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Sample records for main feeding artery

  1. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Doustkami, Hossein; Maleki, Nasrollah; Tavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic. PMID:27403190

  2. Survival with Total Occlusion of Left Main Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Choh, Joong H.; Wang, Timothy; Golbus, Glenn A.; Leskovac, Thomas M.; Nazarian, Arthur; Ihm, H. Jae; Khazei, A. Hassan

    1984-01-01

    Complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery is considered to be a terminal event in most cases. We describe two patients with this lesion who underwent successful coronary bypass surgery with complete relief of symptoms and long-term survival. The angiographic findings and clinical management of the two patients are discussed. * Images PMID:15227097

  3. Propellant Feed Subsystem for the X-34 Main Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, J. P.; Minor, R. B.; Knight, K. C.; Champion, R. H., Jr.; Russell, F. J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 vehicle demonstrates technologies and operations key to future reusable launch vehicles. The general flight performance goal of this unmanned rocket plane is Mach 8 flight at an altitude of 250,000 feet. The Main Propulsion System supplies liquid propellants to the main engine, which provides the primary thrust for attaining mission goals. Major NMS design and operational goals are aircraft-like ground operations, quick turnaround between missions, and low initial/operational costs. This paper reviews major design and analysis aspects of the X-34 propellant feed subsystem of the X-34 Main Propulsion System. Topics include system requirements, system design, the integration of flight and feed system performance, propellant acquisition at engine start, and propellant tank terminal drain.

  4. Diffuse coronary artery ectasia in a patient with left main coronary artery trifurcation

    PubMed Central

    Desperak, Piotr; Bujak, Kamil; Głowacki, Jan; Gąsior, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The term coronary ectasia is reserved to describe a diffuse dilatation of coronary artery segments that have a diameter that exceeds the size of normal adjacent coronary segments by 1.5 times. The occurrence of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) ranges from 3% to 8% in the group of patients undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography. The CAE is associated with traditional risk factors and often co-exists with coronary atherosclerosis, which suggests that ectasia may represent an advanced form of atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, there is a lack of consensus on the clinical implications and management of patients in whom the occurrence of CAE is observed, especially in patients without concomitant obstructive atherosclerosis. Here, we present a rare case of a 62-year-old patient with multiple CAEs and left main trifurcation. PMID:27785148

  5. Feeding Artery of Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancers: Role of the Superior Thyroid Artery in Superselective Intraarterial Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Terayama, Noboru Sanada, Junichiro; Matsui, Osamu; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Kawashima, Hiroko; Yamashiro, Masashi; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi; Kumano, Tomoyasu; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu; Furukawa, Mitsuru

    2006-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of the superior thyroid artery in intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. Thirty-nine patients with laryngeal cancer and 29 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer underwent intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy. We performed a retrospective analysis of the feeding arteries confirmed by computed tomography during selective arteriography and compared the results with the extent of the tumors. In 14 of 39 laryngeal and 15 of 29 hypopharyngeal cancers, the tumor did not cross the midline (group 1). In the remaining 25 and 14 cancers, respectively, the tumor crossed the midline or located in the center (group 2). For 13 of 14 laryngeal and 7 of 15 hypopharyngeal cancers in group 1 and for 6 of 25 laryngeal cancers in group 2, the entire tumor was contrast enhanced by the ipsilateral superior thyroid and/or superior laryngeal artery. For 12 of 25 laryngeal and 1 of 14 hypopharyngeal cancers in group 2, the entire tumor was contrast enhanced by the bilateral superior thyroid artery. For the other patients, infusion via the other arterial branches such as the inferior thyroid and the lingual arteries were needed to achieve contrast enhancement of the entire tumor. Superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for laryngeal cancer from the superior thyroid artery is appropriate, whereas that for hypopharyngeal cancer is less sufficient. To accomplish contrast enhancement of the entire tumor, additional intra-arterial infusion from other arteries such as the inferior thyroid artery is often necessary.

  6. Two rare conditions in an Eisenmenger patient: left main coronary artery compression and Ortner's syndrome due to pulmonary artery dilatation.

    PubMed

    Andjelkovic, Kristina; Kalimanovska-Ostric, Dimitra; Djukic, Milan; Vukcevic, Vladan; Menkovic, Nemanja; Mehmedbegovic, Zlatko; Topalovic, Mirko; Tesic, Milorad

    2013-01-01

    The left-main coronary artery extrinsic compression due to enlarged pulmonary artery has been described in several case series. Ortner's syndrome is also a rare condition in some cardiovascular disorders. There have been no reports about these two rare conditions in the same patient. Hence, we report a very rare case of an Eisenmenger patient with severe pulmonary hypertension and dilated pulmonary artery which has compressed the left main coronary artery, severely narrowing it, and the left laryngeal recurrent nerve with subsequent Ortner's syndrome and brief literature review. PMID:23831302

  7. Left main coronary artery atresia and associated cardiac defects: report on concomitant surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Jatene, Marcelo; Juaneda, Ignacio; Miranda, Rogerio Dos Anjos; Gato, Rafaella; Marcial, Miguel Lorenzo Barbero

    2011-10-01

    A 9-year-old boy with congenital atresia of the left main coronary artery underwent myocardial revascularization. Coarctation of the aorta and ventricular septal defect were diagnosed at the age of 1 year. At age 7 years, the child presented with syncope while exercising. Preoperative evaluation included cardiac catheterization which revealed the unexpected finding of congenital atresia of the left main coronary artery with origin of the circumflex artery from the right coronary artery. Surgical correction included myocardial revascularization by means of left internal mammary artery graft to the anterior descending coronary artery, coarctation resection, and ventricular septal defect repair. The patient recovered uneventfully. We report the details of this extremely rare case with successful concomitant surgical management of the congenital coronary artery anomaly and the associated structural heart disease. PMID:23804483

  8. Two cases of Bezold-Jarisch reflex induced by intra-arterial nitroglycerin in critical left main coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sachin P; Waxman, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The Bezold-Jarisch reflex, a well-described phenomenon, occurs upon the stimulation of intracardiac mechanoreceptors and is mediated by vagal afferent nerve fibers. Several factors can sensitize the cardiovascular system to develop this reflex, including acute myocardial ischemia, natriuretic peptides, and, rarely, nitroglycerin administration in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. The development of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex in the presence of severe coronary artery stenosis, specifically left main coronary artery stenosis, has not been described. We report 2 cases of patients who underwent elective coronary angiography and were given intra-arterial nitroglycerin during radial sheath insertion to reduce radial artery spasm. In both patients, bradycardia and hypotension developed along with diaphoresis, consistent with the Bezold-Jarisch reflex. Coronary angiography revealed critical (>90%) left main coronary artery stenosis in both patients. Critical left main coronary artery stenosis might sensitize mechanoreceptors or vagal afferents to the development of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex after intra-arterial nitroglycerin use; however, the mechanism of this possible relationship is unclear. In addition to discussing our patients' cases, we review the medical literature relevant to the Bezold-Jarisch reflex.

  9. Chronic Hindlimb Ischemia Impairs Functional Vasodilation and Vascular Reactivity in Mouse Feed Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Cardinal, Trevor R.; Struthers, Kyle R.; Kesler, Thomas J.; Yocum, Matthew D.; Kurjiaka, David T.; Hoying, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Vasodilation of lower leg arterioles is impaired in animal models of chronic peripheral ischemia. In addition to arterioles, feed arteries are a critical component of the vascular resistance network, accounting for as much as 50% of the pressure drop across the arterial circulation. Despite the critical importance of feed arteries in blood flow control, the impact of ischemia on feed artery vascular reactivity is unknown. At 14 days following unilateral resection of the femoral–saphenous artery–vein pair, functional vasodilation of the profunda femoris artery was severely impaired, 11 ± 9 versus 152 ± 22%. Although endothelial and smooth muscle-dependent vasodilation were both impaired in ischemic arteries compared to control arteries (Ach: 40 ± 14 versus 81 ± 11%, SNP: 43 ± 12 versus and 85 ± 11%), the responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were similar, implicating impaired smooth muscle-dependent vasodilation. Conversely, vasoconstriction responses to norepinephrine were not different between ischemic and control arteries, −68 ± 3 versus −66 ± 3%, indicating that smooth muscle cells were functional following the ischemic insult. Finally, maximal dilation responses to acetylcholine, ex vivo, were significantly impaired in the ischemic artery compared to control, 71 ± 9 versus 97 ± 2%, despite a similar generation of myogenic tone to the same intravascular pressure (80 mmHg). These data indicate that ischemia impairs feed artery vasodilation by impairing the responsiveness of the vascular wall to vasodilating stimuli. Future studies to examine the mechanistic basis for the impact of ischemia on vascular reactivity or treatment strategies to improve vascular reactivity following ischemia could provide the foundation for an alternative therapeutic paradigm for peripheral arterial occlusive disease. PMID:22164145

  10. Rare multiple fistulas with large saccular aneurysms originating from left anterior descending artery and left main coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Emre, Ender; Aktas, Mujdat; Sahin, Tayfun; Ural, Ertan; Ural, Dilek

    2014-12-16

    A 49-year-old female patient consulted us for a cardiac evaluation before undergoing colon adenocarcinoma surgery. Three years prior, the patient underwent coronary angiography for dyspnea. The coronary angiography examination revealed a fistula originating from the left anterior descending artery and left main coronary artery, which had soft aneurysmal sacs and most likely drained into the pulmonary artery. Parasternal short axis echocardiography revealed a color flow that could be related to the fistula, but the other echocardiographic findings were normal. The patient did not accept the proposed examination and invasive treatment. PMID:25516873

  11. Rare multiple fistulas with large saccular aneurysms originating from left anterior descending artery and left main coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    Emre, Ender; Aktas, Mujdat; Sahin, Tayfun; Ural, Ertan; Ural, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    A 49-year-old female patient consulted us for a cardiac evaluation before undergoing colon adenocarcinoma surgery. Three years prior, the patient underwent coronary angiography for dyspnea. The coronary angiography examination revealed a fistula originating from the left anterior descending artery and left main coronary artery, which had soft aneurysmal sacs and most likely drained into the pulmonary artery. Parasternal short axis echocardiography revealed a color flow that could be related to the fistula, but the other echocardiographic findings were normal. The patient did not accept the proposed examination and invasive treatment. PMID:25516873

  12. A case of left main pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with valvular pulmonary stenosis in a child.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ran; Son, Jae Sung; Park, Yong Mean

    2011-10-01

    Aneurysm of the main pulmonary artery is a rare clinical entity that can be congenital or acquired. Most cases occur in association with other congenital malformations, severe pulmonary hypertension, vasculitides, infectious agents, or collagen vascular disorders. We report here a pediatric case of left pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with valvular pulmonary stenosis and a hypoplastic right pulmonary artery, which we confirmed via multidetector computed tomography angiography.

  13. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOEpatents

    Petri, Randy J.; Meek, John; Bachta, Robert P.; Marianowski, Leonard G.

    1994-01-01

    A separator plate for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced.

  14. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOEpatents

    Petri, R.J.; Meek, J.; Bachta, R.P.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1994-11-08

    A separator plate is described for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced. 9 figs.

  15. Feeding ecology and development of juvenile black ducks in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinecke, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    Data from 41 juvenile Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) collected in the Penobscot River valley of Maine from June through August 1974-76 were used to estimate the proportion of aquatic invertebrates in the prefledging diet and the allometric growth rates of the tarsi, flight muscles, and alimentary system. The proportion of aquatic invertebrates in the diet of downy and partially feathered juveniles averaged 88 and 91% of dry weight, but decreased to 43% for fully feathered young. The most important invertebrate food organisms for juvenile Black Ducks were asellid isopods, molluscs, nymphs of Ephemeroptera and Odonata, and larvae of Coleoptera, Trichoptera, and Diptera. A high proportion of invertebrates was consumed during the period of fastest absolute and relative growth. Estimation of allometric growth rates with the power formula (Y = a 'X b) showed that (1) the legs were relatively large at hatching and developed slowly; (2) the flight muscles, which were relatively small at hatching, grew slowly until the 4-week period preceding fledging, when they increased as the 4.75 power of body weight; and (3) growth of the liver and gizzard was approximately proportional to body weight. The data support Ricklefs' thesis that delayed functional maturity of the wings permits an increase in the overall growth rate of waterfowl.

  16. Adjuvant percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of feeding artery of hepatocellular carcinoma before treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yi-Bin; Chen, Min-Hua; Yan, Kun; Wu, Jin-Yu; Yang, Wei

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the feeding artery of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in reducing the blood-flow-induced heat-sink effect of RFA. METHODS: A total of 154 HCC patients with 177 pathologically confirmed hypervascular lesions participated in the study and were randomly assigned into two groups. Seventy-one patients with 75 HCCs (average tumor size, 4.3 ± 1.1 cm) were included in group A, in which the feeding artery of HCC was identified by color Doppler flow imaging, and were ablated with multiple small overlapping RFA foci [percutaneous ablation of feeding artery (PAA)] before routine RFA treatment of the tumor. Eighty-three patients with 102 HCC (average tumor size, 4.1 ± 1.0 cm) were included in group B, in which the tumors were treated routinely with RFA. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography was used as post-RFA imaging, when patients were followed-up for 1, 3 and 6 mo. RESULTS: In group A, feeding arteries were blocked in 66 (88%) HCC lesions, and the size of arteries decreased in nine (12%). The average number of punctures per HCC was 2.76 ± 1.12 in group A, and 3.36 ± 1.60 in group B (P = 0.01). The tumor necrosis rate at 1 mo post-RFA was 90.67% (68/75 lesions) in group A and 90.20% (92/102 lesions) in group B. HCC recurrence rate at 6 mo post-RFA was 17.33% (13/75) in group A and 31.37% (32/102) in group B (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: PAA blocked effectively the feeding artery of HCC. Combination of PAA and RFA significantly decreased post-RFA recurrence and provided an alternative treatment for hypervascular HCC. PMID:19496195

  17. Giant aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with fistulous communication to the right atrium.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhicheng; Wang, Yong; Xu, Rihao; Li, Dan; Wang, Tiance; Li, Bo; Zhang, Shudong; Liu, Kexiang

    2015-09-11

    The giant coronary artery aneurysm combined with coronary artery fistula is extremely uncommon. In our case, there was a giant aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with fistulous communication to the right atrium, combined with moderate aortic valve regurgitation, which was initially found by transthoracic echocardiogram and subsequently confirmed by the 256-slice multidetector computer tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography. After consultation, the patient received surgical treatment, including the closure of the drainage and origin sites of the aneurysm and the aortic valve replacement. The patient recovered uneventfully.

  18. Excimer laser debulking for percutaneous coronary intervention in left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Topaz, On; Polkampally, Pritam R; Mohanty, Pramod K; Rizk, Maged; Bangs, Julie; Bernardo, Nelson L

    2009-11-01

    Excimer laser has been successfully applied to complex atherosclerotic plaques in acute coronary syndromes; however, its role in debulking in left main coronary artery disease has not been fully explored. Details of a series of 20 patients who underwent excimer laser revascularization of a spectrum of left main coronary artery lesions are presented. Twenty symptomatic patients who received excimer laser debulking were examined for procedural outcome and follow up results. The left main coronary artery was characterized as protected, semi-protected, poorly protected, or unprotected, depending on the presence or absence of patent bypass grafts to the left anterior descending (LAD) and circumflex (CX) arteries. A fully protected left main coronary artery (LMCA) was present in only 20% of the patients. The target lesions included 11(55%) distal LMCA stenoses, six (30%) ostial stenoses, and one (5%) mid-portion lesions. Two (10%) patients had in-stent re-stenosis of the entire length of the LMCA. Small (0.7 mm-1.4 mm) excimer laser catheters were mostly used. A relatively high number of laser energy pulses (1,334 +/- 643) were required to achieve adequate debulking. Successful LMCA intervention was performed in 19 (95%) patients, while in-hospital complications occurred in only one (5%) patient. Subacute/late stent thrombosis developed 3 months after the procedure in one patient, and two patients died from non-cardiac causes during follow-up. Lesions in LMCAs can be revascularized in selected patients by laser debulking and adjunct stenting. Inadequate protection by bypass grafts and decreased left ventricular function do not contradict utilization of excimer laser. Small laser catheters and high energy levels are required during laser debulking of stenoses of left main coronary arteries.

  19. Proximal interruption of a main pulmonary artery with transpleural collateral vessels: CT and MR appearances.

    PubMed

    Morgan, P W; Foley, D W; Erickson, S J

    1991-01-01

    The plain chest radiographic, CT, and MR findings in a 31-year-old woman with proximal interruption of the right main pulmonary artery and transpleural collaterals are presented. The diagnosis can be established by both dynamic CT and MR. Intercostal collaterals and their transpleural connections are best demonstrated with dynamic CT.

  20. Inward rectifying potassium channels facilitate cell-to-cell communication in hamster retractor muscle feed arteries.

    PubMed

    Jantzi, Micaela C; Brett, Suzanne E; Jackson, William F; Corteling, Randolph; Vigmond, Edward J; Welsh, Donald G

    2006-09-01

    This study examined whether inward rectifying K+ (KIR) channels facilitate cell-to-cell communication along skeletal muscle resistance arteries. With the use of feed arteries from the hamster retractor muscle, experiments examined whether KIR channels were functionally expressed and whether channel blockade attenuated the conduction of acetylcholine-induced vasodilation, an index of cell-to-cell communication. Consistent with KIR channel expression, this study observed the following: 1) a sustained Ba2+-sensitive, K+-induced dilation in preconstricted arteries; 2) a Ba2+-sensitive inwardly rectifying K+ current in arterial smooth muscle cells; and 3) KIR2.1 and KIR2.2 expression in the smooth muscle layer of these arteries. It was subsequently shown that the discrete application of acetylcholine elicits a vasodilation that conducts with limited decay along the feed artery wall. In the presence of 100 microM Ba2+, the local and conducted response to acetylcholine was attenuated, a finding consistent with a role for KIR in facilitating cell-to-cell communication. A computational model of vascular communication accurately predicted these observations. Control experiments revealed that in contrast to Ba2+, ATP-sensitive- and large-conductance Ca2+ activated-K+ channel inhibitors had no effect on the local or conducted vasodilatory response to acetylcholine. We conclude that smooth muscle KIR channels play a key role in facilitating cell-to-cell communication along skeletal muscle resistance arteries. We attribute this facilitation to the intrinsic property of negative slope conductance, a biophysical feature common to KIR2.1- and 2.2-containing channels, which enables them to increase their activity as a cell hyperpolarizes. PMID:16617135

  1. Comparative study of limited intentional normovolaemic haemodilution in patients with left main coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Herregods, L; Foubert, L; Moerman, A; François, K; Rolly, G

    1995-11-01

    Intentional normovolaemic haemodilution is a blood saving technique which can be performed when major blood loss is expected. Severe coronary artery disease and particularly left main stenosis are considered a contraindication for intentional normovolaemic haemodilution. The effects and complications of limited intentional normovolaemic haemodilution in patients with left main coronary artery stenosis scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting were evaluated. Patients were randomly allocated to two groups: group A (n = 15) underwent limited intentional normovolaemic haemodilution to a haematocrit of 34%; group B (n = 15), no intentional normovolaemic haemodilution was performed. In both groups succinyl-linked gelatin was used to maintain normovolaemia. Haemodynamic parameters were kept as constant as possible. In group A, a mean (SD) volume of 785 (250) ml of blood was withdrawn [range 500-1200 ml]. ST segment changes occurred on the ECG in three patients in each group. There were no statistically significant differences for frequency, maximum deflection and duration of ST-segment changes. Limited intentional normovolaemic haemodilution can be performed safely in patients with left main coronary artery stenosis. In this study it was not associated with increased frequency, severity or duration of ST-segment changes, or with arrhythmias or haemodynamic instability.

  2. Surgical reconstruction of the left main coronary artery with patch-angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been established as the treatment of choice for left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis However, the conventional grafting provides a retrograde perfusion to extensive myocardial area and leads prospectively to competitive flow of the non-occluded coronaries thus consuming the grafts. Surgical reconstruction of the LMCA with patch-angioplasty is an alternative method that eliminates these drawbacks. Methods Between February 1997 and July 2007, 37 patients with isolated LMCA stenosis were referred for surgical ostial reconstruction. In 27 patients (73%) surgical angioplasties have been performed. All patients were followed up clinically and with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and coronary angiography when required. Results In 10 patients (27%) a LMCA stenosis could not be confirmed. There were no early mortality or perioperative myocardial infarctions. The postoperative course was uneventful in all patients. In 25 patients, TEE demonstrated a wide open main stem flow pattern one to six months after reconstruction of the left main coronary artery with one patch mild aneurysmal dilated. Conclusions The surgical reconstruction with patch-angioplasty is a safe and effective method for the treatment of proximal and middle LMCA stenosis. Almost one third of the study group had no really LMCA stenosis: antegrade flow pattern remained sustained and the arterial grafts have been spared. In the cases of unclear or suspected LMCA stenosis, cardio-CT can be performed to unmask catheter-induced coronary spasm as the underlying reason for isolated LMCA stenosis. PMID:21375723

  3. Angiographic Evaluation of Feeding Arteries of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Caudate Lobe of the Liver

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Yamashiro, Masashi; Hattori, Yuki; Orito, Nobuaki; Matsui, Ken; Tsuji, Kazunobu; Yoshida, Miki; Matsui, Osamu

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the origins of feeders of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the caudate lobe (S1). Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight HCCs (mean diameter 21.4 mm) were treated by chemoembolization. The tumor-feeding caudate artery was confirmed when a tumor stain was demonstrated on angiogram and iodized oil was accumulated into the HCC and S1 on computed tomography (CT). The origins were divided into R{sub 1} (right proximal), R{sub 2} (right distal), L{sub 1} (left proximal), L{sub 2} (left distal), A (anterior segmental), P (posterior segmental), M (middle hepatic or medial segmental), Ph (proper hepatic), Ch (common hepatic), and Ex (extrahepatic). The origins of feeders supplying HCCs in the Spiegel lobe (SP; n = 36), the paracaval portion (PC; n = 38), and the caudate process (CP; n = 14) were also analyzed. Results: One hundred sixteen feeders were identified: 11 (9.5%) arose from R{sub 1}; 21 (18.1%) arose from R{sub 2}; nine arose (0.9%) from L{sub 1}; 15 (12.9%) arose from L{sub 2}; 24 (20.7%) arose from A; 25 (21.6%) arose from P; seven (6.0%) arose from M; one (0.9%) arose from Ph; and three (2.6%) arose from Ex. HCCs in the SP and the PC were fed by feeders from both hepatic arteries (the ratios of right to left were 3:2 and 3:1, respectively), and HCCs in the CP were dominantly fed by feeders from the right hepatic artery. Conclusion: The caudate artery most frequently arises from the right hepatic artery, followed with almost equal frequency by the left hepatic, the anterior segmental, and the posterior segmental artery. The origins of the caudate arteries differ according to the subsegmental locations.

  4. Worm-like thrombus in left main coronary artery after cytostatic treatment.

    PubMed

    Karavelioglu, Yusuf; Ekicibasi, Erkan; Tanalp, Ali C; Karapinar, Hekim; Aung, Soe M

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports a 43-year-old patient who had a large, mobile, worm-like thrombus in the left main coronary artery after receiving a chemotherapy regimen containing cisplatin, bleomycin and etoposide for a nonseminomatous testes tumor. The patient was successfully treated with thrombolytic therapy. Physicians should be aware that thrombotic events may be observed after the administration of certain chemotherapeutic agents, particularly cisplatin.

  5. [The nearest and remote results in treatment aneurysms of the abdominal aorta and the main arteries].

    PubMed

    Cherviakov, Iu V; Staroverov, I N; Smurov, S Iu; Lavlinskiĭ, S N; Lonchakova, O M

    2011-01-01

    In the modern literature are taken widely up questions of medical tactics at an aneurysm of abdominal aorta (AA) depending on its sizes, presence of signs and presence of risk factors. The purpose of work was studying current aneurysm illnesses in various arterial parts, developments of optimum tactics of conducting patients and its influence on the remote results of operative treatment. Into research have entered 51 patient, suffering aneurism of an aorta, it branches and other main arteries. The nearest and remote results of dynamic supervision and operative treatment have been studied. The age of patients was within the limits of from 50 till 88 years, and has on the average made 71,8 ± 6,16. A parity men and women 8:1. Diameter AA changed from 3 up to 12 sm. Aneurysms combination met in an ascending part of an aorta, subclavian arteries, brachiochephalic trunk, carotid, iliofemoral, popliteal and limb arteries. All patients had accompanying cardial pathology. Patients have been divided into 2 groups. The first was made by 34 patients by whom resection AA has been made. Patients of the second group (17 patients) has been executed by dynamic supervision. The remote results are studied at 32 (62,7%) persons. Term of supervision has made from 6 till 168 months on the average. Postoperative lethal cases at scheduled operations were 4,7%, the general postoperative lethal cases were about - 11,7%. At the analysis of the remote results it is established, that the survival rate in a year has made 100 %, 5 years - 83,3% of patients. Average life expectancy in the given group of patients has made 76,4 ± 4 years, that there corresponds to data the WOHC for a healthy population. Dynamic supervision in both groups has shown progressing current of aneurysms combination in all arterial parts. Our data show perspectivity of surgical treatment aneurysms of an aorta and the main arteries except for patients with multistorey aneurysmosis arteries of legs in a combination to the

  6. Origins of Feeding Arteries of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Located Near the Umbilical Fissure of the Left Hepatic Lobe: Angiographic Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Yamashiro, Masashi; Shibata, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Yoshida, Miki; Tsuji, Kazunobu; Toshima, Fumihito; Matsui, Osamu

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To analyze the origins of the feeding arteries of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) near the umbilical fissure of the left hepatic lobe. Methods: Twenty-eight HCCs with a mean {+-} SD tumor diameter of 3.4 {+-} 1.0 cm (range 1-4.4 cm) in contact with the right or left side of the umbilical fissure were treated by superselective transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The origins of the tumor-feeding arteries were analyzed with arteriograms and computed tomography or cone-beam computed tomography images obtained during and 1 week after TACE.ResultsTwenty-one HCC lesions were located in segment 3 and seven were located in segment 4. Of 21 tumors in segment 3, 13 (61.9%) were supplied by the lateral inferior subsegmental artery (A3), three (14.3%) by the medial subsegmental artery (A4), three (14.3%) by both A4 and A3, one (4.8%) by a branch arising from the left lateral hepatic artery, and one (4.8%) by a branch of the right gastric artery. In particular, all tumor-feeding branches arising from A4 were the first branch of A4. Of seven tumors in segment 4, four (57.1%) were supplied by A4 and three (42.9%) by A3. In particular, all tumor-feeding branches arising from A3 were the first branch of A3. Conclusion: This study demonstrates crossover blood supply to HCC lesions located near the umbilical fissure, in addition to direct feeding from a separate branch. In particular, the first branch of the opposite subsegmental artery may feed tumors when crossover blood supply is present.

  7. Compression of the left main coronary artery by a pulmonary artery aneurysm in a patient with tetralogy of Fallot and an absent pulmonary valve.

