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Sample records for main feeding artery

  1. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Doustkami, Hossein; Maleki, Nasrollah; Tavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic. PMID:27403190

  2. Feeding Arteries of Primary Tongue Cancers on Intra-arterial Infusion Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kamitani, Takeshi; Kawanami, Satoshi; Asayama, Yoshiki Matsuo, Yoshio Yonezawa, Masato Yamasaki, Yuzo; Nagao, Michinobu; Yamanouchi, Torahiko; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Nakashima, Torahiko; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the frequency and the predictive factor of each feeding artery on intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC) in primary tongue cancer.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively evaluated 20 patients who received IAIC for primary tongue cancer. The main and accompanying feeding arteries were identified on super-selective angiography of the branches of the external carotid artery. Tumor diameter, and extension to the contralateral side, tongue extrinsic muscles (TEMs), and lateral mesopharyngeal wall were determined based on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography findings.ResultsThe main feeding artery was the ipsilateral lingual artery (LA) in 15 of the 20 examined tumors and the contralateral LA in the other 5. Ten cancers had only one feeding artery, and multiple feeding arteries were detected in the remaining 10. Tumors >4 cm (n = 9), those with extension to the contralateral side (n = 13), and those with extension to TEMs (n = 15) were supplied by significantly larger numbers of feeding arteries compared to tumors without these features (P = 0.01, 0.049, and 0.02, respectively). The frequency of feeding from the contralateral LA was 64 % (9/14) and 17 % (1/6) in tumors with and without extension to the contralateral side, respectively. Feeding from a facial artery (FA) was not detected in tumors ≤4 cm, while 5 of the 9 (56 %) tumors >4 cm were supplied by a FA (P = 0.01).ConclusionA careful search for feeding arteries is required, especially in large tumors with extension to the contralateral side or to TEMs.

  3. Intravascular ultrasound for angiographically indeterminant left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Parashara, D K; Jacobs, L E; Ledley, G S; Yazdanfar, S; Oline, J; Kotler, M N

    1994-01-01

    The precise diagnosis of the presence of significant left main coronary artery disease has profound prognostic and therapeutic implications. Coronary cineangiography has shown to be imprecise and inaccurate to determine the percent stenosis of the left main coronary artery. We report a case with significant left main coronary artery disease in whom coronary cineangiography was in discordance with the clinical data and intravascular ultrasonography. Based on the intravascular ultrasound findings, the patient underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Therefore, the intravascular ultrasonography may be the procedure of choice for assessing indeterminant left main coronary artery lesions by coronary angiography.

  4. Sarcoma of the pulmonary trunk and the main pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed

    Huwer, Hanno; Ozbek, Cem; Waldmann, Rita; Winning, Johannes; Isringhaus, Helmut; Kalweit, Gerhard

    2008-04-01

    We report on a sarcoma of the central pulmonary arteries. Surgical therapy consisted in replacing both main pulmonary arteries and the pulmonary trunk including the pulmonary valve. Six months later a left-sided pneumonectomy had to be performed due to an intravascular tumor. Fifteen months after first resection treatment, recurrent tumors of the right pulmonary artery and the right ventricle were resected. Two years after the first operation the patient has no detectable tumor.

  5. Left main bronchus compression due to main pulmonary artery dilatation in pulmonary hypertension: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Jaijee, Shareen K; Ariff, Ben; Howard, Luke; O'Regan, Declan P; Gin-Sing, Wendy; Davies, Rachel; Gibbs, J Simon R

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary arterial dilatation associated with pulmonary hypertension may result in significant compression of local structures. Left main coronary artery and left recurrent laryngeal nerve compression have been described. Tracheobronchial compression from pulmonary arterial dilatation is rare in adults, and there are no reports in the literature of its occurrence in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Compression in infants with congenital heart disease has been well described. We report 2 cases of tracheobronchial compression: first, an adult patient with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension who presents with symptomatic left main bronchus compression, and second, an adult patient with Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect and right-sided aortic arch, with progressive intermedius and right middle lobe bronchi compression in association with enlarged pulmonary arteries.

  6. Propellant Feed Subsystem for the X-34 Main Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, J. P.; Minor, R. B.; Knight, K. C.; Champion, R. H., Jr.; Russell, F. J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 vehicle demonstrates technologies and operations key to future reusable launch vehicles. The general flight performance goal of this unmanned rocket plane is Mach 8 flight at an altitude of 250,000 feet. The Main Propulsion System supplies liquid propellants to the main engine, which provides the primary thrust for attaining mission goals. Major NMS design and operational goals are aircraft-like ground operations, quick turnaround between missions, and low initial/operational costs. This paper reviews major design and analysis aspects of the X-34 propellant feed subsystem of the X-34 Main Propulsion System. Topics include system requirements, system design, the integration of flight and feed system performance, propellant acquisition at engine start, and propellant tank terminal drain.

  7. Total occlusion of left main coronary artery without angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    DePace, N L; Kimbiris, D; Iskandrian, A S; Bemis, C E; Segal, B L

    1983-05-01

    A patient had total occlusion of the left main coronary artery that was proved by coronary arteriography. The patient was initially seen with clinical signs of congestive heart failure but without symptoms of angina pectoris or ECG evidence of myocardial infarction. The patient's extensive right-to-left coronary artery collaterals may have contributed to the absence of chest pain. Because of the severe left ventricular dysfunction and the absence of chest pain, the patient was treated with medical therapy. Six months after the cardiac catheterization, he was alive and well under New York Heart Association functional classification II.

  8. Acute left main coronary artery thrombosis due to cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Apostolakis, Efstratios; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Baikoussis, Nikolaos G; Koniari, Ioanna; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios

    2010-08-19

    It is common knowledge that cocaine has been linked to the development of various acute and chronic cardiovascular complications including acute coronary syndromes. We present a young, male patient, drug abuser who underwent CABG due to anterolateral myocardial infarction. Our presentation is one of the very rare cases reported in literature regarding acute thrombosis of left main coronary artery related to cocaine use, in a patient with normal coronary arteries, successfully operated. Drug-abusers seem to have increased mortality and morbidity after surgery and high possibility for stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary interventions, because of their usually terrible medical compliance and coexistent several problems of general health. There are no specific guidelines about treatment of thrombus formation in coronary arteries, as a consequence of cocaine use. So, any decision making concerning the final treatment of these patient is a unique and individualized approach. We strongly recommend that all these patients should be treated surgically, especially patients with thrombus into the left main artery.

  9. Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

  10. Saphenous vein patch for correction of anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left main coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    AlQuadan, Obadah F.; AlSmady, Moaath M.; Saleh, Suhayl S.; Aqel, Raed A.; Al-Antary, Eman T.

    2017-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the coronary arteries is a rare congenital heart defect that may lead to disturbed life style, myocardial infarction and sudden death. This report describes a young lady with the right coronary artery arising from the left main coronary artery, which was confirmed by coronary angiography and corrected surgically using saphenous vein patch. PMID:28096325

  11. Diffuse coronary artery ectasia in a patient with left main coronary artery trifurcation

    PubMed Central

    Desperak, Piotr; Bujak, Kamil; Głowacki, Jan; Gąsior, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The term coronary ectasia is reserved to describe a diffuse dilatation of coronary artery segments that have a diameter that exceeds the size of normal adjacent coronary segments by 1.5 times. The occurrence of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) ranges from 3% to 8% in the group of patients undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography. The CAE is associated with traditional risk factors and often co-exists with coronary atherosclerosis, which suggests that ectasia may represent an advanced form of atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, there is a lack of consensus on the clinical implications and management of patients in whom the occurrence of CAE is observed, especially in patients without concomitant obstructive atherosclerosis. Here, we present a rare case of a 62-year-old patient with multiple CAEs and left main trifurcation. PMID:27785148

  12. Exercise thallium-201 myocardial imaging in left main coronary artery disease: sensitive but not specific

    SciTech Connect

    Rehn, T.; Griffith, L.S.; Achuff, S.C.; Bailey, I.K.; Bulkley, B.H.; Burow, R.; Pitt, B.; Becker, L.C.

    1981-08-01

    To determine the usefulness of thallium-201 scintigraphy for identifying left main coronary artery disease, the results of scintigraphy at rest and during exercise were compared in 24 patients with 50 percent or greater narrowing of the left main coronary artery and 80 patients with 50 percent or greater narrowing of one or more of the major coronary arteries but without left main coronary involvement. By segmental analysis of the scintigrams, perfusion defects were assigned to the left anterior descending, left circumflex or right coronary artery, singly or in combination, and the pattern of simultaneous left anterior descending and circumflex arterial defects was used to identify left main coronary artery disease. Of the 24 patients with left main coronary artery disease, 22 (92 percent) had abnormal exercise scintigrams. Despite this high sensitivity, the pattern of perfusion defects was not specific; the ''left main pattern'' was found in 3 patients (13 percent) with left main coronary artery disease but also in 3 (33 percent) of 9 patients with combined left anterior descending and left circumflex arterial disease, 4 (19 percent) of 21 patients with three vessel disease and 3 (6 percent) of 50 patients with one or two vessel disease but excluding the group with left anterior descending plus left circumflex arterial disease. The pattern of perfusion defects in the patients with left main coronary artery disease was determined by the location and severity of narrowings in the coronary arteries downstream from the left main arterial lesion. Concomitant lesions in other arteries were found in all patients with left main coronary disease (one vessel in 1 patient, two vessels in 7 patients and three vessels in 16). For this reason, it is unlikely that even with improvements in radiopharmaceutical agents and imaging techniques, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy will be sufficiently specific for definitive identification of left main coronary artery disease.

  13. [Main sociocultural aspects related to breast feeding in Malinalco, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gil Romo, S E; Rueda Arroniz, F; Ysunza Ogazón, A; Andrade Contreras, M D

    1991-06-01

    The present paper discusses data related to some sociocultural aspects on breast-feeding behavior among a group of women from a rural community in Mexico called Malinalco. A sample of 225 mothers with children aged less than 60 months, was selected. Several home visits were done in order to fill up a questionnaire, as well as to follow direct interviews according to some selected variables to the deepened, such as: schooling, occupation, place of children deliveries, breast-feeding behavior beliefs on breast-feeding abandonment, weaning practices, etc. The results showed that there is no relation between breast-feeding practices, income and school years; nevertheless, there is a certain tendency on early abandonment of breast-feeding in women with higher level of schooling. Some local beliefs about breast-milk production were detected, as well as some remedies to stimulate milk production and to cure certain breast-feeding problems. Data on weaning age and the commonest weaning food products are presented. The importance that cultural dimension has on breast-feeding studies is discussed, as well as the relevance of recognizing "the changes of concepts" within the process of cultural development itself, in order to understand them better and to propose solutions to the generated problems.

  14. Bilateral vs single internal thoracic artery grafting for left main coronary artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Otaki, M; Lust, R M; Sun, Y S; Norton, T O; Spence, P A; Zeri, R S; Hopson, S B; Chitwood, R

    1994-10-01

    This study was conducted to compare the coronary flow distributed by single and bilateral internal thoracic artery (ITA) grafts in the setting of the left main coronary occlusion. Ten dogs underwent coronary artery bypass grafting through a left thoracotomy, off pump, using a brief local occlusion to perform the anastomosis. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either a single left ITA (LITA) graft to the circumflex coronary artery (CFX), or bilateral ITA grafts, with additional placement of the right ITA (RITA) to the left anterior descending artery (LAD). After the grafts were placed, the left main coronary artery was ligated. Electromagnetic flows were obtained in the LAD and the CFX proximally and distally to ITA grafts in both groups before grafting and after grafting. ITA flow in situ was also measured before rotation from the chest wall. Total left ventricular flow requirements were satisfied equally well by either a single LITA graft (116.7 +/- 11.6 mL/min) or bilateral ITA grafts (total, 116.8 +/- 9.6 mL/min divided as LITA, 55.9 +/- 7.4 mL/min; RITA, 60.9 +/- 12.0 mL/min). When two grafts were replaced, competitive flow in the proximal regions of both native vessels was noted, although basal flow requirements were maintained. When an individual graft was occluded in the bilaterally grafted system, the remaining graft immediately recruited the additional flow, demonstrating that either right or left ITA can support flow demands five to six times higher than in situ chest wall flow (RITA, 21.9 +/- 3.1 mL/min; LITA, 22.3 +/- 4.9 mL/min). These data suggest that in this canine model, a single ITA graft can support the entire flow requirements of the left ventricle. Assuming no intervening stenosis is present in native coronary systems, bilateral ITA grafting may provide a margin of safety, but under resting conditions, provides no perfusion advantages over a single ITA graft.

  15. Feeding Artery of Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancers: Role of the Superior Thyroid Artery in Superselective Intraarterial Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Terayama, Noboru Sanada, Junichiro; Matsui, Osamu; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Kawashima, Hiroko; Yamashiro, Masashi; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi; Kumano, Tomoyasu; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu; Furukawa, Mitsuru

    2006-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of the superior thyroid artery in intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. Thirty-nine patients with laryngeal cancer and 29 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer underwent intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy. We performed a retrospective analysis of the feeding arteries confirmed by computed tomography during selective arteriography and compared the results with the extent of the tumors. In 14 of 39 laryngeal and 15 of 29 hypopharyngeal cancers, the tumor did not cross the midline (group 1). In the remaining 25 and 14 cancers, respectively, the tumor crossed the midline or located in the center (group 2). For 13 of 14 laryngeal and 7 of 15 hypopharyngeal cancers in group 1 and for 6 of 25 laryngeal cancers in group 2, the entire tumor was contrast enhanced by the ipsilateral superior thyroid and/or superior laryngeal artery. For 12 of 25 laryngeal and 1 of 14 hypopharyngeal cancers in group 2, the entire tumor was contrast enhanced by the bilateral superior thyroid artery. For the other patients, infusion via the other arterial branches such as the inferior thyroid and the lingual arteries were needed to achieve contrast enhancement of the entire tumor. Superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for laryngeal cancer from the superior thyroid artery is appropriate, whereas that for hypopharyngeal cancer is less sufficient. To accomplish contrast enhancement of the entire tumor, additional intra-arterial infusion from other arteries such as the inferior thyroid artery is often necessary.

  16. Anomalous left main coronary artery detected by CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Forte, Ernesto; Inglese, Marianna; Infante, Teresa; Schiano, Concetta; Napoli, Claudio; Soricelli, Andrea; Salvatore, Marco; Tedeschi, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The growing improvements of computed tomography have made this technique more and more available for cardiac evaluation. Coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) are often incidental findings in subjects with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing coronary angiography or computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). In some cases, CAAs can be clinically relevant so their identification could change radically patient management and treatment. We report the case of a 68-year-old male patient with known CAD and associated anomalous origination of the left coronary artery from the opposite sinus.

  17. Separate origin of the main components of the left coronary artery in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Durán, A C; Arqué, J M; Fernández, B; Fernández, M C; Fernández-Gallego, T; Sans-Coma, V

    2007-08-01

    This study describes a rare congenital coronary artery anomaly in the Syrian hamster; namely, the separate origin of the obtuse marginal and left circumflex arteries which are the main components of the left coronary artery. The hearts of nine affected animals were examined by means of a corrosion-cast technique and histology. The hamsters belonged to a laboratory inbred family with a high incidence of coronary artery anomalies and bicuspid aortic valve. The aortic valve was tricuspid in three hamsters and bicuspid in the other six hamsters. In all cases, the right coronary artery was normal, whereas the left coronary artery main trunk was absent. The present anomalous coronary artery patterns could be classified into two main entities: (i) ectopic origin of the obtuse marginal artery from the right aortic sinus or from the right coronary artery, with the left circumflex artery arising from the left side of the aortic valve; and (ii) ectopic origin of both the obtuse marginal artery from the right aortic sinus or from the right coronary artery and left circumflex artery from the dorsal aortic sinus. In all cases, the obtuse marginal artery coursed to the right side of the heart through the ventral wall of the right ventricular outflow tract. When the left circumflex artery arose from the dorsal aortic sinus, it formed an acute angle with the aortic wall. This report seems to be the first to describe the separate origin of the main components of the left coronary artery in a non-human mammalian species. In man, the congenital coronary artery and aortic valve defects reported herein may entail the risk of clinical complications. However, none of the affected hamsters showed signs of disease.

  18. Emergency Stenting of Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery after Acute Catheter-Induced Occlusive Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Akgul, Ferit; Batyraliev, Talantbek; Besnili, Fikret; Karben, Zarema

    2006-01-01

    Left main coronary artery dissection occurs very rarely during selective coronary angiography, but it generally progresses to complete coronary occlusion. The traditional treatment of occlusive dissection of the unprotected left main coronary artery has been surgical. Percutaneous treatment has been sporadic and controversial. We report a case of iatrogenic occlusive dissection of the unprotected left main coronary artery during diagnostic coronary angiography, followed by successful stenting of the lesion. PMID:17215985

  19. Differential mechanisms for insulin-induced relaxations in mouse posterior tibial arteries and main mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Qu, Dan; Liu, Jian; Lau, Chi Wai; Huang, Yu

    2014-12-01

    The characteristics of endothelium-dependent relaxations in response to insulin and acetylcholine (ACh) in the mouse posterior tibial artery (PTA) were studied on wire myograph, and compared to those in the mouse main mesenteric artery (MMA). Insulin-induced relaxation in PTA was reversed by PI3K and Akt inhibitors, LY294002 and triciribine, but not by nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ. The relaxation in PTA was also inhibited by apamin (small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel blocker) plus charybdotoxin (intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel blocker), elevated KCl or ouabain (Na(+)-K(+) ATPase inhibitor) plus BaCl(2) [inwardly rectifying K(+) (K(IR)) channel inhibitor]; whereas L-NAME but not triciribine inhibited ACh-induced relaxation in PTA. On the other hand, nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor albeit to a less extent mediated both insulin- and ACh-induced relaxations in MMA. The present study is for the first time dissecting out the components of endothelium-dependent relaxation in mouse PTA and suggesting differential responses to different agonists in distinctive blood vessels.

  20. Left main coronary artery atresia and associated cardiac defects: report on concomitant surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Jatene, Marcelo; Juaneda, Ignacio; Miranda, Rogerio Dos Anjos; Gato, Rafaella; Marcial, Miguel Lorenzo Barbero

    2011-10-01

    A 9-year-old boy with congenital atresia of the left main coronary artery underwent myocardial revascularization. Coarctation of the aorta and ventricular septal defect were diagnosed at the age of 1 year. At age 7 years, the child presented with syncope while exercising. Preoperative evaluation included cardiac catheterization which revealed the unexpected finding of congenital atresia of the left main coronary artery with origin of the circumflex artery from the right coronary artery. Surgical correction included myocardial revascularization by means of left internal mammary artery graft to the anterior descending coronary artery, coarctation resection, and ventricular septal defect repair. The patient recovered uneventfully. We report the details of this extremely rare case with successful concomitant surgical management of the congenital coronary artery anomaly and the associated structural heart disease.

  1. Transcatheter Embolization of a Renal Arteriovenous Fistula Complicated by an Aneurysm of the Feeding Renal Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Kensella, Denise; Kakani, Nirmal Pocock, Richard; Thompson, John; Cowan, Andrew; Watkinson, A.

    2008-03-15

    Renal arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is rare. Renal AVF complicated by aneurysm of the feeding artery presents a technical challenge for endovascular treatment. We report a case managed by covered stenting of the renal artery aneurysm, coil embolization of the fistula, and bare stenting of the aorta.

  2. [Radio-anatomical study of the main trunk of the middle cerebral artery (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Grellier, P; Roche, J L; Duplay, J

    1978-01-01

    This work corroborates anatomical data well known since G. Lazorthes about the main trunk of the middle cerebral artery. The data are interesting in various fields: Sylvian aneurysms, big sphenoïd ridge meningiomas, extra-intra cranial micro neurosurgical anastomoses. This work is based upon 280 angiographic pictures, 20 dissections of brain arteries and 12 plastic injections of the brain arterial vascular tree. The most important data to point out are variations of length and of division (no division, simple bifurcation, trifurcation or multiple divisions), variability in the central arteries and some rare anomalies like accessory middle cerebral arteries and duplication.

  3. Two cases of Bezold-Jarisch reflex induced by intra-arterial nitroglycerin in critical left main coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sachin P; Waxman, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The Bezold-Jarisch reflex, a well-described phenomenon, occurs upon the stimulation of intracardiac mechanoreceptors and is mediated by vagal afferent nerve fibers. Several factors can sensitize the cardiovascular system to develop this reflex, including acute myocardial ischemia, natriuretic peptides, and, rarely, nitroglycerin administration in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. The development of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex in the presence of severe coronary artery stenosis, specifically left main coronary artery stenosis, has not been described. We report 2 cases of patients who underwent elective coronary angiography and were given intra-arterial nitroglycerin during radial sheath insertion to reduce radial artery spasm. In both patients, bradycardia and hypotension developed along with diaphoresis, consistent with the Bezold-Jarisch reflex. Coronary angiography revealed critical (>90%) left main coronary artery stenosis in both patients. Critical left main coronary artery stenosis might sensitize mechanoreceptors or vagal afferents to the development of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex after intra-arterial nitroglycerin use; however, the mechanism of this possible relationship is unclear. In addition to discussing our patients' cases, we review the medical literature relevant to the Bezold-Jarisch reflex.

  4. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOEpatents

    Petri, Randy J.; Meek, John; Bachta, Robert P.; Marianowski, Leonard G.

    1994-01-01

    A separator plate for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced.

  5. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOEpatents

    Petri, R.J.; Meek, J.; Bachta, R.P.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1994-11-08

    A separator plate is described for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced. 9 figs.

  6. A case of left main pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with valvular pulmonary stenosis in a child.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ran; Son, Jae Sung; Park, Yong Mean

    2011-10-01

    Aneurysm of the main pulmonary artery is a rare clinical entity that can be congenital or acquired. Most cases occur in association with other congenital malformations, severe pulmonary hypertension, vasculitides, infectious agents, or collagen vascular disorders. We report here a pediatric case of left pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with valvular pulmonary stenosis and a hypoplastic right pulmonary artery, which we confirmed via multidetector computed tomography angiography.

  7. Feeding ecology and development of juvenile black ducks in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinecke, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    Data from 41 juvenile Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) collected in the Penobscot River valley of Maine from June through August 1974-76 were used to estimate the proportion of aquatic invertebrates in the prefledging diet and the allometric growth rates of the tarsi, flight muscles, and alimentary system. The proportion of aquatic invertebrates in the diet of downy and partially feathered juveniles averaged 88 and 91% of dry weight, but decreased to 43% for fully feathered young. The most important invertebrate food organisms for juvenile Black Ducks were asellid isopods, molluscs, nymphs of Ephemeroptera and Odonata, and larvae of Coleoptera, Trichoptera, and Diptera. A high proportion of invertebrates was consumed during the period of fastest absolute and relative growth. Estimation of allometric growth rates with the power formula (Y = a 'X b) showed that (1) the legs were relatively large at hatching and developed slowly; (2) the flight muscles, which were relatively small at hatching, grew slowly until the 4-week period preceding fledging, when they increased as the 4.75 power of body weight; and (3) growth of the liver and gizzard was approximately proportional to body weight. The data support Ricklefs' thesis that delayed functional maturity of the wings permits an increase in the overall growth rate of waterfowl.

  8. [Treatment of compression of the left main coronary artery in patients with pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Talavera, María L; Diez, Mirta; Cáneva, Jorge O; Boughen, Roberto P; Valdivieso, León; Mendiz, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Chest pain is a frequent symptom in patients with pulmonary hypertension of any etiology. Its pathophysiology has not been clearly established, the proposed causes are ischemia due to increased right ventricle wall stress, transient increased pulmonary hypertension resulting in acute pulmonary artery dilatation and external compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) by a dilated pulmonary artery. We report and discuss here three cases where the association between chest pain and compression of the LMCA by a dilated pulmonary artery could be shown, and they were treated with coronary stenting.

  9. Occlusion of the left main coronary artery and collateral circulation via the conus branch.

    PubMed

    de Agustin, Jose Alberto; Nunez-Gil, Ivan Javier; del Carmen Manzano, Maria; Vivas, David; Mateos, Borja Ruiz; Carda, Rocio; Vilacosta, Isidre; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Macaya, Carlos

    2009-05-01

    We report the case of a 71-year-old-man, a smoker, admitted for unstable angina. Subsequent investigation revealed complete proximal occlusion of the left main coronary with an unusual collateral circulation. The left coronary artery was filled by a large conus branch originating from the right sinus of Valsalva. This case shows the importance of looking for atypical collateral circulation in patients with chronic occlusion of the left main coronary artery and normal left ventricular function.

  10. Sympathetic Nerves Inhibit Conducted Vasodilatation Along Feed Arteries during Passive Stretch of Hamster Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Sara J; Welsh, Donald G; Segal, Steven S

    2003-01-01

    Ascending vasodilatation is integral to blood flow control in exercising skeletal muscle and is attributable to conduction from intramuscular arterioles into proximal feed arteries. Passive stretch of skeletal muscle can impair muscle blood flow but the mechanism is not well understood. We hypothesized that the conduction of vasodilatation along feed arteries can be modulated by changes in muscle length. In anaesthetized hamsters, acetylcholine (ACh) microiontophoresis triggered conducted vasodilatation along feed arteries (diameter, 50-70 μm) of the retractor muscle secured at 100 % resting length or stretched by 30 %. At 100 % length, ACh evoked local dilatation (> 30 μm) and this response conducted rapidly along the feed artery (14 ± 1 μm dilatation at 1600 μm upstream). During muscle stretch, feed arteries constricted ≈10 μm (P < 0.05) and local vasodilatation to ACh was maintained while conducted vasodilatation was reduced by half (P < 0.01). Resting diameter and conduction recovered upon restoring 100 % length. Sympathetic nerve stimulation (4-8 Hz) produced vasoconstriction and attenuated conduction in the manner observed during muscle stretch, as did noradrenaline or phenylephrine (10 nm). Inhibiting nitric oxide production (Nω-nitro-L-arginine, 50 μm) produced similar vasoconstriction yet had no effect on conduction. Phentolamine, prazosin, or tetrodotoxin (1 μm) during muscle stretch abolished vasoconstriction and restored conduction. Inactivation of sensory nerves with capsaicin had no effect on vasomotor responses. Thus, muscle stretch can attenuate conducted vasodilatation by activating α-adrenoreceptors on feed arteries through noradrenaline released from perivascular sympathetic nerves. This autonomic feedback mechanism can restrict muscle blood flow during passive stretch. PMID:12897176

  11. High Take Off Left Main and Abnormal Origin of Right Coronary Artery: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Negar; Abdi, Seyfollah; Pouraliakba, Hamid Reza; Vakili-Zarch, Anoushiravan

    2013-01-01

    Coronary anomalies are rare congenital disorders with mostly benign course. We report a case of 54-year-old white male who was with stable angina scheduled for coronary angiography. Due to the difficulty of catheterization, patient underwent CT angiography and high take off left main and right coronary arteries were revealed. We conclude that anomalous coronary arteries are important and coronary interventions may be difficult in their presence.

  12. Young male survivor of a spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection treated with surgery

    PubMed Central

    Endara, Santiago A.; Ayala, Andres V.; Davalos, Gerardo A.; Moscoso, Juan; Montero, R. Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the coronary arteries is a rare disease with a wide range of clinical presentations ranging from angina to myocardial infarction (MI); its pathophysiology has not yet been fully established. In this paper, we present the case of a 31-year-old male with an acute coronary syndrome. The initial results of the electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes were consistent with MI. However, a coronary angio-tomography revealed a dissection of the left main coronary artery and the patient underwent emergent surgery with coronary artery bypass grafting. The treatment of spontaneous dissection of the coronary arteries depends on the anatomical location and the patient's clinical presentation. Coronary revascularization is associated with good results. PMID:24964467

  13. Thirty Years Later: Evolution of Treatment for Acute Left Main Coronary Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Dov, Nissan; Karkabi, Basheer; Jaffe, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Acute occlusion of left main coronary artery is a catastrophic event. We describe two patients with acute occlusion of the left main coronary artery treated thirty years apart. The first patient was treated in 1982 and survived the event without revascularization but developed severe heart failure. His survival was so unusual that it merited a case report at that time. The second patient was treated at the end of 2015. Early revascularization resulted in myocardial reperfusion and near normal left ventricular function. These patients exemplify the progress in therapeutic cardiology over the last 30 years. PMID:28078145

  14. Excimer laser debulking for percutaneous coronary intervention in left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Topaz, On; Polkampally, Pritam R; Mohanty, Pramod K; Rizk, Maged; Bangs, Julie; Bernardo, Nelson L

    2009-11-01

    Excimer laser has been successfully applied to complex atherosclerotic plaques in acute coronary syndromes; however, its role in debulking in left main coronary artery disease has not been fully explored. Details of a series of 20 patients who underwent excimer laser revascularization of a spectrum of left main coronary artery lesions are presented. Twenty symptomatic patients who received excimer laser debulking were examined for procedural outcome and follow up results. The left main coronary artery was characterized as protected, semi-protected, poorly protected, or unprotected, depending on the presence or absence of patent bypass grafts to the left anterior descending (LAD) and circumflex (CX) arteries. A fully protected left main coronary artery (LMCA) was present in only 20% of the patients. The target lesions included 11(55%) distal LMCA stenoses, six (30%) ostial stenoses, and one (5%) mid-portion lesions. Two (10%) patients had in-stent re-stenosis of the entire length of the LMCA. Small (0.7 mm-1.4 mm) excimer laser catheters were mostly used. A relatively high number of laser energy pulses (1,334 +/- 643) were required to achieve adequate debulking. Successful LMCA intervention was performed in 19 (95%) patients, while in-hospital complications occurred in only one (5%) patient. Subacute/late stent thrombosis developed 3 months after the procedure in one patient, and two patients died from non-cardiac causes during follow-up. Lesions in LMCAs can be revascularized in selected patients by laser debulking and adjunct stenting. Inadequate protection by bypass grafts and decreased left ventricular function do not contradict utilization of excimer laser. Small laser catheters and high energy levels are required during laser debulking of stenoses of left main coronary arteries.

  15. Total left main coronary artery occlusion after aortic aneurysm repair and valve replacement.

    PubMed

    DePace, N L; Lemole, G M; Wolf, N W; Dowinsky, S; Untereker, W; Spagna, P M

    1991-02-01

    A 38-year-old woman with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery secondary to cannulation during aortic valve replacement is presented. The clinical course was characterized by progressive left ventricular dysfunction and congestive heart failure. Recognition of this potential problem when it occurs is important as to institute therapeutic measures which may interrupt a patient's progressive clinical deterioration.

  16. Surgical reconstruction of the left main coronary artery with patch-angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been established as the treatment of choice for left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis However, the conventional grafting provides a retrograde perfusion to extensive myocardial area and leads prospectively to competitive flow of the non-occluded coronaries thus consuming the grafts. Surgical reconstruction of the LMCA with patch-angioplasty is an alternative method that eliminates these drawbacks. Methods Between February 1997 and July 2007, 37 patients with isolated LMCA stenosis were referred for surgical ostial reconstruction. In 27 patients (73%) surgical angioplasties have been performed. All patients were followed up clinically and with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and coronary angiography when required. Results In 10 patients (27%) a LMCA stenosis could not be confirmed. There were no early mortality or perioperative myocardial infarctions. The postoperative course was uneventful in all patients. In 25 patients, TEE demonstrated a wide open main stem flow pattern one to six months after reconstruction of the left main coronary artery with one patch mild aneurysmal dilated. Conclusions The surgical reconstruction with patch-angioplasty is a safe and effective method for the treatment of proximal and middle LMCA stenosis. Almost one third of the study group had no really LMCA stenosis: antegrade flow pattern remained sustained and the arterial grafts have been spared. In the cases of unclear or suspected LMCA stenosis, cardio-CT can be performed to unmask catheter-induced coronary spasm as the underlying reason for isolated LMCA stenosis. PMID:21375723

  17. Left main coronary artery obstruction by dislodged native-valve calculus after transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Durmaz, Tahir; Ayhan, Huseyin; Keles, Telat; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Erdogan, Kemal Esref; Sari, Cenk; Bilen, Emine; Akcay, Murat; Bozkurt, Engin

    2014-08-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement can be an effective, reliable treatment for severe aortic stenosis in surgically high-risk or ineligible patients. However, various sequelae like coronary artery obstruction can occur, not only in the long term, but also immediately after the procedure. We present the case of a 78-year-old woman whose left main coronary artery became obstructed with calculus 2 hours after the transfemoral implantation of an Edwards Sapien XT aortic valve. Despite percutaneous coronary intervention in that artery, the patient died. This case reminds us that early recognition of acute coronary obstruction and prompt intervention are crucial in patients with aortic stenosis who have undergone transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

  18. Prediction of moderate or severe pulmonary hypertension by main pulmonary artery diameter and main pulmonary artery diameter/ascending aorta diameter in pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Shirin; Aronow, Wilbert S; Ravipati, Gautham; Maguire, George P; Belkin, Robert N; Lehrman, Stuart G

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the accuracy of computed tomographic measurements of main pulmonary artery diameter (MPAD) and of MPAD/ascending aorta diameter (AAD) in predicting moderate or severe pulmonary hypertension in 190 patients with acute pulmonary embolism. A pulmonary artery systolic pressure of > or = 50 mm Hg measured by Doppler echocardiography was considered moderate or severe pulmonary hypertension. A MPAD of > 28.6 mm and a MPAD/AAD ratio of > or = 1.00 measured by computed tomography were considered abnormal. A MPAD of > 28.6 mm had a 75% sensitivity and specificity, a 52% positive predictive value, a 89% negative predictive value, a 3.0 likelihood ratio for a positive test, and a 0.33 likelihood ratio for a negative test in predicting moderate or severe pulmonary hypertension. A MPAD/AAD ratio of > or = 1.00 had a 59% sensitivity, a 82% specificity, a 55% positive predictive value, a 84% negative predictive value, a 3.3 likelihood ratio for a positive test, and a 0.50 likelihood ratio for a negative test.

  19. Uterine arteriovenous malformation with positive serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin: Embolization of both uterine arteries and extra-uterine feeding arteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Mi; Ahn, Hee Young; Choi, Min Jeong; Kang, Yun Dan; Park, Jin Wan; Park, Choong Hak

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is rare. However, it is clinically significant in that it can cause life-threatening vaginal bleeding. We report a case of a large uterine AVM with positive serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin. A presumptive diagnosis was made; a uterine AVM accompanied by, early pregnancy or retained product of conception. Because this uterine AVM was extensive, transcatheter arterial embolization of both uterine arteries and extra-uterine feeding arteries was performed. Three months after undergoing transcatheter arterial embolization, complete resolution of the uterine AVM was confirmed without major complication. PMID:27896262

  20. Angiographic Evaluation of Feeding Arteries of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Caudate Lobe of the Liver

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Yamashiro, Masashi; Hattori, Yuki; Orito, Nobuaki; Matsui, Ken; Tsuji, Kazunobu; Yoshida, Miki; Matsui, Osamu

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the origins of feeders of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the caudate lobe (S1). Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight HCCs (mean diameter 21.4 mm) were treated by chemoembolization. The tumor-feeding caudate artery was confirmed when a tumor stain was demonstrated on angiogram and iodized oil was accumulated into the HCC and S1 on computed tomography (CT). The origins were divided into R{sub 1} (right proximal), R{sub 2} (right distal), L{sub 1} (left proximal), L{sub 2} (left distal), A (anterior segmental), P (posterior segmental), M (middle hepatic or medial segmental), Ph (proper hepatic), Ch (common hepatic), and Ex (extrahepatic). The origins of feeders supplying HCCs in the Spiegel lobe (SP; n = 36), the paracaval portion (PC; n = 38), and the caudate process (CP; n = 14) were also analyzed. Results: One hundred sixteen feeders were identified: 11 (9.5%) arose from R{sub 1}; 21 (18.1%) arose from R{sub 2}; nine arose (0.9%) from L{sub 1}; 15 (12.9%) arose from L{sub 2}; 24 (20.7%) arose from A; 25 (21.6%) arose from P; seven (6.0%) arose from M; one (0.9%) arose from Ph; and three (2.6%) arose from Ex. HCCs in the SP and the PC were fed by feeders from both hepatic arteries (the ratios of right to left were 3:2 and 3:1, respectively), and HCCs in the CP were dominantly fed by feeders from the right hepatic artery. Conclusion: The caudate artery most frequently arises from the right hepatic artery, followed with almost equal frequency by the left hepatic, the anterior segmental, and the posterior segmental artery. The origins of the caudate arteries differ according to the subsegmental locations.

  1. Anomalous left main coronary artery: case series of different courses and literature review.

    PubMed

    Marler, Adam T; Malik, Jamil A; Slim, Ahmad M

    2013-01-01

    Background. Congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are a cause of sudden cardiac death. Of the known anatomic variants, anomalous origination of a coronary artery from an opposite sinus of Valsalva (ACAOS) remains the main focus of debate. Case Series. We present three cases, all presenting to our facility within one week's time, of patients with newly discovered anomalous origination of the left coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva (L-ACAOS). All patients underwent cardiac computed tomography for evaluation of coronary anatomy along with other forms of functional testing. Despite the high risk nature of two of the anomalies, the patients are being treated medically without recurrence of symptoms. Summary. After review of the literature, we have found that the risk of sudden cardiac death in patients with congenital coronary anomalies, even among variants considered the highest risk, may be overestimated. In addition, the exact prevalence of coronary anomalies in the general population is currently underestimated. A national coronary artery anomaly registry based on cardiac computed tomography and invasive coronary angiography data would be helpful in advancing our understanding of these cardiac peculiarities. The true prevalence of congenital coronary anomalies and overall risk of sudden cardiac death in this population are not well known. Surgical intervention remains the mainstay of therapy in certain patients though recent investigations into the pathophysiology of these abnormalities have shown that the risk of surgery may outweigh the minimal reduction in risk of sudden cardiac death.

  2. Off-pump coronary revascularization for left main coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Mannam, Gopichand; Sajja, Lokeswara R; Dandu, Satya B R; Pathuri, Satyendra N; Saikiran, Krishnamurthy V S S; Sompalli, Sriramulu

    2008-12-01

    Experience of on- and off-pump coronary artery bypass in 379 patients with significant left main coronary artery stenosis was retrospectively reviewed. Beating-heart operations were performed on 219 patients between January 2001 and October 2007. Their results were compared with 160 who underwent revascularization under cardiopulmonary bypass during the same period. All patients had multivessel grafting via a median sternotomy. Both groups were comparable demographically. Off-pump patients received significantly fewer grafts per patient (3.21 +/- 0.86 vs 3.74 +/- 0.82). The use of moderate or high doses of inotropics (> 5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) was more frequent in the on-pump group (44% vs 26%). Postoperative blood transfusion requirement was lower in off-pump patients, and fewer of them experienced worsening of preexisting renal insufficiency. There were 2 operative deaths in the on-pump group and 1 in the off-pump group. The off-pump procedure is safe and effective in patients with left main coronary artery disease.

  3. [Clinical profile and treatment of left main coronary artery disease in a real-world practice].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, V A; Bessonov, I S; Zyrianov, I P; Samoĭlova, E P; Gorbatenko, E A; Ignatov, D I

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this study was to assess clinical profile, treatment and long-term results in patients with left main coronary artery disease in a real-world practice. 225 cases were analyzed. Long-term results were evaluated from 213 (97.7%) patients. Median follow-up period was 49 months. Fifty two (23.9%) patients received nonsurgical treatment, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was performed in 106 (48.6%) patients, percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in 60 (27.5%) patients. Patients of nonsurgical group had more severe clinical profile compared with PCI group. There was no differences between nonsurgical and CABG groups as well as between CABG and PCI groups in clinical profile. Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event rate was higher in nonsurgical group. There was no difference between CABG and PCI groups. Survival in CABG and PCI groups was higher compared with nonsurgical group. Survival effect of revascularization was observed immediately (before 6 months) and continued long-term (more than 60 months). Revascularization was independent predictor of improved long-term survival. After diagnosis of left main coronary artery stenosis PCI was performed more quickly than CABG.

  4. Origins of Feeding Arteries of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Located Near the Umbilical Fissure of the Left Hepatic Lobe: Angiographic Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Yamashiro, Masashi; Shibata, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Yoshida, Miki; Tsuji, Kazunobu; Toshima, Fumihito; Matsui, Osamu

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To analyze the origins of the feeding arteries of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) near the umbilical fissure of the left hepatic lobe. Methods: Twenty-eight HCCs with a mean {+-} SD tumor diameter of 3.4 {+-} 1.0 cm (range 1-4.4 cm) in contact with the right or left side of the umbilical fissure were treated by superselective transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The origins of the tumor-feeding arteries were analyzed with arteriograms and computed tomography or cone-beam computed tomography images obtained during and 1 week after TACE.ResultsTwenty-one HCC lesions were located in segment 3 and seven were located in segment 4. Of 21 tumors in segment 3, 13 (61.9%) were supplied by the lateral inferior subsegmental artery (A3), three (14.3%) by the medial subsegmental artery (A4), three (14.3%) by both A4 and A3, one (4.8%) by a branch arising from the left lateral hepatic artery, and one (4.8%) by a branch of the right gastric artery. In particular, all tumor-feeding branches arising from A4 were the first branch of A4. Of seven tumors in segment 4, four (57.1%) were supplied by A4 and three (42.9%) by A3. In particular, all tumor-feeding branches arising from A3 were the first branch of A3. Conclusion: This study demonstrates crossover blood supply to HCC lesions located near the umbilical fissure, in addition to direct feeding from a separate branch. In particular, the first branch of the opposite subsegmental artery may feed tumors when crossover blood supply is present.

  5. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy and Left Main Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hsin-Ru; Hsu, Chiao-Po; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Shih, Chun-Che; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chan, Wan-Leong; Wu, Cheng-Hsueh; Lu, Tse-Min

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetic nephropathy and unprotected left main (LM) coronary artery disease suffer from high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although surgical revascularization is currently recommended in this special patient population, the optimal revascularization method for this distinct patient group has remained unclear. Methods We collected 99 consecutive patients with unprotected LM disease and diabetic nephropathy, including 46 patients who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and 53 who had coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), with a mean age of 72 ± 10; with 80.8% male. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as overt proteinuria (proteinuria > 500 mg/day) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by the modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The baseline characteristics, angiographic results and long-term clinical outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. Results The baseline characteristic of all patients were similar except for smokers, low density lipoprotein (LDL) level and extension of coronary artery disease involvement. The median follow-up period was 3.8 years. There were 73 patients (74%) considered as high risk with additive European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) ≥ 6. During follow-up period, the long term rate of all-cause death (PCI vs. CABG: 45.7% vs. 58.5%, p = 0.20) and all-cause death/myocardial infarction (MI)/stroke (PCI vs. CABG: 52.2% vs. 60.4%, p = 0.41) were comparable between the PCI and CABG group, whereas the repeat revascularization rate was significantly higher in the PCI group (PCI vs. CABG: 32.6% vs. 9.4%, p < 0.01). eGFR remained an independent predictor for all-cause death [hazard ratio: 0.97, 95% confidence interval: 0.96 to 0.99; p = 0.002] in multivariate logistic regression. Conclusions In the real-world practice of high-risk patients with unprotected LM disease and diabetic nephropathy, we found

  6. Anomalous Origin of the Left Common Carotid Artery from the Main Pulmonary Artery: A Rare Association in an Infant with CHARGE Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Blaise; Hirsch, Russel

    2016-01-01

    Case Report. Isolated carotid artery originating from the pulmonary trunk is an exceedingly rare anomalous origin of head and neck vessels. We present this finding, along with a persistent embryonic trigeminal artery, in a male infant with multiple cardiac defects and other congenital anomalies associated with CHARGE syndrome. After extensive investigations, cardiac catheterization revealed the anomalous left common carotid artery arising from the cranial aspect of the main pulmonary artery. There was retrograde flow in this vessel, resulting from the lower pulmonary pressure, essentially stealing arterial supply from the left anterior cerebral circulation. The persistent left-sided trigeminal artery provided collateral flow from the posterior circulation to the left internal carotid artery territory, allowing for safe ligation of the anomalous origin of the left common carotid artery, thereby reversing the steal of arterial blood flow into the pulmonary circulation and resulting in a net improvement of cerebral perfusion. Conclusion. The possibility of this vascular anomaly should be considered in all infants with CHARGE syndrome. Surgical repair or ligation should be tailored to the specific patient circumstances, following a careful delineation of all sources of cerebral perfusion. PMID:27974985

  7. Effects of long-term feeding of α-glucosylhesperidin on the mechanical properties of rabbit femoral arteries.

    PubMed

    Naiki, Takeru; Kurose, Yuki; Hayashi, Kozaburo; Takumi, Hiroko; Kometani, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Many people are sensitive to cold, resulting in poor blood circulation. There is evidence that hesperidin results in increased peripheral circulation and skin temperature. A transglycosylated hesperidin, α-glucosylhesperidin, is more bioabsorbable than hesperidin. In the present study, biomechanical studies were performed on the effects of long-term feeding of α-glucosylhesperidin on the contractile response (diameter response) and stiffness of femoral arteries excised from rabbits. Animals in the normal (non-treated), low, and high groups were fed 0, 150 and 4500 mg/day, respectively, of α-glucosylhesperidin for about 24 weeks. The feeding of α-glucosylhesperidin did not change arterial stiffness nor mean blood flow rate in the femoral artery; however, it increased mean aortic blood pressure and decreased arterial diameter at 100 mmHg in the high group. The diameter responses developed by 10-5 M of norepinephrine were significantly lower in the high and low groups than in non-treated group. This result indicates that, due to the long-term feeding of α-glucosylhesperidin, arterial contraction induced by the neurotransmitter of sympathetic nerves decreases. It was estimated that blood flow in such muscular arteries as the femoral artery is maintained at normal by α-glucosylhesperidin even under the conditions of autonomic imbalance and cold intolerance.

  8. Adaptation of the Main Peripheral Artery and Vein to Long Term Confinement (MARS 500)

    PubMed Central

    Arbeille, Philippe; Provost, Romain; Vincent, Nicole; Aubert, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The objective was to check if 520 days in confinement (MARS 500), may affect the main peripheral arterial diameter and wall thickness and the main vein size. Method Common carotid (CC) femoral artery (FA) portal vein (PV), jugular (JG), femoral vein (FV) and tibial vein were assessed during MARS 500 by echography, performed by the subjects. A hand free volumic echographic capture method and a delayed 3D reconstruction software developed by our lab were used for collecting and measuring the vascular parameters. Results During the MARS 500 experiment the subjects performed 6 sessions among which 80% of the echographic data were of sufficient quality to be processed. No significant change was found for the Common carotid, Jugular vein, femoral artery, femoral vein, portal vein, and tibial vein diameter. CC and FA IMT (intima media thickness) were found significantly increased (14% to 28% P<0.05) in all the 6 subjects, during the confinement period and also at +2 days after the confinement period, but there was no significant difference 6 month later compare to pre MARS 500. Conclusion The experiment confirmed that even untrained to performing echography the subjects were able to capture enough echographic data to reconstruct the vessel image from which the parameters were measured. The increase in both CC and FA IMT should be in relation with the stress generated by the confined environment or absence of solar radiation, as there was no change in gravity, temperature and air in the MARS 500 module, and minor changes in physical exercise and nutrition. PMID:24475025

  9. Transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing analysis of rat skeletal muscle feed arteries. I. Impact of obesity.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Nathan T; Padilla, Jaume; Thorne, Pamela K; Martin, Jeffrey S; Rector, R Scott; Davis, J Wade; Laughlin, M Harold

    2014-04-15

    We employed next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology to determine the influence of obesity on global gene expression in skeletal muscle feed arteries. Transcriptional profiles of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscle feed arteries (GFA and SFA, respectively) and aortic endothelial cell-enriched samples from obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) and lean Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were examined. Obesity produced 282 upregulated and 133 downregulated genes in SFA and 163 upregulated and 77 downregulated genes in GFA [false discovery rate (FDR) < 10%] with an overlap of 93 genes between the arteries. In LETO rats, there were 89 upregulated and 114 downregulated genes in the GFA compared with the SFA. There were 244 upregulated and 275 downregulated genes in OLETF rats (FDR < 10%) in the GFA compared with the SFA, with an overlap of 76 differentially expressed genes common to both LETO and OLETF rats in both the GFA and SFA. A total of 396 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed between LETO and OLETF in aortic endothelial cell-enriched samples. Overall, we found 1) the existence of heterogeneity in the transcriptional profile of the SFA and GFA within healthy LETO rats, 2) that this between-vessel heterogeneity was markedly exacerbated in the hyperphagic, obese OLETF rat, and 3) a greater number of genes whose expression was altered by obesity in the SFA compared with the GFA. Also, results indicate that in OLETF rats the GFA takes on a relatively more proatherogenic phenotype compared with the SFA.

  10. Drug-eluting stents in unprotected left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Bernelli, Chiara

    2014-11-01

    Though coronary bypass graft surgery (CABG) has traditionally been the cornerstone of therapy in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease, recent evidence supports the use of percutaneous coronary intervention in appropriate patients. Indeed in patients with ULMCA disease, drug-eluting stents (DES) have shown similar incidence of hard end points, fewer periprocedural complications and lower stroke rates compared with CABG, though at the cost of increased revascularization with time. Furthermore, the availability of newer efficacious and safer DES as well as improvements in diagnostic tools, percutaneous techniques and, importantly, a better patient selection, allowed percutaneous coronary intervention a viable alternative to CABG of left main-patients with low disease complexity; however, even in this interventional era characterized by efficacious DES, patients with ULMCA disease remain a challenging high-risk population where outcomes strongly depend on clinical characteristics, anatomical disease complexity and extension and operator's experience. This review summarizes the role of DES in ULMCA disease patients.

  11. Heterogeneous function of ryanodine receptors, but not IP3 receptors, in hamster cremaster muscle feed arteries and arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Westcott, Erika B.

    2011-01-01

    The roles played by ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) in vascular smooth muscle in the microcirculation remain unclear. Therefore, the function of both RyRs and IP3Rs in Ca2+ signals and myogenic tone in hamster cremaster muscle feed arteries and downstream arterioles were assessed using confocal imaging and pressure myography. Feed artery vascular smooth muscle displayed Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ waves, which were inhibited by the RyR antagonists ryanodine (10 μM) or tetracaine (100 μM). Despite the inhibition of sparks and waves, ryanodine or tetracaine increased global intracellular Ca2+ and constricted the arteries. The blockade of IP3Rs with xestospongin D (5 μM) or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (100 μM) or the inhibition of phospholipase C using U-73122 (10 μM) also attenuated Ca2+ waves without affecting Ca2+ sparks. Importantly, the IP3Rs and phospholipase C antagonists decreased global intracellular Ca2+ and dilated the arteries. In contrast, cremaster arterioles displayed only Ca2+ waves: Ca2+ sparks were not observed, and neither ryanodine (10–50 μM) nor tetracaine (100 μM) affected either Ca2+ signals or arteriolar tone despite the presence of functional RyRs as assessed by responses to the RyR agonist caffeine (10 mM). As in feed arteries, arteriolar Ca2+ waves were attenuated by xestospongin D (5 μM), 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (100 μM), and U-73122 (10 μM), accompanied by decreased global intracellular Ca2+ and vasodilation. These findings highlight the contrasting roles played by RyRs and IP3Rs in Ca2+ signals and myogenic tone in feed arteries and demonstrate important differences in the function of RyRs between feed arteries and downstream arterioles. PMID:21357503

  12. Main Bile Duct Stricture Occurring After Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Yamashiro, Masashi; Okuda, Miho; Yoshie, Yuichi; Nakashima, Yoshiko; Ikeno, Hiroshi; Orito, Nobuaki; Notsumata, Kazuo; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Toya, Daisyu; Tanaka, Nobuyoshi; Matsui, Osamu

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical course of main bile duct stricture at the hepatic hilum after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among 446 consecutive patients with HCC treated by TACE, main bile duct stricture developed in 18 (4.0%). All imaging and laboratory data, treatment course, and outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had 1 to 2 tumors measuring 10 to 100 mm in diameter (mean {+-} SD 24.5 {+-} 5.4 mm) near the hepatic hilum fed by the caudate arterial branch (A1) and/or medial segmental artery (A4) of the liver. During the TACE procedure that caused bile duct injury, A1 was embolized in 8, A4 was embolized in 5, and both were embolized in 5 patients. Nine patients (50.0%) had a history of TACE in either A1 or A4. Iodized oil accumulation in the bile duct wall was seen in all patients on computed tomography obtained 1 week later. Bile duct dilatation caused by main bile duct stricture developed in both lobes (n = 9), in the right lobe (n = 3), in the left lobe (n = 4), in segment (S) 2 (n = 1), and in S3 (n = 1). Serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and {gamma}-glutamyltranspeptidase increased in 13 patients. Biloma requiring drainage developed in 2 patients; jaundice developed in 4 patients; and metallic stents were placed in 3 patients. Complications after additional TACE sessions, including biloma (n = 3) and/or jaundice (n = 5), occurred in 7 patients and were treated by additional intervention, including metallic stent placement in 2 patients. After initial TACE of A1 and/or A4, 8 patients (44.4%), including 5 with uncontrollable jaundice or cholangitis, died at 37.9 {+-} 34.9 months after TACE, and 10 (55.6%) have survived for 38.4 {+-} 37.9 months. Selective TACE of A1 and/or A4 carries a risk of main bile duct stricture at the hepatic hilum. Biloma and jaundice are serious complications associated with bile duct strictures.

