fetuin). Similar to other Diocleinae lectins, DlyL has three chains, α, β and γ, with mass of 25,569 ± 2, 12,998 ± 1 and 12,588 ± 1 Da, respectively, and has no disulfide bonds. The hemagglutinating activity of DlyL was optimal in pH 8.0, stable at a temperature of 70 °C and decreased in EDTA solution, indicating that lectin activity is dependent on divalent metals. DlyL exhibited low toxicity on Artemia sp. nauplii, but this effect was dependent on the concentration of lectin in solution. DlyL immobilized on cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose® 4B bound 0.917 mg of ovalbumin per cycle, showing the ability to become a tool for glycoproteomics studies. PMID:24008245

  13. Short Communication Mendelian inheritance, linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium in microsatellite loci of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Moraes, M A; Kubota, T Y K; Silva, E C B; Silva, A M; Cambuim, J; Moraes, M L T; Furlani Junior, E; Sebbenn, A M

    2016-07-29

    Hymenaea stigonocarpa is a deciduous and monoecious Neotropical tree species pollinated by bats. Due to overexploitation and habitat destruction, the population size has drastically diminished in nature. No previous study has investigated Mendelian inheritance, linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium in the available microsatellite markers in this species. So, our aim was to estimate these parameters using six microsatellite loci in a sample of 470 adults and 219 juveniles from two populations of H. stigonocarpa. In addition, 30 seeds per tree from 35 seed-trees were collected. Each seed was kept record of the seed-trees and fruit origin. Based on the six microsatellite loci, we found that only 10.6% of the cases showed significant deviations from Mendelian segregation and 15.3% showed linkage. We detected no evidence of genotypic disequilibrium between the loci in the adult trees or juveniles. Thus, our results suggest that these loci can be used with great accuracy in future genetic analyses of H. stigonocarpa populations.

  14. Evaluation of the Allelopathic Potential of Leaf, Stem, and Root Extracts of Ocotea pulchella Nees et Mart.

    PubMed

    Candido, Lafayette P; Varela, Rosa M; Torres, Ascensión; Molinillo, José M G; Gualtieri, Sonia C J; Macías, Francisco A

    2016-08-01

    Despite the increase in recent decades in herbicide research on the potential of native plants, current knowledge is considered to be low. Very few studies have been carried out on the chemical profile or the biological activity of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) species. In the study reported here, the allelopathic activity of AcOEt and MeOH extracts of leaves, stems, and roots from Ocotea pulchella Nees was evaluated. The extracts were assayed on etiolated wheat coleoptiles. The AcOEt leaf extract was the most active and this was tested on standard target species (STS). Lycopersicon esculentum and Lactuca sativa were the most sensitive species in this test. A total of eleven compounds have been isolated and characterized. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 6 have not been identified previously from O. pulchella and ocoteol (9) is reported for the first time in the literature. Eight compounds were tested on wheat coleoptile growth, and spathulenol, benzyl salicylate, and benzyl benzoate showed the highest activities. These compounds showed inhibitory activity on L. esculentum. The values obtained correspond to the activity exhibited by the extract and these compounds may therefore be responsible for the allelopathic activity shown by O. pulchella. PMID:27482860

  15. Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium at nine microsatellite loci of Cariniana legalis (Mart.) O. Kuntze.

    PubMed

    Tambarussi, E V; Vencovsky, R; Freitas, M L M; Sebbenn, A M

    2013-11-11

    Cariniana legalis is one of the largest tropical trees with a wide distribution in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We investigated the Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium at seven microsatellite loci specifically isolated for C. legalis, and at two previously developed heterologous microsatellite loci. Forty to 100 open-pollinated seeds were collected from 22 seed-trees in two populations. Using the Bonferroni correction, no remarkable deviations from the expected Mendelian segregation, linkage, or genotypic disequilibrium were detected in the nine loci studied. Only 3.7% of the tests were significant for investigations of the Mendelian proportions. On the other hand, only 2.8% of tests for linkage detection showed significance. In addition, among all pairwise tests used for investigating linkage disequilibrium, significance was found in 9.7% of the locus pairs. Our results show clear evidence that the nine simple sequence repeat loci can be used without restriction in genetic diversity, mating system, and parentage analyses.

  16. Inferring Population Genetic Structure in Widely and Continuously Distributed Carnivores: The Stone Marten (Martes foina) as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Vergara, María; Basto, Mafalda P; Madeira, María José; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamín J; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Fernandes, Carlos; Ruiz-González, Aritz

    2015-01-01

    The stone marten is a widely distributed mustelid in the Palaearctic region that exhibits variable habitat preferences in different parts of its range. The species is a Holocene immigrant from southwest Asia which, according to fossil remains, followed the expansion of the Neolithic farming cultures into Europe and possibly colonized the Iberian Peninsula during the Early Neolithic (ca. 7,000 years BP). However, the population genetic structure and historical biogeography of this generalist carnivore remains essentially unknown. In this study we have combined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing (621 bp) and microsatellite genotyping (23 polymorphic markers) to infer the population genetic structure of the stone marten within the Iberian Peninsula. The mtDNA data revealed low haplotype and nucleotide diversities and a lack of phylogeographic structure, most likely due to a recent colonization of the Iberian Peninsula by a few mtDNA lineages during the Early Neolithic. The microsatellite data set was analysed with a) spatial and non-spatial Bayesian individual-based clustering (IBC) approaches (STRUCTURE, TESS, BAPS and GENELAND), and b) multivariate methods [discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and spatial principal component analysis (sPCA)]. Additionally, because isolation by distance (IBD) is a common spatial genetic pattern in mobile and continuously distributed species and it may represent a challenge to the performance of the above methods, the microsatellite data set was tested for its presence. Overall, the genetic structure of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula was characterized by a NE-SW spatial pattern of IBD, and this may explain the observed disagreement between clustering solutions obtained by the different IBC methods. However, there was significant indication for contemporary genetic structuring, albeit weak, into at least three different subpopulations. The detected subdivision could be attributed to the influence of the rivers Ebro, Tagus and Guadiana, suggesting that main watercourses in the Iberian Peninsula may act as semi-permeable barriers to gene flow in stone martens. To our knowledge, this is the first phylogeographic and population genetic study of the species at a broad regional scale. We also wanted to make the case for the importance and benefits of using and comparing multiple different clustering and multivariate methods in spatial genetic analyses of mobile and continuously distributed species.

  17. Advantage of Guaraná (Paullinia cupana Mart.) supplementation on cadmium-induced damages in testis of adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rodrigo P; Predes, Fabrícia S; Monteiro, Juliana C; Freitas, Karine M; Wada, Ronaldo S; Dolder, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Paullinia cupana is an Amazonian bush whose seeds have long been used in folk medicine. However, most of the therapeutic properties attributed to this plant are broad and nonspecific, although an antioxidant activity has been reported.  On the other hand, cadmium is a heavy metal known for increasing free radicals, hence resulting in cellular oxidative damages. This study was designed to evaluate whether Paullinia cupana is able to reduce cadmium-induced morphological impairment in Wistar rat testis. Adult male Wistar rats 110 days old were ip injected with cadmium (1.15 mg/kg BW [body weight]) and subsequently treated with P. cupana during 56 days.  Furthermore, groups receiving either P. cupana extract or cadmium are mentioned. After the treatment period, testis samples were subjected to histological and stereological analyses. Moderate to severe testicular impairments were shown by the animals exposed to cadmium. However, the animals supplemented with P. cupana after cadmium exposure showed a significant decrease in the proportion of damaged seminiferous tubules. Also, P. cupana supplementation was effective in maintaining the number of Leydig cells per testis in the animals exposed to cadmium. In conclusion, P. cupana supplementation was partially efficient in preventing cadmium from damaging the testis of adult Wistar rats.

  18. Effect of lyophilized extracts from guaraná seeds [Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke] on behavioral profiles in rats.

    PubMed

    Otobone, F J; Sanches, A C C; Nagae, R; Martins, J V C; Sela, V R; de Mello, J C P; Audi, E A

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacological properties of the crude lyophilized extract (EBPC) of Paullinia cupana seeds (guaraná) and the semi-purified extracts (EPA and EPB) after acute or chronic administration by the oral route in rats. Anxiolytic-like, antidepressant-like and motor stimulant effects were evaluated using the plus maze (PMT), forced swimming (FST) and open field (OFT) tests, respectively. Acute or chronic administration of EBPC (3.0, 30.0 or 60.0 mg/kg) did not alter the percentage of entries or the time spent in the open arm in the PMT. In the FST, chronic treatment with 30.0 mg EBPC/kg and 4.0 mg EPA/kg extract decreased the immobility time similarly to the antidepressant reference drug, imipramine (20.0 mg/kg). Locomotor activity in the OFT was not increased by these extracts. Caffeine (10.0 mg/kg) significantly reduced the immobility time in the FST, but increased locomotor activity in the OFT, indicating psychostimulant activity. The EPB extract did not induce any effect after acute or chronic treatment in the different models used. The present results suggest that the crude EBPC extract and EPA extract produced an antidepressant-like effect after long-term administration.

  19. Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): An Experimental Demonstration of Key Technologies for Searching for Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of near surface ground ice by the Mars Odyssey mission and the abundant evidence for recent Gulley features observed by the Mars Global Surveyor mission support longstanding theoretical arguments for subsurface liquid water on Mars. Thus, implementing the Mars program goal to search for life points to drilling on Mars to reach liquid water, collecting samples and analyzing them with instrumentation to detect in situ organisms and biomarker compounds. Searching for life in the subsurface of Mars will require drilling, sample extraction and handling, and new technologies to find and identify biomarker compounds and search for living organisms.

  20. Phytochemical analysis and modulation of antibiotic activity by Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) in multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Calixto Júnior, João T; Morais, Selene M; Martins, Clécio G; Vieira, Larissa G; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Carneiro, Joara N P; Machado, Antonio J P; Menezes, Irwin R A; Tintino, Saulo R; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of fungal infections has led to the continuous search for new drugs. Extracts of Luehea paniculata, a tree of multiple medicinal uses, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity, as well as its modulator potential of the Fluconazole antibiotic. Chemical prospecting of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark was carried out, the quantification of total phenols and flavonoids, characterized by the HPLC-DAD technique. The rosmarinic acid and the vitexin flavonoid were observed as major constituents in ELELP and ESWELP, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated by the method of scavenging the free radical DPPH, and quercetin was used as standard, obtaining IC50 values: 0.341 (mg/mL) for ELELP and 0.235 (mg/mL) for ESWELP. The microdilution assay was performed for antifungal activity against strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values ≥1024 μg/mL. In the modulator action of extracts on Fluconazole against multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida (subinhibitory concentration minimum of 128 μg/mL), a significant synergism was observed, indicating that the extracts potentiated the antifungal effect against C. tropicalis, where antioxidant flavonoids could be responsible. This is the first report about modifying activity of the antibiotic action of a species of the genus Luehea. PMID:25821822

  1. Inferring Population Genetic Structure in Widely and Continuously Distributed Carnivores: The Stone Marten (Martes foina) as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, María; Basto, Mafalda P.; Madeira, María José; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamín J.; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Fernandes, Carlos; Ruiz-González, Aritz

    2015-01-01

    The stone marten is a widely distributed mustelid in the Palaearctic region that exhibits variable habitat preferences in different parts of its range. The species is a Holocene immigrant from southwest Asia which, according to fossil remains, followed the expansion of the Neolithic farming cultures into Europe and possibly colonized the Iberian Peninsula during the Early Neolithic (ca. 7,000 years BP). However, the population genetic structure and historical biogeography of this generalist carnivore remains essentially unknown. In this study we have combined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing (621 bp) and microsatellite genotyping (23 polymorphic markers) to infer the population genetic structure of the stone marten within the Iberian Peninsula. The mtDNA data revealed low haplotype and nucleotide diversities and a lack of phylogeographic structure, most likely due to a recent colonization of the Iberian Peninsula by a few mtDNA lineages during the Early Neolithic. The microsatellite data set was analysed with a) spatial and non-spatial Bayesian individual-based clustering (IBC) approaches (STRUCTURE, TESS, BAPS and GENELAND), and b) multivariate methods [discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and spatial principal component analysis (sPCA)]. Additionally, because isolation by distance (IBD) is a common spatial genetic pattern in mobile and continuously distributed species and it may represent a challenge to the performance of the above methods, the microsatellite data set was tested for its presence. Overall, the genetic structure of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula was characterized by a NE-SW spatial pattern of IBD, and this may explain the observed disagreement between clustering solutions obtained by the different IBC methods. However, there was significant indication for contemporary genetic structuring, albeit weak, into at least three different subpopulations. The detected subdivision could be attributed to the influence of the rivers Ebro, Tagus and Guadiana, suggesting that main watercourses in the Iberian Peninsula may act as semi-permeable barriers to gene flow in stone martens. To our knowledge, this is the first phylogeographic and population genetic study of the species at a broad regional scale. We also wanted to make the case for the importance and benefits of using and comparing multiple different clustering and multivariate methods in spatial genetic analyses of mobile and continuously distributed species. PMID:26222680

  2. Use of an inexpensive chlorophyll meter to predict Nitrogen levels in leaf tissues of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tissue nitrogen is also an important indicator of plant health and can be a useful predictor of plant vigor and susceptibility to disease and pests. Hence, knowing nitrogen content may aid in determining establishment success of plants used in restoration programs, including those destined for aqua...

  3. Polyphenolic Composition and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Osmotic Fragility and Cytotoxic Effects of Raphiodon echinus (Nees & Mart.) Schauer.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Antonia Eliene; Waczuk, Emily Pansera; Roversi, Katiane; da Silva, Maria Arlene Pessoa; Barros, Luiz Marivando; da Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Burger, Marilise Escobar

    2015-01-01

    Raphiodon echinus (R. echinus) is used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, coughs, and infectious diseases. However, no information is available on the potential antioxidant, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of this plant. In this study, the polyphenolic constituents, antioxidant capacity and potential toxic effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of R. echinus on human erythrocytes and leukocytes were investigated for the first time. R. echinus extracts showed the presence of Gallic, chlorogenic, caffeic and ellagic acids, rutin, quercitrin and quercetin. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of R. echinus exhibited antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging with IC50 = 111.9 μg/mL (EtOH extract) and IC50 = 227.9 μg/mL (aqueous extract). The extracts inhibited Fe(2+) (10 μM) induced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation in rat brain and liver homogenates. The extracts (30-480 μg/mL) did not induce genotoxicity, cytotoxicity or osmotic fragility in human blood cells. The findings of this present study therefore suggest that the therapeutic effect of R. echinus may be, in part, related to its antioxidant potential. Nevertheless, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to ascertain the safety margin of its use in folk medicine. PMID:26729080

  4. Antioxidant capacity and other bioactivities of the freeze-dried Amazonian palm berry, Euterpe oleraceae mart. (acai).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fruit of Euterpe oleraceae, commonly known as acai, has been demonstrated to exhibit significantly high antioxidant capacity in vitro, especially for superoxide and peroxyl scavenging, and, therefore, may have possible health benefits. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of freeze-dried ac...

  5. Endophytic Actinobacteria from the Brazilian Medicinal Plant Lychnophora ericoides Mart. and the Biological Potential of Their Secondary Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Conti, Raphael; Chagas, Fernanda Oliveira; Caraballo-Rodriguez, Andrés Mauricio; Melo, Weilan Gomes da Paixão; do Nascimento, Andréa Mendes; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Pessoa, Cláudia; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Krogh, Renata; Andricopulo, Adriano Defini; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico

    2016-06-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria from the Brazilian medicinal plant Lychnophora ericoides were isolated for the first time, and the biological potential of their secondary metabolites was evaluated. A phylogenic analysis of isolated actinobacteria was accomplished with 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the predominance of the genus Streptomyces was observed. All strains were cultured on solid rice medium, and ethanol extracts were evaluated with antimicrobial and cytotoxic assays against cancer cell lines. As a result, 92% of the extracts showed a high or moderate activity against at least one pathogenic microbial strain or cancer cell line. Based on the biological and chemical analyses of crude extracts, three endophytic strains were selected for further investigation of their chemical profiles. Sixteen compounds were isolated, and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzamide (9) and 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-4(1H)-quinazolinone (15) are reported as natural products for the first time in this study. The biological activity of the pure compounds was also assessed. Compound 15 displayed potent cytotoxic activity against all four tested cancer cell lines. Nocardamine (2) was only moderately active against two cancer cell lines but showed strong activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. Our results show that endophytic actinobacteria from L. ericoides are a promising source of bioactive compounds. PMID:27128202

  6. Seedling survival of Handroanthus impetiginosus (Mart ex DC) Mattos in a semi-arid environment through modified germination speed and post-germination desiccation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Martins, J R; Edvaldo, A A S; Alvarenga, A A; Rodrigues, A C; Ribeiro, D E; Toorop, P E

    2015-11-01

    Uniform rapid seed germination generally forms a great risk for the plant population if subsequent intermittent precipitation causes desiccation and seedling death. Handroanthus impetiginosus can be found commonly in a wide range of biomes within Brazil including those that are semi-arid. Germination and early growth was studied to understand how germinated seeds survive under these stringent conditions. Accessions were sampled from four seasonally dry biomes in Brazil. Precipitation at the start of the rainy season in the Caatinga, a semi-arid biome, is less predictable and the number of successive dry days per dry interval in the first four months of the rainy season was higher than in the other studied biomes. Plants from the Caatinga produced thicker seeds and this trait concurred with slow germination and stronger osmotic inhibition of germination across the accessions, forming a stress avoidance mechanism in the Caatinga. Post-germination desiccation tolerance was high in the Caatinga accession, could be re-induced in accessions from biomes with more regular precipitation (Cerrado and transition zone), but remained poor in the Cerradão accession; thus forming a stress tolerance mechanism. Production of adventitious roots ascertained survival of all tested individuals from all four locations, even if protruded radicles did not survive desiccation, forming an additional stress tolerance mechanism. A sequence of stress avoidance and stress tolerance mechanisms in seeds and germinated seeds was associated with precipitation patterns in different biomes. These mechanisms purportedly allow rapid seedling establishment when conditions are suitable and enable survival of the young seedling when conditions are adverse.

  7. Euterpe oleracea Mart.-Derived Polyphenols Protect Mice from Diet-Induced Obesity and Fatty Liver by Regulating Hepatic Lipogenesis and Cholesterol Excretion

    PubMed Central

    de Bem, Graziele F.; Cordeiro, Viviane S. C.; Santos, Izabelle B.; de Carvalho, Lenize C. R. M.; da Conceição, Ellen Paula S.; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; Ognibene, Dayane T.; Sousa, Pergentino José C.; Martins, Gabriel R.; da Silva, Antônio Jorge R.; de Moura, Roberto S.; Resende, Angela C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a polyphenol-rich Açaí seed extract (ASE, 300 mg/kg-1d-1) on adiposity and hepatic steatosis in mice that were fed a high-fat (HF) diet and its underlying mechanisms based on hepatic lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. Four groups were studied: C57BL/6 mice that were fed with standard diet (10% fat, Control), 10% fat + ASE (ASE), 60% fat (HF), and 60% fat + ASE (HF + ASE) for 12 weeks. We evaluated the food intake, body weight gain, serum glucose and lipid profile, hepatic cholesterol and triacyglycerol (TG), hepatic expression of pAMPK, lipogenic proteins (SREBP-1c, pACC, ACC, HMG-CoA reductase) and cholesterol excretion transporters, ABCG5 and ABCG8. We also evaluated the steatosis in liver sections and oxidative stress. ASE reduced body weight gain, food intake, glucose levels, accumulation of cholesterol and TG in the liver, which was associated with a reduction of hepatic steatosis. The increased expressions of SREBP-1c and HMG-CoA reductase and reduced expressions of pAMPK and pACC/ACC in HF group were antagonized by ASE. The ABCG5 and ABCG8 transporters expressions were increased by the extract. The antioxidant effect of ASE was demonstrated in liver of HF mice by restoration of SOD, CAT and GPx activities and reduction of the increased levels of malondialdehyde and protein carbonylation. In conclusion, ASE substantially reduced the obesity and hepatic steatosis induced by HF diet by reducing lipogenesis, increasing cholesterol excretion and improving oxidative stress in the liver, providing a nutritional resource for prevention of obesity-related adiposity and hepatic steatosis. PMID:26630290

  8. Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach Dynamics and Succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa): Implications for Water Quality and Biodiversity Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities. PMID:22619574

  9. Isolation, characterization and molecular three-dimensional structural predictions of metalloprotease from a phytopathogenic fungus, Alternaria solani (Ell. and Mart.) Sor.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Chandrasekar, Raman; Chun, Se-Chul; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2016-08-01

    The present study aims at isolation, identification, characterization and prediction of three-dimensional molecular architecture of a proteolytic enzyme from the early blight pathogen, Alternaria solani which are hypothesized to be a marker of phytopathogenicity. Maximum enzyme production by A. solani was observed in Czapex's Dox broth amended with 2% (w/v) casein than other inducer amendments. Results indicate that the enzyme remained highly active in a pH range of 7.0-10.0 and a temperature range of 45-50°C. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by EDTA, whereas phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and monovalent cations (Na(+), K(+)) had little effect. Metal ions such as MgSO4, CaCl2, KCl at 10 mM concentration showed a stimulatory effect (>85%) on protease activity. Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight/mass spectrometry analysis of partially purified enzyme revealed the presence of protease belonging to a keratinolytic protein (metalloprotease) of exopeptidase nature. Putative A. solani keratinolytic enzyme (AsK) is made up of 216 amino acid residues with molecular weight (MW) 24.5 kDa, having a molecular formula of C1094H1704N290O342S4. Ramachandran plot analysis of the protein residues falling into the most favored secondary structures was observed at 84.2%. The major protein structural blocks, 2-β-sheets, and 9-α-helices have a greater tendency to be conserved during the evolutionary process than do mere sequences of amino acids. Besides, AsK, model prediction showed the presence of a Zinc atom at helix regions (Helix 3, 6, 7: His(57), His(130), His(169), and Cys(123)). Thus, it can be concluded that the major proteinases of AsK are divalent cation-requiring metalloproteinases and make them potential targets of protease inhibitors designing. PMID:26924427

  10. Employee Involvement: The Competitive Edge. Transactions of the IAQC Annual Conference and Resource Mart (9th, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 6-9, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Quality and Participation, Cincinnati, OH.

    Among the 96 papers presented at this conference are the following: "Team Building Techniques that Get Results" (Berg); "The Subtleties of Communication in Small Group Meetings" (Henry); "Feedback--Its Role in Team Building" (Lucas); "Group Dynamics--Success through Interaction" (Manning, Johnson); "The Able-Bodied Handicapped: Bridging the Gap"…

  11. Seedling survival of Handroanthus impetiginosus (Mart ex DC) Mattos in a semi-arid environment through modified germination speed and post-germination desiccation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Martins, J R; Edvaldo, A A S; Alvarenga, A A; Rodrigues, A C; Ribeiro, D E; Toorop, P E

    2015-11-01

    Uniform rapid seed germination generally forms a great risk for the plant population if subsequent intermittent precipitation causes desiccation and seedling death. Handroanthus impetiginosus can be found commonly in a wide range of biomes within Brazil including those that are semi-arid. Germination and early growth was studied to understand how germinated seeds survive under these stringent conditions. Accessions were sampled from four seasonally dry biomes in Brazil. Precipitation at the start of the rainy season in the Caatinga, a semi-arid biome, is less predictable and the number of successive dry days per dry interval in the first four months of the rainy season was higher than in the other studied biomes. Plants from the Caatinga produced thicker seeds and this trait concurred with slow germination and stronger osmotic inhibition of germination across the accessions, forming a stress avoidance mechanism in the Caatinga. Post-germination desiccation tolerance was high in the Caatinga accession, could be re-induced in accessions from biomes with more regular precipitation (Cerrado and transition zone), but remained poor in the Cerradão accession; thus forming a stress tolerance mechanism. Production of adventitious roots ascertained survival of all tested individuals from all four locations, even if protruded radicles did not survive desiccation, forming an additional stress tolerance mechanism. A sequence of stress avoidance and stress tolerance mechanisms in seeds and germinated seeds was associated with precipitation patterns in different biomes. These mechanisms purportedly allow rapid seedling establishment when conditions are suitable and enable survival of the young seedling when conditions are adverse. PMID:26675900

  12. Prevalence, risk factors and clinical features associated with intestinal parasitic infections in children from San Juan y Martínez, Pinar del Río, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, A A; Cañete, R; Núñez, F A

    2008-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in 200 children aged 5-15 years, to examine the presence of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) and to assess the risk factors and clinical features associated with them in children in San Juan y Martinez (SIM), Cuba. Three fresh faecal samples were collected from each child and were examined by direct wet mount, brine flotation, formalin-ether and Kato-Katz techniques. Data relating to demography, source of drinking water, personal hygiene habits and clinical features were also collected Living in the rural area was significantly associated with the highest infection rates (p < 0.01). According to clinical features and laboratory examinations, children with abdominal pain were about four times more likely to have IPIs (OR 4.05, CI, 1.11, 13.18) especially soil-transmitted helminths (STH). We suggest that IPIs, especially STH, in SJM should be strongly suspected in children with abdominal pain from rural areas. Targeted and frequent interventions to control these infections are needed in this municipality.