    PubMed

    Khante, Vishal; Agarwal, Saket; Satyarthi, Subodh; Upretti, Lalendra; Satsangi, Deepak K

    2011-05-01

    A case of a 16-year-old female with tetralogy of Fallot and absent pulmonary valve is presented, who on coronary angiography and computerized tomography (CT) angiography had severe compression of the left main coronary artery by the dilated main pulmonary artery. The patient was successfully managed by surgical correction of the intracardiac defect, with right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction by the Contegra(®) bovine jugular vein conduit.  PMID:21447083

  8. Novel Echocardiographic Indices for Assessing the Left Main Coronary Artery in Children With Kawasaki Disease

    PubMed Central

    Malakan Rad, Elaheh; Malekzadeh, Iran; Ziaee, Vahid; Rajabi, Raheleh; Shahabi, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background Kawasaki disease (KD) is the most common cause of acquired myocardial infarction in children. Coronary artery involvement is the most serious feature of this vasculitis syndrome. Timely diagnosis of coronary artery involvement is of utmost importance since it can prevent long-term morbidity and mortality. The current methods for the diagnosis of coronary artery dilation in KD are inconsistent and are also not capable of detecting all the abnormal coronary arteries or the so-called occult dilations present. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of three novel allometric indices for the diagnosis of left main coronary artery (LMCA) involvement in KD. Methods We performed a prospective case-control study in 69 children (38 with KD and 31 healthy children). All the followed up patients underwent two complete echocardiographic examinations at the time of admission and 4 - 6 weeks later. We measured the size of the LMCA, coronary sinus (CS) and aorta (A) and calculated the LMCA/CS, LMCA/A and LMCA/CS/A ratios. We also calculated the cut-off scores for each index using receiver operating characteristic curves both in the acute phase and 4 - 6 weeks later. Results In the acute phase, the cut-off scores for the LMCA/A ratio was > 0.23; LMCA/CS, > 0.44; and LMCA/CS/A, > 0.03. This implied 60% sensitivity and 80% specificity for the detection of abnormal LMCA in KD. Four to six weeks after the acute phase, the LMCA/A cut-off score was > 0.23; LMCA/CS, > 0.73; and LMCA/CS/A, > 0.73. This implied 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the detection of abnormal LMCA. There was a significant decrease in the size of the CS in comparison with the control group (1.92 ± 0.363 mm; P = 0.007 and 0.023). Conclusions The LMCA/A, LMCA/CS and LMCA/CS/A ratios seem to provide simple and patient-specific indices for the detection of abnormal LMCA in KD, both in the acute and subacute phase. Further, a decrease in the size of the CS

  9. Systematization and description of the internal carotid arteries and their main ramifications at the brain base in turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    PubMed

    Voll, Juliana; Campos, Rui

    2016-08-01

    Thirty turtle brains (Trachemys scripta elegans) were injected with latex to systematize and describe the internal carotid arteries and their main ramifications at the brain base. The internal carotid arteries had one intercarotid anastomosis. At the level of the tuber cinereum, the internal carotid artery bifurcated into its terminal branches, the rostral and the caudal branches. The rostral branch emitted the rostral choroid artery, the orbital artery, and a series of middle cerebral arteries. After giving off the last middle cerebral artery, the rostral branch continued as the rostral cerebral artery in the cerebral longitudinal fissure, and had one anastomosis with its contralateral homologous artery, the rostral communicating artery, making the first rostral closure of the cerebral arterial circle. Next, the rostral cerebral arteries anastomosed forming a rostral interhemispheric artery, making the second rostral closure of the cerebral arterial circle. The internal carotid artery, after emitting its rostral branch, continued caudally as the caudal branch. The caudal branch ran caudally along the ventral surface of the mesencephalic tegmentum, emitted the caudal cerebral artery and the mesencephalic artery, and continued caudomedially while progressively narrowing, and anastomosed with its contralateral homologous artery, forming the basilar artery. The narrower portion also emitted the trigeminal artery. The anastomosis of the caudal branches closed the cerebral arterial circle caudally. The internal carotid arteries exclusively supplied the cerebral arterial circle of the turtle. Anat Rec, 299:1090-1098, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27145530

  10. Systematization and description of the internal carotid arteries and their main ramifications at the brain base in turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    PubMed

    Voll, Juliana; Campos, Rui

    2016-08-01

    Thirty turtle brains (Trachemys scripta elegans) were injected with latex to systematize and describe the internal carotid arteries and their main ramifications at the brain base. The internal carotid arteries had one intercarotid anastomosis. At the level of the tuber cinereum, the internal carotid artery bifurcated into its terminal branches, the rostral and the caudal branches. The rostral branch emitted the rostral choroid artery, the orbital artery, and a series of middle cerebral arteries. After giving off the last middle cerebral artery, the rostral branch continued as the rostral cerebral artery in the cerebral longitudinal fissure, and had one anastomosis with its contralateral homologous artery, the rostral communicating artery, making the first rostral closure of the cerebral arterial circle. Next, the rostral cerebral arteries anastomosed forming a rostral interhemispheric artery, making the second rostral closure of the cerebral arterial circle. The internal carotid artery, after emitting its rostral branch, continued caudally as the caudal branch. The caudal branch ran caudally along the ventral surface of the mesencephalic tegmentum, emitted the caudal cerebral artery and the mesencephalic artery, and continued caudomedially while progressively narrowing, and anastomosed with its contralateral homologous artery, forming the basilar artery. The narrower portion also emitted the trigeminal artery. The anastomosis of the caudal branches closed the cerebral arterial circle caudally. The internal carotid arteries exclusively supplied the cerebral arterial circle of the turtle. Anat Rec, 299:1090-1098, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Left Main Coronary Artery Disease: Secular Trends in Patient Characteristics, Treatments, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pil Hyung; Ahn, Jung-Min; Chang, Mineok; Baek, Seunghee; Yoon, Sung-Han; Kang, Soo-Jin; Lee, Seung-Whan; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Cheol Whan; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Duk-Woo; Park, Seung-Jung

    2016-09-13

    Left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease is the highest-risk lesion subset of ischemic heart disease, and has traditionally been an indication for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Recent evidence suggests comparable clinical outcomes between percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and CABG for LMCA disease, with similar rates of mortality and serious composite outcomes, a higher rate of stroke with CABG, and a higher rate of repeat revascularization with PCI. These results have been translated to the current guideline recommendation that PCI is a reasonable alternative to CABG in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity. However, how the characteristics, treatment, and clinical outcomes of patients with unprotected LMCA disease have evolved over time has not yet been fully evaluated. We therefore described secular trends in the characteristics and long-term outcomes of unprotected LMCA disease using "real-world" clinical experience from the IRIS-MAIN (Interventional Research Incorporation Society-Left MAIN Revascularization) registry together with a broad review of this topic. PMID:27609687

  12. Transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing analysis of rat skeletal muscle feed arteries. I. Impact of obesity.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Nathan T; Padilla, Jaume; Thorne, Pamela K; Martin, Jeffrey S; Rector, R Scott; Davis, J Wade; Laughlin, M Harold

    2014-04-15

    We employed next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology to determine the influence of obesity on global gene expression in skeletal muscle feed arteries. Transcriptional profiles of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscle feed arteries (GFA and SFA, respectively) and aortic endothelial cell-enriched samples from obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) and lean Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were examined. Obesity produced 282 upregulated and 133 downregulated genes in SFA and 163 upregulated and 77 downregulated genes in GFA [false discovery rate (FDR) < 10%] with an overlap of 93 genes between the arteries. In LETO rats, there were 89 upregulated and 114 downregulated genes in the GFA compared with the SFA. There were 244 upregulated and 275 downregulated genes in OLETF rats (FDR < 10%) in the GFA compared with the SFA, with an overlap of 76 differentially expressed genes common to both LETO and OLETF rats in both the GFA and SFA. A total of 396 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed between LETO and OLETF in aortic endothelial cell-enriched samples. Overall, we found 1) the existence of heterogeneity in the transcriptional profile of the SFA and GFA within healthy LETO rats, 2) that this between-vessel heterogeneity was markedly exacerbated in the hyperphagic, obese OLETF rat, and 3) a greater number of genes whose expression was altered by obesity in the SFA compared with the GFA. Also, results indicate that in OLETF rats the GFA takes on a relatively more proatherogenic phenotype compared with the SFA.

  13. Breast Feeding Increases Vasoconstriction Induced by Electrical Field Stimulation in Rat Mesenteric Artery. Role of Neuronal Nitric Oxide and ATP

    PubMed Central

    Caracuel, Laura; Granado, Miriam; Balfagón, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate in rat mesenteric artery whether breast feeding (BF) affects the vasomotor response induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS), participation by different innervations in the EFS-induced response and the mechanism/s underlying these possible modifications. Methods Experiments were performed in female Sprague-Dawley rats (3 months old), divided into three groups: Control (in oestrous phase), mothers after 21 days of BF, and mothers that had recovered their oestral cycle (After BF, in oestrous phase). Vasomotor response to EFS, noradrenaline (NA) and nitric oxide (NO) donor DEA-NO were studied. Neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) and phosphorylated nNOS (P-nNOS) protein expression were analysed and NO, superoxide anion (O2.–), NA and ATP releases were also determined. Results EFS-induced contraction was higher in the BF group, and was recovered after BF. 1 µmol/L phentolamine decreased the response to EFS similarly in control and BF rats. NA vasoconstriction and release were similar in both experimental groups. ATP release was higher in segments from BF rats. 0.1 mmol/L L-NAME increased the response to EFS in both control and BF rats, but more so in control animals. BF decreased NO release and did not modify O2.– production. Vasodilator response to DEA-NO was similar in both groups, while nNOS and P-nNOS expressions were decreased in segments from BF animals. Conclusion Breast feeding increases EFS-induced contraction in mesenteric arteries, mainly through the decrease of neuronal NO release mediated by decreased nNOS and P-nNOS expression. Sympathetic function is increased through the increased ATP release in BF rats. PMID:23342008

  14. Main Bile Duct Stricture Occurring After Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Yamashiro, Masashi; Okuda, Miho; Yoshie, Yuichi; Nakashima, Yoshiko; Ikeno, Hiroshi; Orito, Nobuaki; Notsumata, Kazuo; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Toya, Daisyu; Tanaka, Nobuyoshi; Matsui, Osamu

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical course of main bile duct stricture at the hepatic hilum after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among 446 consecutive patients with HCC treated by TACE, main bile duct stricture developed in 18 (4.0%). All imaging and laboratory data, treatment course, and outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had 1 to 2 tumors measuring 10 to 100 mm in diameter (mean {+-} SD 24.5 {+-} 5.4 mm) near the hepatic hilum fed by the caudate arterial branch (A1) and/or medial segmental artery (A4) of the liver. During the TACE procedure that caused bile duct injury, A1 was embolized in 8, A4 was embolized in 5, and both were embolized in 5 patients. Nine patients (50.0%) had a history of TACE in either A1 or A4. Iodized oil accumulation in the bile duct wall was seen in all patients on computed tomography obtained 1 week later. Bile duct dilatation caused by main bile duct stricture developed in both lobes (n = 9), in the right lobe (n = 3), in the left lobe (n = 4), in segment (S) 2 (n = 1), and in S3 (n = 1). Serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and {gamma}-glutamyltranspeptidase increased in 13 patients. Biloma requiring drainage developed in 2 patients; jaundice developed in 4 patients; and metallic stents were placed in 3 patients. Complications after additional TACE sessions, including biloma (n = 3) and/or jaundice (n = 5), occurred in 7 patients and were treated by additional intervention, including metallic stent placement in 2 patients. After initial TACE of A1 and/or A4, 8 patients (44.4%), including 5 with uncontrollable jaundice or cholangitis, died at 37.9 {+-} 34.9 months after TACE, and 10 (55.6%) have survived for 38.4 {+-} 37.9 months. Selective TACE of A1 and/or A4 carries a risk of main bile duct stricture at the hepatic hilum. Biloma and jaundice are serious complications associated with bile duct strictures.

  15. Left Ventricular Dyssynchrony Predicts Left Main Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yueh-Juh; Chien, Kuo-Liong; Chen, Hsuan-Kuang; Wang, Chia-Sung; Chu, Ching-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of our study was to examine whether left ventricular dyssynchrony predicts left main coronary artery stenosis in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Methods A total of 100 consecutive patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction underwent echocardiography and coronary artery angiography. The 3-dimensional echocardiography-derived left ventricular dyssynchrony parameter was determined by using the standard deviation of the time to the minimal systolic volume for the 16 segments. A stenosis ≥ 50% of the diameter of the left main coronary artery or a stenosis ≥ 70% in 1 or more of the major epicardial vessels or their main branches was considered significant. Results The logistic regression analysis revealed that this parameter (odds ratio 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.42; p = 0.04) was the independent predictor of left main coronary artery stenosis. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed 8.86 as the optimal cutoff value to predict left main coronary artery stenosis (sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 89.2%). Conclusions The assessment of left ventricular dyssynchrony by 3-dimensional echocardiography is useful for a noninvasive diagnosis of the left main coronary artery stenosis in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. PMID:27122874

  16. Intravascular Ultrasound Classification of Plaque in Angiographic True Bifurcation Lesions of the Left Main Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Dash, Debabrata; Gai, Lu-Yue; Cao, Yun-Shan; Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Ya-Rong; Zhang, Yao-Jun; Zhang, Jun-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accurately, characterizing plaques is critical for selecting the optimal intervention strategy for the left main coronary artery (LMCA) bifurcation. Coronary angiography cannot precisely assess the location or nature of plaques in bifurcation lesions. Few intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) classification scheme has been reported for angiographic imaging of true bifurcation lesions of the unprotected LMCA thus far. In addition, the plaque composition at the bifurcation has not been elucidated. This study aimed to detect plaque composition at LMCA bifurcation lesions by IVUS. Methods: Fifty-eight patients were recruited. The location, concentricity or eccentricity, site of maximum thickness, and composition of plaques of the distal LMCA, ostial left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery and, left circumflex (LCX) coronary artery were assessed using IVUS and described using illustrative diagrams. Results: True bifurcation lesions of the unprotected LMCA were classified into four types: Type A, with continuous involvement from the distal LMCA to the ostial LAD and the ostial LCX with eccentric plaques; Type B, with concentric plaques at the distal LMCA, eccentric plaques at the ostial LAD, and no plaques at the LCX; Type C, with continuous involvement from the distal LMCA to the ostial LCX, with eccentric plaques, and to the ostial LAD, with eccentric plaques; and Type D, with continuous involvement from the distal LMCA to the ostial LAD, with eccentric plaques, and to the ostial LCX, with concentric plaques. The carina was involved in only 3.5% of the plaques. A total of 51.7% of the plaques at the ostium of the LAD were soft, while 44.8% and 44.6% were fibrous in the distal LMCA and in the ostial LCX, respectively. Conclusions: We classified LMCA true bifurcation lesions into four types. The carina was always free from disease. Plaques at the ostial LAD tended to be soft, whereas those at the ostial LCX and the distal LMCA tended to be fibrous. PMID

  17. Chronic intrauterine pulmonary hypertension increases main pulmonary artery stiffness and adventitial remodeling in fetal sheep

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Matthew R.; Galambos, Csaba; Hunter, Kendall S.; Abman, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a clinical syndrome that is characterized by high pulmonary vascular resistance due to changes in lung vascular growth, structure, and tone. PPHN has been primarily considered as a disease of the small pulmonary arteries (PA), but proximal vascular stiffness has been shown to be an important predictor of morbidity and mortality in other diseases associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). The objective of this study is to characterize main PA (MPA) stiffness in experimental PPHN and to determine the relationship of altered biomechanics of the MPA with changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) content and orientation of collagen and elastin fibers. MPAs were isolated from control and PPHN fetal sheep model and were tested by planar biaxial testing to measure stiffness in circumferential and axial vessel orientations. Test specimens were fixed for histological assessments of the vascular wall ECM constituents collagen and elastin. MPAs from PPHN sheep had increased mechanical stiffness (P < 0.05) and altered ECM remodeling compared with control MPA. A constitutive mathematical model and histology demonstrated that PPHN vessels have a smaller contribution of elastin and a greater role for collagen fiber engagement compared with the control arteries. We conclude that exposure to chronic hemodynamic stress in late-gestation fetal sheep increases proximal PA stiffness and alters ECM remodeling. We speculate that proximal PA stiffness further contributes to increased right ventricular impedance in experimental PPHN, which contributes to abnormal transition of the pulmonary circulation at birth. PMID:25326575

  18. The power of collateral circulation: a case of asymptomatic chronic total occlusion of the left main coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Saraon, Tajinderpal; Chadow, Hal L; Castillo, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Total occlusion of the left main coronary artery predominantly presents with recurrent angina or myocardial infarction. Long-term survival and myocardial function depends on the well-developed right to left collaterals. We report a case of a 46-year-old man who was referred because of incidental finding of low ejection fraction during work-up for syncope 5 months prior. The patient denied any recurrence or any other symptom after that episode and claimed an unchanged exercise capacity. He had hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and history of 15-pack/year smoking. Except for class II morbid obesity, he had completely normal vital signs, physical examination, and lab tests on admission. The echocardiogram was suggestive of previous anterior wall myocardial infarction and demonstrated a low left ventricle ejection fraction with diffuse hypokinesis of the left ventricle. The patient underwent cardiac catheterization, which revealed total occlusion of the left main coronary artery, dominant right coronary artery with a 95% stenosis in the proximal segment, and collaterals from the right to the left coronary arteries. The patient was immediately referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. This case demonstrates the power of collateral circulation in protecting the patient from symptoms and death despite total occlusion of the left main coronary artery and severe stenosis of the proximal right coronary artery.

  19. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: normal anatomy and main variants *

    PubMed Central

    Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; de Mello Júnior, Carlos Fernando; Franca, Henrique Almeida; Duarte, Cláudia Martina Araújo; Borges, Rafael Farias; de Magalhães, Ana Guardiana Ximenes

    2016-01-01

    Although digital angiography remains as the gold standard for imaging the celiac arterial trunk and hepatic arteries, multidetector computed tomography in association with digital images processing by software resources represents a useful tool particularly attractive for its non invasiveness. Knowledge of normal anatomy as well as of its variations is helpful in images interpretation and to address surgical planning on a case-by-case basis. The present essay illustrates several types of anatomical variations of celiac trunk, hepatic artery and its main branches, by means of digitally reconstructed computed tomography images, correlating their prevalence in the population with surgical implications. PMID:26929461

  20. Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the celiac trunk and hepatic arterial system: normal anatomy and main variants.

    PubMed

    Araujo Neto, Severino Aires; de Mello Júnior, Carlos Fernando; Franca, Henrique Almeida; Duarte, Cláudia Martina Araújo; Borges, Rafael Farias; de Magalhães, Ana Guardiana Ximenes

    2016-01-01

    Although digital angiography remains as the gold standard for imaging the celiac arterial trunk and hepatic arteries, multidetector computed tomography in association with digital images processing by software resources represents a useful tool particularly attractive for its non invasiveness. Knowledge of normal anatomy as well as of its variations is helpful in images interpretation and to address surgical planning on a case-by-case basis. The present essay illustrates several types of anatomical variations of celiac trunk, hepatic artery and its main branches, by means of digitally reconstructed computed tomography images, correlating their prevalence in the population with surgical implications.

  1. Main pulmonary arterial wall shear stress correlates with invasive hemodynamics and stiffness in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kheyfets, Vitaly O.; Schroeder, Joyce D.; Dunning, Jamie; Shandas, Robin; Buckner, J. Kern; Browning, James; Hertzberg, Jean; Hunter, Kendall S.; Fenster, Brett E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with proximal pulmonary arterial remodeling characterized by increased vessel diameter, wall thickening, and stiffness. In vivo assessment of wall shear stress (WSS) may provide insights into the relationships between pulmonary hemodynamics and vascular remodeling. We investigated the relationship between main pulmonary artery (MPA) WSS and pulmonary hemodynamics as well as markers of stiffness. As part of a prospective study, 17 PH patients and 5 controls underwent same-day four-dimensional flow cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (4-D CMR) and right heart catheterization. Streamwise velocity profiles were generated in the cross-sectional MPA in 45° increments from velocity vector fields determined by 4-D CMR. WSS was calculated as the product of hematocrit-dependent viscosity and shear rate generated from the spatial gradient of the velocity profiles. In-plane average MPA WSS was significantly decreased in the PH cohort compared with that in controls (0.18 ± 0.07 vs. 0.32 ± 0.08 N/m2; P = 0.01). In-plane MPA WSS showed strong inverse correlations with multiple hemodynamic indices, including pulmonary resistance (ρ = −0.74, P < 0.001), mean pulmonary pressure (ρ = −0.64, P = 0.006), and elastance (ρ = −0.70, P < 0.001). In addition, MPA WSS had significant associations with markers of stiffness, including capacitance (ρ = 0.67, P < 0.001), distensibility (ρ = 0.52, P = 0.013), and elastic modulus (ρ = −0.54, P = 0.01). In conclusion, MPA WSS is decreased in PH and is significantly associated with invasive hemodynamic indices and markers of stiffness. 4-D CMR–based assessment of WSS may represent a novel methodology to study blood-vessel wall interactions in PH. PMID:27076906

  2. An Unusual Aneurysm of the Main Pulmonary Artery Presenting as Acute Coronary Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kholeif, Mona A.; El Tahir, Mohamed Kholeif, Yasser A.; El Watidy, Ahmed

    2006-10-15

    A 70-year old man presented with retrosternal chest pain. His electrocardiogram showed nonspecific T wave changes. Cardiac-specific troponin I (cTnI) was elevated. His condition was managed as acute coronary syndrome, following which he had two minor episodes of hemoptysis. A CT pulmonary angiogram showed no evidence of pulmonary embolism, but a large mass lesion was seen in the mediastinum. Echocardiography and cardiac MRI demonstrated a large solid mass, arising from the right ventricular outflow tract and causing compression of the main pulmonary artery (MPA). The differential diagnosis included pericardial and myocardial tumors and clotted aneurysm of the MPA. At surgery, a clotted aneurysmal sac was identified originating from the MPA and the defect was healed. Aneurysms of the MPA are rare. They most commonly present with dyspnea and chest pain. Compression of surrounding structures produces protean manifestations. A high index of suspicion coupled with imaging modalities establishes the diagnosis. Blunt trauma to the chest, at the time of an accident 4 years previously, may explain this aneurysm. The patient's presentation with chest pain was probably due to compression and/or stretching of surrounding structures. Coronary artery compression simulating acute coronary syndrome has been documented in the literature. The rise in cTnI may have been due to right ventricular strain, as a result of right ventricular outflow obstruction by the aneurysm. This has not been reported previously in the literature. The saccular morphology and narrow neck of the aneurysm predisposed to stagnation leading to clotting of the lumen and healing of the tear, which caused the diagnostic difficulty.

  3. Therapeutic effect of interventional therapy for unprotected left main coronary artery lesions in aged patients

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhong-Hai; Song, Jie; Wang, Lian; Zhang, Jing-Mei; Huang, Wei; Xu, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assesse the therapeutic effect of interventional therapy in aged patients with unprotected left main coronary artery (UPLM) lesions. Methods A total of 61 patients who were over 60 years and accepted interventional therapy of UPLM from January 2012 to November 2013 in our hospital were followed up for average 14.6 months by telephone call or outpatient visits. We analyzed the clinical features data of the interventional therapy and assessed the factors that likely influenced the clinical prognosis. Results The average age of the 61 patients was 73.9 years. The average left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 47.7%. The median of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 52 mL/min per 1.73 mm2. The average SYNTAX score was 27.4 and the median of stent length was 36 mm. The cumulative incidence of cardiac death at 30 days and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) after one year was 6.6% and 32.5% estimated by Kaplan-Meier plots respectively. No severe hemorrhagic complications were observed during follow-up period. On multivariate regression analysis with a COX proportional hazards model, LVEF was an independent predictor of cardiac death at 30 days [Hazard ratio (HR): 0.7, P = 0.01]. As for MACE after one year, LVEF and eGFR were both independent predictors (HR: 0.91, P = 0.06 for LVEF, HR: 0.03, P = 0.097 for eGFR). Conclusions The interventional therapy for UPLM was effective and safe in aged patients. LVEF was the only predictor of cardiac death at 30 days, while LVEF and eGFR were both independent predictors of MACE after one year. PMID:26788040

  4. Dietary sodium bicarbonate, cool temperatures, and feed withdrawal: impact on arterial and venous blood-gas values in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Hooge, D M; Cummings, K R

    2003-04-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been used successfully in mammals and birds to alleviate pulmonary hypertension. Experiment 1 was designed to provide measurements of arterial and venous blood-gas values from unanesthetized male broilers subjected to a cool temperature (16 degrees C) challenge and fed either a control diet or the same diet alkalinized by dilution with 1% NaHCO3. The incidences of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites) for broilers fed the control or bicarbonate diets were 15.5 and 10.5%, respectively (P = 0.36, NS). Non-ascitic broilers fed the control diet were heavier than those fed the bicarbonate diet on d 49 (2,671 vs. 2,484 g, respectively); however, other comparisons failed to reveal diet-related differences in heart weight, pulse oximetry values, electrocardiogram amplitudes, or blood-gas values (P > 0.05). When the data were resorted into categories based on right:total ventricular weight ratios (RV:TV) indicative of normal (RV:TV < 0.28) or elevated (RV:TV > or = 0.28) pulmonary arterial pressures, broilers with elevated RV:TV ratios had poorly oxygenated arterial blood that was more acidic, had high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2), and had higher HCO3 concentrations when compared with broilers with normal RV:TV ratios. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine if metabolic variations associated with differences in feed intake or environmental temperature potentially could mask an impact of diet composition on blood-gas values. Male broilers maintained at thermoneutral temperature (24 degrees C) either received feed ad libitum or had the feed withdrawn > or = 12 h prior to blood sampling. Broilers fed ad libitum had lower venous saturation of hemoglobin with O2, higher venous PCO2, and higher arterial HCO3 concentrations than broilers subjected to feed withdrawal. Broilers in experiment 2 fed ad libitum and exposed to cool temperatures (16 degrees C) had lower arterial partial pressure of O2 and higher venous PCO2 than broilers fed ad

  5. Repair of a large main pulmonary artery aneurysm in a 71-year-old Jehovah's Witness patient.

    PubMed

    Henn, Lucas W; Esmailian, Fardad

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysm is a rarely reported and poorly studied entity; most mentions in the literature are in case series and case reports. Cardiac surgery in Jehovah's Witness patients is occurring more frequently because of improved techniques of blood conservation. We report the repair of a large pulmonary artery aneurysm in a 71-year-old woman who was a Jehovah's Witness. Using total cardiopulmonary bypass, we replaced the main pulmonary artery and both branches with Gelweave tube-grafts, because the fragility of a homograft presented possible bleeding problems. The patient recovered rapidly, and her symptoms were greatly improved. We think that a patient's status as a Jehovah's Witness need not preclude potentially life-saving cardiac operations. PMID:23914038

  6. Repair of a Large Main Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm in a 71-Year-Old Jehovah's Witness Patient

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Lucas W.; Esmailian, Fardad

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysm is a rarely reported and poorly studied entity; most mentions in the literature are in case series and case reports. Cardiac surgery in Jehovah's Witness patients is occurring more frequently because of improved techniques of blood conservation. We report the repair of a large pulmonary artery aneurysm in a 71-year-old woman who was a Jehovah's Witness. Using total cardiopulmonary bypass, we replaced the main pulmonary artery and both branches with Gelweave tube-grafts, because the fragility of a homograft presented possible bleeding problems. The patient recovered rapidly, and her symptoms were greatly improved. We think that a patient's status as a Jehovah's Witness need not preclude potentially life-saving cardiac operations. PMID:23914038

  7. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePlus

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. Reduced blood flow through the renal artery ...

  8. Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Tumor Mimicking a Thrombus in the Main Pulmonary Artery.

    PubMed

    Amuchastegui, Luis M.; Marani, Leandro P.; Caeiro, Andres

    1997-11-01

    Primary sarcomas of the pulmonary artery and right ventricle are rare, and their presentation is unusual in clinical practice; therefore, their diagnosis is often missed or delayed. The progression of the obstruction from the outflow tract of the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery resembles massive pulmonary embolism. We present a case of one of these tumors which mimicked transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), a massive pulmonary embolism. We conclude that TEE represents a noninvasive method of diagnosis and evaluation when the suspicion is massive pulmonary thromboembolism or a heart tumor.

  9. Regional structural and biomechanical alterations of the ovine main pulmonary artery during postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Fata, Bahar; Carruthers, Christopher A; Gibson, Gregory; Watkins, Simon C; Gottlieb, Danielle; Mayer, John E; Sacks, Michael S

    2013-02-01

    The engineering foundation for novel approaches for the repair of congenital defects that involve the main pulmonary artery (PA) must rest on an understanding of changes in the structure-function relationship that occur during postnatal maturation. In the present study, we quantified the postnatal growth patterns in structural and biomechanical behavior in the ovine PA in the juvenile and adult stages. The biaxial mechanical properties and collagen and elastin fiber architecture were studied in four regions of the PA wall, with the collagen recruitment of the medial region analyzed using a custom biaxial mechanical-multiphoton microscopy system. Circumferential residual strain was also quantified at the sinotubular junction and bifurcation locations, which delimit the PA. The PA wall demonstrated significant mechanical anisotropy, except in the posterior region where it was nearly isotropic. Overall, we observed only moderate changes in regional mechanical properties with growth. We did observe that the medial and lateral locations experience a moderate increase in anisotropy. There was an average of about 24% circumferential residual stain present at the luminal surface in the juvenile stage that decreased to 16% in the adult stage with a significant decrease at the bifurcation, implying that the PA wall remodels toward the bifurcation with growth. There were no measurable changes in collagen and elastin content of the tunica media with growth. On average, the collagen fiber recruited more rapidly with strain in the adult compared to the juvenile. Interestingly, the PA thickness remained constant with growth. When this fact is combined with the observed stable overall mechanical behavior and increase in vessel diameter with growth, a simple Laplace Law wall stress estimate suggests an increase in effective PA wall stress with postnatal maturation. This observation is contrary to the accepted theory of maintenance of homeostatic stress levels in the regulation of

  10. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Invading the Main Portal Vein: Treatment with Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization and Portal Vein Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xuebin Wang Jianhua Yan Zhiping Qian Sheng Liu Rong

    2009-01-15

    To retrospectively analyze the therapeutic results of percutaneous transhepatic portal vein stenting (PTPVS) and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment in 58 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invading the main portal vein (MPV). A total of 58 procedures of PTPVS were performed, immediately after which TACE was undertaken to control HCC. The clinical effects, complications, digital subtraction angiographic appearance, stent patency rates, cumulative survival rates, and predictive factors for survival were evaluated. The Kaplan-Meyer method and the log rank test were used for survival analysis. Multivariable analysis was also conducted by the Cox proportional hazard model. No patient died during stent placement or within the first 24 h. No severe procedure-related complications were observed. After stent placement, the mean {+-} standard deviation portal venous pressure levels decreased from 41.43 {+-} 8.56 cmH{sub 2}O to 37.19 {+-} 7.89 cmH{sub 2}O (p < 0.01). At the time of analysis, 9 of the 58 patients survived. The 60-, 180-, 360-, and 720-day cumulative patency rates were 98.1%, 71.0%, 52.6%, and 42.1%, respectively, with a mean patency time of 552.9 {+-} 88.2 days and a median patency time of 639.00 {+-} 310.00 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 31.40-1246.60) days. The 60-, 180-, 360-, and 720-day cumulative survival rates for the total study population were 74.1%, 27.1%, 17.2%, and 13.8%, respectively, with a median survival time of 113 {+-} 27.29 (95% CI, 59.51-166.49) days. In the univariate analysis, the following six variables were significantly associated with the prognosis: (1) HCC type; (2) Child-Pugh grade; (3) MPV stenosis/occlusion; (4) arteriovenous shunt; (5) iodized oil deposition; and (6) number of TACE procedure. In addition, having diffuse-type HCC and Child-Pugh grade B disease were each independent factors associated with decreased survival time in the multivariate analysis. PTPVS-TACE is feasible and may be

  11. Emergency coronary artery bypass grafting for cardiogenic shock due to left main coronary artery obstruction caused by Kawasaki disease in a 4-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Wataru; Tsuda, Etsuko; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Shiono, Junko

    2014-04-01

    We describe the case of a 4-year-old boy whose clinical course after Kawasaki disease resulted in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) causing cardiogenic shock. He had developed an ischemic cardiomyopathy due to severe localized stenosis of the left main coronary artery (LCA) and went into cardiogenic shock due to AMI on the day before a scheduled operation. He underwent successful emergency CABG within 4 h of MI. Postoperatively his neurological status was intact. This is the first report of a successful emergency CABG in a small child with cardiogenic shock due to LCA occlusion. CABG should be undertaken in small patients when appropriate indications exist, if bodyweight is >10 kg.