  13. Unusual Combination of Total Occlusion of Left Main Coronary Artery and Heart Failure with Pulmonary Hemosiderosis: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Elayda, MacArthur A.; Mathur, Virendra S.; Hall, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    A case of total occlusion of the left main coronary artery, congestive heart failure, and pulmonary hemosiderosis in a 54-year-old man is reported. Cardiac catheterization showed total occlusion of the left main coronary artery, subtotal occlusion of the right coronary artery, severely deranged hemodynamics, and an akinetic left ventricle except for a hypokinetic posterobasal segment. A radionuclide left ventricular performance study revealed an ejection fraction of 0.16 with diffuse biventricular hypokinesis and dilatation. Despite all the risk factors, the patient underwent a total of six saphenous vein grafts without perioperative or immediate postoperative complications. Images PMID:15227138

  14. Stenting of the left main coronary artery. Local experience in Liège.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, A; Boland, J; Legrand, V; Materne, P

    2000-06-01

    We examined the immediate and long-term outcome after stenting of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) in 41 consecutive patients who had been considered unsuitable for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). The procedure was elective in thirty-two patients (78%) with a protected LMCA in 24 patients and non-protected LMCA in 8 patients; the procedure was acute in the setting of myocardial infarction or complication of a diagnostic angiography in 9 patients (22%). The mean follow-up duration was 19 +/- 13 months. There were 5 in-hospital and 3 late deaths; repeat angioplasty was performed in 5 cases, but only one for LMCA restenosis. Results varied considerably depending on the clinical presentation. For acute patients, technical success was achieved in 89%, survival at hospital discharge was 44% and there was no cardiac event at the late follow-up. For elective patients, technical success was achieved in 100%, survival at hospital discharge was 96% and 90% at follow-up. The results of our study suggest that when patients have surgical risks, elective LMCA stenting either protected or unprotected may be undertaken with a high procedural success rate and a favourable clinical late follow-up.

  15. 74-year-old man with left main and carotid artery disease - how life can change plans.

    PubMed

    Kübler, Piotr; Ilnicki, Dawid; Telichowski, Artur; Reczuch, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    An unexpected incident or rapid deterioration of a patient's condition may require optimal adaptation of the treatment to the current state of the patient. We present a case of a 74-year-old man with significant left main coronary artery stenosis and tight stenoses of both carotid arteries. The case was initially qualified for bypass grafting with accompanying carotid artery endarterectomy, but an unexpected accident changed our way of treatment. Three days after angiography the patient suffered an ischemic stroke. We held a multidisciplinary meeting of the "Neuro-Vascular-Heart Team" and decided to treat the patient percutaneously.

  16. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: normal anatomy and main variants *

    PubMed Central

    Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; de Mello Júnior, Carlos Fernando; Franca, Henrique Almeida; Duarte, Cláudia Martina Araújo; Borges, Rafael Farias; de Magalhães, Ana Guardiana Ximenes

    2016-01-01

    Although digital angiography remains as the gold standard for imaging the celiac arterial trunk and hepatic arteries, multidetector computed tomography in association with digital images processing by software resources represents a useful tool particularly attractive for its non invasiveness. Knowledge of normal anatomy as well as of its variations is helpful in images interpretation and to address surgical planning on a case-by-case basis. The present essay illustrates several types of anatomical variations of celiac trunk, hepatic artery and its main branches, by means of digitally reconstructed computed tomography images, correlating their prevalence in the population with surgical implications. PMID:26929461

  17. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: normal anatomy and main variants.

    PubMed

    Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; de Mello Júnior, Carlos Fernando; Franca, Henrique Almeida; Duarte, Cláudia Martina Araújo; Borges, Rafael Farias; de Magalhães, Ana Guardiana Ximenes

    2016-01-01

    Although digital angiography remains as the gold standard for imaging the celiac arterial trunk and hepatic arteries, multidetector computed tomography in association with digital images processing by software resources represents a useful tool particularly attractive for its non invasiveness. Knowledge of normal anatomy as well as of its variations is helpful in images interpretation and to address surgical planning on a case-by-case basis. The present essay illustrates several types of anatomical variations of celiac trunk, hepatic artery and its main branches, by means of digitally reconstructed computed tomography images, correlating their prevalence in the population with surgical implications.

  18. Isolated huge aneurysm of the left main coronary artery in a 22-year-old patient with type 1 neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Pontailler, Margaux; Vilarem, Didier; Paul, Jean-François; Deleuze, Philippe H

    2015-03-01

    A 22-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 presented with acute chest pain. A computed tomography scan and coronary angiography revealed a partially thrombosed huge aneurysm of the left main coronary artery. Despite medical treatment, the patient's angina recurred. The patient underwent a coronary bypass grafting operation and surgical exclusion of the aneurysm. Postoperative imaging disclosed good permeability of the 3 coronary artery bypass grafts and complete thrombosis of the excluded aneurysm.

  19. Main pulmonary arterial wall shear stress correlates with invasive hemodynamics and stiffness in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kheyfets, Vitaly O.; Schroeder, Joyce D.; Dunning, Jamie; Shandas, Robin; Buckner, J. Kern; Browning, James; Hertzberg, Jean; Hunter, Kendall S.; Fenster, Brett E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with proximal pulmonary arterial remodeling characterized by increased vessel diameter, wall thickening, and stiffness. In vivo assessment of wall shear stress (WSS) may provide insights into the relationships between pulmonary hemodynamics and vascular remodeling. We investigated the relationship between main pulmonary artery (MPA) WSS and pulmonary hemodynamics as well as markers of stiffness. As part of a prospective study, 17 PH patients and 5 controls underwent same-day four-dimensional flow cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (4-D CMR) and right heart catheterization. Streamwise velocity profiles were generated in the cross-sectional MPA in 45° increments from velocity vector fields determined by 4-D CMR. WSS was calculated as the product of hematocrit-dependent viscosity and shear rate generated from the spatial gradient of the velocity profiles. In-plane average MPA WSS was significantly decreased in the PH cohort compared with that in controls (0.18 ± 0.07 vs. 0.32 ± 0.08 N/m2; P = 0.01). In-plane MPA WSS showed strong inverse correlations with multiple hemodynamic indices, including pulmonary resistance (ρ = −0.74, P < 0.001), mean pulmonary pressure (ρ = −0.64, P = 0.006), and elastance (ρ = −0.70, P < 0.001). In addition, MPA WSS had significant associations with markers of stiffness, including capacitance (ρ = 0.67, P < 0.001), distensibility (ρ = 0.52, P = 0.013), and elastic modulus (ρ = −0.54, P = 0.01). In conclusion, MPA WSS is decreased in PH and is significantly associated with invasive hemodynamic indices and markers of stiffness. 4-D CMR–based assessment of WSS may represent a novel methodology to study blood-vessel wall interactions in PH. PMID:27076906

  20. An Unusual Aneurysm of the Main Pulmonary Artery Presenting as Acute Coronary Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kholeif, Mona A.; El Tahir, Mohamed Kholeif, Yasser A.; El Watidy, Ahmed

    2006-10-15

    A 70-year old man presented with retrosternal chest pain. His electrocardiogram showed nonspecific T wave changes. Cardiac-specific troponin I (cTnI) was elevated. His condition was managed as acute coronary syndrome, following which he had two minor episodes of hemoptysis. A CT pulmonary angiogram showed no evidence of pulmonary embolism, but a large mass lesion was seen in the mediastinum. Echocardiography and cardiac MRI demonstrated a large solid mass, arising from the right ventricular outflow tract and causing compression of the main pulmonary artery (MPA). The differential diagnosis included pericardial and myocardial tumors and clotted aneurysm of the MPA. At surgery, a clotted aneurysmal sac was identified originating from the MPA and the defect was healed. Aneurysms of the MPA are rare. They most commonly present with dyspnea and chest pain. Compression of surrounding structures produces protean manifestations. A high index of suspicion coupled with imaging modalities establishes the diagnosis. Blunt trauma to the chest, at the time of an accident 4 years previously, may explain this aneurysm. The patient's presentation with chest pain was probably due to compression and/or stretching of surrounding structures. Coronary artery compression simulating acute coronary syndrome has been documented in the literature. The rise in cTnI may have been due to right ventricular strain, as a result of right ventricular outflow obstruction by the aneurysm. This has not been reported previously in the literature. The saccular morphology and narrow neck of the aneurysm predisposed to stagnation leading to clotting of the lumen and healing of the tear, which caused the diagnostic difficulty.

  1. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of space shuttle main propulsion feed line 17-inch disconnect valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Pearce, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    A steady incompressible three-dimensional (3-D) viscous flow analysis was conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion External Tank (ET)/Orbiter (ORB) propellant feed line quick separable 17-inch disconnect flapper valves for liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid hydrogen (LH2). The main objectives of the analysis were to predict and correlate the hydrodynamic stability of the flappers and pressure drop with available water test data. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computer codes were procured at no cost from the public domain, and were modified and extended to carry out the disconnect flow analysis. The grid generator codes SVTGD3D and INGRID were obtained. NASA Ames Research Center supplied the flow solution code INS3D, and the color graphics code PLOT3D. A driver routine was developed to automate the grid generation process. Components such as pipes, elbows, and flappers can be generated with simple commands, and flapper angles can be varied easily. The flow solver INS3D code was modified to treat interior flappers, and other interfacing routines were developed, which include a turbulence model, a force/moment routine, a time-step routine, and initial and boundary conditions. In particular, an under-relaxation scheme was implemented to enhance the solution stability. Major physical assumptions and simplifications made in the analysis include the neglect of linkages, slightly reduced flapper diameter, and smooth solid surfaces. A grid size of 54 x 21 x 25 was employed for both the LO2 and LH2 units. Mixing length theory applied to turbulent shear flow in pipes formed the basis for the simple turbulence model. Results of the analysis are presented for LO2 and LH2 disconnects.

  2. A Variant in COX-2 Gene Is Associated with Left Main Coronary Artery Disease and Clinical Outcomes of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hanning; Sun, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    As a particular severe phenotype of coronary artery disease (CAD), left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) is heritable. Genetic variants related to prostaglandin metabolism are associated with LMCAD. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key synthase in prostaglandin pathways, displays high density in atherosclerotic lesions and promotes early atherosclerosis in CAD progression. We hypothesized that genetic variants in COX-2 gene contribute to LMCAD phenotype susceptibility compared to more peripheral coronary artery disease (MPCAD). In this study, we genotyped COX-2 rs5275, rs5277, and rs689466 of 1544 CAD patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and found that rs5277 C allele carriage was associated with LMCAD (adjusted OR: 1.590; 95% CI: 1.103~2.291; p = 0.013). Furtherly, long-term follow-up data suggested that rs5277 C allele carriage increased risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in the whole cohort (adjusted HR: 1.561; 95% CI: 1.025~2.377; p = 0.038) and LMCAD subgroup (adjusted HR: 2.014; 95% CI: 1.036~3.913; p = 0.039) but not in MPCAD subgroup (adjusted HR: 1.375; 95% CI: 0.791~2.392; p = 0.259). In conclusion, we demonstrate that COX-2 rs5277 C allele increases the risk of left main coronary artery lesion and is also correlated with poor prognosis of LMCAD patients with CABG therapy. PMID:28194409

  3. Spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection complicated by pseudoaneurysm formation in pregnancy: role of CT coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shahid; Abdul-Waheed, Mohammed; Helmy, Tarek; Huffman, Lynn C; Koshal, Vipin; Guitron, Julian; Merrill, Walter H; Lewis, David F; Dunlap, Stephanie; Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Weintraub, Neal L; Meyer, Christopher; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet

    2009-04-01

    We report a case of a 26-year-old female, who presented at 34 weeks of an uncomplicated pregnancy with an acute ST elevation anterior wall myocardial infarction. Cardiac catheterization suggested a left main coronary artery dissection with pseudoaneurysm formation. The patient's course was complicated by congestive heart failure. She was initially managed conservatively by a multidisciplinary team including heart failure specialists, obstetricians, and cardiovascular surgeons. 4 days after admission, her LMC was imaged by dual-source 64 slice Cardiac computed tomography, coronary dissection was identified extending to the lumen, and the presence of pseudoaneurysm was confirmed. She underwent subsequently a staged procedure, which included placement of an intra-aortic balloon pump, cesarean section, and coronary artery bypass grafting. This case illustrates the utility of coronary artery CT imaging to assess the complexity and stability of coronary artery dissections, thereby helping to determine the need for, and timing of revascularization procedures.

  4. Main complications and results of treatment with intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy through the subclavian and thoracic arteries for locally advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Gan, Changing; Li, Hongyuan; Wei, Yuxian; Zhu, Donchang; Yang, Guanglun; Su, Xinliang; Rodier, Jean-François; Ren, Guosheng

    2013-07-01

    Intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) has been previously performed. However, the main complications of this type of chemotherapy remain to be clarified. In the present study, catheterization chemotherapy was carried out for 53 LABC cases (stage IIIa-IIIc) between May, 2006 and March, 2007. For IIIB and IIIC patients, the catheters were guided to the opening of the subclavian artery. For stage IIIa patients, the catheters were placed into the thoracic artery through a subcutaneous femoral artery puncture. One to four cycles of chemotherapy (mean, 1.6 cycles) were administered for the patients using taxotere, epidoxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and/or cyclophosphamide. The interval time between the two cycles was 21 days. Seven cases were identified as complete response (CR, 13.2%), 41 cases were partial response (PR, 77.4%) with a rate of effectiveness of (CR + PR, 90.6%), 5 cases were stable disease (SD, 9.40%) and no case was progressive. Pain of the ipsilateral upper extremity was present in 7 cases. Two cases exhibited ipsilateral upper extremity atrophy following drug administration from the opening of the subclavian artery. One case experienced neck pain and headache, while in one case necrosis of local skin was evident. Hematological toxicity over grade 3 was observed in 6 cases (11.30%). Systemic toxicity was mild and did not affect the quality of life of the patients. Overall survival was identified as 18/51 (35.3%), and free-disease survival as 10/51 (19.6%). In conclusion, intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy is an effective local control treatment for LABC. The main complications are pain of the ipsilateral upper extremity and neck as well as headache. Severe complications are ipsilateral upper extremity atrophy and necrosis of local skin. During the treatment, controlling the pressure of the tourniquet and velocity of drug administration are crucial for reducing local complications.

  5. Main complications and results of treatment with intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy through the subclavian and thoracic arteries for locally advanced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    WANG, XIAOYI; GAN, CHANGING; LI, HONGYUAN; WEI, YUXIAN; ZHU, DONCHANG; YANG, GUANGLUN; SU, XINLIANG; RODIER, JEAN-FRANÇOIS; REN, GUOSHENG

    2013-01-01

    Intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) has been previously performed. However, the main complications of this type of chemotherapy remain to be clarified. In the present study, catheterization chemotherapy was carried out for 53 LABC cases (stage IIIa–IIIc) between May, 2006 and March, 2007. For IIIB and IIIC patients, the catheters were guided to the opening of the subclavian artery. For stage IIIa patients, the catheters were placed into the thoracic artery through a subcutaneous femoral artery puncture. One to four cycles of chemotherapy (mean, 1.6 cycles) were administered for the patients using taxotere, epidoxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and/or cyclophosphamide. The interval time between the two cycles was 21 days. Seven cases were identified as complete response (CR, 13.2%), 41 cases were partial response (PR, 77.4%) with a rate of effectiveness of (CR + PR, 90.6%), 5 cases were stable disease (SD, 9.40%) and no case was progressive. Pain of the ipsilateral upper extremity was present in 7 cases. Two cases exhibited ipsilateral upper extremity atrophy following drug administration from the opening of the subclavian artery. One case experienced neck pain and headache, while in one case necrosis of local skin was evident. Hematological toxicity over grade 3 was observed in 6 cases (11.30%). Systemic toxicity was mild and did not affect the quality of life of the patients. Overall survival was identified as 18/51 (35.3%), and free-disease survival as 10/51 (19.6%). In conclusion, intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy is an effective local control treatment for LABC. The main complications are pain of the ipsilateral upper extremity and neck as well as headache. Severe complications are ipsilateral upper extremity atrophy and necrosis of local skin. During the treatment, controlling the pressure of the tourniquet and velocity of drug administration are crucial for reducing local complications. PMID:24649239

  6. Calcium release by noradrenaline from central sarcoplasmic reticulum in rabbit main pulmonary artery smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Kowarski, D; Shuman, H; Somlyo, A P; Somlyo, A V

    1985-01-01

    The subcellular composition of relaxed and noradrenaline-contracted rabbit main pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells was measured by electron probe X-ray microanalysis of cryosections of rapidly frozen tissue. Some of the preparations were made permeable with saponin and exposed to a known free Ca ion concentration, rapidly frozen, freeze-substituted, and also analysed by electron probe X-ray microanalysis. 98% of intracellular K could be replaced by Rb. This was done to remove the K peak that partially overlaps the Ca peak in the X-ray spectra. The final [Rb]i plus residual [K]i was not significantly different from the [K]i of normal tissue. The [Ca]i in Rb-containing tissue was not significantly different from the [Ca]i in normal, K-containing tissue. Non-mitochondrial micro-regions containing high [Ca] (up to 33 mmol/kg dry wt.) were found at sites 200 nm or more away from the plasma membrane. These micro-regions also contained high [P]. We consider the identification of these regions containing high [Ca] as sarcoplasmic reticulum (s.r.), validated by: (a) conventional electron micrographs that show no other structures in main pulmonary artery smooth muscle in sufficient quantity and location to account for the frequency of these regions, (b) the previous localization of strontium, a functional calcium analogue, in the central s.r. in these smooth muscles (Somlyo & Somlyo, 1971 a), (c) the present demonstration that the central s.r. in this tissue can accumulate large amounts of calcium oxalate. The proportion of regions containing high [Ca] (greater than 12.0 mmol/kg dry wt.) was significantly higher in relaxed (35 of 330 measurements) than in the contracted (14 of 337) tissues (P less than 0.005), or 26 of 34 vs. 6 of 31 high [Ca] measurements in regions identified as s.r. through their high phosphorus content (P less than 0.006). This difference is thought to represent Ca release from the central s.r. There was no significant difference (P greater than 0

  7. Embolisation of a leaking pseudoaneurysm of the main artery supplying a replanted arm: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tan, J J; Low, C K

    1999-07-01

    A 51-year-old patient suffered a near amputation of the right arm. Replant of the arm was performed and the brachial artery was grafted with a vein. A week later, there was severe bleeding from a leaking pseudoaneurysm at the proximal junction of the grafted artery. This was managed with embolization using coils and resulted in successful obliteration of the pseudoaneurysm without necrosis of the replanted arm.

  8. Dietary sodium bicarbonate, cool temperatures, and feed withdrawal: impact on arterial and venous blood-gas values in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Hooge, D M; Cummings, K R

    2003-04-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been used successfully in mammals and birds to alleviate pulmonary hypertension. Experiment 1 was designed to provide measurements of arterial and venous blood-gas values from unanesthetized male broilers subjected to a cool temperature (16 degrees C) challenge and fed either a control diet or the same diet alkalinized by dilution with 1% NaHCO3. The incidences of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites) for broilers fed the control or bicarbonate diets were 15.5 and 10.5%, respectively (P = 0.36, NS). Non-ascitic broilers fed the control diet were heavier than those fed the bicarbonate diet on d 49 (2,671 vs. 2,484 g, respectively); however, other comparisons failed to reveal diet-related differences in heart weight, pulse oximetry values, electrocardiogram amplitudes, or blood-gas values (P > 0.05). When the data were resorted into categories based on right:total ventricular weight ratios (RV:TV) indicative of normal (RV:TV < 0.28) or elevated (RV:TV > or = 0.28) pulmonary arterial pressures, broilers with elevated RV:TV ratios had poorly oxygenated arterial blood that was more acidic, had high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2), and had higher HCO3 concentrations when compared with broilers with normal RV:TV ratios. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine if metabolic variations associated with differences in feed intake or environmental temperature potentially could mask an impact of diet composition on blood-gas values. Male broilers maintained at thermoneutral temperature (24 degrees C) either received feed ad libitum or had the feed withdrawn > or = 12 h prior to blood sampling. Broilers fed ad libitum had lower venous saturation of hemoglobin with O2, higher venous PCO2, and higher arterial HCO3 concentrations than broilers subjected to feed withdrawal. Broilers in experiment 2 fed ad libitum and exposed to cool temperatures (16 degrees C) had lower arterial partial pressure of O2 and higher venous PCO2 than broilers fed ad

  9. Repair of a Large Main Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm in a 71-Year-Old Jehovah's Witness Patient

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Lucas W.; Esmailian, Fardad

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysm is a rarely reported and poorly studied entity; most mentions in the literature are in case series and case reports. Cardiac surgery in Jehovah's Witness patients is occurring more frequently because of improved techniques of blood conservation. We report the repair of a large pulmonary artery aneurysm in a 71-year-old woman who was a Jehovah's Witness. Using total cardiopulmonary bypass, we replaced the main pulmonary artery and both branches with Gelweave tube-grafts, because the fragility of a homograft presented possible bleeding problems. The patient recovered rapidly, and her symptoms were greatly improved. We think that a patient's status as a Jehovah's Witness need not preclude potentially life-saving cardiac operations. PMID:23914038

  10. [Surgical strategy for combined gun-shot wounds of extremities with injuries of main arteries].

    PubMed

    Samokhvalov, I M; Zavrazhnov, A A; Kornilov, E A; Margarian, S A

    2006-01-01

    An investigation of materials of treatment of 130 wounded with combined wounds (CW) of extremity blood vessels during war in Afghanistan and in counter-terrorist operations in the Northern Caucasus has shown that the specific feature of surgical treatment of wounds of the extremity arteries associated with severe wounds of other localizations consists in limited possibilities to save the extremities. The scale MESS of a severity of extremity wounds was improved. It allowed a reliable prognosis for wounded with gunshot injuries of the arteries concerning necessary amputation (97%) or a possibility to save the extremity (100%). A strategy of surgical treatment of CW of the extremity arteries is proposed on the basis of an estimation of the general severity of the trauma, the V.A. Kornilov classification of the severity of acute ischemia and a FS-MESS scale of extremity injuries.

  11. Total revascularization for an epsilon right coronary artery and severe left main disease combined with profound cardiogenic shock

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hsiu-Yu; Lee, Wei-Chieh; Wu, Chiung-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Severe left main disease combined with right coronary artery occlusion was rarely encountered in our daily practice. Percutaneous coronary intervention in these patients was most challenging due to high probability of hemodynamic changes. Patient Concerns: Here, we report a 67-year-old man with Non–ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) and profound cardiogenic shock and we attempted coronary intervention with total revisualization for severe left main (LM) disease and angulated epsilon right coronary artery total occlusion. He was treated successfully under intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Diagnoses: NSTEMI and profound cardiogenic shock. Interventions: Coronary intervention with total revisualization was performed for severe LM disease and angulated epsilon right coronary artery total occlusion under IABP and ECMO support. Outcomes: IABP and ECMO were removed until cardiac contractile function improved to left ventricular ejection fraction over 40 percentage 1 week later. The patient was discharged after 2 months and had survival for 5 years. Lessons: Coronary intervention could be performed safely in this cardiogenic shock patient with severe LM and triple vessel disease who was supported by IABP and ECMO. Stent deployment for extremely angulated coronary artery was required multiple combination techniques to facilitate the final success. PMID:27977615

  12. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with AIDS, acute myocardial infarction, and severe left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Bittner, H B; Fogelson, B G

    2003-02-01

    A 48-year-old male patient with AIDS presented with postinfarct unstable angina, decreased left ventricular function (EF 35%), significant left main coronary artery disease, and total occlusion of the proximal left anterior descending and right coronary arteries. In order to avoid the potential immunosuppressive effect of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in an already compromised host with an already low CD4+ helper/inducer T cell count (180/microL) and high retroviral load (165,000 copies/mL), the application of beating-heart technology and off-pump coronary bypass grafting was an ideal indication. The patient underwent successfully off-pump/CPB coronary revascularization. The triple drug combination of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was resumed postoperatively. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 7(th) postoperative day. The CD4+ count was 142/microL and the viral load decreased to 450 copies/mL. Seven months post-operatively the patient was free of angina and without shortness of breath. The CD4+ count was 160/(m)L and the viral load undetectable. Improved survival of HIV positive patients has resulted in a shift from caring for terminally ill patients to caring for patients with chronic illness. While protease inhibitors have positively affected survival, they may also cause plasma lipid abnormalities, which can lead to severe premature coronary artery disease. Therefore, an increasing population of AIDS and HIV positive patients with coronary artery disease may require cardiac interventions in the near future. Coronary revascularization without CPB and its potential immunocompromising effect may play an important role in patients with severe coronary artery disease and AIDS.

  13. Fluid dynamic study in a femoral artery branch casting of man with upstream main lumen curvature for steady flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.; Back, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    An in-vitro, steady flow investigation was conducted in a hollow, transparent vascular replica of the profunda femoris branch of man for a range of physiological flow conditions. The replica casting tested was obtained from a human cadaver and indicated some plague formation along the main lumen and branch. The flow visualization observations and measured pressure distributions indicated the highly three-dimensional flow characteristics with arterial curvature and branching, and the important role of centrifugal effects in fluid transport mechanisms.

  14. The Posterior Cerebral Artery and its Main Cortical Branches Identified with Noninvasive Transcranial Color-Coded Duplex Sonography

    PubMed Central

    Frid, P. E.; Schreiber, S. J.; Pade, O.; Doepp, F.; Valdueza, J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To differentiate PCA segments and cortical branches by means of transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCD) and to measure flow parameters at rest and during visual stimulation. Materials and Methods: 60 healthy subjects with a good acoustic temporal bone window were examined. The main stem of the PCA (P1, P2 and P3) and 4 main cortical branches – the anterior temporal artery (ATA), the occipital temporal artery (OTA), the parietooccipital artery (POA) and the calcarine artery (CA) – were assessed using an axial transtemporal approach. Systolic and diastolic blood flow velocities (BFVs) were recorded at rest and during visual stimulation. Results: Identification of the P1 segment of the PCA was successful in 97.5% (117/120) of cases. The P2 and P3 segments were visualized in all cases. The 4 main cortical branches could be identified to varying degrees: ATA in 88%, OTA in 96%, POA in 69% and CA in 62%. There was an evoked flow response in the P2 main stem and in all cortical branches. The most pronounced increase in diastolic/systolic BFV after visual stimulation test was seen in the CA (42%/35%), followed by P2 (30%/24%), the POA (27%/27%), the OTA (16%/13%) and the ATA (9%/8%). Conclusion: Insonation through the temporal bone window with TCCD confidently allows the assessment of the P1 to P3 segments of the PCA as well as the 2 proximal branches, the ATA and the OTA. An ultrasound-based classification of PCA anatomy and its cortical branches may be used as a noninvasive method for the evaluation of posterior circulation pathology. PMID:27689154

  15. Fluid dynamic study in a femoral artery branch casting of man with upstream main lumen curvature for steady flow.

    PubMed

    Back, M R; Cho, Y I; Back, L H

    1985-08-01

    An in-vitro, steady flow investigation was conducted in a hollow, transparent vascular replica of the profunda femoris branch of man for a range of physiological flow conditions. The replica casting tested was obtained from a human cadaver and indicated some plaque formation along the main lumen and branch. The flow visualization observations and measured pressure distributions indicated the highly three-dimensional flow characteristics with arterial curvature and branching, and the important role of centrifugal effects in fluid transport mechanisms.

  16. [Incidence and management of acute left main coronary artery dissection as a complication of acute transluminal coronary angioplasty].

    PubMed

    Dittel, M; Prachar, H; Spiel, R; Mlczoch, J

    1996-09-01

    Out of 1730 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) of left descending coronary artery (LAD) or circumflex artery (CX) five patients (0.3%) suffered an acute dissection of left main coronary artery. In three patients dissection developed because of manipulation of the guiding catheter. In one patient retrograde dissection of the left main stem occurred because of balloon angioplasty of ostial LAD stenosis and in a second patient because of balloon rupture in the setting of stent deployment in the proximal part of the LAD. Four patients were selected for emergency operation, but one patient died before reacting the operation theatre. Out of the three remaining patients one patient died postoperatively and another patient suffered a transmural myocardial infarction. In the fifth patient three AVE Micro stents were implanted; one just at the origin of the LAD, one at the origin of the CX and the third in the left main stem. This patient was not sent for operation and was discharged without symptoms.

  17. Impact of age on the vasodilatory function of human skeletal muscle feed arteries

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song-Young; Ives, Stephen J.; Gifford, Jayson R.; Andtbacka, Robert H. I.; Hyngstrom, John R.; Reese, Van; Layec, Gwenael; Bharath, Leena P.; Symons, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Although advancing age is often associated with attenuated skeletal muscle blood flow and skeletal muscle feed arteries (SMFAs) have been recognized to play a regulatory role in the vasculature, little is known about the impact of age on the vasodilatory capacity of human SMFAs. Therefore, endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation were assessed in SMFAs (diameter: 544 ± 63 μm) obtained from 24 (equally represented) young (33 ± 2 yr) and old (71 ± 2 yr) subjects in response to three stimuli: 1) flow-induced shear stress, 2) ACh, and 3) sodium nitropusside (SNP). Both assessments of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, flow (young subjects: 68 ± 1% and old subjects: 32 ± 7%) and ACh (young subjects: 92 ± 3% and old subjects: 73 ± 4%), were significantly blunted (P < 0.05) in SMFAs of old compared with young subjects, with no such age-related differences in endothelium-independent vasodilation (SNP). In response to an increase in flow-induced shear stress, vasodilation kinetics (time constant to reach 63% of the amplitude of the response: 55 ± 1 s in young subjects and 92 ± 7 s in old subjects) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation (phospho-eNOSs1177/total eNOS: 1.0 ± 0.1 in young subjects and 0.2 ± 0.1 in old subjects) were also significantly attenuated in old compared with young subjects (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the vessel superoxide concentration was greater in old subjects (old subjects: 3.9 ± 1.0 area under curve/mg and young subjects: 1.7 ± 0.1 area under the curve/mg, P < 0.05). These findings reveal that the endothelium-dependent vasodilatory capacity, including vasodilation kinetics but not smooth muscle function, of human SMFAs is blunted with age and may be due to free radicals. Given the potential regulatory role of SMFAs in skeletal muscle blood flow, these findings may explain, at least in part, the often observed attenuated perfusion of skeletal muscle with advancing age that may contribute to exercise

  18. Impact of age on the vasodilatory function of human skeletal muscle feed arteries.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Young; Ives, Stephen J; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Hyngstrom, John R; Reese, Van; Layec, Gwenael; Bharath, Leena P; Symons, John D; Richardson, Russell S

    2016-01-15

    Although advancing age is often associated with attenuated skeletal muscle blood flow and skeletal muscle feed arteries (SMFAs) have been recognized to play a regulatory role in the vasculature, little is known about the impact of age on the vasodilatory capacity of human SMFAs. Therefore, endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation were assessed in SMFAs (diameter: 544 ± 63 μm) obtained from 24 (equally represented) young (33 ± 2 yr) and old (71 ± 2 yr) subjects in response to three stimuli: 1) flow-induced shear stress, 2) ACh, and 3) sodium nitropusside (SNP). Both assessments of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, flow (young subjects: 68 ± 1% and old subjects: 32 ± 7%) and ACh (young subjects: 92 ± 3% and old subjects: 73 ± 4%), were significantly blunted (P < 0.05) in SMFAs of old compared with young subjects, with no such age-related differences in endothelium-independent vasodilation (SNP). In response to an increase in flow-induced shear stress, vasodilation kinetics (time constant to reach 63% of the amplitude of the response: 55 ± 1 s in young subjects and 92 ± 7 s in old subjects) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation (phospho-eNOS(s1177)/total eNOS: 1.0 ± 0.1 in young subjects and 0.2 ± 0.1 in old subjects) were also significantly attenuated in old compared with young subjects (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the vessel superoxide concentration was greater in old subjects (old subjects: 3.9 ± 1.0 area under curve/mg and young subjects: 1.7 ± 0.1 area under the curve/mg, P < 0.05). These findings reveal that the endothelium-dependent vasodilatory capacity, including vasodilation kinetics but not smooth muscle function, of human SMFAs is blunted with age and may be due to free radicals. Given the potential regulatory role of SMFAs in skeletal muscle blood flow, these findings may explain, at least in part, the often observed attenuated perfusion of skeletal muscle with advancing age that may contribute to exercise

  19. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... and animations for grades K-6. The Coronary Arteries Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every other ... into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries). These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, ...

  20. Transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing analysis of rat skeletal muscle feed arteries. II. Impact of exercise training in obesity.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Thorne, Pamela K; Martin, Jeffrey S; Rector, R Scott; Davis, J Wade; Laughlin, M Harold

    2014-04-15

    We employed next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology to determine the extent to which exercise training alters global gene expression in skeletal muscle feed arteries and aortic endothelial cells of obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Transcriptional profiles of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscle feed arteries (SFA and GFA, respectively) and aortic endothelial cell-enriched samples from rats that underwent an endurance exercise training program (EndEx; n = 12) or a interval sprint training program (IST; n = 12) or remained sedentary (Sed; n = 12) were examined. In response to EndEx, there were 39 upregulated (e.g., MANF) and 20 downregulated (e.g., ALOX15) genes in SFA and 1 upregulated (i.e., Wisp2) and 1 downregulated (i.e., Crem) gene in GFA [false discovery rate (FDR) < 10%]. In response to IST, there were 305 upregulated (e.g., MANF, HSPA12B) and 324 downregulated genes in SFA and 101 upregulated and 66 downregulated genes in GFA, with an overlap of 32 genes between arteries. Furthermore, in aortic endothelial cells, there were 183 upregulated (e.g., eNOS, SOD-3) and 141 downregulated (e.g., ATF3, Clec1b, npy, leptin) genes with EndEx and 71 upregulated and 69 downregulated genes with IST, with an overlap of 35 between exercise programs. Expression of only two genes (Tubb2b and Slc9a3r2) was altered (i.e., increased) by exercise in all three arteries. The finding that both EndEx and IST produced greater transcriptional changes in the SFA compared with the GFA is intriguing when considering the fact that treadmill bouts of exercise are associated with greater relative increases in blood flow to the gastrocnemius muscle compared with the soleus muscle.

  1. Transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing analysis of rat skeletal muscle feed arteries. II. Impact of exercise training in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Nathan T.; Thorne, Pamela K.; Martin, Jeffrey S.; Rector, R. Scott; Davis, J. Wade; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2014-01-01

    We employed next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology to determine the extent to which exercise training alters global gene expression in skeletal muscle feed arteries and aortic endothelial cells of obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Transcriptional profiles of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscle feed arteries (SFA and GFA, respectively) and aortic endothelial cell-enriched samples from rats that underwent an endurance exercise training program (EndEx; n = 12) or a interval sprint training program (IST; n = 12) or remained sedentary (Sed; n = 12) were examined. In response to EndEx, there were 39 upregulated (e.g., MANF) and 20 downregulated (e.g., ALOX15) genes in SFA and 1 upregulated (i.e., Wisp2) and 1 downregulated (i.e., Crem) gene in GFA [false discovery rate (FDR) < 10%]. In response to IST, there were 305 upregulated (e.g., MANF, HSPA12B) and 324 downregulated genes in SFA and 101 upregulated and 66 downregulated genes in GFA, with an overlap of 32 genes between arteries. Furthermore, in aortic endothelial cells, there were 183 upregulated (e.g., eNOS, SOD-3) and 141 downregulated (e.g., ATF3, Clec1b, npy, leptin) genes with EndEx and 71 upregulated and 69 downregulated genes with IST, with an overlap of 35 between exercise programs. Expression of only two genes (Tubb2b and Slc9a3r2) was altered (i.e., increased) by exercise in all three arteries. The finding that both EndEx and IST produced greater transcriptional changes in the SFA compared with the GFA is intriguing when considering the fact that treadmill bouts of exercise are associated with greater relative increases in blood flow to the gastrocnemius muscle compared with the soleus muscle. PMID:24408995

  2. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Left Main Coronary Artery Disease — A Single Hospital Experience without On-Site Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hsiao-Yang; Wang, Kuang-Te; Lin, Wen-Hsiung; Tsai, Jui-Peng; Chen, Yung-Tzi

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the safety and outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention for left main coronary artery disease in hospital without on-site cardiac surgery. Methods Between January 2007 and December 2010, all patients diagnosed with left main coronary artery disease and refused coronary artery bypass graft surgery in our hospital or a tertiary center, were enrolled. Data including clinical course, angiographic characteristics, and 1- and 3-years outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Results Seventy patients (mean age 73.4 ± 10.2 years, 47 male, 23 females) were treated with a mean SYNTAX score of 34.8 ± 12.6 and EuroSCORE of 6.7 ± 3.3. Thirty-two (45.7%) patients had stable angina, 35 (50.0%) had unstable angina/non ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and 3 (4.3%) had ST-elevation Myocardial infarction. Forty-three (61.4%) patients received a single-stent, 26 (37.1%) received two-stents, and 1 (1.4%) received balloon angioplasty. No procedure-related mortalities were noted and no emergency coronary artery bypass graft surgery was required. In the 3-year follow-up period, 2 (2.9%) patients had non-fetal myocardial infarction, 11 (15.7%) had left main target lesion revascularization. The major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events rates were 24.3% at 1 year and 37.1% at 3-years. The all-cause mortality rate was 41.4% (29 patients), including 18 (25.7%) cases of septic shock, 7 (10.0%) of sudden cardiac death, 2 (2.8%) of hypovolemic shock due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 1 (1.4%) of terminal stage malignancy, and 1 (1.4%) of suffocation at 3 years. Conclusions Percutaneous coronary intervention for patients with left main coronary artery disease was found to be a safe and effective strategy in our hospital without on-site cardiac surgery. PMID:27122882

  3. The Main Anatomic Variations of the Hepatic Artery and Their Importance in Surgical Practice: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Noussios, George; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Chatzis, Iosif; Katsourakis, Anastasios

    2017-01-01

    Anatomical variations of the hepatic artery are important in the planning and performance of abdominal surgical procedures. Normal hepatic anatomy occurs in approximately 80% of cases, for the remaining 20% multiple variations have been described. The purpose of this study was to review the existing literature on the hepatic anatomy and to stress out its importance in surgical practice. Two main databases were searched for eligible articles during the period 2000 - 2015, and results concerning more than 19,000 patients were included in the study. The most common variation was the replaced right hepatic artery (type III according to Michels classification) which is the chief source of blood supply to the bile duct. PMID:28270883

  4. Diel feeding behavior and ingestion rate in the copepod Calanus finmarchicus in the southern Gulf of Maine during late spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Edward G.; Campbell, Robert G.; Gilman, Sharon L.; Durbin, Ann G.

    In situ feeding was measured on late stage Calanus finmarchicus in the southern Gulf of Maine during late spring 1988 and 1989. The region is a spring feeding ground for the planktivorous right whale, Eubalaena glacialis. Measurements in 1988 were made during the declining spring bloom, when phytoplankton showed considerable spatial variability. 1989 observations were made after summer stratification had become established, when phytoplankton biomass was low and dominated by the <7 μm size fraction. In situ ingestion rates of C. finmarchicus reflected these differences in food, and ranged from 30.2% body C day -1 at a spring bloom station to 0.6% body C day -1 after stratification. These values compare with a maximum ingestion rate of 44.3% body C day -1 measured in a shipboard grazing experiment using cultured algae as food, and indicate that C. finmarchicus became food limited in the southern Gulf of Maine after stratification. Calanus finmarchicus diet feeding behavior and diet vertical migration patterns changed during the seasonal progression from spring bloom to summer stratification. Diet feeding rhythms and vertical migration were absent during the bloom, but developed as the bloom declined. During the post-bloom stratified conditions, diet feeding rhythms continued but vertical migration ceased. Most of the C. finmarchicus population remained near the surface, while a small population of nonmigratory individuals resided at depth and appeared to be feeding upon sedimented spring bloom diatoms. At the spring bloom station C. finmarchicus ingested only a small proportion of the phytoplankton standing stock in the > 7 μm size fraction (2.9% day -1), reflecting the high biomass of phytoplankton and the stage composition of the C. finmarchicus population, dominated by early copepodite stages with low biomass. In contrast, at the post-bloom stations in 1989, the dense surface aggregations of C. finmarchicus populations were dominated by late copepodite stages

  5. Cannibalism as the main feeding behaviour of tucunares introduced in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Braga, F M S

    2004-08-01

    Individuals of its own genus were the main food item of two species of tucunares (Cichla cf. ocellaris and Cichla monoculus) introduced into the Volta Grande Reservoir. The abundance of adult tucunares may cause intra-specific competition, possibly leading to the high cannibalism rates found.

  6. Telescoping Technique to Engage Left Main Coronary Artery in a Case of Giant Aortic Aneurysm in a Geriatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Priyank; Vasudev, Rahul; Bikkina, Mahesh; Virk, Hartaj

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a geriatric male with giant ascending aortic aneurysm (AAA) who underwent successful coronary angiography using telescoping technique for evaluation his coronary arteries before surgery for AAA. Since the ascending aorta and root were extremely dilated, we knew it would not have been possible to engage the coronaries using regular catheters and standard technique. Hence, telescopic technique was used. Amplatz left 3 (AL3) 7F (French) guide catheter (90 cm) was initially used, and nonselective injection of contrast was done to see the coronary ostium. After that, a 5F multipurpose catheter (110 cm) was telescoped through 7F AL3 guide catheter to engage the ostium of the left main coronary artery. Using this technique, images of coronaries were obtained, and it showed minimal luminal irregularities in major epicardial coronary arteries. The patient underwent successful surgery with aortic valve replacement and excision of aneurysm with graft placement. Although this technique has been described previously in enlarged aortas, this is the first to our knowledge use of telescoping technique in giant aortic aneurysm in a geriatric patient. PMID:27833782

  7. Woodcock feeding habits as related to summer field usage in central Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohn, W.B.

    1970-01-01

    In 1968 and 1969, 60 American woodcock (Philohela minor) were collected before and after alighting on summer fields in central Maine. A comparison of stomach contents from these birds showed that woodcock fed prior to entering fields at dusk. No evidence was found to indicate that any substantial amount of food was eaten by birds remaining on fields throughout the night. In 1968, the availability and abundance of known woodcock foods were measured in 30 soil samples from one field. Few woodcock foods were found in samples located randomly and at flush sites, thus providing no evidence that birds selected sites where soil invertebrates were concentrated.

  8. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  9. Characterization of voltage-gated calcium currents in freshly isolated smooth muscle cells from rat tail main artery.

    PubMed

    Petkov, G V; Fusi, F; Saponara, S; Gagov, H S; Sgaragli, G P; Boev, K K

    2001-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize voltage-gated Ca2+ currents in smooth muscle cells freshly isolated from rat tail main artery in the presence of 5 mmol L(-1) external Ca2+. Calcium currents were identified on the basis of their voltage dependencies and sensitivity to nifedipine, Ni2+ and cinnarizine. In the majority of the cells studied, T- and L-type currents were observed, while the remaining cells showed predominantly L-type currents. In the latter group of cells, holding potential change from -50 to either -70 or -90 mV increased the corresponding inward current amplitude while its voltage activation threshold remained unchanged. The steady state inactivation of L-type Ca2+ channels showed half-maximal inactivation at -38 mV. A Ca2+-dependent inactivation was also evident. Nifedipine (3 micromol L(-1)) blocked L-type but not T-type Ca2+ currents. Ni2+ (50 micromol L(-1)) as well as cinnarizine (1 micromol L(-1)) suppressed the nifedipine-resistant, T-type component of the currents. At higher concentrations, both Ni2+ (0.3-1 mmol L(-1)) and cinnarizine (10 micromol L(-1)) blocked the net inward current. Replacement of Ca2+ with 10 mmol L(-)1 Ba2+ significantly increased the amplitude of L-type Ca2+ currents. These results demonstrate that smooth muscle cells freshly isolated from rat tail main artery may be divided into two populations, one expressing both L- and T-type and the other only L-type Ca2+ channels. Furthermore, this report shows that in arterial smooth muscle cells cinnarizine potently inhibited T-type currents at low concentrations (1 micromol L(-1)) but also blocked L-type Ca2+ currents at higher concentrations (10 micromol L(-1)).

  10. Left main coronary artery stenosis treatment with two paclitaxel-eluting stents in a patient with cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ríos, Marco A; Méndez-Ortíz, Arturo; Gaspar, Jorge; Barragán-García, Rodolfo; Fernández-de-la-Reguera, Guillermo; González-Quesada, Carlos J

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac transplantation is a well defined therapy for end stage heart failure. After the first year of transplantation, allograft coronary artery disease (ACAD) is the second main cause of death. The ACAD is defined as a diffuse process affecting the entire length of epicardial vessels. Once ACAD has been established, treatments such as coronary angioplasty, coronary stenting, and coronary bypass are performed. We present a case of successful stenting of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) in a patient with ACAD. The patient's medical history was significant for heart transplantation due to ischemic heart failure. Four years after transplantation the patient was admitted again due to sudden worsening of New York Heart Association functional class and extreme fatigue. Coronary angiogram showed a severe stenosis in the proximal segment of the LMCA; we performed stenting with a paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES). Six months after the procedure, the patient had an elective angiogram, where we discovered a new severe occlusion distally to the former stent; a second PES was implanted. Fourteen months after the second stenting, a new elective angiogram was performed without evidence of in-stent restenosis. After a 8-year follow-up since transplantation, the patient is free from dyspnea, angina, and adverse cardiovascular events. Our report suggests the efficacy of PES as ACAD treatment of the unprotected LMCA.

  11. Effects of Bolus and Continuous Nasogastric Feeding on Gastric Emptying, Small Bowel Water Content, Superior Mesenteric Artery Blood Flow, and Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Abeed H.; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L.; Costigan, Carolyn; Marciani, Luca; Macdonald, Ian A.; Bowling, Timothy E.; Lobo, Dileep N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to demonstrate the effect of continuous or bolus nasogastric feeding on gastric emptying, small bowel water content, and splanchnic blood flow measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the context of changes in plasma gastrointestinal hormone secretion. Background: Nasogastric/nasoenteral tube feeding is often complicated by diarrhea but the contribution of feeding strategy to the etiology is unclear. Methods: Twelve healthy adult male participants who underwent nasogastric intubation before a baseline MRI scan, received 400 mL of Resource Energy (Nestle) as a bolus over 5 minutes or continuously over 4 hours via pump in this randomized crossover study. Changes in gastric volume, small bowel water content, and superior mesenteric artery blood flow and velocity were measured over 4 hours using MRI and blood glucose and plasma concentrations of insulin, peptide YY, and ghrelin were assayed every 30 minutes. Results: Bolus nasogastric feeding led to significant elevations in gastric volume (P < 0.0001), superior mesenteric artery blood flow (P < 0.0001), and velocity (P = 0.0011) compared with continuous feeding. Both types of feeding reduced small bowel water content, although there was an increase in small bowel water content with bolus feeding after 90 minutes (P < 0.0068). Similarly, both types of feeding led to a fall in plasma ghrelin concentration although this fall was greater with bolus feeding (P < 0.0001). Bolus feeding also led to an increase in concentrations of insulin (P = 0.0024) and peptide YY (P < 0.0001), not seen with continuous feeding. Conclusion: Continuous nasogastric feeding does not increase small bowel water content, thus fluid flux within the small bowel is not a major contributor to the etiology of tube feeding-related diarrhea. PMID:25549202

  12. Main and accessory olfactory bulbs and their projections in the brain anticipate feeding in food-entrained rats.

    PubMed

    Caba, Mario; Pabello, Marcela; Moreno, Maria Luisa; Meza, Enrique

    2014-10-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) has a circadian clock independent of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but very little is known about the functional significance of its oscillations. The OB plays a major role in food intake as it contributes to the evaluation of the hedonic properties of food, it is necessary for a normal pattern of locomotor behavior and their ablation disrupts feeding patterns. Previously we demonstrated that OB of rabbit pups can be entrained by periodic nursing but it was not clear whether food was the entraining signal. Here we hypothesized that OB can be entrained by a food pulse during the day in adult rats under a restricted feeding schedule. Then we expect that OB will have a high activation before food presentation when animals show food anticipatory activity (FAA). To this aim we determined by immunohistochemistry the expression of FOS protein, as an indicator of neural activation, in the mitral and granular cell layers of the main and accessory OB. Additionally we also explored two of the OB brain targets, the piriform cortex (PC) and bed nuclei of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT), in three groups: ad libitum (ALF), restricted feeding (RF), and fasted rats after restricted feeding (RF-F). In ALF group FOS levels in both main and accessory OB were low during the day and high during the night at the normal onset of the increase of activity, in agreement with previous reports. On the contrary in RF and RF-F groups FOS was high at the time of FAA, just before food presentation, when animals are in a state of high arousal and during food consumption but was low during the night. In their brain targets, we observed a similar pattern as OB in all groups with the only difference being that FOS levels remained high during the night in RF-F group. We conclude that the OB is entrained by food restriction by showing high activation at the time of food presentation, which persists during fasting and impose a similar FOS pattern to the two brain targets

  13. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting in left main stem stenosis: outcomes, concerns and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Athanasopoulos, Leonidas V.

    2016-01-01

    Left main stem (LMS) disease is known to be a poor prognostic factor in terms of morbidity or mortality. Traditionally, it has been treated with constitution of bypass to provide required haemodynamic stability. We searched the literature for evidence on off-pump (OFP) surgery for treating this high-risk group of patients focusing in our review on postoperative outcomes, concerns and controversies. The majority of the studies identified showed favourable or equal outcomes of OFP when compared to conventional approach. All of the studies, apart from two, which showed lower incidence of postoperative deaths, demonstrated equal mortality rates. Stroke rates were found less in three studies. Less blood transfusions, inotropic use and length of study has been also demonstrated. The main concerns of OFP surgery are: haemodynamic instability and less complete revascularization. Main controversies are: same or favourable outcomes despite lower number of grafts with OFP surgery and less stroke rates despite manipulation of aorta with side-clamping. Despite these concerns and controversies OFP surgery has been proven to be feasible and safe as demonstrated by results from numerous studies. PMID:27942396

  14. Quantification of the main digestive processes in ruminants: the equations involved in the renewed energy and protein feed evaluation systems.

    PubMed

    Sauvant, D; Nozière, P

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of feeding systems for ruminants towards evaluation of diets in terms of multiple responses requires the updating of the calculation of nutrient supply to the animals to make it more accurate on aggregated units (feed unit, or UF, for energy and protein digestible in the intestine, or PDI, for metabolizable protein) and to allow prediction of absorbed nutrients. The present update of the French system is based on the building and interpretation through meta-analysis of large databases on digestion and nutrition of ruminants. Equations involved in the calculation of UF and PDI have been updated, allowing: (1) prediction of the out flow rate of particles and liquid depending on the level of intake and the proportion of concentrate, and the use of this in the calculation of ruminal digestion of protein and starch from in situ data; (2) the system to take into account the effects of the main factors of digestive interactions (level of intake, proportion of concentrate, rumen protein balance) on organic matter digestibility, energy losses in methane and in urine; (3) more accurate calculation of the energy available in the rumen and the efficiency of its use for the microbial protein synthesis. In this renewed model UF and PDI values of feedstuffs vary depending on diet composition, and intake level. Consequently, standard feed table values can be considered as being only indicative. It is thus possible to predict the nutrient supply on a wider range of diets more accurately and in particular to better integrate energy×protein interactions occurring in the gut.

  15. [Clinical aspects of arteriosclerotic stenosis of the left coronary artery main stem].

    PubMed

    Volth, L; Csapó, K; Mihóczy, L

    1991-06-23

    Authors have found 37 significant (greater than 50%) or severe (greater than 75%) cases of left main stem stenosis (LMS) (3.4%, 35 male and 2 female) during 1097 consecutive selective coronarography. Retrospective analysis of the clinical data of the 35 male pts. showed severe effort or resting anginal complaints in the 2/3 of the pts., however this was not in tight connection with the degree of the LMS stenosis or the number of associated peripheral coronary stenoses respectively, similar to the ischaemic disorders of the resting ECG. In the bycicle ergometry ECG data lone the double index showed statistically significant difference between the groups of less than or equal to 2 and 3 vessel diseases connected to the severe LMS. Myocardium scintigraphy was performed out in 6 pts., all of them has given positive result. They emphasise the necessarity of urgent revascularisation against the higher risk of the intervention because of the pour results of the medical treatment.

  16. Acute myocardial infarction due to left main coronary artery disease in men and women: does ST-segment elevation matter?