  13. Pollen flow in fragmented landscapes maintains genetic diversity following stand-replacing disturbance in a neotropical pioneer tree, Vochysia ferruginea Mart

    PubMed Central

    Davies, S J; Cavers, S; Finegan, B; White, A; Breed, M F; Lowe, A J

    2015-01-01

    In forests with gap disturbance regimes, pioneer tree regeneration is typically abundant following stand-replacing disturbances, whether natural or anthropogenic. Differences in pioneer tree density linked to disturbance regime can influence pollinator behaviour and impact on mating patterns and genetic diversity of pioneer populations. Such mating pattern shifts can manifest as higher selfing rates and lower pollen diversity in old growth forest populations. In secondary forest, where more closely related pollen donors occur, an increase in biparental inbreeding is a potential problem. Here, we investigate the consequences of secondary forest colonisation on the mating patterns and genetic diversity of open-pollinated progeny arrays for the long-lived, self-compatible pioneer tree, Vochysia ferruginea, at two Costa Rican sites. Five microsatellite loci were screened across adult and seed cohorts from old growth forest with lower density, secondary forest with higher density, and isolated individual trees in pasture. Progeny from both old growth and secondary forest contexts were predominantly outcrossed (tm=1.00) and experienced low levels of biparental inbreeding (tm−ts=0.00–0.04). In contrast to predictions, our results indicated that the mating patterns of V. ferruginea are relatively robust to density differences between old growth and secondary forest stands. In addition, we observed that pollen-mediated gene flow possibly maintained the genetic diversity of open-pollinated progeny arrays in stands of secondary forest adults. As part of a natural resource management strategy, we suggest that primary forest remnants should be prioritised for conservation to promote restoration of genetic diversity during forest regeneration. PMID:24105437

  14. Pollen flow in fragmented landscapes maintains genetic diversity following stand-replacing disturbance in a neotropical pioneer tree, Vochysia ferruginea Mart.

    PubMed

    Davies, S J; Cavers, S; Finegan, B; White, A; Breed, M F; Lowe, A J

    2015-08-01

    In forests with gap disturbance regimes, pioneer tree regeneration is typically abundant following stand-replacing disturbances, whether natural or anthropogenic. Differences in pioneer tree density linked to disturbance regime can influence pollinator behaviour and impact on mating patterns and genetic diversity of pioneer populations. Such mating pattern shifts can manifest as higher selfing rates and lower pollen diversity in old growth forest populations. In secondary forest, where more closely related pollen donors occur, an increase in biparental inbreeding is a potential problem. Here, we investigate the consequences of secondary forest colonisation on the mating patterns and genetic diversity of open-pollinated progeny arrays for the long-lived, self-compatible pioneer tree, Vochysia ferruginea, at two Costa Rican sites. Five microsatellite loci were screened across adult and seed cohorts from old growth forest with lower density, secondary forest with higher density, and isolated individual trees in pasture. Progeny from both old growth and secondary forest contexts were predominantly outcrossed (tm=1.00) and experienced low levels of biparental inbreeding (tm-ts=0.00-0.04). In contrast to predictions, our results indicated that the mating patterns of V. ferruginea are relatively robust to density differences between old growth and secondary forest stands. In addition, we observed that pollen-mediated gene flow possibly maintained the genetic diversity of open-pollinated progeny arrays in stands of secondary forest adults. As part of a natural resource management strategy, we suggest that primary forest remnants should be prioritised for conservation to promote restoration of genetic diversity during forest regeneration. PMID:24105437

  15. [Effect of coat color mutations on behavioral polymorphism in farm populations of american minks (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777) and sables (Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758)].

    PubMed

    Trapezov, O V; Trapezova, L I; Sergeev, E G

    2008-04-01

    Behavioral polymorphism estimated by the expression of the defensive reaction towards humans has been studied in farm-bred American minks and sables with different color types. Most animals (both minks and sables) from farm populations displayed passive defensive behavior towards humans in the standard hand catch test. Coat color genes have been found to have pleiotropic effects; they influence both the penetrance and expressivity of domestication behavior: in animals with aberrant color types (both sapphire minks and white-and-black sables), the proportion of animals with domestication behavior and the expressivity of this behavior are significantly higher (p <0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively).

  16. Does fertilizer (N15P15K15) amendment enhance phytoremediation of petroleum-polluted aquatic ecosystem in the presence of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms)?

    PubMed

    Ndimele, Prince Emeka; Jenyo-Oni, Adetola; Chukwuka, Kanayo S; Ndimele, Chinatu Charity; Ayodele, Ibukunoluwa Augustine

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of inorganic fertilizer (N15P15K15) amendments on crude oil uptake by water hyacinth. Experimental units (water hyacinth grown in fresh water) were spiked with 0, 20, 40 and 60 mg/L crude oil. After 24 h, they were randomly assigned fertilizer (N15P15K15) at three different concentrations; 0, 6 and 10 mg/L. Crude oil degradation and absorption were determined by measuring total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the water column and water hyacinth, respectively. The measurements were taken monthly for six months (February-August 2010). The results showed that TPH concentration in the water column in the treatment amended at 6 mg/L (0.30 ± 0.01 mg/L) was significantly lower (p < .05) than the treatment amended at 10 mg/L (0.76 ± 0.15 mg/L) but was similar to the control (0.33 ± 0.03 mg/L). The water hyacinth in the control (phytoremediation) absorbed significantly higher (p < .05) TPH than the fertilizer-amended treatments. The first-order kinetic model gave a better description of the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study showed that phytoremediation of crude oil by water hyacinth and biostimulation with fertilizer (N15P15K15) is possible.

  17. Climate change sensitivity of the African ivory nut palm, Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart. (Arecaceae) - a keystone species in SE Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blach-Overgaard, A.; Svenning, J.-C.; Balslev, H.

    2009-11-01

    Africa is the most vulnerable continent to future climate change. Profound changes are projected for southwestern Africa with increased drying, notably with delayed onset of the rainy season in September-November, and temperature increases in all seasons. The projected climate changes combined with land-use changes are thought to constitute the main threats to biodiversity in the 21st century. To be able to predict the potential impact on biodiversity, it is crucial to achieve a better insight into the controls of contemporary species ranges. Using species distribution modeling, we assessed the climate sensitivity of the key-stone palm species Hyphaene petersiana (African ivory nut palm) in southern Africa. We tested the relative roles of climate vs. non-climatic range-controls and found that climate had a clear effect on the range of H. petersiana and that especially water-related variables (annual precipitation and precipitation driest quarter) were of high importance. Nevertheless, latitude was the overall most dominant variable, reflecting spatial constraints on the continental-scale distribution. Of the remaining non-climatic factors, soil type and human influence were as important as the climatic factors. A future decrease in annual precipitation below 400 mm and hydrological changes towards drier conditions could cause a dramatic decline in H. petersiana populations, while the influence of temperature changes is less clear. The ongoing, unsustainable utilization pressures on this palm species by humans and livestock are likely to exacerbate the negative effect of future climate changes on its populations, especially, given the expected human population increase in Africa.

  18. An Anthocyanin-Rich Extract of Acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) Increases Stress Resistance and Retards Aging-Related Markers in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Herbenya; Roxo, Mariana; Krstin, Sonja; Röhrig, Teresa; Richling, Elke; Wink, Michael

    2016-02-17

    Acai fruits (Euterpe precatoria) are rich in antioxidant anthocyanins. Acai consumption is believed to have many health benefits; however, relevant detailed scientific investigations are limited. The current study aimed to investigate an anthocyanin-rich extract from E. precatoria fruits (AE) with regard to its antioxidant and antiaging properties using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. AE can protect the worms against oxidative stress and can ameliorate accumulation of reactive oxygen species in vivo. The expression of stress-response genes, such as sod-3::GFP, was upregulated while hsp-16::GFP was down-regulated after AE treatment. Studies with DAF-16/FOXO mutants indicated that some of the antioxidant effects are mediated by this transcription factor. AE can modulate the development of age-related markers, such as pharyngeal pumping. Despite the apparent antioxidant activity, no lifespan-prolonging effect was observed. PMID:26809379

  19. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kłapcińska, B; Podgórski, T; Szade, B; Tyl, K; Hadzik, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years) taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after the test and after 1 h of recovery. Blood antioxidant status was evaluated based on activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], glutathione reductase [GR]), concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione [GSH], uric acid), total plasma polyphenols, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as muscle damage markers. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of the acai berry, the post-treatment changes in lipid profile parameters (triglycerides, cholesterol and its fractions) were analysed. Six weeks’ consumption of acai berry-based juice blend had no effect on sprint performance, but it led to a marked increase in the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, attenuation of the exercise-induced muscle damage, and a substantial improvement of serum lipid profile. These findings strongly support the view of the health benefits of supplementation with the acai berry-based juice blend, mainly attributed to its high total polyphenol content and the related high in vivo antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic activities of this supplement. PMID:26060341

  20. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of Euterpe oleraceae Mart. (Arecaceae) fruit oil (açaí), in mammalian cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Marques, E S; Froder, J G; Carvalho, J C T; Rosa, P C P; Perazzo, F F; Maistro, E L

    2016-07-01

    E. oleracea is a tropical plant from the Amazon region, with its fruit used for food, and traditionally, as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, for atherosclerotic disease, and has anticancer properties. The oil of the fruit has antidiarrheic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, but without genotoxicity evaluation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of E. oleracea fruit oil (EOO), in rat cells. Male Wistar rats were treated with EOO by gavage at doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, for 14 days, within a 24 h interval. The DNA damage in the leukocytes, liver, bone marrow and testicular cells, was assessed by the comet assay, and the clastogenic/aneugenic effects in the bone marrow cells, by the micronucleus test. Our phytochemicals characterization of the EOO showed the presence of vanillic, palmitic, γ-linolenic, linoleic, oleic, cinnamic, caffeic, protocatechuic, ferulic, syringic acids, and flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol rutinoside as the main constituents. Both cytogenetic tests performed showed that EOO presented no significant genotoxic effects in the analyzed cells, at the three tested doses. These results indicate that, under our experimental conditions, E. oleracea fruit oil did not reveal genetic toxicity in rat cells. PMID:27125964

  1. Effects of an aqueous extract of Orbignya phalerata Mart on locomotor activity and motor coordination in mice and as antioxidant in vitro.

    PubMed

    Silva, A P dos S; Cerqueira, G S; Nunes, L C C; de Freitas, R M

    2012-03-01

    The antioxidant activities of aqueous extract (AE) of Orbignya phalerata were assessed in vitro as well as its effect on locomotor activity and motor coordination in mice. AE does not possesses a strong antioxidant potential according to the scavenging assays; it also did not present scavenger activity in vitro. Following oral administration, AE (1, 2 and 3 g/kg) did not significantly change the motor activity of animals when compared with the control group, up to 24 h after administration and did not alter the remaining time of the animals on the Rota-rod apparatus. Further studies currently in progress will enable us to understand the mechanisms of action of the aqueous extract of Orbignya phalerata widely used in Brazilian flok medicine.

  2. Frozen fruit pulp of Euterpe oleraceae Mart. (Acai) prevents hydrogen peroxide-induced damage in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus of rats.

    PubMed

    Spada, Patricia D S; Dani, Caroline; Bortolini, Giovana V; Funchal, Claudia; Henriques, João A P; Salvador, Mirian

    2009-10-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in several human illnesses, including neurological disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Acai is largely consumed in Brazil and contains high levels of antioxidant compounds. This work aims to study the antioxidant activity of acai frozen fruit pulp in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated with the oxidizing agent hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Pretreatment of tissue with acai decreased H(2)O(2)-induced damage of both lipids and proteins in all tissues tested. This fruit was also able to reduce the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase to basal levels. We observed a negative correlation between the polyphenol content of acai and the levels of lipid (r = -0.689; P

  3. In vitro SCREENING ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Bidens pilosa LINNÉ AND Annona crassiflora MART. AGAINST OXACILLIN RESISTANT Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA) FROM THE AERIAL ENVIRONMENT AT THE DENTAL CLINIC

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jeferson; Cerdeira, Cláudio Daniel; Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Cintra, Ana Beatriz Pugina; da Silva, Carla Brigagão Pacheco; de Mendonça, Andreia Natan; Ishikawa, Tati; Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber

    2014-01-01

    Currently multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus is one common cause of infections with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which directs scientific endeavors in search for novel antimicrobials. In this study, nine extracts from Bidens pilosa (root, stem, flower and leaves) and Annona crassiflora (rind fruit, stem, leaves, seed and pulp) were obtained with ethanol: water (7:3, v/v) and their in vitro antibacterial activity evaluated through both the agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods against 60 Oxacillin Resistant S. aureus (ORSA) strains and against S. aureus ATCC6538. The extracts from B. pilosa and A. crassiflora inhibited the growth of the ORSA isolates in both methods. Leaves of B. pilosa presented mean of the inhibition zone diameters significantly higher than chlorexidine 0.12% against ORSA, and the extracts were more active against S. aureus ATCC (p < 0.05). Parallel, toxicity testing by using MTT method and phytochemical screening were assessed, and three extracts (B. pilosa, root and leaf, and A. crassiflora, seed) did not evidence toxicity. On the other hand, the cytotoxic concentrations (CC50 and CC90) for other extracts ranged from 2.06 to 10.77 mg/mL. The presence of variable alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins was observed, even though there was a total absence of anthraquinones. Thus, the extracts from the leaves of B. pilosa revealed good anti-ORSA activity and did not exhibit toxicity. PMID:25076435

  4. An Anthocyanin-Rich Extract of Acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) Increases Stress Resistance and Retards Aging-Related Markers in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Herbenya; Roxo, Mariana; Krstin, Sonja; Röhrig, Teresa; Richling, Elke; Wink, Michael

    2016-02-17

    Acai fruits (Euterpe precatoria) are rich in antioxidant anthocyanins. Acai consumption is believed to have many health benefits; however, relevant detailed scientific investigations are limited. The current study aimed to investigate an anthocyanin-rich extract from E. precatoria fruits (AE) with regard to its antioxidant and antiaging properties using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. AE can protect the worms against oxidative stress and can ameliorate accumulation of reactive oxygen species in vivo. The expression of stress-response genes, such as sod-3::GFP, was upregulated while hsp-16::GFP was down-regulated after AE treatment. Studies with DAF-16/FOXO mutants indicated that some of the antioxidant effects are mediated by this transcription factor. AE can modulate the development of age-related markers, such as pharyngeal pumping. Despite the apparent antioxidant activity, no lifespan-prolonging effect was observed.

  5. Filaria martis Gmelin 1790 (Spirurida, Filariidae) affecting beech marten (Martes foina): morphological description and molecular characterisation of the cytochrome oxidase c subunit I.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Brianti, Emanuele; Traversa, Donato; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2007-09-01

    Filaria martis causes a poorly known subcutaneous filariosis in mustelids. Few information is available about lesions that F. martis causes in beech martens, on its morphology, biology and the occurrence of the infection. From 1997 to 2006, 29 beech martens from two sites of southern Italy (Sites A and B) have been necropsied. Ectoparasites and nematodes were collected and morphologically identified. A variable region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) of F. martis has been characterised to compare females presenting caudal tips smooth without spines (i.e. Morphotype 1-Mrph. 1) and with spines (i.e. Mrph. 2). All ticks collected were identified as Haemaphysalis erinacei. Eleven animals from Site A were found infected by F. martis nematodes in subcutaneous tissue in both membranous capsules or free under the inner skin surface. The most important morphological characters of F. martis have been reported and discussed. The molecular analysis showed 100% homology among cox1 sequences from Mrph. 1 and 2 thus indicating that the shape of female posterior edge may vary among specimens of F. martis. The results here presented provide new insights into the biology, ecology and morphological characteristics of this scantly known nematode.

  6. Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit. PMID:19467277

  7. Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) Consumption Modulates Iron Homeostasis and Prevents Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fustinoni-Reis, Adriana M.; Arruda, Sandra F.; Dourado, Lívia P. S.; da Cunha, Marcela S. B.; Siqueira, Egle M. A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado consumption in the oxidative status of iron-supplemented rats. Four groups of rats were treated: Control (AIN-93G), Tuc (AIN-93G added of tucum-do-cerrado), Fe (AIN-93G iron-enriched), or TucFe (AIN-93G with tucum-do-cerrado and iron-enriched) diet, for 30 days. Iron-enriched diet increased serum, liver, spleen, and intestine iron levels; transferrin saturation; liver lipid oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Bmp6, and Nrf2 in the intestine. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption reduced spleen lipid and protein oxidation; mRNA levels of hepatic Hamp and Ftl, and increased serum antioxidant capacity and hepatic mRNA levels of Bmp6, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Nrf2. TucFe diet consumption abrogated the liver Hamp iron-induced up-regulation, prevented intestinal iron accumulation; hepatic lipid peroxidation; splenic protein damage, and the increase of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in some tissues. These results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado protects tissues against oxidative damage, by reducing iron availability in liver and consequently inhibiting liver Hamp expression. PMID:26901220

  8. Effects of supplementation with acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry-based juice blend on the blood antioxidant defence capacity and lipid profile in junior hurdlers. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Krępa, E; Kłapcińska, B; Podgórski, T; Szade, B; Tyl, K; Hadzik, A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine whether regular consumption of an acai berry-based juice blend would affect sprint performance and improve blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in junior athletes. Seven junior hurdlers (17.5±1.2 years) taking part in a pre-season conditioning camp were supplemented once a day, for six weeks, with 100 ml of the juice blend. At the start and the end of the camp the athletes performed a 300-m sprint running test on an outdoor track. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after the test and after 1 h of recovery. Blood antioxidant status was evaluated based on activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], glutathione reductase [GR]), concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione [GSH], uric acid), total plasma polyphenols, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as muscle damage markers. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of the acai berry, the post-treatment changes in lipid profile parameters (triglycerides, cholesterol and its fractions) were analysed. Six weeks' consumption of acai berry-based juice blend had no effect on sprint performance, but it led to a marked increase in the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, attenuation of the exercise-induced muscle damage, and a substantial improvement of serum lipid profile. These findings strongly support the view of the health benefits of supplementation with the acai berry-based juice blend, mainly attributed to its high total polyphenol content and the related high in vivo antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic activities of this supplement.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and antioxidant effects after the consumption of anthocyanin-rich acai juice and pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) in human healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Rios, Jolian; Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Pacheco-Palencia, Lisbeth A; Meibohm, Bernd; Talcott, Stephen T; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2008-09-10

    The acai berry is the fruit of the acai palm and is traditionally consumed in Brazil but has gained popularity abroad as a food and functional ingredient, yet little information exists on its health effect in humans. This study was performed as an acute four-way crossover clinical trial with acai pulp and clarified acai juice compared to applesauce and a non-antioxidant beverage as controls. Healthy volunteers (12) were dosed at 7 mL/kg of body weight after a washout phase and overnight fast, and plasma was repeatedly sampled over 12 h and urine over 24 h after consumption. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis of total anthocyanins quantified as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside showed Cmax values of 2321 and 1138 ng/L at t max times of 2.2 and 2.0 h, and AUC last values of 8568 and 3314 ng h L(-1) for pulp and juice, respectively. Nonlinear mixed effect modeling identified dose volume as a significant predictor of relative oral bioavailability in a negative nonlinear relationship for acai pulp and juice. Plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly increased by the acai pulp and applesauce. Individual increases in plasma antioxidant capacity of up to 2.3- and 3-fold for acai juice and pulp, respectively were observed. The antioxidant capacity in urine, generation of reactive oxygen species, and uric acid concentrations in plasma were not significantly altered by the treatments. Results demonstrate the absorption and antioxidant effects of anthocyanins in acai in plasma in an acute human consumption trial.

  10. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of Euterpe oleraceae Mart. (Arecaceae) fruit oil (açaí), in mammalian cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Marques, E S; Froder, J G; Carvalho, J C T; Rosa, P C P; Perazzo, F F; Maistro, E L

    2016-07-01

    E. oleracea is a tropical plant from the Amazon region, with its fruit used for food, and traditionally, as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, for atherosclerotic disease, and has anticancer properties. The oil of the fruit has antidiarrheic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, but without genotoxicity evaluation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of E. oleracea fruit oil (EOO), in rat cells. Male Wistar rats were treated with EOO by gavage at doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, for 14 days, within a 24 h interval. The DNA damage in the leukocytes, liver, bone marrow and testicular cells, was assessed by the comet assay, and the clastogenic/aneugenic effects in the bone marrow cells, by the micronucleus test. Our phytochemicals characterization of the EOO showed the presence of vanillic, palmitic, γ-linolenic, linoleic, oleic, cinnamic, caffeic, protocatechuic, ferulic, syringic acids, and flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol rutinoside as the main constituents. Both cytogenetic tests performed showed that EOO presented no significant genotoxic effects in the analyzed cells, at the three tested doses. These results indicate that, under our experimental conditions, E. oleracea fruit oil did not reveal genetic toxicity in rat cells.

  11. Paternity analysis reveals significant isolation and near neighbor pollen dispersal in small Cariniana legalis Mart. Kuntze populations in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Tambarussi, Evandro V; Boshier, David; Vencovsky, Roland; Freitas, Miguel L M; Sebbenn, Alexandre M

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the world, large trees are increasingly rare. Cariniana legalis is the tallest tree species of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, reaching up to 60 m in height. Due to extensive deforestation of the Atlantic Forest, remnant C. legalis populations are small and spatially isolated, requiring the development of strategies for their conservation. For in situ and ex situ genetic conservation to be effective, it is important to understand the levels and patterns of spatial genetic structure (SGS), and gene flow. We investigated SGS and pollen flow in three small, physically isolated C. legalis stands using microsatellite loci. We measured, mapped, and sampled all C. legalis trees in the three stands: 65 trees from Ibicatu population, 22 trees from MGI, and 4 trees from MGII. We also collected and genotyped 600 seeds from Ibicatu, 250 seeds from MGI, and 200 seeds from MGII. Significant SGS was detected in Ibicatu up to 150 m, but substantial levels of external pollen flow were also detected in Ibicatu (8%), although not in MGI (0.4%) or MGII (0%). Selfing was highest in MGII (18%), the smallest group of trees, compared to MGI (6.4%) and Ibicatu (6%). In MGI and MGII, there was a strong pattern of mating among near-neighbors. Seed collection strategies for breeding, in situ and ex situ conservation and ecological restoration, must ensure collection from seed trees located at distances greater than 350 m and from several forest fragments. PMID:27069608

  12. Anthocyanin-rich acai (Euterpe oleracea mart.) fruit pulp fractions attenuate inflammatory stress signaling in mouse brain BV-2 microglial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related increases in oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with loss of cognitive and motor functions. Previous research has shown that supplementation with berry fruits can modulate signaling in primary hippocampal neurons or BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Because of the high polypheno...

  13. 77 FR 44677 - Quad/Graphics Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff Mart and A.I.D., Jonesboro, AR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... of determination was published in the Federal Register on July 10, 2012 (77 FR 40641). At the request... and A.I.D.,Jonesboro, AR; Amended Certification Regarding EligibilityTo Apply for Worker...

  14. Gradual approach to realize lightning monitoring from space by means of VHF observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Ushio, T.; Kawasaki, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Lightning Research Group of Osaka University (LRG-OU) has been developing VHF Broadband Digital Interferometer (DITF) to image precise lightning channels and monitor lightning activity widely. DITF is an equipment to locate sources of impulsive VHF radiation based on the digital interferometric technique. In other words, DITF is a system to visualize lightning channel by VHF radio observations. The feature of DITF is its ultra-wide bandwidth (from 25 MHz to 100 MHz) and implicit redundancy for the direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. LRG-OU considers an application of the broadband DITF to the spaceborne measurement system because its fairly high resolutions and the compactness of the system are great advantages to be the space-borne one. To realize space-borne DITF, LRG-OU intends to have gradual approach for the development. As their first step, a VHF sensor on Maido-1 satellite is proposed to examine the feasibility of receiving VHF lightning impulses in space. Maido-1 is a small satellite manufactured by factory members of SOHLA (Space Oriented Higashi-Osaka Leading Associate). The SOHLA project represents a technology transfer program to expand the range of the space development community in Japan. The objective is to get SMEs (Small and Medium sized manufacturing Enterprises) involved in small space projects and new space technologies. Under the cooperative agreement, JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) intends to contribute to socio-economic development by returning its R&D results to the society, and SOHLA tries to revitalize the local economy through the commercialization of versatile small satellites. Maido-1 is in sun-synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of 660 kilometers. The VHF sensor comprises a single pair of an antenna, a band-pass filter with a pass band of 30-100MHz, an amplifier with a gain of 45dB and an analog-to-digital converter with a sampling rate of 200MS/s and 8-bit resolution to record broadband VHF signals. The 100 waveforms

  15. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects after acute and subacute treatments with açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) on mice using the erythrocytes micronucleus test and the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Juliana Carvalho; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Aissa, Alexandre Ferro; Darin, Joana D'arc Castania; De Rosso, Veridiana Vera; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Bianchi, Maria de Lourdes Pires

    2010-01-01

    Açai, the fruit of a palm native to the Amazonian basin, is widely distributed in northern South America, where it has considerable economic importance. Whereas individual polyphenolics compounds in açai have been extensively evaluated, studies of the intact fruit and its biological properties are lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo genotoxicity of açai and its possible antigenotoxicity on doxorubicin (DXR)-induced DNA damage. The açai pulp doses selected were 3.33, 10.0 and 16.67g/kg b.w. administered by gavage alone or prior to DXR (16mg/kg b.w.) administered by intraperitoneal injection. Swiss albino mice were distributed in eight groups for acute treatment with açai pulp (24h) and eight groups for subacute treatment (daily for 14 consecutive days) before euthanasia. The negative control groups were treated in a similar way. The results of chemical analysis suggested the presence of carotenoids, anthocyanins, phenolic, and flavonoids in açai pulp. The endpoints analyzed were micronucleus induction in bone marrow and peripheral blood cells polychromatic erythrocytes, and DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver and kidney cells assessed using the alkaline (pH >13) comet assay. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between the negative control and the groups treated with the three doses of açai pulp alone in all endpoints analyzed, demonstrating the absence of genotoxic effects. The protective effects of açai pulp were observed in both acute and subacute treatments, when administered prior to DXR. In general, subacute treatment provided greater efficiency in protecting against DXR-induced DNA damage in liver and kidney cells. These protective effects can be explained as the result of the phytochemicals present in açai pulp. These results will be applied to the developmental of food with functional characteristics, as well as to explore the characteristics of açai as a health promoter.