  12. Estimated in vivo postnatal surface growth patterns of the ovine main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Fata, Bahar; Gottlieb, Danielle; Mayer, John E; Sacks, Michael S

    2013-07-01

    Delineating the normal postnatal development of the pulmonary artery (PA) and ascending aorta (AA) can inform our understanding of congenital abnormalities, as well as pulmonary and systolic hypertension. We thus conducted the following study to delineate the PA and AA postnatal growth deformation characteristics in an ovine model. MR images were obtained from endoluminal surfaces of 11 animals whose ages ranged from 1.5 months/15.3 kg mass (very young) to 12 months/56.6 kg mass (adult). A bicubic Hermite finite element surface representation was developed for the each artery from each animal. Under the assumption that the relative locations of surface points were retained during growth, the individual animal surface fits were subsequently used to develop a method to estimate the time-evolving local effective surface growth (relative to the youngest measured animal) in the end-diastolic state. Results indicated that the spatial and temporal surface growth deformation patterns of both arteries, especially in the circumferential direction, were heterogeneous, leading to an increase in taper and increase in cross-sectional ellipticity of the PA. The longitudinal PA growth stretch of a large segment on the posterior wall reached 2.57 ± 0.078 (mean ± SD) at the adult stage. In contrast, the longitudinal growth of the AA was smaller and more uniform (1.80 ± 0.047). Interestingly, a region of the medial wall of both arteries where both arteries are in contact showed smaller circumferential growth stretches-specifically 1.12 ± 0.012 in the PA and 1.43 ± 0.071 in the AA at the adult stage. Overall, our results indicated that contact between the PA and AA resulted in increasing spatial heterogeneity in postnatal growth, with the PA demonstrating the greatest changes. Parametric studies using simplified geometric models of curved arteries during growth suggest that heterogeneous effective surface growth deformations must occur to account for the

  13. Fluid dynamic study in a femoral artery branch casting of man with upstream main lumen curvature for steady flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.; Back, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    An in-vitro, steady flow investigation was conducted in a hollow, transparent vascular replica of the profunda femoris branch of man for a range of physiological flow conditions. The replica casting tested was obtained from a human cadaver and indicated some plague formation along the main lumen and branch. The flow visualization observations and measured pressure distributions indicated the highly three-dimensional flow characteristics with arterial curvature and branching, and the important role of centrifugal effects in fluid transport mechanisms.

  14. Heat and α1-adrenergic responsiveness in human skeletal muscle feed arteries: the role of nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Andtbacka, Robert H. I.; Kwon, Sun Hyung; Shiu, Yan-Ting; Ruan, Ting; Noyes, R. Dirk; Zhang, Quan-Jiang; Symons, J. David; Richardson, Russell S.

    2012-01-01

    Increased local temperature exerts a sympatholytic effect on human skeletal muscle feed arteries. We hypothesized that this attenuated α1-adrenergic receptor responsiveness may be due to a temperature-induced increase in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, thereby reducing the impact of the α1-adrenergic receptor agonist phenylephrine (PE). Thirteen human skeletal muscle feed arteries were harvested, and wire myography was used to generate PE concentration-response curves at 37°C and 39°C, with and without the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA). A subset of arteries (n = 4) were exposed to 37°C or 39°C, and the protein content of endothelial NOS (eNOS) and α1-adrenergic receptors was determined by Western blot analysis. Additionally, cultured bovine endothelial cells were exposed to static or shear stress conditions at 37°C and 39°C and assayed for eNOS activation (phosphorylation at Ser1177), eNOS expression, and NO metabolites [nitrate + nitrite (NOx)]. Maximal PE-induced vasocontraction (PEmax) was lower at 39°C than at 37°C [39 ± 10 vs. 84 ± 30% maximal response to 100 mM KCl (KClmax)]. NO blockade restored vasocontraction at 39°C to that achieved at 37°C (80 ± 26% KClmax). Western blot analysis of the feed arteries revealed that heating increased eNOS protein, but not α1-adrenergic receptors. Heating of bovine endothelial cells resulted in greater shear stress-induced eNOS activation and NOx production. Together, these data reveal for the first time that, in human skeletal muscle feed arteries, NO blockade can restore the heat-attenuated α1-adrenergic receptor-mediated vasocontraction and implicate endothelium-derived NO bioavailability as a major contributor to heat-induced sympatholysis. Consequently, these findings highlight the important role of vasodilators in modulating the vascular response to vasoconstrictors. PMID:23042905

  15. Impact of age on the vasodilatory function of human skeletal muscle feed arteries.

    PubMed

    Park, Song-Young; Ives, Stephen J; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Hyngstrom, John R; Reese, Van; Layec, Gwenael; Bharath, Leena P; Symons, John D; Richardson, Russell S

    2016-01-15

    Although advancing age is often associated with attenuated skeletal muscle blood flow and skeletal muscle feed arteries (SMFAs) have been recognized to play a regulatory role in the vasculature, little is known about the impact of age on the vasodilatory capacity of human SMFAs. Therefore, endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation were assessed in SMFAs (diameter: 544 ± 63 μm) obtained from 24 (equally represented) young (33 ± 2 yr) and old (71 ± 2 yr) subjects in response to three stimuli: 1) flow-induced shear stress, 2) ACh, and 3) sodium nitropusside (SNP). Both assessments of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, flow (young subjects: 68 ± 1% and old subjects: 32 ± 7%) and ACh (young subjects: 92 ± 3% and old subjects: 73 ± 4%), were significantly blunted (P < 0.05) in SMFAs of old compared with young subjects, with no such age-related differences in endothelium-independent vasodilation (SNP). In response to an increase in flow-induced shear stress, vasodilation kinetics (time constant to reach 63% of the amplitude of the response: 55 ± 1 s in young subjects and 92 ± 7 s in old subjects) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation (phospho-eNOS(s1177)/total eNOS: 1.0 ± 0.1 in young subjects and 0.2 ± 0.1 in old subjects) were also significantly attenuated in old compared with young subjects (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the vessel superoxide concentration was greater in old subjects (old subjects: 3.9 ± 1.0 area under curve/mg and young subjects: 1.7 ± 0.1 area under the curve/mg, P < 0.05). These findings reveal that the endothelium-dependent vasodilatory capacity, including vasodilation kinetics but not smooth muscle function, of human SMFAs is blunted with age and may be due to free radicals. Given the potential regulatory role of SMFAs in skeletal muscle blood flow, these findings may explain, at least in part, the often observed attenuated perfusion of skeletal muscle with advancing age that may contribute to exercise

  16. Feed-forward active contour analysis for improved brachial artery reactivity testing.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Daniel N; Sehgal, Chandra M; Sultan, Laith R; Reamer, Courtney B; Mohler, Emile R

    2016-08-01

    The object of this study was to utilize a novel feed-forward active contour (FFAC) algorithm to find a reproducible technique for analysis of brachial artery reactivity. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is an important marker of vascular endothelial function but has not been adopted for widespread clinical use given its technical limitations, including inter-observer variability and differences in technique across clinical sites. We developed a novel FFAC algorithm with the goal of validating a more reliable standard. Forty-six healthy volunteers underwent FMD measurement according to the standard technique. Ultrasound videos lasting 5-10 seconds each were obtained pre-cuff inflation and at minutes 1 through 5 post-cuff deflation in longitudinal and transverse views. Automated segmentation using the FFAC algorithm with initial boundary definition from three different observers was used to analyze the images to measure diameter/cross-sectional area over the cardiac cycle. The %FMD was calculated for average, minimum, and maximum diameters/areas. Using the FFAC algorithm, the population-specific coefficient of variation (CV) at end-diastole was 3.24% for transverse compared to 9.96% for longitudinal measurements; the subject-specific CV was 15.03% compared to 57.41%, respectively. For longitudinal measurements made via the conventional method, the population-specific CV was 4.77% and subject-specific CV was 117.79%. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for transverse measurements was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95-0.98) compared to 0.90 (95% CI: 0.84-0.94) for longitudinal measurements with FFAC and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.51-0.84) for conventional measurements. In conclusion, transverse views using the novel FFAC method provide less inter-observer variability than traditional longitudinal views. Improved reproducibility may allow adoption of FMD testing in a clinical setting. The FFAC algorithm is a robust technique that should be evaluated further for its ability to replace the

  17. Feed-forward active contour analysis for improved brachial artery reactivity testing.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Daniel N; Sehgal, Chandra M; Sultan, Laith R; Reamer, Courtney B; Mohler, Emile R

    2016-08-01

    The object of this study was to utilize a novel feed-forward active contour (FFAC) algorithm to find a reproducible technique for analysis of brachial artery reactivity. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is an important marker of vascular endothelial function but has not been adopted for widespread clinical use given its technical limitations, including inter-observer variability and differences in technique across clinical sites. We developed a novel FFAC algorithm with the goal of validating a more reliable standard. Forty-six healthy volunteers underwent FMD measurement according to the standard technique. Ultrasound videos lasting 5-10 seconds each were obtained pre-cuff inflation and at minutes 1 through 5 post-cuff deflation in longitudinal and transverse views. Automated segmentation using the FFAC algorithm with initial boundary definition from three different observers was used to analyze the images to measure diameter/cross-sectional area over the cardiac cycle. The %FMD was calculated for average, minimum, and maximum diameters/areas. Using the FFAC algorithm, the population-specific coefficient of variation (CV) at end-diastole was 3.24% for transverse compared to 9.96% for longitudinal measurements; the subject-specific CV was 15.03% compared to 57.41%, respectively. For longitudinal measurements made via the conventional method, the population-specific CV was 4.77% and subject-specific CV was 117.79%. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for transverse measurements was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95-0.98) compared to 0.90 (95% CI: 0.84-0.94) for longitudinal measurements with FFAC and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.51-0.84) for conventional measurements. In conclusion, transverse views using the novel FFAC method provide less inter-observer variability than traditional longitudinal views. Improved reproducibility may allow adoption of FMD testing in a clinical setting. The FFAC algorithm is a robust technique that should be evaluated further for its ability to replace the

  18. Transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing analysis of rat skeletal muscle feed arteries. II. Impact of exercise training in obesity.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Thorne, Pamela K; Martin, Jeffrey S; Rector, R Scott; Davis, J Wade; Laughlin, M Harold

    2014-04-15

    We employed next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology to determine the extent to which exercise training alters global gene expression in skeletal muscle feed arteries and aortic endothelial cells of obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Transcriptional profiles of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscle feed arteries (SFA and GFA, respectively) and aortic endothelial cell-enriched samples from rats that underwent an endurance exercise training program (EndEx; n = 12) or a interval sprint training program (IST; n = 12) or remained sedentary (Sed; n = 12) were examined. In response to EndEx, there were 39 upregulated (e.g., MANF) and 20 downregulated (e.g., ALOX15) genes in SFA and 1 upregulated (i.e., Wisp2) and 1 downregulated (i.e., Crem) gene in GFA [false discovery rate (FDR) < 10%]. In response to IST, there were 305 upregulated (e.g., MANF, HSPA12B) and 324 downregulated genes in SFA and 101 upregulated and 66 downregulated genes in GFA, with an overlap of 32 genes between arteries. Furthermore, in aortic endothelial cells, there were 183 upregulated (e.g., eNOS, SOD-3) and 141 downregulated (e.g., ATF3, Clec1b, npy, leptin) genes with EndEx and 71 upregulated and 69 downregulated genes with IST, with an overlap of 35 between exercise programs. Expression of only two genes (Tubb2b and Slc9a3r2) was altered (i.e., increased) by exercise in all three arteries. The finding that both EndEx and IST produced greater transcriptional changes in the SFA compared with the GFA is intriguing when considering the fact that treadmill bouts of exercise are associated with greater relative increases in blood flow to the gastrocnemius muscle compared with the soleus muscle.

  19. String-sign in left internal thoracic artery is associated with regression in left main trunk stenosis after coronary artery bypass.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Ken; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Kawamura, Masaki; Kajimoto, Kan; Dohi, Tomotaka; Yamagami, Shinichiro; Kano, Tatsuzi; Amano, Atsushi; Hosoda, Yasuyuki; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    The left internal thoracic artery (LITA) is the conduit of choice for coronary artery bypass (CABG) due to favorable long-term patency. Uncommonly, diffuse narrowing like a string without significant stenosis of an anastomosis is observed in the LITA graft (called "string sign"). Isolated left main trunk (LMT) diseases were reported to regress in some cases. However, the relationship between "string sign" and the regression of solitary LMT disease remains unknown.We retrospectively studied 40 consecutive patients with isolated LMT stenosis who underwent CABG using LITA and who underwent angiography before and after operation (31 males, 9 females, mean age, 65.0 years). The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the postoperative angiographic outcomes of the LITA graft: one group included patients with "string sign" (6 patients), the other group consisted of patients with a patent LITA graft (34 patients).There were no significant differences in clinical backgrounds between the two groups. The 2 groups showed similar quantitative % coronary artery stenosis of the LMT before operation (77.5% versus 76.8%) and the observation period was similar in both groups. Coronary angiography after CABG revealed that % stenosis of the LMT in patients with "string sign" was significantly less than that in patients with a patent LITA graft (41.7 ± 26% versus 82.5 ± 11%, P < 0.001). Regression in LMT was significantly more frequently observed in the "string sign group". Furthermore, ostial stenosis was more frequent in patients with "string sign". "String phenomenon" of the LITA graft is one of the signs related to the regression of LMT stenosis, and especially in ostial stenosis of the LMT.

  20. Cannibalism as the main feeding behaviour of tucunares introduced in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Braga, F M S

    2004-08-01

    Individuals of its own genus were the main food item of two species of tucunares (Cichla cf. ocellaris and Cichla monoculus) introduced into the Volta Grande Reservoir. The abundance of adult tucunares may cause intra-specific competition, possibly leading to the high cannibalism rates found. PMID:15620000

  1. Cannibalism as the main feeding behaviour of tucunares introduced in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, L M; Braga, F M S

    2004-08-01

    Individuals of its own genus were the main food item of two species of tucunares (Cichla cf. ocellaris and Cichla monoculus) introduced into the Volta Grande Reservoir. The abundance of adult tucunares may cause intra-specific competition, possibly leading to the high cannibalism rates found.

  2. Bypass surgery for left main coronary artery disease. Reduced perioperative myocardial infarction with preoperative intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation.

    PubMed Central

    Tahan, S R; Geha, A S; Hammond, G L; Cohen, L S; Langou, R A

    1980-01-01

    From July 1975 to December 1977, 91 consecutive patients with left main coronary artery disease defined by cardiac catheterisation as greater than or equal to 50 per cent luminal narrowing underwent coronary bypass surgery. Prospective examination of the preoperative and postoperative clinical course of these patients was performed to determine the incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction. Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation was instituted preoperatively in 35 patients, and these patients were classed as group A. Fifty-six patients did not receive the intra-aortic balloon pump and were classed as group B. Of 26 demographic, clinical, haemodynamic, and operative descriptors, only two were found to be significantly different between the two groups: the severity and the pattern of angina. Group A had a higher percentage of patients with class IV angina (80% vs 45%) and a greater proportion with unstable angina (37% vs 7%). Despite these differences group A patients had only a 3 per cent incidence of perioperative myocardial infraction while group B had a 23 per cent perioperative infarction rate. It is suggested that perioperative intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation can reduce the risk of perioperative myocardial infraction in patients with left main coronary artery stenosis. PMID:6965866

  3. Woodcock feeding habits as related to summer field usage in central Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohn, W.B.

    1970-01-01

    In 1968 and 1969, 60 American woodcock (Philohela minor) were collected before and after alighting on summer fields in central Maine. A comparison of stomach contents from these birds showed that woodcock fed prior to entering fields at dusk. No evidence was found to indicate that any substantial amount of food was eaten by birds remaining on fields throughout the night. In 1968, the availability and abundance of known woodcock foods were measured in 30 soil samples from one field. Few woodcock foods were found in samples located randomly and at flush sites, thus providing no evidence that birds selected sites where soil invertebrates were concentrated.

  4. Effects of Bolus and Continuous Nasogastric Feeding on Gastric Emptying, Small Bowel Water Content, Superior Mesenteric Artery Blood Flow, and Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Abeed H.; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L.; Costigan, Carolyn; Marciani, Luca; Macdonald, Ian A.; Bowling, Timothy E.; Lobo, Dileep N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to demonstrate the effect of continuous or bolus nasogastric feeding on gastric emptying, small bowel water content, and splanchnic blood flow measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the context of changes in plasma gastrointestinal hormone secretion. Background: Nasogastric/nasoenteral tube feeding is often complicated by diarrhea but the contribution of feeding strategy to the etiology is unclear. Methods: Twelve healthy adult male participants who underwent nasogastric intubation before a baseline MRI scan, received 400 mL of Resource Energy (Nestle) as a bolus over 5 minutes or continuously over 4 hours via pump in this randomized crossover study. Changes in gastric volume, small bowel water content, and superior mesenteric artery blood flow and velocity were measured over 4 hours using MRI and blood glucose and plasma concentrations of insulin, peptide YY, and ghrelin were assayed every 30 minutes. Results: Bolus nasogastric feeding led to significant elevations in gastric volume (P < 0.0001), superior mesenteric artery blood flow (P < 0.0001), and velocity (P = 0.0011) compared with continuous feeding. Both types of feeding reduced small bowel water content, although there was an increase in small bowel water content with bolus feeding after 90 minutes (P < 0.0068). Similarly, both types of feeding led to a fall in plasma ghrelin concentration although this fall was greater with bolus feeding (P < 0.0001). Bolus feeding also led to an increase in concentrations of insulin (P = 0.0024) and peptide YY (P < 0.0001), not seen with continuous feeding. Conclusion: Continuous nasogastric feeding does not increase small bowel water content, thus fluid flux within the small bowel is not a major contributor to the etiology of tube feeding-related diarrhea. PMID:25549202

  5. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting for a left main lesion due to cardiac allograft vasculopathy in Japan: first report of a case.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Hata, Hiroki; Murata, Yoshihiro; Seguchi, Osamu; Yanase, Masanobu; Shimahara, Yusuke; Sato, Shunsuke; Nakatani, Takeshi

    2014-10-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a major cause of mortality after transplantation. We treated a 44-year-old female with off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) 4 years after heart transplantation. Annual examinations, including coronary angiography and intravenous ultrasound (IVUS), revealed a severe lesion in the left main trunk. The left internal mammary artery was successfully anastomosed to the left anterior descending artery in an off-pump manner. To ensure that patients have a good long-term outcome after heart transplantation, routine examinations, including IVUS, are crucial, because of the nature of CAV. OPCAB is a good option for a left main trunk lesion due to CAV.

  6. Main and accessory olfactory bulbs and their projections in the brain anticipate feeding in food-entrained rats.

    PubMed

    Caba, Mario; Pabello, Marcela; Moreno, Maria Luisa; Meza, Enrique

    2014-10-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) has a circadian clock independent of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but very little is known about the functional significance of its oscillations. The OB plays a major role in food intake as it contributes to the evaluation of the hedonic properties of food, it is necessary for a normal pattern of locomotor behavior and their ablation disrupts feeding patterns. Previously we demonstrated that OB of rabbit pups can be entrained by periodic nursing but it was not clear whether food was the entraining signal. Here we hypothesized that OB can be entrained by a food pulse during the day in adult rats under a restricted feeding schedule. Then we expect that OB will have a high activation before food presentation when animals show food anticipatory activity (FAA). To this aim we determined by immunohistochemistry the expression of FOS protein, as an indicator of neural activation, in the mitral and granular cell layers of the main and accessory OB. Additionally we also explored two of the OB brain targets, the piriform cortex (PC) and bed nuclei of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT), in three groups: ad libitum (ALF), restricted feeding (RF), and fasted rats after restricted feeding (RF-F). In ALF group FOS levels in both main and accessory OB were low during the day and high during the night at the normal onset of the increase of activity, in agreement with previous reports. On the contrary in RF and RF-F groups FOS was high at the time of FAA, just before food presentation, when animals are in a state of high arousal and during food consumption but was low during the night. In their brain targets, we observed a similar pattern as OB in all groups with the only difference being that FOS levels remained high during the night in RF-F group. We conclude that the OB is entrained by food restriction by showing high activation at the time of food presentation, which persists during fasting and impose a similar FOS pattern to the two brain targets

  7. Prosthetic Aortic Valve Endocarditis with Left Main Coronary Artery Embolism: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan; Inayat, Faisal; Farooq, Salman; Ghani, Ali Raza; Mirrani, Ghazi A.; Athar, Muhammed Waqas

    2016-01-01

    Context: Coronary embolization is potentially a fatal sequela of endocarditis. Although the primary cause of acute coronary syndrome is atherosclerotic disease, it is imperative to consider septic embolism as an etiological factor. Case Report: Herein, we report a case of ventricular fibrillation and ST-segment depression myocardial infarction occurring in a patient who initially presented with fever and increased urinary frequency. Coronary angiography revealed new 99% occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Transesophageal echocardiography showed bioprosthetic aortic valve with an abscess and vegetation. Histologic examination of the embolectomy specimen confirmed the presence of thrombus and Enterococcus faecalis bacteria. Subsequently, the patient was discharged to the skilled nursing facility in a stable condition where he completed 6 weeks of intravenous ampicillin. Conclusion: We present a rare case of LMCA embolism due to prosthetic valve endocarditis. The present report also highlights the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges associated with such patients. PMID:27500132

  8. Delayed-Onset Left Main Coronary Artery Obstruction More than 24 Hours after Balloon-Expandable Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Norio; Ootomo, Tatsushi

    2016-01-01

    Coronary obstruction during or after transcatheter aortic valve replacement is a rare and catastrophic sequela that occurs most frequently just after valve implantation. Even rarer is the delayed clinical presentation, in some few patients, of coronary obstruction on the day after self-expandable valve implantation. Here we describe a case of balloon-expandable (not self-expandable) transcatheter aortic valve replacement, followed by partial obstruction of the left main coronary artery on the day after that procedure in a 93-year-old man, despite normal left ventricular contraction just after valve implantation. Visual evaluation of the echocardiogram for left ventricular wall motion was not sufficient, by itself, to achieve early diagnosis of the obstruction. We performed emergency percutaneous coronary intervention. Ninety days after the procedure, the patient was in New York Heart Association functional class I. PMID:27777533

  9. Quantification of the main digestive processes in ruminants: the equations involved in the renewed energy and protein feed evaluation systems.

    PubMed

    Sauvant, D; Nozière, P

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of feeding systems for ruminants towards evaluation of diets in terms of multiple responses requires the updating of the calculation of nutrient supply to the animals to make it more accurate on aggregated units (feed unit, or UF, for energy and protein digestible in the intestine, or PDI, for metabolizable protein) and to allow prediction of absorbed nutrients. The present update of the French system is based on the building and interpretation through meta-analysis of large databases on digestion and nutrition of ruminants. Equations involved in the calculation of UF and PDI have been updated, allowing: (1) prediction of the out flow rate of particles and liquid depending on the level of intake and the proportion of concentrate, and the use of this in the calculation of ruminal digestion of protein and starch from in situ data; (2) the system to take into account the effects of the main factors of digestive interactions (level of intake, proportion of concentrate, rumen protein balance) on organic matter digestibility, energy losses in methane and in urine; (3) more accurate calculation of the energy available in the rumen and the efficiency of its use for the microbial protein synthesis. In this renewed model UF and PDI values of feedstuffs vary depending on diet composition, and intake level. Consequently, standard feed table values can be considered as being only indicative. It is thus possible to predict the nutrient supply on a wider range of diets more accurately and in particular to better integrate energy×protein interactions occurring in the gut.

  10. Quantification of the main digestive processes in ruminants: the equations involved in the renewed energy and protein feed evaluation systems.

    PubMed

    Sauvant, D; Nozière, P

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of feeding systems for ruminants towards evaluation of diets in terms of multiple responses requires the updating of the calculation of nutrient supply to the animals to make it more accurate on aggregated units (feed unit, or UF, for energy and protein digestible in the intestine, or PDI, for metabolizable protein) and to allow prediction of absorbed nutrients. The present update of the French system is based on the building and interpretation through meta-analysis of large databases on digestion and nutrition of ruminants. Equations involved in the calculation of UF and PDI have been updated, allowing: (1) prediction of the out flow rate of particles and liquid depending on the level of intake and the proportion of concentrate, and the use of this in the calculation of ruminal digestion of protein and starch from in situ data; (2) the system to take into account the effects of the main factors of digestive interactions (level of intake, proportion of concentrate, rumen protein balance) on organic matter digestibility, energy losses in methane and in urine; (3) more accurate calculation of the energy available in the rumen and the efficiency of its use for the microbial protein synthesis. In this renewed model UF and PDI values of feedstuffs vary depending on diet composition, and intake level. Consequently, standard feed table values can be considered as being only indicative. It is thus possible to predict the nutrient supply on a wider range of diets more accurately and in particular to better integrate energy×protein interactions occurring in the gut. PMID:26696120

  11. Left Main Coronary Artery Atresia in Young Man Examined With 99mTc-Tetrofosmin SPECT: A Rare and Challenging Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Rampin, Lucia; Rinuncini, Massimo; Zuin, Marco; Rigatelli, GianLuca; Roncon, Loris; Colletti, Patrick M; Rubello, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    A young man underwent Tc-tetrofosmin cardiac SPECT/CT for the evaluation of the 8-month history of exertional dyspnea without chest pain. Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT demonstrated absence of perfusion defects and a mildly decreased uptake in post-stress images, consistent with artifact, in the inferior myocardium. Cardiac catheterization showed a large right and a small left coronary artery opacified retrogradely by right collateral vessels without connections between the left main and the left coronary artery. In patients with anomalous coronary arteries, Tc SPECT can shows absence of perfusion defects, in the presence of a collateral circulation.

  12. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... bowel - mesenteric; Dead gut - mesenteric; Atherosclerosis - mesenteric artery; Hardening of the arteries - mesenteric artery ... the aorta, the main artery from the heart. Hardening of the arteries occurs when fat, cholesterol, and ...

  13. Acute myocardial infarction due to left main coronary artery disease in men and women: does ST-segment elevation matter?

    PubMed Central

    Gutkowski, Wojciech; Raczyński, Grzegorz; Janion-Sadowska, Agnieszka; Gierlotka, Marek; Poloński, Lech

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gender-specific issues regarding ST-segment elevation (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) due to unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease were not sufficiently studied. We assessed the value of STEMI/NSTEMI initial classification on the management of men and women with acute MI due to critical stenosis or occlusion of the ULMCA. Material and methods The study group consisted of 643 consecutive patients with acute MI with the ULMCA as the infarct-related artery. Data derive from an ongoing, nationwide, multicenter, prospective, observational registry. Results Isolated ULMCA disease was more frequent in women and multivessel disease was more frequent in men in the NSTEMI group. The incidence of cardiogenic shock or pulmonary edema and cardiac arrest was higher in the STEMI group. Totally occluded ULMCA was more frequent in the STEMI group. Although the majority of patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), it was less frequently used in NSTEMI women and NSTEMI men. Although in-hospital and long-term mortality rates were higher in the STEMI group, there were no gender-related differences within groups. The initial ST-segment elevation was an independent predictor of in-hospital (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.14–4.91, p = 0.02) and 12-month (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.01–2.27, p = 0.045) mortality. Conclusions There were no gender-related differences in the management within the STEMI or NSTEMI group. Although acute myocardial infarction due to ULMCA disease is associated with high mortality in both genders, STEMI was a negative prognostic factor of in-hospital and 12-month mortality. Despite poor baseline characteristics and clinical presentation in women, female gender itself did not influence mortality. PMID:26788080

  14. Function and expression of ryanodine receptors and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors in smooth muscle cells of murine feed arteries and arterioles.

    PubMed

    Westcott, Erika B; Goodwin, Erica L; Segal, Steven S; Jackson, William F

    2012-04-15

    We tested the hypothesis that vasomotor control is differentially regulated between feed arteries and downstream arterioles from the cremaster muscle of C57BL/6 mice. In isolated pressurized arteries, confocal Ca(2+) imaging of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) revealed Ca(2+) sparks and Ca(2+) waves. Ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonists (ryanodine and tetracaine) inhibited both sparks and waves but increased global Ca(2+) and myogenic tone. In arterioles, SMCs exhibited only Ca(2+) waves that were insensitive to ryanodine or tetracaine. Pharmacological interventions indicated that RyRs are functionally coupled to large-conductance, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BK(Ca)) in SMCs of arteries, whereas BK(Ca) appear functionally coupled to voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in SMCs of arterioles. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) antagonists (xestospongin D or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate) or a phospholipase C inhibitor (U73122) attenuated Ca(2+) waves, global Ca(2+) and myogenic tone in arteries and arterioles but had no effect on arterial sparks. Real-time PCR of isolated SMCs revealed RyR2 as the most abundant isoform transcript; arteries expressed twice the RyR2 but only 65% the RyR3 of arterioles and neither vessel expressed RyR1. Immunofluorescent localisation of RyR protein indicated bright, clustered staining of arterial SMCs in contrast to diffuse staining in arteriolar SMCs. Expression of IP(3)R transcripts and protein immunofluorescence were similar in SMCs of both vessels with IP(3)R1>IP(3)R2>IP(3)R3. Despite similar expression of IP(3)Rs and dependence of Ca(2+) waves on IP(3)Rs, these data illustrate pronounced regional heterogeneity in function and expression of RyRs between SMCs of the same vascular resistance network. We conclude that vasomotor control is differentially regulated in feed arteries vs. downstream arterioles.

  15. α1-Adrenergic responsiveness in human skeletal muscle feed arteries: the impact of reducing extracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Ives, Stephen J; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Noyes, R Dirk; Morgan, R Garrett; Gifford, Jayson R; Park, Song-Young; Symons, J David; Richardson, Russell S

    2013-01-01

    Graded exercise results not only in the modulation of adrenergic mediated smooth muscle tone and a preferential increase in blood flow to the active skeletal muscle termed 'functional sympatholysis', but is also paralleled by metabolically induced reductions in pH. We therefore sought to determine whether pH attenuates α(1)-adrenergic receptor sensitivity in human feed arteries. Feed arteries (560 ± 31 μm i.d.) were harvested from 24 humans (55 ± 4 years old) and studied using the isometric tension technique. Vessel function was assessed using KCl, phenylephrine (PE), ACh and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) concentration-response curves to characterize non-receptor-mediated and receptor-mediated vasocontraction, as well as endothelium-dependent and -independent vasorelaxation, respectively. All concentration-response curves were obtained from (originally contiguous) vessel rings in separate baths with a pH of 7.4, 7.1, 6.8 or 6.5. Reduction of the pH, via HCl, reduced maximal PE-induced vasocontraction (pH 7.4 = 85 ± 19, pH 7.1 = 57 ± 16, pH 6.8 = 34 ± 15 and pH 6.5 = 16 ± 5% KCl(max)), which was partly due to reduced smooth muscle function, as assessed by KCl (pH 7.4 = 88 ± 13, pH 7.1 = 67 ± 8, pH 6.8 = 67 ± 9 and pH 6.5 = 58 ± 8% KCl(max)). Graded acidosis had no effect on maximal vasorelaxation. In summary, these data reveal that reductions in extracellular pH attenuate α(1)-mediated vasocontraction, which is partly explained by reduced smooth muscle function, although vasorelaxation in response to ACh and SNP remained intact. These findings support the concept that local acidosis is likely to contribute to functional sympatholysis and exercise hyperaemia by opposing sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction while not impacting vasodilatation.