    PubMed Central

    Gutkowski, Wojciech; Raczyński, Grzegorz; Janion-Sadowska, Agnieszka; Gierlotka, Marek; Poloński, Lech

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gender-specific issues regarding ST-segment elevation (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) due to unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease were not sufficiently studied. We assessed the value of STEMI/NSTEMI initial classification on the management of men and women with acute MI due to critical stenosis or occlusion of the ULMCA. Material and methods The study group consisted of 643 consecutive patients with acute MI with the ULMCA as the infarct-related artery. Data derive from an ongoing, nationwide, multicenter, prospective, observational registry. Results Isolated ULMCA disease was more frequent in women and multivessel disease was more frequent in men in the NSTEMI group. The incidence of cardiogenic shock or pulmonary edema and cardiac arrest was higher in the STEMI group. Totally occluded ULMCA was more frequent in the STEMI group. Although the majority of patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), it was less frequently used in NSTEMI women and NSTEMI men. Although in-hospital and long-term mortality rates were higher in the STEMI group, there were no gender-related differences within groups. The initial ST-segment elevation was an independent predictor of in-hospital (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.14–4.91, p = 0.02) and 12-month (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.01–2.27, p = 0.045) mortality. Conclusions There were no gender-related differences in the management within the STEMI or NSTEMI group. Although acute myocardial infarction due to ULMCA disease is associated with high mortality in both genders, STEMI was a negative prognostic factor of in-hospital and 12-month mortality. Despite poor baseline characteristics and clinical presentation in women, female gender itself did not influence mortality. PMID:26788080

  17. Function and expression of ryanodine receptors and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors in smooth muscle cells of murine feed arteries and arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Westcott, Erika B; Goodwin, Erica L; Segal, Steven S; Jackson, William F

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that vasomotor control is differentially regulated between feed arteries and downstream arterioles from the cremaster muscle of C57BL/6 mice. In isolated pressurized arteries, confocal Ca2+ imaging of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) revealed Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ waves. Ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonists (ryanodine and tetracaine) inhibited both sparks and waves but increased global Ca2+ and myogenic tone. In arterioles, SMCs exhibited only Ca2+ waves that were insensitive to ryanodine or tetracaine. Pharmacological interventions indicated that RyRs are functionally coupled to large-conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BKCa) in SMCs of arteries, whereas BKCa appear functionally coupled to voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in SMCs of arterioles. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) antagonists (xestospongin D or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate) or a phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122) attenuated Ca2+ waves, global Ca2+ and myogenic tone in arteries and arterioles but had no effect on arterial sparks. Real-time PCR of isolated SMCs revealed RyR2 as the most abundant isoform transcript; arteries expressed twice the RyR2 but only 65% the RyR3 of arterioles and neither vessel expressed RyR1. Immunofluorescent localisation of RyR protein indicated bright, clustered staining of arterial SMCs in contrast to diffuse staining in arteriolar SMCs. Expression of IP3R transcripts and protein immunofluorescence were similar in SMCs of both vessels with IP3R1>>IP3R2>IP3R3. Despite similar expression of IP3Rs and dependence of Ca2+ waves on IP3Rs, these data illustrate pronounced regional heterogeneity in function and expression of RyRs between SMCs of the same vascular resistance network. We conclude that vasomotor control is differentially regulated in feed arteries vs. downstream arterioles. PMID:22331418

  18. Outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous coronary intervention with second-generation drug-eluting stents for patients with multivessel and unprotected left main coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Kyriacos; Lekakis, Ioannis; Nicolaides, Evagoras

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of percutaneous coronary intervention using second-generation drug-eluting stents with those of coronary artery bypass grafting among patients with multivessel disease and/or unprotected left main coronary artery disease in terms of mortality, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, and angina. Background: Although coronary artery disease is a leading cause of death in the Western world and in many developing countries, its optimal treatment is still a matter of controversy. Several studies have examined the clinical safety and efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention using first-generation drug-eluting stents over coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with multivessel disease and/or unprotected left main coronary artery disease. However, this study compared the efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention using second-generation drug-eluting stents to that of coronary artery bypass grafting for multivessel disease and/or unprotected left main coronary artery disease. Methods: This was a prospective single-center cohort study conducted from September 2012 to November 2014 at the Nicosia General Hospital. In total, 140 patients (94% men and 6% women) with chronic coronary artery disease undergoing revascularization with either percutaneous coronary intervention using second-generation drug-eluting stents or coronary artery bypass grafting were evaluated. We examined the differences in clinical outcomes between coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous coronary intervention at 1-year follow-up. Results: Percutaneous coronary intervention with second-generation drug-eluting stents as opposed to coronary artery bypass grafting resulted in similar rates of mortality (5.7% vs 11.4%, respectively; p = 0.135), myocardial infarction (0% vs 4.3%, respectively), repeat revascularization (4.3% vs 8.6%, respectively; p = 0.115) and angina (10% vs 18.6%, respectively; p = 0.153). Conclusion

  19. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... bowel - mesenteric; Dead gut - mesenteric; Atherosclerosis - mesenteric artery; Hardening of the arteries - mesenteric artery ... the aorta, the main artery from the heart. Hardening of the arteries occurs when fat, cholesterol, and ...

  20. α1-Adrenergic responsiveness in human skeletal muscle feed arteries: the impact of reducing extracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Ives, Stephen J; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Noyes, R Dirk; Morgan, R Garrett; Gifford, Jayson R; Park, Song-Young; Symons, J David; Richardson, Russell S

    2013-01-01

    Graded exercise results not only in the modulation of adrenergic mediated smooth muscle tone and a preferential increase in blood flow to the active skeletal muscle termed 'functional sympatholysis', but is also paralleled by metabolically induced reductions in pH. We therefore sought to determine whether pH attenuates α(1)-adrenergic receptor sensitivity in human feed arteries. Feed arteries (560 ± 31 μm i.d.) were harvested from 24 humans (55 ± 4 years old) and studied using the isometric tension technique. Vessel function was assessed using KCl, phenylephrine (PE), ACh and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) concentration-response curves to characterize non-receptor-mediated and receptor-mediated vasocontraction, as well as endothelium-dependent and -independent vasorelaxation, respectively. All concentration-response curves were obtained from (originally contiguous) vessel rings in separate baths with a pH of 7.4, 7.1, 6.8 or 6.5. Reduction of the pH, via HCl, reduced maximal PE-induced vasocontraction (pH 7.4 = 85 ± 19, pH 7.1 = 57 ± 16, pH 6.8 = 34 ± 15 and pH 6.5 = 16 ± 5% KCl(max)), which was partly due to reduced smooth muscle function, as assessed by KCl (pH 7.4 = 88 ± 13, pH 7.1 = 67 ± 8, pH 6.8 = 67 ± 9 and pH 6.5 = 58 ± 8% KCl(max)). Graded acidosis had no effect on maximal vasorelaxation. In summary, these data reveal that reductions in extracellular pH attenuate α(1)-mediated vasocontraction, which is partly explained by reduced smooth muscle function, although vasorelaxation in response to ACh and SNP remained intact. These findings support the concept that local acidosis is likely to contribute to functional sympatholysis and exercise hyperaemia by opposing sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction while not impacting vasodilatation.

  1. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of an aneurysm on a cervical aortic arch associated with an anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Charrot, Florent; Tarmiz, Amine; Glock, Yves; Léobon, Bertrand

    2010-02-01

    Cervical aortic arch (CAA) is a rare congenital anomaly. An aneurysm developed on a CAA is even rarer and a life threatening condition. We report the diagnosis and surgical treatment of an aneurysm on a CAA associated with an anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery. The surgical procedure consisted in the resection of the aneurysm, a direct aorto aortic anastomosis and a coronary artery bypass to the left anterior descending (LAD) artery with a good result at 11 months. This first case reported of an anomaly of a coronary artery origin associated with an aneurysm on a CAA, underlines the interest of a preoperative complete anatomical and functional diagnosis, to define an optimal intraoperative strategy.

  2. A Rare Case of Angina Pectoris with the Longest Ectopic Left Main Coronary Artery Arising from Right Sinus of Valsalva and a Prepulmonic Course

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vikas; Abdali, Nasar; Singh, Karandeep; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the morphoanatomical characteristics of the main trunk of the left coronary artery as well as its variations is cornerstone of hemodynamic, correct interpretation of coronary angiogram and for revascularization purpose. The left main coronary artery (LMCA) ranges from 3 to 6 mm in diameter and may be up to 10 to 15 mm in length in humans. We here report a case of the longest anomalous LMCA (56 mm) reported so far in a 35-year-old man with chronic stable angina arising from right sinus of valsalva as seen on conventional angiogram and multidetector computerized tomogram (MDCT). PMID:28182111

  3. Awake extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as bridge to recovery after left main coronary artery occlusion: a promising concept of haemodynamic support in cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Alozie, Anthony; Kische, Stephan; Birken, Thomas; Kaminski, Alexander; Westphal, Bernd; Nöldge-Schomburg, Gabriele; Ince, Hüseyin; Steinhoff, Gustav

    2014-10-01

    Cardiogenic shock following acute myocardial infarction is associated with high mortality rate. Different management concepts including fluid management, inotropic support, intra aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) mainly in mechanically ventilated patients have been used as cornerstones of management. However, success rates have been disappointing. Few reports suggested that ECMO when performed under circumvention of mechanical ventilation, may offer some survival benefits. We herein present our experience with the use of veno-arterial ECMO as bridge to recovery in an awake and spontaneously breathing patient after left main coronary artery occlusion complicated by cardiogenic shock.

  4. Pre-procedural combined coronary angiography and stress myocardial perfusion imaging using 320-detector CT in unprotected left main and ostial left anterior descending artery intervention.

    PubMed

    Ko, Brian S; Crossett, Marcus; Seneviratne, Sujith K

    2015-07-01

    Pre-procedural anatomic and functional coronary assessment plays a crucial role in selection of patients suitable for unprotected left main percutaneous coronary intervention. Combined coronary computed tomography angiography and adenosine stress computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging is a non-invasive technique which may provide this information. This is the first report describing its use to assist patient selection and procedural planning prior to elective left main and ostial left anterior descending artery coronary intervention.

  5. Successful recanalization of a left circumflex artery jailed with a polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent after coronary perforation during stent implantation in the left main bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Norimasa; Takahashi, Akihiko; Mizuguchi, Yukio; Yamada, Takeshi; Hata, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    An 88-year-old woman underwent emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to treat circulatory collapse with severe stenosis in the distal left main coronary artery (LMCA). After 3.5/18-mm stent deployment from the LMCA to the left anterior descending artery (LAD), coronary perforation occurred in the LAD ostium. Therefore, we implanted a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stent crossing over the left circumflex artery (LCX), and achieved successful hemostasis. Additional PCI was undertaken to recanalize the LCX. A Confienza 8-20 guidewire was able to penetrate the wall of the PTFE-covered stent, and coronary flow was successfully recovered after deployment of a 2.5/8-mm stent in the proximal LCX.

  6. Impacts of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. organic dairy production has increased to meet demand for organic milk. Organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices. Organic dairies in the Northeast U.S. have experimented with different forage and grain crops to maximize on-fa...

  7. Orexins depolarize rostral ventrolateral medulla neurons and increase arterial pressure and heart rate in rats mainly via orexin 2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shang-Cheng; Dai, Yu-Wen E; Lee, Yen-Hsien; Chiou, Lih-Chu; Hwang, Ling-Ling

    2010-08-01

    An injection of orexin A or B into the cisterna magna or the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), where bulbospinal vasomotor neurons are located, elevated arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR). We examined how orexins affected RVLM neurons to regulate cardiovascular functions by using in vitro recordings of neuronal activity of the RVLM and in vivo measurement of cardiovascular functions in rats. Orexin A and B concentration-dependently depolarized RVLM neurons. At 100 nM, both peptides excited 42% of RVLM neurons. Tetrodotoxin failed to block orexin-induced depolarization. In the presence of N-(2-methyl-6-benzoxazolyl)-N'-1, 5-naphthyridin-4-yl urea (SB-334867), an orexin 1 receptor (OX(1)R) antagonist, orexin A depolarized 42% of RVLM neurons with a smaller, but not significantly different, amplitude (4.9 +/- 0.8 versus 7.2 +/- 1.1 mV). In the presence of (2S)-1- (3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2(1H)-isoquinolinyl)-3,3-dimethyl-2-[(4-pyridinylmethyl)amino]-1-butanone hydrochloride (TCS OX2 29), an orexin 2 receptor (OX(2)R) antagonist, orexin A depolarized 25% of RVLM neurons with a significantly smaller amplitude (1.7 +/- 0.5 mV). Coapplication of both antagonists completely eliminated orexin A-induced depolarization. An OX(2)R agonist, [Ala(11),D-Leu(15)]-orexin B, concentration-dependently depolarized RVLM neurons. Regarding neuronal phenotypes, orexins depolarized 88% of adrenergic, 43% of nonadrenergic, and 36 to 41% of rhythmically firing RVLM neurons. Intracisternal TCS OX2 29 (3 and 10 nmol) suppressed intracisternal orexin A-induced increases of AP and HR, whereas intracisternal SB-334867 (3 and 10 nmol) had no effect on the orexin A-induced increase of HR but suppressed the orexin A-induced pressor response at 10 nmol. We concluded that orexins directly excite RVLM neurons, which include bulbospinal vasomotor neurons, and regulate cardiovascular function mainly via the OX(2)R, with a smaller contribution from the OX(1)R.

  8. STUDIES ON EXPERIMENTAL HYPERTENSION : IX. THE EFFECT ON BLOOD PRESSURE OF CONSTRICTION OF THE ABDOMINAL AORTA ABOVE AND BELOW THE SITE OF ORIGIN OF BOTH MAIN RENAL ARTERIES.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, H; Kahn, J R; Hanzal, R F

    1939-04-30

    Constriction of the aorta just above the origin of both main renal arteries invariably resulted in elevation of the carotid systolic and carotid mean pressure. The hypertension was not immediate, but developed in about the same time as after constriction of the main renal arteries (3). Constriction of the aorta just below the origin of both main renal arteries had no significant effect on the carotid systolic or carotid mean pressure. Since these results were first reported (1), Rytand (88, 89) has shown by an indirect method, namely, the demonstration of the development of cardiac hypertrophy, that hypertension in the upper part of the body can be produced in the rat by constriction of the aorta just above the origin of both main renal arteries. The immediate effect of constriction of the aorta either below or above the main renal arteries is a fall of blood pressure (femoral mean pressure) below the site of the clamp, the extent of the fall being directly dependent upon the degree of constriction of the aorta. Of particular interest is the eventual elevation of the femoral mean pressure above the normal in some animals with the aorta constricted or even occluded above the origin of the main renal arteries. This was most pronounced and persistent in those animals in which, in addition, the aorta below the origin of the renal arteries, and, in some animals, the main renal arteries, also were constricted. The most important factors which determined this elevation of blood pressure in the lower part of the body were probably increased flow of blood into the vascular bed below the clamp and peripheral vasoconstriction of renal and humoral origin, as in the case of the hypertension produced by constriction of the main renal arteries alone (2-86). Although elevation of the carotid systolic or carotid mean pressure occurred invariably within 24 to 48 hours after the constriction of the aorta above the site of origin of both main renal arteries, yet there was a tendency

  9. Pathologic aneurysmal dilation of the ascending aorta and dilation of the main pulmonary artery in patients with Kabuki syndrome: valve-sparing aortic root replacement.

    PubMed

    Dyamenahalli, Umesh; Abraham, Boban; Fontenot, Eudice; Prasad, Vinay; Imamura, Michiaki

    2007-01-01

    We report the aneurysmal dilation of the ascending aorta and the main pulmonary artery in 2 children with Kabuki syndrome. In 1 patient, there was progressive aneurysmal dilation of the ascending aorta necessitating aortoplasty. Histologic examination of the resected aorta revealed disrupted and fragmented elastic fibers in the medial layer, along with mucinous degeneration of the aortic wall. This is the first recognition and report of these findings as part of the Kabuki syndrome.

  10. A regulatory role for large vessels in organ circulation. Endothelial cells of the main renal artery modulate intrarenal hemodynamics in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Kon, V; Harris, R C; Ichikawa, I

    1990-01-01

    After arterial denudation by external rubbing of the left main renal artery, we assessed renal plasma flow rate (RPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in left and right kidneys of Munich-Wistar rats before and after intravenous infusion of acetylcholine (ACH), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), or nitroprusside (NP). In the right kidney RPF and/or GFR increased in response to both endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF)-dependent (i.e., ACH) and -independent vasodilators (i.e., ANP and NP); on average, RPF rose by 22 +/- 4% (P less than 0.005), 19 +/- 10% (P less than 0.005), and 37 +/- 12% (P greater than 0.05), respectively. By contrast, in the left kidney RPF failed to increase after ACH (falling by 23 +/- 10%, P less than 0.001) and rose only in response to ANP and NP. To further evaluate the main renal artery's contribution to renal vasodilation, ACH and another EDRF-dependent agent, histamine, were infused through a micropipette into either the proximal or distal portions of the endothelium-intact renal artery. Proximal infusion of ACH led to increases in RPF and GFR, on average by 8 +/- 2% (P less than 0.025) and 10 +/- 3% (P less than 0.01), while bypassing the arterial endothelium by distal infusion failed to increase RPF and GFR, which fell by 24 +/- 6% (P less than 0.025) and 22 +/- 6% (P less than 0.005), respectively. Similarly, proximal infusion of histamine increased RPF by 12 +/- 3% (P less than 0.05), while distal infusion was virtually without effects on plasma flow. Micropuncture study during intravenous ACH infusion revealed significantly higher afferent and efferent arteriolar resistances and lower ultrafiltration coefficients in denuded versus nondenuded kidneys. These data indicate that the main renal artery is a major regulator of renal blood flow and vascular resistances. Similar to other endothelium-derived substances, EDRF may be elaborated mainly by large vessels and may act on the downstream microcirculatory systems, which

  11. Effects of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations.

    PubMed

    Hoshide, A K; Halloran, J M; Kersbergen, R J; Griffin, T S; DeFauw, S L; LaGasse, B J; Jain, S

    2011-11-01

    United States organic dairy production has increased to meet the growing demand for organic milk. Despite higher prices received for milk, organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices over the past few years, which can make up one-third of variable costs. Market demand for milk has also leveled in the last year, resulting in some downward pressure on prices paid to dairy farmers. Organic dairy farmers in the Northeast United States have experimented with growing different forage and grain crops to maximize on-farm production of protein and energy to improve profitability. Three representative organic feed systems were simulated using the integrated farm system model for farms with 30, 120, and 220 milk cows. Increasing intensity of equipment use was represented by organic dairy farms growing only perennial sod (low) to those with corn-based forage systems, which purchase supplemental grain (medium) or which produce and feed soybeans (high). The relative profitability of these 3 organic feed systems was strongly dependent on dairy farm size. From results, we suggest smaller organic dairy farms can be more profitable with perennial sod-based rather than corn-based forage systems due to lower fixed costs from using only equipment associated with perennial forage harvest and storage. The largest farm size was more profitable using a corn-based system due to greater economies of scale for growing soybeans, corn grain, winter cereals, and corn silages. At an intermediate farm size of 120 cows, corn-based forage systems were more profitable if perennial sod was not harvested at optimum quality, corn was grown on better soils, or if milk yield was 10% higher. Delayed harvest decreased the protein and energy content of perennial sod crops, requiring more purchased grain to balance the ration and resulting in lower profits. Corn-based systems were less affected by lower perennial forage quality, as corn silage

  12. An anatomical study and ontogenetic explanation of 23 cases with variations in the main pattern of the human brachio-antebrachial arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Baeza, A; Nebot, J; Ferreira, B; Reina, F; Pérez, J; Sañudo, J R; Roig, M

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-three cases with variations in the brachio-antebrachial arterial pattern of the human upper limb are reported. According to the artery which showed a variation, 4 groups were recognised: (1) isolated persistence of the median artery; (2) high origin of the ulnar artery; (3) high origin of the radial artery; and (4) duplication of the brachial artery, either with or without anastomosis at the cubital fossa. In addition, in groups 2, 3 and 4 the median artery may have persisted. Based on these arterial variations an anatomical and embryological correlation was established from a morphogenetic pattern which is proposed as being normal. Thus the terminal branches of the superficial brachial artery take part in the development of the radial, ulnar and median arteries, joining with the trunks of deep origin of these arteries in the primitive axial artery. Regression of the superficial arterial segments located proximal to this anastomosis gives rise to the definitive arterial pattern. Either the total or partial persistence of the superficial arterial segments explains those cases of high origin of either the radial or ulnar arteries as well as the duplications of the brachial artery. We postulate that the persistence of the median artery is independent of the presence or absence of any other variation in the arterial pattern. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7592009

  13. Noninvasive identification of left main and triple vessel coronary artery disease: improved accuracy using quantitative analysis of regional myocardial stress distribution and washout of thallium-201

    SciTech Connect

    Maddahi, J.; Abdulla, A.; Garcia, E.V.; Swan, H.J.; Berman, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities of visual and quantitative analysis of stress redistribution thallium-201 scintigrams, exercise electrocardiography and exercise blood pressure response were compared for correct identification of extensive coronary disease, defined as left main or triple vessel coronary artery disease, or both (50% or more luminal diameter coronary narrowing), in 105 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Extensive disease was present in 56 patients and the remaining 49 had either less extensive coronary artery disease (n = 34) or normal coronary arteriograms (n = 15). Although exercise blood pressure response, exercise electrocardiography and visual thallium-201 analysis were highly specific (98, 88 and 96%, respectively), they were insensitive for identification of patients with extensive disease (14, 45 and 16%, respectively). Quantitative thallium-201 analysis significantly improved the sensitivity of visual thallium-201 analysis for identification of patients with extensive disease (from 16 to 63%, p less than 0.001) without a significant loss of specificity (96 versus 86%, p = NS). Eighteen (64%) of the 28 patients who were misclassified by visual analysis as having less extensive disease were correctly classified as having extensive disease by virtue of quantitative analysis of regional myocardial thallium-201 washout. When the results of quantitative thallium-201 analysis were combined with those of blood pressure and electrocardiographic response to exercise, the sensitivity and specificity for identification of patients with extensive disease was 86 and 76%, respectively, and the highest overall accuracy (0.82) was obtained.

  14. The 24 h pattern of arterial pressure in mice is determined mainly by heart rate‐driven variation in cardiac output

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Theodore W.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have systematically investigated whether daily patterns of arterial blood pressure over 24 h are mediated by changes in cardiac output, peripheral resistance, or both. Understanding the hemodynamic mechanisms that determine the 24 h patterns of blood pressure may lead to a better understanding of how such patterns become disturbed in hypertension and influence risk for cardiovascular events. In conscious, unrestrained C57BL/6J mice, we investigated whether the 24 h pattern of arterial blood pressure is determined by variation in cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, or both and also whether variations in cardiac output are mediated by variations in heart rate and or stroke volume. As expected, arterial pressure and locomotor activity were significantly (P < 0.05) higher during the nighttime period compared with the daytime period when mice are typically sleeping (+12.5 ± 1.0 mmHg, [13%] and +7.7 ± 1.3 activity counts, [254%], respectively). The higher arterial pressure during the nighttime period was mediated by higher cardiac output (+2.6 ± 0.3 mL/min, [26%], P < 0.05) in association with lower peripheral resistance (−1.5 ± 0.3 mmHg/mL/min, [−13%] P < 0.05). The increased cardiac output during the nighttime was mainly mediated by increased heart rate (+80.0 ± 16.5 beats/min, [18%] P < 0.05), as stroke volume increased minimally at night (+1.6 ± 0.5 μL per beat, [6%] P < 0.05). These results indicate that in C57BL/6J mice, the 24 h pattern of blood pressure is hemodynamically mediated primarily by the 24 h pattern of cardiac output which is almost entirely determined by the 24 h pattern of heart rate. These findings suggest that the differences in blood pressure between nighttime and daytime are mainly driven by differences in heart rate which are strongly correlated with differences in locomotor activity. PMID:25428952

  15. Main Trunk and Division Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusions: Differences in Recanalization Times, Number of Stent Retriever Passes and Clinical Outcomes: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Ihtesham A.; Maud, Alberto; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Rodriguez, Gustavo J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose In this article, we present our experience with the recanalization of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), we hypothesize that there are higher rates of recanalization with fewer stent retriever passes and better clinical outcomes in patients with division MCA occlusions. A more complex anatomy at the bifurcation may prevent a faster recanalization in main trunk MCA occlusions. Methods We retrospectively identified consecutive patients admitted with MCA occlusions who underwent mechanical thrombectomy using stent retrievers. We categorized patients into division MCA and main trunk MCA occlusions based on angiography. Variables were compared between the groups. We further analyzed patients with trunk MCA occlusions to identify reasons for delays in recanalization. Results There were 32 MCA occlusions that underwent mechanical thrombectomy and eligible for the analysis during the study period. Of those, 11 were main trunk MCA occlusions. Univariate analysis disclosed a trend toward a lower GP-to-recanalization time (p = 0.05) and a lower number of passes required for recanalization in division MCA occlusions. However, there was a significantly better outcome in patients with division MCA occlusion after multivariate analysis. Analyzing main trunk MCA occlusion data, we found that the need for more than one pass to achieve recanalization led to a trend toward a longer GP-to-recanalization time and a worse outcome. When the stent was placed in the dominant division, the chances of recanalization were significantly higher. Conclusions Division MCA occlusions have higher recanalization rates with fewer stent retriever passes and better clinical outcomes than main trunk MCA occlusions, likely due to a more favorable anatomy. Measures like placing the stent retriever in the dominant division may decrease recanalization times and improve clinical outcomes in main trunk MCA occlusions. PMID:27051403

  16. The influence of maternal lineages on social affiliations among humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) on their feeding grounds in the southern gulf of Maine.

    PubMed

    Weinrich, Mason T; Rosenbaum, Howard; Scott Baker, C; Blackmer, Alexis L; Whitehead, Hal

    2006-01-01

    Humpback whales on their feeding grounds in the Gulf of Maine typically form fluid fission/fusion groups of two to three individuals characterized by noncompetitive and, at times, cooperative behavior. Here we test the hypothesis that, despite the apparent absence of close kinship bonds, the fluid associations between feeding whales are influenced by "maternal lineages" as represented by mtDNA haplotypes. Using skin samples collected with a biopsy dart, variation in the hypervariable segment of the mtDNA control region identified 17 unique haplotypes among 159 individually identified whales from the southern Gulf of Maine. The haplotypes of a further 143 individuals were inferred from known direct maternal (cow-calf) relationships. The frequencies of associations among these 302 individuals were calculated from 21,617 sighting records collected from 1980 to 1995, excluding associations between a cow and her dependent calf. For groups of two where the haplotypes of both individuals were known (n = 3,151), individuals with the same haplotype were together significantly more often (26%) than expected by random association (20%). To account for different group sizes and associations with individuals of unknown haplotype and sex, we used Monte Carlo simulations to test for nonrandom associations in the full data set, as well as known female-only (n = 1,512), male-only (n = 730), and mixed-sex (n = 2,745) groups. Within-haplotype associations were significantly more frequent than expected at random for all groups (P = .002) and female-only groups (P = .011) but not male-only groups, while mixed-sex groups approached significance (P = .062). A Mantel test of individual pairwise association indices and haplotype identity confirmed that within-haplotype associations were more frequent than expected for all sex combinations except male-male associations, with females forming within-haplotype associations 1.7 times more often than expected by random assortment. Partial matrix

  17. Diagnostic Performance of Intravascular Ultrasound-Derived Minimal Lumen Area to Predict Functionally Significant Non-Left Main Coronary Artery Disease: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ho-Cheol; Bae, Jong Seok; Jin, Han-Young; Seo, Jeong-Sook; Yang, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Kyeong; Cho, Kyoung-Im; Kim, Bo-Hyun; Park, Yong Hyun; Je, Hyung-Gon; Kim, Dong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention frequently results in unnecessary stenting due to the low positive predictive value of IVUS-derived minimal lumen area (MLA) for identification of functionally significant coronary stenosis. We appraised the diagnostic accuracy of IVUS-derived MLA compared with the fractional flow reserve (FFR) to assess intermediate coronary stenosis. Subjects and Methods We searched MEDLINE and Cochrane databases for studies using IVUS and FFR methods to establish the best MLA cut-off values to predict significant non-left main coronary artery stenosis. Summary estimates were obtained using a random-effects model. Results The 17 studies used in our analysis enrolled 3920 patients with 4267 lesions. The weighted overall mean MLA cut-off value was 2.58 mm2. The pooled MLA sensitivity that predicted functionally significant coronary stenosis was 0.75 (confidence interval [CI]: 0.72 to 0.77) and the specificity was 0.66 (CI: 0.64 to 0.68). The positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 2.33 (CI: 2.06 to 2.63) and LR (-) was 0.33 (CI: 0.26 to 0.42). The pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 7.53 (CI: 5.26 to 10.76) and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve for all the trials was 0.782 with a Q point of 0.720. Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that an FFR cut-off point of 0.75 was associated with a four times higher diagnostic accuracy compared to that of 0.80 (relative DOR: 3.92; 95% CI: 1.25 to 12.34). Conclusion IVUS-derived MLA has limited diagnostic accuracy and needs careful interpretation to correlate with functionally significant non-left main coronary artery stenosis. PMID:27721852

  18. Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied by a Lumbar Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Han Myun; Kim, Hyo-Cheol Woo, Sungmin; Son, Kyu Ri; Cho, Seong Whi; Chung, Jin Wook

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo describe the radiologic findings and imaging response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) supplied by the lumbar artery.MethodsBetween April 2004 and December 2012, we encountered HCC supplied by a lumbar artery in 21 patients. Two investigators retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiological findings of HCC supplied by the lumbar artery using computed tomography (CT) scans and digital subtraction angiograms.ResultsPatients had received 1–27 sessions of previous chemoembolization procedures (mean 7.7 sessions, median 4 sessions). Mean tumor size was 5.3 cm. The locations of HCC supplied by lumbar artery were the bare area (n = 14, 67 %) and segment VI (n = 7, 33 %). Tumor-feeding arteries arose from the main lumbar artery (n = 7), proximal anterior division (n = 4), and distal anterior division (n = 14). In 20 patients, selective chemoembolization through the tumor-feeding arteries of the lumbar artery was achieved. In 1 patient, nonselective embolization at the main lumbar artery was performed. There was no complication such as skin necrosis or paralysis. On the first follow-up enhanced CT scan, target tumors fed by the lumbar artery showed complete response (n = 6), partial response (n = 4), stable disease (n = 3), and progressive disease (n = 8), but overall tumor response was partial response (n = 1) and progressive disease (n = 20).ConclusionWhen HCC is located in the inferior tip or bare area of the liver, a lumbar artery may supply the tumor. Although selective chemoembolization via the tumor-feeding vessel of the lumbar artery can be achieved in most cases, overall tumor response is commonly unfavorable.

  19. Abundance, distribution and population structure of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus in a springtime right whale feeding area in the southwestern Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wishner, Karen F.; Schoenherr, Jill R.; Beardsley, Robert; Chen, Changsheng

    Springtime aggregations of the planktivorous right whale ( Eubalaena glacialis) occur in the northern Great South Channel region of the southwestern Gulf of Maine, where they feed upon dense concentrations of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. This association was studied during the multidisciplinary South Channel Ocean Productivity Experiment (SCOPEX) in 1988 and 1989. The spatial and temporal variability of the abundance, geographic distribution, and population structure of these copepods were analyzed using data from 99 vertically-stratified or horizontally-sequenced MOCNESS plankton tows. Higher water column abundances and higher relative proportion of older copepod lifestages occurred near feeding whales compared to sites without whales, but total water column copepod biomass and Calanus abundance did not always differ between these types of locations. This suggests that the whales seek out aggregations of older copepod lifestages rather than simply the most dense aggregations. Other factors (and perhaps an element of chance) may influence which specific patches, among all patches potentially suitable in terms of copepod abundance and age composition, the whales utilize at a particular time. The times and locations of the highest Calansus water column abundances varied between years, as did the presence of feeding whales, probably because of year-to-year differences in the springtime temperature cycle and current strength. A temporal progression of lifestages occurred within the region in both years during the roughly 3-week duration of each survey, indicative of a growing rather than a diapausing population, at least up to the copepodite 4 (C4) stage. Due in part to a delay in the springtime warming in 1989 compared to 1988, the copepod development cycle, which is largely driven by in situ temperature, was delayed about 1-2 weeks in 1989. Peak abundances of younger Calanus were found in the northwestern part of the region each year, whereas peak abundances of

  20. Hg and Se capture and fly ash carbons from combustion of complex pulverized feed blends mainly of anthracitic coal rank in Spanish power plants

    SciTech Connect

    I. Surez-Ruiz; J.C. Hower; G.A. Thomas

    2007-01-15

    In this work, the petrology and chemistry of fly ashes produced in a Spanish power plant from the combustion of complex pulverized feed blends made up of anthracitic/meta-anthracitic coals, petroleum, and natural coke are investigated. It was found that the behavior of fly ash carbons derived from anthracitic coals follows relatively similar patterns to those established for the carbons from the combustion of bituminous coals. Fly ashes were sampled in eight hoppers from two electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows. The characterization of the raw ashes and their five sieved fractions (from {gt}150 to {lt}25 {mu}m) showed that glassy material, quartz, oxides, and spinels in different proportions are the main inorganic components. As for the organic fraction, the dominant fly ash carbons are anisotropic carbons, mainly unburned carbons derived from anthracitic vitrinite. The concentration of Se and Hg increased in ashes of the second ESP row, this increase being related to the higher proportion of anisotropic unburned carbons, particularly those largely derived from anthracitic vitrinite in the cooler ashes of the ESP (second row) and also related to the decrease in the flue gas temperature. This suggests that the flue gas temperature plays a major role in the concentration of mercury for similar ratios of unburned carbons. It was also found that Hg is highly concentrated in the medium-coarser fractions of the fly ashes ({gt} 45 {mu}m), there being a positive relationship between the amount of these carbons, which are apparently little modified during the combustion process, in the medium-coarse fractions of the ashes and the Hg retention. According to the results obtained, further research on this type of fly ash could be highly productive. 28 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. [Dynamic changes in arterial hypertension prevalence and their relation to the main risk factors among able-bodied newcomers in Iamalo-Nenetskiĭ autonomous region].

    PubMed

    Shesterikova, N V; Buganov, A A; Umanskaia, E L; Novokrestova, S V

    2003-01-01

    The frequency of arterial hypertension among non-native able-bodied unorganized population of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug was studied. Mean population index of the frequency was 31.0%. Important factors which promote arterial hypertension are excessive body mass, age, period of living in the Far North, psycho-emotional stress, unsatisfactory level of adaptation and its failure, dislipidemia.

  2. Selective and persistent deposition and gradual drainage of iodized oil, Lipiodol in the hepatocellular carcinoma after injection into the feeding hepatic artery

    SciTech Connect

    Okayasu, I.; Hatakeyama, S.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshimatsu, S.; Tsuruta, K.; Miyamoto, H.; Kimula, Y.

    1988-11-01

    The selective and long-term deposition of iodized oil in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its gradual drainage were clinicopathologically analyzed in 13 cases. All patients were Japanese and had an intrahepatic arterial injection of Lipiodol (LIP) mixed with Mitomycin C. The comparison among the follow-up computerized tomography (CT) findings, the observation of the soft x-ray radiogram, and histopathologic studies of the surgical or autopsy materials revealed that the selective deposition of LIP in HCC lasted for a long term, particularly in cases treated by LIP combined with transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). Also revealed was an extremely gradual decrease of LIP from the HCC. It was thus postulated that, mainly, the accumulated macrophages surrounding LIP around the necrotic cancer tissue and, partially, the intrahepatic lymphatic system itself contributed to this drainage. Further, in histologic sections with lipid staining, x-ray microanalysis proved that the lipid droplets in the cancer tissue included highly concentrated iodine, as a deposition of LIP.

  3. The effect of education based on the main concepts of logotherapy approach on the quality of life in patients after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mahdizadeh, Mostafa; Alavi, Mousa; Ghazavi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Improving the patients’ quality of life (QOL) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is one of the main concerns of the treatment team. Educational interventions may affect the aspects of QOL in various ways. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of education based on the main concepts of logotherapy approach on the CABG patients’ quality of life. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, a convenient sample of 67 patients who had undergone CABG in Isfahan Chamran hospital were randomly allocated to two groups of experimental (n = 35) and control (n = 32). While the control group received routine care, the experiment group benefitted from logotherapy-based education program (six 90-min sessions, twice a week). SF-36 questionnaire was completed by both two groups (before and 1 month after intervention). Descriptive and inferential statistical tests (consisting of independent t-test) were employed to analyze data in SPSS version 13. Results: The pre-test mean total score of SF-36 questionnaire and also the mean scores of its eight dimensions were not significantly different between the two groups. The post-test mean score change [Standard Error (SE)] in the intervention group was 24.95 (3) and in the control group was 9.27 (0.82). There were significant differences between the two groups (P < 0.001). Moreover, the mean scores of six dimensions of QOL (vitality, bodily pain, general health, emotional role, social functioning, and mental health) changed significantly in the intervention group. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that the intervention has improved the patients’ QOL after CABG. Integration of such an intervention in these patients’ rehabilitation programs is recommended. PMID:26985218

  4. Two-year clinical outcomes in stable angina and acute coronary syndrome after percutaneous coronary intervention of left main coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Dae Young; Jeong, Myung Ho; Sim, Doo Sun; Jeong, Yun Ah; Cho, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Min Chul; Kim, Hyun Kuk; Jeong, Hae Chang; Park, Keun Ho; Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Jun Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kang, Jung Chaee

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims This study appraised the long term clinical outcomes of patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease. There are limited data regarding long-term clinical outcomes after PCI for ULMCA disease. Methods From 2001 to 2011, a total of 448 patients who underwent PCI for ULMCA disease and had 2-year clinical follow-up, were analyzed. The study patients were divided into two groups: group I (stable angina pectoris [SAP], n = 60, 48 men, 62 ± 10 years) and group II (acute coronary syndrome [ACS], n = 388, 291 men, 64 ± 10 years). We evaluated clinical and angiographic characteristics and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during 2-year clinical follow-up. Results Mean age of studied patients was 64 ± 10 years with 339 male patients. Average stent diameter was 3.6 ± 0.4 mm and stent length was 19.7 ± 6.3 mm. Stent implantation techniques and use of intravascular ultrasound guidance were not different between two groups. In-hospital mortality was 0% in group I and 7% in group II (p = 0.035). One-month mortality was 0% in group I and 7.7% in group II (p = 0.968). Two-year survival rate was 93% in the group I and 88.4% in the group II (p = 0.921). Predictive factors for 2-year MACE were hypertension, Killip class ≥ 3, and use of intra-aortic balloon pump by multivariate analysis. Conclusions Although in-hospital mortality rate was higher in ACS than in SAP, clinical outcomes during 2-year clinical follow-up were similar between SAP and ACS after PCI of ULMCA. PMID:27756119

  5. Entomological indices, feeding sources, and molecular identification of Triatoma phyllosoma (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) one of the main vectors of Chagas disease in the Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Guiehdani; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando; de la Torre, Patricia; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Espinoza, Bertha

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an entomological analysis, determination of feeding sources, and molecular identification of triatomines in five communities of the Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca. The only found species in two of five searched communities (San Mateo del Mar and Tehuantepec City) was Triatoma phyllosoma. Colonization indices were high in both communities. In San Mateo del Mar, the insects were found indoors and in Tehuantepec City in peridomestic areas. The Trypanosoma cruzi infection indices were 2.1% in San Mateo del Mar and 39.4% in Tehuantepec City. This difference could be related to the high numbers of triatomine feeding on hens in the former community. In contrast, in Tehuantepec, dogs were the principal triatomine feeding sources. All nymphs and adults that were genetically analyzed belonged to the species T. phyllosoma. Low levels of genetic variation were found between vectors from both communities.

  6. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  7. Effect of sublethal α-cypermethrin exposure on main macromolecules concentration, energy content, and malondialdehyde concentration in free-feeding Danio rerio larvae.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Estrada, Jesús; Sobrino-Figueroa, Alma Socorro; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    α-Cypermethrin (Cyp) is a synthetic insecticide used to control pests in agricultural crops and to protect human health against noxious insects; this toxic can reach aquatic systems through ground infiltration or by runoff and could affect the aquatic biota. The present study was aimed at evaluating the acute toxicity of Cyp on zebrafish (Danio rerio) exogenous feeding larvae of 10 and 20 days post-fertilization (dpf), and of sublethal concentrations on only 10-dpf larvae. Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, glycogen concentration, and total energy contents, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) quantification, through thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, as a lipid peroxidation biomarker, were assessed in free-feeding larvae exposed to sublethal Cyp concentrations. The LC50 for 10-dpf larvae was 1.94 µg L(-1), and these were more sensitive than 20-dpf larvae (3.56 µg L(-1)). The amount of protein, carbohydrates, and glycogen were not significantly affected (p > 0.05), but sublethal Cyp concentrations exposure caused decrement in lipids from 9.05 to 3.74 µg larva(-1), as well as a reduction in MDA and in the total energy content, which affected significantly the development of this fish. Although Cyp is considered an insecticide of reduced residual effect in the environment, the present study revealed that relatively low Cyp concentrations produced significant toxic effects on exogenous feeding fish larvae, a situation that could contribute to increase deaths during this already critical developmental stage in which high mortality is observed frequently.

  8. Safety of Chemotherapeutic Infusion or Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied Exclusively by the Cystic Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Beomsik Kim, Hyo-Cheol Chung, Jin Wook Hur, Saebeom Joo, Seung-Moon Jae, Hwan Jun Park, Jae Hyung

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety of chemotherapeutic infusion or chemoembolization by way of the cystic artery in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) supplied exclusively by the cystic artery. Methods: Between Jan 2002 and Dec 2011, we performed chemotherapeutic infusion or chemoembolization using iodized oil for the treatment of 27 patients with HCC supplied exclusively by the cystic artery. Computed tomography (CT) scans, digital subtraction angiograms, and medical records were retrospectively reviewed by consensus. Results: The cystic artery originated from the main right hepatic artery in 24 (89 %) patients, from the right anterior hepatic artery in 2 (7 %) patients, and from the left hepatic artery in 1 (4 %) patient. Selective catheterization of the cystic artery was achieved in all patients. Superselection of tumor-feeding vessels from the cystic artery was achieved in 7 patients (26 %). Chemotherapeutic infusion was performed in 18 patients (67 %), and chemoembolization was performed in 9 patients (33 %). There were no major complications and only 2 minor complications, including vasovagal syncope and nausea with vomiting. Individual tumor response supplied exclusively by the cystic artery at the follow-up enhanced CT scan were complete response (n = 16), partial response (n = 3), and stable disease (n = 8). Conclusion: HCC supplied exclusively by the cystic artery can be safely treated without severe complications by chemotherapeutic infusion or chemoembolization using iodized oil through the cystic artery.

  9. Effects of cocaine on epicardial coronary artery reactivity in miniature swine after endothelial injury and high cholesterol feeding. In vivo and in vitro analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Egashira, K; Pipers, F S; Morgan, J P

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cocaine on vasoreactivity in the swine model. Eight miniature pigs underwent regional endothelial denudation of the left anterior descending coronary artery and were then fed a high cholesterol diet. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of coronary arteries was measured by quantitative angiography. Before denudation, intravenous cocaine (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) decreased CSA of epicardial vessels by 19-44%. At 3 mo after the denudation, the percent reduction in CSA of the denuded vessels induced by the 10 mg/kg dose was significantly augmented compared to nondenuded vessels (59 +/- 5% vs. 48 +/- 4%, P less than 0.05). Under in vitro conditions where isometric force of isolated ring segments was measured, methoxamine (an alpha 1 agonist) or BHT-920 (an alpha 2 agonist) produced similar degrees of contraction of denuded and control vessels; however, cocaine in concentrations up to 3 x 10(-3) M did not produce contraction. These responses were unaffected by removal of the endothelium. Histologically, myointimal thickening was noted at the denuded site. The present study demonstrates an enhanced vasoreactivity of atherosclerotic coronary arteries to cocaine in vivo, the mechanism of which appears to be mediated by endogenous vasoactive substances rather than by a direct action of cocaine on vascular smooth muscle. Images PMID:1918381

  10. Arterial insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common causes of arterial insufficiency is atherosclerosis or "hardening of the arteries." Fatty material (called ... Images Arteries of the brain Developmental process of atherosclerosis References Hansson GK, Hamsten A. Atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and ...

  11. Duplicated middle cerebral artery.

    PubMed

    Perez, Jesus; Machado, Calixto; Scherle, Claudio; Hierro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Duplicated middle cerebral artery (DMCA) is an anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery. The incidence DMCA is relatively law, and an association between this anomaly and cerebral aneurysms has been documented. There is a controversy whether DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is an important fact to consider in aneurysm surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old black woman who suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and the angiography a left DMCA, and an aneurysm in an inferior branch of the main MCA. The DMCA and the MCA had perforating arteries. The aneurysm was clipped without complications. The observation of perforating arteries in our patient confirms that the DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is very important to be considered in cerebral aneurysms surgery. Moreover, the DMCA may potentially serve as a collateral blood supply to the MCA territory in cases of MCA occlusion.

  12. Reduction in incomplete stent apposition area caused by jailed struts after single stenting at left main bifurcation lesions: micro-CT analysis using a three-dimensional elastic bifurcated coronary artery model.

    PubMed

    Hikichi, Yutaka; Umezu, Mitsuo; Node, Koichi; Iwasaki, Kiyotaka

    2017-01-01

    Stent struts protruding into ostial side branch called "jailed strut" at bifurcation lesions is a likely cause of thrombus formation. We aimed to investigate the influences of multiple kissing balloon inflation (KBI) for stent expansion, and stent platform design, respectively, on the reduction of incomplete stent apposition area (ISA area) caused by jailed struts at a side-branch ostium, using a three-dimensional elastic left main (LM) bifurcated coronary artery model. The referenced LM bifurcation angle data of 209 patients were stratified by tertiles focusing on the angle between the LM trunk (LMT) and left anterior descending artery (LAD). A bifurcation model was fabricated with angles of 129°, 122.2°, and 76.4° for LMT-LAD, LMT-left circumflex (LCx), and LAD-LCx, respectively, and with diameters of 5, 3.75, and 3.5 mm for LMT, LAD, and LCx, respectively; these diameters fulfill Murray's law. A 75 % stenosis was included along the LMT. One-time and three-time KBIs were conducted using two-link Nobori and three-link Xience Xpedition (n = 6 each). The ISA area was quantified using micro-CT. Three-time KBI was effective in reducing the ISA area compared with one-time KBI for both the Nobori (p = 0.05) and Xience Xpedition (p = 0.07). The ISA area was smaller in the Nobori than in the Xience Xpedition, both in one-time and three-time KBI (one-time KBI: p = 0.003; three-time KBI: p = 0.001). Our findings of this study on reducing the ISA area by focusing on an interventional technique and stent design may help to improve coronary bifurcation intervention for a possibly better long-term clinical outcome.

  13. Renal arteries (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A renal angiogram is a test used to examine the blood vessels of the kidneys. The test is performed ... main vessel of the pelvis, up to the renal artery that leads into the kidney. Contrast medium ...

  14. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... legs; Arterial insufficiency of the legs; Recurrent leg pain and cramping; Calf pain with exercise ... The main symptoms of PAD are pain, achiness, fatigue, burning, or ... or thighs. These symptoms most often appear during walking or ...

  15. Pulmonary atherosclerosis and pulmonary arterial pressure in cholesterol-fed New Zealand white rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, R; Suzuki, S; Miura, N; Miyahara, K

    2001-06-01

    The lung produces many vasoactive substances originating from its vascular endothelium and plays an important part in various pathose. The present study was carried out to clarify pulmonary atherosclerosis and pulmonary arterial pressure, and to elucidate a part of the pulmonary pathosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding the animals a cholesterol-rich diet. When the rabbits were fed the cholesterol-enriched diets for 15 weeks, the grade of the atherosclerosis was severer than in 8W-feeding rabbits. The lesions of 8W-feeding rabbits were mainly composed of foam cells and fibrous components, whereas in 15W-feeding rabbits, the aggregation of foam cells beneath the endothelium of the vessel was infiltrating the media and severe stenose of the lumen was observed. In the entire pulmonary arterial system, the severe obstructive vascular lesions were localized and not diffused. The pulmonary arterial pressures of the rabbits increased slightly with time and the mean pressures were 11.3+/-0.9 (control group), 11.8+/-1.0 (8W group) and 13.7+/-1.5 mmHg (15W group) respectively. A significant difference existed in the mean pressure between the control group and 15W-feeding group, but there were no significant differences in the systolic and diastolic pressures among the three groups. In conclusion, we could induce pulmonary atherosclerosis in rabbits by feeding them a hyper-cholesterol diet but not overt pulmonary hypertension.

  16. Current management of unprotected left main coronary artery disease: run-in survey of the RITMO (Registro Italiano sul Trattamento del tronco coMune non protettO) study.

    PubMed

    Sheiban, Imad; Sillano, Dario; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe G L; De Servi, Stefano; Tamburino, Corrado; Marzocchi, Antonio; Trevi, Gian Paolo; Moretti, Claudio

    2009-09-11

    The optimal approach for a significant unprotected left main coronary stenosis (ULM) is debated, in light of the recent progresses of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is still considered the first choice treatment. Randomized trials comparing PCI and CABG are ongoing, yet patient selection will considerably limit their clinical applicability. We thus designed a prospective multicenter registry which will include patients with ULM disease independently from the subsequent medical, interventional or surgical treatment: the RITMO Study (Registro Italiano sul Trattamento del tronco coMune non protettO). During the RITMO run-in phase, we conducted a systematic survey of Italian catheterization laboratories to define current management strategies for ULM. A total of 240 Italian catheterization laboratory were sent an email questionnaire on current practices for ULM, with 45 (19%) detailed replies, for a total of 61,370 annual coronary angiographies. Data provided from responders showed a 5% (95% interval: 2-16) prevalence of ULM, with 50% (9-99) of ULM treated surgically and 10% (0-81) treated percutaneously. In conclusion, treatment of ULM in Italy remains prevalently surgical, even if PCI is performed in a sizable portion of patients with ULM.

  17. Perioperative Feeding Approaches in Single Ventricle Infants: A Survey of 46 Centers.

    PubMed

    Slicker, Julie; Sables-Baus, Sharon; Lambert, Linda M; Peterson, Laura E; Woodard, Frances K; Ocampo, Elena C

    2016-12-01

    Background Feeding dysfunction occurs commonly in infants with single ventricle heart disease and impacts growth and long-term outcomes. Little evidence exists to guide safe feeding in this population. This study surveyed centers participating in the National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative to assess prevailing feeding practices amongthose caring for single ventricle neonates. Methods Web-based survey of 56 pediatric cardiac surgical centers was conducted. Questions addressed peri-operative feeding approaches and responses were presented and analyzed descriptively. Results Of 56 centers, 46 (82%) completed a survey. Preoperative feeding was common in single ventricle infants (30/46; 65%), routes varied. Centers who did not feed infants preoperatively cited the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (16/16; 100%), presence of umbilical artery catheter (12/16; 75%), and prostaglandin infusion (9/16; 56%) as main concerns. 67% of centers reported no specific vital sign thresholds for withholding enteral feedings. In the postoperative period, most centers used an "internal guideline" (21/46; 46%) or an "informal practice" (15/46; 33%) to determine feeding readiness. Approaches to findings were significantly different among centers. About 40% of centers did not send patients home with feeding tubes, and there was no clear consensus between preferred feeding tube modality at discharge. Conclusion Considerable variation exists in feeding practices for infants with single ventricle congenital heart disease among 46 centers participating in a quality improvement collaborative. Although most centers generally feed infants preoperatively, feeding practices remain center-specific. Variability continues in the immediate post-operative and interstage periods. Further opportunities exist for investigation, standardization and development of best-practice feeding guidelines.

  18. Absent or occult pulmonary artery.

    PubMed Central

    Presbitero, P; Bull, C; Haworth, S G; de Leval, M R

    1984-01-01

    Of 12 patients with angiographically absent pulmonary artery, 11 were investigated surgically. The previously occult pulmonary artery was found in 10 patients, in five of whom a vestige of an intrapericardial artery was present and in five the artery was patent only at the hilus, a gap existing between the main pulmonary artery and the hilar vessel, and no artery was found in one. All patients with an intrapericardial artery had right ventricular outflow tract obstruction and a ductus descending vertically from underneath the aortic arch. In those without an intrapericardial vessel the occult artery was on the side opposite the aortic arch, and there was evidence of a ductus coming from the innominate artery on the side of the interruption. The occult pulmonary artery, where identified at operation, was usually joined initially to the systemic circulation. Ultimately, continuity between the hilar and main pulmonary artery may be established surgically. Where no intrapericardial vessel exists, however, a conduit may be required to bridge the gap. It seems advisable to search for the occult artery as early in life as is feasible in the hope that providing a blood supply will ensure development of the vessel and normal lung growth. Images PMID:6743435

  19. Thromboembolism in pulmonary artery sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Farsad, Mohsen; Pernter, Patrizia; Triani, Antonio; Osele, Luzian; Wiedermann, Christian J

    2009-04-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma, although rare, must be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism. Clinically and radiologically, it may imitate pulmonary embolism, making diagnosis difficult and delaying treatment. Patients often have no symptom resolution despite therapeutic anticoagulation. Visualization of filling defects within a pulmonary artery on contrast-enhanced CT cannot reliably differentiate between pulmonary thromboembolism and malignant lesions like leiomyosarcoma. FDG PET-CT offers the potential for identification of malignant lesions. The authors report a case with pulmonary artery thromboembolism due to thrombi formed on a pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma. Integrated FDG PET-CT showed no FDG-uptake along the major part of the filling defect within the right main pulmonary artery suggesting blood clot and increased uptake along the posterior wall of the right main pulmonary artery and the left lower lobar artery suggesting malignancy.

  20. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ...

  1. Arterial Catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    ... The arterial catheter allows accurate, second-to-second measurement of the blood pressure; repeated meas- urement is ... pressure must be lowered gradually in steps, and measurements with an arterial catheter help guide the treatment. ■ ...

  2. Coronary Artery Fistula

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Figure 1A; oblique, Figure 1B), the left circumflex artery was identified by its black central lumen and noted to arise normally from the left main...but the mid left circumflex coronary artery was less well seen because of volume averaging with the left atrium and pulmonary venous confluence which...Figures 1C-D. Select oblique conventional x-ray views (C, early phase; D, late phase) from a coronary catheterization study following injection of

  3. Brachioradial arteries with anastomotic arteries connecting to brachial arteries bilaterally.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tong; Qiuhong, Dan; Haipeng, Cai

    2010-01-01

    We present a patient with a failed radial coronary angioplasty as a result of bilateral brachioradial arteries, the radial arteries anomalously originating from the axillary arteries. We review the literature concerning abnormal origins of the radial artery and propose the left ulnar artery as optimal access of choice in cases with a right brachioradial artery of relatively small size in its proximal part.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Coronary Arteries and Internal Mammary Arteries Beyond Physiological Deformations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    initiate intimal hyperplasia , which could eventually lead to stenosis of the anastomosis. Therefore it is important to know more about the mechanical...the case for the muscular coronary artery. Fig. 3 shows the typical stress-strain relationship in circumferential direction of one coronary artery at...coronary artery is an artery of the muscular type, which means that the media consists mainly of smooth muscle cells. The IMA is an elastic artery

  5. Arterial calcifications

    PubMed Central

    Rennenberg, Roger J M W; Schurgers, Leon J; Kroon, Abraham A; Stehouwer, Coen D A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Arterial calcifications as found with various imaging techniques, like plain X-ray, computed tomography or ultrasound are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The prevalence of arterial calcification increases with age and is stimulated by several common cardiovascular risk factors. In this review, the clinical importance of arterial calcification and the currently known proteins involved are discussed. Arterial calcification is the result of a complex interplay between stimulating (bone morphogenetic protein type 2 [BMP-2], RANKL) and inhibitory (matrix Gla protein, BMP-7, osteoprotegerin, fetuin-A, osteopontin) proteins. Vascular calcification is especially prevalent and related to adverse outcome in patients with renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. We address the special circumstances and mechanisms in these patient groups. Treatment and prevention of arterial calcification is possible by the use of specific drugs. However, it remains to be proven that reduction of vascular calcification in itself leads to a reduced cardiovascular risk. PMID:20716128

  6. Enteral feedings.

    PubMed

    Chernoff, R

    1980-01-01

    The benefits, equipment used, commercially available sources, and the indications and techniques for administration of enteral nutrients are reviewed. In many malabsorption states, enteral feeding is preferable and parenteral nutrients are seldom indicated. Transitional enteral nutrient support usually is indicated after parenteral nutrient therapy. Enteral tube-feeding formulas should be matched to the patient's needs; formulas using blenderized natural foods or intact isolated nutrients are appropriate for patients with intact gastrointestinal tracts. Patients should be monitored for glucosuria and hyperglycemia, bloating, nausea, dehydration, and renal, hepatic and hematologic status. Formula dilution, and a reduced flow rate or use of continuous-drip feeding, will reduce the incidence of osmotic diarrhea. The effectiveness, low cost and low potential for serious complications make enteral feeding preferable to parenteral nutrient therapy for many patients.