  16. [Nutritional care protocol proposal for patients living with HIV without antiretroviral therapy, treated at the center of diagnostic references of San Martín de Quillota Hospital, Chile].

    PubMed

    Videla Muñoz, Madeleine Andrea; Leiva Martínez, Tamara Denisse; Valenzuela Avendaño, Carina

    2014-11-18

    Introducción: La atención nutricional para pacientes con VIH en Chile constituye un desafío para la Salud Pública al no existir directrices ministeriales que garanticen una atención nutricional estandarizada y oportuna, que contribuya a mejorar la inmunidad y retardar la falla inmunológica desde un enfoque preventivo. Objetivo: Diseñar una propuesta de protocolo de atención nutricional para optimizar el manejo nutricional en un grupo de pacientes viviendo con VIH. Metodología: El diseño contempló un diagnóstico inicial (caracterización de pacientes y de la consulta nutricional en un servicio público secundario de salud) para identificar las necesidades locales, lo que se complementó con antecedentes bibliográficos. Se validó el contenido del protocolo mediante opinión de expertos, utilizando un cuestionario likert que evaluaba tres variables: formato, plan del protocolo de atención nutricional y calidad de contenido. Resultados: La propuesta de protocolo consta de flujogramas de atención, procedimientos de la atención nutricional y material educativo. En la validación participaron cinco expertos, según los cuales se debe asignar más tiempo para la atención de los pacientes, considerar la integración del equipo multidisciplinario en los flujogramas y a corto plazo se debe evaluar la confiabilidad y aplicabilidad del protocolo. Discusión: Esta propuesta es el primer documento orientado al manejo nutricional ambulatorio de pacientes con VIH desde las primeras etapas de la enfermedad en Chile. Es necesario realizar estudios que midan el impacto de la intervención nutricional en pacientes con VIH sin terapia antirretroviral.

  17. Phytochemical and Antibacterial Investigations of the Extracts and Fractions from the Stem Bark of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne and Effect on Ultrastructure of Staphylococcus aureus Induced by Hydroalcoholic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Dimech, Gustavo Santiago; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Ferreira, Magda Assunção; de Oliveira, Anne Gabrielle Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Maria da Conceição; Ximenes, Eulália Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of different extracts and fractions obtained from Hymenaea stigonocarpa stem barks. The cyclohexanic, ethyl acetate, ethanol, aqueous, and hydroalcoholic extracts were obtained by maceration. The hydroalcoholic extract was partitioned, which resulted in the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. All extracts and fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening and evaluation of total phenol and tannin contents. An HPLC-DAD and ultrastructural alterations analysis were performed. Terpenes and coumarins were detected in the cyclohexanic extract. Flavonoids and condensed tannins were present in the other extracts and fractions. The extracts with the highest contents of tannins, ethanol (EE), hydroalcoholic (HE), and aqueous fraction (AF) showed also the highest antimicrobial activity. The MIC values ranged from 64 to 526 µg/mL. The chromatographic fingerprints suggest the presence of astilbin and other flavonoids in EE and HE. Presence of the thick cell wall, undulating outer layer, abnormal septa, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents and absence of cell wall and cell lyses were the main alterations observed on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 after treatment with the Hymenaea stigonocarpa hydroalcoholic extract. The presence of phenolic compounds like flavonoids and tannins is possibly the reason for the antimicrobial activity. PMID:24396311

  18. Scientific critique of the paper “Climatic distribution of citrus black spot caused by Phyllosticta citricarpa. A historical analysis of disease spread in South Africa” by Martínez-Minaya et al. (2015)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global potential distribution of Phyllosticta citricarpa, the causal organism of citrus black spot (CBS), is at the heart of an ongoing debate on the level of potential pest risk posed by P. citricarpa to citrus producing orchards within the European Union (EU). The EU currently regulates the i...

  19. Phytochemical and antibacterial investigations of the extracts and fractions from the stem bark of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne and effect on ultrastructure of Staphylococcus aureus induced by hydroalcoholic extract.

    PubMed

    Dimech, Gustavo Santiago; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Ferreira, Magda Assunção; de Oliveira, Anne Gabrielle Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Maria da Conceição; Ximenes, Eulália Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of different extracts and fractions obtained from Hymenaea stigonocarpa stem barks. The cyclohexanic, ethyl acetate, ethanol, aqueous, and hydroalcoholic extracts were obtained by maceration. The hydroalcoholic extract was partitioned, which resulted in the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. All extracts and fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening and evaluation of total phenol and tannin contents. An HPLC-DAD and ultrastructural alterations analysis were performed. Terpenes and coumarins were detected in the cyclohexanic extract. Flavonoids and condensed tannins were present in the other extracts and fractions. The extracts with the highest contents of tannins, ethanol (EE), hydroalcoholic (HE), and aqueous fraction (AF) showed also the highest antimicrobial activity. The MIC values ranged from 64 to 526 µg/mL. The chromatographic fingerprints suggest the presence of astilbin and other flavonoids in EE and HE. Presence of the thick cell wall, undulating outer layer, abnormal septa, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents and absence of cell wall and cell lyses were the main alterations observed on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 after treatment with the Hymenaea stigonocarpa hydroalcoholic extract. The presence of phenolic compounds like flavonoids and tannins is possibly the reason for the antimicrobial activity.

  20. Jussara (Euterpe edulis Mart.) Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation Modulates the Gene and Protein Expression of Inflammation Biomarkers Induced by trans-Fatty Acids in the Colon of Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Almeida Morais, Carina; Oyama, Lila Missae; de Oliveira, Juliana Lopez; Carvalho Garcia, Márcia; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera; Sousa Mendes Amigo, Laís; do Nascimento, Claudia Maria Oller; Pisani, Luciana Pellegrini

    2014-01-01

    Maternal intake of trans-fatty acids (TFAs) in the perinatal period triggers a proinflammatory state in offspring. Anthocyanins contained in fruit are promising modulators of inflammation. This study investigated the effect of Jussara supplementation in the maternal diet on the proinflammatory state of the colon in offspring exposed to perinatal TFAs. On the first day of pregnancy rats were divided into four groups: control diet (C), control diet with 0.5% Jussara supplementation (CJ), diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat, rich in TFAs (T), or T diet supplemented with 0.5% Jussara (TJ) during pregnancy and lactation. We showed that Jussara supplementation in maternal diet (CJ and TJ groups) reduced carcass lipid/protein ratios, serum lipids, glucose, IL-6, TNF-α, gene expression of IL-6R, TNF-αR (P < 0.05), TLR-4 (P < 0.01), and increase Lactobacillus spp. (P < 0.05) in the colon of offspring compared to the T group. The IL-10 (P = 0.035) and IL-10/TNF-α ratio (P < 0.01) was higher in the CJ group than in the T group. The 0.5% Jussara supplementation reverses the adverse effects of perinatal TFAs, improving lipid profiles, glucose levels, body composition, and gut microbiota and reducing low-grade inflammation in the colon of 21-day-old offspring, and could contribute to reducing chronic disease development. PMID:25276060

  1. An analytical platform for cumulative impact assessment based on multiple futures: the impact of petroleum drilling and forest harvesting on moose (Alces alces) and marten (Martes americana) habitats in northeastern British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Strimbu, Bogdan; Innes, John

    2011-07-01

    The combined influence on the environment of all projects occurring in a single area is evaluated through cumulative impact assessments (CIA), which consider the consequences of multiple projects, each insignificant on its own, yet important when evaluated collectively. Traditionally, future human activities are included in CIA using an analytical platform, commonly based on complex models that supply precise predictions but with reduced accuracy. To compensate for the lack of accuracy in current CIA approaches, we propose a shift in the paradigm governing CIA. The paradigm shift involves a change in the focus of CIA investigations from the detailed analysis of one unlikely future to the identification of the patterns describing multiple potential future changes in the environment. To illustrate the approach, a set of 144 possible and equally likely futures were developed that aimed to identify the potential impacts of forest harvesting and petroleum drilling on the habitat suitability of moose and marten in northeast British Columbia, Canada. The evolution of two measures of habitat suitability (average habitat suitability index and surface of the stands with habitat suitability index >0.5) revealed that the human activities could induce cycles in the habitat dynamics of moose and marten. The planning period of 100 years was separated into three distinct periods following a sinusoidal pattern (i.e., increase - constant - decrease in the habitat suitability measures). The attributes that could induce significant changes in the assessment of environment are the choice of harvesting age and species.

  2. Paullinia cupana Mart. var. sorbilis, guarana, increases survival of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice by decreasing cyclin-D1 expression and inducing a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in EAC cells.

    PubMed

    Fukumasu, Heidge; Latorre, Andreia Oliveira; Zaidan-Dagli, Maria Lucia

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to report the antiproliferative effect of P. cupana treatment in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC)-bearing animals. Female mice were treated with three doses of powdered P. cupana (100, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg) for 7 days, injected with 10(5) EAC cells and treated up to day 21. In addition, a survival experiment was carried out with the same protocol. P. cupana decreased the ascites volume (p = 0.0120), cell number (p = 0.0004) and hemorrhage (p = 0.0054). This occurred through a G1-phase arrest (p < 0.01) induced by a decreased gene expression of Cyclin D1 in EAC cells. Furthermore, P. cupana significantly increased the survival of EAC-bearing animals (p = 0.0012). In conclusion, the P. cupana growth control effect in this model was correlated with a decreased expression of cyclin D1 and a G1 phase arrest. These results reinforce the cancer therapeutic potential of this Brazilian plant.

  3. [A tribute to the memory of the illustrious maestro and academic Dr. Rafael Méndez Martínez, pioneer in the pharmacological studies of digitalis and digitalis glycosides].

    PubMed

    de Micheli Serra, Alfredo; Pastelín Hernández, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Since the end of the XVIII century, digitalis glycosides were employed in heart failure. They were considered initially as diuretics and later as cardiotonic agents or as positive inotropics. At the present time there are varied groups of positive inotropic agents, which have a beneficial action on the failing human myocardium. For example, the beta adrenergics, the phosphodiesterase III inhibitors such as milrinone, or the sensibilizers of myocardial proteins to Ca++ such as levosimendan and omecamtiv mecarbil. However, following the opinion of distinguished cardiologists, in the case of heart failure associated to atrial fibrillation, digitalis cannot be substituted. PMID:26526481

  4. In vitro screening antibacterial activity of Bidens pilosa Linné and Annona crassiflora Mart. against oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA) from the aerial environment at the dental clinic.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jeferson Junior da; Cerdeira, Cláudio Daniel; Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Cintra, Ana Beatriz Pugina; Silva, Carla Brigagão Pacheco da; Mendonça, Andreia Natan de; Ishikawa, Tati; Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber

    2014-01-01

    Currently multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus is one common cause of infections with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which directs scientific endeavors in search for novel antimicrobials. In this study, nine extracts from Bidens pilosa (root, stem, flower and leaves) and Annona crassiflora (rind fruit, stem, leaves, seed and pulp) were obtained with ethanol: water (7:3, v/v) and their in vitro antibacterial activity evaluated through both the agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods against 60 Oxacillin Resistant S. aureus (ORSA) strains and against S. aureus ATCC6538. The extracts from B. pilosa and A. crassiflora inhibited the growth of the ORSA isolates in both methods. Leaves of B. pilosa presented mean of the inhibition zone diameters significantly higher than chlorexidine 0.12% against ORSA, and the extracts were more active against S. aureus ATCC (p < 0.05). Parallel, toxicity testing by using MTT method and phytochemical screening were assessed, and three extracts (B. pilosa, root and leaf, and A. crassiflora, seed) did not evidence toxicity. On the other hand, the cytotoxic concentrations (CC50 and CC90) for other extracts ranged from 2.06 to 10.77 mg/mL. The presence of variable alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins was observed, even though there was a total absence of anthraquinones. Thus, the extracts from the leaves of B. pilosa revealed good anti-ORSA activity and did not exhibit toxicity.

  5. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.): a tropical fruit with high levels of essential minerals-especially manganese-and its contribution as a source of natural mineral supplementation.

    PubMed

    da Silva Santos, Vivian; de Almeida Teixeira, Gustavo Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Açaí is a fruit from the Brazilian Amazon region, with an exotic flavor, possessing high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on these properties, the fruit is classified as one of the new "super fruits." The mean daily consumption of açai pulp may reach 300 ml in several Brazilian regions. Further, this fruit is also gaining popularity in Europe and North America. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of some essential minerals in freeze-dried açaí pulp obtained in different Brazilian locations. It was found that açaí pulp is rich in essential minerals (Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn), but the levels of copper (Cu) and especially manganese (Mn) are surprisingly markedly higher than the traditional sources of these elements in the human diet. A daily consumption of 300 ml açaí pulp leads to a Mn daily intake exceeding at least sixfold (14.6 mg on average) the reference daily intake for an adult. Consequently, Mn intake may surpass the permitted daily maximum intake of 11 mg, which leads to a special concern, particularly for children, vegetarians, and individuals with anemia, since iron (Fe) absorption is impaired by Mn. Our findings demonstrate that this fruit is a potential source of several nutrients and a good dietary supplement to resolve malnutrition problems. However, due to the expressive levels of Mn, further studies are necessary to evaluate potential adverse effects associated with açaí consumption. PMID:24555649

  6. Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.): a tropical fruit with high levels of essential minerals-especially manganese-and its contribution as a source of natural mineral supplementation.

    PubMed

    da Silva Santos, Vivian; de Almeida Teixeira, Gustavo Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Açaí is a fruit from the Brazilian Amazon region, with an exotic flavor, possessing high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on these properties, the fruit is classified as one of the new "super fruits." The mean daily consumption of açai pulp may reach 300 ml in several Brazilian regions. Further, this fruit is also gaining popularity in Europe and North America. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of some essential minerals in freeze-dried açaí pulp obtained in different Brazilian locations. It was found that açaí pulp is rich in essential minerals (Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn), but the levels of copper (Cu) and especially manganese (Mn) are surprisingly markedly higher than the traditional sources of these elements in the human diet. A daily consumption of 300 ml açaí pulp leads to a Mn daily intake exceeding at least sixfold (14.6 mg on average) the reference daily intake for an adult. Consequently, Mn intake may surpass the permitted daily maximum intake of 11 mg, which leads to a special concern, particularly for children, vegetarians, and individuals with anemia, since iron (Fe) absorption is impaired by Mn. Our findings demonstrate that this fruit is a potential source of several nutrients and a good dietary supplement to resolve malnutrition problems. However, due to the expressive levels of Mn, further studies are necessary to evaluate potential adverse effects associated with açaí consumption.

  7. See-Saw Jeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Charlotte D.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the following case: Pete Wilmington, Vice President of Sales for See-Saw Jeans for Kids, has wrapped up a deal with Wal-Mart to carry See-Saw Jeans for Kids in all Wal-Mart stores on a trial basis for the next year. See-Saw Jeans for Kids is a clothing manufacturer with sales of $41 million, but the Wal-Mart account has the…

  8. A new vampire saga: the molecular mechanism of T cell trogocytosis.

    PubMed

    Dopfer, Elaine Pashupati; Minguet, Susana; Schamel, Wolfgang W A

    2011-08-26

    In the current issue of Immunity, Martínez-Martín et al. (2011) describe the central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC) as a site of clathrin-independent T cell receptor (TCR) internalization and trogocytosis. Further, they identify small Rho GTPases TC21 and RhoG as key mediators of these processes.

  9. Dietery acai fruit improves cognition in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Açai is a black-purple fruit (genus Euterpe) cultivated in the Amazon delta and in Brazil (Euterpe oleracea Mart.; EO), as well as Bolivia (Euterpe precatoria Mart.; EP). The fruit’s pulp is known to be rich in polyphenolics that may affect cell-to-cell signaling, receptor sensitivity, inflammatory...

  10. Dietary acai fruit improves cognition and mobility in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Açai is a black-purple fruit (genus Euterpe) cultivated in the Amazon delta and in Brazil (Euterpe oleracea Mart. -EO), as well as Bolivia (Euterpe precatoria Mart. - EP), and it is known to be rich in polyphenolics that may affect cell-to-cell signaling, receptor sensitivity, inflammatory enzyme ac...

  11. Moving beyond the Cutting Edge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffe, Robert F.

    Following a nationwide drought in 1982, the Australian government instituted the National Property Management Planning program to build skills in the rural community to better manage the farm business, including the need to manage change. In Victoria, the program is delivered through the Farm$mart project. Farm$mart is: learner centered; involves…

  12. Aprendiendo de los errores del pasado

    NASA Video Gallery

    Fernando Abilleira, analista de trayectoria de la NASA para la Oficina de Exploración de Marte, comenta por qué el aterrizaje de una nave espacial en Marte requiere una precisión increíble y hasta ...

  13. Systematics of Australian Thrasorinae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae) with a description of Mikeiinae, new subfamily, and two new genera and three new species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new systematics of Australian Thrasorinae is proposed herein. The genus Mikeius is transferred from Thrasorinae to Mikeiinae Paretas-Martínez & Pujade-Villar n. subf and M. clavata Pujade-Villar & Restrepo-Ortiz n. sp. is described. Two new genera of Thrasorinae are erected: Cicatrix Paretas-Martí...

  14. Metadata-driven Clinical Data Loading into i2b2 for Clinical and Translational Science Institutes.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew R; Pai, Akshatha K; Willard, Richard; May, Bradley J; West, Andrew C; Agravat, Sanjay; Granite, Stephen J; Winslow, Raimond L; Stephens, David S

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) recipients have a need to create research data marts from their clinical data warehouses, through research data networks and the use of i2b2 and SHRINE technologies. These data marts may have different data requirements and representations, thus necessitating separate extract, transform and load (ETL) processes for populating each mart. Maintaining duplicative procedural logic for each ETL process is onerous. We have created an entirely metadata-driven ETL process that can be customized for different data marts through separate configurations, each stored in an extension of i2b2 's ontology database schema. We extended our previously reported and open source Eureka! Clinical Analytics software with this capability. The same software has created i2b2 data marts for several projects, the largest being the nascent Accrual for Clinical Trials (ACT) network, for which it has loaded over 147 million facts about 1.2 million patients. PMID:27570667

  15. Metadata-driven Clinical Data Loading into i2b2 for Clinical and Translational Science Institutes.

    PubMed

    Post, Andrew R; Pai, Akshatha K; Willard, Richard; May, Bradley J; West, Andrew C; Agravat, Sanjay; Granite, Stephen J; Winslow, Raimond L; Stephens, David S

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) recipients have a need to create research data marts from their clinical data warehouses, through research data networks and the use of i2b2 and SHRINE technologies. These data marts may have different data requirements and representations, thus necessitating separate extract, transform and load (ETL) processes for populating each mart. Maintaining duplicative procedural logic for each ETL process is onerous. We have created an entirely metadata-driven ETL process that can be customized for different data marts through separate configurations, each stored in an extension of i2b2 's ontology database schema. We extended our previously reported and open source Eureka! Clinical Analytics software with this capability. The same software has created i2b2 data marts for several projects, the largest being the nascent Accrual for Clinical Trials (ACT) network, for which it has loaded over 147 million facts about 1.2 million patients.

  16. Metadata-driven Clinical Data Loading into i2b2 for Clinical and Translational Science Institutes

    PubMed Central

    Post, Andrew R.; Pai, Akshatha K.; Willard, Richard; May, Bradley J.; West, Andrew C.; Agravat, Sanjay; Granite, Stephen J.; Winslow, Raimond L.; Stephens, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) recipients have a need to create research data marts from their clinical data warehouses, through research data networks and the use of i2b2 and SHRINE technologies. These data marts may have different data requirements and representations, thus necessitating separate extract, transform and load (ETL) processes for populating each mart. Maintaining duplicative procedural logic for each ETL process is onerous. We have created an entirely metadata-driven ETL process that can be customized for different data marts through separate configurations, each stored in an extension of i2b2 ‘s ontology database schema. We extended our previously reported and open source Eureka! Clinical Analytics software with this capability. The same software has created i2b2 data marts for several projects, the largest being the nascent Accrual for Clinical Trials (ACT) network, for which it has loaded over 147 million facts about 1.2 million patients. PMID:27570667

  17. Anaerobic contribution during maximal anaerobic running test: correlation with maximal accumulated oxygen deficit.

    PubMed

    Zagatto, A; Redkva, P; Loures, J; Kalva Filho, C; Franco, V; Kaminagakura, E; Papoti, M

    2011-12-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to measure energy system contributions in maximal anaerobic running test (MART); and (ii) to verify any correlation between MART and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD). Eleven members of the armed forces were recruited for this study. Participants performed MART and MAOD, both accomplished on a treadmill. MART consisted of intermittent exercise, 20 s effort with 100 s recovery, after each spell of effort exercise. Energy system contributions by MART were also determined by excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, lactate response, and oxygen uptake measurements. MAOD was determined by five submaximal intensities and one supramaximal intensity exercises corresponding to 120% at maximal oxygen uptake intensity. Energy system contributions were 65.4±1.1% to aerobic; 29.5±1.1% to anaerobic a-lactic; and 5.1±0.5% to anaerobic lactic system throughout the whole test, while only during effort periods the anaerobic contribution corresponded to 73.5±1.0%. Maximal power found in MART corresponded to 111.25±1.33 mL/kg/min but did not significantly correlate with MAOD (4.69±0.30 L and 70.85±4.73 mL/kg). We concluded that the anaerobic a-lactic system is the main energy system in MART efforts and this test did not significantly correlate to MAOD.

  18. Séquence de chevauchements et de sédimentation syntectonique dans un bassin transporté (piggy-back) : le bassin oligo-aquitanien de Mula Pliego (Zone interne bétique, Sud-Est de l'Espagne)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Martín, Manuel; Martín-Algarra, Agustín.

    The Oligo-Aquitanian deposits of the Mula-Pliego basin consist of a marine carbonate platform assemblage (bottom), transitioning into a turbidite wedge (top). This evolution was controlled by tectonics in a piggy-back basin by means of three main mechanisms: first, a flexural tectonic event created the basin; later on, blind-fault-propagation folds deformed it progressively from south to north; finally a tectonic event destroyed the basin. To cite this article: M. Martı´n-Martı´n, A. Martı´n-Algarra, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 363-370.

  19. Morphology of Fresh Outflow Channel Deposits on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, J. W., Jr.; Parker, T. J.; Russell, A. J.; Knudsen, O.

    2002-03-01

    We interpret the channel surface of Athabasca and Marte Valles to be fresh former ice-rich fluvial (hyperconcentrated) deposits rather than volcanic flows. Simply stated, this is what a fresh outflow channel deposit would look like.

  20. Morphology of the female reproductive system and physiological age-grading of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphology of the female reproductive system in Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), a biocontrol agent of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined using standard light microscopy techniques. Ovaries extracted from individuals dissected in phosphate buffered saline were ex...

  1. Effect of insect density and host plant quality on wing-form in Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a South American species that feeds on waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. (Solms). This species exhibits significant wing dimorphism whereby fully winged adults (macropters) are capable of flight while those with reduced wings (brachtypt...

  2. Retaining and attracting large customers in a competitive market

    SciTech Connect

    Solger, S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes marketing and customer satisfaction in the electric power industry and the experiences of Wal-Mart stores. Customer service, reliability, working relationships, and customer knowledge are discussed.

  3. Las características más fascinantes del nuevo Robot

    NASA Video Gallery

    impresionante es la palabra que describe perfectamente al nuevo robot Curiosity por su tamaño, sus instrumentos científicos y la manera en que la NASA planifica hacerlo aterrizar en Marte de forma ...

  4. Modeling a scientific career: an essential component of the mentorship process. An interview with John A. Williams, Professor of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University Of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., USA by Martín E. Fernández-Zapico.

    PubMed

    Williams, John A

    2010-01-01

    In the current interview article, Dr. John A. Williams shares his experiences, and provides career advice to junior investigators. Dr. Williams is one of the world's leading physiologists working on signal transduction mechanisms in pancreatic acinar cells. He is worldwide recognized for his contribution to many areas of pancreatology, especially the understanding of GI hormone regulation of pancreatic exocrine function. and IAP.

  5. Human melanoma immunotherapy using tumor antigen-specific T cells generated in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheng; Xia, Jinxing; Fan, Wei; Wargo, Jennifer; Yang, Yong-Guang

    2016-01-01

    A major factor hindering the exploration of adoptive immunotherapy in preclinical settings is the limited availability of tumor-reactive human T cells. Here we developed a humanized mouse model that permits large-scale production of human T cells expressing the engineered melanoma antigen MART-1-specific TCR. Humanized mice, made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue and CD34+ cells virally-transduced with HLA class I-restricted melanoma antigen (MART-1)-specific TCR gene, showed efficient development of MART-1-TCR+ human T cells with predominantly CD8+ cells. Importantly, MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells developing in these mice were capable of mounting antigen-specific responses in vivo, as evidenced by their proliferation, phenotypic conversion and IFN-γ production following MART-1 peptide immunization. Moreover, these MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells mediated efficient killing of melanoma cells in an HLA/antigen-dependent manner. Adoptive transfer of in vitro expanded MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells induced potent antitumor responses that were further enhanced by IL-15 treatment in melanoma-bearing recipients. Finally, a short incubation of MART-1-specific T cells with rapamycin acted synergistically with IL-15, leading to significantly improved tumor-free survival in recipients with metastatic melanoma. These data demonstrate the practicality of using humanized mice to produce potentially unlimited source of tumor-specific human T cells for experimental and preclinical exploration of cancer immunotherapy. This study also suggests that pretreatment of tumor-reactive T cells with rapamycin in combination with IL-15 administration may be a novel strategy to improve the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy. PMID:26824989

  6. Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

  7. New species of Tetradiplosis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) inducing galls on Prosopis caldenia (Fabaceae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Juan José; Corró-molas, Barbara; Alfonso, Graciela L

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Tetradiplosis inducing galls on Prosopis caldenia are described from Argentina: Tetradiplosis panghitruz Martínez n. sp. and Tetradiplosis rayen Martínez n. sp. Tetradiplosispanghitruz induces multilocular galls on vegetative stems, whereas T. rayen induces unilocular galls containing multiple larvae on the rachis of the developing inflorescences. The adult male, female, pupa and larva are described and illustrated for both species. A key to the known species of the genus is provided.