  16. Awake extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as bridge to recovery after left main coronary artery occlusion: a promising concept of haemodynamic support in cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Alozie, Anthony; Kische, Stephan; Birken, Thomas; Kaminski, Alexander; Westphal, Bernd; Nöldge-Schomburg, Gabriele; Ince, Hüseyin; Steinhoff, Gustav

    2014-10-01

    Cardiogenic shock following acute myocardial infarction is associated with high mortality rate. Different management concepts including fluid management, inotropic support, intra aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) mainly in mechanically ventilated patients have been used as cornerstones of management. However, success rates have been disappointing. Few reports suggested that ECMO when performed under circumvention of mechanical ventilation, may offer some survival benefits. We herein present our experience with the use of veno-arterial ECMO as bridge to recovery in an awake and spontaneously breathing patient after left main coronary artery occlusion complicated by cardiogenic shock.

  17. Clinical presentation and cardiovascular risk profiles in patients with left main coronary artery disease in a middle eastern country.

    PubMed

    Gehani, A A; El-Menyar, Ayman; Elgendy, Islam; Abuzaid, Ahmed; Ahmed, Emad; Haque, Saiful

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the prevalence and clinical profile of patients with left main coronary artery disease (LMCA) in Qatar between 2006 and 2010. Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients with LMCA and patients without LMCA but had severe 3-vessel disease (VeD) eligible for surgical revascularization. Among 7000 patients who underwent coronary angiography, 210 patients had significant LMCA and 200 patients with severe 3VeD were matched for age and sex. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension were comparable in the 2 groups. Presentations with myocardial infarction or heart failure were comparable in both groups. Isolated LMCA was 4-fold higher in women (P = .02). Dyslipidemia and smoking were more prevalent in patients with distal and proximal lesions, respectively. Renal failure was independent predictor of LMCA (adjusted odds ratio: 2.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.43-4.69). One-year mortality was higher in LMCA (P = .01). The LMCA carries high mortality. Certain cardiovascular risk factors were important predictors of stenosis site. PMID:22492251

  18. Absent Left Main Coronary Artery and Separate Ostia of Left Coronary System in a Patient with Holt-Oram Syndrome and Sinus Node Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Thein Tun; Roberto, Edward Samuel; Wase, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 41 Final Diagnosis: Sick Sinus Syndrome and absent left main coronary artery • separate ostia of left anterior descending and circumflex arteries in Holt-Oram Syndrome Symptoms: Conduction disturbance • seizure-like activity • upper extremity malformations Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Electro physiology study • coronary catheterization • pacemaker Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Congenital defects/diseases Background: Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is a rare but significant syndrome consisting of structural heart defects, conduction abnormalities, and upper extremity anomalies. It was first described in the British Heart Journal in 1960 by Mary Holt and Samuel Oram as a report of atrial septal defect, conduction disturbances, and hand malformations occurring in family members. Patients can present with heart blocks or symptoms of underlying congenital heart defects. Case Report: A 41-year-old man with Holt-Oram syndrome presented with seizure-like activity and was found to have an underlying conduction disturbance. Physical exam showed bilateral atrophic upper extremities with anatomic disfiguration, and weakness of the intrinsic hand muscles. Cardiovascular exam revealed a slow heart rate with irregular rhythm. EKG showed sinus arrest with junctional escape rhythm. Cardiac catheterization revealed coronary anomalies, including absent left main coronary artery and separate ostia of the left anterior ascending and left circumflex coronary artery. Coronary arteries were patent. Following electrophysiology study, sick sinus syndrome and AV block were diagnosed, and the patient received implantation of a permanent pacemaker. Conclusions: This patient presented with a seizure-like episode attributed to hypoxia during asystole from an underlying cardiac conduction defect associated with Holt-Oram syndrome. Arrhythmias and heart blocks are seen in these patients, and conduction defects are highly associated with congenital heart defects. Holt

  19. [NEGATIVE IMPACT OF CHROMOSOME 22Q11 MICRODELETION ON RESULTS OF TREATMENT IN PATIENTS, SUFFERING CONONTRUNCAL FAILURES OF HEART AND MAIN AORTO-PULMONARY COLLATERAL ARTERIES].

    PubMed

    Bablyak, O D; Yalynska, T A; Skorokhod, I M

    2015-05-01

    Dependence of results of surgical treatment in 42 patients, suffering conotruncal failures and main aorto-pulmonary collateral arteries from presence of the chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome, was analyzed. While presence of the chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome duration of treatment of patients in intensive therapy unit and artificial pulmonary ventilation are longer, pressure in a pulmonary artery system after radical operative failures correction is higher, general lethality is bigger, than while the chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome absence. The data obtained must be taken into account while determining tactics of treatment in patients with confirmed diagnosis of the chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome.

  20. Abolished ventilation and perfusion of lung caused by blood clot in the left main bronchus: auto-downregulation of pulmonary arterial blood supply.

    PubMed

    Afzelius, P; Bergmann, A; Henriksen, J H

    2015-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the lungs possess arterial autoregulation associated with bronchial obstruction. A patient with pneumonia and congestive heart failure unexpectedly developed frequent haemoptysis. High-resolution CT and diagnostic CT were performed as well as ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy with single-photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT. V/Q SPECT/CT demonstrated abolished ventilation due to obstruction of the left main bronchus and markedly reduced perfusion of the entire left lung, a condition that was completely reversed after removal of a blood clot. We present the first pictorially documented case of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction and flow shift in a main pulmonary artery due to a complete intrinsic obstruction of the ipsilateral main bronchus. The condition is reversible, contingent on being relieved within a few days. PMID:26374773

  1. Combined transection of the left common carotid artery and delayed left main bronchus disruption after blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Tarmiz, Amine; Dagenais, François; Grégoire, Jocelyn; Dumont, Éric

    2013-07-01

    A 26-year old female was hit in the cervical region by a large block of ice and admitted with stable vital signs and multiple fractures. Chest radiography demonstrated an enlarged mediastinum, and CT scan revealed a transection of the left common carotid artery at its origin, with a false aneurysm. The lesion was repaired using a median sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass, moderate hypothermia and cerebral antegrade perfusion through the right axillary artery. The bronchial lesion was diagnosed 2 days later and successfully treated with left posterolateral thoracotomy and the use of direct bronchial anastomosis.

  2. Arterial compliance is a main variable determining the effectiveness of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation: quantitative data from an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Theodoros G; Mathioulakis, Dimitrios S; Nanas, John N; Tsangaris, Sokratis G; Stamatelopoulos, Stamatios F; Moulopoulos, Spyridon D

    2002-05-01

    Quantitative data concerning the effect of arterial compliance (AC) on the effectiveness of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABC) are lacking. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between AC and IABC performance. For this purpose we constructed a Windkessel, lumped-element, hydraulic model of the systemic circulation. The model consisted of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD), a compliance chamber, a peripheral resistor and two open reservoirs. Two Datascope Driving systems were used to operate the LVAD and intra-aortic balloon. We studied the effect of arterial compliance on the effectiveness of IABC at different levels of mean pressure (55, 75 and 95 mmHg) and heart rates (80, 100, 120 bpm). Three indices were used to evaluate IABC performance: the reduction of systolic and end-diastolic "arterial" pressure and the augmentation of diastolic pressure, induced by the IABC. A 22% decrease in AC (1.8-1.4 ml/mmHg) lead to a 30-40% increase in the indices of IABC performance, independently from pressure. In conclusion, arterial compliance significantly affects IABC efficacy and it could be considered as a further clinical criterion to decide IABC application. PMID:11996846

  3. Effects of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations.

    PubMed

    Hoshide, A K; Halloran, J M; Kersbergen, R J; Griffin, T S; DeFauw, S L; LaGasse, B J; Jain, S

    2011-11-01

    United States organic dairy production has increased to meet the growing demand for organic milk. Despite higher prices received for milk, organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices over the past few years, which can make up one-third of variable costs. Market demand for milk has also leveled in the last year, resulting in some downward pressure on prices paid to dairy farmers. Organic dairy farmers in the Northeast United States have experimented with growing different forage and grain crops to maximize on-farm production of protein and energy to improve profitability. Three representative organic feed systems were simulated using the integrated farm system model for farms with 30, 120, and 220 milk cows. Increasing intensity of equipment use was represented by organic dairy farms growing only perennial sod (low) to those with corn-based forage systems, which purchase supplemental grain (medium) or which produce and feed soybeans (high). The relative profitability of these 3 organic feed systems was strongly dependent on dairy farm size. From results, we suggest smaller organic dairy farms can be more profitable with perennial sod-based rather than corn-based forage systems due to lower fixed costs from using only equipment associated with perennial forage harvest and storage. The largest farm size was more profitable using a corn-based system due to greater economies of scale for growing soybeans, corn grain, winter cereals, and corn silages. At an intermediate farm size of 120 cows, corn-based forage systems were more profitable if perennial sod was not harvested at optimum quality, corn was grown on better soils, or if milk yield was 10% higher. Delayed harvest decreased the protein and energy content of perennial sod crops, requiring more purchased grain to balance the ration and resulting in lower profits. Corn-based systems were less affected by lower perennial forage quality, as corn silage

  4. Successful percutaneous coronary intervention for acute and chronic occlusion of the left main coronary artery: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ma, Gui-Zhou; Wang, Ying; Xu, Rong-He; Cai, Zhi-Xiong

    2016-04-01

    Total occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) is a rare but clinically serious event due to its poor prognosis. While coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is currently recommended for treatment of these patients, recent studies support the feasibility of treatment by percutaneous intervention (PCI). Here, we report the diagnoses and treatment of two cases of total occlusion of the LMCA. One patient presented with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock resulting from acute occlusion of the LMCA, and the other patient presented with unstable angina pectoris resulting from chronic occlusion of the LMCA. Both cases were successfully treated with PCI. Our results in these cases suggest that PCI may be a safe and effective alternative to CABG for treatment of LMCA occlusion. PMID:27090033

  5. An anatomical study and ontogenetic explanation of 23 cases with variations in the main pattern of the human brachio-antebrachial arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Baeza, A; Nebot, J; Ferreira, B; Reina, F; Pérez, J; Sañudo, J R; Roig, M

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-three cases with variations in the brachio-antebrachial arterial pattern of the human upper limb are reported. According to the artery which showed a variation, 4 groups were recognised: (1) isolated persistence of the median artery; (2) high origin of the ulnar artery; (3) high origin of the radial artery; and (4) duplication of the brachial artery, either with or without anastomosis at the cubital fossa. In addition, in groups 2, 3 and 4 the median artery may have persisted. Based on these arterial variations an anatomical and embryological correlation was established from a morphogenetic pattern which is proposed as being normal. Thus the terminal branches of the superficial brachial artery take part in the development of the radial, ulnar and median arteries, joining with the trunks of deep origin of these arteries in the primitive axial artery. Regression of the superficial arterial segments located proximal to this anastomosis gives rise to the definitive arterial pattern. Either the total or partial persistence of the superficial arterial segments explains those cases of high origin of either the radial or ulnar arteries as well as the duplications of the brachial artery. We postulate that the persistence of the median artery is independent of the presence or absence of any other variation in the arterial pattern. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7592009

  6. Noninvasive identification of left main and triple vessel coronary artery disease: improved accuracy using quantitative analysis of regional myocardial stress distribution and washout of thallium-201

    SciTech Connect

    Maddahi, J.; Abdulla, A.; Garcia, E.V.; Swan, H.J.; Berman, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities of visual and quantitative analysis of stress redistribution thallium-201 scintigrams, exercise electrocardiography and exercise blood pressure response were compared for correct identification of extensive coronary disease, defined as left main or triple vessel coronary artery disease, or both (50% or more luminal diameter coronary narrowing), in 105 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Extensive disease was present in 56 patients and the remaining 49 had either less extensive coronary artery disease (n = 34) or normal coronary arteriograms (n = 15). Although exercise blood pressure response, exercise electrocardiography and visual thallium-201 analysis were highly specific (98, 88 and 96%, respectively), they were insensitive for identification of patients with extensive disease (14, 45 and 16%, respectively). Quantitative thallium-201 analysis significantly improved the sensitivity of visual thallium-201 analysis for identification of patients with extensive disease (from 16 to 63%, p less than 0.001) without a significant loss of specificity (96 versus 86%, p = NS). Eighteen (64%) of the 28 patients who were misclassified by visual analysis as having less extensive disease were correctly classified as having extensive disease by virtue of quantitative analysis of regional myocardial thallium-201 washout. When the results of quantitative thallium-201 analysis were combined with those of blood pressure and electrocardiographic response to exercise, the sensitivity and specificity for identification of patients with extensive disease was 86 and 76%, respectively, and the highest overall accuracy (0.82) was obtained.

  7. Emergency revascularization procedures in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction due to acute total occlusion of unprotected left main coronary artery: a report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Aygül, Nazif; Aygül, Meryem Ulkü; Ozdemir, Kurtuluş; Altunkeser, Bülent Behlül

    2010-03-01

    Several studies have compared the efficacy of elective coronary artery stenting and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease. However, a definite reperfusion modality has yet to be established in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) due to acute total occlusion of ULMCA, which has catastrophic clinical results. We presented five patients (3 males, 2 females; mean age 59 years; range 53 to 67 years) with acute anterior STEMI and angiographically documented acute total occlusion of ULMCA. On presentation, all the patients had chest pain and four patients were in cardiogenic shock. All the patients were taken to the catheterization room with minimum delay. Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation was used during coronary angiography in all the patients. Three patients underwent PCI and, after balloon predilatation, bare-metal stents were implanted and TIMI III flow was achieved. One patient who had atrial fibrillation on admission died on the 14th day of hospitalization after PCI due to pump failure. After diagnostic coronary angiography, two patients were submitted to surgery for emergency CABG. They both died, one within two hours of admission during preparation of the surgical team, and the other on the third postoperative day. Both were in cardiogenic shock on admission.

  8. Rhynchophylline-induced vasodilation in human mesenteric artery is mainly due to blockage of L-type calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng-Yun; Zeng, Xiao-Rong; Cheng, Jun; Wen, Jing; Inoue, Isao; Yang, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Rhynchophylline (Rhy) is a pharmacologically active substance isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla which has been used to treat cardiovascular diseases and has drawn considerable attention in recent years for its antihypertensive activities. We investigated the actions of Rhy on endothelium-denuded human mesenteric artery by tension measurement and its actions on high conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BKCa) currents and calcium currents (ICa) in freshly isolated smooth muscle cells using perforated patch clamp technique. Intracellular Ca(2+) level was measured in Fura-2-loaded cells. Rhy inhibited both the KCl and BayK-evoked mesenteric artery constrictions in a dose-dependent manner. K(+) channel blockers (TEA, glibenclamide, IbTX, and 4-AP) did not affect the vasorelaxing effect of Rhy. Rhy inhibited L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) current (ICa,L) but had no significant effect on macroscopic BKCa current. Rhy preincubation markedly reduced the elevation of [Ca(2+)]i level induced by KCl depolarization. Caffeine-stimulated [Ca(2+)]i elevation was also decreased to some extent by pretreatment with Rhy for 20 min. Our results show that Rhy relaxes smooth muscles of human mesenteric resistance arteries, mainly due to inhibition of Ca(2+) influx by blockage of L-type Ca(2+) channels and thereby the decrease in [Ca(2+)]i. PMID:23812676

  9. The existence of a highly tetrodotoxin sensitive Na channel in freshly dispersed smooth muscle cells of the rabbit main pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Okabe, K; Kitamura, K; Kuriyama, H

    1988-04-01

    To characterize the inward current recorded from single smooth muscle cells of the rabbit main pulmonary artery, a voltage clamp procedure using patch pipettes filled with high Cs solution to inhibit K currents was employed. Under superfusion with normal physiological salt solution, application of a command potential to -10 mV from the holding potential of -80 mV elicited an inward current comprising fast and slow components. In Ca-free solution containing 2.5 mM Mn and 134 mM Na, the major part of the slow inwart current (Islow) ceased, but a transient fast inward current (Ifast) remained. A reduction in the Na concentration in the bath solution inhibited the amplitude of Ifast. Both nicardipine (30 nM) and diltiazem (1-10 microM) inhibited Islow but had no effect on Ifast. Application of tetrodotoxin (greater than 1 nM) in Ca free solution inhibited the amplitude of Ifast in a dose-dependent manner with a dissociation constant of 8.7 nM. Chloramine-T (0.3 mM) increased the peak amplitude and reduced the rate of decay of Ifast and completely inhibited Islow. These results suggest that the inward curent generated in the smooth muscle cells of the rabbit main pulmonary artery is associated with activation of a voltage-dependent Ca channel and a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na channel. PMID:2456516

  10. Acute Coronary Syndrome Does Not Have a Negative Impact on Outcomes after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients with Left Main Disease

    PubMed Central

    Takanashi, Shuichiro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Early and long-term outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with left main disease (LMD) with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have never been assessed. Methods: Between September 2004 and April 2012, 459 patients with LMD underwent first-time isolated CABG. Of those, 191 patients had ACS and 268 did not. Early and late postoperative outcomes were compared between two groups. Results: Patients in the LMD+ACS group were older and more likely to be female. Left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in the LMD+ACS group. In both groups, bilateral internal thoracic artery grafts were used in over 90% of patients and off-pump technique in over 95%. Operative death rate was not significantly different between the groups (LMD+ACS: 2.1% vs. LMD–ACS: 0.4%). Log-rank test revealed that the actuarial survival rate (79.2 ± 3.7% vs. 81.5 ± 3.5%) and freedom from major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) (69.2 ± 4.2% vs. 67.0 ± 4.1%) were similar between groups at 7 years. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that ACS was not identified as an independent predictor of operative death, late mortality, and late MACCE. Conclusion: ACS did not have a negative impact on early and late outcomes of CABG in patients with LMD. PMID:25641028

  11. Diagnostic Performance of Intravascular Ultrasound-Derived Minimal Lumen Area to Predict Functionally Significant Non-Left Main Coronary Artery Disease: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ho-Cheol; Bae, Jong Seok; Jin, Han-Young; Seo, Jeong-Sook; Yang, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Kyeong; Cho, Kyoung-Im; Kim, Bo-Hyun; Park, Yong Hyun; Je, Hyung-Gon; Kim, Dong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention frequently results in unnecessary stenting due to the low positive predictive value of IVUS-derived minimal lumen area (MLA) for identification of functionally significant coronary stenosis. We appraised the diagnostic accuracy of IVUS-derived MLA compared with the fractional flow reserve (FFR) to assess intermediate coronary stenosis. Subjects and Methods We searched MEDLINE and Cochrane databases for studies using IVUS and FFR methods to establish the best MLA cut-off values to predict significant non-left main coronary artery stenosis. Summary estimates were obtained using a random-effects model. Results The 17 studies used in our analysis enrolled 3920 patients with 4267 lesions. The weighted overall mean MLA cut-off value was 2.58 mm2. The pooled MLA sensitivity that predicted functionally significant coronary stenosis was 0.75 (confidence interval [CI]: 0.72 to 0.77) and the specificity was 0.66 (CI: 0.64 to 0.68). The positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 2.33 (CI: 2.06 to 2.63) and LR (-) was 0.33 (CI: 0.26 to 0.42). The pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 7.53 (CI: 5.26 to 10.76) and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve for all the trials was 0.782 with a Q point of 0.720. Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that an FFR cut-off point of 0.75 was associated with a four times higher diagnostic accuracy compared to that of 0.80 (relative DOR: 3.92; 95% CI: 1.25 to 12.34). Conclusion IVUS-derived MLA has limited diagnostic accuracy and needs careful interpretation to correlate with functionally significant non-left main coronary artery stenosis. PMID:27721852

  12. Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied by a Lumbar Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Han Myun; Kim, Hyo-Cheol Woo, Sungmin; Son, Kyu Ri; Cho, Seong Whi; Chung, Jin Wook

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo describe the radiologic findings and imaging response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) supplied by the lumbar artery.MethodsBetween April 2004 and December 2012, we encountered HCC supplied by a lumbar artery in 21 patients. Two investigators retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiological findings of HCC supplied by the lumbar artery using computed tomography (CT) scans and digital subtraction angiograms.ResultsPatients had received 1–27 sessions of previous chemoembolization procedures (mean 7.7 sessions, median 4 sessions). Mean tumor size was 5.3 cm. The locations of HCC supplied by lumbar artery were the bare area (n = 14, 67 %) and segment VI (n = 7, 33 %). Tumor-feeding arteries arose from the main lumbar artery (n = 7), proximal anterior division (n = 4), and distal anterior division (n = 14). In 20 patients, selective chemoembolization through the tumor-feeding arteries of the lumbar artery was achieved. In 1 patient, nonselective embolization at the main lumbar artery was performed. There was no complication such as skin necrosis or paralysis. On the first follow-up enhanced CT scan, target tumors fed by the lumbar artery showed complete response (n = 6), partial response (n = 4), stable disease (n = 3), and progressive disease (n = 8), but overall tumor response was partial response (n = 1) and progressive disease (n = 20).ConclusionWhen HCC is located in the inferior tip or bare area of the liver, a lumbar artery may supply the tumor. Although selective chemoembolization via the tumor-feeding vessel of the lumbar artery can be achieved in most cases, overall tumor response is commonly unfavorable.

  13. Long-term prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction due to unprotected left main coronary artery disease: a single-centre experience over 14 years

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Sun, Hao; Wang, Le-Feng; Yang, Xin-Chun; Li, Kui-Bao; Zhang, Da-Peng; Wang, Hong-Shi; Li, Wei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) due to unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease is clinically catastrophic although it has a low incidence. Studies on the long-term prognosis of these patients are rare. METHODS From January 1999 to September 2013, 55 patients whose infarct-related artery was the ULMCA were enrolled. Clinical, angiographic and interventional data was collected. Short-term and long-term clinical follow-up results as well as prognostic determinants during hospitalisation and follow-up were analysed. RESULTS Cardiogenic shock (CS) occurred in 30 (54.5%) patients. During hospitalisation, 22 (40.0%) patients died. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that CS (odds ratio [OR] 5.86; p = 0.03), collateral circulation of Grade 2 or 3 (OR 0.14; p = 0.02) and final flow of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) Grade 3 (OR 0.05; p = 0.03) correlated with death during hospitalisation. 33 patients survived to discharge; another seven patients died during the follow-up period of 44.6 ± 31.3 (median 60, range 0.67–117.00) months. The overall mortality rate was 52.7% (n = 29). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the total cumulative survival rate was 30.7%. Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that CS during hospitalisation was the only predictor of overall mortality (hazard ratio 4.07, 95% confidence interval 1.40–11.83; p = 0.01). CONCLUSION AMI caused by ULMCA lesions is complicated by high incidence of CS and mortality. CS, poor collateral blood flow and failure to restore final flow of TIMI Grade 3 correlated with death during hospitalisation. CS is the only predictor of long-term overall mortality. PMID:27439434

  14. α1- and α2-adrenergic responsiveness in human skeletal muscle feed arteries: the role of TRPV ion channels in heat-induced sympatholysis.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Jayson R; Ives, Stephen J; Park, Song-Young; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Hyngstrom, John R; Mueller, Michelle T; Treiman, Gerald S; Ward, Christopher; Trinity, Joel D; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if heat inhibits α2-adrenergic vasocontraction, similarly to α1-adrenergic contraction, in isolated human skeletal muscle feed arteries (SMFA) and elucidate the role of the temperature-sensitive vanilloid-type transient receptor potential (TRPV) ion channels in this response. Isolated SMFA from 37 subjects were studied using wire myography. α1 [Phenylephrine (PE)]- and α2 [dexmedetomidine (DEX)]-contractions were induced at 37 and 39°C with and without TRPV family and TRPV4-specific inhibition [ruthenium red (RR) and RN-1734, respectively]. Endothelial function [acetylcholine (ACh)] and smooth muscle function [sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and potassium chloride (KCl)] were also assessed under these conditions. Heat and TRPV inhibition was further examined in endothelium-denuded arteries. Contraction data are reported as a percentage of maximal contraction elicited by 100 mM KCl (LTmax). DEX elicited a small and variable contractile response, one-fifth the magnitude of PE, which was not as clearly attenuated when heated from 37 to 39°C (12 ± 4 to 6 ± 2% LTmax; P = 0.18) as were PE-induced contractions (59 ± 5 to 24 ± 4% LTmax; P < 0.05). Both forms of TRPV inhibition restored PE-induced contraction at 39°C (P < 0.05) implicating these channels, particularly the TRPV4 channels, in the heat-induced attenuation of α1-adrenergic vasocontraction. TRPV inhibition significantly blunted ACh relaxation while denudation prevented heat-induced sympatholysis without having an additive effect when combined with TRPV inhibition. In conclusion, physiological increases in temperature elicit a sympatholysis-like inhibition of α1-adrenergic vasocontraction in human SMFA that appears to be mediated by endothelial TRPV4 ion channels.

  15. Double-v side-branch stenting followed by main trunk stenting in type-a3 trifurcation coronary artery disease using a dual-catheter technique - the triple-tine fork technique.

    PubMed

    Omeish, Abdallah

    2013-10-01

    We report on a 55-year-old male patient who presented with acute non-ST elevation inferolateral myocardial infarction. He underwent conventional coronary angiography 3 days after admission that revealed normal right coronary artery, 30% plaque in midleft anterior descending artery as well as total proximal left circumflex artery occlusion, which proved to be a type-A3 trifurcation lesion after predilatation. The trifurcation was approached with triple wiring and tackled with a novel 4-stent strategy that predicates at first the distal two side branches and the distal main branch (MB) stenting using dual 6 and 7 Fr guiding catheters that were introduced via a bifemoral approach, followed by main trunk (proximal main vessel) stenting with final trissing-balloon inflation. Angiography at the end of the procedure revealed a triple-tine fork-like shape. There was no postprocedural pain or CPK leakage. One year later, the patient was free from any cardiac complaints.

  16. [Dynamic changes in arterial hypertension prevalence and their relation to the main risk factors among able-bodied newcomers in Iamalo-Nenetskiĭ autonomous region].

    PubMed

    Shesterikova, N V; Buganov, A A; Umanskaia, E L; Novokrestova, S V

    2003-01-01

    The frequency of arterial hypertension among non-native able-bodied unorganized population of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug was studied. Mean population index of the frequency was 31.0%. Important factors which promote arterial hypertension are excessive body mass, age, period of living in the Far North, psycho-emotional stress, unsatisfactory level of adaptation and its failure, dislipidemia.

  17. Impact of SYNTAX score on 1-year clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for unprotected left main coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Nozue, Tsuyoshi; Kamijima, Ryo; Iwaki, Taku; Michishita, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    SYNTAX score is an angiographic scoring system that was developed to quantify the number, complexity, and location of lesions in patients undergoing coronary revascularization. Up to now, the impact of SYNTAX score on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for unprotected left main coronary artery (LMCA) lesions has not been fully examined. Therefore, we evaluate the usefulness of the SYNTAX score and identify the cutoff value of this score to predict 1-year clinical outcomes in patients undergoing PCI for unprotected LMCA lesions. This was a single-center retrospective study that included 49 consecutive patients undergoing elective PCI for unprotected LMCA lesions. We calculated the SYNTAX score and examined the correlations between this score and 1-year clinical outcomes. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) occurred in 12 patients (24%): target lesion revascularization in 9 patients (18%), myocardial infarction in 2 (4%), and cardiac death in 1 (2%). The frequency of MACE was significantly higher in the intermediate (47%) or high score group (50%) than in the low score group (4%). Furthermore, the SYNTAX score was significantly higher in the MACE group than in the non-MACE group (31 vs. 22, p = 0.008). Receiver-operating characteristic curve showed that the SYNTAX score exhibited 83% sensitivity and 76% specificity for predicting the development of MACE at a cutoff value 26. These results demonstrate that the SYNTAX score could be a useful tool to predict 1-year clinical outcomes in patients undergoing elective PCI for unprotected LMCA lesions.