  7. Anomalous superficial ulnar artery based flap

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, C. V.; Kundagulwar, Girish K.; Prabha, Yadav S.; Dushyanth, Jaiswal

    2014-01-01

    Upper limb shows a large number of arterial variations. This case report describes the presence of additional superficial ulnar artery which was used to raise a pedicle flap to cover an arm defect thus avoided using the main vessel of the forearm - radial or ulnar artery. Vascular anomalies occurring in the arm and forearm tend to increase the likelihood of damaging the superficial anomalous arteries during surgery. Superficial ulnar or radial arteries have been described to originate from the upper third of the brachial artery; here we report the origin of the anomalous superficial ulnar artery originating from the brachial artery at the level of elbow with the concomitant presence of normal deep radial and ulnar arteries. PMID:24987217

  8. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Peripheral artery disease (PAD) refers to ... is peripheral artery disease treated? What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? Peripheral artery disease, or PAD, refers ...

  9. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast-feed more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring an adequate milk supply to combining breast-feeding and formula-feeding. By Mayo Clinic Staff If ...

  10. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    PubMed

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  11. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  12. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  13. Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Gangadharan, Venkat; Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Murtaza, Ghulam; Ponders, Michael; Teixeira, Otto; Paul, Timir

    2017-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman was seen with complaints of exertional chest pain and shortness of breath. Her medical history included atrial fibrillation and diabetes. Physical examination was unremarkable except for an irregular cardiac rhythm. Myocardial perfusion imaging revealed the presence of a large area of infarction involving the entire anterior and apical walls and part of the anteroseptal wall with minimal periinfarct ischemia. Computed tomography coronary angiogram revealed an anomalous left main coronary artery arising from the main pulmonary artery. Right and left heart catheterizations demonstrated moderate pulmonary hypertension with a slight step-up in oxygen saturation between the right ventricle and main pulmonary artery. Coronary angiography showed a large tortuous right coronary artery with collaterals to the left anterior descending artery that drained into the main pulmonary artery. She was referred for surgery. This case demonstrates a rare coronary artery anomaly in an adult where survival is dependent on collateral circulation. PMID:28210637

  14. Main Report

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition

  15. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of ...

  16. Use of the inferior epigastric artery to revascularize a lower pole renal artery in renal transplant.

    PubMed

    Young, J S; Rohr, M S

    1995-02-01

    The increasing use of living-related donors has increased the incidence wherein the transplant surgeon is required to use special vascular surgical techniques to transplant kidneys with anomalous arterial anatomy. One of the most commonly encountered arterial anomalies is the presence of a lower pole renal artery. In many cases, this artery can be anastomosed to the main renal artery, and the main renal artery can then be anastomosed into the recipient vessel. However, there are cases where the lower pole renal artery is too distant from the main renal artery to allow an anastomosis to be performed. The lower pole renal artery of the graft must be revascularized to avoid ischemic injury to the ureter. Thus, alternate methods for the revascularization of this vessel must be found. We describe the use of the recipient inferior epigastric artery as an arterial supply for the donor lower pole artery. In our case report, this method provided excellent flow to the lower kidney and was documented by later studies.

  17. Arterial embolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... for embolization (especially to the brain) is mitral stenosis . Endocarditis (infection of the inside of the heart) can also cause arterial emboli. A common source for an embolus is from areas of hardening (atherosclerosis) in the aorta and other large blood vessels. These clots can ...

  18. [Ageing of the arterial wall].

    PubMed

    Hanon, O

    2006-11-01

    Several mechanisms are implicated in the arterial wall changes due to ageing: ageing, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although the changes related to ageing (arteriosclerosis) have many factors in common with those induced by hypertension, they differ from those caused by atherosclerosis although commonly associated. Arteriosclerosis causes a diffuse increase of the rigidity of the large arteries by disease of the media, the main clinical manifestation of which is the increase in pulsed pressure. This arterial "hyperpulsability" contributes to a defect in coupling between the heart and the blood vessels which results in an increase in the pulsatile load of the left ventricle and to left ventricular hypertrophy and decreased coronary perfusion. Atherosclerosis seems more of a localised scarring phenomenon of the arterial wall which is exposed to a series of chronic aggressions characterised by deposits of lipids in the intima and whose main complication is thrombosis. Although these two processes may be associated, or interact one with the other, they are clearly different in nature. Therefore, atherosclerosis is a localised disease resulting in a decrease in arterial lumen, quite different from arteriosclerosis which is a diffuse, physiological condition which leads to an increase in the arterial lumen.

  19. Concurrent arterial aneurysms in brain arteriovenous malformations with haemorrhagic presentation

    PubMed Central

    Stapf, C; Mohr, J; Pile-Spellman, J; Sciacca, R; Hartmann, A; Schumacher, H; Mast, H

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of concurrent arterial aneurysms on the risk of incident haemorrhage from brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Methods: In a cross sectional study, 463 consecutive, prospectively enrolled patients from the Columbia AVM Databank were analysed. Concurrent arterial aneurysms on brain angiography were classified as feeding artery aneurysms, intranidal aneurysms, and aneurysms unrelated to blood flow to the AVM. Clinical presentation (diagnostic event) was categorised as intracranial haemorrhage proved by imaging or non-haemorrhagic presentation. Univariate and multivariate statistical models were applied to test the effect of age, sex, AVM size, venous drainage pattern, and the three types of aneurysms on the risk of AVM haemorrhage at initial presentation. Results: Arterial aneurysms were found in 117 (25%) patients with AVM (54 had feeding artery aneurysms, 21 had intranidal aneurysms, 18 had unrelated aneurysms, and 24 had more than one aneurysm type). Intracranial haemorrhage was the presenting symptom in 204 (44%) patients with AVM. In the univariate model, the relative risk for haemorrhagic AVM presentation was 2.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12 to 4.64) for patients with intranidal aneurysms and 1.88 (95% CI 1.14 to 3.08) for those with feeding artery aneurysms. In the multivariate model an independent effect of feeding artery aneurysms (odds ratio 2.11, 95% CI 1.18 to 3.78) on haemorrhagic AVM presentation was found. No significant effect was seen for intranidal and unrelated aneurysms. The attributable risk of feeding artery aneurysms for incident haemorrhage in patients with AVM was 6% (95% CI 1% to 11%). Conclusions: The findings suggest that feeding artery aneurysms are an independent determinant for increased risk of incident AVM haemorrhage. PMID:12185161

  20. Update in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mejía Chew, C R; Alcolea Batres, S; Ríos Blanco, J J

    2016-11-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare and progressive disease that mainly affects the pulmonary arterioles (precapillary), regardless of the triggering aetiology. The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension in Spain is estimated at 19.2 and 16 cases per million inhabitants, respectively. The diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension is based on haemodynamic criteria (mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25mmHg, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤15mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance >3 Wood units) and therefore requires the implementation of right cardiac catheterisation. Sequential therapy with a single drug has been used in clinical practice. However, recent European guidelines recommend combined initial therapy in some situations. This review conducts a critical update of our knowledge of this disease according to the latest guidelines and recommendations.

  1. Aquarius Main Structure Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eremenko, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D Observatory is a joint US-Argentine mission to map the salinity at the ocean surface. This information is critical to improving our understanding of two major components of Earth's climate system - the water cycle and ocean circulation. By measuring ocean salinity from space, the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission will provide new insights into how the massive natural exchange of freshwater between the ocean, atmosphere and sea ice influences ocean circulation, weather and climate. Aquarius is the primary instrument on the SAC-D spacecraft. It consists of a Passive Microwave Radiometer to detect the surface emission that is used to obtain salinity and an Active Scatterometer to measure the ocean waves that affect the precision of the salinity measurement. The Aquarius Primary Structure houses instrument electronics, feed assemblies, and supports a deployable boom with a 2.5 m Reflector, and provides the structural interface to the SAC-D Spacecraft. The key challenge for the Aquarius main structure configuration is to satisfy the needs of component accommodations, ensuring that the instrument can meet all operational, pointing, environmental, and launch vehicle requirements. This paper describes the evolution of the Aquarius main structure configuration, the challenges of balancing the conflicting requirements, and the major configuration driving decisions and compromises.

  2. The significance of medial sural artery integrity in popliteal artery trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tzilalis, V D; Georgiadis, G S; Papas, T T; Arvanitis, D P; Lazarides, M K

    2005-12-01

    Two patients with popliteal artery trauma who underwent secondary amputations due to refractory calf sepsis despite a patent arterial repair are presented in this case report. The medial sural artery, the main arterial supply of the medial head of the gastrocnemius, was surgically severed in both patients owing to the use of a continuous medial incision from the supra level to infragenicular level. The compromised arterial supply of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle may have contributed to the devitalization of the muscle and the subsequent calf sepsis, and it is speculated that this was related to the unfavorable outcome.

  3. An alternative technique for direct implantation of an anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery with complex coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Ishimaru, Kazuhiko; Araki, Kanta; Nakamura, Tsuneyuki; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    A 2-month-old patient with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) underwent an alternative repair involving coronary transfer with the bay window technique because of the very short left main coronary trunk. This procedure is a clinically relevant and feasible technique for ALCAPA with such a delicate coronary artery anomaly. PMID:27656197

  4. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  5. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection

    MedlinePlus

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Spontaneous coronary artery dissection — sometimes referred to as SCAD — is an ... the blood vessels in the heart. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) can slow or block blood flow ...

  6. Coronary artery fistula

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital heart defect - coronary artery fistula; Birth defect heart - coronary artery fistula ... A coronary artery fistula is often congenital, meaning that it is present at birth. It generally occurs when one of the ...

  7. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of anomalous coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Anitha; Keegan, Jennifer; Pennell, Dudley J

    2005-09-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of anomalous coronary arteries is a class I indication. The term anomalous coronary artery encompasses those with an abnormal origin (from the incorrect sinus, too-high or too-low from the correct sinus, or from the pulmonary artery) and/or number of ostia. Their clinical significance results from the increased risk of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death associated with those traversing an interarterial course between the aorta and main pulmonary artery/right ventricular outflow tract. In this article, we review the role and practice of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in this field.

  8. Supravalvular aortic stenosis after arterial switch operation.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Takuya; Koide, Masaaki; Kunii, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Kazumasa; Kanzaki, Tomohito; Ohashi, Yuko

    2016-07-01

    Supravalvular aortic stenosis as a late complication of transposition of the great arteries is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. We describe the case of a 14-year-old girl who developed supravalvular aortic stenosis as a late complication of the arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries. The narrowed ascending aorta was replaced with a graft. The right pulmonary artery was transected to approach the ascending aorta which adhered severely to the main pulmonary trunk, and we obtained a good operative field.

  9. Segmental arterial mediolysis.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Anil Kumar; Iqbal, Shams I; Liu, Raymond W; Rachamreddy, Niranjan; Kalva, Sanjeeva P

    2014-06-01

    Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is an uncommon, nonatherosclerotic, noninflammatory, large- to medium-sized arteriopathy first described in 1976. It is characterized histologically by vacuolization and lysis of the outer arterial media leading to dissecting aneurysms and vessel rupture presenting clinically with self-limiting abdominal pain or catastrophic hemorrhages in the abdomen. Patients of all ages are affected with a greater incidence at the fifth and sixth decades. There is a slight male predominance. Imaging findings overlap with inflammatory vasculitis, collagen vascular disease, and fibromuscular dysplasia. The presence of segmental dissections involving the celiac, mesenteric, and/or renal arteries is the key distinguishing features of SAM. Inflammatory markers, genetic tests for collagen vascular disorders, and hypercoagulable studies are negative. Anti-inflammatory agents and immunosuppressants are not effective. A mortality rate of 50 % has been attributed to the acute presentation with aneurysmal rupture necessitating urgent surgical or endovascular treatments; in the absence of the acute presentation, SAM is a self-limiting disease and is treated conservatively. There are no established guidelines on medical therapy, although optimal control of blood pressure is considered the main cornerstone of medical therapy. The long-term prognosis is not known.

  10. Peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Up to 20% of adults aged over 55 years have detectable peripheral arterial disease of the legs, but this may cause symptoms of intermittent claudication in only a small proportion of affected people. The main risk factors are smoking and diabetes mellitus, but other risk factors for cardiovascular disease are also associated with peripheral arterial disease. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for people with chronic peripheral arterial disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2010. Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review. We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 70 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiplatelet agents, bypass surgery, cilostazol, exercise, pentoxifylline, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), prostaglandins, smoking cessation, and statins. PMID:21477401

  11. Peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Up to 20% of adults aged over 55 years have detectable peripheral arterial disease of the legs, but this may cause symptoms of intermittent claudication in only a small proportion of affected people. The main risk factors are smoking and diabetes mellitus, but other risk factors for cardiovascular disease are also associated with peripheral arterial disease. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for people with chronic peripheral arterial disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2009. (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 59 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiplatelet agents; bypass surgery; cilostazol; exercise; pentoxifylline; percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA); prostaglandins; smoking cessation; and statins. PMID:19454099

  12. Hardening of the arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Atherosclerosis; Arteriosclerosis; Plaque buildup - arteries; Hyperlipidemia - atherosclerosis; Cholesterol - atherosclerosis ... cause of heart attack and stroke. High blood cholesterol levels can cause hardening of the arteries at ...

  13. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Hidden Coronary Artery-Unusual Type of Isolated Single Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shivanand; Ramalingam, Rangaraj; Manjunath, Cholenahally Nanjappa; Subramanyam, Kasamsetty

    2016-01-01

    Single coronary artery is a rare congenital coronary artery anomaly, the incidence of which is 0.024-0.066% as described in literature. Report of cases having single coronary artery along with acute myocardial infarction are scanty and reports of percutaneous intervention in such a situation are even fewer, technically challenging and potentially cataclysmic. As single coronary artery supplies the entire myocardium, occlusion of this can result in significant ischemic insult, resulting in severe biventricular dysfunction. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) of single coronary artery is technically challenging and carries high risk which may be equated to left main intervention. We report a rare interesting case of L1 variety of single coronary artery which presented as acute inferoposterior myocardial infarction with successful rescue PCI to Left Circumflex Artery (LCx). PMID:27656488

  14. Woven coronary artery: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kursaklioglu, Hurkan; Iyisoy, Atila; Celik, Turgay

    2006-10-26

    Woven coronary artery is an extremely rare and clearly undefined coronary malformation. Up to now, very few cases have been reported. In this anomaly, epicardial coronary artery are branched into thin channels at any segment of the coronary artery and then these longitudinal twisted thin channels merge again as the main coronary lumen. This anomaly is regarded as a benign condition since there is completely normal blood flow after the distal segment of the abnormal coronary artery. In this case report, we present a 48-year-old male patient with a woven coronary artery anomaly in the circumflex artery and who had been followed up for 5 years.

  15. Arterial Vascularization of the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Vazquez, N; Ungerfeld, R

    2016-06-01

    Based on gross dissection of fifteen adult animals (11 females, 4 males), we described the arterial supply of the stomach and intestines of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), a South American endangered species. The coeliac artery emitted the splenic, left gastric and hepatic arteries. The splenic artery directed towards the spleen, and the right ruminal artery, which is its only collateral directed towards the stomach, being the main artery of the rumen. The left gastric artery gave origin to the left ruminal, the reticular and the left gastroepiploic arteries. The left gastroepiploic artery originated the reticular accessory artery. Both arteries, gastric and left gastroepiploic, anastomosed their right counterparts derived from the hepatic artery on the curvatures of the abomasum. The cranial mesenteric artery irrigated the second half of the duodenum until the beginning of the descending colon. The thickest branch emitted by the cranial mesenteric artery was the ileocolic artery, which was destined to the ascending colon, caecum and ileum. The colic branches and the right colic arteries were irradiated on the right surface of the spiral loop of the ascending colon and distributed to both centripetal and centrifugal coils of the ascending colon; the colic branches were also anastomosed with the last jejunals and ileals and with the right colic arteries. There were no variations in the origin of any of the main branches derived from the coeliac and cranial mesenteric arteries. This species had a basic pattern of arterial distribution similar to small domestic ruminants.

  16. Carotid artery anatomy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are four carotid arteries, two on each side of the neck: right and left internal carotid arteries, and right and left external carotid arteries. The carotid arteries deliver oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the head and brain.

  17. Rudimentary coronary artery in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Durán, A C; Arqué, J M; Fernández, B; Fernández, M C; Fernández-Gallego, T; Rodríguez, C; Sans-Coma, V

    2009-08-01

    Congenital underdevelopment of one or more main branches of the coronary arteries has been reported in man, but not in non-human mammals. In man, this defective coronary artery arrangement may cause myocardial ischaemia and even sudden death. The main goal of this study was to describe the coronary artery distribution patterns associated with the presence of a markedly underdeveloped (rudimentary) coronary artery in Syrian hamsters. Moreover, an attempt was made to explain the morphogenesis of these patterns, according to current knowledge on coronary artery development. Eleven affected hamsters belonging to a laboratory inbred family were examined by means of internal casts of the heart, great arterial trunks and coronary arteries. The aortic valve was tricuspid (normal) in seven hamsters and bicuspid in the other four. A rudimentary coronary artery arose from the right side of the aortic valve in four specimens, from the left side of the aortic valve in a further three, and from the dorsal aortic sinus in the remaining four. In all cases, a second, well-developed coronary artery provided for all the coronary blood flow. Except for the existence of a rudimentary coronary artery, the present anomalous coronary artery distribution patterns are similar to coronary artery patterns reported in Syrian hamsters, dogs and humans in association with a solitary coronary ostium in aorta. We suggest that an unusual prolonged time interval in the development of the embryonic coronary stems might be a key factor in the formation of coronary arteries displaying significantly dissimilar developmental degrees.

  18. Arterial stick

    MedlinePlus

    ... a fluid portion (plasma) and a cellular portion. Plasma contains substances dissolved in the fluid. The cellular portion is made up mainly of red blood cells, but it also includes white blood cells and ...

  19. Vapor resistant arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

  20. Significance of Main Pulmonary Artery Dilation on Imaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Timothy E.; Khabbaza, Joseph E.; Yadav, Ruchi

    2014-01-01

    Proper and early identification of patients who harbor serious occult illness is the first step in developing a disease-management strategy. Identification of illnesses through the use of noninvasive techniques provides assurance of patient safety and is ideal. PA dilation is easily measured noninvasively and is due to a variety of conditions, including pulmonary hypertension (PH). The clinician should be able to thoroughly assess the significance of PA dilation in each individual patient. This involves knowledge of the ability of PA dilation to accurately predict PH, understand the wide differential diagnosis of causes of PA dilation, and reverse its life-threatening complications. We found that although PA dilation is suggestive of PH, data remain inconclusive regarding its ability to accurately predict PH. At this point, data are insufficient to place PA dilation into a PH risk-score equation. Here we review the causes and complications of PA dilation, define normal and abnormal PA measurements, and summarize the data linking its association to PH, while suggesting an algorithm designed to assist clinicians in patient work-up after recognizing PA dilation. PMID:25406836

  1. Arteries of the brain in wild European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Brudnicki, Witold; Nowicki, Włodzimierz; Skoczylas, Benedykt; Brudnicki, Adam; Kirkiłło-Stacewicz, Krzysztof; Wach, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Research into the pattern and variation of brain arteries in wild rabbit involved 43 brains. The main source of blood supply to the brain in rabbit are vertebral arteries and the basilar artery, formed as a result of their anastomosis, as well as internal carotid arteries the branches of which form the arterial circle of the brain. Variation in descent concerns mostly the pattern of descent of middle cerebral arteries, in 36.5% they were multiple vessels. The caudal communicating arteries in wild rabbit constituted a symmetrical anastomosis of internal carotid arteries and caudal cerebral arteries. They stabilized an even blood supply to all parts of the brain. The caudal cerebral arteries constituted the terminal branches of the basilar artery. A comparison of the blood supply to the brain in wild rabbit and domestic rabbit described by WILAND (1968) revealed lower variation in the arteries in the wild form than in the domestic rabbit.

  2. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Large Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm with Mechanically Detachable Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Toshiya Fujimoto, Yukinori; Jin, Myeong Jun; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2004-03-15

    Large aneurysms (5.5 and 3.6 cm in diameter) arising from the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery located just near the main superior mesenteric artery were incidentally diagnosed in two patients. Transcatheter arterial embolization, packing mechanically detachable coils and microcoils into the aneurysms, was performed while the inflated balloon catheter was placed near the neck of the aneurysms. The procedures were successfully performed and no aneurysmal rupture or bowel ischemia was noted during follow-up. Balloon-assisted transcatheter arterial embolization with mechanically detachable coils seems to be an effective and safe treatment for large inferior pancreaticoduodenal aneurysms.

  3. Pulmonary artery dilatation: an overlooked mechanism for angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Ginghina, Carmen; Popescu, Bogdan A; Enache, Roxana; Ungureanu, Catalina; Deleanu, Dan; Platon, Pavel

    2008-07-01

    Dilatation of the pulmonary artery may lead to the compression of adjacent structures. Of those, the extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery is the most worrisome. We present the case of a 48-year-old woman who was diagnosed with pulmonary artery dilatation due to severe, thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. She also had angina and coronary angiography revealed a 70% ostial stenosis of the left main coronary artery. The presence of this isolated lesion in a young woman without risk factors for atherosclerosis suggests extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery by the dilated pulmonary artery as the likely mechanism. The patient underwent direct stenting of the left main coronary stenosis with a good result.

  4. Single Coronary Artery with Aortic Regurgitation

    SciTech Connect

    Katsetos, Manny C. Toce, Dale T.

    2003-11-15

    An isolated single coronary artery can be associated with normal life expectancy; however, patients are at an increased risk of sudden death. A case is reported of a 54-year-old man with several months of chest pressure with activity. On exercise Sestamibi stress testing, the patient developed a hypotensive response with no symptoms and minimal electrocardiographic changes. Nuclear scanning demonstrated reversible septal and lateral perfusion defects consistent with severe ischemia. Coronary angiography revealed a single coronary artery with the right coronary artery arising from the left main. There were high-grade stenotic lesions in the left anterior descending and circumflex arteries with only moderate atherosclerotic disease in the right coronary artery. An aortogram showed 2-3+ aortic regurgitation, with an ejection fraction of 45% on ventriculography. The patient underwent four-vessel revascularization and aortic valve replacement and did well postoperatively.

  5. Pulmonary artery sarcoma mimicking pulmonary thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Celik, Gökhan; Ciledağ, Aydin; Yüksel, Cabir; Yenigün, Bülent Mustafa; Kutlay, Hakan; Yazicıoğlu, Levent; Perçinel, Sibel; Kaya, Akin

    2011-01-01

    A 30 years old male patient was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism due to thorax-computerized tomography (CT) angiography, revealing a thrombus totally occluding left main pulmonary artery. The lesion was evaluated as tumoural mass. Positron emission tomography (PET)-CT revealed pathologic uptake at pulmonary artery mass. Due to localization of tumour, left pneumonectomy was performed. The pathological diagnosis revealed to be pulmonary artery sarcoma. The patient was presented because pulmonary artery sarcomas are very rare tumors and can mimick pulmonary thromboembolism. The true prevalence is underestimated as many pulmonary artery sarcomas are misdiagnosed as pulmonary thromboembolism. PET-CT may help to make a differential diagnosis.

  6. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians.

  7. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  8. Numerical simulations of the blood flow through vertebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Jozwik, Krzysztof; Obidowski, Damian

    2010-01-19

    Vertebral arteries are two arteries whose structure and location in human body result in development of special flow conditions. For some of the arteries, one can observe a significant difference between flow rates in the left and the right arteries during ultrasonography diagnosis. Usually the reason of such a difference was connected with pathology of the artery in which a smaller flow rate was detected. Simulations of the flow through the selected type of the vertebral artery geometry for twenty five cases of artery diameters have been carried out. The main aim of the presented experiment was to visualize the flow in the region of vertebral arteries junction in the origin of the basilar artery. It is extremely difficult to examine this part of human circulation system, thus numerical experiments may be helpful in understanding the phenomena occurring when two relatively large arteries join together to form one vessel. The obtained results have shown that an individual configuration and diameters of particular arteries can exert an influence on the flow in them and affect a significant difference between flow rates for vertebral arteries. It has been assumed in the investigations that modelled arteries were absolutely normal, without any pathology. In the numerical experiment, the non-Newtonian model of blood was employed.

  9. Brachiomedian artery (arteria brachiomediana) revisited: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Kachlik, David; Konarik, Marek; Riedlova, Jitka; Baca, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews in detail the superficial brachiomedian artery (arteria brachiomediana superficialis), a very rare variant of the main arterial trunks of the upper limb. It branches either from the axillary artery or the brachial artery, descends superficially in the arm (similar to the course of the superficial brachial artery) and continues across the cubital fossa, runs superficially in the forearm, approaches the median nerve and enters the carpal canal to reach the hand. It usually terminates in the superficial palmar arch. The first drawing was published, in 1830, and the first description was published, in 1844. Altogether, to our knowledge, only 31 cases of a true, superficial brachiomedian artery have been reported (Some cases are incorrectly reported as superficial brachioradiomedian artery or superficial brachioulnomedian artery). Based on a meta-analysis of known, available studies, the incidence is 0.23% in Caucasians and 1.48% in Mongolians. Knowing whether or not this arterial variant is present is important in clinical medicine and relevant for: The catheterization via the radial or ulnar artery; harvesting the vascular pedicle for a forearm flap based on the radial, ulnar or superficial brachiomedian arteries; the possible collateral circulation in cases of the arterial closure; and the surgical management of carpal tunnel syndrome. Its presence can elevate the danger of an injury to the superficially located variant artery or of an accidental injection. PMID:27131025

  10. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied by the Right Lumbar Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Yamashiro, Masashi; Okuda, Miho; Yoshie, Yuichi; Sugimori, Natsuki; Igarashi, Saya; Nakashima, Yoshiko; Matsui, Osamu

    2010-02-15

    This study evaluated the clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) supplied by the right lumbar artery. Eleven patients with HCC supplied by the right lumbar artery were treated with chemoembolization. The patients' medical records were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent 6.7 {+-} 3.7 (mean {+-} SD) chemoembolization sessions, and the hepatic arterial branches were noted as being attenuated. The right inferior phrenic artery (IPA) was also embolized in 10 patients. The interval between initial chemoembolization and chemoembolization of the lumbar artery supply was 53.2 {+-} 26.9 months. Mean tumor diameter was 3.1 {+-} 2.4 cm and was located at the surface of S7 and S6. The feeding-branch arose proximal to the bifurcation of the dorsal ramus and muscular branches (n = 8) or from the muscular branches (n = 3) of the right first (n = 10) or second lumbar artery (n = 1). The anterior spinal artery originated from the tumor-feeding lumbar artery in one patient. All feeders were selected, and embolization was performed after injection of iodized oil and anticancer drugs (n = 10) or gelatin sponge alone in a patient with anterior spinal artery branching (n = 1). Eight patients died from tumor progression 10.1 {+-} 4.6 months later, and two patients survived 2 and 26 months, respectively. The remaining patient died of bone metastases after 32 months despite liver transplantation 10 months after chemoembolization. The right lumbar artery supplies HCC located in the bare area of the liver, especially in patients who undergo repeated chemoembolization, including chemoembolization by way of the right IPA. Chemoembolization by way of the right lumbar artery may be safe when the feeder is well selected.

  11. Feeding tube - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  12. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  13. Goldenhar Syndrome Associated with Extensive Arterial Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Modica, Renee Frances; Barbeau, L. Daphna Yasova; Co-Vu, Jennifer; Beegle, Richard D.; Williams, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Goldenhar Syndrome is characterized by craniofacial, ocular and vertebral defects secondary to abnormal development of the 1st and 2nd branchial arches and vertebrae. Other findings include cardiac and vascular abnormalities. Though these associations are known, the specific anomalies are not well defined. We present a 7-month-old infant with intermittent respiratory distress that did not improve with respiratory interventions. Echocardiogram suggested a double aortic arch. Cardiac CT angiogram confirmed a right arch and aberrant, stenotic left subclavian artery, dilation of the main pulmonary artery, and agenesis of the left thyroid lobe. Repeat echocardiograms were concerning for severely dilated coronary arteries. Given dilation, a rheumatologic workup ensued, only identifying few weakly positive autoantibodies. Further imaging demonstrated narrowing of the aorta below the renal arteries and extending into the common iliac arteries and proximal femoral arteries. Given a physical exam devoid of rheumatologic findings, only weakly positive autoantibodies, normal inflammatory markers, and presence of the coronary artery dilation, the peripheral artery narrowings were not thought to be vasculitic. This case illustrates the need to identify definitive anomalies related to Goldenhar Syndrome. Although this infant's presentation is rare, recognition of specific vascular findings will help differentiate Goldenhar Syndrome from other disease processes. PMID:26688769

  14. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a process called atherosclerosis ...

  15. Carotid artery surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100124.htm Carotid artery surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... out of 4 Overview There are four carotid arteries, with a pair located on each side of ...

  16. Peripheral artery bypass - leg

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007394.htm Peripheral artery bypass - leg To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Peripheral artery bypass is surgery to reroute the blood supply ...

  17. Coronary Artery Bypass

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Aneurysm Repair Balloon Angioplasty and Stents Carotid Artery Angioplasty and Stents Carotid Endarterectomy Catheter Ablation Heart ... Limited-Access Heart Surgery Maze Surgery Pacemakers Radial Artery Access Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization Valve Repair or Replacement ...

  18. Uterine artery embolization - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000161.htm Uterine artery embolization - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had uterine artery embolization (UAE). UAE is a procedure to treat ...

  19. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  20. Retinal artery occlusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... These blockages are more likely if there is hardening of the arteries ( atherosclerosis ) in the eye. Clots ... Blindness and vision loss Blood clots Diabetes Glaucoma Hardening of the arteries High blood cholesterol levels High ...

  1. Radial Artery Catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the radial artery for cardiac catheterization procedures. Advantages of Radial Artery Catheterization Any catheter placement into ... walk, and eat immediately. This is a particular advantage for patients with back problems because there is ...

  2. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... sites within the artery. This process is called atherosclerosis. Carotid arteries that are clogged with plaques are ... at greater risk of high blood pressure and atherosclerosis. High blood-fat levels. High levels of low- ...

  3. What Is Peripheral Artery Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Peripheral Artery Disease? Peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.) is ... that affects blood flow to the legs. Normal Artery and Artery With Plaque Buildup The illustration shows ...

  4. [Anomalous left coronary artery origin from the pulmonary artery causing angina: Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Ugalde P, Héctor; Rozas A, Sebastián; Sanhueza F, María Ignacia; Yubini L, María Cecilia; García B, Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    Anomalies of the origin of coronary arteries are detected in 0.5-1.5% of all angiographies. Anomalous origin of the left main trunk is the most uncommon and its origin from pulmonary artery in adults is exceptional, usually because it is associated with a short survival. We report a 49-year-old female, presenting with a two months history of angina. The exercise electrocardiogram suggested ischemia. A coronary angiography was performed, showing the absence of the left main trunk in the left coronary sinus, a dilated right coronary artery, with no lesions and extensive collateral circulation to the anterior descending and circumflex arteries, with inverted flow and the left main trunk draining to the pulmonary artery. The left ventricle was mildly dilated with middle and apical anterior hypokinesia. Global systolic function was conserved. A surgical correction was decided, occluding the left main anomalous origin and performing a coronary artery bypass grafting from the left internal thoracic artery. The patient was discharged with no complications. At two years of follow-up she is symptom free and has a normal physical capacity.

  5. Arterial supply to the bleeding diverticulum in the ascending duodenum treated by transcatheter arterial embolization- a duodenal artery branched from the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery.

    PubMed

    Sanda, Hiroki H; Kawai, Nobuyuki N; Sato, Morio M; Tanaka, Fumihiro F; Nakata, Kouhei K; Minamiguchi, Hiroki H; Nakai, Motoki M; Sonomura, Tetsuo T

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of endoscopically unmanageable hemorrhagic diverticulum in the ascending duodenum. The ventral and dorsal walls of the ascending duodenum were supplied from the first jejunal artery (1JA) and inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (IPDA), respectively. The hemorrhage mainly occurred from IPDA. The abruptly branching of IPDA from superior mesenteric artery enabled successful catheterization of the IPDA with an angled microcatheter. Hemostasis was obtained by embolization using n-butyl cyanoacrylate. Gastroendoscopy depicted a duodenal hemi-circumferential ulcer. No symptoms related to hemorrhage were found at the last follow-up at 12 months.

  6. Feeding Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulton, Suzanne; Sexton, David

    1996-01-01

    Presents a digest of basic developmental information about children's feeding skills and behaviors, and gives general feeding recommendations. Also addresses requirements for feeding children with developmental disabilities and chronic medical conditions for which adapted environments or monitored nutrient intake may be necessary. (ET)

  7. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... If your child has an NG tube, try to keep your child from touching or pulling on the tube. After your nurse teaches you how to flush the tube ...

  8. ACUTE RETINAL ARTERIAL OCCLUSIVE DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2011-01-01

    The initial section deals with basic sciences; among the various topics briefly discussed are the anatomical features of ophthalmic, central retinal and cilioretinal arteries which may play a role in acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders. Crucial information required in the management of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the length of time the retina can survive following that. An experimental study shows that CRAO for 97 minutes produces no detectable permanent retinal damage but there is a progressive ischemic damage thereafter, and by 4 hours the retina has suffered irreversible damage. In the clinical section, I discuss at length various controversies on acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders. Classification of acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders These are of 4 types: CRAO, branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), cotton wools spots and amaurosis fugax. Both CRAO and BRAO further comprise multiple clinical entities. Contrary to the universal belief, pathogenetically, clinically and for management, CRAO is not one clinical entity but 4 distinct clinical entities – non-arteritic CRAO, non-arteritic CRAO with cilioretinal artery sparing, arteritic CRAO associated with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and transient non-arteritic CRAO. Similarly, BRAO comprises permanent BRAO, transient BRAO and cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO), and the latter further consists of 3 distinct clinical entities - non-arteritic CLRAO alone, non-arteritic CLRAO associated with central retinal vein occlusion and arteritic CLRAO associated with GCA. Understanding these classifications is essential to comprehend fully various aspects of these disorders. Central retinal artery occlusion The pathogeneses, clinical features and management of the various types of CRAO are discussed in detail. Contrary to the prevalent belief, spontaneous improvement in both visual acuity and visual fields does occur, mainly during the first 7 days. The incidence of spontaneous visual

  9. Chagas disease and breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Norman, Francesca F; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-10-01

    Chagas disease (infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi) is a major parasitic disease of the Americas and one of the main neglected tropical diseases. Although various routes of transmission sre recognized, the risk for transmission of the infection through breast-feeding has not clearly been established. We reviewed the literature on transmission of T. cruzi through breast-feeding to provide breast-feeding mothers with Chagas disease with medical guidance. Although data from animal studies and human studies are scarce, we do not recommend that mothers with Chagas disease discontinue breast-feeding, unless they are experiencing the acute phase of the disease, reactivated disease resulting from immunosuppression, or bleeding nipples. In these cases, thermal treatment of milk before feeding the infant may be considered.

  10. Chagas Disease and Breast-feeding

    PubMed Central

    López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease (infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi) is a major parasitic disease of the Americas and one of the main neglected tropical diseases. Although various routes of transmission sre recognized, the risk for transmission of the infection through breast-feeding has not clearly been established. We reviewed the literature on transmission of T. cruzi through breast-feeding to provide breast-feeding mothers with Chagas disease with medical guidance. Although data from animal studies and human studies are scarce, we do not recommend that mothers with Chagas disease discontinue breast-feeding, unless they are experiencing the acute phase of the disease, reactivated disease resulting from immunosuppression, or bleeding nipples. In these cases, thermal treatment of milk before feeding the infant may be considered. PMID:24050257

  11. Jet pump assisted artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  12. Renal artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    González, J; Esteban, M; Andrés, G; Linares, E; Martínez-Salamanca, J I

    2014-01-01

    A renal artery aneurysm is defined as a dilated segment of renal artery that exceeds twice the diameter of a normal renal artery. Although rare, the diagnosis and incidence of this entity have been steadily increasing due to the routine use of cross-sectional imaging. In certain cases, renal artery aneurysms may be clinically important and potentially lethal. However, knowledge of their occurrence, their natural history, and their prognosis with or without treatment is still limited. This article aims to review the recent literature concerning renal artery aneurysms, with special consideration given to physiopathology, indications for treatment, different technical options, post-procedure complications and treatment outcomes.

  13. Extracranial vertebral artery intervention.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Debabrata; Pineda, Guillermo

    2007-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is the commonest cause of vertebral artery stenosis and has a predilection for the origin and proximal section of the extracranial portion of the vessel and also the intracranial portion of the vessel. Although it has generally been thought that extracranial vertebral artery (ECVA) disease has a more benign outcome compared to intracranial vertebral artery disease, significant occlusive disease of the proximal vertebral artery is the primary cause of vertebral artery ischemia in a significant proportion of patients. We focus on the interventional management of patients with proximal ECVA disease in this article.

  14. Transradial artery coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Kiemeneij, F; Laarman, G J; de Melker, E

    1995-01-01

    This study explored the feasibility and safety of percutaneous coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA) with miniaturized PTCA equipment via the radial artery. Coronary angioplasty (PTCA) via the femoral or brachial arteries may be associated with rare vascular complications such as bleeding and damage to the artery and adjacent structures. It was postulated that PTCA via the radial artery with miniaturized angioplasty equipment is feasible and that no major puncture site-related complications occur because hemostasis is obtained easily and because no major structures are near the radial artery. With double blood supply to the hand, radial artery occlusion is well tolerated. In 100 patients with collateral blood supply to the right hand, PTCA was attempted with 6F guiding catheters and rapid-exchange balloon catheters for exertional angina (87 patients) or nonexertional angina (13 patients). Angioplasty was attempted in 122 lesions (type A n = 67 [55%], Type B n = 37 [30%], and type C n = 18 [15%]). Pre- and post-PTCA computerized quantitative coronary analysis was performed. Radial artery function and structure were assessed clinically and with Doppler and two-dimensional ultrasound on the day of discharge. Coronary catheterization via the radial artery was successful in 94 patients (94%). The 6 remaining patients had successful PTCA via the femoral artery (n = 5) or the brachial artery (n = 1). Procedural success (120 of 122 lesions) was achieved in 92 patients (98%) via the radial artery and in 98 patients of the total study population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Simultaneous thrombosis of multiple coronary arteries in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kalayci, Arzu; Arslan, Erol; Bakar, Salih Murat; Guneri, Mahmut; Dizman, Rafet; Kivanc, Eylem; Karabay, Can Yucel

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of simultaneous coronary thrombosis of the left main, the left anterior descending artery and the right coronary artery in a patient, recently diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:27489603

  16. Pioneer F/G feed movement mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer F/G spacecraft achieves the desired earth-pointing direction through a system requiring the shifting of the main antenna feed 1 in. off axis. The feed is pivoted to this position by an electrically heated thermal actuator consisting of an electroless nickel bellows in a copper housing and filled with Freon 21. The actuator overtravels and maintains the feed in the offset position in a thermostatic limit cycle operation mode until commanded off. The mechanism is expected to operate in a -240 F environment near Jupiter and was successfully tested at such temperatures.

  17. Robotic milking: Feeding strategies and economic returns.

    PubMed

    Bach, Alex; Cabrera, Victor

    2017-02-16

    Cows in herds equipped with conventional milking parlors follow a structured, consistent, and social milking and feeding routine. Furthermore, in most cases cows in conventional herds receive all their nutrients from a total mixed ration, whereas in herds equipped with robotic or automatic milking systems (AMS) a fraction of their nutrients is provided during milking, mainly as a means to attract cows to the milking system. In this regards, AMS present both a challenge and an opportunity for feeding cows. The main challenge resides in maintaining a minimum and relatively constant milking frequency in AMS. However, milking frequency is dependent on many factors, including the social structure of the herd, the farm layout design, the type of traffic imposed to cows, the type of flooring, the health status of the cow (especially lameness, but also mastitis, metritis, among others), the stage of lactation, the parity, and the type of ration fed at the feed bunk and the concentrate offered in the AMS. Uneven milk frequency has been associated with milk losses and increased risk of mastitis, but most importantly it is a lost opportunity for milking the cow and generating profit. On the other hand, the opportunity from AMS resides in the possibility of milking more frequently and feeding cows more precisely or more closely to their nutrient needs on an individual basis, potentially resulting in a more profitable production system. But, feeding cows in the parlor or AMS has many challenges. On one side, feeding starchy, highly palatable ingredients in large amounts may upset rumen fermentation or alter feeding behavior after milking, whereas feeding high-fiber concentrates may compromise total energy intake and limit milking performance. Nevertheless, AMS (and some milking parlors, especially rotary ones) offer the possibility of feeding the cows to their estimated individual nutrient needs by combining different feeds on real time with the aim of maximizing profits rather

  18. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Vakil, Himanshu B.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  19. Fiber Optic Feed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-06

    Naval Research Laboratory IIK Washington, DC,20375 5000 NRL Memorandum Report 6741 0 N Fiber Optic Feed DENZIL STILWELL, MARK PARENT AND LEw GOLDBERG...SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Fiber Optic Feed 53-0611-A0 6. AUTHOR(S) P. D. Stilwell, M. G. Parent, L. Goldberg 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) This report details a Fiber Optic Feeding

  20. Xenon Feed System Progress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    From - To) 13-06-2006 Technical Paper 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F04611-00-C-0055 Xenon Feed System Progress (Preprint) 5b. GRANT...propulsion xenon feed system for a flight technology demonstration program. Major accomplishments include: 1) Utilization of the Moog...successfully fed xenon to a 200 watt Hall Effect Thruster in a Technology Demonstration Program. The feed system has demonstrated throttling of xenon

  1. FEED FORWARD EQUATIONS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    and feed forward stabilization) have been implemented. An on-mount gyro system consists of gyroscopes mounted on the radar antenna which sense...antenna motion and send compensating signals back to the antenna servo mechanism. Feed forward stabilization consists of determining antenna angular rates...caused by ships attitude changes, as measured by a stable platform (such as SINS), and feeding compensating signals back to the antenna servo

  2. The Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, C.S.

    1992-11-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector is a new 150 GeV proton synchrotron, designed to replace the Main Ring and improve the high energy physics potential of Fermilab. The status of the Fermilab accelerator complex upgrade will be discussed.

  3. VLBI2010 Feed Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a feed that simultaneously has high efficiency over the full 2.2-14 GHz frequency range. The simultaneity requirement implies that the feed must operate at high efficiency over the full frequency range without the need to adjust its focal position to account for frequency dependent phase centre variations. Two feeds meet this specification: The Eleven Feed developed at Chalmers University. (For more information, contact Miroslav Pantaleev, miroslav.pantaleev@chalmers.se. The Eleven Feed, integrated with LNA's in a cryogenic receiver, is available as a product from Omnisys Instruments, info@omnisys.se). The Quadruple Ridged Flared Horn (QRFH) developed at the California Institute of Technology. (For more information please contact Ahmed Akgiray, aakgiray@ieee.org or Sander Weinreb, sweinreb@caltech.edu) Although not VLBI2010 compliant, two triband S/X/Ka feeds are also being developed for the commissioning of VLBI2010 antennas, for S/X observations during the VLBI2010 transition period, and to support X/Ka CRF observations. The two feeds are: The Twin Telescopes Wettzell (TTW) triband feed developed by Mirad Microwave. (For more information please contact Gerhard Kronschnabl, Gerhard.Kronschnabl@bkg.bund.de) The RAEGE (Spain) triband feed developed at Yebes Observatory. (For more information please contact Jose Antonio Lopez Perez, ja.lopezperez@oan.es)

  4. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  5. Maldevelopment of conotruncal and aorto-pulmonary septum with absent left central pulmonary artery: anatomical and clinical implications.

    PubMed Central

    Schulze-Neick, I.; Hausdorf, G.; Lange, P. E.

    1994-01-01

    In a patient with pulmonary valve atresia with hypoplastic main pulmonary artery selective angiography showed absence of the central left pulmonary artery and a right pulmonary artery originating from the ascending aorta close to the left coronary artery. This unusual anatomical arrangement complicates interventional and surgical treatment. Images PMID:8297705

  6. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; PTA - peripheral artery - discharge; Angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - peripheral artery- discharge; PAD - PTA discharge; PVD - PTA discharge

  7. Palmar artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Shutze, Ryan A.; Liechty, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Aneurysms of the hand are rarely encountered and more rarely reported. The least common locations of these aneurysms are the palmar and digital arteries. The etiologies of these entities are quite varied, although they usually present as a pulsatile mass. Following a thorough evaluation, including arterial anatomic imaging, they should be repaired. The reported results following repair have been good. Herein we report a girl with a spontaneous palmar artery aneurysm and its management. PMID:28127131

  8. Congenital Giant Right Coronary Artery to Pulmonary Artery Fistula and Congenital Left Main Coronary Artery Atresia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ya-Hui; Zou, Hai

    2016-02-01

    Both of congenital giant RCA, RCA to PA fistula, and CLMCA-A are one of exceedingly rare vascular abnormalities. We present the case of a 34-year-old man with multiple congenital coronary anomalies above, and a successful surgical intervention was proceeded for our patient.This is a case of a 34-year-old man presented with apical systolic murmur and exertional chest pain. Furthermore, a dilated left heart and abnormal pulmonary blood flow was observed in this patient. Coronary CTA and selective CAG showed a 15-mm diameter RCA with a fistula to pulmonary trunk and CLMCA-A. During cardiac surgery, the coronary abnormalities were confirmed and the outlet of the fistula was closed. After surgery, less chest pain, respiratory infection, and left heart failure were observed in this patient.This case illustrates that the surgery of closing the fistula between the giant RCA and pulmonary trunk could improve the symptoms and signs for this patient. It could be predicted that simplified operation could be a promising therapy for patient with giant RCA to PA fistula and CLMCA-A. Moreover, CABG should be taken full account of when myocardial ischemia was found in the blood-supply area of LAD.

  9. Chemoembolization Via Branches from the Splenic Artery in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyo-Cheol Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Ji Dae; Kim, Gyoung Min; Lee, In Joon; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the radiologic findings and imaging response of chemoembolization via branches of the splenic artery in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: From January 2001 to July 2010, we observed tumor staining supplied by branches of the splenic artery in 34 (0.6%) of 5,413 patients with HCC. Computed tomography (CT) scans and digital subtraction angiograms of these patients were retrospectively reviewed in consensus by two investigators. Results: A total of 39 tumor feeding-vessels in 34 patients were identified: omental branches from the left gastroepiploic artery (n = 5), branches from the short gastric artery (n = 9), and omental branches directly from the splenic artery (n = 25). Branches of the splenic artery that supplied tumors were revealed on the celiac angiogram in 29 (85%) of 34 patients and were detected on pre-procedure CT images in 27 (79%) of 34 patients. Selective chemoembolization was achieved in 38 of 39 tumor-feeding vessels. Complete or partial response of the tumor fed by branches of the splenic artery, as depicted on follow-up CT scans, was achieved in 21 (62%) patients. No patient developed severe complications directly related to chemoembolization via branches of the splenic artery. Conclusions: Omental branches directly from the splenic artery are common tumor-feeding vessels of the splenic artery in cases of advanced HCC with multiple previous chemoembolizations. Tumor-feeding vessels of the splenic artery are usually visualized on the celiac angiogram or CT scan, and chemoembolization through them can be safely performed in most patients.

  10. Arterial waveform analysis.

    PubMed

    Esper, Stephen A; Pinsky, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    The bedside measurement of continuous arterial pressure values from waveform analysis has been routinely available via indwelling arterial catheterization for >50 years. Invasive blood pressure monitoring has been utilized in critically ill patients, in both the operating room and critical care units, to facilitate rapid diagnoses of cardiovascular insufficiency and monitor response to treatments aimed at correcting abnormalities before the consequences of either hypo- or hypertension are seen. Minimally invasive techniques to estimate cardiac output (CO) have gained increased appeal. This has led to the increased interest in arterial waveform analysis to provide this important information, as it is measured continuously in many operating rooms and intensive care units. Arterial waveform analysis also allows for the calculation of many so-called derived parameters intrinsically created by this pulse pressure profile. These include estimates of left ventricular stroke volume (SV), CO, vascular resistance, and during positive-pressure breathing, SV variation, and pulse pressure variation. This article focuses on the principles of arterial waveform analysis and their determinants, components of the arterial system, and arterial pulse contour. It will also address the advantage of measuring real-time CO by the arterial waveform and the benefits to measuring SV variation. Arterial waveform analysis has gained a large interest in the overall assessment and management of the critically ill and those at a risk of hemodynamic deterioration.

  11. Buckling instability in arteries.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Rebecca M

    2015-04-21

    Arteries can become tortuous in response to abnormal growth stimuli, genetic defects and aging. It is suggested that a buckling instability is a mechanism that might lead to artery tortuosity. Here, the buckling instability in arteries is studied by examining asymmetric modes of bifurcation of two-layer cylindrical structures that are residually stressed. These structures are loaded by an axial force, internal pressure and have nonlinear, anisotropic, hyperelastic responses to stresses. Strain-softening and reduced opening angle are shown to lower the critical internal pressure leading to buckling. In addition, the ratio of the media thickness to the adventitia thickness is shown to have a dramatic impact on arterial instability.

  12. Single Umbilical Artery

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, J. David; McKee, James

    1964-01-01

    A prospective study of 2000 obstetrical deliveries was undertaken to establish the incidence of single umbilical artery in the newborn and the frequency of congenital malformations reported to be associated with this disorder. Twenty cases of single umbilical artery were discovered; two proved to have an associated congenital malformation. In neither of these cases was medical management affected by the discovery of a single artery. In addition, the vascular arrangement in the cords of 31 concurrently occurring congenitally malformed babies was examined, and in no instance was a single umbilical artery found. PMID:14214230

  13. The Arteries of the Brain in Hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778).

    PubMed

    Brudnicki, Witold; Kirkiłło-Stacewicz, Krzysztof; Skoczylas, Benedykt; Nowicki, Włodzimierz; Jabłoński, Ryszard; Brudnicki, Adam; Wach, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Research into course and variability of brain arteries in hare were performed on 38 adult hares of both sexes (males 23 and females 15). The arteries were filled with a synthetic latex at a constant pressure introduced with a medical syringe to the left ventricle. The source of blood supply to the brain was internal carotid arteries, whose branches formed an arterial circle of the brain, vertebral arteries, and basilar artery as the result of its anastomosis. Variability focused on a method of departure of middle cerebral arteries, which were multiple vessels in 39.5% of cases and rostral cerebellar arteries. Caudal communicating arteries in hare comprised bilateral anastomosis of internal carotid arteries and final branches of the basilar artery. It stabilized the steady flow of blood to all parts of the brain. Caudal cerebral arteries comprised final branches of the basilar artery. The largest capacity of all the arteries of the brain was observed in the main trunk of the basilar artery. The capacity of these vessels was 4.53 mm(3) on average. The factor of capacity of cerebral arteries in relation to weight of the brain reaches a high value in hare.

  14. Feed up, Feedback, and Feed Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    "Feeding up" establishes a substantive line of inquiry that compels learners to engage in investigation and inquire. It also forms the basis for the assessments that follow. Once students understand the purpose and begin to work, they receive "feedback" that is timely and scaffolds their understanding. Based on their responses, the teacher gains a…

  15. By-Product Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By-product feeds are generated from the production of food, fiber, and bio-energy products for human consumption. They include plant feedstuffs such as hulls, stalks, peels, and oil seed meals, and animal by-products such as blood meal, fats, bone meal, or processed organ meats. Some feed by-product...

  16. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  17. Testing Feeds for Salmonella.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human salmonellosis outbreaks have been linked to contamination of animal feeds. Thus it is crucial to employ sensitive Salmonella detection methods for animal feeds. Based on a review of the literature, Salmonella sustains acid injury at about pH 4.0 to5.0. Low pH can also alter the metabolism of S...