  8. Whole recombinant yeast vaccine induces antitumor immunity and improves survival in a genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, A; Jensen, JD; Prado, R; Riemann, H; Shellman, YG; Norris, DA; Chin, L; Yee, C; Fujita, M

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the deadliest forms of skin cancer and its incidence is expected to rise over the next two decades. At present, there are no effective therapies for advanced melanoma. We have previously shown that administration of whole recombinant yeast expressing human MART-1 (hMART-IT) induces protective antimelanoma immunity in a B16F10 transplantable mouse model. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of the hMART-IT vaccine in a congenic strain of genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma, which recapitulates both the underlying genetics and the proper tumor microenvironment of naturally occurring melanoma. Subcutaneous administration of hMART-IT induced cytotoxicity against melanoma cells and antigen-specific production of Th1-specific cytokines by splenocytes. Weekly administration of hMART-IT significantly delayed the development of melanoma and prolonged the survival of mice compared with controls. Although histological analysis demonstrated diffuse infiltration of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, no reduction of regulatory T cells was observed, suggesting that hMART-IT cannot prevent immunotolerance in the tumor microenvironment. This study provides a proof of concept that genetically engineered mouse models lend valuable insights into immunotherapeutics being tested in the preclinical setting. PMID:21390072

  9. Human-nonhuman primate interactions amongst Tikuna people: perceptions and local initiatives for resource management in Amacayacu in the Colombian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Parathian, Hannah E; Maldonado, Angela M

    2010-09-01

    This study assesses the impact of hunting on the densities of nonhuman primates in two indigenous Tikuna territories (Mocagua and San Martín), overlapping Amacayacu National Park in the Colombian Amazon. Large-bodied primates were once favored prey by Tikunas, but are now rarely hunted owing to the diminishing primate populations. We evaluate the effect of a hunting ban on woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagothricha) by the residents of Mocagua, using qualitative and quantitative methods. Hunting records showed that from February 2005 to February 2009, a total of 25,142 kg of mammal bushmeat were harvested in Mocagua and San Martín. Primates constituted 345 kg of the total harvest. From 223 kg of large-bodied primates extracted for subsistence purposes, 160 kg were hunted in San Martín and 64 kg in Mocagua. Large-bodied primates made up 70% of the total primate biomass in Mocagua (398 kg/km(2)) and 22% in San Martín (199 kg/km(2)). From dietary records, we found bushmeat constituted 30% of protein consumption in Mocagua and 37% in San Martín. Primates were absent in records from Mocagua, and appeared only three times in those from San Martín suggesting inconsistencies with hunting data. Despite its moderate consumption, bushmeat was identified as a highly valued food source during focus group activities. Primate pet-keeping and part utilization were observed in San Martín but not in Mocagua, possibly as a consequence of fewer primates being hunted. We suggest that Mocagua provides an example of how community-based conservation strategies can be achieved, where opportunities for employment in tourism and alternative food sources are available.

  10. Systematics of Australian Thrasorinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae) with descriptions of Mikeiinae, new subfamily, two new genera, and three new species

    PubMed Central

    Paretas-Martínez, J.; Restrepo-Ortiz, C.; Buffington, M.; Pujade-Villar, J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Australian Thrasorinae are revised and Mikeius is transferred to Mikeiinae Paretas-Martínez & Pujade-Villar, subfam. n., and Mikeius clavatus Pujade-Villar & Restrepo-Ortiz, sp. n., is described. Two new genera of Thrasorinae are erected: Cicatrix Paretas-Martínez, gen. n., including Cicatrix pilosiscutum(Girault), comb. n. from Amblynotus, Cicatrix schauffi (Buffington), comb. n. from Mikeius, and Cicatrix neumannoides Paretas-Martínez & Restrepo-Ortiz, sp. n.; and Palmiriella Pujade-Villar & Paretas-Martínez, gen. n., including Palmiriella neumanni (Buffington), comb. n. from Mikeius, Thrasorus rieki Paretas-Martínez & Pujade-Villar, sp. n., is also described. A phylogenetic analysis of 176 morphological and biological characters, including all these new taxa and all genera previously included in Thrasorinae, was conducted. All subfamilies were recovered as monophyletic, with the following relationships: Parnipinae (Euceroptrinae (Mikeiinae (Plectocynipinae (Thrasorinae)))). A worldwide key to the subfamilies of Figitidae is provided that includes the new subfamily, as well as a key to genera Thrasorinae. PMID:21852926

  11. CD4+ and CD8+ TCRβ repertoires possess different potentials to generate extraordinarily high-avidity T cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Rahman, Muhammed A.; Yamashita, Yuki; Ochi, Toshiki; Wnuk, Piotr; Tanaka, Shinya; Chamoto, Kenji; Kagoya, Yuki; Saso, Kayoko; Guo, Tingxi; Anczurowski, Mark; Butler, Marcus O.; Hirano, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Recent high throughput sequencing analysis has revealed that the TCRβ repertoire is largely different between CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Here, we show that the transduction of SIG35α, the public chain-centric HLA-A*02:01(A2)/MART127–35 TCRα hemichain, conferred A2/MART127–35 reactivity to a substantial subset of both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells regardless of their HLA–A2 positivity. T cells individually reconstituted with SIG35α and different A2/MART127–35 TCRβ genes isolated from CD4+ or CD8+ T cells exhibited a wide range of avidity. Surprisingly, approximately half of the A2/MART127–35 TCRs derived from CD4+ T cells, but none from CD8+ T cells, were stained by A2/MART127–35 monomer and possessed broader cross-reactivity. Our results suggest that the differences in the primary structure of peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ TCRβ repertoire indeed result in the differences in their ability to form extraordinarily high avidity T cells which would otherwise have been deleted by central tolerance. PMID:27030642

  12. An efficient simultaneous reconstruction technique for tomographic particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Callum; Soria, Julio

    2009-10-01

    To date, Tomo-PIV has involved the use of the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART), where the intensity of each 3D voxel is iteratively corrected to satisfy one recorded projection, or pixel intensity, at a time. This results in reconstruction times of multiple hours for each velocity field and requires considerable computer memory in order to store the associated weighting coefficients and intensity values for each point in the volume. In this paper, a rapid and less memory intensive reconstruction algorithm is presented based on a multiplicative line-of-sight (MLOS) estimation that determines possible particle locations in the volume, followed by simultaneous iterative correction. Reconstructions of simulated images are presented for two simultaneous algorithms (SART and SMART) as well as the now standard MART algorithm, which indicate that the same accuracy as MART can be achieved 5.5 times faster or 77 times faster with 15 times less memory if the processing and storage of the weighting matrix is considered. Application of MLOS-SMART and MART to a turbulent boundary layer at Re θ = 2200 using a 4 camera Tomo-PIV system with a volume of 1,000 × 1,000 × 160 voxels is discussed. Results indicate improvements in reconstruction speed of 15 times that of MART with precalculated weighting matrix, or 65 times if calculation of the weighting matrix is considered. Furthermore the memory needed to store a large weighting matrix and volume intensity is reduced by almost 40 times in this case.

  13. 3D reconstruction of the source and scale of buried young flood channels on Mars.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gareth A; Campbell, Bruce A; Carter, Lynn M; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Phillips, Roger J

    2013-05-01

    Outflow channels on Mars are interpreted as the product of gigantic floods due to the catastrophic eruption of groundwater that may also have initiated episodes of climate change. Marte Vallis, the largest of the young martian outflow channels (<500 million years old), is embayed by lava flows that hinder detailed studies and comparisons with older channel systems. Understanding Marte Vallis is essential to our assessment of recent Mars hydrologic activity during a period otherwise considered to be cold and dry. Using data from the Shallow Radar sounder on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of buried channels on Mars and provide estimates of paleohydrologic parameters. Our work shows that Cerberus Fossae provided the waters that carved Marte Vallis, and it extended an additional 180 kilometers to the east before the emplacement of the younger lava flows. We identified two stages of channel incision and determined that channel depths were more than twice those of previous estimates.

  14. 3D Reconstruction of the Source and Scale of Buried Young Flood Channels on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Gareth A.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Phillips, Roger J.

    2013-05-01

    Outflow channels on Mars are interpreted as the product of gigantic floods due to the catastrophic eruption of groundwater that may also have initiated episodes of climate change. Marte Vallis, the largest of the young martian outflow channels (<500 million years old), is embayed by lava flows that hinder detailed studies and comparisons with older channel systems. Understanding Marte Vallis is essential to our assessment of recent Mars hydrologic activity during a period otherwise considered to be cold and dry. Using data from the Shallow Radar sounder on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of buried channels on Mars and provide estimates of paleohydrologic parameters. Our work shows that Cerberus Fossae provided the waters that carved Marte Vallis, and it extended an additional 180 kilometers to the east before the emplacement of the younger lava flows. We identified two stages of channel incision and determined that channel depths were more than twice those of previous estimates.

  15. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  16. Proteasome inhibition blocks NF-κB and ERK1/2 pathways, restores antigen expression and sensitizes resistant human melanoma to TCR-engineered CTLs

    PubMed Central

    Jazirehi, Ali R.; Economou, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of ex vivo engineered autologous lymphocytes encoding high-affinity MART-1/HLA-A*0201-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) α/β chains (F5 CTL), densely infiltrate into sites of metastatic disease, mediating dramatic but partial clinical responses in melanoma patients. We hypothesized that MART-1 down-modulation in addition to aberrant apoptotic/survival signaling could confer resistance to death signals delivered by transgenic CTLs. To explore this hypothesis, we established an in vitro model of resistant (R) lines from MART-1+/HLA-A*0201+ F5 CTL-sensitive parental (P) lines under serial F5 CTL-selective pressure. We have recently reported that several melanoma R lines, while retaining MART-1 expression, exhibited constitutive NF-κB activation and over-expression of NF-κB-dependent resistance factors. Another established melanoma cell line M244, otherwise sensitive to F5 CTL, yielded R lines after serial F5 CTL selective pressure which had both reduced MART-1 expression levels, thus, could not be recognized, and were resistant to CTL-delivered apoptotic death signals. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib blocked NF-κB activity, decreased phopspho-ERK1/2, increased phospho-JNK levels, reduced expression of resistance-factors, restored MART-1 expression to sufficient levels, which in combination allowed M244R lines be sensitized to F5 CTL-killing. These findings suggest that proteasome inhibition in immune resistant tumors can restore proapoptotic signaling and improve tumor antigen expression. PMID:22532603

  17. The discovery of columnar jointing on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Rosiek, M.; Mattson, S.; Verba, C.; Beyer, R.A.; Geissler, P.E.; McEwen, A.S.; ,

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of columnar jointing in Marte Valles, Mars. These columnar lavas were discovered in the wall of a pristine, 16-km-diameter impact crater and exhibit the features of terrestrial columnar basalts. There are discontinuous outcrops along the entire crater wall, suggesting that the columnar rocks covered a surface area of at least 200 km2, assuming that the rocks obliterated by the impact event were similarly jointed. We also see columns in the walls of other fresh craters in the nearby volcanic plains of Elysium Planitia–Amazonis Planitia, which include Marte Vallis, and in a well-preserved crater in northeast Hellas.

  18. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  19. Medical informatics: an essential tool for health sciences research in acute care.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Pickering, Brian W; Smith, Vernon D; Hadzikadic, Mirsad; Gajic, Ognjen; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2009-10-01

    Medical Informatics has become an important tool in modern health care practice and research. In the present article we outline the challenges and opportunities associated with the implementation of electronic medical records (EMR) in complex environments such as intensive care units (ICU). We share our initial experience in the design, maintenance and application of a customized critical care, Microsoft SQL based, research warehouse, ICU DataMart. ICU DataMart integrates clinical and administrative data from heterogeneous sources within the EMR to support research and practice improvement in the ICUs. Examples of intelligent alarms -- "sniffers", administrative reports, decision support and clinical research applications are presented.

  20. Sam Walton's Son Played Major Role in Setting Agenda on School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the school choice movement lost one of its leading champions when John T. Walton, an heir to the Wal-Mart retailing fortune, died in a plane crash at age 58. Advocates of expanded educational options say Mr. Walton, more than anyone else, was the driving force behind the Walton Family Foundation's education work, and its focus on…

  1. Mid-Atlantic Regional Training Center for Residential Construction Trades. Final Program Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasdyke (R. G.) & Associates, Annapolis, MD.

    A group of partners headed by the Home Builders Institute (HBI) created the Mid-Atlantic Regional Training (MART) Center for Residential Construction, with a primary focus on providing education and training services related to the masonry and carpentry trades at existing institutions in the District of Columbia, Maryland, Virginia, and West…

  2. Multigenerational effects of maternal undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Einstein, Francine H

    2014-06-01

    Intrauterine exposure to reduced nutrient availability can have major effects in determining susceptibility to chronic disease later in life. Martínez et al. (2014) demonstrate multigenerational effects of poor maternal nutrition and evidence of germline transmission through alterations in DNA methylation.

  3. Help for Charters in Race for Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2008-01-01

    The world of charter school facilities is sometimes strange. Many charter operators have had to show considerable creativity and resourcefulness in finding a place to educate their students, whether it's a former K-Mart or car dealership, a church facility, or space in an office complex. Obtaining and paying for adequate facilities are often big…

  4. Erratum.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Pérez-San-Gregorio M. A., Fernández-Jiménez E., Luque-Budia A., Martín-Rodríguez A. (2015). Anxiety and concerns in Spanish living kidney donor candidates. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 50, 163-177.

  5. W for tungsten and wolfram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goya, Pilar; Martín, Nazario; Román, Pascual

    2011-04-01

    Pilar Goya, Nazario Martín and Pascual Román relate how element 74 can be found in lamp filaments or weapon parts and also in literature, and continues to serve many purposes -- no matter which of its two names it is given.

  6. Growth profile of Chamaedorea cataractarum (Cascade Palm)seedlings with different colored plastic mulch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of colored plastic mulch on the growth of Chamaedorea cataractarum Mart. (Cascade Palm). The seedlings placed in soil were compared with those placed in red and blue mulch. The plant growth was monitored for plant height, thickness at the base ...

  7. 75 FR 19925 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List a Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Biodiversity Project, and others requesting that the Pacific fisher (Martes pennanti pacifica) be listed as an... 90-day finding (56 FR 1159) indicating that the fisher in the Pacific States is a distinct population... habitat needs, population size and trends, and demographic parameters (56 FR 1159). On December 29,...

  8. Los desafíos de tratar con las atmósferas: Entrada, Descenso y Aterrizaje

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ya sea aterrizando en Marte o de regreso a la Tierra, uno de los mayores desafíos de cualquier misión es la entrada, descenso y aterrizaje. Solo piense -- una nave espacial que pasa volando a toda ...

  9. Unexpected Answers: Case Study of a Student Teacher Derailing in a Math Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilssen, Vivi; And Others

    An analysis of a student teacher's lesson in multiplication for Norwegian second graders explored why the lesson did not succeed. Two interpretive frameworks were used to analyze the lesson: teaching as a complex cognitive activity and teaching as improvisation. The student teacher, Marte, believed in child-centered education and tried to create…

  10. China Mosaic: Multidisciplinary Units for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernson, Mary Hammond, Ed.

    These lessons were developed by participants in a 1986 Fulbright Group Project Abroad sponsored by the East Asia Resource Center at the Jackson School of International Studies, University of Washington. The lessons were developed cooperatively and are aimed at the middle school student. Lessons include: (1) "The Qin Dynasty" (Marte Peet); (2)…

  11. Fast-Turnoff Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) Field Study at the Mars Analog Site of Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes a Fast-Turnoff Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) study at the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE), near the towns Rio Tinto and Nerva, Andalucia region, Spain.

  12. Searching for Organics During the Robotic Mars Analog Rio Tinto Drilling Experiment: Ground Truth and Contamination Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.; Marte Project Science Team

    2007-03-01

    The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars drilling experiment at the Rio Tinto (Spain). Ground-truth and contamination issues during the distribution of bulk organics and their CN isotopic composition in hematite and go

  13. Perceptions of Prospective Teachers about Tolerance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Cavus

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain the perceptions of prospective teachers about tolerance education. This research is a descriptive, qualitative study. A semi-structured and non-directive interview technique is used for collecting data. Research is carried out with 30 prospective teachers who attend Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University…

  14. Sergey gen. n., a new doryctine genus from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Juan José; Lázaro, Rubi Nelsi Meza; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The new doryctine genus Sergey gen. n. is described with four new species (Sergey cubaensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey coahuilensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey tzeltal Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n., Sergey tzotzil Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n.) from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba. Similar to many other doryctine taxa, the new genus has a considerably elongated, petiolate basal sternal plate of the first metasomal tergite, although it can be distinguished from these by having the mesoscutum sharply declivous anteriorly with sharp anterolateral edges. The described species have been characterised molecularly based on two mitochondrial (COI, cyt b) and one nuclear (28S) gene markers. Based on the mitochondrial gene genealogies reconstructed, the evidence suggests the existence of incomplete lineage sorting or hybridization in the populations from Chiapas and Oaxaca assigned to Sergey tzeltal sp. n. PMID:27408539

  15. Characterizing the Hygroscopicity of Nascent Sea Spray Aerosol from Synthetic Blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, S.; Cappa, C. D.; Sultana, C. M.; Lee, C.; Wang, X.; Helgestad, T.; Moore, K.; Prather, K. A.; Cornwell, G.; Novak, G.; Bertram, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    Marine sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles make up a significant portion of natural aerosols and are therefore important in establishing the baseline for anthropogenic aerosol climate impacts. Scattering of solar radiation by aerosols affects Earth's radiative budget and the degree of scattering is size-dependent. Thus, aerosols scatter more light at elevated relative humidities when they grow larger via water uptake. This growth depends critically on chemical composition. SSA can become enriched in organics during phytoplankton blooms, becoming less salty and therefore less hygroscopic. Subsaturated hygroscopic growth factors at 85% relative humidity (GF(85%)) of SSA particles were quantified during two mesocosm experiments in enclosed marine aerosol reference tanks (MARTs). The two experiments were conducted with filtered seawater collected at separate times from the Scripps Institute of Oceanography Pier in La Jolla, CA. Phytoplankton blooms in each tank were induced via the addition of nutrients and photosynthetically active radiation. The "indoor" MART was illuminated with fluorescent light and the other "outdoor" MART was illuminated with sunlight. The peak chlorophyll-a concentrations were 59 micrograms/L and 341 micrograms /L for the indoor and outdoor MARTs, respectively. GF(85%) values for SSA particles were quantified using a humidified cavity ringdown spectrometer and particle size distributions. Particle composition was monitored with a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) and an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Relationships between the observed particle GFs and the particle composition markers will be discussed.

  16. Morphology of Fresh Outflow Channel Deposits on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. W., Jr.; Parker, T. J.; Russell, A. J.; Knudsen, O.

    2002-01-01

    We interpret the channel surface of Athabasca and Marte Valles to be fresh former ice-rich fluvial (hyperconcentrated) deposits rather than volcanic flows. Simply stated, this is what a fresh outflow channel deposit would look like. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Genetic diversity and differentiation of Pseudophoenix (Arecaceae) in Hispaniola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract Pseudophoenix ekmanii Burret, P. lediniana Read, and P. vinifera (Mart.) Becc. (Arecaceae) are endemic to Hispaniola. The more wide-ranging P. sargentii H.Wendl. ex Sarg. occurs on this island as well. The population genetic diversity and structure of Pseudophoenix was investigate...

  18. Structural Basis for the Presentation of Tumor-Associated MHC Class II-Restricted Phosphopeptides to CD4+ T Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Depontieu, F; Sidney, J; Salay, T; Engelhard, V; Hunt, D; Sette, A; Topalian, S; Mariuzza, R

    2010-01-01

    Dysregulated protein phosphorylation is a hallmark of malignant transformation. Transformation can generate major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-bound phosphopeptides that are differentially displayed on tumor cells for specific recognition by T cells. To understand how phosphorylation alters the antigenic identity of self-peptides and how MHC class II molecules present phosphopeptides for CD4{sup +} T-cell recognition, we determined the crystal structure of a phosphopeptide derived from melanoma antigen recognized by T cells-1 (pMART-1), selectively expressed by human melanomas, in complex with HLA-DR1. The structure revealed that the phosphate moiety attached to the serine residue at position P5 of pMART-1 is available for direct interactions with T-cell receptor (TCR) and that the peptide N-terminus adopts an unusual conformation orienting it toward TCR. This structure, combined with measurements of peptide affinity for HLA-DR1 and of peptide-MHC recognition by pMART-1-specific T cells, suggests that TCR recognition is focused on the N-terminal portion of pMART-1. This recognition mode appears to be distinct from that of foreign antigen complexes but is remarkably reminiscent of the way autoreactive TCRs engage self- or altered self-peptides, consistent with the tolerogenic nature of tumor-host immune interactions.

  19. Release and establishment of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megamelus scutellaris (Berg) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) was recently developed as a classical biological control agent for waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, and released in Florida. Releases were conducted at 10 sites around the state every 4-6 weeks until late fall then halted until t...

  20. 76 FR 12134 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ..., a proposed consent decree (``proposed Decree'') in United States v. Powertrain, Inc., et al., Civil... States' complaint alleges that Defendants Powertrain, Inc., Wood Sales Co., Inc., and Tool Mart, Inc..., and should refer to United States v. Powertrain Inc., et al., D.J. Ref. 90-5-2-1-09332. During...

  1. La necesidad de cohetes más veloces

    NASA Video Gallery

    Los cohetes utilizados por la NASA son excelentes, pero no nos pueden llevar muy lejos ni muy rápido a aquellos lugares a los que todavía no llegamos, como Marte, o más lejos. Una solución posible ...

  2. A COMAPRISON OF MERCURY IN MINK AND FISHER IN RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparison of total mercury concentrations and nitrogen and carbon stable isotope values in muscle tissue and stomach contents of mink (Mustela vison) and fisher (Martes pennanti) from Rhode Island in 2000- 2003 showed results which appeared to reflect dietary differences betwee...

  3. Photox, a novel actin-targeting mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase from Photorhabdus luminescens.

    PubMed

    Visschedyk, Danielle D; Perieteanu, Alexandru A; Turgeon, Zachari J; Fieldhouse, Robert J; Dawson, John F; Merrill, A Rod

    2010-04-30

    Photorhabdus luminescens is a pathogenic bacterium that produces many toxic proteins. The mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases (mARTs) are an enzyme class produced by numerous pathogenic bacteria and participate in disease in plants and animals, including humans. Herein we report a novel mART from P. luminescens called Photox. This 46-kDa toxin shows high homology to other actin-targeting mARTs in hallmark catalytic regions and a similar core catalytic fold. Furthermore, Photox shows in vivo cytotoxic activity against yeast, with protection occurring when catalytic residues are substituted with alanine. In vitro, enzymatic activity (k(cat), 1680 +/- 75 min(-1)) is higher than that of the related iota toxin, and diminishes by nearly 14,000-fold following substitution of the catalytic Glu (E355A). This toxin specifically ADP-ribosylates monomeric alpha-skeletal actin and nonmuscle beta- and gamma-actin at Arg(177), inhibiting regular polymerization of actin filaments. These results indicate that Photox is indeed an ADP-ribosyltransferase, making it the newest member of the actin-targeting mART family. PMID:20181945

  4. La Importancia de la Entrada, Descenso y Aterrizaje

    NASA Video Gallery

    Únase a Fernando Abilleira, un analista de trayectoria de la Oficina de Exploración de Marte de la NASA, y conozca todas la nuevas tecnologías desarrolladas dentro del nuevo Laboratorio Científico ...

  5. Examining Cognitive Structures of Prospective Preschool Teachers Concerning the Subject "Force and Motion"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timur, Serkan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the cognitive structures of prospective preschool teachers concerning the concepts included in the subject "force and motion". The study was conducted on a total of 56 prospective teachers who studied Preschool Teaching at Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University. The Word Association Test (WAT) was employed to…

  6. The Changing Shape of Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, June G.

    2003-01-01

    This newsletter contains two articles dealing with the changing shape of corporations. The article "Trends in Business Culture" argues that Wal-Mart's emergence as the largest corporation in the United States reflects the larger economic shift in the U.S. economy from production of goods to provision of abstract goods such as services and…

  7. Multigenerational effects of maternal undernutrition

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Francine H.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine exposure to reduced nutrient availability can have major effects in determining susceptibility to chronic disease later in life. Martínez et al. (2014) demonstrate multigenerational effects of poor maternal nutrition and evidence of germ-line transmission through alterations in DNA methylation. PMID:24896533

  8. Correction: Towards the rationalization of catalytic activity values by means of local hyper-softness on the catalytic site: a criticism about the use of net electric charges.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Araya, Jorge Ignacio; Grand, André; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel

    2016-01-28

    Correction for 'Towards the rationalization of catalytic activity values by means of local hyper-softness on the catalytic site: a criticism about the use of net electric charges' by Jorge Ignacio Martínez-Araya et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5cp03822g.