  18. Safety and Feasibility of Coronary Stenting in Unprotected Left Main Coronary Artery Disease in the Real World Clinical Practice—A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Lung; Yang, Cheng-Hsu; Chen, Shyh-Ming; Chen, Chien-Jen; Lin, Cheng-Jei; Cheng, Cheng-I; Hang, Chi-Ling; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2014-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the feasibility, safety, and prognostic outcome in patients with significant unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease undergoing stenting. Method and Results Between January 2010 and December 2012, totally 309 patients, including those with stable angina [13.9% (43/309)], unstable angina [59.2% (183/309)], acute non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) [24.3% (75/309)], and post-STEMI angina (i.e., onset of STEMI<7 days) [2.6% (8/309)] with significant ULMCA disease (>50%) undergoing stenting using transradial arterial approach, were consecutively enrolled. The patients’ mean age was 68.9±10.8 yrs. Incidences of advance congestive heart failure (CHF) (defined as ≥ NYHA Fc 3) and multi-vessel disease were 16.5% (51/309) and 80.6% (249/309), respectively. Mechanical supports, including IABP for critical patients (defined as LVEF <35%, advanced CHF, or hemodynamically unstable) and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) for hemodynamically collapsed patients, were utilized in 17.2% (53/309) and 2.6% (8/409) patients, respectively. Stent implantation was successfully performed in all patients. Thirty-day mortality rate was 4.5% (14/309) [cardiac death: 2.9% (9/309) vs. non-cardiac death: 1.6% (5/309)] without significant difference among four groups [2.3% (1) vs. 2.7% (5) vs. 9.3% (7) vs. 12.5% (1), p = 0.071]. Multivariate analysis identified acute kidney injury (AKI) as the strongest independent predictor of 30-day mortality (p<0.0001), while body mass index (BMI) and white blood cell (WBC) count were independently predictive of 30-day mortality (p = 0.003 and 0.012, respectively). Conclusion Catheter-based LM stenting demonstrated high rates of procedural success and excellent 30-day clinical outcomes. AKI, BMI, and WBC count were significantly and independently predictive of 30-day mortality. PMID:25329166

  19. Hg and Se capture and fly ash carbons from combustion of complex pulverized feed blends mainly of anthracitic coal rank in Spanish power plants

    SciTech Connect

    I. Surez-Ruiz; J.C. Hower; G.A. Thomas

    2007-01-15

    In this work, the petrology and chemistry of fly ashes produced in a Spanish power plant from the combustion of complex pulverized feed blends made up of anthracitic/meta-anthracitic coals, petroleum, and natural coke are investigated. It was found that the behavior of fly ash carbons derived from anthracitic coals follows relatively similar patterns to those established for the carbons from the combustion of bituminous coals. Fly ashes were sampled in eight hoppers from two electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows. The characterization of the raw ashes and their five sieved fractions (from {gt}150 to {lt}25 {mu}m) showed that glassy material, quartz, oxides, and spinels in different proportions are the main inorganic components. As for the organic fraction, the dominant fly ash carbons are anisotropic carbons, mainly unburned carbons derived from anthracitic vitrinite. The concentration of Se and Hg increased in ashes of the second ESP row, this increase being related to the higher proportion of anisotropic unburned carbons, particularly those largely derived from anthracitic vitrinite in the cooler ashes of the ESP (second row) and also related to the decrease in the flue gas temperature. This suggests that the flue gas temperature plays a major role in the concentration of mercury for similar ratios of unburned carbons. It was also found that Hg is highly concentrated in the medium-coarser fractions of the fly ashes ({gt} 45 {mu}m), there being a positive relationship between the amount of these carbons, which are apparently little modified during the combustion process, in the medium-coarse fractions of the ashes and the Hg retention. According to the results obtained, further research on this type of fly ash could be highly productive. 28 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Acute changes of left ventricular hemodynamics and function during percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Mi; Ahn, Chul-Min; Hong, Soon-Jun; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Shim, Wan-Joo; Lim, Do-Sun

    2015-07-01

    Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) are increasingly being used to treat unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) lesions. However, research is sparse on the acute changes of left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics and function during PCI in patients with ULMCA stenosis. We aimed to assess the acute changes of LV function using speckle-tracking imaging during PCI in these patients. Fifteen consecutive patients who underwent elective PCI for ULMCA stenosis were enrolled. Echocardiographic studies and pressure measurement were performed at baseline, during PCI and after PCI. LMCA occlusion with a first balloon inflation induced a marked reduction in the peak positive derivative of LV pressure (dP/dt max), LV global longitudinal strain (GLS), and systolic and diastolic strain rates, and a marked increase in LV end-diastolic pressure (EDP) (all P < 0.01). During the second inflation, the degrees of LV hemodynamic and functional changes were similar to those of the first inflation, even with a higher inflation pressure. During the third inflation, the values of GLS and dP/dt max were higher than those of the second inflation (P = 0.03 and P = 0.05, respectively). After optimal PCI, dP/dt max, LVEDP, and strain parameters were improved to baseline values. LV hemodynamics and function were considerably impaired with the first ballooning during PCI for ULMCA stenosis. However, the degrees of LV hemodynamic and functional changes decreased with each successive balloon inflation, which can be explained by ischemic preconditioning. After all procedures were safely completed, LV systolic function was improved without LV diastolic stunning.

  1. Functional and Prognostic Implications of the Main Pulmonary Artery Diameter to Aorta Diameter Ratio from Chest Computed Tomography in Korean COPD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kyung Soo; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Kim, Ha Yan; Lee, Sang Min; Seo, Joon Beom; Oh, Yeon Mok

    2016-01-01

    Background The ratio of the diameter of the main pulmonary artery (mPA) to the diameter of the aorta (Ao) on chest computed tomography is associated with diverse clinical conditions. Herein, we determined the functional and prognostic implications of the mPA/Ao ratio in Korean chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Methods The study population comprised 226 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease cohort who underwent chest computed tomography. We analyzed the relationships between the clinical characteristics, including pulmonary function, echocardiography findings, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, 6-minute walking (6MW) distance, and exacerbation with the mPA, Ao, and mPA/Ao ratio. Results The mean age was 65.8 years, and 219 (96.9%) patients were male. The mean FEV1% predicted and FEV1/FVC ratio were 61.2% and 47.3%, respectively. The mean mPA and Ao were 23.7 and 36.4 mm, respectively, and the mPA/Ao ratio was 0.66. The mPA/Ao ratio correlated negatively with the 6MW distance (G = -0.133, P = 0.025) and positively with the right ventricular pressure (G = 0.323, P = 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, the mPA/Ao ratio was significantly associated with 6MW distance (β = -107.7, P = 0.017). Moreover, an mPA/Ao ratio >0.8 was a significant predictor of exacerbation at the 1-year (odds ratio 2.12, 95% confidence interval 1.27–3.52) and 3-year follow-ups (odds ratio 2.04, 95% confidence interval 1.42–2.90). Conclusions The mPA/Ao ratio is an independent predictor of exercise capacity and an mPA/Ao ratio >0.8 is a significant risk factor of COPD exacerbation. PMID:27152915

  2. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  3. Entomological indices, feeding sources, and molecular identification of Triatoma phyllosoma (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) one of the main vectors of Chagas disease in the Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Guiehdani; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando; de la Torre, Patricia; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Espinoza, Bertha

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an entomological analysis, determination of feeding sources, and molecular identification of triatomines in five communities of the Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca. The only found species in two of five searched communities (San Mateo del Mar and Tehuantepec City) was Triatoma phyllosoma. Colonization indices were high in both communities. In San Mateo del Mar, the insects were found indoors and in Tehuantepec City in peridomestic areas. The Trypanosoma cruzi infection indices were 2.1% in San Mateo del Mar and 39.4% in Tehuantepec City. This difference could be related to the high numbers of triatomine feeding on hens in the former community. In contrast, in Tehuantepec, dogs were the principal triatomine feeding sources. All nymphs and adults that were genetically analyzed belonged to the species T. phyllosoma. Low levels of genetic variation were found between vectors from both communities.

  4. Adventitial Alterations Are the Main Features in Pulmonary Artery Remodeling due to Long-Term Chronic Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Julio; Siques, Patricia; Arribas, Silvia M.; López de Pablo, Angel L.; González, M. Carmen; Naveas, Nelson; Flores, Karen; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Pulido, Ruth; Ordenes, Stefany; López, M. Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Long-term chronic intermittent exposure to altitude hypoxia is a labor phenomenon requiring further research. Using a rat model, we examined whether this type of exposure differed from chronic exposure in terms of pulmonary artery remodeling and other features. Rats were subjected to chronic hypoxia (CH, n = 9) and long-term intermittent hypoxia (CIH2x2; 2 days of hypoxia/2 days of normoxia, n = 10) in a chamber (428 Torr, 4,600 m of altitude) for 46 days and compared to rats under normoxia (NX, n = 10). Body weight, hematocrit, and right ventricle ratio were measured. Pulmonary artery remodeling was assessed using confocal microscopy of tissues stained with a nuclear dye (DAPI) and CD11b antibody. Both hypoxic conditions exhibited increased hematocrit and hypertrophy of the right ventricle, tunica adventitia, and tunica media, with no changes in lumen size. The medial hypertrophy area (larger in CH) depicted a significant increase in smooth muscle cell number. Additionally, CIH2x2 increased the adventitial hypertrophy area, with an increased cellularity and a larger prevalence of clustered inflammatory cells. In conclusion, CIH2x2 elicits milder effects on pulmonary artery medial layer muscularization and subsequent right ventricular hypertrophy than CH. However, CIH2x2 induces greater and characteristic alterations of the adventitial layer. PMID:25738150

  5. Adventitial alterations are the main features in pulmonary artery remodeling due to long-term chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia in rats.

    PubMed

    Brito, Julio; Siques, Patricia; Arribas, Silvia M; López de Pablo, Angel L; González, M Carmen; Naveas, Nelson; Arriaza, Karem; Flores, Karen; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Pulido, Ruth; Ordenes, Stefany; López, M Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Long-term chronic intermittent exposure to altitude hypoxia is a labor phenomenon requiring further research. Using a rat model, we examined whether this type of exposure differed from chronic exposure in terms of pulmonary artery remodeling and other features. Rats were subjected to chronic hypoxia (CH, n = 9) and long-term intermittent hypoxia (CIH2x2; 2 days of hypoxia/2 days of normoxia, n = 10) in a chamber (428 Torr, 4,600 m of altitude) for 46 days and compared to rats under normoxia (NX, n = 10). Body weight, hematocrit, and right ventricle ratio were measured. Pulmonary artery remodeling was assessed using confocal microscopy of tissues stained with a nuclear dye (DAPI) and CD11b antibody. Both hypoxic conditions exhibited increased hematocrit and hypertrophy of the right ventricle, tunica adventitia, and tunica media, with no changes in lumen size. The medial hypertrophy area (larger in CH) depicted a significant increase in smooth muscle cell number. Additionally, CIH2x2 increased the adventitial hypertrophy area, with an increased cellularity and a larger prevalence of clustered inflammatory cells. In conclusion, CIH2x2 elicits milder effects on pulmonary artery medial layer muscularization and subsequent right ventricular hypertrophy than CH. However, CIH2x2 induces greater and characteristic alterations of the adventitial layer.

  6. Safety of Chemotherapeutic Infusion or Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied Exclusively by the Cystic Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Beomsik Kim, Hyo-Cheol Chung, Jin Wook Hur, Saebeom Joo, Seung-Moon Jae, Hwan Jun Park, Jae Hyung

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety of chemotherapeutic infusion or chemoembolization by way of the cystic artery in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) supplied exclusively by the cystic artery. Methods: Between Jan 2002 and Dec 2011, we performed chemotherapeutic infusion or chemoembolization using iodized oil for the treatment of 27 patients with HCC supplied exclusively by the cystic artery. Computed tomography (CT) scans, digital subtraction angiograms, and medical records were retrospectively reviewed by consensus. Results: The cystic artery originated from the main right hepatic artery in 24 (89 %) patients, from the right anterior hepatic artery in 2 (7 %) patients, and from the left hepatic artery in 1 (4 %) patient. Selective catheterization of the cystic artery was achieved in all patients. Superselection of tumor-feeding vessels from the cystic artery was achieved in 7 patients (26 %). Chemotherapeutic infusion was performed in 18 patients (67 %), and chemoembolization was performed in 9 patients (33 %). There were no major complications and only 2 minor complications, including vasovagal syncope and nausea with vomiting. Individual tumor response supplied exclusively by the cystic artery at the follow-up enhanced CT scan were complete response (n = 16), partial response (n = 3), and stable disease (n = 8). Conclusion: HCC supplied exclusively by the cystic artery can be safely treated without severe complications by chemotherapeutic infusion or chemoembolization using iodized oil through the cystic artery.

  7. Effect of sublethal α-cypermethrin exposure on main macromolecules concentration, energy content, and malondialdehyde concentration in free-feeding Danio rerio larvae.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Estrada, Jesús; Sobrino-Figueroa, Alma Socorro; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    α-Cypermethrin (Cyp) is a synthetic insecticide used to control pests in agricultural crops and to protect human health against noxious insects; this toxic can reach aquatic systems through ground infiltration or by runoff and could affect the aquatic biota. The present study was aimed at evaluating the acute toxicity of Cyp on zebrafish (Danio rerio) exogenous feeding larvae of 10 and 20 days post-fertilization (dpf), and of sublethal concentrations on only 10-dpf larvae. Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, glycogen concentration, and total energy contents, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) quantification, through thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, as a lipid peroxidation biomarker, were assessed in free-feeding larvae exposed to sublethal Cyp concentrations. The LC50 for 10-dpf larvae was 1.94 µg L(-1), and these were more sensitive than 20-dpf larvae (3.56 µg L(-1)). The amount of protein, carbohydrates, and glycogen were not significantly affected (p > 0.05), but sublethal Cyp concentrations exposure caused decrement in lipids from 9.05 to 3.74 µg larva(-1), as well as a reduction in MDA and in the total energy content, which affected significantly the development of this fish. Although Cyp is considered an insecticide of reduced residual effect in the environment, the present study revealed that relatively low Cyp concentrations produced significant toxic effects on exogenous feeding fish larvae, a situation that could contribute to increase deaths during this already critical developmental stage in which high mortality is observed frequently.

  8. [Upper extremity arterial diseases].

    PubMed

    Becker, F

    2007-02-01

    Compared to lower limb arterial diseases, upper limb arterial diseases look rare, heterogeneous with various etiologies and a rather vague clinical picture, but with a negligible risk of amputation. Almost all types of arterial diseases can be present in the upper limb, but the anatomical and hemodynamic conditions particular to the upper limb often confuse the issue. Thus, atherosclerosis affects mainly the subclavian artery in its proximal segment where the potential of collateral pathway is high making the symptomatic forms not very frequent whereas the prevalence of subclavian artery stenosis or occlusion is relatively high. The clinical examination and the etiologies are discussed according to the clinical, anatomical and hemodynamic context.

  9. Towards evidence-based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 2: Is ST elevation in aVR a sure sign of left main coronary artery stenosis?

    PubMed

    Morris, Niall; Body, Richard

    2016-01-01

    A shortcut review was carried out to establish whether ST elevation in aVR accurately identifies acute myocardial infarction caused by left main coronary artery stenosis. 141 unique papers were found in Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ACP Journal Club and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects using the reported searches. Of these, 12 presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these best papers are tabulated. It is concluded that ST elevation in aVR can identify high-risk patients for early intensive investigation, particularly when found alongside widespread ST depression. It has insufficient utility to identify patients who require immediate revascularisation. PMID:26699191

  10. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... legs; Arterial insufficiency of the legs; Recurrent leg pain and cramping; Calf pain with exercise ... The main symptoms of PAD are pain, achiness, fatigue, burning, or ... or thighs. These symptoms most often appear during walking or ...

  11. Renal arteries (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A renal angiogram is a test used to examine the blood vessels of the kidneys. The test is performed ... main vessel of the pelvis, up to the renal artery that leads into the kidney. Contrast medium ...

  12. Repair of Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysm Anastomosed to Donor Renal Artery in a Renal Transplant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Hiroshi; Kin, Keiwa; Maeda, Shuusaku

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a successful repair of an internal iliac artery aneurysm in a renal transplant patient. At renal transplantation, the main renal artery and accessory renal artery had been anastomosed to the right internal iliac artery and right external iliac artery, respectively. The patient underwent resection and graft replacement of the iliac artery aneurysm with reattachment of the main renal artery to the right external iliac artery through a midline laparotomy with repeated topical cold perfusion for renal protection. The postoperative course was uneventful, and no evidence of renal function impairment was present at discharge. PMID:27738467

  13. Induction of insulin resistance by high-sucrose feeding does not raise mean arterial blood pressure but impairs haemodynamic responses to insulin in rats.

    PubMed

    Santuré, Marta; Pitre, Maryse; Marette, André; Deshaies, Yves; Lemieux, Christian; Larivière, Richard; Nadeau, André; Bachelard, Hélène

    2002-09-01

    1. This study was undertaken to further investigate the effects of a sucrose-enriched diet on vascular function and insulin sensitivity in rats. 2. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive a sucrose- or regular rat chow-diet for 4 weeks. A first group of sucrose- and chow-fed rats was instrumented with pulsed Doppler flow probes and intravascular catheters to determine blood pressure, heart rate, regional blood flows and insulin sensitivity in conscious rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. Glucose transport activity was examined in isolated muscles by using the glucose analogue [(3)H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose. A second group of sucrose- and chow-fed rats was used to obtain information regarding nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isozymes protein expression in muscles, and determine endothelin content in vascular tissues isolated from both dietary groups. 3. Sucrose feeding was found to induce insulin resistance, but had no effect on resting blood pressure, heart rate, or regional haemodynamics. This insulin resistance was accompanied by alteration in the vascular responses to insulin. Insulin-mediated skeletal muscle vasodilation was impaired, whereas the mesenteric vasoconstrictor response was potentiated in sucrose-fed rats. A reduction in eNOS protein content in muscle and an increase in vascular endothelin peptide were noted in these animals. Moreover, a reduction in insulin-simulated glucose transport activity was also noted in muscles isolated from sucrose-fed rats. 4. Together these data suggest that a cluster of metabolic and haemodynamic abnormalities occur in response to the intake of simple sugars in rats.

  14. Induction of insulin resistance by high-sucrose feeding does not raise mean arterial blood pressure but impairs haemodynamic responses to insulin in rats

    PubMed Central

    Santuré, Marta; Pitre, Maryse; Marette, André; Deshaies, Yves; Lemieux, Christian; Lariviére, Richard; Nadeau, André; Bachelard, Hélène

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to further investigate the effects of a sucrose-enriched diet on vascular function and insulin sensitivity in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive a sucrose- or regular rat chow-diet for 4 weeks. A first group of sucrose- and chow-fed rats was instrumented with pulsed Doppler flow probes and intravascular catheters to determine blood pressure, heart rate, regional blood flows and insulin sensitivity in conscious rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. Glucose transport activity was examined in isolated muscles by using the glucose analogue [3H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose. A second group of sucrose- and chow-fed rats was used to obtain information regarding nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isozymes protein expression in muscles, and determine endothelin content in vascular tissues isolated from both dietary groups. Sucrose feeding was found to induce insulin resistance, but had no effect on resting blood pressure, heart rate, or regional haemodynamics. This insulin resistance was accompanied by alteration in the vascular responses to insulin. Insulin-mediated skeletal muscle vasodilation was impaired, whereas the mesenteric vasoconstrictor response was potentiated in sucrose-fed rats. A reduction in eNOS protein content in muscle and an increase in vascular endothelin peptide were noted in these animals. Moreover, a reduction in insulin-simulated glucose transport activity was also noted in muscles isolated from sucrose-fed rats. Together these data suggest that a cluster of metabolic and haemodynamic abnormalities occur in response to the intake of simple sugars in rats. PMID:12208775

  15. Histopathologic Characteristics of a Coronary-pulmonary Artery Fistula with a Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Noriyuki; Minematsu, Noritoshi; Morishige, Noritsugu; Tashiro, Tadashi; Imanaga, Yoshinobu

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report a case of a 59-year-old woman with a coronary-pulmonary artery fistula with a concomitant coronary artery aneurysm, which comprised an anomalous coronary artery originating at the right coronary cusp, an aberrant branch of the left anterior descending artery, and a coronary artery aneurysm draining into the main pulmonary artery. Histopathologically, non-dilated anomalous coronary artery showed the preservation of internal elastic lamina and medial smooth muscle cell phenotype which lacked in the aneurysmal wall. Thus, the disrupted internal elastic lamina and phenotypic change of medial smooth muscle cells might contribute to aneurysm formation in a coronary-pulmonary arterial fistula. PMID:23555427

  16. Relation of Plasma Lipoprotein(a) to Subclinical Coronary Plaque Volumes, Three-Vessel and Left Main Coronary Disease, and Severe Coronary Stenoses in Apparently Healthy African-Americans With a Family History of Early-Onset Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Kral, Brian G; Kalyani, Rita R; Yanek, Lisa R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Fishman, Elliot K; Becker, Diane M; Becker, Lewis C

    2016-09-01

    Serum lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factor in persons of European ancestry. Levels are twofold to threefold higher in African-Americans (AAs), but reported associations with CAD have been inconsistent. The relation of Lp(a) with the extent and severity of subclinical coronary plaque has not been described in AAs. We screened 269 apparently healthy AAs for risk factors and coronary plaque using advanced coronary computed tomographic angiography. Total coronary plaque (TCP), noncalcified coronary plaque, and calcified coronary plaque volumes (mm(3)) were quantified using a validated automated method. Lp(a) was measured by ELISA. Multivariable modeling was performed with adjustment for traditional CAD risk factors and intrafamilial correlations. Mean age was 51 ± 11 years and 64% were female. Plaque was present in 41%. Lp(a) was independently associated with TCP volume [log(TCP + 1)] (p = 0.04), 3-vessel and/or left main involvement (p = 0.04), and at least 1 stenosis >50% (p = 0.006). Best-fit regression analyses showed that subjects with Lp(a) >40 mg/dl were threefold more likely to have 3-vessel and/or left main disease (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 6.8, p = 0.005) and fourfold more likely to have stenosis >50% (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 15.0, p = 0.02). In subjects with plaque (n = 110), multivariable models showed the Lp(a) level was significantly and independently associated with TCP (p = 0.009), noncalcified coronary plaque (p = 0.01), and calcified coronary plaque (p = 0.003) and affected vessel length (p = 0.01). In conclusion, high Lp(a) is strongly associated with coronary plaque volumes, extent, and severity in apparently healthy AAs. High levels of Lp(a) may be particularly important in the pathogenesis of CAD in AAs. PMID:27530333

  17. Arterial Catheterization

    MedlinePlus

    ... rial line can provide valuable information to adjust oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilator (respirator; breathing machine) settings. The blood oxygen pres- sure measures from an arterial line give ...

  18. Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery in Adulthood: Challenges and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Jignesh; Lakhia, Ketav; Solanki, Parth; Parmar, Divyakant; Boraniya, Hiren; Patel, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is an extremely rare, potentially fatal, congenital anomaly with a high mortality rate in the first year of life. It occurs rarely in adulthood and may appear with malignant ventricular a rrhythmia or sudden death. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman with ALCAPA who presented with dyspnea on exertion. Management was coronary artery bypass grafting to the left anterior descending artery and obtuse marginal arteries, closure of the left main coronary artery ostium, and reestablishment of the dual coronary artery system. PMID:27734000

  19. Maine Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This article features Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI), the nation's first-ever statewide 1-to-1 laptop program which marks its seventh birthday by expanding into high schools, providing an occasion to celebrate--and to examine the components of its success. The plan to put laptops into the hands of every teacher and student in grades 7…

  20. Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Avolio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Stiffness of large arteries has been long recognized as a significant determinant of pulse pressure. However, it is only in recent decades, with the accumulation of longitudinal data from large and varied epidemiological studies of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, that it has emerged as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. This has generated substantial interest in investigations related to intrinsic causative and associated factors responsible for the alteration of mechanical properties of the arterial wall, with the aim to uncover specific pathways that could be interrogated to prevent or reverse arterial stiffening. Much has been written on the haemodynamic relevance of arterial stiffness in terms of the quantification of pulsatile relationships of blood pressure and flow in conduit arteries. Indeed, much of this early work regarded blood vessels as passive elastic conduits, with the endothelial layer considered as an inactive lining of the lumen and as an interface to flowing blood. However, recent advances in molecular biology and increased technological sophistication for the detection of low concentrations of biochemical compounds have elucidated the highly important regulatory role of the endothelial cell affecting vascular function. These techniques have enabled research into the interaction of the underlying passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall with the active cellular and molecular processes that regulate the local environment of the load-bearing components. This review addresses these emerging concepts. PMID:26587425

  1. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... administer the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via ... down through the esophagus into the stomach. The NG tube can be used to empty the stomach ...

  2. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    PubMed

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance. PMID:21214019

  3. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    PubMed

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  4. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  5. Ruptured Isolated Spinal Artery Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez Romero, Diego; Batista, Andre Lima; Gentric, Jean Christoph; Raymond, Jean; Roy, Daniel; Weill, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Summary Isolated spinal artery aneurysms are exceedingly rare vascular lesions thought to be related to dissection of the arterial wall. We describe two cases presenting with spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage that underwent conservative management. In the first patient the radiculomedullary branch involved was feeding the anterior spinal artery at the level of D3 and thus, neither endovascular nor surgical approach was employed. Control angiography was performed at seven days and at three months, demonstrating complete resolution of the lesion. In our second case, neither the anterior spinal artery or the artery of Adamkiewicz could be identified during angiography, thus endovascular management was deemed contraindicated. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a stable lesion in the second patient. No rebleeding or other complications were seen. In comparison to intracranial aneurysms, spinal artery aneurysms tend to display a fusiform appearance and lack a clear neck in relation to the likely dissecting nature of the lesions. Due to the small number of cases reported, the natural history of these lesions is not well known making it difficult to establish the optimal treatment approach. Various management strategies may be supported, including surgical and endovascular treatment, but It would seem that a wait and see approach is also viable, with control angiogram and treatment decisions based on the evolution of the lesion. PMID:25496690

  6. Angioplasty and stent placement -- peripheral arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery; PTA - peripheral artery; Angioplasty - peripheral arteries; Iliac artery -angioplasty; Femoral artery - angioplasty; Popliteal artery - angioplasty; Tibial artery - angioplasty; ...

  7. Brachiocephalic artery thrombosis in adult nephrotic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, B. K.; Mathew, A.; Rajesh, R.; Kurian, G.; Unni, V. N.

    2011-01-01

    Thrombotic events are known to occur in nephrotic syndrome, as these patients have a hypercoagulable state. Venous thrombosis is well recognized, but arterial thrombosis is rare and is mainly noted in pediatric population. In the present study, we report a case of thrombosis of right brachiocephalic artery, embolic occlusion of right axillary artery, and right middle cerebral artery territory infarction due to thromboembolism in an adult patient with nephrotic syndrome (Minimal change disease). Patient underwent thromboembolectomy in the right axillary artery followed by anticoagulation therapy. PMID:21886984

  8. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  9. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  10. Main Report

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition

  11. [Accessory renal arteries in human fetuses].

    PubMed

    Gościcka, D; Szpinda, M; Kochan, J

    1996-12-01

    Using conventional anatomical methods, renal arteries of 140 human fetuses were studied. It was found (21.1%) that the accessory renal arteries occurred in a three-fold manner: 1. as single arteries (19.2%), 2. as double arteries (2.1%) and 3. as triplex arteries (0.7%). More often they originated from the right part of the circumference of the abdominal aorta, mainly in the female fetuses. These arteries penetrated the following segments of the kidney: the inferior (12.9%), the superior (2.3%), the anterior inferior (2.8%), the posterior (2.1%) and the anterior superior (1.5%). They crossed the renal pelvis more often in front (12.2%) than from behind of it (5%). The frequency of the occurrence of the accessory arteries depends not from the age of the fetus. PMID:9082875

  12. Proinflammation: The Key to Arterial Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingyi; Jiang, Liqun; Monticone, Robert E.; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2014-01-01

    Arterial aging is the major contributing factor to increases in the incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease, due mainly to the presence of chronic, low-grade, “sterile” arterial inflammation. Inflammatory signaling driven by the angiotensin II cascade perpetrates adverse age-associated arterial structural and functional remodeling. The aged artery is characterized by endothelial disruption, enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, extracellular matrix deposition, elastin fracture, and matrix calcification/amyloidosis/glycation. Importantly, the molecular mechanisms of arterial aging are also relevant to the pathogenesis of hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Age-associated arterial proinflammation is, to some extent, mutable, and interventions to suppress or delay it may have the potential to ameliorate or retard age-associated arterial diseases. PMID:24365513

  13. Solitary Hepatocellular Carcinoma Fed by the Cystic Artery: Limitation of Transcatheter Arterial Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Hirota, Shozo; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Motohara, Tomofumi; Ichikawa, Satoshi

    1999-05-15

    Purpose: To clarify the limitations of transcatheter treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with parasitic feeders from the cystic artery. Methods: Three male patients had a solitary HCC (average diameter 3 cm) fed by the cystic artery among 221 patients with HCC from 1994 to 1997. One tumor was nourished entirely from the cystic artery arising from the medial branch of the left hepatic artery, and two tumors were fed partially by the cystic arteries arising from the anterior inferior branch of the right hepatic artery. We analyzed the indications for transcatheter treatment for these three patients. Results: We chose not to embolize the cystic artery for fear of necrosis of the gallbladder. Although embolization of the anterior branch of the right hepatic artery was performed in one patient with a tumor fed partially by the cystic artery, only half the tumor was embolized. Two patients underwent hepatic resection, and one received percutaneous ethanol injection therapy. At follow-up of 28-40 months (average 33 months) all patients are alive. Conclusion: Feeding by the cystic artery represents a limitation of TAE for HCC.

  14. Caliber-Persistent Artery

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sabrina Araújo Pinho; Ruiz, Marcelo Martinson; Kaba, Shajadi Pardo; Florezi, Giovanna Piacenza; Lemos Júnior, Celso Augusto; Witzel, Andréa Lusvarghi

    2015-01-01

    Caliber-persistent artery (CPLA) of the lip is a common vascular anomaly in which a main arterial branch extends to the surface of the mucous tissue with no reduction in its diameter. It usually manifests as pulsatile papule, is easily misdiagnosed, and is observed more frequently among older people, suggesting that its development may involve a degenerative process associated with aging; CPLA is also characterized by the loss of tone of the adjacent supporting connective tissue. Although the diagnosis is clinical, high-resolution Doppler ultrasound is a useful noninvasive tool for evaluating the lesion. This report describes the case of a 58-year-old male patient who complained of a lesion of the lower lip with bleeding and recurrent ulceration. The patient was successfully treated in our hospital after a diagnosis of CPLA and is currently undergoing a clinical outpatient follow-up with no complaints. PMID:26448884

  15. An alternative technique for direct implantation of an anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery with complex coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Ishimaru, Kazuhiko; Araki, Kanta; Nakamura, Tsuneyuki; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    A 2-month-old patient with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) underwent an alternative repair involving coronary transfer with the bay window technique because of the very short left main coronary trunk. This procedure is a clinically relevant and feasible technique for ALCAPA with such a delicate coronary artery anomaly. PMID:27656197

  16. An alternative technique for direct implantation of an anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery with complex coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Kazuhiko; Araki, Kanta; Nakamura, Tsuneyuki; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    A 2-month-old patient with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) underwent an alternative repair involving coronary transfer with the bay window technique because of the very short left main coronary trunk. This procedure is a clinically relevant and feasible technique for ALCAPA with such a delicate coronary artery anomaly. PMID:27656197

  17. An alternative technique for direct implantation of an anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery with complex coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Ishimaru, Kazuhiko; Araki, Kanta; Nakamura, Tsuneyuki; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    A 2-month-old patient with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) underwent an alternative repair involving coronary transfer with the bay window technique because of the very short left main coronary trunk. This procedure is a clinically relevant and feasible technique for ALCAPA with such a delicate coronary artery anomaly.

  18. Spontaneous left main dissection treated by percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Alexandra; Lopes, Ricardo; Silva, João Carlos; Maciel, M Júlia

    2013-06-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute coronary events or sudden cardiac death. The clinical presentation is highly variable and prognosis varies widely, depending mainly on how rapidly it is diagnosed. Prompt treatment is also essential, and includes medical management, percutaneous coronary intervention and surgical revascularization. We describe the case of a young woman presenting with spontaneous coronary artery dissection of the left main coronary artery, first diagnosed as coronary thrombus, who underwent successful percutaneous coronary stenting. This report highlights the need to include spontaneous coronary artery dissection in differential diagnosis of chest pain in young women and that distinguishing between coronary thrombus and coronary artery dissection is not always straightforward. To our knowledge this is the fourth case of left main stenting in a patient with spontaneous coronary artery dissection described in the literature.