  18. Tube Feeding Transition Plateaus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    2007-01-01

    The journey children make from tube feeding to oral feeding is personal for each child and family. There is a sequence of predictable plateaus that children climb as they move toward orally eating. By better understanding this sequence, parents and children can maximize the development, learning, enjoyment and confidence at each plateau. The…

  19. Sensory suppression during feeding

    PubMed Central

    Foo, H.; Mason, Peggy

    2005-01-01

    Feeding is essential for survival, whereas withdrawal and escape reactions are fundamentally protective. These critical behaviors can compete for an animal's resources when an acutely painful stimulus affects the animal during feeding. One solution to the feeding-withdrawal conflict is to optimize feeding by suppressing pain. We examined whether rats continue to feed when challenged with a painful stimulus. During feeding, motor withdrawal responses to noxious paw heat either did not occur or were greatly delayed. To investigate the neural basis of sensory suppression accompanying feeding, we recorded from brainstem pain-modulatory neurons involved in the descending control of pain transmission. During feeding, pain-facilitatory ON cells were inhibited and pain-inhibitory OFF cells were excited. When a nonpainful somatosensory stimulus preactivated ON cells and preinhibited OFF cells, rats interrupted eating to react to painful stimuli. Inactivation of the brainstem region containing ON and OFF cells also blocked pain suppression during eating, demonstrating that brainstem pain-modulatory neurons suppress motor reactions to external stimulation during homeostatic behaviors. PMID:16275919

  20. Development of Wideband Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, Hideki; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Sekido, Mamoru; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2015-08-01

    Wideband feeds have developed for Kashima 34m antenna and new 2.4m portable VLBI antennas. Prototypes of the wideband feeds are multimode horns, first one was set on 34m in the end of 2013, and then replaced next one with 6.5-15.0GHz receiving frequency. Now, a new feed for 3.2GHz-14.4GHz will be installed in 2.4m and 34m antennas in this spring, which are named NINJA feed, because of its design flexibility in beam shpae. Next, IGUANA feed is now under design and fabrication, which is aimed for 2.2-22GHz and covers VGOS(VLBI2010) specification. This has coaxial structure, the smaller "daughter feed" for 6.4-22GHz is placed in the center of the larger "Mother feed" for 2.2-6.4GHz.They are used for our project of time and frequency transfer between remote atomic clocks by wideband VLBI, named Gala-V(Garapagos VLBI), and will also be used wideband VLBI observation for astronmy and geodesy.Prototype feeds were tested in measurement of aperture efficiency, SEFD and Tsys of 34m "Super Kashima Antenna" and both 6.7/12.2GHz methanol maser detection in one reciever system, and then better one is used for wideband VLBI observations.

  1. Suthi feeding: an experience.

    PubMed

    Gupta, B D; Jain, P; Mandowara, S L

    1995-06-01

    In cases in which expressed breast milk is given or breast feeding cannot be done at all, a suitable alternative to breast feeding is still in question. Bottle feeding poses many hazards. Spoon and bowl have been proposed as a reasonable alternative since users can achieve better cleanliness. Yet it is impractical for staff in health facility nurseries to feed every newborn with the spoon and bowl method since it requires so much time. On average, they need to provide oral feeds to at least 10 babies a day. In India, maternal grandparents present the family of a newborn with the traditional Sindhi silver or stainless steel utensil to provide the infant drinking water. It is called Suthi. It holds either 10 or 20 cc, making it easier to quantify the amount of milk/feed. It has a long semicircular beak and curved rounded margins. Advantages of the Suthi over other alternative feeding methods include: it is a shallow container with a broad upper surface, allowing the user to clean it thoroughly and easily; its narrow beak can go directly into the mouth of the newborn, particularly premature infants and low birth weight infants, with relative ease, reducing the likelihood of spilling milk, and the Suthi feeding procedure is less messy and faster (7-10 vs. 15-20 minutes for spoon) than other procedures. The Suthi method allows nursery staff to spend less time per feed for 8-10 babies (minimum time needed, 1 vs. 3 hours). It can also be used at home. Its use will reduce the likelihood of aspiration since it cannot be used lying down. Since it is a traditional container, the community will accept Suthi. When breast feeding is not possible, the Suthi should be used.

  2. Serotonin depresses feeding behaviour in ants.

    PubMed

    Falibene, Agustina; Rössler, Wolfgang; Josens, Roxana

    2012-01-01

    Feeding behaviour is a complex functional system that relies on external signals and the physiological state of the animal. This is also the case in ants as they vary their feeding behaviour according to food characteristics, environmental conditions and - as they are social insects - to the colony's requirements. The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) was shown to be involved in the control and modulation of many actions and processes related to feeding in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, we investigated whether 5-HT affects nectar feeding in ants by analysing its effect on the sucking-pump activity. Furthermore, we studied 5-HT association with tissues and neuronal ganglia involved in feeding regulation. Our results show that 5-HT promotes a dose-dependent depression of sucrose feeding in Camponotus mus ants. Orally administered 5-HT diminished the intake rate by mainly decreasing the volume of solution taken per pump contraction, without modifying the sucrose acceptance threshold. Immunohistochemical studies all along the alimentary canal revealed 5-HT-like immunoreactive processes on the foregut (oesophagus, crop and proventriculus), while the midgut and hindgut lacked 5-HT innervation. Although the frontal and suboesophageal ganglia contained 5-HT immunoreactive cell bodies, serotonergic innervation in the sucking-pump muscles was absent. The results are discussed in the frame of a role of 5-HT in feeding control in ants.

  3. Measuring How Elastic Arteries Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in elastic arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. (DDR)

  4. Living with Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Carotid Artery Disease If you have carotid artery disease, you can take steps to manage the ... treatment plan, and getting ongoing care. Having carotid artery disease raises your risk of having a stroke . ...

  5. What Is Carotid Artery Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid artery disease is a disease in ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

  6. Peripheral Artery Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Peripheral Artery Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 26,2016 People with ... developing atherosclerosis, the most common cause of peripheral artery disease (PAD) . And individuals with PAD have a ...

  7. Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of screening for carotid artery stenosis: Health professionals ... blood flow through the arteries. Potential Benefits and Harms of Carotid Artery Stenosis Screening and Treatment The ...

  8. Challenges in measuring feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term feed efficiency is vague, and is defined differently by people. Historically, feed efficiency has been defined as the feed:gain (F:G) ratio or the inverse (G:F). Indexes have been developed to rank animals for feed efficiency. These indexes include residual feed intake (RFI) and residual...

  9. Symptomatic Type IV Dual Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Kyriacos; Georgiou, Georgios M.; Nicolaides, Evagoras

    2016-01-01

    Dual left anterior descending coronary artery is a rare congenital anomaly with 4 subtypes. Double left anterior descending coronary artery originating from the left main stem and the right coronary artery (type IV dual left anterior descending artery) has been reported to occur in 0.01% to 0.7% of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman who was found to have this anomaly during coronary angiography. The patient had been complaining of chest pain that mimics angina pectoris and exercise tolerance test was positive for myocardial ischemia. PMID:28203572

  10. [False traumatic aneurysm of the ulnar artery in a teenager].

    PubMed

    Nour, M; Talha, H; El Idrissi, R; Lahraoui, Y; Ouazzani, L; Oubejja, H; Erraji, M; Zerhouni, H; Ettayebi, F

    2014-12-01

    Most aneurysms of hand arteries are traumatic. It is a generally rare unrecognized pathology. Complications are serious (embolism and thromboses of interdigital arteries). Two main causes can be recalled: acute trauma, with development of a false aneurysm; repeated microtrauma (hand hammer syndrome), with occurrence of an arterial dysplasic aneurysm. The diagnosis is based on the presence of a pulsatile mass, with finger dysesthesia, unilateral Raynaud's phenomenon. It is confirmed by duplex Doppler. Arteriography is necessary but can be replaced by an angio-MR. We report a case of false traumatic aneurysm of the ulnar artery in a teenager. This case illustrates this rare condition and opens discussion on therapeutic options.

  11. Coronary artery stent (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open. ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open.

  12. Arterial Pressure Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral…

  13. [Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma].

    PubMed

    Bourry, N; Chabrot, P; Jeannin, G; Filaire, M; Charpy, C; Bay, J O; Kemeny, J L; Caillaud, D; Escande, G; Boyer, L

    2008-02-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma is a rare tumor. We present a case of intimal sarcoma arising from right pulmonary artery and left lower pulmonary vein observed in a 44-year-old man with a non-productive cough. Computed tomographic scans and magnetic resonance imaging showing filling defect enhancement contributed early, suggesting the diagnosis of primary vascular tumor, hypothesis confirmed by pathologist findings.

  14. Coronary artery disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the ... blood to the heart can slow or stop, causing chest pain (stable ...

  15. Genetics in Arterial Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Rutsch, Frank; Nitschke, Yvonne; Terkeltaub, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Artery calcification reflects an admixture of factors such as ectopic osteochondral differentiation with primary host pathological conditions. We review how genetic factors, as identified by human genome-wide association studies, and incomplete correlations with various mouse studies, including knockout and strain analyses, fit into “pieces of the puzzle” in intimal calcification in human atherosclerosis, and artery tunica media calcification in aging, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. We also describe in sharp contrast how ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 serve as “cogs in a wheel” of arterial calcification. Specifically, each is a minor component in the function of a much larger network of factors that exert balanced effects to promote and suppress arterial calcification. For the network to normally suppress spontaneous arterial calcification, the “cogs” ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 must be present and in working order. Monogenic ENPP1, CD73, and ABCC6 deficiencies each drive a molecular pathophysiology of closely related but phenotypically different diseases (generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), pseudoxan-thoma elasticum (PXE) and arterial calcification caused by CD73 deficiency (ACDC)), in which premature onset arterial calcification is a prominent but not the sole feature. PMID:21852556

  16. The Maine Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Tom

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, Maine. Through the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55…

  17. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important…

  18. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  19. Respiratory consequences of feeding in the snake Python molorus.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, J; Busk, M; Hicks, J W; Jensen, F B; Wang, T

    1999-11-01

    Snakes can ingest large meals and exhibit marked increases in metabolic rate during digestion. Because postprandial oxygen consumption in some snakes may surpass that attained during exercise, studies of digestion offers an alternative avenue to understand the cardio-respiratory responses to elevated metabolic rate in reptiles. The effects of feeding on metabolic rate, arterial oxygen levels, and arterial acid-base status in the snake Python molorus are described. Four snakes (180-250 g) were cannulated in the dorsal aorta and blood samples were obtained during 72 h following ingestion of a meal (rat pups) exceeding 20% of body weight. Oxygen consumption increased from a fasting value of 1.71 +/- 0.08 to 5.54 +/- 0.42 ml kg-1 min-1 at 48 h following feeding, and the respiratory gas exchange ratio increased from 0.67 +/- 0.02 to a maximum of 0.92 +/- 0.03 at 32 h. Plasma lactate was always less than 0.5 mM, so the postprandial increase in metabolic rate was met by aerobic respiration. In fasting animals, arterial PO2 was 66 +/- 4 mmHg and haemoglobin-O2 saturation was 92 +/- 3%; similar values were recorded during digestion, but haematocrit decreased from 15.8 +/- 1.0 to 9.8 +/- 0.8 due to repeated blood sampling. Plasma [HCO3-] increased from a fasting level of 19.3 +/- 0.8 to 25.8 +/- 1.0 mmol l-1 at 24 h after feeding. However, because arterial PCO2 increased from 21.1 +/- 0.5 to 27.9 +/- 1.4 mmHg, there was no significant change in arterial pH from the fasting value of 7.52 +/- 0.01. Acid-base status returned to pre-feeding levels at 72 h following feeding. The increased arterial PCO2 is most likely explained by a reduction in ventilation relative to metabolism, but we predict that lung PO2 does not decrease below 115 mmHg. Although ingestion of large meals is associated with large metabolic changes in pythons, the attendant changes in blood gases are relatively small. In particular, the small changes in plasma [HCO3-] and stable pH show that pythons respond

  20. Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Zhang, Chong; Feng, Zhiying; Ni, Yiming

    2008-08-01

    Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is an uncommon tumor. We report a case of a 73-year-old male patient with a two-week history of palpitations and shortness of breath, aggravated for two days and was believed to be pulmonary hypertension. Emergency heart ultrasound after admission presented a massive pulmonary embolism in the pulmonary artery. The patient's condition was successfully managed with urgent pulmonary artery embolectomy. The patient demonstrated improvement in hemodynamics after the operation. Histologic and immunohistochemical assays were performed and a diagnosis was made as primary pulmonary artery sarcoma arising from the left pulmonary artery. Resection of the tumor is recommended for the treatment of this rare malignant tumor. The corresponding chemotherapy, follow-up and prognosis are described as well in this case report.

  1. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length.

  2. Computer Modeling of Yttrium-90-Microsphere Transport in the Hepatic Arterial Tree to Improve Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Andrew S.; Kleinstreuer, Clement; Basciano, Christopher A.; Dezarn, William A.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: Radioembolization (RE) via yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) microspheres is an effective and safe treatment for unresectable liver malignancies. However, no data are available regarding the impact of local blood flow dynamics on {sup 90}Y-microsphere transport and distribution in the human hepatic arterial system. Methods and Materials: A three-dimensional (3-D) computer model was developed to analyze and simulate blood-microsphere flow dynamics in the hepatic arterial system with tumor. Supplemental geometric and flow data sets from patients undergoing RE were also available to validate the accuracy of the computer simulation model. Specifically, vessel diameters, curvatures, and branching patterns, as well as blood flow velocities/pressures and microsphere characteristics (i.e., diameter and specific gravity), were measured. Three-dimensional computer-aided design software was used to create the vessel geometries. Initial trials, with 10,000 noninteracting microspheres released into the hepatic artery, used resin spheres 32-{mu}m in diameter with a density twice that of blood. Results: Simulations of blood flow subject to different branch-outlet pressures as well as blood-microsphere transport were successfully carried out, allowing testing of two types of microsphere release distributions in the inlet plane of the main hepatic artery. If the inlet distribution of microspheres was uniform (evenly spaced particles), a greater percentage would exit into the vessel branch feeding the tumor. Conversely, a parabolic inlet distribution of microspheres (more particles around the vessel center) showed a high percentage of microspheres exiting the branch vessel leading to the normal liver. Conclusions: Computer simulations of both blood flow patterns and microsphere dynamics have the potential to provide valuable insight on how to optimize {sup 90}Y-microsphere implantation into hepatic tumors while sparing normal tissue.

  3. Gastrointestinal bleeding and obstructive jaundice: Think of hepatic artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Vultaggio, Fabrice; Morère, Pierre-Henri; Constantin, Christophe; Christodoulou, Michel; Roulin, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Hemobilia is an uncommon and potential life-threatening condition mainly due to hepato-biliary tree traumatic or iatrogenic injuries. Spontaneously ruptured aneurysm of the hepatic artery is seldom described. We report the case of an 89-year-old woman presenting with abdominal pain, jaundice and gastrointestinal bleeding, whose ultrasound and computed tomography revealed a non-traumatic, spontaneous aneurysm of the right hepatic artery. The oeso-gastro-duodenoscopy and colonoscopy did not reveal any bleeding at the ampulla of Vater, nor anywhere else. Selective angiography confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic artery aneurysm and revealed a full hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery. The patient was successfully treated by selective embolization of microcoils. We discuss the etiologies of hemobilia and its treatment with selective embolization, which remains favored over surgical treatment. Although aneurysm of the hepatic artery is rare, especially without trauma, a high index of suspicion is needed in order to ensure appropriate treatment. PMID:27358680

  4. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  5. Feeding regulation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pool, Allan-Hermann; Scott, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Neuromodulators play a key role in adjusting animal behavior based on environmental cues and internal needs. Here, we review the regulation of Drosophila feeding behavior to illustrate how neuromodulators achieve behavioral plasticity. Recent studies have made rapid progress in determining molecular and cellular mechanisms that translate the metabolic needs of the fly into changes in neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory states. These neuromodulators in turn promote or inhibit discrete feeding behavioral subprograms. This review highlights the links between physiological needs, neuromodulatory states, and feeding decisions. PMID:24937262

  6. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  7. Feeding the future.

    PubMed

    Bender, W; Smith, M

    1997-03-01

    This article discusses the unequal distribution of food within and among countries of the world, poverty as the main cause of hunger, the patterns of population growth, and future prospects. The evidence reveals the potential for reaching limits of agricultural expansion. Widespread environmental destruction suggests that agricultural lands are declining. Current production patterns may not be sustainable. "Population growth is the single largest determinant of future needs." Farmers of the world's poorest regions must produce food to meet the needs of a doubled population by 2050. The 1996 World Food Summit urged that agricultural policies emphasize environmentally sustainable production methods and a wider variety of crops that would include sorghum and millet. In the early 1990s, 40% of Africa's population was food-energy deficient. Africa has some of the highest population growth rates. Fertility stands at about 6 children/woman. Even with reduced fertility, the African population is expected to double to 22% of world population by 2050. The East Asian population, which is dominated by China, is expected to reach 2.2 billion by 2050. South Asia includes some of the poorest and most densely populated countries; its population is expected to reach 2.2-3.3 billion by 2050. 43% of the malnourished population during 1990-92 lived in sub-Saharan Africa, 22% lived in South Asia, 16% lived in East and Southeast Asia, 15% lived in Latin America and the Caribbean, and 12% lived in the Near East and North Africa. The proportions of underweight children included 58% in South Asia, 30% in sub-Saharan Africa, 25% in the Near East and North Africa, 24% in East and Southeast Asia, and 12% in Latin America and the Caribbean. If everyone adopted a vegetarian diet and no food were wasted, there would be enough food to feed 10 billion people. Malnourishment has the harshest effects on children, rural populations, the growing urban poor, and victims of natural disasters.

  8. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Concurrent Spontaneous Hematomas of the Rectus Sheath and Psoas Muscle in Patients Undergoing Anticoagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, Antonio; Medina, Jose Garcia; Mundo, Elena; Medina, Vicente Garcia; Leal, Rafael

    2004-11-15

    We report a case of concurrent rectus sheath and psoas hematomas in a patient undergoing anticoagulant therapy, treated by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of inferior epigastric and lumbar arteries. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated signs of active bleeding in two hematomas of the anterior and posterior abdominal walls. Transfemoral arteriogram confirmed the extravasation of contrast from the right inferior epigastric artery (RIEA). Indirect signs of bleeding were also found in a right lumbar artery (RLA). We successfully performed TAE of the feeding arteries. There have been few reports in the literature of such spontaneous hemorrhages in patients undergoing anticoagulation, successfully treated by TAE.

  9. Persistent median artery in the carpal tunnel and anastomosis with superficial palmar arch

    PubMed Central

    Bijannejad, Dariush; Azandeh, Saeed; Javadnia, Fatemeh; Gholami, Mohammad Reza; Gharravi, Anneh Mohammad; zhaleh, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Persistent median artery (PMA) in present cadaver originated from the brachial artery and anastomosed with the superficial palmar arch (SPA). As the PMA may be the cause of carpal tunnel syndrome and SPA is the main source of arterial supply, knowledge of which are important for the hand surgical interventions. PMID:27583265

  10. The circumflex branch of the left coronary artery in the human infant.

    PubMed Central

    Reig, J; Loncán, M P; Martin, S; Doménech, J M

    1987-01-01

    Coronary arterial vascularisation in the human infant in the first five weeks of life, was studied by radiological and injection-corrosion techniques. The main differences lay in the characteristics of the circumflex artery and its distribution over the myocardial wall. These differences were age-related. Coronary arterial anastomoses were detected in 61% of the hearts. PMID:3503054

  11. Coronary artery occlusion after arterial switch operation in an asymptomatic 15-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Ashish P; Cyran, Stephen E; Ettinger, Steven M; Pauliks, Linda B

    2016-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) presented with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Intra-operatively, an intramural left coronary artery was identified. Therefore, since age 7 years he had a series of screening exercise stress tests. At 13 years old, he had 3 to 4 mm ST segment depression in the infero-lateral leads without symptoms. This progressed to 4.2 mm inferior ST segment depression at 15 years old with normal stress echocardiogram. Sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was inconclusive. Therefore, a coronary angiogram was obtained which showed complete occlusion of the LMCA with ample collateralization from the right coronary artery system. This was later confirmed on a computed tomogram (CT) angiogram, obtained in preparation of coronary artery bypass grafting. The case illustrates the difficulty of detecting coronary artery stenosis and occlusion in young patients with rich collateralization. Coronary CT angiogram and conventional angiography were the best imaging modalities to detect coronary anomalies in this adolescent with surgically corrected TGA. Screening CT angiography may be warranted for TGA patients, particularly for those with known coronary anomalies. PMID:27574609

  12. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    , essentially in the screening proposing criteria for estimating the presence of PH mainly based on tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity and systolic artery pressure (sPAP). The therapy of PAH consists of non-specific drugs including oral anticoagulation and diuretics as well as PAH specific therapy. Diuretics are one of the most important treatment in the setting of PH because right heart failure leads to fluid retention, hepatic congestion, ascites and peripheral edema. Current recommendations propose oral anticoagulation aiming for targeting an International Normalized Ratio (INR) between 1.5-2.5. Target INR for patients displaying chronic thromboembolic PH is between 2–3. Better understanding in pathophysiological mechanisms of PH over the past quarter of a century has led to the development of medical therapeutics, even though no cure for PAH exists. Several specific therapeutic agents were developed for the medical management of PAH including prostanoids (epoprostenol, trepoprostenil, iloprost), endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, ambrisentan) and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil). This review discusses the current state of art regarding to epidemiologic aspects of PH, diagnostic approaches and the current classification of PH. In addition, currently available specific PAH therapy is discussed as well as future treatments. PMID:23829793

  13. Pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Montani, David; Günther, Sven; Dorfmüller, Peter; Perros, Frédéric; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Artaud-Macari, Elise; Price, Laura C; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Sitbon, Olivier

    2013-07-06

    , essentially in the screening proposing criteria for estimating the presence of PH mainly based on tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity and systolic artery pressure (sPAP). The therapy of PAH consists of non-specific drugs including oral anticoagulation and diuretics as well as PAH specific therapy. Diuretics are one of the most important treatment in the setting of PH because right heart failure leads to fluid retention, hepatic congestion, ascites and peripheral edema. Current recommendations propose oral anticoagulation aiming for targeting an International Normalized Ratio (INR) between 1.5-2.5. Target INR for patients displaying chronic thromboembolic PH is between 2-3. Better understanding in pathophysiological mechanisms of PH over the past quarter of a century has led to the development of medical therapeutics, even though no cure for PAH exists. Several specific therapeutic agents were developed for the medical management of PAH including prostanoids (epoprostenol, trepoprostenil, iloprost), endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, ambrisentan) and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil). This review discusses the current state of art regarding to epidemiologic aspects of PH, diagnostic approaches and the current classification of PH. In addition, currently available specific PAH therapy is discussed as well as future treatments.

  14. Feeding Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... you choose to breastfeed or formula feed. About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding your newborn has many advantages. Perhaps most ... to care for her newborn. continue Limitations of Breastfeeding With all the good things known about breastfeeding, ...

  15. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000803.htm Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding To use the sharing features ... best for you and your family. Benefits of Breastfeeding Breastfeeding is a wonderful way to bond with ...

  16. Celiac Artery Thrombosis and Superior Mesenteric Artery Stenoses with Essential Thrombocythemia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Hasan Attila; Yetisir, Fahri; Bayram, Huseyin; Bayraktaroglu, Mehmet Selahattin; Simsek, Erdal; Kilic, Mehmet; Katircioglu, Salih Fehmi

    2012-01-01

    Thrombosis of the celiac artery trunk is a rare cause of acute abdominal pain. Thrombosis of the celiac artery carries a high mortality and morbidity when the diagnoses and treatment are delayed. It is frequently associated with other cardiovascular events. The most common etiology is atherosclerosis. 20–30% of cases may have symptoms of chronic mesenteric ischemia. Main goal of the treatment is to reestablish the diminished or stopped mesenteric blood flow and to avoid end-organ ischemia. Essential thrombocythemia is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder characterized by marked increase in thrombocyte number and clinical presentation may be with thrombotic episodes, hemorrhage, or both. To our knowledge this is the first report of celiac artery thrombosis and superior mesenteric artery stenoses in a patient with essential thrombocythemia. The patient was managed successfully with surgical treatment. PMID:23304160

  17. [Bilateral pulmonary artery occlusion due to primary pulmonary artery sarcoma; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Shingaki, Masami; Kobayashi, Yutaka

    2014-07-01

    60-year-old female who complained of severe dyspnea was admitted with a diagnosis of massive pulmonary embolism. An emergency operation was undertaken due to right side heart failure. Under extracorporeal circulation with beating heart, large, white and smooth surface mass which was originated from right pulmonary artery was removed. Pathology of the mass showed low differentiated sarcoma. No evidence of other primary lesion by positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) suggested primary pulmonary artery sarcoma. We scheduled total resection of the right lung, however postoperative CT showed large mass occupying from right pulmonary artery to main pulmonary trunk. Palliative chemo radiation therapy was introduced. Pulmonary artery sarcoma mimicking pulmonary thromboembolism is so malignant that the diagnosis and treatment should not be delayed.

  18. Mesenteric Artery Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Coles, John C.; Walker, John B.; Gergely, N. F.; Buttigliero, Jorge

    1963-01-01

    The syndromes of superior mesenteric artery insufficiency are briefly reviewed. Three cases associated with infarction of bowel which were treated with restoration of arterial flow and resection of residual irretrievable bowel are reported. In two patients an embolectomy and in one patient a bypass graft were used to restore arterial continuity. The importance of the recognition and removal of irretrievable bowel at the time of vascular reconstruction is emphasized. Success is not necessarily predicated by the time factor alone, although the importance of early diagnosis and surgical intervention cannot be denied. PMID:14042788

  19. Arterial Embolization as a Treatment of Chronic Edema Following Free Cutaneous Flap Transfer to the Lower Limbs

    SciTech Connect

    Noukoua Tchuisse, Charlemagne; Barah, Ali; Nchimi, Alain; Dondelinger, Robert F.

    2003-06-15

    Persisting chronic edema following postoperative free flap transfer is a common complication. We report 3 cases of successful treatment by selective arterial embolization of the feeding arterial branches without side effect. One session embolization is advocated as a first line treatment of this condition.

  20. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  1. Anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery with mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Das, Mrinalendu; Mahindrakar, Pallavi; Das, Debasis; Behera, Sukanta Kumar; Chowdhury, Saibal Roy; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit

    2011-08-01

    The usual presentation of anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery is severe left-sided heart failure and mitral valve insufficiency presenting during the first months of life. The manifestations of left heart failure may be masked if pulmonary artery pressure remains high. We believe this is a rarest of rare case of anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery with severe mitral stenosis and pulmonary hypertension in which pulmonary hypertension, along with good collateral circulation helped to preserve left ventricular function.

  2. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed to restore blood flow: Angioplasty : In an angioplasty procedure, an interventional radiologist threads a catheter through a blood vessel to the affected artery and inflates a small balloon to reopen it. In some cases, the insertion ...

  3. Carotid Artery Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... plaque and the injury it causes is called atherosclerosis . Over time, the walls of affected arteries thicken ... disease (CAD) obesity physical inactivity family history of atherosclerosis and/or stroke Screening Recommendations Carotid Duplex US ...

  4. Carotid artery disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a stroke recover most or all of their functions. Others die of the stroke itself or from complications. About half of people ... patients with extracranial carotid and vertebral artery disease: executive summary: ... American Association of Neuroscience Nurses, American Association ...

  5. Coronary artery spasm

    MedlinePlus

    ... blocker or a long-acting nitrate long-term. Beta-blockers are another type of medicine that is used with other coronary artery problems. However, beta-blockers may make this problem worse. They should be ...

  6. 1 Main Street, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Located outside StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center, 1 Main Street Mars is a model of how a habitat on Mars might look. Complete with thermometers, scales and clocks set to Martian equivalents, this exhibit shows how very different life on Mars can be.

  7. Main features of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 17, outlines the main features of meiosis, beginning with its significance and proceeding through the meiotic stages. Meiosis is the most important modification of mitosis because it is the reduction division that gives rise to the haploid generation in the life cycle. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Ladybugs of Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color images are presented for the 57 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as ladybugs, that are documented from Maine. Images are displayed in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes its genus-species name, length, and an actual-size silhouette beside a grid matched to the scale...

  9. Vascular patterns of upper limb: an anatomical study with accent on superficial brachial artery

    PubMed Central

    Kachlik, David; Konarik, Marek; Baca, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the terminal segmentation of the axillary artery and to present four cases of anomalous branching of the axillary artery, the superficial brachial artery (arteria brachialis superficialis), which is defined as the brachial artery that runs superficially to the median nerve. Totally, 130 cadaveric upper arms embalmed by classical formaldehyde technique from collections of the Department of Anatomy, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, were macroscopically dissected with special focus on the branching arrangement of the axillary artery. The most distal part of the axillary artery (infrapectoral part) terminated in four cases as a bifurcation into two terminal branches: the superficial brachial artery and profunda brachii artery, denominated according to their relation to the median nerve. The profunda brachii artery primarily gave rise to the main branches of the infrapectoral part of the axillary artery. The superficial brachial artery descended to the cubital fossa where it assumed the usual course of the brachial artery in two cases and in the other two cases its branches (the radial and ulnar arteries) passed superficially to the flexors. The incidence of the superficial brachial artery in our study was 5% of cases. The reported incidence is a bit contradictory, from 0.12% to 25% of cases. The anatomical knowledge of the axillary region is of crucial importance for neurosurgeons and specialists using the radiodiagnostic techniques, particularly in cases involving traumatic injuries. The improved knowledge would allow more accurate diagnostic interpretations and surgical treatment. PMID:21342134

  10. The effect of collagenase on the critical buckling pressure of arteries.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Ricky; Han, Hai-Chao

    2012-03-01

    The stability of arteries is essential to normal arterial functions and loss of stability can lead to arterial tortuosity and kinking. Collagen is a main extracellular matrix component that modulates the mechanical properties of arteries and collagen degradation at pathological conditions weakens the mechanical strength of arteries. However, the effects of collagen degradation on the mechanical stability of arteries are unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of collagen degradation on the critical buckling pressure of arteries. Arterial specimens were subjected to pressurized inflation testing and fitted with nonlinear thick-walled cylindrical model equations to determine their stress strain relationships. The arteries were then tested for the critical buckling pressure at a set of axial stretch ratios. Then, arteries were divided into three groups and treated with Type III collagenase at three different concentrations (64, 128, and 400 U/ml). Mechanical properties and buckling pressures of the arteries were determined after collagenase treatment. Additionally, the theoretical buckling pressures were also determined using a buckling equation. Our results demonstrated that the buckling pressure of arteries was lower after collagenase treatment. The difference between pre- and post- treatment was statistically significant for the highest concentration of 400U/ml but not at the lower concentrations. The buckling equation was found to yield a fair estimation to the experimental critical pressure measurements. These results shed light on the role of matrix remodeling on the mechanical stability of arteries and developments of tortuous arteries.

  11. 64-MULTIDETECTOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC ANGIOGRAPHY OF THE CANINE CORONARY ARTERIES

    PubMed Central

    Drees, Randi; Frydrychowicz, Alex; Reeder, Scott B.; Pinkerton, Marie E.; Johnson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Canine coronary artery angiography (CTA) was performed in four anesthetized healthy dogs using 64-multi-detector computed tomography. Esmolol, a β-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist, and sodium nitroprusside, an arteriolar and venous dilator, were administered to enhance visualization of the coronary arteries by reducing heart rate and creating vasodilation. The left main coronary artery with its three main branches and the right coronary artery were visualized and subdivided in 13 segments for evaluation. Optimal reconstruction interval, expressed as percentage of the R-to-R interval, was determined at 5% in 2.9%, 35% in 1%, 75% in 21.2%, 85% in 43.3%, and 95% in 31.7% of the segments. Overall image quality was good in 41.3% of the segments and excellent in 14.4%. There was blur in 98.1%, motion in 17.3%, and stair step in 6.7% of the evaluated segments, but these artifacts did not interfere with anatomic depiction of the arteries. Cross-sectional anatomy of the coronary arteries as evaluated from the coronary CTA agreed well with gross anatomic evaluation and published information. The use of esmolol did not lead to the target heart rate of 60–65 beats/min. Nitroprusside had no significant effect on visualized length or diameter of the coronary artery branches. Coronary CTA is useful for the anatomic depiction of coronary artery branches in the dog. PMID:21521398

  12. Rare Presentation of Left Lower Lobe Pulmonary Artery Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Hako, René; Fedačko, Ján; Morochovič, Radoslav; Kristian, Pavol; Pekárová, Tímea; Tuomainen, Petri; Pella, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background. Pulmonary arterial dissection with chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension as its major cause is a very rare but life-threatening condition. In most cases the main pulmonary trunk is the affected site usually without involvement of its branches. Segmental or lobar pulmonary artery dissection is extremely rare. Case Presentation. We report a unique case of left lower lobe pulmonary artery dissection in a 70-year-old male, with confirmed chronic pulmonary hypertension. To confirm dissection MDCT pulmonary angiography was used. Multiplanar reformation (MPR) images in sagittal, coronal, oblique sagittal, and curved projections were generated. This case report presents morphologic CT features of rare chronic left lobar pulmonary artery dissection associated with chronic pulmonary hypertension at a place of localised pulmonary artery calcification. CT pulmonary angiography excluded signs of thromboembolism and potential motion or flow artefacts. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, no case of lower lobe pulmonary artery dissection with flap calcification has been reported yet. CT imaging of the chest is a key diagnostic tool that is able to detect an intimal flap and a false lumen within the pulmonary arterial tree and is preferred in differential diagnosis of rare complications of sustained pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:28154579

  13. [Enteral tube feeding].

    PubMed

    Haller, Alois

    2014-03-01

    Tube feeding is an integral part of medical therapies, and can be easily managed also in the outpatient setting. Tube feeding by the stomach or small intestine with nasogastral or nasojejunal tubes is common in clinical practice. Long-term nutrition is usually provided through a permanent tube, i. e. a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Modern portable nutrition pumps are used to cover the patient's nutritional needs. Enteral nutrition is always indicated if patients can not or should not eat or if nutritional requirements cannot be covered within 3 days after an intervention, e. g. after abdominal surgery. Industrially produced tube feedings with defined substrate concentrations are being used; different compositions of nutrients, such as glutamine fish oil etc., are used dependent on the the condition of the patient. Enteral nutrition may be associated with complications of the tube, e. g. dislocation, malposition or obstruction, as well as the feeding itself, e. g.hyperglycaemia, electrolyte disturbances, refeeding syndrome diarrhea or aspiration). However, the benefit of tube feeding usually exceeds the potential harm substantially.

  14. Arterial stump pressure: a determinant of arterial patency?

    PubMed

    Nunley, J A; Goldner, R D; Koman, L A; Gelberman, R; Urbaniak, J R

    1987-03-01

    Twenty-seven patients with acute injuries to the radial or ulnar arteries had arterial repairs using microvascular techniques. No patient had an ischemic hand secondary to his arterial injury. The overall patency rate for all repaired vessels was 56%. For sharp, clean lacerations, the success rate for repairs was 55%. Repairs of acute, sharp lacerations yielded no better results than delayed reconstructions. The average distal end arterial stump pressure for patent arteries was 66% of mean, while for thrombosed vessels it was 76% of mean; this was not a statistically significant difference (p = 0.9). There was no statistical correlation between forearm arterial patency, age, sex, vessel injured, mechanism of injury, time of repair, or clinically measured distal arterial stump pressure. At the present time, it does not appear to be possible to predict arterial patency by measuring arterial stump pressure at the time of definitive repair.

  15. Chronic thrombosis of major pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed

    Presti, B; Berthrong, M; Sherwin, R M

    1990-06-01

    Chronic massive thrombosis of major pulmonary arteries, usually described in 0.1% of autopsies, was found in 68 of 7,753 autopsies (0.9%) in our hospital. For comparison, 201 of the 7,753 autopsies (2.6%) revealed acute-massive pulmonary emboli. The 68 cases of chronic thromboses by definition had the right, left, or main pulmonary artery occluded or severely stenosed by organized thrombi. The average age was 67; males predominated 3 to 2. Dyspnea and right heart failure were the most common clinical features, though a correct antemortem diagnosis was rare. Severe lung disease was present in 34 cases (50%); one patient (1%) had mitral stenosis. In the remaining patients, clinical thrombophlebitis had been present in 20 cases (29%), and 13 cases (19%) had no recognized related disease. When the lung disease had prominent laterality, thrombi were invariably located on the side of the most serious disease, implying propagation of smaller thrombi in diseased lung retrograde to major arteries. In bilateral lung disease or in patients without lung disease, thromboses were randomly distributed between right or left sides, suggesting an embolic origin. Assessment of the severity of pulmonary arteriosclerosis and distal arterial patency indicated that most patients could have potentially benefited from surgical thromboendarterectomy. The reason for the high incidence of chronic pulmonary artery thrombosis in our autopsy service has not been elucidated. The effects of high altitude may be important in the pathogenesis, although polycythemia was not excessive in our cases.

  16. Commutating Feed Assembly.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    AD-AOBS 567 ITT GILFILLAN VAN NUYS CA F/6 17/9 CONF4UTATING FEED ASSEMBLY. 1W DEC 79 R WOL.FSON F19628-79-C-OOSS UNCLASSIFIED RADC -TR79303 NI. 1i.ll...INTRODUCTION 9 2 COMMUTATING FEED ASSEMBLY REQUIREMENTS 10 . 3 TECHNICAL PROBLEMS 11 1: 3.1 System Design 12 3.1.1 Radius of Circular Array 12 3.1.2 Design...Support Structure 16 3.3 Annular Rotary Coupler 16 3.4 Stripline Feed Network 17 w V.3.4.1 Range of Coupling Values vs. Percent Power into Load 17 3.4.2

  17. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  18. COBRA Main Engine Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Jim; Sides, Steve; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA main engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost demo of cycle and technologies. 5. COBRA cycle I risk reduction supports. 6. Achieving engine safety. 6. RLX cycle I risk reduction supports. 7. Flight qualification. 9. Life extension engine testing.

  19. Calculation of arterial wall temperature in atherosclerotic arteries: effect of pulsatile flow, arterial geometry, and plaque structure

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Obdulia; Kim, Taehong

    2007-01-01

    Background This paper presents calculations of the temperature distribution in an atherosclerotic plaque experiencing an inflammatory process; it analyzes the presence of hot spots in the plaque region and their relationship to blood flow, arterial geometry, and inflammatory cell distribution. Determination of the plaque temperature has become an important topic because plaques showing a temperature inhomogeneity have a higher likelihood of rupture. As a result, monitoring plaque temperature and knowing the factors affecting it can help in the prevention of sudden rupture. Methods The transient temperature profile in inflamed atherosclerotic plaques is calculated by solving an energy equation and the Navier-Stokes equations in 2D idealized arterial models of a bending artery and an arterial bifurcation. For obtaining the numerical solution, the commercial package COMSOL 3.2 was used. The calculations correspond to a parametric study where arterial type and size, as well as plaque geometry and composition, are varied. These calculations are used to analyze the contribution of different factors affecting arterial wall temperature measurements. The main factors considered are the metabolic heat production of inflammatory cells, atherosclerotic plaque length lp, inflammatory cell layer length lmp, and inflammatory cell layer thickness dmp. Results The calculations indicate that the best location to perform the temperature measurement is at the back region of the plaque (0.5 ≤ l/lp ≤ 0.7). The location of the maximum temperature, or hot spot, at the plaque surface can move during the cardiac cycle depending on the arterial geometry and is a direct result of the blood flow pattern. For the bending artery, the hot spot moves 0.6 millimeters along the longitudinal direction; for the arterial bifurcation, the hot spot is concentrated at a single location due to the flow recirculation observed at both ends of the plaque. Focusing on the thermal history of different

  20. Computer program for machine design of Cassegrain feed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, P. D.

    1968-01-01

    Program designs the feed system geometry and the subreflector surface, with the main reflector configuration and frequency of operation as input data. Although the feedhorn is not designed, its required gain, beamwidth, and approximate radiation pattern are specified.

  1. The EXCEL and NOBLE trials: similarities, contrasts and future perspectives for left main revascularisation.

    PubMed

    Campos, Carlos M; Christiansen, Evald H; Stone, Gregg W; Serruys, Patrick W

    2015-01-01

    Unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) stenosis has relatively high prevalence and exposes patients to a high risk for adverse cardiovascular events. The optimal revascularisation strategy (coronary artery bypass surgery [CABG] or percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) for patients with complex coronary artery disease is a topic of continuing debate. The introduction of the newer-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) -with documented improvements in both safety and efficacy- has prompted the interventional community to design two new dedicated randomised trials comparing CABG and PCI: the NOBLE (Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Vs Drug Eluting Stent Percutaneous Coronary Angioplasty in the Treatment of Unprotected Left Main Stenosis) and EXCEL (Evaluation of XIENCE Everolimus Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) trials. The aims of the present review are to describe the similarities and contrasts between these two trials as well to explore their future implications in ULMCA treatment.

  2. Exploring Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, M. V.; Larson, S. M.; Whiteley, R.; Fink, U.; Jedicke, R.; Emery, J.; Fevig, R.; Kelley, M.; Harris, A. W.; Ostro, S.; Reed, K.; Binzel, R. P.; Rivkin, A.; Magri, C.; Bottke, W.; Durda, D.; Walker, R.; Davis, D.; Hartmann, W. K.; Sears, D.; Yano, H.; Granahan, J.; Storrs, A.; Bus, S. J.; Bell, J. F.; Tholen, D.; Cellino, A.

    2001-11-01

    Terrestrial planet formation in the main asteroid belt was interrupted when growing protoplanets became sufficiently massive to gravitationally perturb the local population, causing bodies to collide with increased energy, thus ending accretion and commencing fragmentation and disruption. Few of these protoplanets are thought to have survived unshattered (e.g., Ceres, Vesta, Pallas), leaving a main belt population dominated by fragments of fragments, and significantly depleted of mass as a consequence of dynamical scattering. Yet, these fragments retain a record of the early steps of planet formation and evolution, as well as a record of early solar system conditions and the primordial composition gradient in that region. By exploring main belt asteroids through groundbased observations and spacecraft, modeling and theoretical work, we seek ultimately to recover this information. A single mission to a single target is not sufficient to address, in isolation, these questions. They require a foundation of robust, broad, and continuing groundbased, theoretical, and modeling programs. Such work is funded at a small fraction of a typical mission cost through the NASA Research and Analysis Program. Therefore, within the context of planetary decadal study recommendations to NASA, highest priority needs to be given to maintaining and growing a healthy R&A program over the next ten years and beyond. Missions also have an important role to play. An Earth orbiting remote sensing mission needs to be considered as a means of collecting important data for a large fraction of all main belt asteroids above a sub-kilometer diameter (while also realizing synergistic benefits to astrophysics). Missions to specific main belt targets can provide important new insights and leverage new understanding of existing data, models, and theories, but target definition (and corresponding instrument complement) is critical and must be based on our existing knowledge of these very diverse objects

  3. Impact of sensory feed additives on feed intake, feed preferences, and growth of female piglets during the early postweaning period.

    PubMed

    Clouard, C; Val-Laillet, D

    2014-05-01

    Our study aimed at investigating the effect of feed supplementation, from weaning, with 3 sensory feed additives (FA1, FA2, and FA3) on feed preferences, feed intake, and growth of piglets. The FA1 contained extract of Stevia rebaudiana (10 to 20%), extract of high-saponin plants (5 to 10%), and excipients (70 to 85%), the FA2 was mainly composed of a natural extract of Citrus sinensis (60 to 80%), and the FA3 was made of a blend of extracts of hot-flavored spices (5 to 15%) and excipients (85 to 95%). At weaning (d 1), a total of 32 female piglets housed in individual pens were allocated to 4 treatments (FA1, FA2, FA3, and control [CON]) of equivalent mean weight. The pigs were fed a standard pelleted prestarter diet from weaning (d 1) to d 15 and a starter diet from d 16 to 28. The diets were supplemented with the feed additives (FA) corresponding to their treatment, while the CON treatment was the standard diets with no additive. Feed refusals were weighed daily and piglets were weighed weekly on d 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28. On the day of feed transition (d 16) as well as 7 (d 23) and 10 d (d 26) later, the animals were consecutively subjected to 1- and 22-h double-choice feeding tests to investigate their preferences during a short period and a longer period of time for the CON starter diet and the starter diet added with the FA corresponding to their treatment. No overall effect of the feed additives was observed on ADFI, ADG, G:F, and final BW. No overall preference was highlighted for the FA1 treatment, except for a preference for the FA1 starter diet during the 1-h test on d 23 (78% of total feed intake; P < 0.01). For the FA2 treatment, the pigs consumed the FA2 starter diet more than the CON starter diet during the 22-h tests on d 16 (67% of total feed intake; P < 0.05) and 26 (62% of total feed intake; P < 0.01). For the FA3 treatment, on d 26, the FA3 starter diet was and tended to be consumed more than the CON starter diet during 1- (69% of total intake; P

  4. Feed intake and competition in ewes on ad libitum or semi-restricted feeding of grass silage and hay.

    PubMed

    Bøe, K E; Ottosen, A M; Andersen, I L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of feeding level and type of roughage on feed intake, feeding behavior and competition of ewes. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with amount of roughage available (ad libitum or semi restricted) and type of roughage (grass silage or hay) as main factors. Forty-eight ewes were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 6 ewes. All groups were subjected to all 4 treatments, each treatment period lasted 7 d, and the order of treatments was rotated systematically. The ewes were video recorded for the 2 last days of each treatment period and feeding and general activity were scored every 10 min. All aggressive interactions and displacement at the feed barrier were scored continuously the first 3 h after feeding. Daily feed intake (P < 0.0001) and DMI (P < 0.0001) were both greater in the silage than in the hay treatment. Ewes in the semi-restricted treatment spent less time feeding (P < 0.0001), had a greater individual variation in feeding time (P < 0.05) and spent more time queuing for feed (standing maximum 1.5 m from the feeding barrier with the head towards the feed; P < 0.0001). Individual data showed that 5 ewes fed hay and 3 ewes fed silage reduced their time spent feeding more than 50% when the feeding level was reduced. When fed hay, the level of feeding did not affect number of aggressive interactions or displacements, but when fed silage the number of aggressive interactions (P < 0.01) and the number of displacements (P < 0.05) were much greater in the semi-restricted than in the ad libitum treatment. We conclude that even a minor restriction in the level of feeding will decrease time spent feeding and increase queuing and number of aggressive interactions when feeding space is also restricted, and that the increase in aggressive interactions is mainly for ewes fed grass silage.

  5. Factors Prolonging Length of Stay in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit Following the Arterial Switch Operation

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Derek S.; Dent, Catherine L.; Manning, Peter B.; Nelson, David P.

    2009-01-01

    The arterial switch operation has become the preferred procedure for surgical management of transposition of the great arteries. We conducted a retrospective evaluation of our experience in sixty-one infants with transposition from January, 1997 to July, 2003 in order to determine the factors that are associated with a prolonged postoperative course following the arterial switch operation. Factors independently associated with a prolonged postoperative stay in the cardiac intensive care unit included prematurity, difficulty feeding, capillary leak, need for preoperative inotropic support, and postoperative infectious complications. Future research designed to minimize the impact of capillary leak and postoperative infectious complications is warranted. In addition, based on these results, our practice has evolved to initiate enteral feedings in the preoperative period if feasible and to resume enteral feedings as soon as possible following surgery. PMID:18093360

  6. Blood Flow in Arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, David N.

    Blood flow in arteries is dominated by unsteady flow phenomena. The cardiovascular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley number, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. The arteries are living organs that can adapt to and change with the varying hemodynamic conditions. In certain circumstances, unusual hemodynamic conditions create an abnormal biological response. Velocity profile skewing can create pockets in which the direction of the wall shear stress oscillates. Atherosclerotic disease tends to be localized in these sites and results in a narrowing of the artery lumena stenosis. The stenosis can cause turbulence and reduce flow by means of viscous head losses and flow choking. Very high shear stresses near the throat of the stenosis can activate platelets and thereby induce thrombosis, which can totally block blood flow to the heart or brain. Detection and quantification of stenosis serve as the basis for surgical intervention. In the future, the study of arterial blood flow will lead to the prediction of individual hemodynamic flows in any patient, the development of diagnostic tools to quantify disease, and the design of devices that mimic or alter blood flow. This field is rich with challenging problems in fluid mechanics involving three-dimensional, pulsatile flows at the edge of turbulence.

  7. Genetic lineage tracing discloses arteriogenesis as the main mechanism for collateral growth in the mouse heart

    PubMed Central

    He, Lingjuan; Liu, Qiaozhen; Hu, Tianyuan; Huang, Xiuzhen; Zhang, Hui; Tian, Xueying; Yan, Yan; Wang, Li; Huang, Yu; Miquerol, Lucile; Wythe, Joshua D.; Zhou, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Aims Capillary and arterial endothelial cells share many common molecular markers in both the neonatal and adult hearts. Herein, we aim to establish a genetic tool that distinguishes these two types of vessels in order to determine the cellular mechanism underlying collateral artery formation. Methods and results Using Apln-GFP and Apln-LacZ reporter mice, we demonstrate that APLN expression is enriched in coronary vascular endothelial cells. However, APLN expression is reduced in coronary arterial endothelial cells. Genetic lineage tracing, using an Apln-CreER mouse line, robustly labelled capillary endothelial cells, but not arterial endothelial cells. We leveraged this differential activity of Apln-CreER to study collateral artery formation following myocardial infarction (MI). In a neonatal heart MI model, we found that Apln-CreER-labelled capillary endothelial cells do not contribute to the large collateral arteries. Instead, these large collateral arteries mainly arise from pre-existing, infrequently labelled coronary arteries, indicative of arteriogenesis. Furthermore, in an adult heart MI model, Apln-CreER activity also distinguishes large and small diameter arteries from capillaries. Lineage tracing in this setting demonstrated that most large and small coronary arteries in the infarcted myocardium and border region are derived not from capillaries, but from pre-existing arteries. Conclusion Apln-CreER-mediated lineage tracing distinguishes capillaries from large arteries, in both the neonatal and adult hearts. Through genetic fate mapping, we demonstrate that pre-existing arteries, but not capillaries, extensively contribute to collateral artery formation following myocardial injury. These results suggest that arteriogenesis is the major mechanism underlying collateral vessel formation. PMID:26768261

  8. Dust feed mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Milliman, Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

  9. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  10. Feeding DDGS to Finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, aquaculture has been growing at a rapid pace (currently 8.5% per year) over the past two decades, and is recognized as the fastest growing food production sector of agriculture in the U.S. Growth of aquaculture and other industries (e.g., other monogastric and ruminant livestock feed appl...

  11. Feed Your Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failmezger, Tammie L.

    2006-01-01

    Language arts teachers and library media specialists bear the responsibility of teaching students how to properly feed their brains. In this article, the author describes how she teaches her students to make wise choices when selecting books. Furthermore, she presents the "Brain Food Pyramid" model that looks similar to the food pyramid but it…

  12. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... Your child's gastrostomy tube (G-tube) is a special tube in your child's stomach that will help deliver food and medicines until your ...

  13. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  14. Pre-breeding beef heifer management and season affect mid to late gestation uterine artery hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Cain, Amanda J; Lemley, Caleb O; Walters, F Kevin; Christiansen, David L; King, E Heath; Hopper, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of beef heifer development practices and the influence of season on uterine artery hemodynamics during mid to late gestation. Metrics of uterine artery blood flow (BF) of fall calving and spring calving crossbred beef heifers (n = 27) developed on either a low-input (LOW|FALL n = 6; LOW|SPRING n = 6) or a conventional (CON|FALL n = 9; CON|SPRING n = 6) heifer development scheme were evaluated. Heifer body weight (BW) was measured every 30 days, and uterine BF, arterial diameter (AD), pulsatility index (PI), and resistance index were measured for uterine arteries ipsilateral and contralateral to the conceptus on days 180, 210, and 240 of gestation. Calf birth weight was assessed at parturition. Repeated-measures ANOVA was performed. There were significant treatment × season (P = 0.0001) and season × day (P = 0.003) interactions on heifer BW. Main effects of season (P = 0.04) and gestational day (P = 0.0001) were observed on contralateral BF, and there was a season × day interaction (P = 0.03) on ipsilateral BF. As such, there was a season × day interaction on total blood flow (TBF; P = 0.05), whereby TBF increased as gestation progressed and spring calving heifers displayed increased TBF. However, when adjusted for BW, an additional main effect of treatment was observed (P = 0.0007) in which LOW heifers had increased TBF compared with CON heifers. Correspondingly, LOW heifers displayed increased AD compared with CON heifers, and spring calving heifers had greater AD than fall calving females. There was also a main effect of season on calf birth weight (P = 0.02). It was concluded that developing replacement heifers with low-input management schemes does not yield compromised uteroplacental hemodynamics compared with traditionally developed females when nutrition during gestation is adequate. Furthermore, spring calving 2-year-old heifers have increased

  15. Traumatic Distal Ulnar Artery Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Karaarslan, Ahmet A.; Karakaşlı, Ahmet; Mayda, Aslan; Karcı, Tolga; Aycan, Hakan; Kobak, Şenol

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about a posttraumatic distal ulnar artery thrombosis case that has occurred after a single blunt trauma. The ulnar artery thrombosis because of chronic trauma is a frequent condition (hypothenar hammer syndrome) but an ulnar artery thrombosis because of a single direct blunt trauma is rare. Our patient who has been affected by a single blunt trauma to his hand and developed ulnar artery thrombosis has been treated by resection of the thrombosed ulnar artery segment. This report shows that a single blunt trauma can cause distal ulnar artery thrombosis in the hand and it can be treated merely by thrombosed segment resection in suitable cases. PMID:25276455

  16. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (<2.5 cm) offered at a ratio of 7:3 as a mixture (MIX), or as separate components (COM). Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration

  17. Subgross and macroscopic investigation of the coeliac artery in the chinchilla (chinchilla lanigera).

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, V; Cevik Demirkan, A; Akosman, M S

    2013-08-01

    The knowledge of branching and variations of the coeliac artery is clinically important, especially in the surgical operations and non-surgical treatments.Moreover, the chinchillas abdominal region have been used as a model in some surgical experimental researches. In this frame, we have aimed to explain the branching of this artery in the chinchillas detailedly. A total of 10 adult, healthy,male chinchillas (chinchilla lanigera) were used to investigate the origin and the course of the coeliac artery and its branches. Coloured latex was injected into the carotid arteries, following conventional anatomical applications. The results indicated that the coeliac artery was divided into 4 branches such as left gastricartery, hepatic artery, splenic artery and gastrolienal artery. The left gastric artery was a continuity of the coeliac artery and the main vessel of the stomach. The hepatic artery was divided into the left lateral branch, the left medial branch and the right branch. The splenic artery was covered by the pancreas tissue and sent branches to the pancreas. The gastrolienal artery was supplying the fundus of the stomach and the dorsal extremity of the spleen. We believe that the findings will be of help to the researchers interested in the anatomical area, surgeons and experimental researches.