  9. MHC-I restricted Melanoma Antigen Specific TCR Engineered Human CD4+ T Cells Exhibit Multifunctional Effector and Helper Responses, In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Swagatam; Chhabra, Arvind; Chakraborty, Nitya G.; Hegde, Upendra; Dorsky, David I.; Chodon, Thinle; von Euw, Erika; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Koya, Richard C.; Ribas, Antoni; Economou, James S.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Mukherji, Bijay

    2010-01-01

    MHC class 1-restricted human melanoma epitope MART-127–35 specific TCR engineered CD4+CD25− T cells synthesize Th1 type cytokines and exhibit cytolytic effector function upon cognate stimulation. A detailed characterization of such TCR-engineered CD4+CD25− T cells now reveals that they are multifunctional. For example, they undergo multiple rounds of division, synthesize cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, MIP1ß), lyse target cells, and “help” the expansion of the MART-127–35 specific CD8+ T cells when stimulated by the MART-127–35 peptide pulsed DC. Multiparametric analyses reveal that a single TCR-engineered CD4+ T cell can perform as many as five different functions. Nearly 100% MART-127–35 specific TCR expressing CD4+ T cells can be generated through retroviral vector-based transduction and one round of in vitro stimulation by the peptide pulsed DC. MHC class I-restricted tumor epitope specific TCR-transduced CD4+ T cells, therefore, could be useful in immunotherapeutic strategies for melanoma or other human malignancies. PMID:20547105

  10. Developing WWW Information Systems on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianqun; Reid, Edna O. F.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses basic concepts and technologies related to World Wide Web information system development. Describes the design and implementation of Virtual Travel Mart, a Web-based end- user oriented information system. Emphasizes design considerations, which focus on user needs; creativity; integration of in-house databases on the Internet; currency;…

  11. Sergey gen. n., a new doryctine genus from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Juan José; Lázaro, Rubi Nelsi Meza; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The new doryctine genus Sergey gen. n. is described with four new species (Sergey cubaensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey coahuilensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey tzeltal Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n., Sergey tzotzil Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n.) from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba. Similar to many other doryctine taxa, the new genus has a considerably elongated, petiolate basal sternal plate of the first metasomal tergite, although it can be distinguished from these by having the mesoscutum sharply declivous anteriorly with sharp anterolateral edges. The described species have been characterised molecularly based on two mitochondrial (COI, cyt b) and one nuclear (28S) gene markers. Based on the mitochondrial gene genealogies reconstructed, the evidence suggests the existence of incomplete lineage sorting or hybridization in the populations from Chiapas and Oaxaca assigned to Sergey tzeltal sp. n.

  12. Predicting Academic Success from Academic Motivation and Learning Approaches in Classroom Teaching Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çetin, Baris

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to determine whether learning approaches and academic motivation together predict academic success of classroom teaching students. The sample of the study included 536 students (386 female, 150 male) studying at the Classroom Teaching Division of Canakkale 18 Mart University. Our research was designed as a prediction study. Data was…

  13. Correction: Towards the rationalization of catalytic activity values by means of local hyper-softness on the catalytic site: a criticism about the use of net electric charges.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Araya, Jorge Ignacio; Grand, André; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel

    2016-01-28

    Correction for 'Towards the rationalization of catalytic activity values by means of local hyper-softness on the catalytic site: a criticism about the use of net electric charges' by Jorge Ignacio Martínez-Araya et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5cp03822g. PMID:26524565

  14. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ananda M. Chakrabarty

    2009-06-18

    This is the front matter for the 7th Biennial Symposium, International Society for Environmental Biotechnology, held at the Holiday Inn Chicago Mart Plaza, Chicago, Illinois on the dates of June 18-21, 2004. It contains a list of the symposium organizers, acknowledgements and the symposium overview.

  15. Summary of the Open Session at the IMC 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeeck, C.; Argo, M.; Brown, P.; Molau, S.; Rendtel, J.; Martínez Picar, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Open Session at the IMC 2016 took place on Friday, June 3rd 2016 evening (21:30-22:30) and was intended to accommodate beginners' questions about meteor astronomy. Megan Argo moderated a panel of experts, consisting of Peter Brown, Sirko Molau, Jürgen Rendtel, and Antonio Martínez Picar.

  16. Exploring the Educational Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Elizabeth E.

    2012-01-01

    Futures studies uses scenarios--stories of the future--to explore how trends and events shaping our world may play out in future decades. This article features a short scenario set in California in 2037, depicting twelve-year-old Moya and her brother mart, whose "fenced community" has opted for a system of self-directed, online learning to educate…

  17. Two new species of South American Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea).

    PubMed

    Paulsen, M J

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of South American Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) are described: Glaresis smithi Paulsen, new species from Argentina, and Glaresis mondacai Paulsen, new species from Chile and Peru. The species are compared to their closest congener, Glaresis fritzi Martínez et al., and a key is provided for the known South American species of the genus Glaresis Erichson. PMID:27615864

  18. Public Service in Higher Education: Practices and Priorities. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Research Report, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Paticia H.

    Public service in American colleges and universities is reviewed. Major controversies related to the mission of public service in higher education are discussed by examining three metaphors commonly used to characterize the nature of colleges and universities: ivory tower, social service station, and cultural mart. Attention is also addressed to…

  19. Sergey gen. n., a new doryctine genus from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Juan José; Lázaro, Rubi Nelsi Meza; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The new doryctine genus Sergey gen. n. is described with four new species (Sergey cubaensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey coahuilensis Zaldívar-Riverón & Martínez, sp. n., Sergey tzeltal Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n., Sergey tzotzil Martínez & Zalídivar-Riverón, sp. n.) from temperate forests of Mexico and Cuba. Similar to many other doryctine taxa, the new genus has a considerably elongated, petiolate basal sternal plate of the first metasomal tergite, although it can be distinguished from these by having the mesoscutum sharply declivous anteriorly with sharp anterolateral edges. The described species have been characterised molecularly based on two mitochondrial (COI, cyt b) and one nuclear (28S) gene markers. Based on the mitochondrial gene genealogies reconstructed, the evidence suggests the existence of incomplete lineage sorting or hybridization in the populations from Chiapas and Oaxaca assigned to Sergey tzeltal sp. n. PMID:27408539

  20. Collection Development "Green Business": The Green Capitalist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The "greening" of corporate behemoths like Wal-Mart, DuPont, and Toyota has received much media attention in recent years. But consider small businesses: according to the U.S. Small Business Administration, of the estimated 27 million firms in the United States, 99.7 percent have fewer than 500 employees, 97.5 percent have fewer than 20, and more…

  1. Invasions and impacts of alligatorweed in the upper Xiaoqing River basin of northern China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb), is a problematic and difficult to manage invasive weed. The recent invasion in the upper Xiaoqing River, northern China extends its range northwards through almost five degrees latitude and 500 km from the northern limit and main invasion a...

  2. The CPA Exam as a Postcurriculum Accreditation Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barilla, Anthony G.; Jackson, Robert E.; Mooney, J. Lowell

    2008-01-01

    Business schools often attain accreditation to demonstrate program efficacy. J. A. Marts, J. D. Baker, and J. M. Garris (1988) hypothesized that candidates from Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business International (AACSB)-accredited accounting programs perform better on the CPA exam than do candidates from non-AACSB-accredited…

  3. Global Interconnectedness and Multiculturalism in Undergraduate Sociology Courses in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Kyoung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study attempts to explain a process of inserting global transnational elements into an undergraduate sociology course. After a review of global themes covered in introductory sociology textbooks, the author administered two projects (Global Multiculturalism and Sociology of Wal-Mart) in an undergraduate sociology course. The current study…

  4. The Future of Low-Wage Jobs: Case Studies in the Retail Industry. IEE Working Paper No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Annette

    The future of low-wage jobs is examined through a case study of firm restructuring in the retail industry. The study confirms that the retailing sector has come to be dominated by the Wal-Mart model, which emphasizes an efficient technology-driven inventory management system and a human resource approach that includes the following elements:…

  5. Standard Oil and Big Business. Lesson Plan One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicke, Thomas S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that aims to show students why individuals admire and distrust the great size and power of the firms that dominate the economy. Activities include student research and presentations on conflicts and competition within the oil industry, as well as within Microsoft, Wal-Mart, and other companies. (MJP)

  6. Small Business. Lesson Plan Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicke, Thomas S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that requires students to use their research and analytical skills in studying the social and economic importance of small business. Activities include interviewing local business owners and producing a written summary, developing a survey showing and explaining area land use, and researching opposition to Wal-Mart stores.…

  7. Let's Read Together: Tools for Early Literacy Development for All Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruns, Deborah A.; Pierce, Corey D.

    2007-01-01

    Early literacy development is the gateway to reading and future academic success. Learning about sound-letter correspondence and basic decoding strategies are but two fundamental skills that have been found to support this later success. In addition, an emphasis on environmental print (e.g., McDonald's, Wal-Mart, Shell) and functional print (e.g.,…

  8. The Long Reach of Teachers Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonucci, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The largest political campaign spender in America is not a megacorporation, such as Wal-Mart, Microsoft, or ExxonMobil. It isn't an industry association, like the American Bankers Association or the National Association of Realtors. It's not even a labor federation, like the AFL-CIO. If one combines the campaign spending of all those entities it…

  9. Linking variations in sea spray aerosol particle hygroscopicity to composition during two microcosm experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, Sara D.; Cornwell, Gavin C.; Helgestad, Taylor M.; Moore, Kathryn A.; Lee, Christopher; Novak, Gordon A.; Sultana, Camille M.; Wang, Xiaofei; Bertram, Timothy H.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Cappa, Christopher D.

    2016-07-01

    The extent to which water uptake influences the light scattering ability of marine sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles depends critically on SSA chemical composition. The organic fraction of SSA can increase during phytoplankton blooms, decreasing the salt content and therefore the hygroscopicity of the particles. In this study, subsaturated hygroscopic growth factors at 85 % relative humidity (GF(85 %)) of predominately submicron SSA particles were quantified during two induced phytoplankton blooms in marine aerosol reference tanks (MARTs). One MART was illuminated with fluorescent lights and the other was illuminated with sunlight, referred to as the "indoor" and "outdoor" MARTs, respectively. Optically weighted GF(85 %) values for SSA particles were derived from measurements of light scattering and particle size distributions. The mean optically weighted SSA diameters were 530 and 570 nm for the indoor and outdoor MARTs, respectively. The GF(85 %) measurements were made concurrently with online particle composition measurements, including bulk composition (using an Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer) and single particle (using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer) measurement, and a variety of water-composition measurements. During both microcosm experiments, the observed optically weighted GF(85 %) values were depressed substantially relative to pure inorganic sea salt by 5 to 15 %. There was also a time lag between GF(85 %) depression and the peak chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations by either 1 (indoor MART) or 3-to-6 (outdoor MART) days. The fraction of organic matter in the SSA particles generally increased after the Chl a peaked, also with a time lag, and ranged from about 0.25 to 0.5 by volume. The observed depression in the GF(85 %) values (relative to pure sea salt) is consistent with the large observed volume fractions of non-refractory organic matter (NR-OM) comprising the SSA. The GF(85 %) values exhibited a reasonable negative

  10. Specific roles of each TCR hemichain in generating functional chain-centric TCR.

    PubMed

    Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Yamashita, Yuki; Ochi, Toshiki; Tanaka, Shinya; Chamoto, Kenji; Guo, Tingxi; Butler, Marcus O; Hirano, Naoto

    2015-04-01

    TCRα- and β-chains cooperatively recognize peptide-MHC complexes. It has been shown that a "chain-centric" TCR hemichain can, by itself, dictate MHC-restricted Ag specificity without requiring major contributions from the paired TCR counterchain. Little is known, however, regarding the relative contributions and roles of chain-centric and its counter, non-chain-centric, hemichains in determining T cell avidity. We comprehensively analyzed a thymically unselected T cell repertoire generated by transducing the α-chain-centric HLA-A*02:01(A2)/MART127-35 TCRα, clone SIG35α, into A2-matched and unmatched postthymic T cells. Regardless of their HLA-A2 positivity, a substantial subset of peripheral T cells transduced with SIG35α gained reactivity for A2/MART127-35. Although the generated A2/MART127-35-specific T cells used various TRBV genes, TRBV27 predominated with >10(2) highly diverse and unique clonotypic CDR3β sequences. T cells individually reconstituted with various A2/MART127-35 TRBV27 TCRβ genes along with SIG35α possessed a wide range (>2 log orders) of avidity. Approximately half possessed avidity higher than T cells expressing clone DMF5, a naturally occurring A2/MART127-35 TCR with one of the highest affinities. Importantly, similar findings were recapitulated with other self-Ags. Our results indicate that, although a chain-centric TCR hemichain determines Ag specificity, the paired counterchain can regulate avidity over a broad range (>2 log orders) without compromising Ag specificity. TCR chain centricity can be exploited to generate a thymically unselected Ag-specific T cell repertoire, which can be used to isolate high-avidity antitumor T cells and their uniquely encoded TCRs rarely found in the periphery because of tolerance. PMID:25710913

  11. Movie Physics: pirates, spies and other worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Del Rio, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Fernandez, V.; Martin, J. L.; Sanchez-Tejerina, L.; Perez, G.; Ares, L.; Vasallo, E.; Martin, P.; Villa, V.; Garcia, S.; Vara, M.; Martin, S.; Alvarez, P.; Gonzalez, C.; Lopez, P.; Burgos, M. A.; Gonzalez, V. M.; Carbajo, J.; Velasco-Merino, C.; Hevia, F.; Martinez, F.; Martinez, J. F.; Gonzalez-Herrero, D.; Gloriani, A. H.; Mateos, D.

    Taking advantage of many popular films, the basics of many physical principles can be shown in a really attractive and stunning way. Five shows/workshops form this project attending the necessities of the target public: kids become pirates, high-school students are pushed to the limit and visit other fantasy worlds, and the general public discover the powers of physics and some terrifying secrets. By November 2015 we have obtained more than 2900 viewers. The activities have been presented in different national and international conferences, on an international science fair and have been published by several Spanish media. During 2015 the Physics League Association has received three international awards due to some activities from this project. Additional Authors: B. G. del Rio [1 2], V. González-Fernández [1 2], J. L. Martín [1], L. Sánchez-Tejerina [1 2], G. Pérez [1], L. Ares [1], E. Vasallo [1], P. Martín [1], V. Villa [1], S. García [1], M. Vara [1], S. Martín [1], P. Álvarez [1], C. González [1], P. López [1], M.A. Burgos [1 2], V. M. González [1], J. Carbajo [1], C. Velasco-Merino [1 2], F. Hevia [1 2], D. Gutiez [1], F. Martínez [1], J. F. Martínez [1], L. E. Vazquez [1], M. Bueno [1], M. Escribano [1], P. Guillem [1], R. García [1], D. González [1], D. González-Herrero [1 2], A. H. Gloriani [1 2], J. Cítores [1], J. Hernández [1], A. Álvarez [1], M. Álvarez [1], D. Mateos [1 2] [1] Physics League Association, SPAIN [2] Universidad de Valladolid, SPAIN Aps Mini Grants 2015, EPS Young Minds and OSA.

  12. Specific roles of each TCR hemichain in generating functional chain-centric TCR

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Yamashita, Yuki; Ochi, Toshiki; Tanaka, Shinya; Chamoto, Kenji; Guo, Tingxi; Butler, Marcus O.; Hirano, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    T cell receptor (TCR)α and β chains cooperatively recognize peptide-MHC (pMHC) complexes. It has been shown that a ‘chain-centric’ TCR hemichain can, by itself, dictate MHC-restricted antigen specificity without requiring major contributions from the paired TCR counterchain. Little is known, however, regarding the relative contributions and roles of chain-centric and its counter, non-chain-centric hemichains in determining T cell avidity. We comprehensively analyzed a thymically unselected T cell repertoire generated by transducing the α chain-centric HLA-A*02:01(A2)/MART127–35 TCRα, clone SIG35α, into A2-matched and unmatched post-thymic T cells. Regardless of their HLA-A2 positivity, a substantial subset of peripheral T cells transduced with SIG35α gained reactivity for A2/MART127–35. While the generated A2/MART127–35-specific T cells used various TRBV genes, TRBV27 predominated with >102 highly diverse and unique clonotypic CDR3β sequences. T cells individually reconstituted with various A2/MART127–35 TRBV27 TCRβ genes along with SIG35α possessed a wide range (>2 log orders) of avidity. Approximately half possessed avidity higher than T cells expressing clone DMF5, a naturally occurring A2/MART127–35 TCR with one of the highest affinities. Importantly, similar findings were recapitulated with other self-antigens. Our results indicate that, although a chain-centric TCR hemichain determines antigen specificity, the paired counterchain can regulate avidity over a broad range (>2 log orders) without compromising antigen specificity. TCR chain centricity can be exploited to generate a thymically unselected antigen-specific T cell repertoire, which can be used to isolate high avidity antitumor T cells and their uniquely encoded TCRs rarely found in the periphery due to tolerance. PMID:25710913

  13. [Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in eutrophic water by Jussiaea stipulacea Ohwi].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Wen-ming; Wang, Pei-fang; Hou, Jun

    2007-05-01

    Jussiaea stipulacea Ohwi, a native kind of floating vegetation resembling Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb., is widespread in ditches, ponds and rivers of Taihu Lake Basin. Its growth habits indicate its potential use in aquatic ecological restoration in Taihu Lake Basin. The removal effects of Jussiaea stipulacea Ohwi on nitrogen and phosphorus in eutrophic water were further studied in indoor experiment, as well as in field observation. The results of indoor experiment show that in summer, the removal rate for total nitrogen was 60%, which is 1.6, 1.9 and 2.8 times greater than that of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb., and control, respectively, and the removal rate for total phosphorus was about 25%, which is 0.3 times lower than that of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms., but 0.9 and 4 times higher than that of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb., and control, in winter, the removal rates for total nitrogen and total phosphorus were 23% and 20%, 2.3 and 1 times higher than that of control; Jussiaea stipulacea Ohwi also has good removal effects for ammonia and nitrite. And the results of field observation in Linzhuanggang River, Yixing City, show that the removal rates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in July to October were 10.2%-19.6% and 23.4%-41.6% in the reach with Jussiaea stipulacea Ohwi, while only 0.1%-1.6% and 3.7%-5.6% in control reach. Based on its good purifying effect on nitrogen and phosphorus in indoor experiment and field observation, the indigene Jussiaea stipulacea Ohwi is recommended as one species of aquatic vegetation in phytoremediation for eutrophic water in rivers of Tailu Lake Basin. PMID:17633164

  14. HCOOH distributions from IASI for 2008-2014: comparison with ground-based FTIR measurements and a global chemistry-transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommier, Matthieu; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-François; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Müller, Jean-François; Paton-Walsh, Clare; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Vigouroux, Corinne

    2016-07-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. It is a major contributor to rain acidity in remote areas. There are, however, large uncertainties on the sources and sinks of HCOOH and therefore HCOOH is misrepresented by global chemistry-transport models. This work presents global distributions from 2008 to 2014 as derived from the measurements of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), based on conversion factors between brightness temperature differences and representative retrieved total columns over seven regions: Northern Africa, southern Africa, Amazonia, Atlantic, Australia, Pacific, and Russia. The dependence of the measured HCOOH signal on the thermal contrast is taken into account in the conversion method. This conversion presents errors lower than 20 % for total columns ranging between 0.5 and 1 × 1016 molec cm-2 but reaches higher values, up to 78 %, for columns that are lower than 0.3 × 1016 molec cm-2. Signatures from biomass burning events are highlighted, such as in the Southern Hemisphere and in Russia, as well as biogenic emission sources, e.g., over the eastern USA. A comparison between 2008 and 2014 with ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements obtained at four locations (Maido and Saint-Denis at La Réunion, Jungfraujoch, and Wollongong) is shown. Although IASI columns are found to correlate well with FTIR data, a large bias (> 100 %) is found over the two sites at La Réunion. A better agreement is found at Wollongong with a negligible bias. The comparison also highlights the difficulty of retrieving total columns from IASI measurements over mountainous regions such as Jungfraujoch. A comparison of the retrieved columns with the global chemistry-transport model IMAGESv2 is also presented, showing good representation of the seasonal and interannual cycles over America, Australia, Asia, and Siberia. A global model underestimation of the distribution

  15. Water vapor observations up to the lower stratosphere through the Raman lidar during the MAïdo LIdar Calibration Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisi, D.; Keckhut, P.; Courcoux, Y.; Hauchecorne, A.; Porteneuve, J.; Baray, J. L.; Leclair de Bellevue, J.; Vérèmes, H.; Gabarrot, F.; Payen, G.; Decoupes, R.; Cammas, J. P.

    2014-10-01

    good agreement between the lidar monthly profile and the mean WVMR profile measured by satellite MLS has been used as a quality control procedure of the lidar product, attesting the absence of significant wet biases and validating the calibration procedure. Thanks to its performance and location, the MAIDO H2O lidar is devoted to become a reference instrument in the southern subtropics, allowing to insure the long-term survey of the vertical distribution of water vapor, and to document scientific themes such as stratosphere-troposphere exchange, tropospheric dynamics in the subtropics, links between cirrus clouds and water vapor.

  16. Water vapor observations up to the lower stratosphere through the Raman lidar during the Maïdo Lidar Calibration Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisi, D.; Keckhut, P.; Courcoux, Y.; Hauchecorne, A.; Porteneuve, J.; Baray, J. L.; Leclair de Bellevue, J.; Vérèmes, H.; Gabarrot, F.; Payen, G.; Decoupes, R.; Cammas, J. P.

    2015-03-01

    measured by satellite MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) has been used as a quality control procedure of the lidar product, attesting the absence of significant wet biases and validating the calibration procedure. Due to its performance and location, the MAIDO H2O lidar will become a reference instrument in the southern subtropics, insuring the long-term survey of the vertical distribution of water vapor. Furthermore, this system allows the investigation of several scientific themes, such as stratosphere-troposphere exchange, tropospheric dynamics in the subtropics, and links between cirrus clouds and water vapor.

  17. Filtered refocusing: a volumetric reconstruction algorithm for plenoptic-PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahringer, Timothy W.; Thurow, Brian S.

    2016-09-01

    A new algorithm for reconstruction of 3D particle fields from plenoptic image data is presented. The algorithm is based on the technique of computational refocusing with the addition of a post reconstruction filter to remove the out of focus particles. This new algorithm is tested in terms of reconstruction quality on synthetic particle fields as well as a synthetically generated 3D Gaussian ring vortex. Preliminary results indicate that the new algorithm performs as well as the MART algorithm (used in previous work) in terms of the reconstructed particle position accuracy, but produces more elongated particles. The major advantage to the new algorithm is the dramatic reduction in the computational cost required to reconstruct a volume. It is shown that the new algorithm takes 1/9th the time to reconstruct the same volume as MART while using minimal resources. Experimental results are presented in the form of the wake behind a cylinder at a Reynolds number of 185.

  18. Discovery of columnar jointing on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Rosiek, M.; Mattson, S.; Verba, C.; Beyer, R.A.; Geissler, P.E.; McEwen, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of columnar jointing in Marte Valles, Mars. These columnar lavas were discovered in the wall of a pristine, 16-km-diameter impact crater and exhibit the features of terrestrial columnar basalts. There are discontinuous outcrops along the entire crater wall, suggesting that the columnar rocks covered a surface area of at least 200 km2, assuming that the rocks obliterated by the impact event were similarly jointed. We also see columns in the walls of other fresh craters in the nearby volcanic plains of Elysium Planitia-Amazonis Planitia, which include Marte Vallis, and in a well-preserved crater in northeast Hellas. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  19. Water hyacinths and alligator weeds for removal of lead and mercury from polluted waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Removal of lead and mercury by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb. was investigated. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to remove 0.176 mg of lead and 0.150 mg of mercury per gram of dry plant material from distilled water and river water in a 24-hour period. One acre of water hyacinths is potentially capable of removing 105.6 grams of lead and 90.0 grams of mercury per day. Alligator weeds removed 0.101 mg of lead per gram of dry plant material in a 24-hour period. This same plant also demonstrated the ability to remove a minimum of 0.153 mg of mercury per gram of dry plant material in a six hour period.

  20. Performance improvements in temperature reconstructions of 2-D tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Doo-Won; Jeon, Min-Gyu; Cho, Gyeong-Rae; Kamimoto, Takahiro; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Doh, Deog-Hee

    2016-02-01

    Performance improvement was attained in data reconstructions of 2-dimensional tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Multiplicative Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (MART) algorithm was adopted for data reconstruction. The data obtained in an experiment for the measurement of temperature and concentration fields of gas flows were used. The measurement theory is based upon the Beer-Lambert law, and the measurement system consists of a tunable laser, collimators, detectors, and an analyzer. Methane was used as a fuel for combustion with air in the Bunsen-type burner. The data used for the reconstruction are from the optical signals of 8-laser beams passed on a cross-section of the methane flame. The performances of MART algorithm in data reconstruction were validated and compared with those obtained by Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) algorithm.

  1. Revision of Bondariella Hustache & Bondar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), with descriptions of the first species from the Amazon and notes on natural history.

    PubMed

    Valente, Roberta De Melo; Cordeiro Júnior, Mariano Brandão

    2015-09-15

    Bondariella Hustache & Bondar, 1942 is revised. In addition to the redescription of the genus and its four previously known species, we report and describe the first species from the Amazonian region: Bondariella rudicula sp. nov. and Bondariella crenata sp. nov. We also provide a key to the species, illustrations and notes on natural history. All six species of Bondariella have been collected on palm flowers from Brazil, with the previously known species having only been recorded from species of Syagrus Mart. from the Atlantic Forest and Caatinga biomes. The two new species have only been recorded from species of Euterpe Mart. from the Amazon biome. Future work may prove if the associations with Syagrus and Euterpe are specific to the biomes.

  2. A guide to the Proteomics Identifications Database proteomics data repository.

    PubMed

    Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Côté, Richard; Reisinger, Florian; Foster, Joseph M; Mueller, Michael; Rameseder, Jonathan; Hermjakob, Henning; Martens, Lennart

    2009-09-01

    The Proteomics Identifications Database (PRIDE, www.ebi.ac.uk/pride) is one of the main repositories of MS derived proteomics data. Here, we point out the main functionalities of PRIDE both as a submission repository and as a source for proteomics data. We describe the main features for data retrieval and visualization available through the PRIDE web and BioMart interfaces. We also highlight the mechanism by which tailored queries in the BioMart can join PRIDE to other resources such as Reactome, Ensembl or UniProt to execute extremely powerful across-domain queries. We then present the latest improvements in the PRIDE submission process, using the new easy-to-use, platform-independent graphical user interface submission tool PRIDE Converter. Finally, we speak about future plans and the role of PRIDE in the ProteomExchange consortium.