  19. Hardening of the arteries

    MedlinePlus

    Atherosclerosis; Arteriosclerosis; Plaque buildup - arteries; Hyperlipidemia - atherosclerosis; Cholesterol - atherosclerosis ... Hardening of the arteries often occurs with aging. As you grow older, ... narrows your arteries and makes them stiffer. These changes ...

  20. Peripheral arterial line (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A peripheral arterial line is a small, short plastic catheter placed through the skin into an artery of the arm or leg. The purpose of a peripheral arterial line is to allow continuous monitoring of ...

  1. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  2. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a ...

  3. Prevalence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lee, Noel S; Blanchard, Daniel G; Knowlton, Kirk U; McDivit, Anna M; Pretorius, Victor; Madani, Michael M; Fedullo, Peter F; Kerr, Kim M; Kim, Nick H; Poch, David S; Auger, William R; Daniels, Lori B

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and to correlate their presence with the degree of clot burden. CTEPH is a treatable cause of severe pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure. Bronchopulmonary collateral vessels have been used as a supplementary diagnostic and prognostic tool for this disease. Coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in this population have not been described. The coronary angiograms of 300 consecutive patients with CTEPH evaluated for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) between January 1, 2007, and May 1, 2014, were examined. Of these patients, 259 (50% male; mean age, 58.3 ± 10.6 years) had cineangiographic images deemed adequate to definitively assess for the presence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals and were included in the final analyses. Pulmonary angiogram reports were reviewed for extent of pulmonary artery obstruction. The coronary angiograms of 259 age- and sex-matched control patients were also examined. Among 259 CTEPH patients with definitive imaging, 34 coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals were found in 28 patients (10.8%), versus 1 coronary artery-pulmonary artery collateral among control subjects (0.4%; P < 0.001). Compared with CTEPH patients without collaterals, patients with collaterals had a significantly higher prevalence of total occlusion of their right or left main pulmonary artery (P < 0.001) or lobar arteries (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the prevalence of coronary artery-pulmonary artery collaterals in CTEPH patients undergoing coronary angiography for possible PTE is approximately 11%. These vessels are associated with more severe pulmonary artery occlusion. PMID:26064456

  4. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Hidden Coronary Artery-Unusual Type of Isolated Single Coronary Artery.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shivanand; Rachaiah, Jayasheelan Mambally; Ramalingam, Rangaraj; Manjunath, Cholenahally Nanjappa; Subramanyam, Kasamsetty

    2016-08-01

    Single coronary artery is a rare congenital coronary artery anomaly, the incidence of which is 0.024-0.066% as described in literature. Report of cases having single coronary artery along with acute myocardial infarction are scanty and reports of percutaneous intervention in such a situation are even fewer, technically challenging and potentially cataclysmic. As single coronary artery supplies the entire myocardium, occlusion of this can result in significant ischemic insult, resulting in severe biventricular dysfunction. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) of single coronary artery is technically challenging and carries high risk which may be equated to left main intervention. We report a rare interesting case of L1 variety of single coronary artery which presented as acute inferoposterior myocardial infarction with successful rescue PCI to Left Circumflex Artery (LCx). PMID:27656488

  5. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Hidden Coronary Artery-Unusual Type of Isolated Single Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shivanand; Ramalingam, Rangaraj; Manjunath, Cholenahally Nanjappa; Subramanyam, Kasamsetty

    2016-01-01

    Single coronary artery is a rare congenital coronary artery anomaly, the incidence of which is 0.024-0.066% as described in literature. Report of cases having single coronary artery along with acute myocardial infarction are scanty and reports of percutaneous intervention in such a situation are even fewer, technically challenging and potentially cataclysmic. As single coronary artery supplies the entire myocardium, occlusion of this can result in significant ischemic insult, resulting in severe biventricular dysfunction. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) of single coronary artery is technically challenging and carries high risk which may be equated to left main intervention. We report a rare interesting case of L1 variety of single coronary artery which presented as acute inferoposterior myocardial infarction with successful rescue PCI to Left Circumflex Artery (LCx). PMID:27656488

  6. [Doppler ultrasound of penis arteries].

    PubMed

    Jünemann, K P; Siegsmund, M; Löbelenz, M; Alken, P

    1990-05-01

    In addition to pharmaco testing, pharmaco-Doppler sonography of the penile arteries is part of the basic work-up for erectile dysfunction. Insufficient training with the Doppler method, lack of standardized criteria for evaluation of the penis, and analysis of the Doppler curves all make it difficult to use Doppler sonography for the evaluation of impotent men. The aim of this study was to explain the principal criteria of the method and demonstrate the most important details for analyzing the form of the Doppler waves. Pharmaco-Doppler sonography includes the evaluation of blood-flow velocities within the dorsal and deep cavernous arteries of the penis before and after intracavernous application of a vasoactive drug. The following main criteria have proven to be most important for analysis of the Doppler curves: evaluation of the amplitude height, the actual wave form, differences between the left and right arteries and along the individual vessel, amplitude increase, and elevation of the curve baseline after pharmaco stimulation. The most frequent mistakes made during evaluation of the penile arteries are changes in the probe angle, pressure put on the artery by the probe during evaluation and a false estimation of the evaluation time after pharmaco stimulation. Recently, duplex sonography of the penile arteries has been introduced, and this method allows an accurate measurement of the blood-flow velocity and arterial diameter changes before and after application of the drug. Furthermore, additional calculation of the resistancy index permits determination of the vascular resistance and optimizes the evaluation of the penile arterial status. The technical details, the method, and the analyzation criteria are all explained in detail.

  7. Lesion patterns and etiology of ischemia in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery territory involvement: a clinical - diffusion weighted - MRI study.

    PubMed

    Kumral, E; Kisabay, A; Ataç, C

    2006-04-01

    The topography and mechanism of stroke in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory are delineated before, but the detailed clinical spectrum of lesions involving AICA territory was not studied by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). We reviewed 1350 patients with posterior circulation ischemic stroke in our registry. We included patients if the diagnosis of AICA territory involvement was confirmed, and DWI, and magnetic resonance angiography were obtained in the 3 days of symptoms onset. The potential feeding arteries of the AICA territory were evaluated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a three-dimensional rotating cineoangiographic method. There were 23 consecutive patients with lesion involving AICA territory, six with isolated lesion in the AICA territory, six with posterior inferior cerebellar artery, 11 with multiple posterior circulation infarcts (MPCIs). The clinical feature of isolated AICA infarct was vertigo, tinnitus, dysmetria, ataxia, facial weakness, facial sensory deficits, lateral gaze palsy, and sensory-motor deficits in patients with pontine involvement. Patients with largest lesion extending to the anterior and inferolateral cerebellum showed mixed symptomatology of the lateral medullary (Wallenberg's syndrome) and AICA territory involvement. Patients with MPCIs presented various clinical pictures with consciousness disturbances and diverse clinical signs because of involvement of different anatomical structures. Large-artery atherosclerotic disease in the vertebrobasilar system was the main cause of stroke in 12 (52%) patients, cardioembolism (CE) in one (4%), and coexisting large-artery disease and a source of CE in four (17%). The main cause of stroke was atheromatous vertebrobasilar artery disease either in the distal vertebral or proximal basilar artery. The outcome was usually good except those with multiple lesions. The new MRI techniques and clinical correlations allow better definition of the diverse topographical

  8. Anatomical variations of the human suprarenal arteries.

    PubMed

    Manso, J C; DiDio, L J

    2000-09-01

    This is on anatomical study of the suprarenal arteries and their variations in 30 cadavers aimed at providing in a subsequent article the anatomical basis of arterial segments of the gland. The suprarenal glands were supplied by 3 main groups of suprarenal arteries: superior, middle and inferior. Only the superior and the inferior groups were present in all cases, since the middle vessels appeared in only 93.3% +/- 4.6 of the cases. The superior group included on each side 4 arteries in males and 5 in females; the middle group presented only 1 artery on each side in both males and females, and the inferior group exhibited on each side 2 arteries in males and 1 artery in females. The most variable group was the middle one, the aortic origin being the most frequent but with a relatively low incidence (53.3% +/- 9.1 on the right and 46.7% +/- 9.1 on the left). The superior group originated from the posterior branch of the ipsilateral inferior phrenic artery in 83.3% +/- 6.8 on the right and 80% +/- 7.3 on the left. The arteries of the inferior group were branches of the ipsilateral renal artery in 70% +/- 8.4 on the right and 50% +/- 9.1 on the left. The origin of the middle suprarenal arteries from the trunk of the inferior phrenic artery on both sides (26.7% +/- 8.1 on the right and 36.7% +/- 8.8 on the left) should be considered relevant. The anatomical findings warrant a further investigation for the identification, illustration and nomenclature of arterial anatomicosurgical segments.

  9. Arterial Vascularization of the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Pérez, W; Vazquez, N; Ungerfeld, R

    2016-06-01

    Based on gross dissection of fifteen adult animals (11 females, 4 males), we described the arterial supply of the stomach and intestines of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), a South American endangered species. The coeliac artery emitted the splenic, left gastric and hepatic arteries. The splenic artery directed towards the spleen, and the right ruminal artery, which is its only collateral directed towards the stomach, being the main artery of the rumen. The left gastric artery gave origin to the left ruminal, the reticular and the left gastroepiploic arteries. The left gastroepiploic artery originated the reticular accessory artery. Both arteries, gastric and left gastroepiploic, anastomosed their right counterparts derived from the hepatic artery on the curvatures of the abomasum. The cranial mesenteric artery irrigated the second half of the duodenum until the beginning of the descending colon. The thickest branch emitted by the cranial mesenteric artery was the ileocolic artery, which was destined to the ascending colon, caecum and ileum. The colic branches and the right colic arteries were irradiated on the right surface of the spiral loop of the ascending colon and distributed to both centripetal and centrifugal coils of the ascending colon; the colic branches were also anastomosed with the last jejunals and ileals and with the right colic arteries. There were no variations in the origin of any of the main branches derived from the coeliac and cranial mesenteric arteries. This species had a basic pattern of arterial distribution similar to small domestic ruminants.

  10. Vapor resistant arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

  11. Unprotected left main distal bifurcation lesion.

    PubMed

    Karavolias, George; Karyofillis, Panagiotis; Georgiadou, Panagiota; Voudris, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    Left main coronary artery disease is a high-risk condition with significant mortality. Currently, bypass surgery is considered the gold-standard treatment for unprotected left main disease. The introduction of drugeluting stents for the treatment of coronary artery disease has proved to reduce the rates of restenosis and, consequently, the need for repeat revascularisation; therefore, recently, percutaneous coronary intervention in the unprotected left main using drug-eluting stents has been considered another therapeutic option for patients at high risk for bypass surgery, or for patients who simply refuse bypass surgery. Based on the updated guidelines on myocardial revascularisation of the European Society of Cardiology, treating left main lesions by angioplasty is feasible and safe in selected patients. In this case report we demonstrate the successful implantation of drug-eluting stents for the treatment of an unprotected left main bifurcation lesion in an 85-year-old patient with high perioperative risk.

  12. [Mechanical properties of the arteries. Effects of cryopreservation].

    PubMed

    Rosset, E; Friggi, A; Rieu, R; Rolland, P; Novakovitch, G; Choux, R; Pellissier, J F; Pélissier, R; Branchereau, A

    1996-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of the arterial wall are responsible for the blood pressure wave propagation throughout the arterial system. Arterial diseases may cause disorders in this propagation. We have developed a mock circulation system that allows assessment of viscoelastic properties in fresh or cryopreserved human arteries. It includes the following components:--a hydrodynamic generator that can simulate physiological pressure variations in fresh segments of human arteries;--a lightweight miniature flexible probe that can be placed around the artery to measure changes in the external diameter during systolo-diastolic cycles;--a computer program to analyse pressure and diameter data measured during a cardiac cycle. Using this system, it is possible to evaluate the main viscoelastic properties of the arterial wall (arterial compliance, arterial stiffness, midwall aortic stress, Young elastic modulus, incremental modulus). Human arterial samples were collected during organ harvesting in subjects from 18 to 35 years of age. Correlation between viscoelastic properties, arterial wall status, and histological aspect in nitrogen vapor (-140 degree C) were established. No statistically significant difference was observed in femoral arteries characteristics. Compliance decreased, while stiffness increased with statistically significant difference after cryopreservation in carotid arteries. No histological difference was observed in both arteries before and after cryopreservation.

  13. Stream tube and velocity profile analysis of pulmonary arterial angiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, Anne V.; Haworth, Steven T.; Manuel, Albert J.; Dawson, Christopher A.

    1999-05-01

    The distribution of blood transit times within the pulmonary arterial tree has important implications with regards to overall lung function. Previously, we showed that the pulmonary arterial tree imparts little dispersion to an injected bolus, so that the bolus arrives at downstream arteries with a time delay, but little increase in variance. Furthermore, the arterial time delay is nearly the same for all pathways to arteries of the same diameter, independent of their pathway length. This small amount of dispersion was observed despite the velocity profile within the arterial tree and the substantial variation in arterial pathway lengths. Thus, we have begun to ask why velocity profile effects and pathway length heterogeneity within the pulmonary arterial tree have so little influence on bolus dispersion. X-ray angiography studies were used to visualize streamtube pathways within the pulmonary arterial tree. Full bolus injections were used to visualize all flow streamlines within the tree, while 'streamtube' injections labeled only about 1% of the inlet arterial cross-section. By changing the injector position within the arterial cross-section, different streamtubes were traced and found to remain intact downstream to vessels less than 200 micrometer in diameter. Thus, it appears that lower velocity streamtubes tend to peel off from the full velocity profile at arterial bifurcations, while flow streamtubes with higher average velocity travel down the main arterial trunk. The net result is that dispersive velocity profile effects are mitigated by the interaction between the distributed velocity profile and the branching pattern of the pulmonary arterial tree.

  14. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... A nasogastric tube (NG tube) is a special tube that carries food and medicine to the stomach through the nose. It can be ...

  15. Posterior cerebral artery territory infarctions.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Carlo; Carrera, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Infarctions in the territory of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) occur in about 5-10% of all ischemic strokes. The PCA can be divided into 'deep' (P1 and P2 segments) and 'superficial' (P3 and P4) segments. Occlusion of paramedian perforating arteries arising from P1 causes rostral midbrain infarction with or without thalamic lesion. The classical clinical triad after thalamomesencephalic infarcts is hypersomnolence, cognitive deficits and vertical oculomotor paresis. Two main arterial groups arise from P2: infarction in the territory of the thalamogeniculate arteries causes severe contralateral hypesthesia and ataxia, whereas infarction in the territory of the posterior choroidal arteries results in sectoranopia with involvement of the lateral geniculate body. After superficial PCA infarcts, visual field defects and somatosensory deficits are the most frequent signs. Additionally, disorders of reading may be seen after unilateral left infarction and disorientation for place and visual neglect after right lesion. After bilateral PCA infarcts, amnesia, cortical blindness (the patient cannot see but pretend he can) may occur. Acute thrombolysis is as useful after PCA infarctions as after anterior circulation strokes. Mortality after PCA strokes is low, but long-term behavioral and cognitive deficits are underestimated.

  16. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Large Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm with Mechanically Detachable Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Toshiya Fujimoto, Yukinori; Jin, Myeong Jun; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2004-03-15

    Large aneurysms (5.5 and 3.6 cm in diameter) arising from the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery located just near the main superior mesenteric artery were incidentally diagnosed in two patients. Transcatheter arterial embolization, packing mechanically detachable coils and microcoils into the aneurysms, was performed while the inflated balloon catheter was placed near the neck of the aneurysms. The procedures were successfully performed and no aneurysmal rupture or bowel ischemia was noted during follow-up. Balloon-assisted transcatheter arterial embolization with mechanically detachable coils seems to be an effective and safe treatment for large inferior pancreaticoduodenal aneurysms.

  17. Pulmonary artery dilatation: an overlooked mechanism for angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Ginghina, Carmen; Popescu, Bogdan A; Enache, Roxana; Ungureanu, Catalina; Deleanu, Dan; Platon, Pavel

    2008-07-01

    Dilatation of the pulmonary artery may lead to the compression of adjacent structures. Of those, the extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery is the most worrisome. We present the case of a 48-year-old woman who was diagnosed with pulmonary artery dilatation due to severe, thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. She also had angina and coronary angiography revealed a 70% ostial stenosis of the left main coronary artery. The presence of this isolated lesion in a young woman without risk factors for atherosclerosis suggests extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery by the dilated pulmonary artery as the likely mechanism. The patient underwent direct stenting of the left main coronary stenosis with a good result.

  18. Significance of Main Pulmonary Artery Dilation on Imaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Timothy E.; Khabbaza, Joseph E.; Yadav, Ruchi

    2014-01-01

    Proper and early identification of patients who harbor serious occult illness is the first step in developing a disease-management strategy. Identification of illnesses through the use of noninvasive techniques provides assurance of patient safety and is ideal. PA dilation is easily measured noninvasively and is due to a variety of conditions, including pulmonary hypertension (PH). The clinician should be able to thoroughly assess the significance of PA dilation in each individual patient. This involves knowledge of the ability of PA dilation to accurately predict PH, understand the wide differential diagnosis of causes of PA dilation, and reverse its life-threatening complications. We found that although PA dilation is suggestive of PH, data remain inconclusive regarding its ability to accurately predict PH. At this point, data are insufficient to place PA dilation into a PH risk-score equation. Here we review the causes and complications of PA dilation, define normal and abnormal PA measurements, and summarize the data linking its association to PH, while suggesting an algorithm designed to assist clinicians in patient work-up after recognizing PA dilation. PMID:25406836

  19. [Abnormal popliteal arteries].

    PubMed

    Elbaz, C

    1975-01-01

    Arteriopathy restricted to the popliteal artery, except in cases of atheroma, must indicate three of four unusual diagnoses: the trapped popliteal artery and the dessicating haematoma are anatomo-clinical entities that have been identified only relatively recently. The popliteal artery may be trapped by the medial gastrocnomius muscle, round the tendon of which the artery passes (totally or partially). This results in compression of the artery and eventually in thrombosis. Clinically, intermittent claudication is seen that may deteriorate and lead to gangrene of the toes. Arteriography makes it possible to diagnose the condition as the condition as the artery is considerably displaced inwards. Surgical correction is simple: sectioning of the tendon and repositioning of the artery. Dessicating haematoma of the popliteal artery is due essentially to atheroma, associated with medianecrosis. A "egg-timer" stenosis is found by arteriography and this condition also progresses towards thrombosis. Arterial restoration is called for, usually by bridging. PMID:1230799

  20. Single Coronary Artery with Aortic Regurgitation

    SciTech Connect

    Katsetos, Manny C. Toce, Dale T.

    2003-11-15

    An isolated single coronary artery can be associated with normal life expectancy; however, patients are at an increased risk of sudden death. A case is reported of a 54-year-old man with several months of chest pressure with activity. On exercise Sestamibi stress testing, the patient developed a hypotensive response with no symptoms and minimal electrocardiographic changes. Nuclear scanning demonstrated reversible septal and lateral perfusion defects consistent with severe ischemia. Coronary angiography revealed a single coronary artery with the right coronary artery arising from the left main. There were high-grade stenotic lesions in the left anterior descending and circumflex arteries with only moderate atherosclerotic disease in the right coronary artery. An aortogram showed 2-3+ aortic regurgitation, with an ejection fraction of 45% on ventriculography. The patient underwent four-vessel revascularization and aortic valve replacement and did well postoperatively.

  1. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  2. Brachiomedian artery (arteria brachiomediana) revisited: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Kachlik, David; Konarik, Marek; Riedlova, Jitka; Baca, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews in detail the superficial brachiomedian artery (arteria brachiomediana superficialis), a very rare variant of the main arterial trunks of the upper limb. It branches either from the axillary artery or the brachial artery, descends superficially in the arm (similar to the course of the superficial brachial artery) and continues across the cubital fossa, runs superficially in the forearm, approaches the median nerve and enters the carpal canal to reach the hand. It usually terminates in the superficial palmar arch. The first drawing was published, in 1830, and the first description was published, in 1844. Altogether, to our knowledge, only 31 cases of a true, superficial brachiomedian artery have been reported (Some cases are incorrectly reported as superficial brachioradiomedian artery or superficial brachioulnomedian artery). Based on a meta-analysis of known, available studies, the incidence is 0.23% in Caucasians and 1.48% in Mongolians. Knowing whether or not this arterial variant is present is important in clinical medicine and relevant for: The catheterization via the radial or ulnar artery; harvesting the vascular pedicle for a forearm flap based on the radial, ulnar or superficial brachiomedian arteries; the possible collateral circulation in cases of the arterial closure; and the surgical management of carpal tunnel syndrome. Its presence can elevate the danger of an injury to the superficially located variant artery or of an accidental injection. PMID:27131025

  3. Improving arterial spin labeling data by temporal filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petr, Jan; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves; Barillot, Christian

    2010-03-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an MRI method for imaging brain perfusion by magnetically labeling blood in brain feeding arteries. The perfusion is obtained from the difference between images with and without prior labeling. Image noise is one of the main problems of ASL as the difference is around 0.5-2% of the image magnitude. Usually, 20-40 pairs of images need to be acquired and averaged to reach a satisfactory quality. The images are acquired shortly after the labeling to allow the labeled blood to reach the imaged slice. A sequence of images with multiple delays is more suitable for quantification of the cerebral blood flow as it gives more information about the blood arrival and relaxation. Although the quantification methods are sensitive to noise, no filtering or only Gaussian filtering is used to denoise the data in the temporal domain prior to quantification. In this article, we propose an efficient way to use the redundancy of information in the time sequence of each pixel to suppress noise. For this purpose, the vectorial NL-means method is adapted to work in the temporal domain. The proposed method is tested on simulated and real 3T MRI data. We demonstrate a clear improvement of the image quality as well as a better performance compared to Gaussian and normal spatial NL-means filtering.

  4. Hepatic artery injury during left hepatic trisectionectomy for colorectal liver metastasis treated by portal vein arterialization.

    PubMed

    Hokuto, Daisuke; Nomi, Takeo; Yamato, Ichiro; Yasuda, Satoshi; Obara, Shinsaku; Yamada, Takatsugu; Kanehiro, Hiromichi; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein arterialization (PVA) has been applied as a salvage procedure in hepatopancreatobiliary surgeries, including transplantation and liver resection, with revascularization for malignancies. Here we describe the use PVA as a salvage procedure following accidental injury of the hepatic artery to the remnant liver occurred during left hepatic trisectionectomy for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). A 60-year-old man with cancer of the sigmoid colon and initially unresectable CRLM received 11 cycles of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (1500mg/week), after which CRLM was downstaged to resectable. One month after laparoscopic sigmoidectomy, a left trisectionectomy and wedge resection of segment 6 were performed. The posterior branch of the right hepatic artery, the only feeding artery to the remnant liver, was injured and totally dissected. Because microsurgical reconstruction of the artery was impossible, PVA was used; PVA is the sole known procedure available when hepatic artery reconstruction is impossible. The patient then suffered portal hypertension, and closure of arterio-portal anastomosis using an interventional technique with angiography was eventually performed on postoperative day 73. Therefore, it is considered that because PVA is associated with severe postoperative portal hypertension, closure of the arterio-portal shunt should be performed as soon as possible on diagnosing portal hypertension. PMID:26197094

  5. Management of nonocclusive hepatic artery complications after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Saad, Wael E A

    2007-09-01

    Nonocclusive arterial disease represents less than 5% of posttransplant arterial complications. Nonocclusive arterial complications are classified into (1) nonocclusive diminished flow in the hepatic artery, (2) arteriovenous fistulae, (3) pseudoaneurysms, and (4) arterial rupture. Due to the rarity of these complications, particularly when considering them individually, many of the opinions and managements of these complications are anecdotal. Transcatheter embolization is the main mode of minimal invasive management of these uncommon complications. Other minimal invasive methods have been described such as stent placement or direct percutaneous embolization/thrombosis. The article discusses the presentation, etiology, types, treatment indications, and various modes of minimal invasive therapy used to manage these complications.

  6. Traumatic arteriovenous malformation of the external carotid arterial system.

    PubMed

    Marks, M W; Argenta, L C; Dingman, R O

    1984-01-01

    Traumatic arteriovenous (AV) malformations of the face and scalp are rare lesions characterized by multiple endothelial-lined channels between the arterial and venous systems. If improperly managed they have a high propensity to recur, and may result in severe cosmetic deformity. Lesions should be delineated by arteriography unless small and localized. They are managed by complete excision and ligation of arterial feeding vessels. Five cases of traumatic AV malformation of the face and scalp and their management are reported.

  7. Goldenhar Syndrome Associated with Extensive Arterial Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Modica, Renee Frances; Barbeau, L. Daphna Yasova; Co-Vu, Jennifer; Beegle, Richard D.; Williams, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Goldenhar Syndrome is characterized by craniofacial, ocular and vertebral defects secondary to abnormal development of the 1st and 2nd branchial arches and vertebrae. Other findings include cardiac and vascular abnormalities. Though these associations are known, the specific anomalies are not well defined. We present a 7-month-old infant with intermittent respiratory distress that did not improve with respiratory interventions. Echocardiogram suggested a double aortic arch. Cardiac CT angiogram confirmed a right arch and aberrant, stenotic left subclavian artery, dilation of the main pulmonary artery, and agenesis of the left thyroid lobe. Repeat echocardiograms were concerning for severely dilated coronary arteries. Given dilation, a rheumatologic workup ensued, only identifying few weakly positive autoantibodies. Further imaging demonstrated narrowing of the aorta below the renal arteries and extending into the common iliac arteries and proximal femoral arteries. Given a physical exam devoid of rheumatologic findings, only weakly positive autoantibodies, normal inflammatory markers, and presence of the coronary artery dilation, the peripheral artery narrowings were not thought to be vasculitic. This case illustrates the need to identify definitive anomalies related to Goldenhar Syndrome. Although this infant's presentation is rare, recognition of specific vascular findings will help differentiate Goldenhar Syndrome from other disease processes. PMID:26688769

  8. [Trapped popliteal arteries. Incidence, epidemiology, therapeutic considerations].

    PubMed

    Dany, F; Laskar, M; Legarcon, C; Aubard, Y; Dupuy, J P; Brutus, P; Lacroix, P; Christides, C

    1985-10-01

    The trapped popliteal artery syndrome is an extrinsic dynamic compression of the vascular structures in the popliteal fossa by the surrounding fibromuscular structures. The condition mainly affects the popliteal artery resulting in atypical intermittent claudication because it often occurs in young and active patients. The arterial lesions are initially purely extrinsic and dynamic; sometimes they progress to thrombosis, embolism or aneurysm due to jet lesions. The diagnosis is obtained by radiology in the uncomplicated forms by showing compression or complete occlusion of the artery during contraction of the gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles. Doppler studies of the posterior tibial artery may also demonstrate the condition during these manoeuvres. The epidemiological study was performed in 199 medical students and 80 athletes. A positional abolition of the posterior tibial artery was demonstrated in 39 students (19%) and 12 athletes (15%). The entrapment was commoner in females (24%) than males (13%). It was observed more frequently in dancers, cyclists and basket ball players: 12 control digitised intravenous angiographies were performed; the diagnosis was confirmed in 11 cases. Several anatomical anomalies of the popliteal fossa may give rise to this condition. The commonest is a deviation of the artery within the internal head of the gastronemius muscle; compression by the soleus or fibro muscular bands arising from the semi-tendinous or semi-membranous have been described. The treatment is surgical in very symptomatic or complicated cases; uncrossing the artery associated with venous grafting in cases of thrombosis are the procedures of choice. PMID:3938217

  9. Progression of stenosis into occlusion of the distal posterior cerebral artery supplying an occipital arteriovenous malformation manifesting as multiple ischemic attacks: case report.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hisaharu; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Akimura, Tatsuo; Fujisawa, Hirosuke; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Oka, Fumiaki; Nomura, Sadahiro; Kajiwara, Koji; Kato, Shoichi; Fujii, Masami

    2012-01-01

    A 31-year-old healthy male presented with a rare case of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) manifesting as repeated ischemic attacks and cerebral infarction causing left sensori-motor disturbance. Neuroimaging revealed cerebral infarction in the right thalamus as well as right occipital AVM without bleeding. The AVM was mainly fed by the right angular artery, and the right posterior cerebral artery (PCA) showed mild stenosis and segmental dilation at the P(2)-P(3) portion. After referral to our hospital, transient ischemic attacks causing left homonymous hemianopsia, and left arm and leg numbness were frequently recognized. Additional imaging revealed a new ischemic lesion in the occipital lobe, and repeated cerebral angiography showed right PCA occlusion at the P(2)-P(3) segment. Cerebral AVM presenting with cerebral infarction due to occlusion of feeding arteries is rare. In our case, intimal injury due to increased blood flow or spontaneous dissection of the artery were possible causes. We should monitor any changes in the architecture and rheology of the feeding vessels during the clinical course to prevent ischemic complications.

  10. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied by the Right Lumbar Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Yamashiro, Masashi; Okuda, Miho; Yoshie, Yuichi; Sugimori, Natsuki; Igarashi, Saya; Nakashima, Yoshiko; Matsui, Osamu

    2010-02-15

    This study evaluated the clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) supplied by the right lumbar artery. Eleven patients with HCC supplied by the right lumbar artery were treated with chemoembolization. The patients' medical records were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent 6.7 {+-} 3.7 (mean {+-} SD) chemoembolization sessions, and the hepatic arterial branches were noted as being attenuated. The right inferior phrenic artery (IPA) was also embolized in 10 patients. The interval between initial chemoembolization and chemoembolization of the lumbar artery supply was 53.2 {+-} 26.9 months. Mean tumor diameter was 3.1 {+-} 2.4 cm and was located at the surface of S7 and S6. The feeding-branch arose proximal to the bifurcation of the dorsal ramus and muscular branches (n = 8) or from the muscular branches (n = 3) of the right first (n = 10) or second lumbar artery (n = 1). The anterior spinal artery originated from the tumor-feeding lumbar artery in one patient. All feeders were selected, and embolization was performed after injection of iodized oil and anticancer drugs (n = 10) or gelatin sponge alone in a patient with anterior spinal artery branching (n = 1). Eight patients died from tumor progression 10.1 {+-} 4.6 months later, and two patients survived 2 and 26 months, respectively. The remaining patient died of bone metastases after 32 months despite liver transplantation 10 months after chemoembolization. The right lumbar artery supplies HCC located in the bare area of the liver, especially in patients who undergo repeated chemoembolization, including chemoembolization by way of the right IPA. Chemoembolization by way of the right lumbar artery may be safe when the feeder is well selected.