  18. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Spontaneous Rupture of the Omental Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Yamagami, Takuji; Morishita, Hiroyuki; Iida, Shigeharu; Tazoe, Jun; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji; Ikeda, Jun; Nagata, Akihiro; Sato, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2011-02-15

    We encountered a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. A 25-year-old man without any episode of abdominal trauma or bleeding disorders came to the emergency unit with left upper abdominal pain. Hematoma with extravasation of the greater omentum and a hemoperitoneum was confirmed on abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Bleeding from the omental artery was suspected based on these findings. Transcatheter arterial embolization was successfully performed after extravasation of the omental artery, which arises from the left gastroepiploic artery, was confirmed on arteriography. Partial ometectomy was performed 10 days after transcatheter arterial embolization, revealing that the hematoma measured 10 cm in diameter in the greater omentum. Pathological examination showed rupture of the branch of an omental artery without abnormal findings, such as an aneurysm or neoplasm. Thus, we diagnosed him with spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. The patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital 10 days after the surgery, with a favorable postoperative course.

  19. Ruptured jejunal artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sílvia; Costa, Alexandre; Pereira, Tiago; Maciel, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Visceral artery aneurysms (VAAs), unlike aortic aneurysms, are very rare, but are also a potentially lethal vascular disease. Jejunal artery aneurysms only account for less than 3% of VAAs, but have a 30% risk of rupture, with 20% death rate, presenting with only few and vague symptoms. We report the case of a 76-year-old man presenting at the emergency department (ED) with a crampy epigastric pain and vomiting. An ultrasound performed diagnosed free abdominal fluid and immediate CT scan diagnosed jejunal artery aneurysm spontaneously rupturing, followed by hypovolaemic shock. Emergent surgery was undertaken, and aneurysmectomy, followed by partial enterectomy with primary anastomosis were performed, because of segmentary jejunal ischaemia. The patient's recovery was unremarkable. High level of suspicion, rapid diagnosis capability and prompt surgical or endovascular intervention, as well as an effective teamwork in the ED are critical to avoid the devastating consequences of ruptured VAAs. PMID:23771962

  20. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome in a Young Military Basic Trainee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    referred to both bariatric and vascular surgery specialists for consideration of operative repair. She declined operative intervention and was...patients with severe anorexia nervosa.10 Severe cases may require surgery or parenteral feeding because of food avoidance leading to further loss of...artery syn- drome presenting with acute massive gastric dilatation, gastric wall pneumatosis and portal venous gas. Surgery 2003; 134: 840–3. 6. Rudinsky

  1. Understanding Arteries | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Understanding Arteries Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Below: ... the arteries and veins are healthy. A Healthy Artery An artery is a muscular tube. It has ...

  2. Main Oxidizer Valve Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addona, Brad; Eddleman, David

    2015-01-01

    A developmental Main Oxidizer Valve (MOV) was designed by NASA-MSFC using additive manufacturing processes. The MOV is a pneumatically actuated poppet valve to control the flow of liquid oxygen to an engine's injector. A compression spring is used to return the valve to the closed state when pneumatic pressure is removed from the valve. The valve internal parts are cylindrical in shape, which lends itself to traditional lathe and milling operations. However, the valve body represents a complicated shape and contains the majority of the mass of the valve. Additive manufacturing techniques were used to produce a part that optimized mass and allowed for design features not practical with traditional machining processes.

  3. Splenic artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Tcbc-Rj, Rui Antônio Ferreira; Ferreira, Myriam Christina Lopes; Ferreira, Daniel Antônio Lopes; Ferreira, André Gustavo Lopes; Ramos, Flávia Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysms - the most common visceral artery aneurysms - are found most often in multiparous women and in patients with portal hypertension. Indications for treatment of splenic artery aneurysm or pseudoaneurysm include specific symptoms, female gender and childbearing age, presence of portal hypertension, planned liver transplantation, a pseudoaneurysm of any size, and an aneurysm with a diameter of more than 2.5cm. Historically, the treatment of splenic artery aneurysm has been surgical ligation of the splenic artery, ligation of the aneurysm, or aneurysmectomy with or without splenectomy, depending on the aneurysm location. There are other percutaneous interventional techniques. The authors present a case of a splenic artery aneurysm in a 51-year-old woman, detected incidentally. RESUMO Aneurismas da artéria esplênica - os aneurismas arteriais viscerais mais comuns - são encontrados mais frequentemente em mulheres multíparas e em pacientes com hipertensão portal. As indicações para o seu tratamento incluem sintomas específicos, sexo feminino e idade fértil, presença de hipertensão portal, paciente em fila de transplante hepático, um pseudoaneurisma de qualquer tamanho, e um aneurisma com um diâmetro superior a 2,5cm. Historicamente, o tratamento do aneurisma da artéria esplênica tem sido a ligadura cirúrgica da artéria esplênica, a ligadura do aneurisma ou a aneurismectomia, com ou sem esplenectomia, dependendo do local do aneurisma. Existem outras técnicas intervencionistas percutâneas. Os autores apresentam o caso de um aneurisma de artéria esplênica em uma mulher de 51 anos de idade, diagnosticado incidentalmente.

  4. Anomalous systemic arterial supply of pulmonary sequestration in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiaomeng; Li, Ji; Li, Jing; Cai, Baiqiang

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study described the characteristics of the systemic arterial supply of pulmonary sequestration (PS) in an attempt to better distinguish PS from other acquired lesions. METHODS: We identified 25 patients hospitalized at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital during January 2013 to December 2015 with the assistance of medical catalogers. Twenty-three patients with a definite diagnosis of “pulmonary sequestration” clinically or pathologically were included in the study. The medical records, imaging information, and pathological data were reviewed retrospectively. The general characteristics of the patients and the features of the anomalous arteries were summarized. RESULTS: Aberrant arterial supply of PS was found in all 23 (100%) cases. Among them, twenty patients received surgery, including 14 (70%) with aberrant arterial supply found before surgery, and the other 6 (30%) found during surgery. Nineteen (82.6%) patients had a single systematic arterial supply, with a median diameter of 8 mm. More than one arterial supplies were found in four (17.4%) cases. In 21 (91.3%) cases, the anomalous systemic artery originated from the descending thoracic aorta just adjacent to the sequestrated lung which it supplied, without the presence of accompanying bronchi. In twenty (87.0%) patients who received the surgical intervention, samples of 12 (85.7%) were proved to have elastic vessel walls, out of the 14 samples in which the anomalous systemic arteries were available for analysis. CONCLUSIONS: There are no certain pathology diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of PS. The detecting of the aberrant systematic artery and distinguishing it from the bronchial arteries corresponded to certain lung abnormalities are the keys to the accurate diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration in adult patients. We propose that the characteristic features of the anomalous arteries include: Originating from aorta and its main branches, adjacent to the sequestrated area

  5. Feeding the Monster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  6. Idiopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kotwica, Tomasz; Szumarska, Joanna; Staniszewska-Marszalek, Edyta; Mazurek, Walentyna; Kosmala, Wojciech

    2009-05-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is an uncommon lesion, which may be associated with different etiologies including congenital cardiovascular diseases, systemic vasculitis, connective tissue diseases, infections, and trauma. Idiopathic PAA is sporadically diagnosed by exclusion of concomitant major pathology. We report a case of a 56-year-old female with an idiopathic pulmonary artery dilatation identified fortuitously by echocardiography and confirmed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Neither significant pulmonary valve dysfunction nor pulmonary hypertension and other cardiac abnormalities which might contribute to the PAA development were found. Here, we describe echocardiographic and computed tomography findings and review the literature on PAA management.

  7. Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Shomaf, Maha; Obeidat, Nathir; Najjar, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcomas (PAS) are extremely rare sarcomas of uncertain histogenesis that often mimic pulmonary thromboemboli. This is a report of a 60-year-old female patient who presented with recurrent chest pain and cough. The patient was first diagnosed with pulmonary embolism but she did not improve on anticoagulant therapy. Follow-up imaging studies revealed a mass in the left hilar region extending into the pulmonary trunk and branches of the left pulmonary artery. The tru-cut biopsy revealed an undifferentiated sarcoma. The patient died 10 months after her initial presentation. PMID:26425600

  8. Effects of aging and exercise training on skeletal muscle blood flow and resistance artery morphology

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Michael W.; Stabley, John N.; Dominguez, James M.; Davis, Robert T.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Muller-Delp, Judy M.; Delp, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    With old age, blood flow to the high-oxidative red skeletal muscle is reduced and blood flow to the low-oxidative white muscle is elevated during exercise. Changes in the number of feed arteries perforating the muscle are thought to contribute to this altered hyperemic response during exercise. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training would ameliorate age-related differences in blood flow during exercise and feed artery structure in skeletal muscle. Young (6–7 mo old, n = 36) and old (24 mo old, n = 25) male Fischer 344 rats were divided into young sedentary (Sed), old Sed, young exercise-trained (ET), and old ET groups, where training consisted of 10–12 wk of treadmill exercise. In Sed and ET rats, blood flow to the red and white portions of the gastrocnemius muscle (GastRed and GastWhite) and the number and luminal cross-sectional area (CSA) of all feed arteries perforating the muscle were measured at rest and during exercise. In the old ET group, blood flow was greater to GastRed (264 ± 13 and 195 ± 9 ml·min−1·100 g−1 in old ET and old Sed, respectively) and lower to GastWhite (78 ± 5 and 120 ± 6 ml·min−1·100 g−1 in old ET and old Sed, respectively) than in the old Sed group. There was no difference in the number of feed arteries between the old ET and old Sed group, although the CSA of feed arteries from old ET rats was larger. In young ET rats, there was an increase in the number of feed arteries perforating the muscle. Exercise training mitigated old age-associated differences in blood flow during exercise within gastrocnemius muscle. However, training-induced adaptations in resistance artery morphology differed between young (increase in feed artery number) and old (increase in artery CSA) animals. The altered blood flow pattern induced by exercise training with old age would improve the local matching of O2 delivery to consumption within the skeletal muscle. PMID:23042906

  9. Reconstructive surgery for segmental arterial mediolysis involving both the internal carotid artery and visceral arteries.

    PubMed

    Obara, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Kenji; Narimatsu, Yoshiaki; Sugiura, Hitoshi; Kitajima, Masaki; Kakefuda, Toshihiro

    2006-03-01

    Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is a rare, nonatherosclerotic, noninflammatory arteriopathy. A 52-year-old man with sudden hemiparesis of the right side was found to have an aneurysm of the left internal carotid artery and concomitant multiple aneurysms of the extrahepatic, celiac, and superior mesenteric arteries. Reconstructive operations using autologous vein graft were performed to treat the aneurysms. The histopathology analyses of resected arterial and aneurysmal specimens showed characteristics consistent with SAM. To our knowledge, a successfully treated case of SAM affecting both the carotid artery and visceral arteries has not previously been described.

  10. Design of a novel automated methanol feed system for pilot-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Hamaker, Kent H; Johnson, Daniel C; Bellucci, Joseph J; Apgar, Kristie R; Soslow, Sherry; Gercke, John C; Menzo, Darrin J; Ton, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris requires a large volume of methanol feed during the induction phase. However, a large volume of methanol feed is difficult to use in the processing suite because of the inconvenience of constant monitoring, manual manipulation steps, and fire and explosion hazards. To optimize and improve safety of the methanol feed process, a novel automated methanol feed system has been designed and implemented for industrial fermentation of P. pastoris. Details of the design of the methanol feed system are described. The main goals of the design were to automate the methanol feed process and to minimize the hazardous risks associated with storing and handling large quantities of methanol in the processing area. The methanol feed system is composed of two main components: a bulk feed (BF) system and up to three portable process feed (PF) systems. The BF system automatically delivers methanol from a central location to the portable PF system. The PF system provides precise flow control of linear, step, or exponential feed of methanol to the fermenter. Pilot-scale fermentations with linear and exponential methanol feeds were conducted using two Mut(+) (methanol utilization plus) strains, one expressing a recombinant therapeutic protein and the other a monoclonal antibody. Results show that the methanol feed system is accurate, safe, and efficient. The feed rates for both linear and exponential feed methods were within ± 5% of the set points, and the total amount of methanol fed was within 1% of the targeted volume.

  11. Feeding rate as valuable information in primate feeding ecology.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Naofumi

    2009-04-01

    In this review I outline studies on wild non-human primates using information on feeding rate, which is defined as the food intake per minute on a dry-weight basis; further, I summarize the significance of feeding rate in primate feeding ecology. The optimal foraging theory has addressed three aspects of animal feeding: (1) optimal food patch choice, (2) optimal time allocation to different patches, and (3) optimal food choice. In order to gain a better understanding of these three aspects, the feeding rate itself or its relevance indices (e.g., rates of calorie and protein intake) could be appropriate measures to assess the quality of food and food patches. Moreover, the feeding rate plays an essential role in estimation of total food intake, because it varies greatly for different food items and the feeding time is not a precise measure. The feeding rate could also vary across individuals who simultaneously feed on the same food items in the same food patch. Body size-dependent and rank-dependent differences in the feeding rate sometimes cause individuals to take strategic behavioral options. In the closing remarks, I discuss the usefulness of even limited data on feeding rate obtained under adverse observational conditions in understanding primate feeding ecology.

  12. Coanda effect on ductal flow in the pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Guntheroth, W; Miyaki-Hull, C

    1999-03-01

    The Coanda effect (the tendency of a jet stream to adhere to a boundary wall), and the relevant anatomy, may explain the location of ductal jets within the main pulmonary artery. With the usual insertion of the duct close to the left pulmonary artery, during right ventricular ejection, the ductal jet adheres to the left wall of the main pulmonary artery. When right ventricular ejection is absent in pulmonary atresia, the ductal jet streams down the right wall of the pulmonary artery to the pulmonary valve, reverses, and maintains a parallel column back toward the bifurcation. If the reversed flow is mistaken for ejection from the right ventricle, the diagnosis of pulmonary atresia may be missed.

  13. A laboratory model of the aortic root flow including the coronary arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querzoli, Giorgio; Fortini, Stefania; Espa, Stefania; Melchionna, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular flows have been extensively investigated by means of in vitro models to assess the prosthetic valve performances and to provide insight into the fluid dynamics of the heart and proximal aorta. In particular, the models for the study of the flow past the aortic valve have been continuously improved by including, among other things, the compliance of the vessel and more realistic geometries. The flow within the sinuses of Valsalva is known to play a fundamental role in the dynamics of the aortic valve since they host a recirculation region that interacts with the leaflets. The coronary arteries originate from the ostia located within two of the three sinuses, and their presence may significantly affect the fluid dynamics of the aortic root. In spite of their importance, to the extent of the authors' knowledge, coronary arteries were not included so far when modeling in vitro the transvalvular aortic flow. We present a pulse duplicator consisting of a passively pulsing ventricle, a compliant proximal aorta, and coronary arteries connected to the sinuses of Valsalva. The coronary flow is modulated by a self-regulating device mimicking the physiological mechanism, which is based on the contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle during the cardiac cycle. Results show that the model reproduces satisfyingly the coronary flow. The analysis of the time evolution of the velocity and vorticity fields within the aortic root reveals the main characteristics of the backflow generated through the aorta in order to feed the coronaries during the diastole. Experiments without coronary flow have been run for comparison. Interestingly, the lifetime of the vortex forming in the sinus of Valsalva during the systole is reduced by the presence of the coronaries. As a matter of fact, at the end of the systole, that vortex is washed out because of the suction generated by the coronary flow. Correspondingly, the valve closure is delayed and faster compared to the case with

  14. Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization With Gelatin Sponge Microparticles Treated for BCLC Stage B Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kamran, Asad Ullah; Liu, Ying; Li, Feng E.; Liu, Song; Wu, Jian Lin; Zhang, Yue Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gelatin sponge particles are commonly used in the conventional transarterial chemoembolization (c-TACE) as an adjuvant embolizing agent for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there are few reports regarding the clinical applications of gelatin sponge microparticles (GSMs) as a main embolizing agent in the treatment of HCC. This retrospective study aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B HCC treated with intra-arterial injection of 350 to 560 μm GSMs mixed with anticancer agents. Twenty-four patients with unresectable BCLC stage B HCC without any prior treatment underwent transarterial chemoembolization with gelatin sponge microparticles (GSMs-TACE) of diameter 350 to 560 μm mixed with lobaplatin. The mixture was injected into tumor-feeding arteries until the sluggish flow in selective artery. Safety was measured by assessing complication rate, and efficacy was reflected by assessing response to mRECIST therapy and overall survival. The survival rate was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. All 24 BCLC stage B HCC patients showed good tolerance to the procedure. The mean follow-up period was 27 months and mean number of TACE treatments per patient was 3.7 sessions (range 1–10) during the follow-up period. Postprocedure complications were mild and treated by symptomatic treatment. Six months and 1 year overall survival rates were 100% and 87.5%, respectively. Overall median survival time was 25 months (95%CI: 21.06–28.95 months). GSMs-TACE is a safe and effective method for BCLC stage B HCC patients. PMID:26717358

  15. Coronary artery balloon angioplasty - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100160.htm Coronary artery balloon angioplasty - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... slide 9 out of 9 Overview The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. The right ...

  16. Peripheral artery bypass - leg - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000239.htm Peripheral artery bypass - leg - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. You had peripheral artery bypass surgery to re-route the blood supply ...

  17. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Claudication

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty deposits inside them. This is called atherosclerosis. If you have PAD, your arms, and more ... also more likely in people who already have atherosclerosis in other arteries, such as the arteries in ...

  18. A rare case report of subscapular artery.

    PubMed

    Khaki, Amir Afshin; Shoja, M A Mohagjel; Khaki, Arash

    2011-01-01

    Axillary artery is one of the most important arteries of the upper limb, which is a continua- tion of the subclavian artery. It begins at the lateral border of the first rib and ends at the inferior border of the teres major where it becomes the brachial artery. Axillary artery has six important branches included: 1) Superior thoracic artery 2) Thoracoacromial artery 3) Lateral thoracic artery 4) Subscapular artery 5) Posterior circumflex humeral artery 6) Anterior circumflex humeral artery. Subscapular artery arises from the third part of axillary artery normally and then divides into cir- cumflex scapular artery that extremely enters the triangular space. The other branch of subscapular artery, the thoracodorsal artery, accompanies thracodorsal nerve to lateral border of scapula and supplies and innervates that region. In this case the subscapular artery was absent in both sides and instead of that the circumflex scapular artery was directly derived from axillary artery and the thoracodorsal artery is separated from circumflex scapular artery as a thin and short branch, too. It seemed that the lateral thoracic artery, which was thicker than its normal condition, supplied the muscles of the lateral part of scapula and the thoracodorsal muscle. Other branches of the axillary artery demonstrated without any abnormally. Since axillary artery has the highest rate of rapture and damage coming after the popliteal artery, knowing the variations is important and essential for surgeons, radiologist and anatomist.

  19. [Main parasitic skin disorders].

    PubMed

    Bernigaud, C; Monsel, G; Delaunay, P; Do-Pham, G; Foulet, F; Botterel, F; Chosidow, O

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous parasitic skin diseases are frequent in human pathology. There are few reliable epidemiological data on the prevalence and/or incidence of such diseases. Skin parasites are cosmopolitan but their global distribution is heterogenous; prevalence is especially high in subtropical and tropical countries. They are mainly due to arthropods (insects and mites). Many species of parasites are involved, explaining the diversity of their clinical signs. The most common are caused by ectoparasites such as scabies or pediculosis (head lice, body lice and pubic lice). Clinical signs may be related to the penetration of the parasite under the skin, its development, the inoculation of venom or allergic symptoms. Diagnosis can be easy when clinical signs are pathognomonic (e.g. burrows in the interdigital web spaces in scabies) or sometimes more difficult. Some epidemiological characteristics (diurnal or nocturnal bite, seasonality) and specific clinical presentation (single or multiple bites, linear or grouped lesions) can be a great diagnostic help. Modern non-invasive tools (dermoscopy or confocal microscopy) will play an important role in the future but the eye and experience of the specialist (dermatologist, parasitologist, infectious disease specialist or entomologist) remains for the time the best way to guide or establish a diagnosis. For most skin parasites, therapeutic proposals are rarely based on studies of high level of evidence or randomized trials but more on expert recommendations or personal experience.

  20. Islam and infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Ulfat; Ahmed, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Few physicians in the United States receive formal education related to principles of infant care in Islamic families. Breastfeeding has a religious basis in Islam and it is recommended that the mother suckle her offspring for 2 years if possible. Weaning from the breast before that period is allowed if mutually decided on by both parents. The infant's father has an obligation to support his wife through any circumstances that may affect breastfeeding and, in case of divorce, provide shelter and financial support to the mother-infant dyad for as long as breastfeeding continues. By showing understanding and respect of Islamic beliefs related to infant feeding, clinicians can help support healthy early feeding of Muslim infants.

  1. Segmental arterial mediolysis: unrecognized cases culled from cases of ruptured aneurysm of abdominal visceral arteries reported in the Japanese literature.

    PubMed

    Inada, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Matsuyoshi; Ikeda, Tsuneko

    2007-01-01

    Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is a rare nonatherosclerotic and noninflammatory arteriopathy that was proposed by Slavin et al. [Segmental mediolytic arteritis. A clinical pathologic study, Lab. Invest. 35 (1976) 23-29]. It mainly involves abdominal visceral arteries and is characterized by lytic degeneration of the media, resulting in intraabdominal bleeding. We collected 27 unrecognized cases of SAM by reviewing microscopic slides of cases of ruptured aneurysms of visceral arteries, except splenic and hepatic aneurysms, reported in the Japanese literature. This paper describes the pathological and clinical features of these cases. The symptom at onset was abdominal pain associated with intraabdominal bleeding in all cases. The most involved artery was the middle colic artery, accounting for 14 (50%), followed by gastric and gastroepiploic arteries, (6 and 5, respectively). Seventy-eight percent of aneurysms were of dissecting type and the rest of pseudoaneurysm type, except for one. Multiple aneurysms were found in 9 cases (33.3%). Pathological lesions were acute in all. The outcome of those who had surgery was good, even in those who had surgery for 1 ruptured aneurysm, leaving the others unmanaged. The relationship of SAM to fibromuscular dysplasia is discussed. Secondary changes in the wall of the accompanying vein to the affected artery are briefly described. It is emphasized that the majority of aneurysms of abdominal visceral arteries are gathered together as SAM as a definite clinical and pathological entity.

  2. Breast feeding, bottle feeding, and non-nutritive sucking; effects on occlusion in deciduous dentition

    PubMed Central

    Viggiano, D; Fasano, D; Monaco, G; Strohmenger, L

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effect of the type of feeding and non-nutritive sucking activity on occlusion in deciduous dentition. Methods: Retrospective study of 1130 preschool children (3–5 years of age) who had detailed infant feeding and non-nutritive sucking activity history collected by a structured questionnaire. They all had an oral examination by a dentist, blinded to different variables evaluated. Results: Non-nutritive sucking activity has a substantial effect on altered occlusion, while the effect of bottle feeding is less marked. The type of feeding did not have an effect on open bite, which was associated (89% of children with open bite) with non-nutritive sucking. Posterior cross-bite was more frequent in bottle fed children and in those with non-nutritive sucking activity. The percentage of cross-bite was lower in breast fed children with non-nutritive sucking activity (5%) than in bottle fed children with non-nutritive sucking activity (13%). Conclusions: Data show that non-nutritive sucking activity rather than the type of feeding in the first months of life is the main risk factor for development of altered occlusion and open bite in deciduous dentition. Children with non-nutritive sucking activity and being bottle fed had more than double the risk of posterior cross-bite. Breast feeding seems to have a protective effect on development of posterior cross-bite in deciduous dentition. PMID:15557045

  3. Testing Percutaneous Arterial Closure Devices: An Animal Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ni Ruifang; Kranokpiraksa, Pawanrat; Pavcnik, Dusan Kakizawa, Hideaki; Uchida, Barry T.; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef

    2009-03-15

    The ovine superficial femoral artery was used for testing the efficacy of percutaneous arterial closure devices (PACDs) in their developmental stage. Two topical devices containing chitostan, one staple-mediated PACD and a porcine small intestinal submucosa plug, were tested by follow-up angiography in 37 sheep. Absence or presence of bleeding and time to bleeding cessation were the main criteria for evaluation of PAVD efficacy. The results of these tests directed modification of individual PACDs and improved their efficacy.

  4. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels in the regulation of basal and agonist-elevated tones in isolated conduit arteries. Short communication.

    PubMed

    Pataricza, J; Márton, Z; Hegedus, Z; Krassói, Irén; Kun, A; Varró, A; Papp, J Gy

    2004-01-01

    Functional role of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels on the basal and agonist-elevated arterial tones was investigated in isolated rabbit aorta, porcine and canine coronary arteries as well as in human internal mammary artery. The vascular tones enhanced by contractile agents were increased further by preincubation of these conduit blood vessels with selective (charybdotoxin or iberiotoxin) or nonselective (tetraethylammonium) inhibitors of KCa channels. The basal tone (without an agonist) was increased only in the canine coronary artery. The results indicate a feed-back regulatory role of KCa channels counteracting the vasospasm of conduit arteries.

  5. Pancreaticoduodenal arterial aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Verta, M J; Dean, R H; Yao, J S; Conn, J; Mehn, W H; Bergan, J J

    1977-01-01

    Experience with four aneurysms of the pancreaticoduodenal artery is reviewed and compared to the reported experience of 19 other cases. In view of the common presentation of such lesions as intra-abdominal hemorrhage preceded by non-specific abdominal pain and other digestive symptoms, it is suggested that angiography perfomed preoperatively or intraoperatively allows definitive diagnosis and leads to specific therapy. PMID:406863

  6. Traumatic Brachial Artery Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Ergunes, Kazim; Yilik, Levent; Ozsoyler, Ibrahim; Kestelli, Mert; Ozbek, Cengiz; Gurbuz, Ali

    2006-01-01

    We performed this retrospective study to analyze our strategies for managing and surgically treating brachial artery injuries. Fifty-seven patients with a total of 58 traumatic brachial artery injuries underwent surgery at our institution, from August 1996 through November 2004. Fifty-four patients were male and 3 were female (age range, 7 to 75 years; mean, 29.4 years). Forty-four of the patients had penetrating injuries (18 had stab wounds; 16, window glass injuries; and 10, industrial accidents), 10 had blunt trauma injuries (traffic accidents), and 3 had gunshot injuries. Fourteen patients (24.6%) had peripheral nerve injury. All patients underwent Doppler ultrasonographic examination. The repair of the 58 arterial injuries involved end-to-end anastomosis for 32 injuries (55.2%), reverse saphenous vein graft interpositional grafts for 18 (31%), and primary repair for 8 (13.8%). Venous continuity was achieved in 11 (84.6%) of 13 patients who had major venous injuries. Nine of the 57 patients (15.8%) required primary fasciotomy. Follow-up showed that 5 of the 14 patients with peripheral nerve injury had apparent disabilities due to nerve injury. One patient underwent amputation. There were no deaths. We believe that good results can be achieved in patients with brachial artery injuries by use of careful physical examination, Doppler ultrasonography, and restoration of viability with vascular repair and dbridement of nonviable tissues. Traumatic neurologic injury frequently leads to disability of the extremities. PMID:16572866

  7. Hepatic Artery Infusion Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Schüller, J.; Kroiss, A.; Dinstl, K.

    1990-01-01

    Hepatic artery chemotherapy was given to 36 patients, using totally implantable devices consisting of a port and external pump. Twenty-seven patients had inoperable liver metastases of colorectal origin. The infusion system was inserted by laparotomy into the hepatic artery via the gastroduodenal artery. There was no operative mortality. Thirteen infusion systems could not be used for chemotherapy due to dislodgement, early death and lack of follow-up. FUdR was infused every two weeks. There were minor local complications like thrombosis of the system and dislodgement of the port. Toxic effects could be managed by reducing the dose. Response to chemotherapy was evaluated by survival, clinical condition, CEA, ultrasound and CT six months after onset of arterial chemotherapy. Ten/twenty-three patients (43%) responded to therapy, eight of them died on the average 19 months after initial chemotherapy. Six patients were non-responders, seven had stable disease. Five/ten patients developed extrahepatic metastases. Mean survival time was 13.1 months, mean interval until relapse 10.6 months. PMID:2149279

  8. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... may help lower your chance of having a stroke. But you will need to make lifestyle changes to help prevent plaque buildup, blood clots, and other problems in your carotid arteries over time. You may need to change your diet and start an exercise program, if your doctor tells you exercise is ...

  9. The effect of feeding on the respiratory activity of the sloth.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, M A C; Lima, A M J; Bezerra, A P; Duarte, D P F; Da-Costa, C P

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to confirm whether feeding influences the resting breathing rate and to observe possible alterations in blood gas and pH levels produced by feeding in unanesthetized sloths (Bradypus variegatus). Five adult male sloths (4.1 +/- 0.6 kg) were placed daily in an experimental chair for a period of at least 4 h for sitting adaptation. Five measurements were made for each sloth. However, the sloths one, two and five were studied once and the sloths three and four were studied twice. Breathing rate was determined with an impedance meter and the output signal was digitized. Arterial blood samples were collected for blood gas analysis with a BGE electrolytes analyzer and adjusted for the animal's body temperature and hemoglobin content. The data are reported as mean +/- SD and were collected during the resting period (8:00-10:00 h) and during the feeding period (16:00-18:00 h). The mean breathing rate increased during mastication of ymbahuba leaves (rest: 5.0 +/- 1, feeding: 10 +/- 1 bpm). No significant alterations were observed in arterial pH (rest: 7.42 +/- 0.05, feeding: 7.45 +/- 0.03), PCO2 (rest: 35.2 +/- 5.3, feeding: 33.3 +/- 4.4 mmHg) or PO2 (rest: 77.5 +/- 8.2, feeding: 78.4 +/- 5.2 mmHg) levels. These results indicate that in unanesthetized sloths 1) feeding evokes an increase in breathing rate without a significant change in arterial pH, PCO2 or PO2 levels, and 2) the increase in breathing rate produced by feeding probably is due to the act of mastication.

  10. Assessment of feed resources, feeding practices and coping strategies to feed scarcity by smallholder urban dairy producers in Jimma town, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Duguma, Belay; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder dairy production is increasingly becoming popular in Jimma town. However, feed shortage is a major constraint to dairy production. The objectives of this study was to assess feed resources, feeding practices and farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy producers in Jimma town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. A total of 54 randomly selected dairy farmers were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and through direct observations. Twenty major feed types used by dairy farmers were identified and categorized into five classes: natural pasture grazing, green feeds, hay, concentrate (commercial mix and agro-industrial by-products) and non-conventional feed resources. Green feeds-fresh or succulent grasses and legumes (mean rank = 0.361), concentrate (0.256), hay (0.198), non-conventional feeds (0.115) and natural pasture grazing (0.070) were ranked as the main feed resources in that order of importance. Green feed (94.4 % of the respondents) was found to be the main basal diet of dairy cattle. Overall, wheat bran (85.2 % of the respondents), commercial concentrate (55.6 %), noug (Guizotia abyssinica) cake (20.4 %), cotton seed cake (7.4 %) and molasses (7.4 %) were the main concentrate supplements used (P > 0.05). Local brew waste (attela) (77.8 % of the respondents), bean and pea hulls (42.6 %) enset (Ensete ventricosum) leaf and pseudo-stem (37 %), sugarcane tops (33.3 %), banana leaf and stem/stover (16.7 %) and papaya stem (16.7 %) were the dominant non-conventional feed resources in the surveyed area (P > 0.05). About 79.6, 7.4, 1.9 and 11.1 % of the farmers used zero-, semi-zero-, and the combination of zero- and semi-zero- and free-grazing systems, respectively. Most farmers (90.7 %) offered concentrate supplements to milking cows. However, supplementation did not consider milk yield, physiological status and condition of cows. All the farmers (100

  11. Overview of FEED, the Feeding Experiments End-user Database

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Christine E.; Vinyard, Christopher J.; Williams, Susan H.; Gapeyev, Vladimir; Liu, Xianhua; Lapp, Hilmar; German, Rebecca Z.

    2011-01-01

    The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format stored at a central source, develop a standardized terminology for describing and organizing the data, and carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as text and images that describe experimental protocols, research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing digital archive that will facilitate new research into understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy. PMID:21700574

  12. Cerebral Arterial Fenestrations

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Daniel L; Stout, Charles E; Kim, Warren T; Kansagra, Akash P; Yu, John Paul; Gu, Amy; Jewell, Nicholas P; Hetts, Steven W; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; Halbach, Van V

    2014-01-01

    Summary Arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant with indeterminate significance. Given the controversy surrounding fenestrations we sought their prevalence within our practice along with their association with other cerebrovascular anomalies. We retrospectively reviewed 10,927 patients undergoing digital subtraction angiography between 1992 and 2011. Dictated reports were searched for the terms “fenestration” or “fenestrated” with images reviewed for relevance, yielding 228 unique cases. A Medline database search from February 1964 to January 2013 generated 304 citations, 127 cases of which were selected for analysis. Cerebral arterial fenestrations were identified in 228 patients (2.1%). At least one aneurysm was noted in 60.5% of patients, with an aneurysm arising from the fenestration in 19.6% of patients. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage or non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were present in 60.1% and 15.8%, respectively. For the subset of patients with an aneurysm arising directly from a fenestration relative to those patients with an aneurysm not immediately associated with a fenestration, the prevalence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was 66.7% vs. 58.6% (p = 0.58). Fenestrations were more often within the posterior circulation (73.2%) than the anterior circulation (24.6%), though there was no difference in the prevalence of aneurysms within these groups (61.1% vs. 60.7%, p = 1.0). Cerebral arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant more often manifesting at the anterior communicating arterial complex and basilar artery and with no definite pathological relationship with aneurysms. PMID:24976087

  13. Transthoracic coronary Doppler vibrometry in the evaluation of normal volunteers and patients with coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Comess, Keith A; Choi, Joon Hwan; Xie, Zhiyong; Achenbach, Stephan; Daniel, Werner; Beach, Kirk W; Kim, Yongmin

    2011-05-01

    Coronary artery vibrometry is a new transthoracic Doppler ultrasound method for the detection of coronary artery stenosis. It detects audio-frequency vibrations generated by coronary artery luminal diameter reduction. We studied 31 patients with known or suspected stenosis using coronary artery vibrometry and quantitative coronary angiography and 83 normal volunteers. A tissue vibration difference index (TVDI) was calculated from the left anterior descending, circumflex, left main and right coronary arteries. Accuracy for coronary artery stenosis detection using TVDI was assessed. Sensitivity for detecting coronary stenosis equal or greater than 25% diameter reduction was 89% in the left anterior descending coronary artery (16/18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 64%-98%), 87% in the right coronary artery (13/15, 95% CI = 58%-98%), 83% in the circumflex coronary artery (5/6, 95% CI = 36%-99%) and 100% in the left main artery (3/3, 95% CI = 31%-100%). The median TVDI increased with severity of stenosis, suggesting that this measure might be used to track progression/regression of coronary artery stenosis.

  14. Spasm in Arterial Grafts in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery.

    PubMed

    He, Guo-Wei; Taggart, David P

    2016-03-01

    Spasm of arterial grafts in coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is still a clinical problem, and refractory spasm can occasionally be lethal. Perioperative spasm in bypass grafts and coronary arteries has been reported in 0.43% of all coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, but this may be an underestimate. Spasm can develop not only in the internal mammary artery but more frequently in the right gastroepiploic and radial artery. The mechanism of spasm can involve many pathways, particularly those involving regulation of the intracellular calcium concentration. Endothelial dysfunction also plays a role in spasm. Depending on the clinical scenario, the possibility of spasm during and after coronary artery bypass grafting should be confirmed by angiography. If present, immediate intraluminal injection of vasodilators is often effective, although other procedures such as an intraaortic balloon pump or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may also become necessary to salvage the patient. Prevention of spasm involves many considerations, and the principles are discussed in this review article.

  15. Fine-Scale Focal Dtag Behavioral Study of Diel Trends in Activity Budgets and Sound Production of Endangered Baleen Whales in the Gulf of Maine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    individual humpback whale a) during the night showing primarily bottom feeding and b) during the day showing primarily bottom feeding . This behavior made the...Ware, C., Wiley, D., Weinrich, M. 2011. Popultion-level lateralized feeding behaviour in North Atlantic humpback whales , Megaptera novaeangliae... humpback whales on their feeding grounds in the southern Gulf of Maine: Cooperation, Commensalism, or Parasitism?

  16. The emotional and practical experiences of formula-feeding mothers.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Victoria; Komninou, Sophia; Bennett, Kate M; Halford, Jason C G; Harrold, Joanne A

    2016-11-14

    The majority of infant-feeding research is focused on identifying mother's reasons for the cessation of breastfeeding. The experience of mothers who choose to use formula is largely overlooked in quantitative designs. This study aimed to describe the emotional and practical experiences of mothers who formula feed in any quantity, and examine whether these experiences would vary among different cohorts of formula-feeding mothers according to prenatal feeding intention and postnatal feeding method. A total of 890 mothers of infants up to 26 weeks of age, who were currently formula feeding in any quantity, were recruited through relevant international social media sites via advertisements providing a link to an online survey. Predictors of emotional experiences included guilt, stigma, satisfaction, and defense as a result of their infant feeding choices. Practical predictor variables included support received from health professionals, respect displayed by their everyday environment, and main sources of infant feeding information. Descriptive findings from the overall sample highlighted a worryingly high percentage of mother's experienced negative emotions as a result of their decision to use formula. Multinomial logit models revealed that negative emotions such as guilt, dissatisfaction, and stigma were directly associated with feeding intention and method. The evidence suggests that the current approach to infant-feeding promotion and support may be paradoxically related to significant issues with emotional well-being. These findings support criticisms of how infant-feeding recommendations are framed by health care professionals and policy makers, and highlight a need to address formula feeding in a more balanced, woman-centered manner.

  17. Maternal recall of infant feeding events is accurate.

    PubMed Central

    Launer, L J; Forman, M R; Hundt, G L; Sarov, B; Chang, D; Berendes, H W; Naggan, L

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--Retrospective infant feeding data are important to the study of child and adult health patterns. The accuracy of maternal recall of past infant feeding events was examined and specifically the infant's age when breast feeding was stopped and formula feeding and solid foods were introduced. DESIGN AND SETTING--The sample consisted of Bedouin Arab women (n = 318) living in the Negev in Israel who were a part of a larger cohort participating in a prospective study of infant health and who were delivered of their infants between July 1 and December 15, 1981. Data from interviews conducted 12 and 18 months postpartum were compared to the standard data collected six months postpartum. MAIN RESULTS--As length of recall increased there was a small increase in the mean difference, and its standard deviation, between the standard and recalled age when breast feeding was stopped and formula feeding and solid foods were started. Recall on formula feeding was less accurate than recall on solid foods and breast feeding. In particular, among those 61% reporting formula use at the six month interview, 51% did not recall introducing formula when interviewed at 18 months. The odds ratio (95% CI) of stunting versus normal length for age for formula fed versus breast fed infants based on recall data (OR = 2.07; 95% CI 0.82-5.22) differed only slightly from those based on the standard data (OR = 2.21; 95% CI 0.77-6.37). The accuracy of a mother's recall varied with her child's nutritional status at the time of the interview, but not with other sociodemographic, infant, or interviewer characteristics. CONCLUSIONS--Retrospective infant feeding data based on maternal recall of events up to 18 months in the past can be used with confidence in epidemiological studies. However, data on formula feeding may not be as accurate as data on breast feeding and solid food feeding, and accuracy may decrease as length of recall increases. PMID:1645071

  18. Development and validation of the modular Feed-code method for qualitative and quantitative determination of feed botanical composition.

    PubMed

    Braglia, Luca; Gianì, Silvia; Breviario, Diego; Gavazzi, Floriana; Mastromauro, Francesco; Morello, Laura

    2016-11-01

    The analysis of feed composition in terms of ingredients is addressed by Regulation (EC) 767/2009 and is important for detecting economic fraud and for monitoring feed safety. Within the framework of the EU project Feed-code, we developed and internally validated a modular assay, relying on intron polymorphism, for the complete qualitative analysis of the botanical composition of feed and the quantitative determination of six target plant species. Main performance parameters of each module, such as applicability, repeatability, specificity, and limit of detection, were evaluated. The whole assay was applied to a set of feed-like samples and results were in agreement with the expected composition. Application to a large set of compound feed and individual raw materials revealed the occurrence of botanical impurities. When compared with microscopic analysis, the proposed method gave more reliable results. We conclude that the Feed-code prototype, readily upgradable to include more plant species, is worthy of consideration for a full validation through a collaborative trial. Graphical Abstract The modular Feed-code method for the authentication of feed botanical composition.

  19. Endovascular Treatment of Giant Splenic Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Góes Junior, Adenauer Marinho de Oliveira; Góes, Amanda Silva de Oliveira; de Albuquerque, Paloma Cals; Palácios, Renato Menezes; Abib, Simone de Campos Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Visceral artery aneurysms are uncommon. Among them, splenic artery is the most common (46–60%). Most splenic artery aneurysms are asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally, but its rupture, potentially fatal, occurs in up to 8% of cases. Presentation of Case. A female patient, 64 years old, diagnosed with a giant aneurysm of the splenic artery (approximately 6.5 cm in diameter) was successfully submitted to endovascular treatment by stent graft implantation. Discussion. Symptomatic aneurysms and those larger than 2 cm represent some of the main indications for intervention. The treatment may be by laparotomy, laparoscopy, or endovascular techniques. Among the various endovascular methods discussed in this paper, there is stent graft implantation, a method still few reported in the literature. Conclusion. Although some authors still consider the endovascular approach as an exception to the treatment of SAA, in major specialized centers these techniques have been consolidated as the preferred choice, reserving the surgical approach in cases where this cannot be used. For being a less aggressive approach, it offers an opportunity of treatment to patients considered “high risk” for surgical treatment by laparotomy/laparoscopy. PMID:23316410

  20. Analysis of self-feeding in children with feeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Kristi M; Piazza, Cathleen C; Roane, Henry S; Volkert, Valerie M; Stewart, Victoria; Kadey, Heather J; Groff, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated a method for increasing self-feeding with 3 children with a history of food refusal. The children never (2 children) or rarely (1 child) self-fed bites of food when the choice was between self-feeding and escape from eating. When the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed an identical bite of food, self-feeding was low (2 children) or variable (1 child). Levels of self-feeding increased for 2 children when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of the same food. For the 3rd child, self-feeding increased when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of a less preferred food. The results showed that altering the contingencies associated with being fed increased the probability of self-feeding, but the specific manipulations that produced self-feeding were unique to each child.

  1. Arterial conduits for hepatic artery revascularisation in adult liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Vijayaragavan; Imber, Charles; Leelaudomlipi, Surasak; Gunson, Bridget K; Buckels, John A C; Mirza, Darius F; Mayer, A David; Bramhall, Simon R

    2004-05-01

    Arterial complications after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), including hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT), are important causes of early graft failure. The use of an arterial conduit is an accepted alternative to the utilisation of native recipient hepatic artery for specific indications. This study aims to determine the efficacy of arterial conduits and the outcome in OLT. We retrospectively reviewed 1,575 cadaveric adult OLTs and identified those in which an arterial conduit was used for hepatic revascularisation. Data on the primary disease, indication for using arterial conduit, type of vascular graft, operative technique and outcome were obtained. Thirty-six (2.3%) patients underwent OLT in which arterial conduits were used for hepatic artery (HA) revascularisation. Six of these were performed on the primary transplant, while the rest (n=30) were performed in patients undergoing re-transplantation, including six who had developed hepatic artery aneurysms. The incidence of arterial conduits was 0.4% (6/1,426 cases) in all primary OLTs and 20.1% (30/149 cases) in all re-transplants. Twenty-nine procedures utilised iliac artery grafts from the same donor as the liver, six used iliac artery grafts from a different donor, and a single patient underwent a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft. Two techniques were used: infra-renal aorto-hepatic artery conduit and interposition between the donor and recipient native HAs, or branches of the HAs. The 30-day mortality rate for operations using an arterial conduit was 30.6%. Three conduits thrombosed at 9, 25 and 155 months, respectively, but one liver graft survived without re-transplantation. The arterial conduits had 1- and 5-year patency rates of 88.5% and 80.8%. The 1- and 5-year patient survival rates were 66.7% and 44%. We can thus conclude that an arterial conduit is a viable alternative option for hepatic revascularisation in both primary and re-transplantation. Despite a lower patency rate than that of

  2. Laparoscopic Management of a Very Rare Case: Cystic Artery Pseudoaneurysm Secondary to Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Ferahman, Sina; Demiryas, Süleyman; Samanci, Cesur

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of a cystic artery is a rare entity that commonly occurs secondary to biliary procedures. Most of the cases in literature are consisted of ruptured aneurysms and to our knowledge, except our case, there were only 3 cases with unruptured aneurysms, which incidentally were detected by radiological methods. When cystic artery pseudoaneurysm is present with acute cholecystitis, most of the reports in literature suggested open cholecystectomy with the ligation of the cystic artery as a main treatment option. In this paper we present a case of acute cholecystitis with unruptured cystic artery pseudoaneurysm that incidentally was detected by computed tomography (CT). Cystic artery pseudoaneurysm was handled laparoscopically with simultaneous cholecystectomy. Due to high risk of rupture, surgeons have evaded laparoscopic approach to acute cholecystitis, which accompanied cystic artery pseudoaneurysm. However herein, we proved that laparoscopic management of cystic artery pseudoaneurysm with simultaneous cholecystectomy is feasible and reliable method. PMID:27635274

  3. Evaluation of Anomalous Coronary Arteries from the Pulmonary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Guzeltas, Alper; Ozturk, Erkut; Tanidir, Ibrahim Cansaran; Kasar, Taner; Haydin, Sertac

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated clinical and diagnostic findings, treatment methods, and follow-up of cases of anomalous coronary arteries from the pulmonary artery. Methods The study included all cases diagnosed with anomalous coronary arteries from the pulmonary artery between January 2012 and January 2016. Data from patients’ demographic characteristics, electrocardiography, echocardiography, angiographic findings, operation, intensive care unit stay, and follow-up were evaluated. Results The study included 12 patients (8 male, 4 female), 10 with anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) and 2 with anomalous right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA). Median age at diagnosis was 4 months (range, 1 month - 10 years old) and median weight was 5.5 kg (range, 3-30 kg). The most common complaints were murmur (n=7) and respiratory distress (n=5). In 4 cases, the initial diagnosis was dilated cardiomyopathy. Electrocardiographs were pathologic in all cases. Echocardiographic examination revealed medium to severe mitral valve regurgitation in 4 cases and reduced (< 40%) ejection fraction in 6 patients. Of the 12 patients, 8 underwent direct implantation of the left coronary artery into the aorta, 2 underwent implantation of the right coronary artery into the aorta, and the remaining 2 underwent a Takeuchi procedure. There were no early mortalities. Median hospital stay was 20 days (range, 5-35 days). Median follow-up duration was 18 months (range, 5-36 months), and no cases required further surgery during follow-up. Conclusions Anomalous coronary arteries from the pulmonary artery can be successfully repaired providing there is early diagnosis and effective, appropriate intensive care unit follow-up. Therefore, coronary artery origins should be evaluated carefully, especially in cases with dilated cardiomyopathies.

  4. Feeding the feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurylchek, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Too often the equipment used to move difficult to handle powdery material from a hopper to process creates a complex of devices whose end result falls short on good performance...simply because equipment design, in many cases, has not kept up with advanced technological concepts in fine powder handling. The Feeder, being the key to an efficient feed system, must be assured a continuous flow from the storage tank...without bridging, arching, spasmodic flow or uncontrolled flushing. The causes and effects of flow problems are discussed and also solutions are offered based on the combination of theoretical and practical experience.

  5. Food and feed enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Rühl, Martin; Zorn, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Humans have benefited from the unique catalytic properties of enzymes, in particular for food production, for thousands of years. Prominent examples include the production of fermented alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine, as well as bakery and dairy products. The chapter reviews the historic background of the development of modern enzyme technology and provides an overview of the industrial food and feed enzymes currently available on the world market. The chapter highlights enzyme applications for the improvement of resource efficiency, the biopreservation of food, and the treatment of food intolerances. Further topics address the improvement of food safety and food quality.

  6. Co-parenting and feeding in early childhood: Reflections of parent dyads on how they manage the developmental stages of feeding over the first three years.

    PubMed

    Thullen, Matthew; Majee, Wilson; Davis, Alexandra N

    2016-10-01

    Family-level influences on the development of healthy eating behaviors start in infancy and toddlerhood with how families manage developmental stages of feeding. Little research on home feeding environments for young children has examined how mothers and fathers collaborate around feeding issues or contribute jointly to feeding. The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine co-parenting with regard to infant/toddler feeding practices. Twenty-four sets of co-resident, biological parents with a child between 6 months and 3 years were interviewed together about their feeding practices and how they discussed and collaborated on feeding during the main stages of feeding development in the first three years. Analyses illuminate themes related to how specific domains of co-parenting (satisfaction with labor, support, agreement, conflict) factor into infant and toddler feeding as well as how additional factors such as having older children and employment schedules shape how both food parenting practices and co-parenting are managed in relation to feeding. Mothers were the primary managers of feeding labor. Fathers participated in feeding in different ways and levels starting in infancy and increased involvement in feeding over the first few years requiring an ongoing negotiation around co-parenting related to feeding. Overall, this study develops insights into how multiple caregivers construct a family environment specifically related to early feeding - a perspective missing from current conceptualizations of home feeding environment. Attention to the concept of co-parenting within home feeding environments should help inform more effective approaches to intervene with families on issues around childhood obesity and family health.

  7. Segmental arterial mediolysis.

    PubMed

    Chao, Christine P

    2009-09-01

    Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is a nonatherosclerotic, noninflammatory arteriopathy, which is characterized by dissecting aneurysms resulting from lysis of the outer media of the arterial wall. The most common presentation is abdominal pain and hemorrhage in the elderly. Computed tomography (CT) and angiography imaging findings overlap with various vasculitides and include segmental changes of aneurysm and stenosis. A key distinguishing feature is the presence of dissections, the principle morphologic expression of SAM. Differentiation and exclusion of an inflammatory arteritis is crucial in appropriate management, as immunosuppressants generally used for treatment of vasculitis may be ineffective or even worsen the vasculopathy. Although the disease can be self-limiting without treatment or with conservative medical therapy, the acute process carries a 50% mortality rate and may necessitate urgent surgical and/or endovascular therapy. Prompt recognition and diagnosis are therefore of utmost importance in appropriate management of this rare entity.

  8. Coronary artery fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Said, S.A.M.; Thiadens, A.A.H.J.; Fieren, M.J.C.H.; Meijboom, E.J.; van der Werf, T.; Bennink, G.B.W.E.

    2002-01-01

    The aetiology of congenital coronary artery fistulas remains a challenging issue. Coronary arteries with an anatomically normal origin may, for obscure reasons, terminate abnormally and communicate with different single or multiple cardiac chambers or great vessels. When this occurs, the angiographic morphological appearance may vary greatly from discrete channels to plexiform network of vessels. Coronary arteriovenous fistulas (CAVFs) have neither specific signs nor pathognomonic symptoms; the spectrum of clinical features varies considerably. The clinical presentation of symptomatic cases can include angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, fatigue, dyspnoea, CHF, SBE, ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias or even sudden cardiac death. CAVFs may, however, be a coincidental finding during diagnostic coronary angiography (CAG). CAG is considered the gold standard for diagnosing and delineating the morphological anatomy and pathway of CAVFs. There are various tailored therapeutic modalities for the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of CAVFs, including conservative pharmacological strategy, percutaneous transluminal embolisation and surgical ligation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696067

  9. Renal Artery Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Sauk, Steven; Zuckerman, Darryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is an effective minimally invasive alternative procedure for the treatment of a variety of conditions. Since the 1970s when RAE was first developed, technical advances and growing experience have expanded the indications to not only include treatment of conditions such as symptomatic hematuria and palliation for metastatic renal cancer, but also preoperative infarction of renal tumors, treatment of angiomyolipomas, vascular malformations, medical renal disease, and complications following renal transplantation. With the drastically improved morbidity associated with this technique in part due to the introduction of more precise embolic agents and smaller delivery catheters, RAE continues to gain popularity for various urologic conditions. The indications and techniques for renal artery embolization are reviewed in the following sections. PMID:23204638

  10. Influence of oxygen partial pressures on protein synthesis in feeding crabs.

    PubMed

    Mente, Eleni; Legeay, Alexia; Houlihan, Dominic F; Massabuau, Jean-Charles

    2003-02-01

    Many water-breathing animals have a strategy that consists of maintaining low blood PO2 values in a large range of water oxygenation level (4-40 kPa). This study examines the postprandial changes in O2 consumption, arterial blood PO2, and tissue protein synthesis in the shore crab Carcinus maenas in normoxic, O2-depleted, and O2-enriched waters to study the effects of this strategy on the O2 consumption and peptide bond formation after feeding. In normoxic water (21 kPa), the arterial PO2 was 1.1 kPa before feeding and 1.2 kPa 24 h later. In water with a PO2 of 3 kPa (arterial PO2 0.6 kPa), postprandial stimulation of protein synthesis and O2 consumption were blocked. The blockade was partial at a water PO2 of 4 kPa (arterial PO2 0.8 kPa). An increase in environmental PO2 (60 kPa, arterial PO2 10 kPa) resulted in an increase in protein synthesis compared with normoxic rates. It is concluded that the arterial PO2 spontaneously set in normoxic Carcinus limits the rates of protein synthesis. The rationale for such a strategy is discussed.