  3. SalmonDB: a bioinformatics resource for Salmo salar and Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Di Génova, Alex; Aravena, Andrés; Zapata, Luis; González, Mauricio; Maass, Alejandro; Iturra, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    SalmonDB is a new multiorganism database containing EST sequences from Salmo salar, Oncorhynchus mykiss and the whole genome sequence of Danio rerio, Gasterosteus aculeatus, Tetraodon nigroviridis, Oryzias latipes and Takifugu rubripes, built with core components from GMOD project, GOPArc system and the BioMart project. The information provided by this resource includes Gene Ontology terms, metabolic pathways, SNP prediction, CDS prediction, orthologs prediction, several precalculated BLAST searches and domains. It also provides a BLAST server for matching user-provided sequences to any of the databases and an advanced query tool (BioMart) that allows easy browsing of EST databases with user-defined criteria. These tools make SalmonDB database a valuable resource for researchers searching for transcripts and genomic information regarding S. salar and other salmonid species. The database is expected to grow in the near feature, particularly with the S. salar genome sequencing project. Database URL: http://genomicasalmones.dim.uchile.cl/ PMID:22120661

  4. "Reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine marten.

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, Marcin; Rodak, Lukasz; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes. The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set. The pine marten entered the den several times and killed at least two fox cubs. It was active at the set for about 2 h. This observation proves that red foxes are not completely safe from predation by smaller carnivores, even those considered to be subordinate species in interspecific competition.

  5. A Further Examination of Manifold Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treuthardt, Patrick; Grouchy, Rebecca

    2015-08-01

    Manifold theory, an alternative to density wave theory, proposes that the spiral structure found in disk galaxies is the result of chaotic orbits guided by invariant manifolds. One prediction by this theory is that galaxies with stronger bars have more open spiral arms (i.e. larger pitch angles, P) compared to galaxies with weaker bars. A study by Martínez-García examined a limited sample of 27 galaxies from the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey (OSUBGS) and found a trend between the overall perturbation strength in a galaxy, Qt(r), and P. While Qt(r) is a good measure of bar strength, it is affected by spiral arm torques. Our analysis advances that of Martínez-García by studying approximately 100 galaxies from the OSUBGS that have separate bar and spiral perturbation strength calculations and comparing these values to robust measurements of P via an algorithm developed by Davis et al.

  6. A multiple additive regression tree analysis of three exposure measures during Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Andrew; Li, Bin; Marx, Brian D; Mills, Jacqueline W; Pine, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses structural and personal exposure to Hurricane Katrina. Structural exposure is measured by flood height and building damage; personal exposure is measured by the locations of 911 calls made during the response. Using these variables, this paper characterises the geography of exposure and also demonstrates the utility of a robust analytical approach in understanding health-related challenges to disadvantaged populations during recovery. Analysis is conducted using a contemporary statistical approach, a multiple additive regression tree (MART), which displays considerable improvement over traditional regression analysis. By using MART, the percentage of improvement in R-squares over standard multiple linear regression ranges from about 62 to more than 100 per cent. The most revealing finding is the modelled verification that African Americans experienced disproportionate exposure in both structural and personal contexts. Given the impact of exposure to health outcomes, this finding has implications for understanding the long-term health challenges facing this population.

  7. Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    26 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a variety of textures observed on a dust-covered plain in the Marte Valles region of Mars. Textural variations across the scene include: areas that are littered with small impact craters, a channel-like feature that is dominated by mounds of a variety of sizes, small ripples and/or ridges, and relatively smooth, unremarkable terrain. The contact between the cratered plain and the area dominated by mounds marks one of the banks along the edge of one of the shallow valleys of the Marte Valles system.

    Location near: 17.7oN, 175.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  8. Organochlorine insecticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in martens and fishers from the Algonquin region of south-central Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Steeves, T.; Strickland, M. ); Frank, R.; Rasper, J. ); Douglas, C.W.

    1991-03-01

    Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine insecticides (OCI) has been restricted in the Province of Ontario, Canada, since 1971. This study reports on OCI and PCB levels in two carnivores, fishers (Martes pennanti) and martens (Martes americana), collected in the Algonquin Region of south-central Ontario in 1976 and 1981, and compares them to data collected for the same species in the same area in 1972-74. Algonquin Region is a forested area of 43,000 km{sup 2} on the Precambrian shield, and has no major industrial or agricultural development. Except for DDT, which was used in the 1950's and 1960's to control biting insects around tourist establishments, there has been little use of OCIs or PCBs in this area. Their occurrence in the Algonquin Region is most likely due to atmospheric transport.

  9. On a new species of the rare syllid genus Exogonoides (Annelida, Phyllodocida, Syllidae).

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Marcelo Veronesi; Martín, Guillermo San; Carrerette, Orlemir; Paresque, Karla

    2016-01-01

    The genus Exogonoides Day, 1963, was described probably based on a single specimen, broken into two pieces (Aguado & San Martín 2008) and no other specimens of the type species, E. antennata Day, 1963, were ever found, which characterizes this species and, until now, the very genus Exogonoides, as 'singletons' (Lim et al. 2012). Although described as a member of the Syllidae Grube, 1850, the positioning of the genus in the family was recently questioned (Aguado & San Martín 2008), since the pharynx of the holotype was dissected for the original description and not preserved with the specimen, resulting that the presence of the proventricle, considered the main synapomorphy of the family, could not be confirmed. PMID:27470856

  10. ADA plaintiff must show AIDS limits major life activities.

    PubMed

    1998-05-15

    In a rare case, a Federal court ruled that AIDS does not automatically qualify a plaintiff for legal protection under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). [Name removed], an Illinois Wal-Mart stock clerk, was fired weeks after telling the store's general manager of his HIV status. [Name removed] alleges that the firing was due solely to his disease. Wal-Mart contends that [name removed] was fired for sexually harassing a co-worker, and says that since [name removed] was asymptomatic and asked for no accommodations, he does not qualify for ADA protection. Magistrate Morton Denlow agreed, saying that [name removed] raised no genuine issues about whether the ADA should protect him. A trial is scheduled for May. PMID:11365337

  11. Cleaning of parts for new manufacturing and parts rebuilding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Jeff

    1994-06-01

    Parts cleaning is the largest single expense, and the most time consuming activity, in rebuilding and new manufacturing. On average, 25% to 40% of the total labor and overhead burden is spent on cleaning. EPA and OSHA pressures add to the burden by making some methods and chemicals obsolete. Some of the processes and chemicals in current use will be curtailed and or outlawed in the future. How can a shops and industries make long term decisions or capital investments in cleaning and process improvements when the government keeps changing its rules? At the MART Corporation in Saint Louis, Missouri, we manufacture a line of cabinet-style batch cleaning machines known as Power Washers. Twenty years ago MART invented and patented the Power Washer process, a cleaning method that recycles wash solution and blasts contaminates as they are washed off the more heavily contaminated parts. Since the initial invention MART has continued to R&D the washing process and develop ancillary systems that comply with EPA and OSHA regulations. For applications involving new industrial parts or items requiring specification cleaned surfaces. MART provides filtration and solution conditioning systems, part drying operations, and triple rinsing. Units are available in stainless steel or higher alloys. We are not alone in the washer manufacturing business. You have many choices of cleaning solutions (no pun intended) which will perform in your operations and yield good results. As a manufacturer, we are interested in your success with our equipment. We have all heard the horror stories of companies having selected inappropriate cleaning systems and or processes which then brought the company to its knees, production wise. Assembly, appearance, warranty, and performance shortcomings of finished products can often be directly related to the cleaning process and its shortcomings.

  12. Three new species of Anchylorhynchus Schoenherr, 1836 from Colombia (Coleoptera: Curculionidae; Curculioninae; Acalyptini).

    PubMed

    De Medeiros, Bruno A S; Núñez-Avellaneda, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Anchylorhynchus from Colombia, are described: Anchylorhynchus pinocchio sp. nov., A. centrosquainatus sp. nov. and A. luteobrunneus sp. nov.. A morphological description, including the male genitalia, is provided for each species as well as a comparison with similar species within the genus. All three species are found in inflorescences of species of Syagrus Mart. (Arecaceae). The adults are pollinators and the larvae develop inside fruits and feed on the endosperm, interrupting seed formation and causing fruit abortion.

  13. A new species of Epicriopsis Berlese (Acari: Mesostigmata: Ameroseiidae) from Brazil, with a key to the world species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Narita, João Paulo Z; Moraes, Gilberto J De

    2016-01-01

    Epicriopsis atuberculatus n. sp. is described, based on the morphology of adult females and males collected from macaúba palms (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. ex Mart.; Arecaceae) in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. This is the first species of the genus described from the American continent, from where it has been rarely reported. A key to the world species of Epicriopsis is provided. PMID:27395142

  14. MIMIC-III, a freely accessible critical care database

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alistair E.W.; Pollard, Tom J.; Shen, Lu; Lehman, Li-wei H.; Feng, Mengling; Ghassemi, Mohammad; Moody, Benjamin; Szolovits, Peter; Anthony Celi, Leo; Mark, Roger G.

    2016-01-01

    MIMIC-III (‘Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care’) is a large, single-center database comprising information relating to patients admitted to critical care units at a large tertiary care hospital. Data includes vital signs, medications, laboratory measurements, observations and notes charted by care providers, fluid balance, procedure codes, diagnostic codes, imaging reports, hospital length of stay, survival data, and more. The database supports applications including academic and industrial research, quality improvement initiatives, and higher education coursework. PMID:27219127

  15. Cytotoxic and leishmanicidal properties of garcinielliptone FC, a prenylated benzophenone from Platonia insignis.

    PubMed

    Costa Júnior, Joaquim S; de Almeida, Antonia Amanda Cardoso; de Barros Falcão Ferraz, Alexandre; Rossatto, Raíssa Rebés; Silva, Teresinha G; Silva, Paulo B N; Militão, Gardenia C G; das Graças Lopes Citó, Antonia Maria; Santana, Lorena Citó Lopes Resende; de Amorim Carvalho, Fernando Aécio; Freitas, Rivelilson M

    2013-03-01

    Garcinielliptone FC (GFC), a natural prenylated benzophenone, was extracted from Platonia insignis Mart. (Clusiaceae), a native plant commonly known as bacuri and used in traditional Brazilian medicine for the treatment of skin diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and leishmanicidal effects of GFC using in vitro models. The experimental data demonstrated that the polyisoprenylated benzophenone GFC possesses cytotoxic and leishmanicidal activities. PMID:22708546

  16. MIMIC-III, a freely accessible critical care database.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alistair E W; Pollard, Tom J; Shen, Lu; Lehman, Li-Wei H; Feng, Mengling; Ghassemi, Mohammad; Moody, Benjamin; Szolovits, Peter; Celi, Leo Anthony; Mark, Roger G

    2016-01-01

    MIMIC-III ('Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care') is a large, single-center database comprising information relating to patients admitted to critical care units at a large tertiary care hospital. Data includes vital signs, medications, laboratory measurements, observations and notes charted by care providers, fluid balance, procedure codes, diagnostic codes, imaging reports, hospital length of stay, survival data, and more. The database supports applications including academic and industrial research, quality improvement initiatives, and higher education coursework.

  17. Extracting features of Gaussian self-similar stochastic processes via the Bandt-Pompe approach.

    PubMed

    Rosso, O A; Zunino, L; Pérez, D G; Figliola, A; Larrondo, H A; Garavaglia, M; Martín, M T; Plastino, A

    2007-12-01

    By recourse to appropriate information theory quantifiers (normalized Shannon entropy and Martín-Plastino-Rosso intensive statistical complexity measure), we revisit the characterization of Gaussian self-similar stochastic processes from a Bandt-Pompe viewpoint. We show that the ensuing approach exhibits considerable advantages with respect to other treatments. In particular, clear quantifiers gaps are found in the transition between the continuous processes and their associated noises.

  18. Division II: Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Scrijver, Karel J.; Klimchuk, James A.; Charbonneau, Paul; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hasan, S. Sirajul; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kusano, Kanya; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Peter, Hardi; Vršnak, Bojan; Yan, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    The Business Meeting of Commission 10 was held as part of the Business Meeting of Division II (Sun and Heliosphere), chaired by Valentin Martínez-Pillet, the President of the Division. The President of Commission 10 (C10; Solar activity), Lidia van Driel-Gesztelyi, took the chair for the business meeting of C10. She summarised the activities of C10 over the triennium and the election of the incoming OC.

  19. Sarcocystis and other coccidia in foxes and other wild carnivores from Montana.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P

    1982-12-01

    Sarcocystis spp sporocysts were found in feces of 10.1% of 198 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), in 3.2% of 61 bobcats (Lynx rufus), in 16.6% of 12 mountain lions (Felis concolor), in 16.6% of 6 fisher (Martes pennanti), and in none of 20 wolverines (Gulo gulo), 4 mink (Mustela vison), or 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor). Sarcocystis muris and Toxoplasma gondii were not found in laboratory mice inoculated with feces of bobcats and mountain lions. PMID:6816776

  20. Solar and Stellar Eclipse Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budding, E.

    2007-05-01

    The special circumstance of solar eclipse affords an opportunity to review its background, particularly in the cultural context of western Anatolia. This links with a current project of çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University. Turning to the more general subject of stellar eclipses, topics of particular note concern: choice of fitting functions, disk eclipses, spot eclipses and the gravity-darkening effect. These topics arise within new era eclipsing binary studies and are relevant to active researches on remote binaries and extrasolar planets.

  1. Can big business save health care?

    PubMed

    Dunn, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Corporate America has decided to stop bellyaching about the cost and quality of the health care it helps buy for its employees. Now it's taking concrete action. Large employers such as Wal-Mart, Oracle, Cisco, BP America and many, many others are pressuring providers to meet performance standards, adopt information technology and transform the efficiency of their operations. Big Business wants value for its buck, and it's now putting money where its mouth is.

  2. Can big business save health care?

    PubMed

    Dunn, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Corporate America has decided to stop bellyaching about the cost and quality of the health care it helps buy for its employees. Now it's taking concrete action. Large employers such as Wal-Mart, Oracle, Cisco, BP America and many, many others are pressuring providers to meet performance standards, adopt information technology and transform the efficiency of their operations. Big Business wants value for its buck, and it's now putting money where its mouth is. PMID:17302135

  3. What strategic planning can do for you.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Whether it's playing chess or planning for retirement, we all have strategies for different situations in our lives. So why not apply, strategies in our practice ? Companies such as Dell, Wal-Mart, and Home Depot have depended on strategic plans to generatel millions of dollars and guide their organizations into the future. Although most of our practices are not nearly as large as these companies (except maybe Kaiser Permanente), formulating strategies for our practice is vital for future growth. PMID:17494484

  4. Water hyacinths for removal of phenols from polluted waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river water, and bayou water. One hectare of water hyacinth plants is shown to be potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hours from waters polluted with this chemical.

  5. Erratum: From the Top to the Bottom of the Main Sequence: A Complete Mass Function of the Young Open Cluster M35

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrado y Navascués, David; Stauffer, John R.; Bouvier, Jerôme; Martín, Eduardo L.

    2001-07-01

    In the paper ``From the Top to the Bottom of the Main Sequence: A Complete Mass Function of the Young Open Cluster M35'' by David Barrado y Navascués, John R. Stauffer, Jerôme Bouvier, and Eduardo L. Martín (ApJ, 546, 1006 [2001]), Table 3 contains several typographical errors. These errors affect neither the discussion and conclusions nor the figures. The corrected Table 3 is presented below.

  6. Extracting features of Gaussian self-similar stochastic processes via the Bandt-Pompe approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, O. A.; Zunino, L.; Pérez, D. G.; Figliola, A.; Larrondo, H. A.; Garavaglia, M.; Martín, M. T.; Plastino, A.

    2007-12-01

    By recourse to appropriate information theory quantifiers (normalized Shannon entropy and Martín-Plastino-Rosso intensive statistical complexity measure), we revisit the characterization of Gaussian self-similar stochastic processes from a Bandt-Pompe viewpoint. We show that the ensuing approach exhibits considerable advantages with respect to other treatments. In particular, clear quantifiers gaps are found in the transition between the continuous processes and their associated noises.

  7. Robust mean traveltime curves: a powerful tool for analysis in 2D transmission tomographic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez Martinez, J.; Pedruelo Gonzalez, L.; Rector, J.

    2008-12-01

    Acoustic tomography methods belong to the class of non destructive inspection techniques and are widely used in engineering applications. One of the main issues for these methods is the direct arrivals, which can be noisy or affected by scattering or other propagation effects. Mean traveltime curves (mean and standard deviation) have been introduced by Fernández Martínez et al (2006), and describe the variation of the main statistical parameters of the traveltime distribution for the different gathering subsets as a function of the gather index. These curves constitute a simple methodology (Fernández Martínez et al., 2008) to analyze before inversion the traveltime quality in 2D acoustic transmission tomography experiments conducted in relatively homogeneous blocks. This analysis can help to discriminate the contribution of picking errors from that of geological heterogeneities. In this contribution we present the so-called robust mean traveltime curves, which refer to the variation of the different p-percentiles and related measures of dispersion (inter-quartile range and minimum absolute deviation) for the above mentioned gathering subsets. Together with the mean curve, the median and upper-quartile traveltime curves are very resistant to the presence of outliers, and thus, are preferred to infer a background velocity model, which is valid at experiment scale and honors the experimental traveltime distribution. This methodology is valid for 2D zonal isotropic or elliptical anisotropic media, explored via any arbitrary acquisition geometry. We show the application to a well-known granitic medium (Febex Project, Nagra, Switzerland). Fernández Martínez et al. 2006. Mathematical Geology:38-3.343-374 Fernández Martínez et al.2008. Computer and Geosciences:34-3,213-225, 2008.

  8. A Systematic Approach to Creation of a Perioperative Data Warehouse.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Ira S; Gabel, Eilon; Pfeffer, Michael; Mahbouba, Mohammed; Mahajan, Aman

    2016-06-01

    Extraction of data from the electronic medical record is becoming increasingly important for quality improvement initiatives such as the American Society of Anesthesiologists Perioperative Surgical Home. To meet this need, the authors have built a robust and scalable data mart based on their implementation of EPIC containing data from across the perioperative period. The data mart is structured in such a way so as to first simplify the overall EPIC reporting structure into a series of Base Tables and then create several Reporting Schemas each around a specific concept (operating room cases, obstetrics, hospital admission, etc.), which contain all of the data required for reporting on various metrics. This structure allows centralized definitions with simplified reporting by a large number of individuals who access only the Reporting Schemas. In creating the database, the authors were able to significantly reduce the number of required table identifiers from >10 to 3, as well as to correct errors in linkages affecting up to 18.4% of cases. In addition, the data mart greatly simplified the code required to extract data, making the data accessible to individuals who lacked a strong coding background. Overall, this infrastructure represents a scalable way to successfully report on perioperative EPIC data while standardizing the definitions and improving access for end users.

  9. Challenges Associated With Using Large Data Sets for Quality Assessment and Research in Clinical Settings.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bevin; Vawdrey, David K; Liu, Jianfang; Caplan, David; Furuya, E Yoko; Mis, Frederick W; Larson, Elaine

    2015-08-01

    The rapidly expanding use of electronic records in health-care settings is generating unprecedented quantities of data available for clinical, epidemiological, and cost-effectiveness research. Several challenges are associated with using these data for clinical research, including issues surrounding access and information security, poor data quality, inconsistency of data within and across institutions, and a paucity of staff with expertise to manage and manipulate large clinical data sets. In this article, we describe our experience with assembling a data-mart and conducting clinical research using electronic data from four facilities within a single hospital network in New York City. We culled data from several electronic sources, including the institution's admission-discharge-transfer system, cost accounting system, electronic health record, clinical data warehouse, and departmental records. The final data-mart contained information for more than 760,000 discharges occurring from 2006 through 2012. Using categories identified by the National Institutes of Health Big Data to Knowledge initiative as a framework, we outlined challenges encountered during the development and use of a domain-specific data-mart and recommend approaches to overcome these challenges.

  10. Quantification of melanoma mRNA markers in sentinel nodes: pre-clinical evaluation of a single-step real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, Helene N; Nexo, Ebba; Steiniche, Torben; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J; Sorensen, Boe S

    2004-08-01

    Although reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of melanocyte-associated mRNA can detect sentinel node melanoma metastases, most published assays are semi-quantitative methods of unknown sensitivity and precision, unsuitable for clinical use. We describe a single-step real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay for MART-1 and tyrosinase mRNAs, suitable for sentinel node analysis in a clinical setting. Using serial dilutions of melanoma cell line SK-MEL-28 RNA in water as a calibrator, we obtained linear calibration curves covering the range 0.5 to 10,000 arbitrary units (SK-MEL-28 melanoma cell equivalents). The sensitivity limit was 0.32 (MART-1) and 5 (tyrosinase) arbitrary units. Analytical imprecision was between 11% and 34%. MART-1 PCR efficiency was unaffected when samples were diluted with negative lymph node RNA rather than water, whereas tyrosinase PCR efficiency was halved. To evaluate the clinical suitability of our assay, we quantified melanocyte mRNAs in sentinel nodes with histologically verified micrometastases (n = 10) and benign nevus inclusions (n = 10), and in sentinel nodes without evidence of intranodal melanocytes (n = 10). We found significant differences in median melanocyte-derived mRNA levels comparing the three types of lymph nodes, suggesting that this quantitative molecular protocol may increase assay precision and be useful for the clinical evaluation of sentinel nodes.

  11. Challenges Associated With Using Large Data Sets for Quality Assessment and Research in Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Bevin; Vawdrey, David K.; Liu, Jianfang; Caplan, David; Furuya, E. Yoko; Mis, Frederick W.; Larson, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding use of electronic records in health-care settings is generating unprecedented quantities of data available for clinical, epidemiological, and cost-effectiveness research. Several challenges are associated with using these data for clinical research, including issues surrounding access and information security, poor data quality, inconsistency of data within and across institutions, and a paucity of staff with expertise to manage and manipulate large clinical data sets. In this article, we describe our experience with assembling a data-mart and conducting clinical research using electronic data from four facilities within a single hospital network in New York City. We culled data from several electronic sources, including the institution’s admission-discharge-transfer system, cost accounting system, electronic health record, clinical data warehouse, and departmental records. The final data-mart contained information for more than 760,000 discharges occurring from 2006 through 2012. Using categories identified by the National Institutes of Health Big Data to Knowledge initiative as a framework, we outlined challenges encountered during the development and use of a domain-specific data-mart and recommend approaches to overcome these challenges. PMID:26351216

  12. 3D reconstruction of the source and scale of buried young flood channels on Mars.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gareth A; Campbell, Bruce A; Carter, Lynn M; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Phillips, Roger J

    2013-05-01

    Outflow channels on Mars are interpreted as the product of gigantic floods due to the catastrophic eruption of groundwater that may also have initiated episodes of climate change. Marte Vallis, the largest of the young martian outflow channels (<500 million years old), is embayed by lava flows that hinder detailed studies and comparisons with older channel systems. Understanding Marte Vallis is essential to our assessment of recent Mars hydrologic activity during a period otherwise considered to be cold and dry. Using data from the Shallow Radar sounder on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of buried channels on Mars and provide estimates of paleohydrologic parameters. Our work shows that Cerberus Fossae provided the waters that carved Marte Vallis, and it extended an additional 180 kilometers to the east before the emplacement of the younger lava flows. We identified two stages of channel incision and determined that channel depths were more than twice those of previous estimates. PMID:23470730

  13. First findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Penezić, Aleksandra; Selaković, Sanja; Pavlović, Ivan; Ćirović, Duško

    2014-09-01

    Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. Little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. Therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from Serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. During the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (Canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (Canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild cats (Felis silvestris) 7.69%. No adult heartworm specimens were found in beech martens (Martes foina), stone martens (Martes martes), European polecats (Mustela putorius), badgers (Meles meles) or otter (Lutra lutra). The highest recorded prevalence was in 2013 (7.30%) and the lowest in 2012 (1.6%). In jackals, the prevalence was higher in males (10%) than in females (4.06%), while in foxes the prevalence was 1.75% in males and 1.26% in females. The most infected host was a wolf in which 37 adult specimens were found. Because of the potentially significant role in the life cycle of D. immitis, populations of wild carnivores in Europe should be further examined and tested for heartworm infections. PMID:24951168

  14. Viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have clearly demonstrated the enormous virus diversity that exists among wild animals. This exemplifies the required expansion of our knowledge of the virus diversity present in wildlife, as well as the potential transmission of these viruses to domestic animals or humans. Methods In the present study we evaluated the viral diversity of fecal samples (n = 42) collected from 10 different species of wild small carnivores inhabiting the northern part of Spain using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Samples were collected from American mink (Neovison vison), European mink (Mustela lutreola), European polecat (Mustela putorius), European pine marten (Martes martes), stone marten (Martes foina), Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) of the family of Mustelidae; common genet (Genetta genetta) of the family of Viverridae; red fox (Vulpes vulpes) of the family of Canidae and European wild cat (Felis silvestris) of the family of Felidae. Results A number of sequences of possible novel viruses or virus variants were detected, including a theilovirus, phleboviruses, an amdovirus, a kobuvirus and picobirnaviruses. Conclusions Using random PCR in combination with next generation sequencing, sequences of various novel viruses or virus variants were detected in fecal samples collected from Spanish carnivores. Detected novel viruses highlight the viral diversity that is present in fecal material of wild carnivores. PMID:24886057

  15. A Systematic Approach to Creation of a Perioperative Data Warehouse.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Ira S; Gabel, Eilon; Pfeffer, Michael; Mahbouba, Mohammed; Mahajan, Aman

    2016-06-01

    Extraction of data from the electronic medical record is becoming increasingly important for quality improvement initiatives such as the American Society of Anesthesiologists Perioperative Surgical Home. To meet this need, the authors have built a robust and scalable data mart based on their implementation of EPIC containing data from across the perioperative period. The data mart is structured in such a way so as to first simplify the overall EPIC reporting structure into a series of Base Tables and then create several Reporting Schemas each around a specific concept (operating room cases, obstetrics, hospital admission, etc.), which contain all of the data required for reporting on various metrics. This structure allows centralized definitions with simplified reporting by a large number of individuals who access only the Reporting Schemas. In creating the database, the authors were able to significantly reduce the number of required table identifiers from >10 to 3, as well as to correct errors in linkages affecting up to 18.4% of cases. In addition, the data mart greatly simplified the code required to extract data, making the data accessible to individuals who lacked a strong coding background. Overall, this infrastructure represents a scalable way to successfully report on perioperative EPIC data while standardizing the definitions and improving access for end users. PMID:27195633

  16. Challenges Associated With Using Large Data Sets for Quality Assessment and Research in Clinical Settings.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bevin; Vawdrey, David K; Liu, Jianfang; Caplan, David; Furuya, E Yoko; Mis, Frederick W; Larson, Elaine

    2015-08-01

    The rapidly expanding use of electronic records in health-care settings is generating unprecedented quantities of data available for clinical, epidemiological, and cost-effectiveness research. Several challenges are associated with using these data for clinical research, including issues surrounding access and information security, poor data quality, inconsistency of data within and across institutions, and a paucity of staff with expertise to manage and manipulate large clinical data sets. In this article, we describe our experience with assembling a data-mart and conducting clinical research using electronic data from four facilities within a single hospital network in New York City. We culled data from several electronic sources, including the institution's admission-discharge-transfer system, cost accounting system, electronic health record, clinical data warehouse, and departmental records. The final data-mart contained information for more than 760,000 discharges occurring from 2006 through 2012. Using categories identified by the National Institutes of Health Big Data to Knowledge initiative as a framework, we outlined challenges encountered during the development and use of a domain-specific data-mart and recommend approaches to overcome these challenges. PMID:26351216

  17. The beginnings of dermatopathology and dermatologic microbiology in Spain.

    PubMed

    del Río, E

    2014-03-01

    Crisóstomo Martínez from Valencia was a pioneering microscopist in 17th-century Europe. The first microscopic representations of skin in Spain appeared in an 18th-century work by Martín Martínez. Microbiology and histopathology progressed considerably in the late 19th century thanks to anatomists like Maestre de San Juan and surgeons like Federico Rubio Galí. The first Spanish pathologist to specialize in dermatology was Antonio Mendoza, a colleague of José Eugenio de Olavide at the Hospital San Juan de Dios in Madrid. Claudio Sala and Juan de Azúa also made significant contributions, including the description of pseudoepithelioma. Several disciples of Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Jorge FranciscoTello, such as Lorenzo Ruiz de Arcaute and Guillermo de la Rosa King, consolidated the dermatology laboratory, but the Civil War sent many into exile or deprived them of their professional status. Juan Rubió in Barcelona and Julio Rodríguez Puchol in Madrid were the immediate predecessors of today's dermatopathologists.