  11. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  12. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes and medication . View an animation of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis and PAD Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up ... of an artery. PAD is usually caused by atherosclerosis in the peripheral arteries (or outer regions away ...

  13. Coronary artery fistula

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital heart defect - coronary artery fistula; Birth defect heart - coronary artery fistula ... attaches to one of the chambers of the heart (the atrium or ventricle) or another blood vessel ( ...

  14. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... artery. Such people should seek medical care immediately. Did You Know... When people suddenly develop a painful, ... In This Article Animation 1 Peripheral Arterial Disease Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Figure 1 ...

  15. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and efficacy continues to be studied in several medical centers. This procedure involves the placement of a small flexible tube (catheter) into an artery from the groin. The catheter is then directed to the neck to reach the carotid artery blockage. A balloon pushes open the artery wall and a stent ( ...

  16. The new technique of using the epigastric arteries in renal transplantation with multiple renal arteries.

    PubMed

    Amirzargar, Mohammad Ali; Babolhavaeji, Hooshang; Hosseini, Shahriar Amir; Bahar, Habibmousavi; Gholyaf, Mahmood; Dadras, Farahnaz; Khoshjoo, Farhad; Yavangi, Mahnaz; Amirzargar, Nasibeh

    2013-03-01

    The most common anatomic variant seen in the donor kidneys for renal transplantation is multiple renal arteries (MRA), which can cause an increased risk of complications. We describe the long-term outcomes of 16 years of experience in 76 kidney transplantations with MRAs. In a new reconstruction technique, we remove arterial clamps after anastomosing the donor to the recipient's main renal vessels, which cause backflow from accessory arteries to prevent thrombosis. By this technique, we reduce the ischemic times as well as the operating times. Both in live or cadaver donor kidneys, lower polar arteries were anastomosed to the inferior epigastric artery and upper polar arteries were anastomosed to the superior epigastric arteries. Injection of Papaverine and ablation of sympathic nerves of these arteries dilate and prevent them from post-operative spasm. Follow-up DTPA renal scan in all patients showed good perfusion and function of the transplanted kidney, except two cases of polar arterial thrombosis. Mean creatinine levels during at least two years of follow-up remained acceptable. Patient and graft survival were excellent. No cases of ATN, hypertension, rejection and urologic complications were found. In conclusion, this technique can be safely and successfully utilized for renal transplantation with kidneys having MRAs, and may be associated with a lower complication rate and better graft function compared with the existing techniques.

  17. ACUTE RETINAL ARTERIAL OCCLUSIVE DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2011-01-01

    The initial section deals with basic sciences; among the various topics briefly discussed are the anatomical features of ophthalmic, central retinal and cilioretinal arteries which may play a role in acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders. Crucial information required in the management of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the length of time the retina can survive following that. An experimental study shows that CRAO for 97 minutes produces no detectable permanent retinal damage but there is a progressive ischemic damage thereafter, and by 4 hours the retina has suffered irreversible damage. In the clinical section, I discuss at length various controversies on acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders. Classification of acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders These are of 4 types: CRAO, branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), cotton wools spots and amaurosis fugax. Both CRAO and BRAO further comprise multiple clinical entities. Contrary to the universal belief, pathogenetically, clinically and for management, CRAO is not one clinical entity but 4 distinct clinical entities – non-arteritic CRAO, non-arteritic CRAO with cilioretinal artery sparing, arteritic CRAO associated with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and transient non-arteritic CRAO. Similarly, BRAO comprises permanent BRAO, transient BRAO and cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO), and the latter further consists of 3 distinct clinical entities - non-arteritic CLRAO alone, non-arteritic CLRAO associated with central retinal vein occlusion and arteritic CLRAO associated with GCA. Understanding these classifications is essential to comprehend fully various aspects of these disorders. Central retinal artery occlusion The pathogeneses, clinical features and management of the various types of CRAO are discussed in detail. Contrary to the prevalent belief, spontaneous improvement in both visual acuity and visual fields does occur, mainly during the first 7 days. The incidence of spontaneous visual

  18. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians.

  19. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians. PMID:22927194

  20. Jet pump assisted artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  1. Percutaneous Injection Therapy for a Peripheral Pulmonary Artery Pseudoaneurysm After Failed Transcatheter Coil Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyungwoo; Shin, Taebeom; Choi, Jinsu; Kim, Younghwan

    2008-09-15

    Coil embolization to occlude the feeding artery of a pseudoaneurysm is an effective treatment to control hemoptysis. However, a feeding artery of the pseudoaneurysm may not be identified at pulmonary angiography, resulting in a failure to obtain embolization. We describe here two cases of a Rasmussen aneurysm that was successfully treated with percutaneous injection of thrombin (case 1) and N-butyl cyanoacrylate (case 2) under ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic guidance after failed transcatheter coil embolization.

  2. Bronchial Artery Aneurysm Embolization with NBCA

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, Hiroyuki Kawamori, Yasuhiro; Horiti, Yasushi; Kitagawa, Kiyohide; Sanada, Junichiro; Matsui, Osamu

    2006-12-15

    We present a case of asymptomatic bronchial artery aneurysm that formed a fistula with part of the pulmonary artery (there was no definite fistula with the pulmonary vein). We were able to catheterize the feeding vessel but could not reach the aneurysm. We therefore injected a mixture of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA; Histoacryl, B. Braun, Melsungen, Germany) and iodized oil (Lipiodol; Guerbet, Aulnay-sous-Bois, France) from the feeding vessel. The fistula, aneurysm, and feeding vessel were almost totally occluded. After embolization, the patient coughed a little; there were no other definite side effects or complications. One and 3 months later, on chest CT, the aneurysm was almost completely occupied with hyperattenuating NBCA-Lipiodol embolization. NBCA is a liquid embolization material whose time to coagulation after injection can be controlled by diluting it with Lipiodol. It is therefore possible to embolize an aneurysm, feeding vessels, and efferent vessels (in our case, it was a fistula) by using an NBCA-Lipiodol mixture of an appropriate concentration, regardless of whether the catheter can reach the aneurysm or not.

  3. Simultaneous thrombosis of multiple coronary arteries in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kalayci, Arzu; Arslan, Erol; Bakar, Salih Murat; Guneri, Mahmut; Dizman, Rafet; Kivanc, Eylem; Karabay, Can Yucel

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of simultaneous coronary thrombosis of the left main, the left anterior descending artery and the right coronary artery in a patient, recently diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:27489603

  4. Simultaneous thrombosis of multiple coronary arteries in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kalayci, Arzu; Arslan, Erol; Bakar, Salih Murat; Guneri, Mahmut; Dizman, Rafet; Kivanc, Eylem; Karabay, Can Yucel

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of simultaneous coronary thrombosis of the left main, the left anterior descending artery and the right coronary artery in a patient, recently diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:27489603

  5. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parks EP, Shaikhkhalil A, Groleau V, Wendel D, Stallings VA. Feeding healthy infants, children, and adolescents. In: ... 2016:chap. Stettler N, Bhatia J, Parish A, Stallings VA. Feeding healthy infants, children, and adolescents. In: ...

  6. Estimation of costs for control of Salmonella in high-risk feed materials and compound feed

    PubMed Central

    Wierup, Martin; Widell, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Feed is a potential and major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal-derived food chain. This is given special attention in the European Union (EU) efforts to minimize human food-borne Salmonella infections from animal-derived food. The objective of this study was to estimate the total extra cost for preventing Salmonella contamination of feed above those measures required to produce commercial feed according to EU regulation (EC) No 183/2005. The study was carried out in Sweden, a country where Salmonella infections in food-producing animals from feed have largely been eliminated. Methods On the initiative and leadership of the competent authority, the different steps of feed production associated with control of Salmonella contamination were identified. Representatives for the major feed producers operating in the Swedish market then independently estimated the annual mean costs during the years 2009 and 2010. The feed producers had no known incentives to underestimate the costs. Results and discussion The total cost for achieving a Salmonella-safe compound feed, when such a control is established, was estimated at 1.8–2.3 € per tonne of feed. Of that cost, 25% relates to the prevention of Salmonella contaminated high-risk vegetable feed materials (mainly soybean meal and rapeseed meal) from entering feed mills, and 75% for measures within the feed mills. Based on the feed formulations applied, those costs in relation to the farmers’ 2012 price for compound feed were almost equal for broilers and dairy cows (0.7%). Due to less use of protein concentrate to fatten pigs, the costs were lower (0.6%). These limited costs suggest that previous recommendations to enforce a Salmonella-negative policy for animal feed are realistic and economically feasible to prevent a dissemination of the pathogen to animal herds, their environment, and potentially to human food products. PMID:24959328

  7. Infective endocarditis related to a coronary artery fistula with an unusual localization and ectatic coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Gerede, Demet Menekse; Acibuca, Aynur; Uzun, Caglar; Goksuluk, Huseyin; Ongun, Aydan; Kilickap, Mustafa; Erol, Cetin

    2015-04-01

    Coronary artery fistulas (CAF) are a rare cardiac anomaly that can be either congenital or acquired. CAFs have clinical significance because of complications such as dyspnea on exertion, congestive heart failure, and cardiac tamponade. The literature also contains case reports of CAF presenting as bacterial endocarditis. We describe a 31-year-old man who presented with native valve infective endocarditis related to an unusual form of a CAF between the circumflex coronary artery and left ventricle. He also had giant coronary arteries, which were imaged with computed tomography angiography and transesophageal echocardiography. The diameter of the circumflex coronary artery and left main coronary artery was measured as 19 mm. Surgical intervention for heart valves was performed because of vegetations resistant to continued antibiotic treatment. At the same time, the CAF was treated with surgery.

  8. Bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery.

    PubMed

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Tsikaras, Prokopios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2006-09-01

    The subscapular artery arises from the third part of the axillary artery and gives off the circumflex scapular and the thoracodorsal arteries. Although anatomical variations of the axillary artery are very common, the existence of a unilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery has been described in the literature only once. There are no reports of bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, in the literature. In the present study, a bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, originating on either side of the third part of the axillary artery, is described in a 68-year-old female cadaver. All the other branches of the axillary artery had a typical origin, course, distribution and termination. This extremely rare anatomical variation apart from the anatomical importance also has clinical significance for surgeons in this area. Especially, during the dissection or mobilization of the latissimus dorsi that is partly used for coverage problems in many regions of the body and also in dynamic cardiomyoplasty, any iatrogenic injury of this accessory artery may result in ischemia and functional loss of the graft.

  9. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; PTA - peripheral artery - discharge; Angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - peripheral artery- discharge; PAD - PTA discharge; PVD - ...

  10. Notch signaling regulates venous arterialization during zebrafish fin regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kametani, Yoshiko; Chi, Neil C.; Stainier, Didier Y.R.; Takada, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    In order to protect against blood pressure, a mature artery is supported by mural cells which include vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes. To regenerate a functional vascular system, arteries should be properly reconstructed with mural cells although the mechanisms underlying artery reconstruction remain unclear. In this study, we examined the process of artery reconstruction during regeneration of the zebrafish caudal fin as a model to study arterial formation in an adult setting. During fin regeneration, the arteries and veins form a net-like vasculature called the vascular plexus, and this plexus undergoes remodeling to form a new artery and 2 flanking veins. We found that the new vascular plexus originates mainly from venous cells in the stump but very rarely from the arterial cells. Interestingly, these vein-derived cells contributed to the reconstructed arteries. This arterialization was dependent on Notch signaling, and further analysis revealed that Notch signaling was required for the initiation of arterial gene expression. In contrast, venous remodeling did not require Notch signaling. These results provide new insights towards understanding mechanisms of vascular regeneration and illustrate the utility of the adult zebrafish fin to study this process. PMID:25810153

  11. Coexistence of multiple arterial variations in the genitourinary system.

    PubMed

    Anjamrooz, Seyed Hadi; Taghavi, Mohammad Mohsen; Abedinzadeh, Mehdi; Yazdi, Safiye Mohasel; Azari, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Variations in the renal, adrenal and testicular arteries are of clinical significance as well as anatomical and embryological interest. The present case report describes the incidental finding of unilateral multiple renal arteries on the right side with bilateral variant testicular arteries, which had not been reported so far. These variations were observed during routine dissection of the abdominal region in an Iranian cadaver. The upper supplementary renal artery branched from the abdominal aorta and sent superior suprarenal artery to the adrenal gland. The lower supplementary renal artery arose from the main renal artery. Both additional arteries entered the kidney proximal to its hilum. The right testicular artery supplied the right suprarenal gland by an unusual branch. Double testicular arteries were seen on the left side with a relatively high origin from abdominal aorta. The objective of this report is to supplement the knowledge of vascular variations in the renal, suprarenal and testicular arteries that could be quite useful from a clinical point of view.

  12. Severe gastric variceal haemorrhage due to splenic artery thrombosis and consecutive arterial bypass

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage is mainly caused by ulcers. Gastric varicosis due to portal hypertension can also be held responsible for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Portal hypertension causes the development of a collateral circulation from the portal to the caval venous system resulting in development of oesophageal and gastric fundus varices. Those may also be held responsible for upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Case presentation In this study, we describe the case of a 69-year-old male with recurrent severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by arterial submucosal collaterals due to idiopathic splenic artery thrombosis. The diagnosis was secured using endoscopic duplex ultrasound and angiography. The patient was successfully treated with a laparoscopic splenectomy and complete dissection of the short gastric arteries, resulting in the collapse of the submucosal arteries in the gastric wall. Follow-up gastroscopy was performed on the 12th postoperative week and showed no signs of bleeding and a significant reduction in the arterial blood flow within the gastric wall. Subsequent follow-up after 6 months also showed no further gastrointestinal bleeding as well as subjective good quality of life for the patient. Conclusion Submucosal arterial collaterals must be excluded by endosonography via endoscopy in case of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Laparoscopic splenectomy provides adequate treatment in preventing any recurrent bleeding, if gastric arterial collaterals are caused by splenic artery thrombosis. PMID:21711534

  13. Chagas Disease and Breast-feeding

    PubMed Central

    López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease (infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi) is a major parasitic disease of the Americas and one of the main neglected tropical diseases. Although various routes of transmission sre recognized, the risk for transmission of the infection through breast-feeding has not clearly been established. We reviewed the literature on transmission of T. cruzi through breast-feeding to provide breast-feeding mothers with Chagas disease with medical guidance. Although data from animal studies and human studies are scarce, we do not recommend that mothers with Chagas disease discontinue breast-feeding, unless they are experiencing the acute phase of the disease, reactivated disease resulting from immunosuppression, or bleeding nipples. In these cases, thermal treatment of milk before feeding the infant may be considered. PMID:24050257

  14. Chagas disease and breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Norman, Francesca F; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-10-01

    Chagas disease (infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi) is a major parasitic disease of the Americas and one of the main neglected tropical diseases. Although various routes of transmission sre recognized, the risk for transmission of the infection through breast-feeding has not clearly been established. We reviewed the literature on transmission of T. cruzi through breast-feeding to provide breast-feeding mothers with Chagas disease with medical guidance. Although data from animal studies and human studies are scarce, we do not recommend that mothers with Chagas disease discontinue breast-feeding, unless they are experiencing the acute phase of the disease, reactivated disease resulting from immunosuppression, or bleeding nipples. In these cases, thermal treatment of milk before feeding the infant may be considered.

  15. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A. R.; Taylor, I.

    1997-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare and controversial form of upper intestinal obstruction in which the third part of the duodenum is compressed by the overlying superior mesenteric artery. Any disease process decreasing the angle between the superior mesenteric artery and the abdominal aorta can result in the external compression of the duodenum and subsequent intestinal obstruction. The aetiology, presentation, investigation and management of this unusual condition are discussed. PMID:9497945

  16. [Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome].

    PubMed

    Musumeci, S; Iuppa, A; Beneventano, G; Rinella, P; Mammano, M; Cinquegrani, E

    1986-12-15

    Trapped popliteal artery syndrome is relatively uncommon: the literature reports some 60 cases. The clinical picture is linked to compression of the popliteal artery by the gastrocnemius as it contracts, thus distorting the arterial route. The result is an interruption in the blood flow distally to the area involved due to stenosis of the blood vessel that is at first functional but becomes organic. PMID:3808379

  17. The Arteries of the Brain in Hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778).

    PubMed

    Brudnicki, Witold; Kirkiłło-Stacewicz, Krzysztof; Skoczylas, Benedykt; Nowicki, Włodzimierz; Jabłoński, Ryszard; Brudnicki, Adam; Wach, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Research into course and variability of brain arteries in hare were performed on 38 adult hares of both sexes (males 23 and females 15). The arteries were filled with a synthetic latex at a constant pressure introduced with a medical syringe to the left ventricle. The source of blood supply to the brain was internal carotid arteries, whose branches formed an arterial circle of the brain, vertebral arteries, and basilar artery as the result of its anastomosis. Variability focused on a method of departure of middle cerebral arteries, which were multiple vessels in 39.5% of cases and rostral cerebellar arteries. Caudal communicating arteries in hare comprised bilateral anastomosis of internal carotid arteries and final branches of the basilar artery. It stabilized the steady flow of blood to all parts of the brain. Caudal cerebral arteries comprised final branches of the basilar artery. The largest capacity of all the arteries of the brain was observed in the main trunk of the basilar artery. The capacity of these vessels was 4.53 mm(3) on average. The factor of capacity of cerebral arteries in relation to weight of the brain reaches a high value in hare.

  18. Buckling instability in arteries.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Rebecca M

    2015-04-21

    Arteries can become tortuous in response to abnormal growth stimuli, genetic defects and aging. It is suggested that a buckling instability is a mechanism that might lead to artery tortuosity. Here, the buckling instability in arteries is studied by examining asymmetric modes of bifurcation of two-layer cylindrical structures that are residually stressed. These structures are loaded by an axial force, internal pressure and have nonlinear, anisotropic, hyperelastic responses to stresses. Strain-softening and reduced opening angle are shown to lower the critical internal pressure leading to buckling. In addition, the ratio of the media thickness to the adventitia thickness is shown to have a dramatic impact on arterial instability.

  19. The middle suprarenal artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Honma, Satoru; Kudo, Motoi

    2012-01-01

    We observed a rare case of the middle suprarenal artery branching out from the superior mesenteric artery in a 78-year-old male. This atypical artery enters the right suprarenal gland that was also supplied by the superior and the inferior suprarenal arteries as usual. In embryonic stages, vasculature of the vitelline system and the gonadal system is differentially organized. The superior mesenteric artery has been generally thought to be pure vitelline, since there has been no evidence that the superior mesenteric artery supplies other organs than digestive. We then speculate that the present middle suprarenal artery is a remnant of the embryonic gonadal artery from the superior mesenteric artery, whereas a stem artery to the testis disappeared. Surgeons should take notice of the middle suprarenal artery when operations are conducted around the superior mesenteric artery.

  20. Chemoembolization Via Branches from the Splenic Artery in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyo-Cheol Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Ji Dae; Kim, Gyoung Min; Lee, In Joon; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the radiologic findings and imaging response of chemoembolization via branches of the splenic artery in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: From January 2001 to July 2010, we observed tumor staining supplied by branches of the splenic artery in 34 (0.6%) of 5,413 patients with HCC. Computed tomography (CT) scans and digital subtraction angiograms of these patients were retrospectively reviewed in consensus by two investigators. Results: A total of 39 tumor feeding-vessels in 34 patients were identified: omental branches from the left gastroepiploic artery (n = 5), branches from the short gastric artery (n = 9), and omental branches directly from the splenic artery (n = 25). Branches of the splenic artery that supplied tumors were revealed on the celiac angiogram in 29 (85%) of 34 patients and were detected on pre-procedure CT images in 27 (79%) of 34 patients. Selective chemoembolization was achieved in 38 of 39 tumor-feeding vessels. Complete or partial response of the tumor fed by branches of the splenic artery, as depicted on follow-up CT scans, was achieved in 21 (62%) patients. No patient developed severe complications directly related to chemoembolization via branches of the splenic artery. Conclusions: Omental branches directly from the splenic artery are common tumor-feeding vessels of the splenic artery in cases of advanced HCC with multiple previous chemoembolizations. Tumor-feeding vessels of the splenic artery are usually visualized on the celiac angiogram or CT scan, and chemoembolization through them can be safely performed in most patients.

  1. [Transluminal percutaneous coronary angioplasty of the left coronary artery].

    PubMed

    Alfonso, F; Macaya, C; Iñíguez, A; Goicolea, J; Hernández, R A; Fernández-Ortiz, A; Zamorano, J; Casado, J; Zarco, P

    1992-05-01

    This paper describes our preliminary experience with left main coronary angioplasty in 8 patients (9 procedures). In 6 patients the left main coronary artery was "protected" either by previous by-pass surgery (4 patients) or by collateral vessels from the right coronary artery (2 patients). Three patients had a total occlusion of the left main coronary artery and 2 of them had a recent or acute myocardial infarction and the coronary angiogram suggested a thrombotic occlusion of the infarct-related artery. Three patients were not considered surgical candidates and an additional patient, who was in cardiogenic shock, required an emergency coronary angioplasty as "rescue" procedure. A successful dilatation was achieved in 6 patients (including a patient with successful deployment of a Palmaz-Schatz stent) but, unfortunately, one them eventually died 7 days later from a femoral sepsis related to the procedure. However in the 2 remaining patients--with a total occlusion of the left main coronary artery in relation with a myocardial infarction--the dilatation procedures were unsuccessful. One patient underwent a successful repeat coronary angioplasty for restenosis of left main coronary artery. Our preliminary experience confirms previous reports suggesting the value of coronary angioplasty in patients with left main coronary artery disease providing a careful selection of possible candidates is performed prior to the procedure.

  2. [Ruptured Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm Coiling in a Patient with Ipsilateral Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion via the Posterior Communicating Artery].

    PubMed

    Ashida, Noriaki; Saitoh, Minoru; Fujita, Atsushi; Kohmura, Eiji

    2016-09-01

    Background:De novo aneurysms after internal carotid artery(ICA)occlusion occur in the contralateral ICA or anterior communicating artery. Hemodynamic changes with increased blood flow to the contralateral carotid circulation were considered the main factor for the formation of these aneurysms. We report a rare case of ruptured ICA aneurysm associated with ipsilateral ICA occlusion treated with coil embolization via the vertebrobasilar and posterior communicating arteries. Case Presentation:An 82-year-old woman presented with sudden-onset disturbance of consciousness at our outpatient clinic and went into cardiopulmonary arrest. Computed tomography(CT)performed after cardiopulmonary resuscitation revealed diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Three-dimensional CT angiography revealed a right ICA aneurysm associated with the ipsilateral ICA occlusion. Considering that the patient showed clinical improvement with the critical care for neurogenic pulmonary edema, the aneurysm was treated with endovascular coil embolization via the posterior communicating artery. With this technique, complete obliteration was attained without perioperative complication. Conclusion:Endovascular coil embolization via the posterior communicating artery was proven effective as a treatment method for ruptured ICA aneurysms with ipsilateral ICA occlusion. Hemodynamic stress due to increased blood flow in the posterior communicating artery may play an important role in the growth and rupture of ICA aneurysms. PMID:27605482

  3. Left main compression by an aortic root abscess.

    PubMed

    Misuraca, Leonardo; De Caro, Francesco; De Carlo, Marco; Barzaghi, Carlo; Scioti, Gianni; Minzioni, Gaetano; Petronio, Anna S

    2012-03-01

    A 79-year-old man with severe aortic stenosis, history of coronary artery disease and a recent hospitalization for sepsis presented at our institution following a syncope and angina at rest. Coronary angiography and aortography showed an aortic root abscess, causing left main coronary artery compression. This life-threatening complication of aortic valve endocarditis is rare and requires immediate surgical correction. PMID:22306781

  4. Measuring How Elastic Arteries Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in elastic arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. (DDR)

  5. Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of screening for carotid artery stenosis: Health professionals ... blood flow through the arteries. Potential Benefits and Harms of Carotid Artery Stenosis Screening and Treatment The ...

  6. Is gastric sham feeding really sham feeding?

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1985-03-01

    Rats were fitted with gastric cannulas, food deprived, and allowed to drink a sugar solution that drained out of the opened cannula; i.e., the rats sham-fed. Although this procedure is thought to prevent absorption of ingested food, it was found that the sham feeding of a 32% glucose or sucrose solution significantly elevated blood glucose levels. The addition of acarbose, a drug that inhibits the digestion of sucrose, to the 32% sucrose solution blocked the blood glucose rise, as did closing the pylorus with an inflatable pyloric cuff. Neither the drug nor the cuff, however, reduced the amount of sucrose solution consumed. These findings indicate that gastric sham feeding does not necessarily prevent the digestion and absorption of food, although absorption is not essential for the appearance of a vigorous sham-feeding response. Nevertheless the possibility that neural or hormonal feedback from the stomach contributes to the sham-feeding response cannot be excluded, and until this issue is resolved the results of gastric sham-feeding studies should be interpreted with caution.

  7. Anomalous Feeding of the Left Upper Lobe.

    PubMed

    Hazzard, Christopher; Itagaki, Shinobu; Lajam, Fouad; Flores, Raja M

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of a 53-year-old woman who presented with massive hemoptysis. Computed tomographic angiography revealed an anomalous vessel arising from the abdominal aorta, coursing anteriorly and through the diaphragm, and feeding the left upper lobe. At operation the vessel was found to anastomose to the left upper lobe lingula, which contained multiple vascular abnormalities and arteriovenous fistulas. The vessel was ligated, and the affected portion of the left upper lobe was resected. Anomalous systemic arterial supply of an upper lobe is an especially rare form of a Pryce type 1 abnormality. Recognition of these unusual anatomic variants is crucial to successful treatment and avoidance of adverse events.

  8. Diagnosis of Intracranial Artery Dissection

    PubMed Central

    KANOTO, Masafumi; HOSOYA, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral arterial dissection is defined as a hematoma in the wall of a cervical or an intracranial artery. Cerebral arterial dissection causes arterial stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysm, resulting in acute infarction and hemorrhage. Image analysis by such methods as conventional angiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and so on plays an important role in diagnosing cerebral arterial dissection. In this study, we explore the methods and findings involved in the diagnosis of cerebral arterial dissection. PMID:27180630

  9. Breastfeeding is best feeding.

    PubMed

    Cutting, W

    1995-02-01

    The traditional practice of breast feeding is the best means to make sure infants grow up healthy. It costs nothing. Breast milk contains antibodies and other substances which defend against disease, especially those linked to poor food hygiene and inadequate water and sanitation. In developing countries, breast fed infants are at least 14 times less likely to die from diarrhea than those who are not breast fed. Urbanization and promotion of infant formula undermine breast feeding. Even though infants up to age 4-6 months should receive only breast milk to remain as healthy as possible, infants aged less than 4-6 months often receive other milks or gruels. Attendance of health workers at delivery and their contact with mother-infant pairs after delivery are ideal opportunities to encourage mothers to breast feed. In fact, if health workers provide mothers skilled support with breast feeding, mothers are more likely to breast feed well and for a longer time. Health workers need counseling skills and firm knowledge of techniques on breast feeding and of how to master common difficulties to help mothers with breast feeding. Listening skills and confidence building skills are also needed. Good family and work place support allows women in paid employment outside the home to continue breast feeding. Breast feeding is very important in emergency situations where access to water, sanitation, food, and health care is limited (e.g., refugee camps). In these situations, health workers should especially be aware of women's ability to breast feed and to support their breast feeding. HIV can be transmitted to nursing infants from HIV infected mothers. Yet one must balance this small risk against the possibility of contracting other serious infections (e.g., diarrhea) through alternative infant feeding, particularly if there is no access to potable water and sanitation.

  10. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Vakil, Himanshu B.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  11. Coronary artery stent (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open. ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open.

  12. Arterial Pressure Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral…

  13. Coronary artery disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the ... blood to the heart can slow or stop, causing chest pain (stable ...

  14. VLBI2010 Feed Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a feed that simultaneously has high efficiency over the full 2.2-14 GHz frequency range. The simultaneity requirement implies that the feed must operate at high efficiency over the full frequency range without the need to adjust its focal position to account for frequency dependent phase centre variations. Two feeds meet this specification: The Eleven Feed developed at Chalmers University. (For more information, contact Miroslav Pantaleev, miroslav.pantaleev@chalmers.se. The Eleven Feed, integrated with LNA's in a cryogenic receiver, is available as a product from Omnisys Instruments, info@omnisys.se). The Quadruple Ridged Flared Horn (QRFH) developed at the California Institute of Technology. (For more information please contact Ahmed Akgiray, aakgiray@ieee.org or Sander Weinreb, sweinreb@caltech.edu) Although not VLBI2010 compliant, two triband S/X/Ka feeds are also being developed for the commissioning of VLBI2010 antennas, for S/X observations during the VLBI2010 transition period, and to support X/Ka CRF observations. The two feeds are: The Twin Telescopes Wettzell (TTW) triband feed developed by Mirad Microwave. (For more information please contact Gerhard Kronschnabl, Gerhard.Kronschnabl@bkg.bund.de) The RAEGE (Spain) triband feed developed at Yebes Observatory. (For more information please contact Jose Antonio Lopez Perez, ja.lopezperez@oan.es)

  15. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  16. [Transposition of Great Artery].

    PubMed

    Konuma, Takeshi; Shimpo, Hideto

    2015-07-01

    Transposition of the great artery is one of common congenital cardiac disease resulting cyanosis. Death occurs easily in untreated patients with transposition and intact ventricular septal defect (VSD) in infancy at a few days of age when posterior descending coronary artery (PDA) closed. Since there are 2 parallel circulations, flow from pulmonary to systemic circulation is necessary for systemic oxygenation, and Balloon atrial septostomy or prostaglandin infusion should be performed especially if patient do not have VSD. Although the advent of fetal echocardiography, it is difficult to diagnose the transposition of the great arteries (TGA) as abnormality of great vessels is relatively undistinguishable. The diagnosis of transposition is in itself an indication for surgery, and arterial switch procedure is performed in the case the left ventricle pressure remains more than 2/3 of systemic pressure. Preoperative diagnosis is important as associated anomalies and coronary artery branching patterns are important to decide the operative indication and timing of surgery.