  11. Renal Artery Stent Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy P.; Cooper, Christopher J.; Matsumoto, Alan H.; Cutlip, Donald E.; Pencina, Karol M.; Jamerson, Kenneth; Tuttle, Katherine R.; Shapiro, Joseph I.; D’Agostino, Ralph; Massaro, Joseph; Henrich, William; Dworkin, Lance D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Multiple randomized clinical trials comparing renal artery stent placement plus medical therapy with medical therapy alone have not shown any benefit of stent placement. However, debate continues whether patients with extreme pressure gradients, stenosis severity, or baseline blood pressure benefit from stent revascularization. OBJECTIVES The study sought to test the hypothesis that pressure gradients, stenosis severity, and/or baseline blood pressure affects outcomes after renal artery stent placement. METHODS Using data from 947 patients with a history of hypertension or chronic kidney disease from the largest randomized trial of renal artery stent placement, the CORAL (Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions) study, we performed exploratory analyses to determine if subsets of patients experienced better outcomes after stent placement than the overall cohort. We examined baseline stenosis severity, systolic blood pressure, and translesion pressure gradient (peak systolic and mean) and performed interaction tests and Cox proportional hazards analyses for the occurrence of the primary endpoint through all follow-up, to examine the effect of these variables on outcomes by treatment group. RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences in outcomes based on the examined variables nor were there any consistent nonsignificant trends. CONCLUSIONS Based on data from the CORAL randomized trial, there is no evidence of a significant treatment effect of the renal artery stent procedure compared with medical therapy alone based on stenosis severity, level of systolic blood pressure elevation, or according to the magnitude of the transstenotic pressure gradient. (Benefits of Medical Therapy Plus Stenting for Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions [CORAL]; NCT00081731) PMID:26653621

  12. A case of intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery treated with chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Takashi; Ishikawa, Noboru; Hamada, Kenji; Inagaki, Tomoko; Kusumoto, Sojiro; Shirai, Takao; Okuda, Kentaro; Ohnishi, Tsukasa; Kadokura, Mitsutaka; Adachi, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    We report on a 45-year-old woman with intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery. She presented with a chief complaint of shortness of breath. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed an intraluminal hypoattenuated area extending from the main pulmonary artery into the right main pulmonary artery and bilateral lobar pulmonary arteries. She underwent resection of the lobulated mass from the pulmonary artery. The tumor was diagnosed as an intimal sarcoma. Although she received chemotherapy with amrubicin and carboplatin when the tumor recurred, the tumor enlarged. After radiotherapy was performed, CT of the chest showed shrinkage of the tumor and the regression of consolidation and ground-glass opacity. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are treatment option for patients with pulmonary artery sarcoma.

  13. LATENT LIFE OF ARTERIES.

    PubMed

    Carrel, A

    1910-07-23

    When a segment of artery, killed by heat, formalin or glycerin is transplanted, it undergoes a rapid degeneration. Its muscle fibers disappear while the tissue of the host reacts by building a new wall of connective tissue. When the transplanted vessel has been preserved in a condition of latent life, no degeneration of the wall occurs, or the wall undergoes only partial degeneration. The muscle fibers can keep their normal appearance, even for a long time after the operation. It is, therefore, demonstrated that arteries can be preserved outside of the body in a condition of unmanifested actual life. The best method of preservation consists of placing the vessels, immersed in vaselin, in an ice box, the temperature of which is slightly above the freezing point. From a surgical standpoint, the transplantation of preserved vessels can be used with some safety. When the arteries were kept in defibrinated blood or vaselin and in cold storage, the proportion of positive results was 75 and 80 per cent., and this can probably be increased.

  14. Extrahepatic Blood Supply to Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Angiographic Demonstration and Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Matsui, Osamu; Taki, Keiichi; Minami, Tetsuya; Ryu, Yasuji; Ito, Chiharu; Nakamura, Koichi; Inoue, Dai; Notsumata, Kazuo; Toya, Daisyu; Tanaka, Nobuyoshi; Mitsui, Takeshi

    2006-02-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the incidence of each extrahepatic collateral pathway to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to assess technical success rates and complications of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) through each collateral. Methods. We retrospective evaluated extrahepatic collateral pathways to HCC on angiography in 386 procedures on 181 consecutive patients. One hundred and seventy patients had previously undergone TACE. TACE through extrahepatic collaterals using iodized oil and gelatin sponge particles was performed when a catheter was advanced into the tumor-feeding branch to avoid nontarget embolization. Results. A single collateral was revealed in 275 TACE procedures, two were revealed in 74, and three or more were revealed in 34. Incidences of collateral source to HCC were 83% from the right inferior phrenic artery (IPA), 24% from the cystic artery, 13% from the omental artery, 12% from the right renal capsular artery (RCA) and left IPA, 8% from the right internal mammary artery (IMA) and right intercostal artery (ICA), and 7% from the right inferior adrenal artery (IAA). Technical success rates of TACE were 53% in the right ICA, 70% in the cystic artery, 74% in the omental artery, 93% in the left IPA, 96% in the right IPA, and 100% in the right RCA, right IMA, and right IAA. Complications included skin necrosis after TACE through the right IMA (n = 1), cholecystitis after TACE through the cystic artery (n = 1), and ulcer formation after TACE through the right gastric artery (n = 1), in addition to pleural effusion and basal atelectasis after TACE through the IPA and IMA. Conclusion. Our study suggests that TACE through extrahepatic collaterals is possible with high success rates, and is also relatively safe.

  15. Crosstalk between oxidative and nitrosative stress and arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Mozos, Ioana; Luca, Constantin Tudor

    2017-02-01

    Arterial stiffness, the expression of reduced arterial elasticity, is an effective predictor of cardiovascular disorders. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between exposure to toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant systems. The increase in reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is termed nitrosative stress. We review the main mechanisms and products linking arterial stiffness with oxidative and nitrosative stress in several disorders, focusing on recent experimental and clinical data, and the mechanisms explaining benefits of antioxidant therapy. Oxidative and nitrosative stress play important roles in arterial stiffness elevation in several disorders, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, obesity, peripheral arterial disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, thalassemia, Kawasaki disease and malignant disorders. Oxidative and nitrosative stress are responsible for endothelial dysfunction due to uncoupling of the nitric oxide synthase, oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA in vascular endothelial cells, associated with inflammation, arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis. Regular physical exercise, caloric restriction, red wine, statins, sartans, metformin, oestradiol, curcumin and combinations of antioxidant vitamins are therapeutic strategies that may decrease arterial stiffness and oxidative stress thus reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. ROS and RNS represent potential therapeutic targets for preventing progression of arterial stiffness.

  16. Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm Associated with Vertebrobasilar Artery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Pyung; Choi, Seok Keun; Rhee, Bong Arm; Lim, Young Jin

    2008-01-01

    Objective Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is considered as a reversible pathophysiological condition mainly induced by continuous vascular compression of the facial nerve root exit zone (REZ) at the cerebellopontine angle. As an offending vessel, vertebrobasilar artery tends to compress much more heavily than others. The authors analyzed HFS caused by vertebrobasilar artery and described the relationships between microsurgical findings and clinical courses. Methods Out of 1,798 cases treated with microvascular decompression (MVD) from Jan. 1980 to Dec. 2004, the causative vessels were either vertebral artery or basilar artery in 87 patients. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled in this study. Preoperatively, computed tomography (CT) or brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with 3-dimentional short range MR technique was performed and CT was checked immediately or 2-3 days after anesthetic recovery. The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, the compression patterns of the vessels at the time of surgery and treatment outcomes. Results There were 47 were male and 32 female patients. HFS developed on the left side in 52 cases and on the right side in 27. The mean age of onset was 52.3 years (range 19-60) and the mean duration of symptoms was 10.7 years. Many patients (39 cases; 49.1%) had past history of hypertension. HFS caused only by the vertebral artery was 8 cases although most of the other cases were caused by vertebral artery (VA) in combination with its branching arteries. Most frequently, the VA and the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were the simultaneous causative blood vessels comprising 32 cases (40.5%), and in 27 cases (34.2%) the VA and the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) were the offenders. Facial symptoms disappeared in 61 cases (77.2%) immediately after the operation and 68 cases (86.1%) showed good outcome after 6 months. Surgical outcome just after the operation was poor in whom the perforators arose from the offending

  17. Presence and content of kynurenic acid in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Turski, M P; Zgrajka, W; Siwicki, A K; Paluszkiewicz, P

    2015-02-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) was found to be an antagonist of iontropic glutamate receptors and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, it was documented that KYNA is an agonist of G-protein coupled GPR35 receptors which are mainly present in the gastrointestinal tract. It was also found that KYNA is present in the gastrointestinal tract and that its concentration gradually increases along it. The origin of KYNA in the gastrointestinal tract is not known. Both might be synthesized from tryptophan in it or absorbed from food and other dietary products. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the concentration of KYNA in animal feed. The results indicate that the highest concentration of KYNA was found in animal feeds intended for livestock. The lower amount of KYNA was detected in animal feeds for fish. Interestingly, the lowest amount of KYNA was found in dog and cat feeds. Furthermore, an analysis of KYNA content in animal food ingredients was conducted. The concentration of KYNA found in one of the ingredients – rapeseed meal – was several times higher in comparison to animal feeds studied. The content of KYNA in the remaining feed ingredients tested was significantly lower. This is the first report on the concentration of KYNA in animal feeds. There is a need for further detailed analysis leading to establishing a set of guidelines for animal feeding.

  18. Vein graft adaptation and fistula maturation in the arterial environment.

    PubMed

    Lu, Daniel Y; Chen, Elizabeth Y; Wong, Daniel J; Yamamoto, Kota; Protack, Clinton D; Williams, Willis T; Assi, Roland; Hall, Michael R; Sadaghianloo, Nirvana; Dardik, Alan

    2014-05-01

    Veins are exposed to the arterial environment during two common surgical procedures, creation of vein grafts and arteriovenous fistulae (AVF). In both cases, veins adapt to the arterial environment that is characterized by different hemodynamic conditions and increased oxygen tension compared with the venous environment. Successful venous adaptation to the arterial environment is critical for long-term success of the vein graft or AVF and, in both cases, is generally characterized by venous dilation and wall thickening. However, AVF are exposed to a high flow, high shear stress, low-pressure arterial environment and adapt mainly via outward dilation with less intimal thickening. Vein grafts are exposed to a moderate flow, moderate shear stress, high-pressure arterial environment and adapt mainly via increased wall thickening with less outward dilation. We review the data that describe these differences, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate these processes. Despite extensive research, there are few differences in the molecular pathways that regulate cell proliferation and migration or matrix synthesis, secretion, or degradation currently identified between vein graft adaptation and AVF maturation that account for the different types of venous adaptation to arterial environments.

  19. Pedunculated Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Suggested by Transthoracic Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobing; Ren, Weidong; Yang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is an extremely rare malignancy. It is usually found after it grows large enough to occupy almost the entire lumen of the pulmonary artery and causes serious clinical symptoms. Thus, it is usually difficult to distinguish PAS from pulmonary thromboembolism based on imaging examinations. Few case reports had shown the attachment of PAS to pulmonary artery, a key characteristic for diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of PAS. In this case, we found a PAS, which did not cause local obstruction and some tumor emboli, which obstructed the branches of the pulmonary arteries and caused pulmonary hypertension and clinical symptoms. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed a part of the tumor attached to the intima of the main pulmonary artery with a peduncle and had obvious mobility, which was suggestive of PAS and differentiated it from the pulmonary thromboembolism. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a pedunculated PAS suggested by TTE. Combined with pulmonary artery computed tomography angiography, the diagnosis of PAS is strongly suggested before the operation. This case indicates that TTE could reveal the attachment and mobility of PAS in the main pulmonary and may provide useful information for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of PAS, especially a pedunculated PAS.

  20. [Results of the surgical treatment of acute thrombosis of the major arteries of the limbs].

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, V A; Vereshchagin, N A; Shavin, V V; Parakhoniak, N V

    1984-08-01

    An analysis of the surgical treatment of acute arterial trombosis of the extremities in 86 patients is presented. The causes of thrombosis were mainly obliterating atherosclerosis, artery trauma and postembolic occlusion. Best results of reconstructive operations were obtained in patients with postembolic occlusion of the arteries and their posttraumatic trombosis, worst results - in obliterating atherosclerosis. Thrombendarterectomy and autovenous shunts and prostheses were found to be the mos effective reconstructive operations.

  1. Pulmonary artery sarcoma masquerading as saddle pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Kanjanauthai, Somsupha; Kanluen, Tony; Ray, Cynthia

    2008-10-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma is a highly malignant tumour. Therefore, making the diagnosis is very important. We describe a case which presented with dyspnea on exertion and was initially diagnosed as saddle pulmonary embolism per CT thorax with contrast. Despite adequate anticoagulation, symptoms still progressed. Follow-up CT thorax showed an extension of the presumed filling defect or clots into the left main pulmonary artery with new lung nodules. This prompted suspicion that this may not be a pulmonary embolism. Biopsy of the lung nodule revealed high grade soft tissue sarcoma with primary source from the pulmonary artery. Our case highlights that pulmonary artery sarcoma should always be included in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism especially, if symptoms still progress while on adequate anticoagulation, or any pulmonary nodules develop on follow-up exam.

  2. Pulmonary embolism caused by intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kei; Nozue, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchida, Masayuki; Iwaki, Taku; Nagamine, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Tamotsu; Kawase, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Kazuhiko; Michishita, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    We herein report the case of a 39-year-old woman with a pulmonary embolism caused by intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery. She presented with shortness of breath and leg edema. Computed tomography showed a low density area that extended from the main pulmonary artery to the bilateral pulmonary arteries. We diagnosed her to have a pulmonary thromboembolism. The thrombosis did not decrease after the administration of anti-coagulant therapy, and she underwent resection of the thrombotic tissue. Histopathologically, the surgical specimen was not found to be thrombotic tissue but rather an intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery. After undergoing surgery, she received radiation therapy and chemotherapy; however, she died 31 months after being diagnosed.

  3. Comparative analysis of the course of the facial and transverse facial arteries in selected ruminant species.

    PubMed

    Zdun, Maciej; Frąckowiak, Hieronim; Kowalczyk, Karolina; Maryniak, Hieronim; Kiełtyka-Kurc, Agata

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes variations in patterns of origin from the main arteries as well as of branching and course demonstrated on the basis of selected facial arteries in several species of ruminants. The studies included 35 species of 27 genera, 9 subfamilies of animals belonging to families of Bovidae, Cervidae, Giraffidae and Moschidae from the suborder of Ruminantia, including species maintained by humans. Altogether, 435 preparations of head arteries were studied. Arteries of the examined animals were filled with acetone-dissolved stained vinyl superchloride or stained latex LBS3060. The facial artery was found to originate from the main arteries of the head in three different manners. In species devoid of facial arteries, the presence of a pronounced transverse facial artery could be demonstrated. Division of the animals into large and small ruminants, generally accepted by authors of animal anatomy textbooks, was found to be oversimplified and lacking in universal character, as to the patterns of origin and course of the facial artery and the transverse facial artery.

  4. How zooplankton feed: mechanisms, traits and trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Zooplankton is a morphologically and taxonomically diverse group and includes organisms that vary in size by many orders of magnitude, but they are all faced with the common problem of collecting food from a very dilute suspension. In order to maintain a viable population in the face of mortality, zooplankton in the ocean have to clear daily a volume of ambient water for prey particles that is equivalent to about 10(6) times their own body volume. While most size-specific vital rates and mortality rates decline with size, the clearance requirement is largely size-independent because food availability also declines with size. There is a limited number of solutions to the problem of concentrating dilute prey from a sticky medium: passive and active ambush feeding; feeding-current feeding, where the prey is either intercepted directly, retained on a filter, or individually perceived and extracted from the feeding current; cruise feeding; and colonization of large particles and marine snow aggregates. The basic mechanics of these food-collection mechanisms are described, and it is shown that their efficiencies are inherently different and that each of these mechanisms becomes less efficient with increasing size. Mechanisms that compensate for this decline in efficiency are described, including inflation of feeding structures and development of vision. Each feeding mode has implications beyond feeding in terms of risk of encountering predators and chance of meeting mates, and they partly target different types of prey. The main dichotomy is between (inefficient) ambush feeding on motile prey and the more efficient active feeding modes; a secondary dichotomy is between (efficient) hovering and (less efficient) cruising feeding modes. The efficiencies of the various feeding modes are traded off against feeding-mode-dependent metabolic expenses, predation risks, and mating chances. The optimality of feeding strategies, evaluated as the ratio of gain over risk, varies with

  5. Ectopic origin of coronary arteries from the aorta in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Durán, A C; Fernández, B; Fernández, M C; López-García, A; Arqué, J M; Sans-Coma, V

    2012-01-01

    An ectopic origin of the coronary artery from the aorta beyond the sinotubular junction, a condition commonly referred to as 'coronary artery high take-off', has been described in man and C57BL/6 mice. The present paper reports this congenital coronary artery anomaly in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Hearts from 14 individuals, aged 53-350 days, were examined by means of a corrosion-cast technique, scanning electron microscopy or histological and immunohistochemical techniques. In 11 hamsters, the right coronary artery was the ectopic vessel. In the other three animals there was a solitary coronary ostium in the aorta. In all cases, the ectopic coronary artery originated at an acute angle and a valve-like ridge was in front of the coronary artery ostium. The ectopic arteries examined microscopically showed an intramural trajectory within the aortic wall. In the hearts with a solitary ostium in the aorta, the left main coronary artery coursed between the aorta and the pulmonary artery. In man, all of these anomalous conditions place the individual at risk of myocardial ischaemia and sudden death. However, none of the affected hamsters had clinical signs of disease. Intimal thickenings of increasing size with age were present in the intramural coronary artery segment of eight hamsters aged 106 days or older, examined histologically. The present findings fit with the notion that coronary arteries with acute angle take-off and an intramural course are subjected to unusual wear and tear, leading to tissue changes in the vessel wall.

  6. EU assessment of enterococci as feed additives.

    PubMed

    Becquet, Philippe

    2003-12-01

    Particular micro-organisms such as enterococcal strains are used as probiotics in feed. Observations indicate a positive effect of such strains on the gut flora, especially for young animals or during feed transition phases. This favourable effect is perceived by the farmers as a means of maintenance of the health status of the animals (e.g. less diarrhoea) and results in significant improvement of animal performance. Micro-organisms have been used since the end of the 1980s in animal feeds and were strictly regulated in 1993, when they were introduced under the scope of Council Directive 70/524/EEC of 23 November 1970 on additives in animal nutrition on feed additives. After a transition period, which ended in the year 2000, every microbial strain must now be assessed by the EU bodies and authorised by a Commission Regulation, before it can be placed on the market for use in feedingstuffs. Council Directive 70/524/EEC on feed additives is based on three main principles: (1) pre-market authorisation, (2) positive list principle, and (3) thorough risk assessment of the effect of a particular strain on human and animal health as well as on the environment. Therefore, before introducing a new enterococcal strain preparation or promote a new use of an approved product, a dossier has to be submitted to the authorities, following the guidelines, as published in Commission Directive 94/40/EEC [Commission Directive 94/40/EC of 22 July 1994 amending Council Directive 87/153/EEC fixing guidelines for the assessment of additives in animal nutrition]. These guidelines contain detailed evaluation methods. The safety requirements refer to (1) the target animal categories, (2) the consumer and the environment (presence of toxins and virulence factors as well as antibiotic resistance and transferability are assessed), and (3) the workers, based on requirements of Council Directive 89/391/EEC.

  7. How to Feed Cleft Patient?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saima Yunus

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cleft lip and palate patients have all rights like other normal individuals, to enjoy the benefits of nourishment. Knowledge has to be there about the different feeding positions like straddle, dancer hand position along with the use of specially designed bottles and nipples. Parent's should be trained about the correct positions of feeding, in extreme of the cases in which parents are not able to follow these instructions, feeding obturators can be given. How to cite this article: Jindal MK, Khan SY. How to Feed Cleft Patient? Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):100-103. PMID:25206201

  8. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  9. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  10. Misaligned feeding impairs memories

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Dawn H; Jami, Shekib A; Flores, Richard E; Truong, Danny; Ghiani, Cristina A; O’Dell, Thomas J; Colwell, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Robust sleep/wake rhythms are important for health and cognitive function. Unfortunately, many people are living in an environment where their circadian system is challenged by inappropriate meal- or work-times. Here we scheduled food access to the sleep time and examined the impact on learning and memory in mice. Under these conditions, we demonstrate that the molecular clock in the master pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is unaltered while the molecular clock in the hippocampus is synchronized by the timing of food availability. This chronic circadian misalignment causes reduced hippocampal long term potentiation and total CREB expression. Importantly this mis-timed feeding resulted in dramatic deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Our findings suggest that the timing of meals have far-reaching effects on hippocampal physiology and learned behaviour. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09460.001 PMID:26652002

  11. Age, hypertension and arterial function.

    PubMed

    McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Avolio, Albert P

    2007-07-01

    1. Ageing exerts a marked effect on the cardiovascular system and, in particular, the large arteries. Using a variety of techniques to assess arterial stiffness, many cross-sectional studies have demonstrated a significant relationship between age and aortic stiffness, although the age-related changes observed in peripheral arteries appear to be less marked. 2. The relationship between arterial stiffness and hypertension is more complex. The distending, or mean arterial, pressure is an important confounder of measurements of arterial stiffness and, therefore, must be taken into consideration when assessing arterial stiffness in hypertensive subjects or investigating the effect of antihypertensive agents. Current methods for correcting for differences in distending pressure involve pharmacological manipulation, statistical correction or mathematical manipulation of stiffness indices. 3. Many studies have provided evidence that both peripheral (muscular) and central (elastic) arteries are stiffer in subjects with mixed (systolic/diastolic) hypertension compared with normotensive subjects. However, it is unclear to what extent differences in mean arterial pressure explain the observed differences in hypertensive subjects. In contrast, isolated systolic hypertension is associated with increased aortic, but not peripheral artery, stiffness, although the underlying mechanisms are somewhat unclear. 4. Traditional antihypertensive agents appear to reduce arterial stiffness, but mostly via an indirect effect of lowering mean pressure. Therefore, therapies that target the large arteries to reduce stiffness directly are urgently required. Agents such as nitric oxide donors and phosphodiesterase inhibitors may be useful in reducing stiffness via functional mechanisms. In addition, inhibitors or breakers of advanced glycation end-product cross-links between proteins, such as collagen and elastin, hold substantial promise.

  12. Arterial spasm during renal angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Beinart, C.; Sos, T.A.; Saddekni, S.; Weiner, M.A.; Sniderman, K.W.

    1983-10-01

    Spasm of the renal arteries during transluminal angioplasty is a well-documented phenomenon with serious potential sequelae, particularly in young patients with fibromusclar dysplasia. The authors report their experience in 98 cases (105 arteries). Tolazoline, lidocaine, nitrates (or calcium blockers, if available), and heparin should be administered either directly into the renal artery or systemically prior to angioplasty to decrease the incidence and severity of spasm.

  13. Feeding a future world.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an overview of future prospects for feeding the world's growing population. The discussion focuses on obstacles such as limited agricultural land, degraded soil and water, and water shortages. The evidence suggests that sustainability is declining, especially in poor, food-deficit countries with growing populations. The world is segregated into the haves, the poor have-nots, and the rich have-nots. North America, Europe, and Australia have enough cropland to feed their populations. The poor have-nots are located mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, 7 countries each in the Middle East and Latin America, 6 in Oceania, and the rest in Central and South Asia. The poor have-nots amount to 3 billion out of 6 billion total population. The rich have-nots include countries such as Japan and Singapore, plus China, Indonesia, Peru, Chile, and Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. The rich have-nots must import food. The world grain harvest is no longer tripling. Per person yields have declined. Increasing food productivity must rely on existing lands. The size of family farms has declined. Almost 2 billion hectares of crop and grazing land is degraded. Yields from irrigated land that are 33% of world food supply have declined. In 1990, 28 countries with 335 million people faced chronic water shortages or scarcity. Water is being polluted. Fish stocks are being depleted. Genetic diversity is being lost. In 182 food deficit countries, population growth must be slowed, and agriculture must be sustainable. Food is neither produced nor consumed equitably. Malnutrition is caused by poverty. Food security cannot be achieved if land and water become increasingly degraded or lost.

  14. Mean wall shear stress in the femoral arterial bifurcation is low and independent of age at rest.

    PubMed

    Kornet, L; Hoeks, A P; Lambregts, J; Reneman, R S

    2000-01-01

    In elastic arteries, mean wall shear stress appears to be close to 1. 5 Pa, the value predicted by the theory of minimal energy loss. This finding in elastic arteries does not necessarily represent the situation in muscular arteries. Elastic arteries have to store potential energy, while muscular arteries have mainly a conductive function. Therefore, we determined wall shear stress and its age dependency in the common and superficial femoral arteries, 2-3 cm from the flow divider in 54 presumed healthy volunteers between 21 and 74 years of age, using a non-invasive ultrasound system. Prior to the study, the reliability of this system was determined in terms of intrasubject variation. Mean wall shear stress was significantly lower in the common femoral artery (0.35 +/- 0.18 Pa) than in the superficial femoral artery (0.49 +/- 0.15 Pa). In all age categories, peak systolic wall shear stress and the maximal cyclic change in wall shear stress were not significantly different in the common and the superficial femoral arteries. Peak systolic wall shear stress in the common and the superficial femoral arteries was not significantly different from the value previously determined in the common carotid artery, but mean wall shear stress was lower in the common and superficial femoral arteries than in the common carotid artery by a factor of 2-4. In both the common and the superficial femoral arteries, mean, peak systolic and maximal cyclic change in wall shear stress did not change significantly with age, nor did diameter. We conclude that, as compared to elastic arteries, mean wall shear stress is low in the conductive arteries of a resting leg, due to backflow during the first part of the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle and the absence of flow during the rest of the diastolic phase. Mean wall shear stress is lower in the common than in the superficial femoral artery due to additional reflections from the deep femoral artery.

  15. 22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  16. 6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN BAY COLUMN, GIRDER FOR ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVEL CRANE, AND ROOF GIRDERS - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  17. Arterial Abnormalities Leading to Tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Timothy R; Serulle, Yafell; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2016-05-01

    Tinnitus is a common symptom that usually originates in the middle ear. Vascular causes of pulsatile tinnitus are categorized by the location of the source of the noise within the cerebral-cervical vasculature: arterial, arteriovenous, and venous. Arterial stenosis secondary to atherosclerotic disease or dissection, arterial anatomic variants at the skull base, and vascular skull base tumors are some of the more common causes of arterial and arteriovenous pulsatile tinnitus. Noninvasive imaging is indicated to evaluate for possible causes of pulsatile tinnitus, and should be followed by catheter angiography if there is a strong clinical suspicion for a dural arteriovenous fistula.

  18. Intracranial Arteries - Anatomy and Collaterals.

    PubMed

    Liebeskind, David S; Caplan, Louis R

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology are inextricably linked in patients with intracranial atherosclerosis. Knowledge of abnormal or pathological conditions such as intracranial atherosclerosis stems from detailed recognition of the normal pattern of vascular anatomy. The vascular anatomy of the intracranial arteries, both at the level of the vessel wall and as a larger structure or conduit, is a reflection of physiology over time, from in utero stages through adult life. The unique characteristics of arteries at the base of the brain may help our understanding of atherosclerotic lesions that tend to afflict specific arterial segments. Although much of the knowledge regarding intracranial arteries originates from pathology and angiography series over several centuries, evolving noninvasive techniques have rapidly expanded our perspective. As each imaging modality provides a depiction that combines anatomy and flow physiology, it is important to interpret each image with a solid understanding of typical arterial anatomy and corresponding collateral routes. Compensatory collateral perfusion and downstream flow status have recently emerged as pivotal variables in the clinical management of patients with atherosclerosis. Ongoing studies that illustrate the anatomy and pathophysiology of these proximal arterial segments across modalities will help refine our knowledge of the interplay between vascular anatomy and cerebral blood flow. Future studies may help elucidate pivotal arterial factors far beyond the degree of stenosis, examining downstream influences on cerebral perfusion, artery-to-artery thromboembolic potential, amenability to endovascular therapies and stent conformation, and the propensity for restenosis due to biophysical factors.

  19. Utilization of laser arterial angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Steg, P G; Ménasché, P

    1989-01-01

    Arterial angioplasty with continuous wave laser radiation is now available in clinical practice and, coupled with balloon catheter angioplasty, has been successful in the treatment of lower limb arterial disease. It appears premature to apply laser angioplasty to coronary artery lesions because of the high incidence of severe complications observed in clinical trials. Experimental studies suggest that some of these complications are related to thermal injury induced by continuous wave laser energy and that they could be minimized by the utilization of pulsed laser sources. Because of recent technologic advances, pulsed laser sources coupled with flexible fiberoptic devices will soon be available for peripheral arterial angioplasty in clinical practice.

  20. Arterial stiffness in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Prenner, Stuart B; Chirinos, Julio A

    2015-02-01

    Arterial stiffness is an age-related process that is a shared consequence of numerous diseases including diabetes mellitus (DM), and is an independent predictor of mortality both in this population and in the general population. While much has been published about arterial stiffness in patients with DM, a thorough review of the current literature is lacking. Using a systematic literature search strategy, we aimed to summarize our current understanding related to arterial stiffness in DM. We review key studies demonstrating that, among patients with established DM, arterial stiffness is closely related to the progression of complications of DM, including nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. It is also becoming clear that arterial stiffness can be increased even in pre-diabetic populations with impaired glucose tolerance, and in those with the metabolic syndrome (METS), well before the onset of overt DM. Some data suggests that arterial stiffness can predict the onset of DM. However, future work is needed to further clarify whether large artery stiffness and the pulsatile hemodynamic changes that accompany it are involved in the pathogenesis of DM, and whether interventions targeting arterial stiffness are associated with improved clinical outcomes in DM. We also review of the potential mechanisms of arterial stiffness in DM, with particular emphasis on the role of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and nitric oxide dysregulation, and address potential future directions for research.

  1. Radiative transport in large arteries

    PubMed Central

    Ruh, Dominic; Subramanian, Sivaraman; Theodor, Michael; Zappe, Hans; Seifert, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A refined model for the photon energy distribution in a living artery is established by solving the radiative transfer equation in a cylindrical geometry, using the Monte Carlo method. Combining this model with the most recent experimental values for the optical properties of flowing blood and the biomechanics of a blood-filled artery subject to a pulsatile pressure, we find that the optical intensity transmitted through large arteries decreases linearly with increasing arterial distension. This finding provides a solid theoretical foundation for measuring photoplethysmograms. PMID:24466476

  2. The first weeks of breast feeding.

    PubMed

    King, F S

    1984-10-01

    The 2 main causes of the contemporary epidemic of breastfeeding failure appear to be urban life and hospital delivery. In rural areas, the majority of mothers breastfeed successfully. They have much emotional support from experienced women around them, and although some women experience problems, traditional birth attendants are skilled at both preventing and overcoming them. In town, a woman may be surrounded only by young friends as inexperienced as herself and a husband who is impatient of a crying infant. The most obvious solution to any difficulty is a feeding bottle which she can see many modern people using, including some health workers. Hospital delivery contributes to lactation failure by separating the mother and baby to allow them both to "rest," yet mothers who are separated from their babies for even 12 hours stop breastfeeding sooner than mothers who put their baby to the breast immediately after delivery. Possibly the emotional bonding that occurs during the 1st few hours gives a mother the motivation that she needs to persist with breastfeeding when it becomes difficult. In most societies it is customary to let the baby breastfeed immediately, and many traditional birth attendants are aware of how this helps both to stop uterine bleeding and to promote a better flow of milk. In hospitals a baby may be given feeds of formula milk or glucose water, while he/she "waits" for mother's milk to come in. Prelacteal feeds fill a baby's stomach, reduce his/her appetite, and make the baby less willing to suck at the breast. This delays the onset of lactation and increases the dangers of engorgement. If a baby is given his/her prelacteal feeds (or later feeds) from a bottle with a rubber teat, he/she is likely to develop "nipple confusion" and to fail to suck effectively from his/her mother. If hospitals are to be places in which babies may start to feed safely, the staff should let a mother suckle her baby immediately after delivery, and they should let her

  3. Investigations into Salmonella contamination in feed production chain in Karst rural areas of China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shenglin; Wu, Zongfen; Lin, Wei; Xu, Longxin; Cheng, Long; Zhou, Lin

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand the status of Salmonella contamination of feed production chain in Karst rural areas, southwest of China, a total of 1077 feed samples including animal feed materials and feed products were randomly collected from different sectors of feed chain covering feed mills, farms, and feed sales in nine regions of Karst rural areas between 2009 and 2012, to conduct Salmonella test. The different positive rates with Salmonella contamination were detected, the highest was 4.7 % in 2009, the lowest was 0.66 % in 2011, while 4.3 % in 2010, 2.8 % in 2012, respectively. Twelve types of feed including concentrate, complete, self-made, and feed ingredients were inspected. Salmonella contamination mainly concentrated on animal protein material such as meat meal, meat and bone meal, feather meal, blood meal, and fish meal. No Salmonella contamination was detected in feed yeast, microbial protein, rapeseed, and soybean meal. Salmonella contamination existed in each sector of feed production chain. This investigation provided a basic reference for feed production management and quality control in feed production chain in Karst rural areas of China.

  4. Artery of Percheron Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, K.V.; Kaaviya, R.; Arpita, Bhaumik

    2016-01-01

    Artery of Percheron (AOP) occlusion is a rare cause of ischemic stroke characterized by bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts, with or without mesencephalic infarction. Clinically it presents with mental state disturbances, hypersomnolence, aphasia/dysarthria, amnesia and ocular movement disorders, including vertical gaze palsy. Here, we report a case of cardioembolic AOP infarction in a 37-year-old woman with rheumatic mitral valvular stenosis. This case is being reported to highlight the interesting clinical and neuroimaging features of this rare condition, and the differential diagnosis of AOP infarction on imaging have been discussed. PMID:27647964

  5. Right hepatic artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Astrid Del Pilar Ardila; Loures, Paulo; Calle, Juan Cristóbal Ospina; Cunha, Beatriz; Córdoba, Juan Camilo

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of an aneurysm of the right hepatic artery and its multidisciplinary management by general surgery, endoscopy and radiology services. Being a case of extremely low incidence, it is important to show its diagnostic and therapeutic approach. RESUMO Relatamos um caso de aneurisma da artéria hepática direita conduzido de forma multidisciplinar pelos Serviços de Cirurgia Geral, Endoscopia e Radiologia. Em se tratando de caso de incidência baixíssima, é importante mostrar o enfoque diagnóstico e terapêutico usado em seu manejo.

  6. Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm associated with common hepatic artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Bracale, G; Porcellini, M; Bernardo, B; Selvetella, L; Renda, A

    1996-12-01

    A unique case of true inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm (IPDA) associated with occlusion of common hepatic artery is reported. Radiological and MRI findings are described. Because of high risk of visceral ischemia that contraindicated a percutaneous transluminal embolization, a successful tangential resection of aneurysm was performed.

  7. A One-Sided Affair: Unoriginal Origin of the Left Coronary Artery, a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Omair; Rehman, Saifur; Jbara, Yaser; White, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies constitute a group of congenital malformations that have a multitude of clinical manifestations and highly variable pathophysiology. We report a 56-year-old male with angina due to an anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery; approach and management.

  8. Pulmonary artery sarcoma mimicking a pulmonary artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Terra, Ricardo M; Fernandez, Angelo; Bammann, Ricardo H; Junqueira, Jader J M; Capelozzi, Vera L

    2008-10-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma is an uncommon neoplasm, and its clinical and radiological presentation usually simulates chronic thromboembolic disease. We present the case of a 77-year-old woman admitted with dyspnea, chest pain, and hemoptysis. A chest computed tomographic scan showed moderate right-sided pleural effusion and a saccular dilatation of the interlobar portion of the right pulmonary artery, which was filled with contrast and surrounded by an irregular soft-tissue attenuation mass, suggesting a ruptured pulmonary artery aneurysm. The patient was operated on. Intraoperatively, a pseudoaneurysm and a solid mass were identified within the oblique fissure around the interlobar artery. Therefore, a right pneumonectomy was performed. Definitive pathologic examination was consistent with pulmonary artery sarcoma. The patient had a good outcome and is free of disease 2 years after surgery.

  9. Xenon Feed System Progress (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-13

    development, assembly and test of an electric propulsion xenon feed system for a flight technology demonstration program. Major accomplishments...pressure transducer feedback, the PFCV has successfully fed xenon to a 200 watt Hall Effect Thruster in a Technology Demonstration Program. The feed

  10. Aquaculture feed and food safety.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate objective of an aquaculture feed manufacturer and aquaculture food supplier is to ensure that the feed or food produced is both safe and wholesome. Reported food safety risks, which may be associated with the use of commercial animal feeds, including compound aquaculture feeds, usually result from the possible presence of unwanted contaminants, either within the feed ingredients used or from the external contamination of the finished feed on prolonged storage. The major animal feed contaminants that have been reported to date have included Salmonellae, mycotoxins, veterinary drug residues, persistent organic pollutants, agricultural and other chemicals (solvent residues, melamine), heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium) and excess mineral salts (hexavalent chromium, arsenic, selenium, flourine), and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Apart from the direct negative effect of these possible contaminants on the health of the cultured target species, there is a risk that the feed contaminants may be passed along the food chain, via contaminated aquaculture produce, to consumers. In recent years, public concern regarding food safety has increased as a consequence of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic residues, persistent organic pollutants, and chemicals in farmed seafood. The important role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in the development of international standards, guidelines, and recommendations to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade is discussed.

  11. Feed analyses and their interpretation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance of the assays, analytical variability of the analyses, and whether a feed is suit...

  12. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  13. The feeding responses evoked by endogenous cholecystokinin are regulated by different gastrointestinal sites.

    PubMed

    Washington, Martha C; Williams, Kasey; Sayegh, Ayman I

    2016-02-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that cholecystokinin (CCK) A receptor (CCKAR) in areas supplied by the celiac artery (CA), stomach and upper duodenum, and the cranial mesenteric artery (CMA), small and parts of the large intestine, is necessary for reduction of meal size, prolongation of the intermeal interval (time between first and second meal) and increased satiety ratio (intermeal interval/meal size or amount of food consumed during any given unit of time) by the non-nutrient stimulator of endogenous CCK release camostat. Consistent with our previous findings camostat reduced meal size, prolonged the intermeal interval and increased the satiety ratio. Here, we report that blocking CCKAR in the area supplied by the celiac artery attenuated reduction of meal size by camostat more so than the cranial mesenteric artery route. Blocking CCKAR in the area supplied by the cranial mesenteric artery attenuated prolongation of the intermeal interval length and increased satiety ratio by camostat more so than the celiac artery route. Blocking CCKAR in the areas supplied by the femoral artery (control) failed to alter the feeding responses evoked by camostat. These results support the hypothesis that CCKAR in the area supplied by the CA is necessary for reduction of meal size by camostat whereas CCKAR in the area supplied by the CMA is necessary for prolongation of the intermeal interval and increased satiety ratio by this substance. Our results demonstrate that meal size and intermeal interval length by camostat are regulated through different gastrointestinal sites.

  14. Spontaneous Arterial Dissection.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Tobias; Caplan, Louis

    2001-09-01

    There is no controlled study for the best treatment or management of cervico-cerebral artery dissection (CAD). Rationale initial empiric treatment in acute CAD to prevent secondary embolism is partial thromboplastin time (PTT)-guided anticoagulation by intravenous heparin followed by anticoagulation with warfarin. Carotid surgery for treatment of CAD is not recommended anymore with the possible exception of persisting severe stenosis of the proximal internal carotid artery (ICA). There could be use of carotid angioplasty by balloon dilatation and stenting in selected cases of severe cerebral hemodynamic impairment by bilateral CAD. Duration of secondary prophylaxis by anticoagulation is best guided by Doppler sonography follow-up, and should be continued until normalization of blood flow or until at least 1 year after the vessel is occluded. There is no evidence that pseudoaneurysms increase the risk for embolic complication, and there is no evidence for surgery or continuation of anticoagulation in patients with pseudoaneurysms. Caution should be recommended for exercises that involve excessive head movements (eg, bungee jumping, trampoline jumping, and chiropractic maneuvers). The patient should be informed that recurrent rate is low in nonfamilial cases. Doppler sonography is a low-cost and high-sensitivity method for patients at risk.

  15. How Is Carotid Artery Disease Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Carotid Artery Disease Treated? Treatments for carotid artery disease may ... plaque removed and normal blood flow restored. Carotid Artery Angioplasty and Stenting Doctors use a procedure called ...

  16. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented? Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay carotid artery disease and stroke . Your risk for carotid artery ...

  17. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... angioplasty and stenting - discharge; CAS - discharge; Endarterectomy - carotid artery - discharge; Angioplasty - carotid artery - discharge ... were done to open a narrowed or blocked artery that supplies blood to your brain. Your health ...

  18. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is used to treat people ... or after a heart attack to treat blocked arteries. Your doctor may recommend CABG if other treatments, ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: pulmonary arterial hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions pulmonary arterial hypertension pulmonary arterial hypertension Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disorder characterized by abnormally high ...

  20. Berry splenic artery aneurysm rupture in association with segmental arterial mediolysis and portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Imai, Miwa Akasofu; Kawahara, Ei; Katsuda, Shogo; Yamashita, Tatsuya

    2005-05-01

    A rare case of berry splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) rupture associated with segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) and portal hypertension is reported. A 66-year-old woman, diagnosed as having liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension 6 years earlier, suddenly developed a lancinating pain in the upper abdomen and lost consciousness. She recovered consciousness while being transferred to hospital by ambulance. During the investigations, her level of consciousness suddenly deteriorated. Ultrasonography showed a massive intraperitoneal hemorrhage, and she died 5(1/2) h after admission. On gross examination at autopsy it was not possible to find the rupture point of the vessel because the pancreas was embedded in a massive hematoma. However, careful dissection of the pancreatic tail after fixation revealed a berry aneurysm measuring 0.8 cm in diameter in a branch adjacent to the bifurcation in the distal third of the main splenic artery. Microscopic examination detected a rupture of the aneurysm. The histology of the arterial wall proximal to the aneurysm showed typical SAM. In general, berry SAA caused by SAM is rare and unlikely to rupture. The SAA in the present case likely occurred and ruptured due to the combination of SAM and portal hypertension.

  1. A History of Infant Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  2. Breast-feeding after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Serban; Pai, Akshta; Coscia, Lisa A; Davison, John M; Moritz, Michael J; Armenti, Vincent T

    2014-11-01

    Transplantation affords recipients the potential for a full life and, for some, parenthood. Female transplant recipients must continue to take immunosuppression during pregnancy and breast-feeding. This article reviews case and series reports regarding breast-feeding in those taking transplant medications. Avoidance of breast-feeding has been the customary advice because of the potential adverse effects of immunosuppressive exposure on the infant. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that not all medication exposure translates to risk for the infant, that the exposure in utero is greater than via breast milk and that no lingering effects due to breast-feeding have been found to date in infants who were breast-fed while their mothers were taking prednisone, azathioprine, cyclosporine, and/or tacrolimus. Thus, except for those medications where clinical information is inadequate (mycophenolic acid products, sirolimus, everolimus, and belatacept), the recommendation for transplant recipients regarding breast-feeding has evolved into one that is cautiously optimistic.

  3. Breast feeding and infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Golding, J; Emmett, P M; Rogers, I S

    1997-10-29

    The evidence linking bottle feeding to infant and early childhood mortality has been reviewed. Ecological studies of national time trends in infant mortality do not parallel breast feeding trends in those countries, and indicate that falling death rates are more likely to be related to better health care facilities and social conditions. Direct studies of deaths provide some contradictory findings; meta-analyses are not informative because of the many differences in statistical and sample methodology. The methodology exhibited in most studies is more likely to have over- rather than under-estimated a relationship between bottle feeding and infant mortality. Retrospective analyses must take account of changes in feeding pattern due to early signs of illness. Prospective population studies able to account for large numbers of potential confounders provide the best estimates, especially if proportional hazards models are used. Two such studies have been carried out--both showed protective effects of breast feeding.

  4. Perforator arteries of the medial upper arm: anatomical basis of a new flap donor site.

    PubMed

    Perignon, D; Havet, E; Sinna, R

    2013-01-01

    The development of perforator flaps' concept based on knowledge on vascular anatomy of the skin represents a major improvement in reconstructive surgery. Succeeding description about vascular territories and anatomical basics of the main donor sites, the study of hidden donor sites, such as medial upper arm, constitutes a new step and an additional refinement. 20 upper limbs of 10 fresh adult cadavers were studied with colored latex injections. The origin and distribution of the perforator arteries of the superior ulnar collateral artery and the brachial artery were investigated. We have noted constant perforator arteries and described the limits of vascular territories of the medial upper arm.

  5. [The malignant tumor of the pulmonary artery; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Ooi, Masaya; Omoto, T; Ishikawa, N; Mouri, M; Okayama, T; Fukusumi, M; Ono, M; Tedoriya, T

    2008-01-01

    Primary sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is rare. Diagnosis is difficult and often delayed; pulmonary embolism is part of the differential diagnosis. We treated a 46-year-old woman with progressive dyspnea. Computed tomography showed a lesion occupying the main pulmonary artery and peripheral branches on both sides. The pulmonary artery tumor, resected under cardiopulmonary bypass, was diagnosed pathologically as intimal sarcoma. Two weeks after the operation, the patient was feeling well and discharged from our hospital. Although the prognosis of pulmonary artery sarcoma is poor, early diagnosis and resection may prolong survival.

  6. Clinical appraisal of arterial stiffness: the Argonauts in front of the Golden Fleece

    PubMed Central

    Vlachopoulos, C; Aznaouridis, K; Stefanadis, C

    2006-01-01

    Interest in evaluating arterial elastic properties has grown in parallel with the widespread availability of non‐invasive methods for assessing arterial stiffness. A clinically useful diagnostic index must be pathophysiologically relevant, must be readily measurable, and must indicate the severity of the disease and predict the corresponding risk. Interventional modification of this index must parallel disease regression and benefit prognosis. The current evidence for the clinical value of estimating arterial stiffness (mainly of large, elastic‐type arteries, such as the aorta and the carotids) in the contemporary era of cardiovascular medicine is reviewed. PMID:16339817

  7. Clinical appraisal of arterial stiffness: the Argonauts in front of the Golden Fleece.

    PubMed

    Vlachopoulos, C; Aznaouridis, K; Stefanadis, C

    2006-11-01

    Interest in evaluating arterial elastic properties has grown in parallel with the widespread availability of non-invasive methods for assessing arterial stiffness. A clinically useful diagnostic index must be pathophysiologically relevant, must be readily measurable, and must indicate the severity of the disease and predict the corresponding risk. Interventional modification of this index must parallel disease regression and benefit prognosis. The current evidence for the clinical value of estimating arterial stiffness (mainly of large, elastic-type arteries, such as the aorta and the carotids) in the contemporary era of cardiovascular medicine is reviewed.

  8. Modern Age Pathology of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Stacher, Elvira; Graham, Brian B.; Hunt, James M.; Gandjeva, Aneta; Groshong, Steve D.; McLaughlin, Vallerie V.; Jessup, Marsha; Grizzle, William E.; Aldred, Michaela A.; Cool, Carlyne D.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: The impact of modern treatments of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) on pulmonary vascular pathology remains unknown. Objectives: To assess the spectrum of pulmonary vascular remodeling in the modern era of PAH medication. Methods: Assessment of pulmonary vascular remodeling and inflammation in 62 PAH and 28 control explanted lungs systematically sampled. Measurements and Main Results: Intima and intima plus media fractional thicknesses of pulmonary arteries were increased in the PAH group versus the control lungs and correlated with pulmonary hemodynamic measurements. Despite a high variability of morphological measurements within a given PAH lung and among all PAH lungs, distinct pathological subphenotypes were detected in cohorts of PAH lungs. These included a subset of lungs lacking intima or, most prominently, media remodeling, which had similar numbers of profiles of plexiform lesions as those in lungs with more pronounced remodeling. Marked perivascular inflammation was present in a high number of PAH lungs and correlated with intima plus media remodeling. The number of profiles of plexiform lesions was significantly lower in lungs of male patients and those never treated with prostacyclin or its analogs. Conclusions: Our results indicate that multiple features of pulmonary vascular remodeling are present in patients treated with modern PAH therapies. Perivascular inflammation may have an important role in the processes of vascular remodeling, all of which may ultimately lead to increased pulmonary artery pressure. Moreover, our study provides a framework to interpret and design translational studies in PAH. PMID:22679007

  9. Acceleration-selective arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Sophie; Ghariq, Eidrees; Teeuwisse, Wouter M; Webb, Andrew; van Osch, Matthias J P

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a new arterial spin labeling (ASL) method with spatially nonselective labeling is introduced, based on the acceleration of flowing spins, which is able to image brain perfusion with minimal contamination from venous signal. This method is termed acceleration-selective ASL (AccASL) and resembles velocity-selective ASL (VSASL), with the difference that AccASL is able to discriminate between arterial and venous components in a single preparation module due to the higher acceleration on the arterial side of the microvasculature, whereas VSASL cannot make this distinction unless a second labeling module is used. A difference between AccASL and VSASL is that AccASL is mainly cerebral blood volume weighted, whereas VSASL is cerebral blood flow weighted. AccASL exploits the principles of acceleration-encoded magnetic resonance angiography by using motion-sensitizing gradients in a T2 -preparation module. This method is demonstrated in healthy volunteers for a range of cutoff accelerations. Additionally, AccASL is compared with VSASL and pseudo-continuous ASL, and its feasibility in functional MRI is demonstrated. Compared with VSASL with a single labeling module, a strong and significant reduction in venous label is observed. The resulting signal-to-noise ratio is comparable to pseudo-continuous ASL and robust activation of the visual cortex is observed.

  10. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS-MULTIMODALITY FINDINGS IN AN ADULT DOG WITH PRIMARY SARCOMA OF THE PULMONARY ARTERY AND MYOCARDIAL METASTASES.

    PubMed

    Stieger-Vanegas, Susanne M; Bottorff, Bryan; Sisson, David; Löhr, Christiane V

    2016-07-01

    Intravascular pulmonary artery sarcomas in combination with myocardial metastasis are rare in dogs. We describe the radiographic, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic-gated (ECG-gated) computed tomographic angiography (CTA) findings in a dog with pulmonary artery sarcoma. All imaging studies demonstrated severe main pulmonary artery enlargement. Echocardiography and ECG-gated CTA revealed a mass occluding the lumen of the right pulmonary artery. In addition, CTA revealed focal left ventricular myocardial contrast enhancement and parenchymal lung changes. Postmortem examination confirmed the presence of a large thrombus associated with arteriosclerosis and an intravascular sarcoma in the right pulmonary artery with metastases to the myocardium, lungs and brain.

  11. Epigenetics and Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Golledge, Jonathan; Biros, Erik; Bingley, John; Iyer, Vikram; Krishna, Smriti M

    2016-04-01

    The term epigenetics is usually used to describe inheritable changes in gene function which do not involve changes in the DNA sequence. These typically include non-coding RNAs, DNA methylation and histone modifications. Smoking and older age are recognised risk factors for peripheral artery diseases, such as occlusive lower limb artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm, and have been implicated in promoting epigenetic changes. This brief review describes studies that have associated epigenetic factors with peripheral artery diseases and investigations which have examined the effect of epigenetic modifications on the outcome of peripheral artery diseases in mouse models. Investigations have largely focused on microRNAs and have identified a number of circulating microRNAs associated with human peripheral artery diseases. Upregulating or antagonising a number of microRNAs has also been reported to limit aortic aneurysm development and hind limb ischemia in mouse models. The importance of DNA methylation and histone modifications in peripheral artery disease has been relatively little studied. Whether circulating microRNAs can be used to assist identification of patients with peripheral artery diseases and be modified in order to improve the outcome of peripheral artery disease will require further investigation.

  12. Computer measurement of arterial disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J.; Selzer, R. H.; Barndt, R.; Blankenhorn, D. H.; Brooks, S.

    1980-01-01

    Image processing technique quantifies human atherosclerosis by computer analysis of arterial angiograms. X-ray film images are scanned and digitized, arterial shadow is tracked, and several quantitative measures of lumen irregularity are computed. In other tests, excellent agreement was found between computer evaluation of femoral angiograms on living subjects and evaluation by teams of trained angiographers.

  13. Early enteral feeding with human milk for VLBW infants.

    PubMed

    De Nisi, G; Berti, M; De Nisi, M; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    In a NICU early enteral feeding is usually possible only when the newborn clinical conditions permit it. Because of the frequent need of umbilical/central catheters, they usually start with parenteral feeding and/or with minimal enteral feeding (trophic feeding). This kind of management is even more frequent in VLBWIs, in which the risk of NEC is very high. In this work we describe a model of early enteral exclusive feeding (EEEF) based on the use of banking human milk followed by mother milk. In the Centre of Neonatology of Trento, as in other Centers, the newborns weighing less than 750g or with a GE< 27 weeks, are treated with parenteral nutrition and minimal enteral feeding. The newborn weighing 750-1249g and with GE > 26 weeks define a group in which we find critical neonates, who can not be treated with enteral feeding, and neonates whose clinical conditions permit EEEF. In particular, in a period of 16 years (1994-2009) in Trento, 308 newborns weighing 750-1249 g and GE > than 26 weeks were admitted. The 90,9 % has been treated with prenatal steroids, the 91,9 % was inborn, the 96,1% survived. In the 59,1 % of the cases (175) we gave EEEF. We could continue with a complete EEEF in the 40,2 % of the total (119 cases). The characteristics of these neonates and our centre management, based mainly on early use of banking human milk and mother milk, are detailed described.

  14. Feed Structure For Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A novel feed structure, for an antenna having a resonant electric field structure, comprising a patch element, an integrated circuit attached to the patch element, at least one inner conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the integrated circuit on a first end of the at least one inner conductor, wherein the at least one inner conductor extends through and is not electrically connected to the patch element, and wherein the at least one inner conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the at least one inner conductor, and an outer conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the patch element on a first end of the outer conductor, wherein the outer conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the outer conductor, and wherein the outer conductor concentrically surrounds the at least one inner conductor from the second end of the at least one inner conductor available for electrical connectivity to the first end of the outer conductor terminating at the patch element.

  15. A study of the hemodynamics of anterior communicating artery aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebral, Juan R.; Castro, Marcelo A.; Putman, Christopher M.