  18. Aberrant apoptotic machinery confers melanoma dual resistance to BRAFV600E inhibitor and immune effector cells: immunosensitization by a histone deacetylase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Jazirehi, Ali R; Nazarian, Ramin; Torres-Collado, Antoni Xavier; Economou, James S

    2014-01-01

    BRAFV600E-inhibitors (BRAFi; e.g., vemurafenib) and modern immune-based therapies such as PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 checkpoints blockade and adoptive cell transfer (ACT) have significantly improved the care of melanoma patients. Having these two effective (BRAFi and immunotherapy) therapies raises the question whether there is a rational biological basis for using them in combination. We developed an in vitro model to determine whether tumor resistance mechanisms to a small molecule inhibitor of a driver oncogene, and to cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)- and natural killer (NK) cell-delivered apoptotic death signals were exclusive or intersecting. We generated melanoma sublines resistant to BRAFi vemurafenib and to CTL recognizing the MART-1 melanoma antigen. Vemurafenib-resistant (VemR) sublines were cross-resistant to MART CTL and NK cells indicating that a common apoptotic pathway governing tumor response to both modalities was disrupted. Pretreatment of VemR melanomas with a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) restored sensitivity to MART CTL and NK apoptosis by skewing the apoptotic gene programs towards a proapoptotic phenotype. Our in vitro findings suggest that during the course of acquisition of BRAFi resistance, melanomas develop cross-resistance to CTL- and NK-killing. Further, aberrant apoptotic pathways, amenable by an FDA-approved chromatin remodeling drug, regulate tumor resistance mechanisms to immune effector cells. These results may provide rational molecular basis for further investigations to combine these therapies clinically. PMID:24660121

  19. Development of a Real-Time PCR for a Sensitive One-Step Coprodiagnosis Allowing both the Identification of Carnivore Feces and the Detection of Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis

    PubMed Central

    Umhang, Gérald; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Millon, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Studying the environmental occurrence of parasites of concern for humans and animals based on coprosamples is an expanding field of work in epidemiology and the ecology of health. Detecting and quantifying Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis, two predominant zoonotic helminths circulating in European carnivores, in feces may help to better target measures for prevention. A rapid, sensitive, and one-step quantitative PCR (qPCR) allowing detection of E. multilocularis and Toxocara spp. was developed in the present study, combined with a host fecal test based on the identification of three carnivores (red fox, dog, and cat) involved in the life cycles of these parasites. A total of 68 coprosamples were collected from identified specimens from Vulpes vulpes, Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus, Felis silvestris catus, Meles meles, Martes foina, and Martes martes. With DNA coprosamples, real-time PCR was performed in duplex with a qPCR inhibitor control specifically designed for this study. All the coprosample host identifications were confirmed by qPCR combined with sequencing, and parasites were detected and confirmed (E. multilocularis in red foxes and Toxocara cati in cats; 16% of samples presented inhibition). By combining parasite detection and quantification, the host fecal test, and a new qPCR inhibitor control, we created a technique with a high sensitivity that may considerably improve environmental studies of pathogens. PMID:26969697

  20. Iterative reconstruction of volumetric particle distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieneke, Bernhard

    2013-02-01

    For tracking the motion of illuminated particles in space and time several volumetric flow measurement techniques are available like 3D-particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) recording images from typically three to four viewing directions. For higher seeding densities and the same experimental setup, tomographic PIV (Tomo-PIV) reconstructs voxel intensities using an iterative tomographic reconstruction algorithm (e.g. multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique, MART) followed by cross-correlation of sub-volumes computing instantaneous 3D flow fields on a regular grid. A novel hybrid algorithm is proposed here that similar to MART iteratively reconstructs 3D-particle locations by comparing the recorded images with the projections calculated from the particle distribution in the volume. But like 3D-PTV, particles are represented by 3D-positions instead of voxel-based intensity blobs as in MART. Detailed knowledge of the optical transfer function and the particle image shape is mandatory, which may differ for different positions in the volume and for each camera. Using synthetic data it is shown that this method is capable of reconstructing densely seeded flows up to about 0.05 ppp with similar accuracy as Tomo-PIV. Finally the method is validated with experimental data.

  1. An immunohistochemical analysis of pseudomelanocytic nests mimicking melanoma in situ: report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Kimberly M; Gerami, Pedram

    2010-08-01

    Several case reports have discussed the difficulty in differentiating junctional pseudomelanocytic nests as a result of lichenoid inflammation from a true melanocytic neoplasm. Even immunohistochemistry can be misleading in these cases with both Melan-A and Mart-1 frequently resulting in false positivity as a result of nonspecific labeling of nonmelanocytic cells containing melanosomes. We present a series of 2 similar cases which were initially misdiagnosed as melanoma in situ likely as a result of Mart-1 positivity of the pseudomelanocytic nests. However, in our review, a significant lichenoid reaction was apparent at the dermal-epidermal junction. Staining with microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) showed a normal density of melanocytes along the dermal-epidermal junction and failed to uniformly label the Mart-1-positive pseudomelanocytic nests. In both patients, medications frequently resulting in fixed drug eruptions were identified, and a final diagnosis of fixed drug eruption was rendered in both cases. In light of these findings we suggest MITF is a more useful marker for evaluating lentiginous proliferations along the dermal-epidermal junction particularly when dealing with the differential diagnosis of lichenoid reaction with pseudomelanocytic nests versus melanoma in situ.

  2. First findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Penezić, Aleksandra; Selaković, Sanja; Pavlović, Ivan; Ćirović, Duško

    2014-09-01

    Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. Little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. Therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from Serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. During the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (Canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (Canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild cats (Felis silvestris) 7.69%. No adult heartworm specimens were found in beech martens (Martes foina), stone martens (Martes martes), European polecats (Mustela putorius), badgers (Meles meles) or otter (Lutra lutra). The highest recorded prevalence was in 2013 (7.30%) and the lowest in 2012 (1.6%). In jackals, the prevalence was higher in males (10%) than in females (4.06%), while in foxes the prevalence was 1.75% in males and 1.26% in females. The most infected host was a wolf in which 37 adult specimens were found. Because of the potentially significant role in the life cycle of D. immitis, populations of wild carnivores in Europe should be further examined and tested for heartworm infections.

  3. Development of a Real-Time PCR for a Sensitive One-Step Coprodiagnosis Allowing both the Identification of Carnivore Feces and the Detection of Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jenny; Umhang, Gérald; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Millon, Laurence

    2016-05-15

    Studying the environmental occurrence of parasites of concern for humans and animals based on coprosamples is an expanding field of work in epidemiology and the ecology of health. Detecting and quantifying Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis, two predominant zoonotic helminths circulating in European carnivores, in feces may help to better target measures for prevention. A rapid, sensitive, and one-step quantitative PCR (qPCR) allowing detection of E. multilocularis and Toxocara spp. was developed in the present study, combined with a host fecal test based on the identification of three carnivores (red fox, dog, and cat) involved in the life cycles of these parasites. A total of 68 coprosamples were collected from identified specimens from Vulpes vulpes, Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus, Felis silvestris catus, Meles meles, Martes foina, and Martes martes With DNA coprosamples, real-time PCR was performed in duplex with a qPCR inhibitor control specifically designed for this study. All the coprosample host identifications were confirmed by qPCR combined with sequencing, and parasites were detected and confirmed (E. multilocularis in red foxes and Toxocara cati in cats; 16% of samples presented inhibition). By combining parasite detection and quantification, the host fecal test, and a new qPCR inhibitor control, we created a technique with a high sensitivity that may considerably improve environmental studies of pathogens. PMID:26969697

  4. Hazardous Materials Pharmacies - A Vital Component of a Robust P2 Program

    SciTech Connect

    McCarter, S.

    2006-07-01

    Integrating pollution prevention (P2) into the Department of Energy Integrated Safety Management (ISM) - Environmental Management System (EMS) approach, required by DOE Order 450.1, leads to an enhanced ISM program at large and complex installations and facilities. One of the building blocks to integrating P2 into a comprehensive environmental and safety program is the control and tracking of the amounts, types, and flow of hazardous materials used on a facility. Hazardous materials pharmacies (typically called HazMarts) provide a solid approach to resolving this issue through business practice changes that reduce use, avoid excess, and redistribute surplus. If understood from concept to implementation, the HazMart is a powerful tool for reducing pollution at the source, tracking inventory storage, controlling usage and flow, and summarizing data for reporting requirements. Pharmacy options can range from a strict, single control point for all hazardous materials to a virtual system, where the inventory is user controlled and reported over a common system. Designing and implementing HazMarts on large, diverse installations or facilities present a unique set of issues. This is especially true of research and development (R and D) facilities where the chemical use requirements are extensive and often classified. There are often multiple sources of supply; a wide variety of chemical requirements; a mix of containers ranging from small ampoules to large bulk storage tanks; and a wide range of tools used to track hazardous materials, ranging from simple purchase inventories to sophisticated tracking software. Computer systems are often not uniform in capacity, capability, or operating systems, making it difficult to use a server-based unified tracking system software. Each of these issues has a solution or set of solutions tied to fundamental business practices. Each requires an understanding of the problem at hand, which, in turn, requires good communication among all

  5. Seasonal variations in rainfall-induced soil erosion from forest roads in a Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Gil, Juan

    2014-05-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Land use change and the development of rural and eco-tourist activities have contributed to a strong development of forest roads in Spain during recent decades. Most of forest roads cause significant hydrological and geomorphological impacts at different scales, altering the runoff-runon patterns, the direction and properties of runoff water, and subsurface water flow. Some of these effects are caused by the removal of native vegetation from backslopes (Martínez-Zavala et al., 2008), which contributes to increased soil erosion and sediment yield in areas where natural soil erosion risk is usually low (Jordán and Martínez-Zavala, 2008; Jordán-López et al., 2009). Rainfall intensity, soil moisture, slope and vegetation cover are key factors for erosion risk in forest roads (Jordán and Martínez-Zavala, 2008; Cao et al., 2013). 2. METHODS Sixty backslopes with plant cover varying between dense shrubs and bare soil were selected. Rainfall simulations (90 mm/h during 20 minutes) were performed in winter (December 2012 - January 2013) and summer (August - September 2013) to study the effect of rainstorms at the end and beginning of the rainy season. Surface runoff was collected to determine runoff rates and sediment yields. Plant cover, rock fragment cover and the area covered by biological crusts were determined at each plot. Slope was determined with a portable clinometer (all selected plots were in the range 41-76%). 3. RESULTS Although soil loss was increased in winter, when soil moisture is higher, small differences were observed at vegetation cover above 75%. Plant cover above 40% considerably reduced sediment yield and runoff flow. In contrast, differences triggered between different plots with decreasing vegetation cover. In bare areas, rock fragments and biological crusts (mosses, lichens, liverworts and fungi) caused great differences between bare areas both during summer and winter periods. REFERENCES Cao, L., Zhang, K., Dai, H., Liang, Y

  6. Evaluating the skeletal chemistry of Mytilus californianus as a temperature proxy: Effects of microenvironment and ontogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Heather L.; Schellenberg, Stephen A.; Becker, Bonnie J.; Deutschman, Douglas L.; Dyck, Kelsey A.; Koch, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Molluscan shell chemistry may provide an important archive of mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual range in temperature (MART), but such direct temperature interpretations may be confounded by biologic, metabolic, or kinetic factors. To explore this potential archive, we outplanted variously sized specimens of the common mussel Mytilus californianus at relatively low and high intertidal positions in San Diego, California, for 382 days with in situ recording of ambient temperature and periodic sampling of water chemistry. The prismatic calcite layer of eight variously sized specimens from each intertidal position were then serially microsampled and geochemically analyzed. Average intraspecimen δ18O values significantly covaried only with temperature, whereas Mg/Ca values showed a strong and significant positive correlation with growth rate. To assess intra-annual variations in shell chemistry as proxy for MART, each specimen's δ18O record was ordinated in the time domain and compared to the predicted isotopic equilibrium δ18O values from environmental data. Observed specimen values were significantly correlated with predicted equilibrium values, but show 18O enrichments of 0.2 to 0.5‰. In contrast, Mg/Ca values were poorly correlated with temperature due to significant positive relationships with growth rate and intertidal position. Within the extrapallial fluid, pH, carbonate solution chemistry, Rayleigh fractionation and/or an undetermined source of disequilibrium may cause δ18O values to deviate from predicted equilibrium precipitation for ambient seawater. Despite this consistent 18O enrichment, intraskeletal variations in δ18O values readily characterize the instrumental MAT and 5-95% MART values, making M. californianus a valuable source of information for paleoceanographic reconstructions.

  7. The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: IV. Vascular effects of repeated inhalation exposure to a mixture of five inorganic gases.

    PubMed

    Mauderly, J L; Kracko, D; Brower, J; Doyle-Eisele, M; McDonald, J D; Lund, A K; Seilkop, S K

    2014-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that a mixture of five inorganic gases could reproduce certain central vascular effects of repeated inhalation exposure of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice to diesel or gasoline engine exhaust. The hypothesis resulted from preceding multiple additive regression tree (MART) analysis of a composition-concentration-response database of mice exposed by inhalation to the exhausts and other complex mixtures. The five gases were the predictors most important to MART models best fitting the vascular responses. Mice on high-fat diet were exposed 6 h/d, 7 d/week for 50 d to clean air or a mixture containing 30.6 ppm CO, 20.5 ppm NO, 1.4 ppm NO₂, 0.5 ppm SO₂, and 2.0 ppm NH₃ in air. The gas concentrations were below the maxima in the preceding studies but in the range of those in exhaust exposure levels that caused significant effects. Five indicators of stress and pro-atherosclerotic responses were measured in aortic tissue. The exposure increased all five response indicators, with the magnitude of effect and statistical significance varying among the indicators and depending on inclusion or exclusion of an apparent outlying control. With the outlier excluded, three responses approximated predicted values and two fell below predictions. The results generally supported evidence that the five gases drove the effects of exhaust, and thus supported the potential of the MART approach for identifying putative causal components of complex mixtures. PMID:25162721

  8. Spatial Niche Segregation of Sympatric Stone Marten and Pine Marten--Avoidance of Competition or Selection of Optimal Habitat?

    PubMed

    Wereszczuk, Anna; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence of ecologically similar species relies on differences in one or more dimensions of their ecological niches, such as space, time and resources in diel and/or seasonal scales. However, niche differentiation may result from other mechanisms such as avoidance of high predation pressure, different adaptations or requirements of ecologically similar species. Stone marten (Martes foina) and pine marten (Martes martes) occur sympatrically over a large area in Central Europe and utilize similar habitats and food, therefore it is expected that their coexistence requires differentiation in at least one of their niche dimensions or the mechanisms through which these dimensions are used. To test this hypothesis, we used differences in the species activity patterns and habitat selection, estimated with a resource selection function (RSF), to predict the relative probability of occurrence of the two species within a large forest complex in the northern geographic range of the stone marten. Stone martens were significantly heavier, have a longer body and a better body condition than pine martens. We found weak evidence for temporal niche segregation between the species. Stone and pine martens were both primarily nocturnal, but pine martens were active more frequently during the day and significantly reduced the duration of activity during autumn-winter. Stone and pine martens utilized different habitats and almost completely separated their habitat niches. Stone marten strongly preferred developed areas and avoided meadows and coniferous or deciduous forests. Pine marten preferred deciduous forest and small patches covered by trees, and avoided developed areas and meadows. We conclude that complete habitat segregation of the two marten species facilitates sympatric coexistence in this area. However, spatial niche segregation between these species was more likely due to differences in adaptation to cold climate, avoidance of high predator pressure and/or food

  9. Repeated Aqueous Flooding from the Cerberus Fossae: Evidence for Very Recently Extant, Deep Groundwater on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burr, Devon M.; Grier, Jennifer A.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2002-09-01

    The geomorphology and topography of the Cerberus Plains region of Mars show three spatially and temporally distinct, young, aqueous flood channel systems. Flood geomorphology in each of these channels, as seen in Mars Orbiter Camera images, consists of streamlined forms, longitudinal lineations, and a single occurrence of transverse dunes, features similar to those in the flood-carved terrain of the Channeled Scabland in the northwestern United States. As additional geomorphic evidence of flooding, small cones (interpreted as phreatic) are found preferentially in the channels or at their distal ends. Glaciers, lava flows, and CO 2-charged density flows are each inconsistent with these geomorphic features. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data show two of the three channel systems (Athabasca Valles and an unnamed northern channel system) emanating from the Cerberus Fossae; we suggest that the third channel system (Marte Vallis) also originated at the fissures. The discharges for two of the three systems (Athabasca Valles and Marte Vallis) have been estimated from surface topography to have been on the order of 10 6 m 3/s. Crater counts indicate that the channels are not only young (extreme Late Amazonian), but also were carved asynchronously. Geomorphic evidence suggests that two of the channels (Athabasca and Marte Valles) experienced more than one flood. Emanation from volcanotectonic fissures instead of chaotic terrain distinguishes these Cerberus Plains channels from the larger, older circum-Chryse channels. Groundwater must have collected in a liquid state prior to flood onset to flow at the estimated discharge rates. Lack of large-scale subsidence near the channels' origination points along the Cerberus Fossae indicates that this groundwater was at least several kilometers deep.

  10. Towards quantitative mRNA analysis in paraffin-embedded tissues using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction: a methodological study on lymph nodes from melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, Helene Nortvig; Steiniche, Torben; Nexo, Ebba; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl

    2003-02-01

    Improved extraction techniques combined with sensitive real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction may allow detection of mRNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) materials, but the factors affecting mRNA quantification in clinical material using these methods have not been systematically analyzed. We designed analyses using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for quantification of MART-1, beta-actin, and beta(2)-microglobulin mRNAs. The analytical intra- and interassay imprecision (coefficient of variation) was in the range 10 to 20% for all three genes studied. Using these protocols, we studied the influence of tissue autolysis and length of formalin-fixation on mRNA detection in metastatic melanoma. Delay in freezing reduced detectable mRNA, although this was less than predicted and mostly occurred early in autolysis. MART-1, beta-actin, and beta(2)-microglobulin mRNAs were consistently detected in FFPE metastatic melanoma even after fixation for up to 3 weeks, although the total mRNA detected was markedly reduced in fixed compared with fresh tissues (up to 99%). Quantification of MART-1 was, however, possible if this was expressed relative to a housekeeping gene. The polymerase chain reaction product from FFPE tissues could be increased up to 100-fold amplifying short (<136 bp) compared with long amplicons. Variations in time before tissue processing and in fixation length seem to be less important sources of imprecision than previously assumed. Our findings suggest that quantitative analysis of mRNA in archive and routine diagnostic tissues may be possible.

  11. Isolation by distance, resistance and/or clusters? Lessons learned from a forest-dwelling carnivore inhabiting a heterogeneous landscape.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; Cushman, Samuel A; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamín J

    2015-10-01

    Landscape genetics provides a valuable framework to understand how landscape features influence gene flow and to disentangle the factors that lead to discrete and/or clinal population structure. Here, we attempt to differentiate between these processes in a forest-dwelling small carnivore [European pine marten (Martes martes)]. Specifically, we used complementary analytical approaches to quantify the spatially explicit genetic structure and diversity and analyse patterns of gene flow for 140 individuals genotyped at 15 microsatellite loci. We first used spatially explicit and nonspatial Bayesian clustering algorithms to partition the sample into discrete clusters and evaluate hypotheses of 'isolation by barriers' (IBB). We further characterized the relationships between genetic distance and geographical ('isolation by distance', IBD) and ecological distances ('isolation by resistance', IBR) obtained from optimized landscape models. Using a reciprocal causal modelling approach, we competed the IBD, IBR and IBB hypotheses with each other to unravel factors driving population genetic structure. Additionally, we further assessed spatially explicit indices of genetic diversity using sGD across potentially overlapping genetic neighbourhoods that matched the inferred population structure. Our results revealed a complex spatial genetic cline that appears to be driven jointly by IBD and partial barriers to gene flow (IBB) associated with poor habitat and interspecific competition. Habitat loss and fragmentation, in synergy with past overharvesting and possible interspecific competition with sympatric stone marten (Martes foina), are likely the main factors responsible for the spatial genetic structure we observed. These results emphasize the need for a more thorough evaluation of discrete and clinal hypotheses governing gene flow in landscape genetic studies, and the potential influence of different limiting factors affecting genetic structure at different spatial scales

  12. Analysis of HLA class I expression in different metastases from two melanoma patients undergoing peptide immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mendez, R; Serrano, A; Jäger, E; Maleno, I; Ruiz-Cabello, F; Knuth, A; Garrido, F

    2001-06-01

    We characterized the HLA class I alterations in five metastases obtained from two patients with melanoma immunized with Melan A/MART-1, tyrosinase and gp100 tumor peptides. All three metastases analyzed in the first patient (NW145) showed a similar HLA class I alteration with a dual population of melanoma cells. One population was HLA class I antigen positive and the other had loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the short arm of chromosome 6 leading to an HLA haplotype loss (A02011, B4007, Cw1). The absence of HLA-A2 antigen may explain why this patient did not develop HLA-A2 restricted, Melan A/MART-1 specificity immunization, since this HLA molecule is the restriction element for the tumor peptides used. However, this HLA-deficient population was not selected after peptide immunotherapy. The primary tumor in this patient presented LOH in region 6q, but only in the vertical growth phase of the lesion, whereas LOH at 6p was observed only in DNA from metastatic material. The second patient (NW16) also presented two metastatic lesions with an identical HLA molecular defect, i.e. HLA B locus downregulation (HLA B51011: serological B51; B1503: serological B70). One lesion expressed the tumor antigen (Melan A/ MART-1), but the other did not. Interestingly, the antigen-positive metastasis regressed after peptide immunotherapy, whereas the other progressed rapidly. These findings provide the first indication that multiple metastases generated in the same host can have identically altered HLA class I phenotypes.

  13. Isolation by distance, resistance and/or clusters? Lessons learned from a forest-dwelling carnivore inhabiting a heterogeneous landscape.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; Cushman, Samuel A; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamín J

    2015-10-01

    Landscape genetics provides a valuable framework to understand how landscape features influence gene flow and to disentangle the factors that lead to discrete and/or clinal population structure. Here, we attempt to differentiate between these processes in a forest-dwelling small carnivore [European pine marten (Martes martes)]. Specifically, we used complementary analytical approaches to quantify the spatially explicit genetic structure and diversity and analyse patterns of gene flow for 140 individuals genotyped at 15 microsatellite loci. We first used spatially explicit and nonspatial Bayesian clustering algorithms to partition the sample into discrete clusters and evaluate hypotheses of 'isolation by barriers' (IBB). We further characterized the relationships between genetic distance and geographical ('isolation by distance', IBD) and ecological distances ('isolation by resistance', IBR) obtained from optimized landscape models. Using a reciprocal causal modelling approach, we competed the IBD, IBR and IBB hypotheses with each other to unravel factors driving population genetic structure. Additionally, we further assessed spatially explicit indices of genetic diversity using sGD across potentially overlapping genetic neighbourhoods that matched the inferred population structure. Our results revealed a complex spatial genetic cline that appears to be driven jointly by IBD and partial barriers to gene flow (IBB) associated with poor habitat and interspecific competition. Habitat loss and fragmentation, in synergy with past overharvesting and possible interspecific competition with sympatric stone marten (Martes foina), are likely the main factors responsible for the spatial genetic structure we observed. These results emphasize the need for a more thorough evaluation of discrete and clinal hypotheses governing gene flow in landscape genetic studies, and the potential influence of different limiting factors affecting genetic structure at different spatial scales.