    2006-03-01

    In this study, the effects of unequal physiologic flow conditions in the internal carotid arteries on the intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics of anterior communicating artery aneurysms were investigated. Patient-specific vascular computational fluid dynamics models of five cerebral aneurysms were constructed from bilateral 3D rotational angiography images. The aneurysmal hemodynamics was analyzed under a range of physiologic flow conditions including the effects of unequal mean flows and phase shifts between the flow waveforms of the left and right internal carotid arteries. A total of five simulations were performed for each patient, and unsteady wall shear stress (WSS) maps were created for each flow condition. Time dependent curves of average WSS magnitude over selected regions on the aneurysms were constructed and used to analyze the influence of the inflow conditions. It was found that mean flow imbalances in the feeding vessels tend to shift the regions of elevated WSS (flow impingement region) towards the dominating inflow jet and to change the magnitude of the WSS peaks. However, the overall qualitative appearance of the WSS distribution and velocity simulations is not substantially affected. In contrast, phase differences tend to increase the temporal complexity of the hemodynamic patterns and to destabilize the intra-aneurysmal flow pattern. However, these effects are less important when the A1 confluence is less symmetric, i.e. dominated by one of the A1 segments. Conditions affecting the flow characteristics in the parent arteries of cerebral aneurysms with more than one avenue of inflow should be incorporated into flow models.

  16. Feeding At-Risk Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Mata B.

    1989-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists working with infants or toddlers with feeding problems should obtain a feeding history, conduct an assessment of feeding practices, set appropriate preliminary and long-range goals, and investigate treatment options and appropriate feeding techniques. Feeding techniques for premature, neurologically impaired, Down…

  17. Therapeutic modification of arterial stiffness: An update and comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ching-Fen; Liu, Pang-Yen; Wu, Tsung-Jui; Hung, Yuan; Yang, Shih-Ping; Lin, Gen-Min

    2015-01-01

    Arterial stiffness has been recognized as a marker of cardiovascular disease and associated with long-term worse clinical outcomes in several populations. Age, hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, known as traditional vascular risk factors, as well as diabetes, obesity, and systemic inflammation lead to both atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. Targeting multiple modifiable risk factors has become the main therapeutic strategy to improve arterial stiffness in patients at high cardiovascular risk. Additionally to life style modifications, long-term ω-3 fatty acids (fish oil) supplementation in diet may improve arterial stiffness in the population with hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Pharmacological treatment such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists, metformin, and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors were useful in individuals with hypertension and diabetes. In obese population with obstructive sleep apnea, weight reduction, aerobic exercise, and continuous positive airway pressure treatment may also improve arterial stiffness. In the populations with chronic inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, a use of antibodies against tumor necrosis factor-alpha could work effectively. Other therapeutic options such as renal sympathetic nerve denervation for patients with resistant hypertension are investigated in many ongoing clinical trials. Therefore our comprehensive review provides knowledge in detail regarding many aspects of pathogenesis, measurement, and management of arterial stiffness in several populations, which would be helpful for physicians to make clinical decision. PMID:26635922

  18. Cardiac mechanical energy and effects on the arterial tree.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, H R; Sacco, C M

    1997-05-01

    Blood flow pulsatility is the result of the heart's activity as a pump unable to develop steady flow, and its interaction with the arterial tree. Thus, the heart is a cyclic energy generator whose adequate function requires the two phases of this cycle to be normal. Diastolic properties determine the degree of filling of the ventricles and the strength of the following systole. Systole, in turn, must generate enough energy to overcome forces opposing ejection. These can be divided into internal (the mechanical characteristics of the ventricle itself) and external loads (the characteristics of the arterial tree). As a result, hydraulic energy is imparted to blood (external ventricular work) that manifests itself as blood pressure and flow. Given the cyclic nature of cardiac activity, the external ventricular work has steady and pulsatile components. The steady component is energy lost during steady flow because of vascular resistance, and the pulsatile work is that lost in arterial pulsations and mainly depends on the aortic impedance. Thus, the characteristics of the arterial tree will determine the relative contribution of these two components to blood flow and the efficency of the heart. In addition, the arterial tree modifies the different waves (pressure and flow) traveling in the circulation. These modifications have important consequences for cardiac function. The ventricle and the arterial tree constitute a coupled biological system, and its overall performance is a function of the behavior of each unit at any given moment.

  19. Characterization of tapered slot antenna feeds and feed arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Young-Sik; Yngvesson, K. Sigfrid

    1990-01-01

    A class of feed antennas and feed antenna arrays used in the focal plane of paraboloid reflectors and exhibiting higher than normal levels of cross-polarized radiation in the diagonal planes is addressed. A model which allows prediction of element gain and aperture efficiency of the feed/reflector system is presented. The predictions are in good agreement with experimental results. Tapered slot antenna (TSA) elements are used an example of an element of this type. It is shown that TSA arrays used in multibeam systems with small beam spacings are competitive in terms of aperture efficiency with other, more standard types of arrays incorporating waveguide type elements.

  20. Arterial anatomy of the thumb.

    PubMed

    Ames, E L; Bissonnette, M; Acland, R; Lister, G; Firrell, J

    1993-08-01

    The anatomical literature has indicated that the arterial supply to the thumb comes from the princeps pollicis artery. However, this simplified description does not often correlate with intraoperative findings. The purpose of this study was to investigate and clarify this important area of anatomy by dissection of fresh cadaver hands. 40 dissections were completed on 35 intravascularly injected and five non-injected hands. Five patterns were identified. The most common pattern showed both a superficial and deep vessel to the first web space in 54% of specimens. Dominant vessels included the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery in 8%, first palmar metacarpal artery in 18% and dorsal metacarpal artery in 8%. Only three specimens correlated with the textbook description. We conclude that the term "princeps pollicis" is actually a misnomer.

  1. Arterial Stiffness: Recommendations and Standardization

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Raymond R.

    2017-01-01

    The use of arterial stiffness measurements in longitudinal cohorts of normal populations, hypertensive patients, diabetic patients, healthy elderly, and patients on hemodialysis have confirmed the value of this important measure of arterial health, and established its complementary role to measures of blood pressure. Its contribution to understanding cardiovascular and mortality risk beyond blood pressure measurements has moved measures of arterial stiffness into the ranks of factors such as elevated cholesterol, diabetes, and left ventricular hypertrophy in considering cardiovascular risk. The recent international collaboration's publication of reference ranges for normal people and those with hypertension, along with the American Heart Association's recent scientific statement on standardizing arterial stiffness measurements are important aspects to consider in future studies employing these valuable methods, particularly as interventions that not only lower blood pressure but improve arterial function are tested in the clinical arena. PMID:28275588

  2. Unusual pattern of the first dorsal metacarpal artery.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Homero; Saravia, Diego; Ottone, Nicolas Ernesto

    2017-01-30

    This report describes an unusual pattern of the first dorsal metacarpal artery (FDMA) regarding its course and termination. This FDMA had an abnormal course, passing deep to various anatomical elements related to the index finger, with unusual termination in the radial and ulnar proper palmar digital arteries feeding the second and third fingers, respectively. There is no mention of this anatomical variation in the literature. We report the possible embryological origin of this case and other variations related to the FDMA. This unusual pattern represents a new reason to consider anatomical knowledge important for surgeons whose procedures are in this area and to ensure an accurate diagnosis and safe treatment of pathologies that might engage this anatomical variation.

  3. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon Hyo; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) remains a major cause of secondary hypertension and renal failure. Randomized, prospective trials show that medical treatment should constitute the main therapeutic approach in ARAS. Regardless of intensive treatment and adequate blood pressure control, however, renal and extra-renal complications are not uncommon. Yet, the precise mechanisms, accurate detection, and optimal treatment in ARAS remain elusive. Strategies oriented to early detection and targeting these pathogenic pathways might prevent development of clinical endpoints. Here, we review the results of recent clinical trials, current understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms, novel imaging techniques to assess renal damage in ARAS, and treatment options. PMID:25908472

  4. Bilateral extensive cerebral infarction and mesenteric ischemia associated with segmental arterial mediolysis in two young women.

    PubMed

    Basso, Monique Camila; Flores, Patrícia Carrasco; de Azevedo Marques, Ary; de Souza, Guilherme Leme; D'Elboux Guimarães Brescia, Marília; Campos, Cynthia Resende; de Cleva, Roberto; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2005-10-01

    Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is a rare non-atherosclerotic non-inflammatory vascular disease that affects mainly muscular arteries of the splanchnic and cerebral territories. Reported herein are two cases of SAM in young women with fatal outcome. One of the patients had an atypical form of the disease, which primarily affected small intestinal submucosal and subserosal arteries, and resulted in acute mesenteric ischemia. The other had bilateral brain infarction with SAM of internal carotid arteries (ICA). Pathological examination of both cases did not reveal the cause of blood flow disturbance: large mesenteric branches of the former and ICA of the latter were free of either dissection or thrombosis; in addition, small intestinal arteries of the first patient did not show signs of vasculitis. These findings suggest that unusual pathways of arterial occlusion and dissection may occur in the context of SAM.

  5. Pulmonary embolism caused by a carbon dioxide blower during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Naoyuki; Kanaya, Noriaki; Yamazaki, Yutaka; Sonoda, Hajime; Namiki, Akiyoshi

    2010-02-01

    We report a rare case of pulmonary embolism (PE) caused by a carbon dioxide (CO2) blower during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). When the anastomosis of the right internal thoracic artery to left anterior descending artery was performed, the operator tore the right ventricle outflow track (RVOT) that was adjacent to the left anterior descending artery. Immediately after the anastomosis and repair of the torn RVOT with CO2 blower, the systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) increased from 28 to 64 mmHg, and end-tidal CO2 decreased from 32 to 12 mmHg. Because transesophageal echocardiograph (TEE) showed numerous gas bubbles in the main pulmonary artery, we diagnosed PE caused by invasion of CO2 gas bubbles via the torn RVOT. Although a CO2 blower is useful to enhance visualization of the anastomosis during OPCAB, it should not be used for the venous system because it may cause CO2 embolism.

  6. An isolated single L-II type coronary artery anomaly: A rare coronary anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Ermis, Emrah; Demirelli, Selami; Korkmaz, Ali Fuat; Sahin, Bingul Dilekci; Kantarci, Abdulmecit

    2015-01-01

    Summary The incidence of congenital artery anomalies is 0.2–1.4%, and most are benign. Single coronary artery (SCA) anomalies are very rare. The right coronary artery (RCA) originating from the left coronary system is one such SCA anomaly, and the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) increases if it courses between the pulmonary artery and aorta and coexists with other congenital heart diseases. Additionally, coursing of the RCA between the great vessels increases the risk of atherosclerosis. We herein present the case of a 57 year-old man who was admitted to our cardiology outpatient clinic and diagnosed with an SCA anomaly in which the RCA arose from the left main coronary artery (LMCA) and coursed between the pulmonary artery and aorta. However a critical stenosis was not detected in imaging techniques, and myocardial perfusion scintigraphic evidence of ischaemia was found in a small area. Therefore, he was managed with conservative medical therapy. PMID:26668781

  7. [Progestins and arterial disease].

    PubMed

    Rozenbaum, H

    1985-01-01

    The role of estrogens in the etiology of vascular accidents was identified soon after oral contraceptives (OCs) came into use over 2 decades ago, but the role of progestins was only identified on the basis of systematic study. Reduction in the estrogen dose of OCs was accompained by a steady decline in venous accidents, but the rate of arterial accidents changed little. It is important to remember that the actual occurrence of vascular accidents in OC users is rare. Available statistics indicate that age and smoking are important risk factors for vascular accidents. Among nonsmokers and smokers respectively, the annual risk of death due to vascular accidents is 1 in 77,000 and 1 in 10,000 for women under 35, 1 in 67,000 and 1 in 2000 for women 35-44, and 1 in 2500 and 1 in 500 for women 45 and over. Some isolated cases of arterial vascular accidents in users of progestin only OCs have been published. The death rate from vascular accidents is 3 times as high when the levonorgestrel dose increases from 150 to 250 mcg, and twice as high when the norethisterone acetate dose increases from 1 to 4 mg. It is not known precisely how synthetic progestins can induce an arterial accident, but the factors involved may include elevation of blood pressure by potentiation of the modifications in renin-angiotensin system caused by ethinyl estradiol, reducing the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, impairing glucose tolerance, altering the vascular walls directly, or modifying certain coagulation factors. Little data is available on progestin-caused modifications in coagulation factors, but a recent study reported that the effects of combined OCs on coagulation factors increased with the progestin dose. 2 groups of 19-norsteroids are currently used in contraception, the estranes including norethisterone and some prohormones that metabolize to norethisterone before becoming active, and the gonanes including norgestrel, levonorgestrel, and desogestrel. Early optimism

  8. [Interest in myocardial scintigraphy following the arterial switch procedure for transposition of the great vessels].

    PubMed

    Acar, P; Maunoury, C; Bonnet, D; Sébahoun, S; Bonhoeffer, P; Hallaj, I; Aggoun, Y; Iserin, F; Sidi, D; Kachaner, J

    2001-05-01

    Coronary artery obstruction is the main late complication of the so-called arterial switch operation designed to repair transpositions of the great arteries in newborn infants by switching the great vessels and transferring the coronary ostia onto the posterior vessel. Our aim was to study the links between myocardial perfusion and coronary artery anatomy after the arterial switch operation. Forty-five patients (5.863 years) underwent a 201Tl myocardial SPECT and a selective coronary artery angiography. The latter was normal in 20 children: 13 had also a normal myocardial scan but 7 had myocardial perfusion defects including 2 with angina who had a very low coronary reserve at positron emission tomography. Twenty-five patients had severe coronary artery lesions: 5 with a normal myocardial scan and 20 with perfusion defects. Twelve out of these 20 underwent surgical revascularization and the SPECT images went back to normal in all within 6 months after surgery. Specificity and sensitivity of myocardial SPECT in detecting coronary artery lesions were 78% and 69% whereas positive and negative predictive values were 74 and 73%. We conclude that myocardial SPECT imaging is not the right way to detect late post arterial switch coronary artery lesions. It is helpful in decision making as to submit these children to surgical revascularization and in assessing its postoperative effectiveness.

  9. Plaque and arterial vulnerability investigation in a three-layer atherosclerotic human coronary artery using computational fluid-structure interaction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-08-01

    Coronary artery disease is the common form of cardiovascular diseases and known to be the main reason of deaths in the world. Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) simulations can be employed to assess the interactions of artery/plaque and blood to provide a more precise anticipation for rupture of arterial tissue layers and plaque tissues inside an atherosclerotic artery. To date, the arterial tissue in computational FSI simulations has been considered as a one-layer structure. However, a single layer assumption might have deeply bounded the results and, consequently, more computational simulation is needed by considering the arterial tissue as a three-layer structure. In this study, a three-dimensional computational FSI model of an atherosclerotic artery with a three-layer structure and different plaque types was established to perform a more accurate arterial wall/plaque tissue vulnerability assessment. The hyperelastic material coefficients of arterial layers were calculated and implemented in the computational model. The fully coupled fluid and structure models were solved using the explicit dynamics finite element code LS-DYNA. The results revealed the significant role of plaque types in the normal and shear stresses induced within the arterial tissue layers. The highest von Mises and shear stresses were observed on the stiffest calcified plaque with 3.59 and 3.27 MPa, while the lowest von Mises and shear stresses were seen on the hypocellular plaque with 1.15 and 0.63 MPa, respectively. Regardless of plaque types, the media and adventitia layers were played protective roles by displaying less stress on their wall, whilst the intima layer was at a high risk of rupture. The findings of this study have implications not only for determining the most vulnerable arterial layer/plaque tissue inside an atherosclerotic coronary artery but also for balloon-angioplasty, stenting, and bypass surgeries.

  10. Prophylactic antibiotics in umbilical artery catheterization in the newborn*

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet, P. K. J.; Gupta, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Over a period of 30 months, umbilical artery catheters were inserted in 229 infants. The main complications were haemorrhage, infection, and obstruction of a blood vessel. The incidence of infection was not affected by the use of prophylactic antibiotics. Vascular obstruction was more common in small infants, and in those in whom a catheter was reintroduced in the same blood vessel. PMID:21032490

  11. View of the main interior space facing east. The main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the main interior space facing east. The main entry is on the left hand side at the rear. The exit to the deck is to the right. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  12. 18. MAIN FLOOR HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAIN FLOOR - HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at holding tanks against the west wall, from which sluice gates are seen protruding. Right foreground-wooden holding tanks. Note narrow wooden flumes through which fish were sluiced into holding and brining tanks. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  13. Brachial artery vasomotion and transducer pressure effect on measurements by active contour segmentation on ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, Theodore W.; Sultan, Laith R.; Sehgal, Chandra M.; Reamer, Courtney B.; Mohler, Emile R.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To use feed-forward active contours (snakes) to track and measure brachial artery vasomotion on ultrasound images recorded in both transverse and longitudinal views; and to compare the algorithm's performance in each view. Methods: Longitudinal and transverse view ultrasound image sequences of 45 brachial arteries were segmented by feed-forward active contour (FFAC). The segmented regions were used to measure vasomotion artery diameter, cross-sectional area, and distention both as peak-to-peak diameter and as area. ECG waveforms were also simultaneously extracted frame-by-frame by thresholding a running finite-difference image between consecutive images. The arterial and ECG waveforms were compared as they traced each phase of the cardiac cycle. Results: FFAC successfully segmented arteries in longitudinal and transverse views in all 45 cases. The automated analysis took significantly less time than manual tracing, but produced superior, well-behaved arterial waveforms. Automated arterial measurements also had lower interobserver variability as measured by correlation, difference in mean values, and coefficient of variation. Although FFAC successfully segmented both the longitudinal and transverse images, transverse measurements were less variable. The cross-sectional area computed from the longitudinal images was 27% lower than the area measured from transverse images, possibly due to the compression of the artery along the image depth by transducer pressure. Conclusions: FFAC is a robust and sensitive vasomotion segmentation algorithm in both transverse and longitudinal views. Transverse imaging may offer advantages over longitudinal imaging: transverse measurements are more consistent, possibly because the method is less sensitive to variations in transducer pressure during imaging.

  14. The assessment and the farmers' perceived ranking of feed resources and coping strategies with feed scarcity in smallholder dairy farming in selected district towns of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Duguma, Belay; Dermauw, Veronique; Janssens, Geert

    2017-04-08

    Inadequate quantity and quality of feed resources are major constraints limiting milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess dairy cattle feed resources, feeding practices, the farmers' perceived ranking of feed resources, causes of feed shortage, and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy system in selected district towns of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Data were obtained by interviewing 52 randomly selected smallholder dairy farmers using structured questionnaires and through direct observations. Results showed that 20 main feed types used by dairy farmers were identified and categorized into natural pastures, crop residues, green feeds, hay, agro-industrial by-products, concentrate mix, and non-conventional feeds. Overall, natural pasture (mean rank = 0.453), non-conventional feeds (0.307), cut green feeds (0.086), conserved hay (0.076), crop residues (0.049), and concentrate feeds (0.029) were ranked as the main feed resources in decreasing order of importance. Natural pasture grazing (92.2% of the respondents), hay (35.6%), and green feeds (29.4%) were the most important conventional basal feeds used. Wheat bran (11.7% of the respondents) followed by commercial concentrate mix (9.4%), Noug seedcake (8.3%), grain (7.8%), and molasses (6.1%) were the concentrate supplements used. Overall, bulule-flour mill leftovers (67.2% of the farmers), bean and pea hulls (57.2%) and atella-local brew by-product (37.2%), enset (Ensete ventricosum, 34.4%), and sugarcane top (32.2%) were the non-conventional feeds available and used during feed scarcity. Barley and teff (Eragrostis teff) straws and maize and sorghum stovers were the main crop residues used in the dry seasons. Overall, 73.9, 12.2, 12.2, and 1.7% of the respondents practiced free grazing, zero grazing, semi-zero, and a combination of zero- and free-grazing systems, respectively. Over 84% of the respondents in the dry season and 50% in

  15. Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery: The Role of Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT)

    PubMed Central

    Al Umairi, Rashid Saif; Al Kindi, Faiza; Al Busaidi, Fadhila

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary abnormality also known as Bland-White-Garland syndrome. The incidence of ALCAPA is about 1 in every 300,000 live births, and constitutes 0.24% and 0.46% of all congenital cardiac disease. It has a high infant mortality rate reaching up to 90% if left untreated. For many years, the diagnosis of ALCAPA was by angiography or autopsy. However, multislice computed tomography (MSCT) is a non-invasive imaging tool that allows accurate, non-invasive diagnosis of ALCAPA. Here we report a case of ALCAPA in a six-month-old girl who presented with a two-week history of cough, fever, tachypnea, and sweating during feeding. During admission, an echocardiogram was performed that revealed ALCAPA, which was confirmed using CT. We discuss the role of MSCT in its diagnosis. PMID:27602196

  16. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Daniele; Capodanno, Davide; Dangas, George; Tamburino, Corrado

    2014-07-15

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a relatively rare and unexplored type of coronary disease. Although atherosclerosis, hormonal changes during pregnancy and connective tissue disorders might represent a sufficiently convincing explanation for some patients with SCAD, the many remaining cases display only a weak relationship with these causes. While on one side the clinical heterogeneity of SCAD masks a full understanding of their underlying pathophysiologic process, on the other side paucity of data and misleading presentations hamper the quick diagnosis and optimal management of this condition. A definite diagnosis of SCAD can be significantly facilitated by endovascular imaging techniques. In fact, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) overcome the limitations of coronary angiography providing detailed endovascular morphologic information. In contrast, optimal treatment strategies for SCAD still represent a burning controversial question. Herein, we review the published data examining possible causes and investigating the best therapy for SCAD in different clinical scenarios.

  17. [Grafting of carotid arteries].

    PubMed

    Belov, Iu V; Stepanenko, A B; Gens, A P; Bazylev, V V; Seleznev, M N; Savichev, D D

    2005-01-01

    Over 5-years, 167 reconstructive surgeries for stenosis of internal carotid arteries (ICA) were performed in 124 patients. Mean age of the patients was 63.5 years. One hundred and twenty-nine carotid endarterectomies (CEAE) in 86 patients and 38 reconstructive operations of ICA in 38 patients were performed. There were no lethal outcomes in short- and long-term postoperative period. In short-term period after prosthesis of ICA restenosis was revealed in 3% patients, after eversion CEAE in 3% patients the embolism was seen, after standard CEAE restenosis were diagnosed in 8% patients and thrombosis -- in 3%. In long-term period after grafting of ICA the strokes were seen in 3%, stenosis -- in 6% patients, after eversion endarterectomy -- in 0 and 3% patients, and after standard CEAE -- in 3 and 24% patients, respectively. It is concluded that grafting of ICA is adequate surgical method of reconstruction and stroke prevention in specific variants of carotid atherosclerosis.

  18. Schistosome Feeding and Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Skelly, Patrick J.; Da'dara, Akram A.; Li, Xiao-Hong; Castro-Borges, William; Wilson, R. Alan

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms that infect >200 million people worldwide, causing the chronic, debilitating disease schistosomiasis. Unusual among parasitic helminths, the long-lived adult worms, continuously bathed in blood, take up nutrients directly across the body surface and also by ingestion of blood into the gut. Recent proteomic analyses of the body surface revealed the presence of hydrolytic enzymes, solute, and ion transporters, thus emphasising its metabolic credentials. Furthermore, definition of the molecular mechanisms for the uptake of selected metabolites (glucose, certain amino acids, and water) establishes it as a vital site of nutrient acquisition. Nevertheless, the amount of blood ingested into the gut per day is considerable: for males ∼100 nl; for the more actively feeding females ∼900 nl, >4 times body volume. Ingested erythrocytes are lysed as they pass through the specialized esophagus, while leucocytes become tethered and disabled there. Proteomics and transcriptomics have revealed, in addition to gut proteases, an amino acid transporter in gut tissue and other hydrolases, ion, and lipid transporters in the lumen, implicating the gut as the site for acquisition of essential lipids and inorganic ions. The surface is the principal entry route for glucose, whereas the gut dominates amino acid acquisition, especially in females. Heme, a potentially toxic hemoglobin degradation product, accumulates in the gut and, since schistosomes lack an anus, must be expelled by the poorly understood process of regurgitation. Here we place the new observations on the proteome of body surface and gut, and the entry of different nutrient classes into schistosomes, into the context of older studies on worm composition and metabolism. We suggest that the balance between surface and gut in nutrition is determined by the constraints of solute diffusion imposed by differences in male and female worm morphology. Our conclusions have major implications for

  19. Effects of rotational speed and feed rate on temperature rise, feed force and cutting torque when drilling bovine cortical bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano, J.; Iriarte, L. M.; Eguren, J. A.; Aristimuño, P.; Garay, A.; Arrazola, P. J.

    2012-04-01

    Surgical procedures that affect the human bone structure often entail drilling operations of bone. The post-operative evolution of these interventions is conditioned largely by the damage generated during the operation. The aim of this study was to determine clearly the influence of the cutting conditions on temperatures and forces when drilling bovine cortical bone, in the interests of further optimization of cutting conditions to minimize the generated damage. The infrared thermography technique and a piezoelectric dynamometer were employed as measurement devices. It was observed that the main parameter affecting temperatures was the feed per tooth. The temperatures obtained were lower when drilling with high feed per tooth, even though an opposite effect was noticed on the feed force and torque, with an increase of them. From the experimental results, prediction models of temperature rise, feed force and cutting torque were created, in order to predict the response based on the selected cutting conditions.

  20. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Giedrius, Bernotavičius; Kęstutis, Saniukas; Irena, Karmonaitė; Rimantas, Zagorskis

    2016-01-01

    Background. An obstruction of the distal part of the duodenum can occur because of the superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) after a surgical correction of scoliosis. It is essential to evaluate the risk factors and diagnose the SMAS in time because complications of this condition are life-threatening and it is associated with a high rate of morbidity. Diagnostics of the SMAS is challenging, because it is rare and its symptoms are non-specific. Therefore, in order to better understand the essence of this pathology and to make diagnosis easier we present a rare clinical case of the superior mesenteric artery syndrome after a surgical correction of neuromuscular scoliosis. The clinical case. A 12-year-old girl with a specific development disorder, sensory neuropathy and progressive kypho-scoliosis was admitted to Vilnius University Children’s Hospital. The patient had right side 50-degree thoracic scoliosis and an 80-degree thoracic kyphosis. She underwent posterior spinal fusion with hooks and screws from Th1 to L2. On the fourth day after the surgery the patient developed nausea and began to vomit each day 1-2 times per day, especially after meals. The SMAS was suspected and a nasogastric tube was inserted, stomach decompression and the correction of electrolytes disbalance were made. After the treatment, the symptoms did not recur and a satisfactory correction and balance of the spine were made in coronal and sagittal planes. Conclusions. It is extremely important to identify the risk factors of the SMAS and begin preoperative diet supplements before surgical correction of scoliosis for patients with a low body mass index. After the first episode of vomiting following the surgery, we recommend to investigate these patients for a gastrointestinal obstruction as soon as possible. Decompression of the stomach, enteral or parenteral nutrition, and fluid therapy are essential in treating the SMAS. PMID:28356803

  1. [When is breast feeding contraceptive?].

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    Breast-feeding has always been perceived as a contraceptive measure, probably because it is associated with amenorrhea. However, many pregnancies occur during breast-feeding, often quite soon after delivery. A pregnancy occurring 3 months after delivery is considered at risk for both the mother and child. Three conditions are necessary for a 98% contraceptive efficacy of lactation: total amenorrhea; exclusive breast-feeding on demand, both day and night; and occurrence within the first 6 months postpartum. If the three conditions are met, no additional contraceptive method is needed. Beyond 6 months, another method should be used.

  2. A computed tomography study in the location of greater palatine artery in South Indian population for maxillary osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Packiaraj, I.; Retnakumar, K.; Anusuya, G. Sai; Rajambigai, M. Aarti; Baskaran, M.; Devadoss, Vimal Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The greater palatine artery is one of the important feeding vessel to the maxilla. The surgeon should know the surgical anatomy of greater palatine artery to avoid trauma in maxilla which leads to ischemic problems. Aim: The CT evaluation of the distance between Pyriform aperture and the greater palatine foramen in various ages of both sexes. Result: The distance varies according to sex and age which are measured by CT and standardised. Discussion: The lateral nasal osteotomy can be done upto 25 mm depth, instead of 20 mm. Conclusion: By this study it shows that the lateral nasal wall osteotomy can be performed without injury to greater palatine artery. PMID:27829768

  3. Intra-arterial urokinase for treatment of retrograde thrombosis following resection of an arteriovenous malformation. Case report.

    PubMed

    Sipos, E P; Kirsch, J R; Nauta, H J; Debrun, G; Ulatowski, J A; Bell, W R

    1992-06-01

    Retrograde thrombosis of feeding arteries is a potentially catastrophic complication occasionally reported following resection of arteriovenous malformations (AVM's). No successful therapy for this condition, which causes postoperative stroke, has previously been reported. A case of retrograde thrombosis of the left middle cerebral artery immediately following resection of a parietal AVM is reported in a patient with a retained intra-arterial catheter from preoperative embolization. The administration of urokinase within 4 hours of surgery resulted in dramatic clinical and angiographic improvement without hemorrhagic complications. While urokinase is considered highly experimental in this setting, this case demonstrates that thrombolytic agents should be viewed as therapeutic options worthy of further investigation.

  4. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is diagnosed with ... use too. If your baby needs surgery after breast-feeding has been established, you can pump your breasts ...

  5. Pelvic Arterial Anatomy Relevant to Prostatic Artery Embolisation and Proposal for Angiographic Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Assis, André Moreira de Moreira, Airton Mota Paula Rodrigues, Vanessa Cristina de; Harward, Sardis Honoria; Antunes, Alberto Azoubel Srougi, Miguel; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo describe and categorize the angiographic findings regarding prostatic vascularization, propose an anatomic classification, and discuss its implications for the PAE procedure.MethodsAngiographic findings from 143 PAE procedures were reviewed retrospectively, and the origin of the inferior vesical artery (IVA) was classified into five subtypes as follows: type I: IVA originating from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery (IIA), from a common trunk with the superior vesical artery (SVA); type II: IVA originating from the anterior division of the IIA, inferior to the SVA origin; type III: IVA originating from the obturator artery; type IV: IVA originating from the internal pudendal artery; and type V: less common origins of the IVA. Incidences were calculated by percentage.ResultsTwo hundred eighty-six pelvic sides (n = 286) were analyzed, and 267 (93.3 %) were classified into I–IV types. Among them, the most common origin was type IV (n = 89, 31.1 %), followed by type I (n = 82, 28.7 %), type III (n = 54, 18.9 %), and type II (n = 42, 14.7 %). Type V anatomy was seen in 16 cases (5.6 %). Double vascularization, defined as two independent prostatic branches in one pelvic side, was seen in 23 cases (8.0 %).ConclusionsDespite the large number of possible anatomical variations of male pelvis, four main patterns corresponded to almost 95 % of the cases. Evaluation of anatomy in a systematic fashion, following a standard classification, will make PAE a faster, safer, and more effective procedure.

  6. Liver cancer arterial perfusion modelling and CFD boundary conditions methodology: a case study of the haemodynamics of a patient-specific hepatic artery in literature-based healthy and tumour-bearing liver scenarios.

    PubMed

    Aramburu, Jorge; Antón, Raúl; Rivas, Alejandro; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Sangro, Bruno; Bilbao, José Ignacio

    2016-11-01

    Some of the latest treatments for unresectable liver malignancies (primary or metastatic tumours), which include bland embolisation, chemoembolisation, and radioembolisation, among others, take advantage of the increased arterial blood supply to the tumours to locally attack them. A better understanding of the factors that influence this transport may help improve the therapeutic procedures by taking advantage of flow patterns or by designing catheters and infusion systems that result in the injected beads having increased access to the tumour vasculature. Computational analyses may help understand the haemodynamic patterns and embolic-microsphere transport through the hepatic arteries. In addition, physiological inflow and outflow boundary conditions are essential in order to reliably represent the blood flow through arteries. This study presents a liver cancer arterial perfusion model based on a literature review and derives boundary conditions for tumour-bearing liver-feeding hepatic arteries based on the arterial perfusion characteristics of normal and tumorous liver segment tissue masses and the hepatic artery branching configuration. Literature-based healthy and tumour-bearing realistic scenarios are created and haemodynamically analysed for the same patient-specific hepatic artery. As a result, this study provides boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics simulations that will allow researchers to numerically study, for example, various intravascular devices used for liver disease intra-arterial treatments with different cancer scenarios. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Arterial injuries during inguinal herniorrhaphy.

    PubMed Central

    Shamberger, R C; Ottinger, L W; Malt, R A

    1984-01-01

    In all common forms of inguinal herniorrhaphy, stitches pass either just superficial to the internal iliac artery and vein or through their sheath. Despite the potential for arterial injury, documented cases seem to exist only in the foreign-language literature. We report four cases of arterial injury following inguinal herniorrhaphy in adults. The artery is placed in jeopardy when the transversalis fascia is incorporated in the stitches used to close the medial aspect of the internal inguinal ring. The depth of penetration of the needle and the proximity of the external iliac artery must be accurately judged. Injury can result from direct puncture of the artery or avulsion of one of its branches. Immediate repair of any arterial injury is paramount, and newly subnormal pulses below the inguinal injury are unacceptable. Exposure must be adequate, and division of the floor of the inguinal canal may be necessary for this purpose. Repair may require a simple hemostatic suture, a patch graft, or an interposition graft. PMID:6732332

  8. When Breast-feeding is not Contraindicated

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Jack

    1991-01-01

    As more mothers elect to breast-feed, more concomitant problems in mothers and babies are reported that are thought to contraindicate breast-feeding. Many frequently cited maternal and infant reasons for stopping breast-feeding are not valid. Breast-feeding can usually be maintained if the physician remembers that breast-feeding is important for the baby and mother and not simply another feeding method. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:21229077

  9. Effects of feeding on metabolism, gas transport, and acid-base balance in the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed

    Busk, M; Jensen, F B; Wang, T

    2000-01-01

    Massive feeding in ectothermic vertebrates causes changes in metabolism and acid-base and respiratory parameters. Most investigations have focused on only one aspect of these complex changes, and different species have been used, making comparison among studies difficult. The purpose of the present study was, therefore, to provide an integrative study of the multiple physiological changes taking place after feeding. Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) partly submerged in water were fed meals (mice or rats) amounting to approximately (1)/(10) of their body weight. Oxygen consumption increased and peaked at a value three times the predigestive level 72-96 h after feeding. Arterial PO(2) decreased slightly during digestion, whereas hemoglobin-bound oxygen saturation was unaffected. Yet, arterial blood oxygen content was pronouncedly elevated because of a 60% increase in hematocrit, which appeared mediated via release of red blood cells from the spleen. Gastric acid secretion was associated with a 60% increase in plasma HCO3(-) concentration ([HCO3(-)]) 48 h after feeding. Arterial pH only increased from 7.86 to 7.94, because the metabolic alkalosis was countered by an increase in PCO(2) from 10.8 to 13.7 mm Hg. Feeding also induced a small intracellular alkalosis in the sartorius muscle. Arterial pH and HCO3(-) returned to control values 96-120 h after feeding. There was no sign of anaerobic energy production during digestion as plasma and tissue lactate levels remained low and intracellular ATP concentration stayed high. However, phosphocreatine was reduced in the sartorius muscle and ventricle 48 h after feeding.

  10. Degeneration and regeneration of perivascular innervation in arterial grafts.

    PubMed

    Heikki, Penttilä; Timo, Waris; Nureddin, Ashammakhi; Sampsa, Vanhatalo

    2004-07-01

    Because the understanding of postoperative changes in arterial graft innervation is limited, this study was performed to characterize neuronal degeneration and regeneration events immunohistochemically in femoral arterial grafts transplanted to carotid arteries in rats. Specimens taken 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 1 month, 3 months, and 5 months after surgery were assessed for vasoactive intestinal peptide, neurofilaments, growth-associated protein 43, tyrosine hydroxylase, and nitric oxide synthase isoenzymes. During neuronal degeneration, vasoactive intestinal peptide disappeared within 1 day, transmitter-synthesizing enzymes (nitric oxide synthase and tyrosine hydroxylase) had vanished by day 7, and neurofilaments (cytoskeletal markers) had essentially disappeared after 1 week. In the regeneration phase, the most robust axonal growth, as visualized by growth-associated protein 43, was observed at 1 month, followed by a gradual increase in neurotransmitter markers at 1 and 3 months, whereas the neurofilaments increased gradually up to the end of the 5-month observation period. Reinnervation proceeded from the proximal carotid (host) trunk distally to the graft. Axonal re-growth occurred mainly in arterial adventitia. Innervation density, as visually assessed, was denser in the graft than in the host. These findings suggest that 1) the main sequence of degeneration and regeneration follows that reported in other models of neuronal degeneration; 2) reinnervation of the arterial grafts comes mainly from the host arteries; and 3) the innervation density in the graft may differ from that in the host, which may suggest target-derived regulation of innervation. The latter finding may have clinical implications. It suggests that for a good outcome it would be beneficial to choose a sparsely innervated graft rather than a densely innervated one.

  11. Maine: Early Head Start Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Maine has two initiatives that build on Early Head Start (EHS). The first initiative, Fund for a Healthy Maine, has since 2001 provided tobacco settlement money to existing Head Start and EHS programs to expand the number of children who receive full-day, full-year services. Local programs have the option of using these funds for EHS, depending on…

  12. Maine Indians: A Brief Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    The Indians of Maine, descendants of Algonquian linguistic stock, number approximately 1800 and reside on 3 reservations totalling 22,600 acres of land. Most of the reservation land is forested, with important economic and recreational advantages in terms of timber production and hunting and fishing opportunities. In 1965, Maine became the first…

  13. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  14. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities.

  15. Rotary powder feed through apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

  16. Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a heart defect. The left coronary artery (LCA), which carries blood to the heart muscle, begins ... not attach correctly. In the normal heart, the LCA originates from the aorta. It supplies oxygen-rich ...

  17. Middle-colic artery aneurysm associated with segmental arterial mediolysis, successfully managed by transcatheter arterial embolization: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Takahisa; Sawai, Hirozumi; Yamada, Koji; Wakasugi, Takehiro; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Arai, Yasuaki

    2009-01-01

    An aneurysm of the middle-colic artery, associated with segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM), is a rare condition. This report describes a case of a middle-colic artery aneurysm that was associated with SAM. A 57-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of severe abdominal pain. A rupture of a middle-colic artery aneurysm was diagnosed by computed tomography, and angiography showed that it may have been associated with SAM. The ruptured aneurysm was successfully treated with transcatheter arterial embolization. Transcatheter arterial embolization might be one of the best treatments for such a complicated aneurysm occurring in a visceral artery.

  18. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  19. Storage and feeding of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenike, A. W.; Carson, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Reliable feeding of coal from storage bins to process requires the knowledge of the behavior of coal during flow. The study of the flow of bulk solids was undertaken in the 1950's and led to the development of flow ability testing equipment and of the Mass Flow concept of design for reliable flow. The theory has since been expanded to two-phase, solids-gas system, and has found world wide application in the design of storage and feeding systems.

  20. Social theory and infant feeding

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  1. [Feeding and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Dain, E

    2012-09-01

    Adolescence is a transition period during which young people face many changes. Their desire to assert and differentiate themselves is reflected even in their food choices. These choices may have impacts until their adult lives. Moreover the media affect them in contradictory ways from images of extreme thinnesses to enticing advertisements of calorie food. A lack of self-esteem may appear, and in case of fertile ground may cause either diet, either addiction, or eating disorder. A comforting family as well as empathetic physicians have a main role in the medical care.

  2. Functional assessment of a left coronary-pulmonary artery fistula by coronary flow reserve

    PubMed Central

    Sasi, Viktor; Forster, Tamás; Ungi, Imre

    2014-01-01

    We report a 71-year-old man who presented with atypical chest pain. Coronary angiography did not reveal left main or proximal left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis, but a fistulous communication with a stronger tube-like fistula was present originating from the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery and emptying into the main pulmonary artery. Fractional flow reserve and coronary flow reserve measurements were performed to gain more data on the potential functional aspects of this fistula. With the present case, the importance of functional evaluation of these fistulas is demonstrated. PMID:25061466

  3. Early Post-Operative Coronary Thrombosis Following Repair of a Proximal Coronary Artery Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Bryan; Taub, Cynthia C

    2016-01-01

    Patients with aneurysmal coronary artery fistulas are often a treatment challenge. We hereby, report a case of aneurysmal left main coronary artery to coronary sinus fistula repair, complicated by an early post-operative thrombosis of the left main coronary artery, necessitating an orthotropic heart transplant. Routine use of peri-procedural and long-term anti-coagulation is usually not a standard recommendation in these cases; however, early institution of the same may prevent flow stasis, thrombus formation and unfavourable outcomes pre- or post-operatively. PMID:28208917

  4. Modified technique for reconstructing the visceral arteries in thoracoabdominal aortic repair.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Haruhiko; Funatsu, Toshihiro; Taniguchi, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We present a modified technique for reconstructing the visceral arteries in thoracoabdominal aortic repair. After the proximal and distal anastomosis of a main tubular graft with four pre-sewn side branches, each visceral artery is cannulated and perfused with 25 °C blood (sum total, 800 mL/min). Then, each side branch is placed around the main graft, forming a gently curved loop around it. Finally, the orifice of each visceral artery is sutured to a side branch. This technique prevents kinking of the side branches and enables hemostasis to be secured with a clear view of all the suture lines.

  5. Breast feeding in organic acidaemias.

    PubMed

    Gokcay, G; Baykal, T; Gokdemir, Y; Demirkol, M

    2006-01-01

    Breast feeding has been recommended for the dietary treatment of infants with organic acidaemias, but studies documenting clinical experience are still very few. Nine infants, diagnosed with methylmalonic acidaemia (n = 4), propionic acidaemia (n = 1), isovaleric acidaemia (n = 2) and glutaric acidaemia type I (n = 2) were breast fed after diagnosis. The age of the patients was 28.9+/- 13.4 months (mean +/- SD) (range 10-57 months). Eight patients were diagnosed with clinical symptoms and one because of an affected sibling. After the control of acute metabolic problems, an initial period with a measured volume of expressed breast milk was continued with on-demand breast feeding with the addition of a special essential amino acid mixture and energy supplements. Breast feeding was well tolerated in seven infants with good growth, metabolic control and neurological outcome. The duration of breast feeding was 12.3+/- 7.4 months (mean +/- SD) (range 4-24 months) in these patients. Breast feeding was terminated in the patient with propionic acidaemia because of two acute metabolic episodes requiring hospitalization, and could not be continued in one of the patients with isovaleric acidaemia owing to shortage of breast milk. A decrease in the frequency of infections, acute metabolic episodes and hospital admissions was observed in breast-fed infants. Breast feeding of infants with organic acidaemias is feasible with close monitoring of clinical parameters such as growth, development and biochemistry, including amino acids, organic acids and ammonia.

  6. Breast-feeding in Spain.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, M J; Martín-Calama, J; Hernandez-Aguilar, M T

    2001-12-01

    Human milk is the best way to nurture the human infant. By breast-feeding their babies, mothers provide them with the best opportunities to wholly develop their potential, while protecting the infants and themselves from a whole range of diseases in the near future and in the years to come. Even though these benefits are widely known and there is ample scientific evidence on the topic, it seems from published data that Spanish women are not breast-feeding their babies as much and for as long as they should. Less than 90% start breast-feeding, at 1 month there is already an attrition of 30%, at 3 months more than half of the infants are taking artificial milk and by 6 months only 10% continue to breast-feed their infants. Low birth weight, Caesarean section and low study level are among the more significant factors that negatively affect breast-feeding. There is still work to do to improve this situation. Promotion of breast-feeding among the general population, mothers and health professionals is needed.

  7. Breast-feeding. The roots.

    PubMed

    Ben-Nun, L

    2006-12-01

    Although breast milk provides the best nutrition for the infant, breast-feeding has been decreasing with the growth in use of prepared milk formulas. This paper evaluates the available biblical literature dealing with breast-feeding. The research is unique in character, as it combines contemporary medical knowledge with presentation of cases taken from ancient history. We include no commentaries, but refer only to the words of the Bible exactly as written. Biblical texts relating to breast-feeding were examined and the cases of biblical characters who were breast-fed were studied. The great historical figures such as Isaac, Rebecca, Moses, Samuel, and Joash were breast-fed, openly or secretly. If the biological mother was unable to nurse her child, a wet nurse took over the feeding. Breast-feeding was the only way infants could survive at that time. Weaning day was very important and was celebrated. The wet nurse played an important role in family life, in some cases remaining to live with the infant after weaning, through childhood and even into adulthood. In spite of advanced technology that provides artificial infant formulas, contemporary mothers, just like biblical mothers, should be encouraged to breast-feed their infants.

  8. Arterial diameter measurement using high resolution ultrasonography: in vitro validation.

    PubMed

    Brum, Javier; Bia, Daniel; Benech, Nicolas; Balay, Guillermo; Armentano, Ricardo L; Negreira, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of pressure and diameter in blood vessels or vascular prosthesis is of great importance in cardiovascular research. Knowledge of diameter changes as response to intravascular pressure is the basis to estimate the biomechanical properties of blood vessel. In this work a new method to quantify arterial diameter based in high resolution ultrasonography is proposed. Measurements on an arterial phantom placed on a cardiovascular simulator were performed. The results were compared to sonomicrometry measurements considered as gold standard technique. The obtained results indicate that the new method ensure an optimal diameter quantification. This method presents two main advantages respect to sonomicrometry: is noninvasive and the vessel wall strain can be measured directly.

  9. Ophthalmic Artery Embolization as Pretreatment of Orbital Exenteration for Conjunctival Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Ohara, Nobuya; Namba, Yuzaburo

    2009-05-15

    The aim of this study is to describe the effect of transarterial embolization from the ophthalmic artery as a pretreatment for orbital exenteration. A 75-year-old Chinese man with a 7-year history of gradual increase of the left eye swelling showed a massive conjunctival tumor growing outwardly from the interpalpebral fissure and had no light perception in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging showed orbital invasion of the tumor around the left eyeglobe. The initial surgery for the planned orbital exenteration was discontinued after skin incision around the orbital margin due to massive hemorrhage. The patient underwent transarterial embolization with gelatin sponge (Spongel) of the feeding arteries from the left ophthalmic artery and, the next day, had orbital exenteration with well-controllable bleeding and reconstruction with free vascularized anterolateral thigh cutaneous flap transfer. Pathologically, well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma proliferated in exophytic, papillary, and nested fashions, arising from the bulbar conjunctiva. Tumor cells were also found in the conjunctival stroma around the vessels. The sclera at the equator had a perforated site with tumor cell invasion, but no intraocular invasion was found. Hematoxylin-positive gelatin sponges were found inside the orbital vessels and large choroidal vessels. In conclusion, transarterial embolization of feeding arteries arising from the ophthalmic artery is a useful pretreatment to control bleeding at orbital exenteration for malignancy.

  10. A computational model study of the influence of the anatomy of the circle of willis on cerebral hyperperfusion following carotid artery surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome develops in a small subset of patients following carotid artery surgery (CAS) performed to treat severe carotid artery stenosis. This syndrome has been found to have a close correlation with cerebral hyperperfusion occurring after CAS. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether and how the anatomy of the Circle of Willis (CoW) of the cerebral circulation influences post-CAS cerebral hyperperfusion. Methods A computational model of the cerebral circulation coupled with the global cardiovascular system has been developed to investigate hemodynamic events associated with CAS. Nine topological structures of the CoW were investigated in combination with various distribution patterns of stenosis in the feeding arteries of the cerebral circulation. Results The occurrence of post-CAS cerebral hyperperfusion was predicted for the CoW structures that have poor collateral pathways between the stenosed cerebral feeding arteries and the remaining normal feeding arteries. The risk and the localization of post-CAS hyperperfusion were determined jointly by the anatomy of the CoW and the distribution pattern of stenosis in the cerebral feeding arteries. The presence of basilar artery stenosis or contralateral ICA stenosis increased the risk of post-CAS hyperperfusion and enlarged the cerebral region affected by hyperperfusion. For a certain CoW structure, the diameters of the cerebral communicating arteries and the severity of carotid artery stenosis both had a significant influence on the computed post-CAS cerebral hyperperfusion rates. Moreover, post-CAS cerebral hyperperfusion was predicted to be accompanied with an excessively high capillary transmural pressure. Conclusions This study demonstrated the importance of considering the anatomy of the CoW in assessing the risk of post-CAS cerebral hyperperfusion. Particularly, since the anatomy of the CoW and the distribution pattern of stenosis in the cerebral feeding arteries

  11. A log-linearized arterial viscoelastic model for evaluation of the carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Harutoyo; Horiuchi, Tetsuya; Kutluk, Abdugheni; Kurita, Yuichi; Ukawa, Teiji; Nakamura, Ryuji; Saeki, Noboru; Higashi, Yukihito; Kawamoto, Masashi; Yoshizumi, Masao; Tsuji, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for qualitatively estimating the mechanical properties of arterial walls on a beat-to-beat basis through noninvasive measurement of continuous arterial pressure and arterial diameter using an ultrasonic device. First, in order to describe the nonlinear relationships linking arterial pressure waveforms and arterial diameter waveforms as well as the viscoelastic characteristics of arteries, we developed a second-order nonlinear model (called the log-linearized arterial viscoelastic model) to allow estimation of arterial wall viscoelasticity. Next, to verify the validity of the proposed method, the viscoelastic indices of the carotid artery were estimated. The results showed that the proposed model can be used to accurately approximate the mechanical properties of arterial walls. It was therefore deemed suitable for qualitative evaluation of arterial viscoelastic properties based on noninvasive measurement of arterial pressure and arterial diameter.

  12. 9. Detail view of cane mill showing feed, top and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail view of cane mill showing feed, top and discharge roll driving pinions and main shaft coupling. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  13. REMOTE SENSING FOR DETECTING SWINE ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface runoff from animal feeding operations (AFO's) and its infiltration into ground water can
    pose a number of risks to water quality mainly because of the amount of animal manure and wastewater they produce. Excess nutrients generated by livestock facilities can lead to a...

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC RIGHT WHALE SPRING FEEDING HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great South Channel region of the southwestern Gulf of Maine, between George's Bank and Cape Cod, is the primary spring feeding ground for the western North Atlantic population of the I northern right whale, E. glacialis .Since this whale is so endangered, it is critical to i...

  15. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe enough, blocked blood flow can cause tissue death and can sometimes lead to amputation of the foot or leg. The main risk factor for PAD is smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases ...

  16. Signs and Symptoms of Artery Disease | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Signs and Symptoms of Artery Disease Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... this depends on which arteries are affected. Coronary Arteries Coronary arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to the ...

  17. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CAD). Both PAD and CAD are caused by atherosclerosis that narrows and blocks arteries in various critical ... can be managed with lifestyle changes and medication . Atherosclerosis and PAD Atherosclerosis is a disease in which ...

  18. Retrievable Stent-Assisted Coiling Technique Using a Solitaire Stent: Treatment of Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm Associated With Celiac Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Bekir; Nas, Omer Fatih; Hacikurt, Kadir; Hakyemez, Bahattin; Erdogan, Cuneyt

    2016-02-01

    True aneurysm of pancreaticoduodenal arcade (PDA) is usually accompanied by stenosis or occlusion of celiac trunk (CeT). The up-to-date and first choice treatment modality of PDA aneurysm is the endovascular approach in nearly all cases except few selected ones necessitating surgery. The main approach in endovascular treatment is embolization of the aneurysm by preserving the parent artery. A case with concomitant CeT occlusion and PDA aneurysm was treated with coil embolization by preserving inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery with retrievable Solitaire(®) stent. In our knowledge, this is the first case with PDA aneurysm treated with this technique.

  19. A comparison between the feeding practices of parents and grandparents.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Claire

    2014-08-01

    Grandparents play a valuable role in the socialisation of young children, and as many as 36% of British parents use grandparents as their main form of childcare. Research has begun to explore how grandparents impact the social and cognitive development of children, but very little research has evaluated their contribution to child feeding. The present study explores whether there are differences between parents and grandparents in terms of their feeding practices, and whether grandparents' feeding practices are related to the number of hours that they spend caring for grandchildren. Results indicate that grandparents reported using significantly more maladaptive feeding practices such as using food to regulate emotions and restricting food, but more positive practices such as providing a healthy food environment. The more hours that grandparents spent caring for children the more their feeding practices resembled those broadly reported by parents. Results suggest that grandparents can have a measurable impact on child feeding behaviour which in turn is likely to predict the eating behaviours of their grandchildren.

  20. Twist buckling behavior of arteries.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Justin R; Lamm, Shawn D; Han, Hai-Chao

    2013-10-01

    Arteries are often subjected to torsion due to body movement and surgical procedures. While it is essential that arteries remain stable and patent under twisting loads, the stability of arteries under torsion is poorly understood. The goal of this work was to experimentally investigate the buckling behavior of arteries under torsion and to determine the critical buckling torque, the critical buckling twist angle, and the buckling shape. Porcine common carotid arteries were slowly twisted in vitro until buckling occurred while subjected to a constant axial stretch ratio (1.1, 1.3, 1.5 (in vivo level) and 1.7) and lumen pressure (20, 40, 70 and 100 mmHg). Upon buckling, the arteries snapped to form a kink. For a group of six arteries, the axial stretch ratio significantly affected the critical buckling torque ([Formula: see text]) and the critical buckling twist angle ([Formula: see text]). Lumen pressure also significantly affected the critical buckling torque ([Formula: see text]) but had no significant effect on the critical twist angle ([Formula: see text]). Convex material constants for a Fung strain energy function were determined and fit well with the axial force, lumen pressure, and torque data measured pre-buckling. The material constants are valid for axial stretch ratios, lumen pressures, and rotation angles of 1.3-1.5, 20-100 mmHg, and 0-270[Formula: see text], respectively. The current study elucidates the buckling behavior of arteries under torsion and provides new insight into mechanical instability of blood vessels.