  14. Detailed analysis of immunologic effects of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4-blocking monoclonal antibody tremelimumab in peripheral blood of patients with melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Lee, Yohan; Jalil, Jason; Algazi, Alain; de la Rocha, Pilar; Camacho, Luis H; Bozon, Viviana A; Bulanhagui, Cecile A; Seja, Elisabeth; Villanueva, Arturo; Straatsma, Bradley R; Gualberto, Antonio; Economou, James S; Glaspy, John A; Gomez-Navarro, Jesus; Ribas, Antoni

    2008-01-01

    Background CTLA4-blocking antibodies induce tumor regression in a subset of patients with melanoma. Analysis of immune parameters in peripheral blood may help define how responses are mediated. Methods Peripheral blood from HLA-A*0201-positive patients with advanced melanoma receiving tremelimumab (formerly CP-675,206) at 10 mg/kg monthly was repeatedly sampled during the first 4 cycles. Samples were analyzed by 1) tetramer and ELISPOT assays for reactivity to CMV, EBV, MART1, gp100, and tyrosinase; 2) activation HLA-DR and memory CD45RO markers on CD4+/CD8+ cells; and 3) real-time quantitative PCR of mRNA for FoxP3 transcription factor, preferentially expressed by T regulatory cells. The primary endpoint was difference in MART1-specific T cells by tetramer assay. Immunological data were explored for significant trends using clustering analysis. Results Three of 12 patients eligible for immune monitoring had tumor regression lasting > 2 years without relapse. There was no significant change in percent of MART1-specific T cells by tetramer assay. Additionally, there was no generalized trend toward postdosing changes in other antigen-specific CD8+ cell populations, FoxP3 transcripts, or overall changes in surface expression of T-cell activation or memory markers. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering based on immune monitoring data segregated patients randomly. However, clustering according to T-cell activation or memory markers separated patients with clinical response and most patients with inflammatory toxicity into a common subgroup. Conclusion Administration of CTLA4-blocking antibody tremelimumab to patients with advanced melanoma results in a subset of patients with long-lived tumor responses. T-cell activation and memory markers served as the only readout of the pharmacodynamic effects of this antibody in peripheral blood. Clinical trial registration number NCT00086489 PMID:18452610

  15. Spatial Niche Segregation of Sympatric Stone Marten and Pine Marten--Avoidance of Competition or Selection of Optimal Habitat?

    PubMed

    Wereszczuk, Anna; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence of ecologically similar species relies on differences in one or more dimensions of their ecological niches, such as space, time and resources in diel and/or seasonal scales. However, niche differentiation may result from other mechanisms such as avoidance of high predation pressure, different adaptations or requirements of ecologically similar species. Stone marten (Martes foina) and pine marten (Martes martes) occur sympatrically over a large area in Central Europe and utilize similar habitats and food, therefore it is expected that their coexistence requires differentiation in at least one of their niche dimensions or the mechanisms through which these dimensions are used. To test this hypothesis, we used differences in the species activity patterns and habitat selection, estimated with a resource selection function (RSF), to predict the relative probability of occurrence of the two species within a large forest complex in the northern geographic range of the stone marten. Stone martens were significantly heavier, have a longer body and a better body condition than pine martens. We found weak evidence for temporal niche segregation between the species. Stone and pine martens were both primarily nocturnal, but pine martens were active more frequently during the day and significantly reduced the duration of activity during autumn-winter. Stone and pine martens utilized different habitats and almost completely separated their habitat niches. Stone marten strongly preferred developed areas and avoided meadows and coniferous or deciduous forests. Pine marten preferred deciduous forest and small patches covered by trees, and avoided developed areas and meadows. We conclude that complete habitat segregation of the two marten species facilitates sympatric coexistence in this area. However, spatial niche segregation between these species was more likely due to differences in adaptation to cold climate, avoidance of high predator pressure and/or food

  16. Leptospirosis in free-ranging endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) and other small carnivores (Mustelidae, Viverridae) from southwestern France.

    PubMed

    Moinet, Marie; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; André-Fontaine, Geneviève; Aulagnier, Stéphane; Mesplède, Alain; Blanchard, Béatrice; Descarsin, Véronique; Dumas, Philippe; Dumas, Yann; Coïc, Christophe; Couzi, Laurent; Fournier, Pascal

    2010-10-01

    To study the possible role of disease in the decline of endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola), we conducted a survey of antibody prevalence and renal carriage of pathogenic leptospira (Leptospira interrogans sensu lato) using serum and kidney samples collected from 1990 to 2007 from several free-ranging small carnivores and farmed American mink (Mustela vison) in southwestern France. An indirect microscopic agglutination test using a panel of 16 serovars belonging to 6 serogroups (Australis, Autumnalis, Icterohæmorrhagiæ, Grippotyphosa, Panama, Sejroe) revealed antibodies in all species, with significant differences in antibody prevalences: 74% in European mink (n=99), 65.4% in European polecats (Mustela putorius, n=133), 86% in American mink (n=74), 89% in stone martens (Martes foina, n=19), 74% in pine martens (Martes martes, n=19), 35% in common genets (Genetta genetta, n=79), and 31% in farmed American mink (n=51). Serogroups Australis and Icterohæmorragiæ were dominant in most free-ranging species; serogroup Grippotyphosa had high prevalences in European mink. Such high antibody prevalences have never been reported. They are probably related to the large number of known reservoirs, rats (Rattus spp.), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), and coypu (Myocastor coypu), in the study area. The polymerase chain reaction test specific for pathogenic leptospiral DNA detected renal carriage in 23% of 34 European mink, 22% of 18 polecats, and 15% of 33 free-ranging American mink, with no significant differences. Renal carriage shows that mustelids may shed leptospira for short periods, but their epidemiologic role is probably limited. High antibody prevalences suggest that the disease is unlikely to be highly pathogenic for these species; however, chronic forms of the disease (abortions, renal lesions) could reduce the reproductive success or life span of infected animals. Further studies on the pathogenicity of leptospirosis in these populations are needed to

  17. Heat Shock Protein-90 Inhibitors Enhance Antigen Expression on Melanomas and Increase T Cell Recognition of Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Timothy J.; Dunn, Ian S.; Rose, Lenora B.; Newton, Estelle E.; Pandolfi, Franco; Kurnick, James T.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to enhance antigen-specific T cell recognition of cancer cells, we have examined numerous modulators of antigen-expression. In this report we demonstrate that twelve different Hsp90 inhibitors (iHsp90) share the ability to increase the expression of differentiation antigens and MHC Class I antigens. These iHsp90 are active in several molecular and cellular assays on a series of tumor cell lines, including eleven human melanomas, a murine B16 melanoma, and two human glioma-derived cell lines. Intra-cytoplasmic antibody staining showed that all of the tested iHsp90 increased expression of the melanocyte differentiation antigens Melan-A/MART-1, gp100, and TRP-2, as well as MHC Class I. The gliomas showed enhanced gp100 and MHC staining. Quantitative analysis of mRNA levels showed a parallel increase in message transcription, and a reporter assay shows induction of promoter activity for Melan-A/MART-1 gene. In addition, iHsp90 increased recognition of tumor cells by T cells specific for Melan-A/MART-1. In contrast to direct Hsp90 client proteins, the increased levels of full-length differentiation antigens that result from iHsp90 treatment are most likely the result of transcriptional activation of their encoding genes. In combination, these results suggest that iHsp90 improve recognition of tumor cells by T cells specific for a melanoma-associated antigen as a result of increasing the expressed intracellular antigen pool available for processing and presentation by MHC Class I, along with increased levels of MHC Class I itself. As these Hsp90 inhibitors do not interfere with T cell function, they could have potential for use in immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:25503774

  18. The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: IV. Vascular effects of repeated inhalation exposure to a mixture of five inorganic gases.

    PubMed

    Mauderly, J L; Kracko, D; Brower, J; Doyle-Eisele, M; McDonald, J D; Lund, A K; Seilkop, S K

    2014-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that a mixture of five inorganic gases could reproduce certain central vascular effects of repeated inhalation exposure of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice to diesel or gasoline engine exhaust. The hypothesis resulted from preceding multiple additive regression tree (MART) analysis of a composition-concentration-response database of mice exposed by inhalation to the exhausts and other complex mixtures. The five gases were the predictors most important to MART models best fitting the vascular responses. Mice on high-fat diet were exposed 6 h/d, 7 d/week for 50 d to clean air or a mixture containing 30.6 ppm CO, 20.5 ppm NO, 1.4 ppm NO₂, 0.5 ppm SO₂, and 2.0 ppm NH₃ in air. The gas concentrations were below the maxima in the preceding studies but in the range of those in exhaust exposure levels that caused significant effects. Five indicators of stress and pro-atherosclerotic responses were measured in aortic tissue. The exposure increased all five response indicators, with the magnitude of effect and statistical significance varying among the indicators and depending on inclusion or exclusion of an apparent outlying control. With the outlier excluded, three responses approximated predicted values and two fell below predictions. The results generally supported evidence that the five gases drove the effects of exhaust, and thus supported the potential of the MART approach for identifying putative causal components of complex mixtures.

  19. Spatial Niche Segregation of Sympatric Stone Marten and Pine Marten – Avoidance of Competition or Selection of Optimal Habitat?

    PubMed Central

    Wereszczuk, Anna; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence of ecologically similar species relies on differences in one or more dimensions of their ecological niches, such as space, time and resources in diel and/or seasonal scales. However, niche differentiation may result from other mechanisms such as avoidance of high predation pressure, different adaptations or requirements of ecologically similar species. Stone marten (Martes foina) and pine marten (Martes martes) occur sympatrically over a large area in Central Europe and utilize similar habitats and food, therefore it is expected that their coexistence requires differentiation in at least one of their niche dimensions or the mechanisms through which these dimensions are used. To test this hypothesis, we used differences in the species activity patterns and habitat selection, estimated with a resource selection function (RSF), to predict the relative probability of occurrence of the two species within a large forest complex in the northern geographic range of the stone marten. Stone martens were significantly heavier, have a longer body and a better body condition than pine martens. We found weak evidence for temporal niche segregation between the species. Stone and pine martens were both primarily nocturnal, but pine martens were active more frequently during the day and significantly reduced the duration of activity during autumn-winter. Stone and pine martens utilized different habitats and almost completely separated their habitat niches. Stone marten strongly preferred developed areas and avoided meadows and coniferous or deciduous forests. Pine marten preferred deciduous forest and small patches covered by trees, and avoided developed areas and meadows. We conclude that complete habitat segregation of the two marten species facilitates sympatric coexistence in this area. However, spatial niche segregation between these species was more likely due to differences in adaptation to cold climate, avoidance of high predator pressure and/or food

  20. Certhrax toxin, an anthrax-related ADP-ribosyltransferase from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Visschedyk, Danielle; Rochon, Amanda; Tempel, Wolfram; Dimov, Svetoslav; Park, Hee-Won; Merrill, A Rod

    2012-11-30

    We identified Certhrax, the first anthrax-like mART toxin from the pathogenic G9241 strain of Bacillus cereus. Certhrax shares 31% sequence identity with anthrax lethal factor from Bacillus anthracis; however, we have shown that the toxicity of Certhrax resides in the mART domain, whereas anthrax uses a metalloprotease mechanism. Like anthrax lethal factor, Certhrax was found to require protective antigen for host cell entry. This two-domain enzyme was shown to be 60-fold more toxic to mammalian cells than anthrax lethal factor. Certhrax localizes to distinct regions within mouse RAW264.7 cells by 10 min postinfection and is extranuclear in its cellular location. Substitution of catalytic residues shows that the mART function is responsible for the toxicity, and it binds NAD(+) with high affinity (K(D) = 52.3 ± 12.2 μM). We report the 2.2 Å Certhrax structure, highlighting its structural similarities and differences with anthrax lethal factor. We also determined the crystal structures of two good inhibitors (P6 (K(D) = 1.7 ± 0.2 μM, K(i) = 1.8 ± 0.4 μM) and PJ34 (K(D) = 5.8 ± 2.6 μM, K(i) = 9.6 ± 0.3 μM)) in complex with Certhrax. As with other toxins in this family, the phosphate-nicotinamide loop moves toward the NAD(+) binding site with bound inhibitor. These results indicate that Certhrax may be important in the pathogenesis of B. cereus.

  1. Three new cecidogenous species of Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Fernando A.; Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Moreira, Gilson R. P.; Becker, Vitor O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new cecidogenous species of Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest are described. Larvae of P. fernandesi Moreira & Becker, sp. n., P. rosaemariae Moreira & Becker, sp. n. and P. tavaresi Becker & Moreira, sp. n. induce galls, respectively, on Tibouchina sellowiana (Cham.) Cogn., T. asperior (Cham.) Cogn. and T. fissinervia (Schrank & Mart. ex DC.) Cogn. (Melastomataceae). Adults, immature stages and galls are illustrated, and data on life history and a preliminary analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences, including related species, are also provided. PMID:25152676

  2. A new Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Aguirre, María B; Logarzo, Guillermo A

    2016-05-26

    A new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), A. lapachosus sp. n., is described from Salta Province of Argentina as a parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis cactus (Cactaceae). It is a candidate "new association" biological control agent for quarantine evaluation and possible following introduction to Puerto Rico (USA) against another Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and often misidentified as H. pungens Granara de Willink (according to our unpublished data the latter attacks only Amaranthaceae), which devastates or threatens the native cacti there and also in some other Caribbean islands (Triapitsyn, Aguirre et al. 2014; Carrera-Martínez et al. 2015).

  3. Martian Surface Temperature and Spectral Response from the MSL REMS Ground Temperature Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Torres, Javier; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Zorzano, María-Paz; Serrano, María; Mendaza, Teresa; Hamilton, Vicky; Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; REMS Team

    2013-04-01

    The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) offers the opportunity to explore the near surface atmospheric conditions and, in particular will shed new light into the heat budget of the Martian surface. This is important for studies of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), as the ground and air temperatures measured directly by REMS control the coupling of the atmosphere with the surface [Zurek et al., 1992]. This coupling is driven by solar insolation. The ABL plays an important role in the general circulation and the local atmospheric dynamics of Mars. One of the REMS sensors, the ground temperature sensor (GTS), provides the data needed to study the thermal inertia properties of the regolith and rocks beneath the MSL rover. The GTS includes thermopile detectors, with infrared bands of 8-14 µm and 16-20 µm [Gómez-Elvira et al., 2012]. These sensors are clustered in a single location on the MSL mast and the 8-14 µm thermopile sounds the surface temperature. The infrared radiation reaching the thermopile is proportional to the emissivity of the surface minerals across these thermal wavelengths. We have developed a radiative transfer retrieval method for the REMS GTS using a database of thermal infrared laboratory spectra of analogue minerals and their mixtures. [Martín Redondo et al. 2009, Martínez-Frías et al. 2012 - FRISER-IRMIX database]. This method will be used to assess the perfomance of the REMS GTS as well as determine, through the error analysis, the surface temperature and emissivity values where MSL is operating. Comparisons with orbiter data will be performed. References Gómez-Elvira et al. [2012], REMS: The Environmental Sensor Suite for the Mars Science Laboratory Rover, Space Science Reviews, Volume 170, Issue 1-4, pp. 583-640. Martín-Redondo et al. [2009] Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11:, pp. 1428-1432. Martínez-Frías et al. [2012] FRISER-IRMIX database http

  4. Vegetable crop management with remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Elliott, R. A.; Edwards, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Repetitive aerial photography with color infrared (ACIR) and black-and-white infrared (B and WIR) films was taken of potato and tomato fields in southwest Florida during the spring season of 1975. Color differences observed in the photographs revealed different levels of soil moisture in the fields, improper ditch arrangements, poor stands of plants, and areas where late blight (Phytophthora infestans) (Mont.)d.By and early blight (Alternaria solani) (Ell. and Mart.) Jones and Grout. were defoliating potato plants. Photographs of fields before planting also indicated areas where excessive rock formations existed which would make field preparation costly. Preplanting photographs also pinpointed areas with different water table levels.

  5. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  6. [Incidence of dengue in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Orozco Hechavarría, N; Díaz Portuondo, I M; Abad Cañete, U; Martínez Delgado, Y

    2001-01-01

    A descriptive study of children and adolescents that got sick with dengue in the health area served by "José Martí" polyclinics in Santiago de Cuba from May to August 1997 was conducted to determine the incidence of this affection in these age groups. It was observed that dengue was more frequent in males aged 5-11 years. Bronchial asthma, epilepsy and congenital cardiopathy were the most common previous affections found. The incidence of the disease in the casuistry was low, with well-nourished males without histories of chronic processes and good clinical recovery prevailing. Only one case was classified as hemorrhagic dengue.

  7. Eventos Planetarios Periodicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Gutierrez, J. D.

    1987-05-01

    El análisis de las coordenadas ecuatoriales para los planetas Mercurio, Venus, Marte, Júpiter, Saturno, en los instantes en que ocurren algunos eventos astronómicos, como conjunciones, oposiciones,etc., muestra un comportamiento periódico, característico a cada planeta. El caso de Venus es el mejor estudiado. El cálculo de las efemérides a lo largo de 1000 años , indica un período característico de aproximadamente 260 años. Resultados preliminares con otros planetas muestran períodos distintos.

  8. Problems with studying wolf predation on small prey in summer via global positioning system collars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacios, Vicente; Mech, L. David

    2010-01-01

    We attempted to study predation on various-sized prey by a male and female wolf (Canis lupus) with global positioning system (GPS) collars programmed to acquire locations every 10 min in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota. During May to August 2007, we investigated 147 clusters of locations (31% of the total) and found evidence of predation on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn and yearling, a beaver (Castor canadensis), ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), and fisher (Martes pennanti) and scavenging on a road-killed deer and other carrion. However, we missed finding many prey items and discuss the problems associated with trying to conduct such a study.

  9. A new Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Aguirre, María B; Logarzo, Guillermo A

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), A. lapachosus sp. n., is described from Salta Province of Argentina as a parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis cactus (Cactaceae). It is a candidate "new association" biological control agent for quarantine evaluation and possible following introduction to Puerto Rico (USA) against another Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and often misidentified as H. pungens Granara de Willink (according to our unpublished data the latter attacks only Amaranthaceae), which devastates or threatens the native cacti there and also in some other Caribbean islands (Triapitsyn, Aguirre et al. 2014; Carrera-Martínez et al. 2015). PMID:27395151

  10. Cellular blue nevus (CBN) lymph node metastases of the neck with no primary skin lesion: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Scheller, Konstanze; Scheller, Christian; Becker, Susann; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Schubert, Johannes

    2010-12-01

    A case of cervical lymph node infiltration by a benign cellular blue nevus (CBN) and a 27-year disease history is presented. Dermal dendritic melanocytes and pigmented spindle cells presented no histological evidence of malignancy (CD34-, desmin-, PanCy-, HMB-45+, anti-S-100+, Bcl-2+, MART-1+, focally expression of melan A, 1% Ki-67+ of the tumour cell nucleoli). The differentiation of the benign blue nevus (BN) from a malignant blue nevus (MBN) and a malignant melanoma (MM) is still a challenge. Because of the malignant transformation potential of 5.2-6.3% a histological examination and a conservative surgical approach with close follow up are mandatory.

  11. Comment on “The two dimensional motion of a particle in an inverse square potential: Classical and quantum aspects” [J. Math. Phys. 54, 053509 (2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang Chryssomalakos, Chryssomalis Salgado, Marcelo

    2015-10-15

    We comment on a fatal flaw in the analysis contained in the work of Martínez-y-Romero et al., [J. Math. Phys. 54, 053509 (2013)], which concerns the motion of a point particle in an inverse square potential, and show that most conclusions reached there are wrong. In particular, the manifestly senseless claim that, in the attractive potential case, no bounded orbits exist for negative energies, is traced to a sign error. Several more mistakes, both in the classical and the quantum cases, are pointed out.

  12. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Marten

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences and species characteristics of the pine marten (Martes americana) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available scientific data on the species-habitat requirements of the pine marten. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of a HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic, word and mathematical. Suitability index graphs quantify the species-habitat relationship. These data are then synthesized into a model which is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  13. Phylogenetic relationship of Wolverine Gulo gulo in Mustelidae revealed by complete mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shibing; Gao, Yingying; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Shifang; Bai, Xiaojie; Zhang, Minghai

    2016-07-01

    The Wolverine Gulo gulo is an endangered species in China. We first obtained blood sample, extracted the sample DNA and sequenced the whole mtDNA genome of wolverine in Northeast China. We built the phylogenetic tree of wolverine and 10 other most closely related Mustelidae species. The wolverine's complete mitogenome is 16 575 bp in length, includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and one control region. The phylogenetic tree indicates that Wolverine is mostly close to the genus Martes.

  14. Comment on ``The two dimensional motion of a particle in an inverse square potential: Classical and quantum aspects'' [J. Math. Phys. 54, 053509 (2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Chryssomalakos, Chryssomalis; Salgado, Marcelo

    2015-10-01

    We comment on a fatal flaw in the analysis contained in the work of Martínez-y-Romero et al., [J. Math. Phys. 54, 053509 (2013)], which concerns the motion of a point particle in an inverse square potential, and show that most conclusions reached there are wrong. In particular, the manifestly senseless claim that, in the attractive potential case, no bounded orbits exist for negative energies, is traced to a sign error. Several more mistakes, both in the classical and the quantum cases, are pointed out.

  15. Observations of the Ca ii IR Triplet in High Luminosity Quasars: Exploring the Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Aldama, Mary Loli; Marziani, Paola; Dultzin, Deborah; Sulentic, Jack W.; Bressan, Alessandro; Chen, Yang; Stirpe, Giovanna M.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new spectroscopic sample of 11 quasars at intermediate redshift observed with the Infrared Spectrometer and Array Camera (ISAAC) on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), covering O i λ8446 and the Ca ii triplet 8498, 8542, 8662. The new observations - that supplement the sample presented by Martínez-Aldama et al. (2015) - allow us to confirm the constraints on physical conditions and location of the region emitting the low ionization lines, as well as the relation between Ca ii and Fe ii.

  16. Equivalence of linear stabilities of elliptic triangle solutions of the planar charged and classical three-body problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qinglong; Long, Yiming

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we prove that the linearized system of elliptic triangle homographic solution of planar charged three-body problem can be transformed to that of the elliptic equilateral triangle solution of the planar classical three-body problem. Consequently, the results of Martínez, Samà and Simó (2006) [15] and results of Hu, Long and Sun (2014) [6] can be applied to these solutions of the charged three-body problem to get their linear stability.

  17. Radio frequency identification applications in hospital environments.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Angela M; Visich, John K; Li, Suhong

    2006-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has recently begun to receive increased interest from practitioners and academicians. This interest is driven by mandates from major retailers such as Wal-Mart, Target and Metro Group, and the United States Department of Defense, in order to increase the efficiency and visibility of material and information flows in the supply chain. However, supply chain managers do not have a monopoly on the deployment of RFID. In this article, the authors discuss the potential benefits, the areas of applications, the implementation challenges, and the corresponding strategies of RFID in hospital environments.

  18. The U.S. Spectrum X Gamma Coordination Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, William R.

    1999-01-01

    Spectrum-X-Gamma (SXG) provides for US participation in a first-class international x-ray mission. Despite launch delays, SXG will provide unique scientific opportunities due to its capability for all-sky monitoring, polarimetry, high resolution spectroscopy, and broad wavelength range-from the ultraviolet (TAUVEX and FUVITA), through the x-ray (SODART and JET-X), to the hard x-ray (MART), and gamma-ray burst detectors. Before describing our completed work, we review the unique properties of SXG and provide some examples of the scientific importance of SXG in the Chandra, XMM, and ASTRO-E era.

  19. Observations of Comets and Eclipses in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziółkowski, Mariusz

    There is no doubt that the Incas possessed a system for observing and interpreting unusual astronomical phenomena, such as eclipses or comets. References to it, however, are scarce, often of anecdotal nature and are not collected into any coherent "Inca observation catalog". The best documented of such events is the "Ataw Wallpa's comet", seen in Cajamarca in July of 1533 and the solar eclipse, that in 1543, prevented conquistador Lucas Martínez from discovering the rich silver mines in northern Chile. Archived descriptions of the Andean population's reaction to these phenomena indicate that they were treated as extremely important omens, that should not, under any circumstances, be ignored.

  20. First documented outbreak of dengue in the Peruvian Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Phillips, I; Need, J; Escamilla, J; Colán, E; Sánchez, S; Rodríguez, M; Vásquez, L; Seminario, J; Betz, T; da Rosa, A T

    1992-01-01

    This article describes a classical dengue outbreak caused by dengue serotypes 1 and 4 that occurred from March to July 1990 in the city of Iquitos and surrounding areas of Loreto Department in the Peruvian Amazon. Epidemiologic data indicate that more than 150,000 persons may have been affected in Iquitos alone. Another dengue outbreak occurred in Tarapoto, a city in the neighboring department of San Martín. Laboratory data indicate that the same dengue serotypes were involved in both outbreaks. No cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/shock syndrome appear to have occurred. Prior to this outbreak, no indigenous dengue cases had been documented in Peru.