  17. Myocardial perfusion SPECT in a case of retropulmonary looping of left coronary artery in a baby after arterial switch surgery

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, Palaniswamy Shanmuga

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is not a routine investigation in an Indian setting due to under referrals and logistic problems. However, MPI is a frequently performed and established modality of investigation in adults for the identification of myocardial ischemia and viability. We report myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in a case of retropulmonary looping of left coronary artery in a baby after arterial switch surgery. Adenosine stress MPI revealed a large infarct involving anterior segment with moderate reversible ischemia of the lateral left ventricular segment. Coronary angiogram later confirmed left main coronary artery ostial occlusion with retrograde collateral supply from dilated right coronary artery. PMID:24761067

  18. Coronary artery surgery: now and in the next decade.

    PubMed

    Ennker, J C; Ennker, I C

    2012-01-01

    In coronary artery surgery the superiority of the internal mammary artery graft in 10-year survival was documented in 1986. In 1999 it was demonstrated that death, reoperation and percutaneous transluminary coronary angioplasty were more frequent in patients undergoing single rather than bilateral internal mammary artery grafting. Today coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is challenged by the success story of modern interventional cardiology. The Syntax Study, however, clearly underlined the better outcome for patients with triple-vessel and/or left main disease undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in terms of repeat revascularization. Another point of ongoing discussion is the comparison between on-pump and off-pump coronary artery revascularization techniques. Even if mixed results exists in the literature, in experienced hands the combination of aortic no-touch and total arterial revascularization, probably leads to the superiority in off pump coronary artery bypass grafting in terms of significantly decreased rates of mortality, stroke, major adverse cardiac and cerebral vascular events. Coronary artery surgery in the next decade will be influenced by the further progression of minimally invasive surgical principles and by a variety of other factors. The role of robotics and hybrid surgery has yet to be defined. Alternatives within surgery will not only need to move to a less disruptive strategy (e.g. from on-pump to off-pump bypass) but also have to secure sustained innovation, as we can be sure that the current coronary artery bypass grafting activity will change substantially.

  19. Regional variation in arterial stiffening and dysfunction in Western diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Bender, Shawn B; Castorena-Gonzalez, Jorge A; Garro, Mona; Reyes-Aldasoro, Constantino C; Sowers, James R; DeMarco, Vincent G; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A

    2015-08-15

    Increased central vascular stiffening, assessed in vivo by determination of pulse wave velocity (PWV), is an independent predictor of cardiovascular event risk. Recent evidence demonstrates that accelerated aortic stiffening occurs in obesity; however, little is known regarding stiffening of other disease-relevant arteries or whether regional variation in arterial stiffening occurs in this setting. We addressed this gap in knowledge by assessing femoral PWV in vivo in conjunction with ex vivo analyses of femoral and coronary structure and function in a mouse model of Western diet (WD; high-fat/high-sugar)-induced obesity and insulin resistance. WD feeding resulted in increased femoral PWV in vivo. Ex vivo analysis of femoral arteries revealed a leftward shift in the strain-stress relationship, increased modulus of elasticity, and decreased compliance indicative of increased stiffness following WD feeding. Confocal and multiphoton fluorescence microscopy revealed increased femoral stiffness involving decreased elastin/collagen ratio in conjunction with increased femoral transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) content in WD-fed mice. Further analysis of the femoral internal elastic lamina (IEL) revealed a significant reduction in the number and size of fenestrae with WD feeding. Coronary artery stiffness and structure was unchanged by WD feeding. Functionally, femoral, but not coronary, arteries exhibited endothelial dysfunction, whereas coronary arteries exhibited increased vasoconstrictor responsiveness not present in femoral arteries. Taken together, our data highlight important regional variations in the development of arterial stiffness and dysfunction associated with WD feeding. Furthermore, our results suggest TGF-β signaling and IEL fenestrae remodeling as potential contributors to femoral artery stiffening in obesity.

  20. Persistent median artery in the carpal tunnel and anastomosis with superficial palmar arch.

    PubMed

    Bijannejad, Dariush; Azandeh, Saeed; Javadnia, Fatemeh; Gholami, Mohammad Reza; Gharravi, Anneh Mohammad; Zhaleh, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Persistent median artery (PMA) in present cadaver originated from the brachial artery and anastomosed with the superficial palmar arch (SPA). As the PMA may be the cause of carpal tunnel syndrome and SPA is the main source of arterial supply, knowledge of which are important for the hand surgical interventions. PMID:27583265

  1. Computer Modeling of Yttrium-90-Microsphere Transport in the Hepatic Arterial Tree to Improve Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Andrew S.; Kleinstreuer, Clement; Basciano, Christopher A.; Dezarn, William A.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: Radioembolization (RE) via yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) microspheres is an effective and safe treatment for unresectable liver malignancies. However, no data are available regarding the impact of local blood flow dynamics on {sup 90}Y-microsphere transport and distribution in the human hepatic arterial system. Methods and Materials: A three-dimensional (3-D) computer model was developed to analyze and simulate blood-microsphere flow dynamics in the hepatic arterial system with tumor. Supplemental geometric and flow data sets from patients undergoing RE were also available to validate the accuracy of the computer simulation model. Specifically, vessel diameters, curvatures, and branching patterns, as well as blood flow velocities/pressures and microsphere characteristics (i.e., diameter and specific gravity), were measured. Three-dimensional computer-aided design software was used to create the vessel geometries. Initial trials, with 10,000 noninteracting microspheres released into the hepatic artery, used resin spheres 32-{mu}m in diameter with a density twice that of blood. Results: Simulations of blood flow subject to different branch-outlet pressures as well as blood-microsphere transport were successfully carried out, allowing testing of two types of microsphere release distributions in the inlet plane of the main hepatic artery. If the inlet distribution of microspheres was uniform (evenly spaced particles), a greater percentage would exit into the vessel branch feeding the tumor. Conversely, a parabolic inlet distribution of microspheres (more particles around the vessel center) showed a high percentage of microspheres exiting the branch vessel leading to the normal liver. Conclusions: Computer simulations of both blood flow patterns and microsphere dynamics have the potential to provide valuable insight on how to optimize {sup 90}Y-microsphere implantation into hepatic tumors while sparing normal tissue.

  2. Anabolic signaling and protein deposition are enhanced by intermittent compared with continuous feeding in skeletal muscle of neonates

    PubMed Central

    El-Kadi, Samer W.; Suryawan, Agus; Gazzaneo, Maria C.; Srivastava, Neeraj; Orellana, Renán A.; Nguyen, Hanh V.; Lobley, Gerald E.

    2012-01-01

    Orogastric tube feeding is indicated for neonates with impaired ability to ingest and can be administered by intermittent bolus or continuous schedule. Our aim was to determine whether feeding modalities affect muscle protein deposition and to identify mechanisms involved. Neonatal pigs were overnight fasted (FAS) or fed the same amount of food continuously (CON) or intermittently (INT; 7 × 4 h meals) for 29 h. For 8 h, between hours 20 and 28, pigs were infused with [2H5]phenylalanine and [2H2]tyrosine, and amino acid (AA) net balances were measured across the hindquarters. Insulin, branched-chain AA, phenylalanine, and tyrosine arterial concentrations and whole body phenylalanine and tyrosine fluxes were greater for INT after the meal than for CON or FAS. The activation of signaling proteins leading to initiation of mRNA translation, including eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4E·eIF4G complex formation in muscle, was enhanced by INT compared with CON feeding or FAS. Signaling proteins of protein degradation were not affected by feeding modalities except for microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II, which was highest in the FAS. Across the hindquarters, AA net removal increased for INT but not for CON or FAS, with protein deposition greater for INT. This was because protein synthesis increased following feeding for INT but remained unchanged for CON and FAS, whereas there was no change in protein degradation across any dietary treatment. These results suggest that muscle protein accretion in neonates is enhanced with intermittent bolus to a greater extent than continuous feeding, mainly by increased protein synthesis. PMID:22215651

  3. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Concurrent Spontaneous Hematomas of the Rectus Sheath and Psoas Muscle in Patients Undergoing Anticoagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, Antonio; Medina, Jose Garcia; Mundo, Elena; Medina, Vicente Garcia; Leal, Rafael

    2004-11-15

    We report a case of concurrent rectus sheath and psoas hematomas in a patient undergoing anticoagulant therapy, treated by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of inferior epigastric and lumbar arteries. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated signs of active bleeding in two hematomas of the anterior and posterior abdominal walls. Transfemoral arteriogram confirmed the extravasation of contrast from the right inferior epigastric artery (RIEA). Indirect signs of bleeding were also found in a right lumbar artery (RLA). We successfully performed TAE of the feeding arteries. There have been few reports in the literature of such spontaneous hemorrhages in patients undergoing anticoagulation, successfully treated by TAE.

  4. Coronary artery occlusion after arterial switch operation in an asymptomatic 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Saini, Ashish P; Cyran, Stephen E; Ettinger, Steven M; Pauliks, Linda B

    2016-08-16

    A 15-year-old boy with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) presented with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Intra-operatively, an intramural left coronary artery was identified. Therefore, since age 7 years he had a series of screening exercise stress tests. At 13 years old, he had 3 to 4 mm ST segment depression in the infero-lateral leads without symptoms. This progressed to 4.2 mm inferior ST segment depression at 15 years old with normal stress echocardiogram. Sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was inconclusive. Therefore, a coronary angiogram was obtained which showed complete occlusion of the LMCA with ample collateralization from the right coronary artery system. This was later confirmed on a computed tomogram (CT) angiogram, obtained in preparation of coronary artery bypass grafting. The case illustrates the difficulty of detecting coronary artery stenosis and occlusion in young patients with rich collateralization. Coronary CT angiogram and conventional angiography were the best imaging modalities to detect coronary anomalies in this adolescent with surgically corrected TGA. Screening CT angiography may be warranted for TGA patients, particularly for those with known coronary anomalies.

  5. Coronary artery occlusion after arterial switch operation in an asymptomatic 15-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Ashish P; Cyran, Stephen E; Ettinger, Steven M; Pauliks, Linda B

    2016-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) presented with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Intra-operatively, an intramural left coronary artery was identified. Therefore, since age 7 years he had a series of screening exercise stress tests. At 13 years old, he had 3 to 4 mm ST segment depression in the infero-lateral leads without symptoms. This progressed to 4.2 mm inferior ST segment depression at 15 years old with normal stress echocardiogram. Sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was inconclusive. Therefore, a coronary angiogram was obtained which showed complete occlusion of the LMCA with ample collateralization from the right coronary artery system. This was later confirmed on a computed tomogram (CT) angiogram, obtained in preparation of coronary artery bypass grafting. The case illustrates the difficulty of detecting coronary artery stenosis and occlusion in young patients with rich collateralization. Coronary CT angiogram and conventional angiography were the best imaging modalities to detect coronary anomalies in this adolescent with surgically corrected TGA. Screening CT angiography may be warranted for TGA patients, particularly for those with known coronary anomalies. PMID:27574609

  6. Coronary artery occlusion after arterial switch operation in an asymptomatic 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Saini, Ashish P; Cyran, Stephen E; Ettinger, Steven M; Pauliks, Linda B

    2016-08-16

    A 15-year-old boy with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) presented with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Intra-operatively, an intramural left coronary artery was identified. Therefore, since age 7 years he had a series of screening exercise stress tests. At 13 years old, he had 3 to 4 mm ST segment depression in the infero-lateral leads without symptoms. This progressed to 4.2 mm inferior ST segment depression at 15 years old with normal stress echocardiogram. Sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was inconclusive. Therefore, a coronary angiogram was obtained which showed complete occlusion of the LMCA with ample collateralization from the right coronary artery system. This was later confirmed on a computed tomogram (CT) angiogram, obtained in preparation of coronary artery bypass grafting. The case illustrates the difficulty of detecting coronary artery stenosis and occlusion in young patients with rich collateralization. Coronary CT angiogram and conventional angiography were the best imaging modalities to detect coronary anomalies in this adolescent with surgically corrected TGA. Screening CT angiography may be warranted for TGA patients, particularly for those with known coronary anomalies. PMID:27574609

  7. The ability to feed in hypoxia follows a seasonally dependent pattern in shore crab Carcinus maenas.

    PubMed

    Legeay; Massabuau

    2000-04-26

    The ability of the adult shore crab Carcinus maenas, native to the Bay of Arcachon (SW France), to feed in hypoxia was determined at various seasons. Crabs previously kept at field temperature were fed after a 5-day fasting period at 15 degrees C. Their blood oxygenation and pH regulation strategy and also their gill anatomy were analysed. From May to October, C. maenas feed at levels of O(2) partial pressure (p(O(2))) in the water, pwO(2)=2 kPa (1 mg l(-1)), without switching to their anaerobic metabolism. In March-April, before the main moulting period, the same food intake at pwO(2)=4 kPa induced a systematic blood lactate increase associated with some mortality. An analysis performed at pwO(2)=4 kPa at that time showed that in intermoult crabs the development of a coating of foreign material over the gill cuticle interfered with O(2)-supply, preventing the small arterial p(O(2)) increases (from 0.7 to 1 kPa) which occurred at other seasons. This led to a cellular hypoxia despite a systematic postprandial blood-pH alkalinisation which favoured O(2)-loading at gill level and increased arterial O(2) concentration. In March-April, alkalinisation appeared at pwO(2) values >/=6 kPa and from May to at least July at pwO(2)>/=2 kPa. Results are discussed in terms of season-related physiological performance, as hypoxic events mainly occur during the hot season. PMID:10727691

  8. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    , essentially in the screening proposing criteria for estimating the presence of PH mainly based on tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity and systolic artery pressure (sPAP). The therapy of PAH consists of non-specific drugs including oral anticoagulation and diuretics as well as PAH specific therapy. Diuretics are one of the most important treatment in the setting of PH because right heart failure leads to fluid retention, hepatic congestion, ascites and peripheral edema. Current recommendations propose oral anticoagulation aiming for targeting an International Normalized Ratio (INR) between 1.5-2.5. Target INR for patients displaying chronic thromboembolic PH is between 2–3. Better understanding in pathophysiological mechanisms of PH over the past quarter of a century has led to the development of medical therapeutics, even though no cure for PAH exists. Several specific therapeutic agents were developed for the medical management of PAH including prostanoids (epoprostenol, trepoprostenil, iloprost), endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, ambrisentan) and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil). This review discusses the current state of art regarding to epidemiologic aspects of PH, diagnostic approaches and the current classification of PH. In addition, currently available specific PAH therapy is discussed as well as future treatments. PMID:23829793

  9. Pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Montani, David; Günther, Sven; Dorfmüller, Peter; Perros, Frédéric; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Artaud-Macari, Elise; Price, Laura C; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Sitbon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    , essentially in the screening proposing criteria for estimating the presence of PH mainly based on tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity and systolic artery pressure (sPAP). The therapy of PAH consists of non-specific drugs including oral anticoagulation and diuretics as well as PAH specific therapy. Diuretics are one of the most important treatment in the setting of PH because right heart failure leads to fluid retention, hepatic congestion, ascites and peripheral edema. Current recommendations propose oral anticoagulation aiming for targeting an International Normalized Ratio (INR) between 1.5-2.5. Target INR for patients displaying chronic thromboembolic PH is between 2-3. Better understanding in pathophysiological mechanisms of PH over the past quarter of a century has led to the development of medical therapeutics, even though no cure for PAH exists. Several specific therapeutic agents were developed for the medical management of PAH including prostanoids (epoprostenol, trepoprostenil, iloprost), endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, ambrisentan) and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil). This review discusses the current state of art regarding to epidemiologic aspects of PH, diagnostic approaches and the current classification of PH. In addition, currently available specific PAH therapy is discussed as well as future treatments. PMID:23829793

  10. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  11. Tube Feeding Transition Plateaus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    2007-01-01

    The journey children make from tube feeding to oral feeding is personal for each child and family. There is a sequence of predictable plateaus that children climb as they move toward orally eating. By better understanding this sequence, parents and children can maximize the development, learning, enjoyment and confidence at each plateau. The…

  12. Testing Feeds for Salmonella.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human salmonellosis outbreaks have been linked to contamination of animal feeds. Thus it is crucial to employ sensitive Salmonella detection methods for animal feeds. Based on a review of the literature, Salmonella sustains acid injury at about pH 4.0 to5.0. Low pH can also alter the metabolism of S...

  13. Development of Wideband Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, Hideki; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Sekido, Mamoru; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2015-08-01

    Wideband feeds have developed for Kashima 34m antenna and new 2.4m portable VLBI antennas. Prototypes of the wideband feeds are multimode horns, first one was set on 34m in the end of 2013, and then replaced next one with 6.5-15.0GHz receiving frequency. Now, a new feed for 3.2GHz-14.4GHz will be installed in 2.4m and 34m antennas in this spring, which are named NINJA feed, because of its design flexibility in beam shpae. Next, IGUANA feed is now under design and fabrication, which is aimed for 2.2-22GHz and covers VGOS(VLBI2010) specification. This has coaxial structure, the smaller "daughter feed" for 6.4-22GHz is placed in the center of the larger "Mother feed" for 2.2-6.4GHz.They are used for our project of time and frequency transfer between remote atomic clocks by wideband VLBI, named Gala-V(Garapagos VLBI), and will also be used wideband VLBI observation for astronmy and geodesy.Prototype feeds were tested in measurement of aperture efficiency, SEFD and Tsys of 34m "Super Kashima Antenna" and both 6.7/12.2GHz methanol maser detection in one reciever system, and then better one is used for wideband VLBI observations.

  14. Space Transportation Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) definition, design philosophy, robust design, maximum design condition, casting vs. machined and welded forgings, operability considerations, high reliability design philosophy, engine reliability enhancement, low cost design philosophy, engine systems requirements, STME schematic, fuel turbopump, liquid oxygen turbopump, main injector, and gas generator. The major engine components of the STME and the Space Shuttle Main Engine are compared.

  15. Suthi feeding: an experience.

    PubMed

    Gupta, B D; Jain, P; Mandowara, S L

    1995-06-01

    In cases in which expressed breast milk is given or breast feeding cannot be done at all, a suitable alternative to breast feeding is still in question. Bottle feeding poses many hazards. Spoon and bowl have been proposed as a reasonable alternative since users can achieve better cleanliness. Yet it is impractical for staff in health facility nurseries to feed every newborn with the spoon and bowl method since it requires so much time. On average, they need to provide oral feeds to at least 10 babies a day. In India, maternal grandparents present the family of a newborn with the traditional Sindhi silver or stainless steel utensil to provide the infant drinking water. It is called Suthi. It holds either 10 or 20 cc, making it easier to quantify the amount of milk/feed. It has a long semicircular beak and curved rounded margins. Advantages of the Suthi over other alternative feeding methods include: it is a shallow container with a broad upper surface, allowing the user to clean it thoroughly and easily; its narrow beak can go directly into the mouth of the newborn, particularly premature infants and low birth weight infants, with relative ease, reducing the likelihood of spilling milk, and the Suthi feeding procedure is less messy and faster (7-10 vs. 15-20 minutes for spoon) than other procedures. The Suthi method allows nursery staff to spend less time per feed for 8-10 babies (minimum time needed, 1 vs. 3 hours). It can also be used at home. Its use will reduce the likelihood of aspiration since it cannot be used lying down. Since it is a traditional container, the community will accept Suthi. When breast feeding is not possible, the Suthi should be used. PMID:8613348

  16. Serotonin depresses feeding behaviour in ants.

    PubMed

    Falibene, Agustina; Rössler, Wolfgang; Josens, Roxana

    2012-01-01

    Feeding behaviour is a complex functional system that relies on external signals and the physiological state of the animal. This is also the case in ants as they vary their feeding behaviour according to food characteristics, environmental conditions and - as they are social insects - to the colony's requirements. The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) was shown to be involved in the control and modulation of many actions and processes related to feeding in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, we investigated whether 5-HT affects nectar feeding in ants by analysing its effect on the sucking-pump activity. Furthermore, we studied 5-HT association with tissues and neuronal ganglia involved in feeding regulation. Our results show that 5-HT promotes a dose-dependent depression of sucrose feeding in Camponotus mus ants. Orally administered 5-HT diminished the intake rate by mainly decreasing the volume of solution taken per pump contraction, without modifying the sucrose acceptance threshold. Immunohistochemical studies all along the alimentary canal revealed 5-HT-like immunoreactive processes on the foregut (oesophagus, crop and proventriculus), while the midgut and hindgut lacked 5-HT innervation. Although the frontal and suboesophageal ganglia contained 5-HT immunoreactive cell bodies, serotonergic innervation in the sucking-pump muscles was absent. The results are discussed in the frame of a role of 5-HT in feeding control in ants.

  17. [Radiological study of the internal carotid artery].

    PubMed

    Meder, J F; Brugières, P; Leguen, O

    1993-12-01

    Three radiologic methods are used to investigate the internal carotid artery. The main indication of CT scan is the assessment of brain ischaemic complications of carotid disease. Magnetic resonance imaging allows in addition to detect dissecting hematomas and carotid flow abnormalities. Cerebral angiography, which owes much to the advent of digital techniques, remains the standard examination of internal carotid artery. Complications of angiography although rare and usually benign explain the recent development of less invasive explorations such as dynamic CT scan and magnetic resonance angiography. This latter method is still under evaluation for diagnosis of carotid stenosis and small size aneurysms.

  18. [Ultrasound imaging of coronary artery].

    PubMed

    Fuse, Shigeto

    2014-09-01

    Coronary arterial anatomy and the terminology were reviewed. There is a specific portion of coronary artery aneurysm in Kawasaki disease. To investigate coronary arterial lesion, ultrasound imaging is useful because of non-invasive, high special and time resolu tion method. I explained the patient posture, the approaching method to the coronary arter ies, ultrasound setting, measurement of coronary arterial diameter and diastolic measurement.

  19. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important Information in…

  20. Arterial Embolization as a Treatment of Chronic Edema Following Free Cutaneous Flap Transfer to the Lower Limbs

    SciTech Connect

    Noukoua Tchuisse, Charlemagne; Barah, Ali; Nchimi, Alain; Dondelinger, Robert F.

    2003-06-15

    Persisting chronic edema following postoperative free flap transfer is a common complication. We report 3 cases of successful treatment by selective arterial embolization of the feeding arterial branches without side effect. One session embolization is advocated as a first line treatment of this condition.

  1. Hepatic artery aneurysm presenting with hemobilia in a patient with Behçet's disease: treatment with percutaneous transcatheteral embolization.

    PubMed

    Hatzidakis, Adam; Petrakis, Jannis; Krokidis, Miltiadis; Tsetis, Dimitrios; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-03-01

    We herein report a case of hemobilia caused by a hepatic artery aneurysm. A 40-year-old male patient with a history of Behçet's disease with a thrombus hanging out of the papilla of Vater had a large hepatic aneurysm in angiography. The hepatic artery feeding the aneurysm was embolized. Endovascular treatment can treat patients with hepatic artery aneurysms caused by Behçet's disease.

  2. Breast-feeding multiples.

    PubMed

    Flidel-Rimon, O; Shinwell, E S

    2002-06-01

    Human breast milk is the best nutrition for human infants. Its advantages over the milk of other species, such as cows, include both a reduced risk for infections, allergies and chronic diseases, together with the full nutritional requirements for growth and development. Breast-feeding is as important for multiples as for singletons. Despite the advantages, multiples receive less breast-feeding than singletons. Common reasons for not breast-feeding multiples include the fear of not fulfilling the infants' needs and the difficulty of coping with the demands on the mother's time. In addition, many multiples are delivered prematurely and by Caesarean section. Maternal pain and discomfort together with anxiety over the infants' condition are not conducive to successful breast-feeding. During lactation, the mother needs to add calories to her daily diet. It has been recommended to add approximately 500-600 kcal/day for each infant. Thus, between eating, nursing and sleeping, life is very busy for the mother of multiples. However, there is evidence that, with appropriate nutrition, one mother can nourish more than one infant. Also, simultaneous breast-feeding can save much time. Combined efforts of parents, close family, friends and the medical team can help to make either full or partial breast-feeding of multiples possible. However, when breast-feeding is not possible, health care workers need to carefully avoid judgmental approaches that may induce feelings of guilt.

  3. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length. PMID:2494372

  4. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length.

  5. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Smoking and Your ... in the body's arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis . Over time, plaque can harden and narrow the ...

  6. Coronary artery anomalies.

    PubMed

    Earls, James P

    2006-12-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are uncommon findings but can be of significant clinical importance in a small number of individuals. Clinical presentation depends on the specific anomaly. Most coronary artery anomalies are benign and clinically insignificant, however, some anomalies are potentially significant and can lead to heart failure and even death. Noninvasive imaging has emerged as the preferred way to image coronary anomalies. Both electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) are useful for the diagnosis of anomalous coronary arteries. Recently, MDCT has also proven to be very useful in the detection and characterization of anomalous coronary arteries. This chapter will review the appearance of the most commonly encountered coronary anomalies on MDCT. PMID:17709086

  7. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  8. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... t help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path for blood to flow ... more than one bypass. The results of the surgery usually are excellent. Many people remain symptom-free ...

  9. Retinal artery occlusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Textbook of Family Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 17. Duker JS. Retinal arterial ... M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2014:chap 6.18. Reiss GR, Sipperley ...

  10. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... ve started to help the medicine work. Other Organizations American Heart Association Questions to Ask Your Doctor Am I at risk for coronary artery disease (CAD)? What lifestyle changes should I make to decrease my risk of ...

  11. THE EFFECT OF COLLAGENASE ON THE CRITICAL BUCKLING PRESSURE OF ARTERIES

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Ricky; Han, Hai-Chao

    2012-01-01

    The stability of arteries is essential to normal arterial functions and loss of stability can lead to arterial tortuosity and kinking. Collagen is a main extracellular matrix component that modulates the mechanical properties of arteries and collagen degradation at pathological conditions weakens the mechanical strength of arteries. However, the effect of collagen degradation on the mechanical stability of arteries is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of collagen degradation on the critical buckling pressure of arteries. Arterial specimens were subjected to pressurized inflation testing and fitted with nonlinear thick-walled cylindrical model equations to determine their stress strain relationships. The arteries were then tested for the critical buckling pressure at a set of axial stretch ratios. Then, arteries were divided into three groups and treated with Type III collagenase at three different concentrations (64, 128, and 400U/ml). Mechanical properties and buckling pressures of the arteries were determined after collagenase treatment. Additionally, the theoretical buckling pressures were also determined using a buckling equation. Our results demonstrated that the buckling pressure for arteries was lower after collagenase treatment. The difference between pre- and post- treatment was statistically significant for the highest concentration of 400U/ml but not at the lower concentrations. The buckling equation was found to yield a fair estimation to the experimental critical pressure measurements. These results shed light on the role of matrix remodeling on the mechanical stability of arteries and developments of tortuous arteries. PMID:22428361

  12. The effect of collagenase on the critical buckling pressure of arteries.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Ricky; Han, Hai-Chao

    2012-03-01

    The stability of arteries is essential to normal arterial functions and loss of stability can lead to arterial tortuosity and kinking. Collagen is a main extracellular matrix component that modulates the mechanical properties of arteries and collagen degradation at pathological conditions weakens the mechanical strength of arteries. However, the effects of collagen degradation on the mechanical stability of arteries are unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of collagen degradation on the critical buckling pressure of arteries. Arterial specimens were subjected to pressurized inflation testing and fitted with nonlinear thick-walled cylindrical model equations to determine their stress strain relationships. The arteries were then tested for the critical buckling pressure at a set of axial stretch ratios. Then, arteries were divided into three groups and treated with Type III collagenase at three different concentrations (64, 128, and 400 U/ml). Mechanical properties and buckling pressures of the arteries were determined after collagenase treatment. Additionally, the theoretical buckling pressures were also determined using a buckling equation. Our results demonstrated that the buckling pressure of arteries was lower after collagenase treatment. The difference between pre- and post- treatment was statistically significant for the highest concentration of 400U/ml but not at the lower concentrations. The buckling equation was found to yield a fair estimation to the experimental critical pressure measurements. These results shed light on the role of matrix remodeling on the mechanical stability of arteries and developments of tortuous arteries.

  13. The arterial blood supply of the temporomandibular joint: an anatomical study and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Caradonna, Carola; Caradonna, Domenico; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Milardi, Demetrio; Favaloro, Angelo; De Pietro, Anita; Angileri, Tommaso Maurizio; Caradonna, Luigi; Cutroneo, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze three-dimensional images of the arterial supply to the temporomandibular joint. Materials and Methods Ten patients (five men and five women, mean age 36 years) without signs or symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scanning with intravenous contrast, were studied. The direct volume rendering technique of CT images was used, and a data set of images to visualize the vasculature of the human temporomandibular joint in three dimensions was created. After elaboration of the data through post-processing, the arterial supply of the temporomandibular joint was studied. Results The analysis revealed the superficial temporal artery, the anterior tympanic artery, the deep temporal artery, the auricular posterior artery, the transverse facial artery, the middle meningeal artery, and the maxillary artery with their branches as the main arterial sources for the lateral and medial temporomandibular joint. Conclusion The direct volume rendering technique was found to be successful in the assessment of the arterial supply to the temporomandibular joint. The superficial temporal artery and maxillary artery ran along the lateral and medial sides of the condylar neck, suggesting that these arteries are at increased risk during soft-tissue procedures such as an elective arthroplasty of the temporomandibular joint. PMID:23525363

  14. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  15. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  16. The Main Idea Organizer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Presents the Main Idea Organizer (MIO) to help students who may struggle with writing, reading, and thinking--though in different ways and for different reasons. Describes many different ways the author uses the MIO. (SG)

  17. Combined transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass with right gastroepiploic artery and abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Gürer, Onur; Haberal, Ismail; Ozsoy, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 74 Final Diagnosis: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) Symptoms: Palpable abdominal mass Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Coronary artery disease is common in elderly patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Here we report a case of the combination of surgical repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm and off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery. Case Report: A 74-year-old man who presented at our clinic with chest pain was diagnosed with an abdominal aortic aneurysm. His medical history included right coronary artery stenting. Physical examination revealed a pulsatile abdominal mass on the left side and palpable peripheral pulses. Computed tomography scans showed an infrarenal abdominal aneurysm with a 61-mm enlargement. Coronary angiography revealed 80% stenosis in the stent within the right coronary artery and 20% stenosis in the left main coronary artery. The patient underwent elective coronary artery bypass grafting and abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimal invasive coronary artery bypass grafting with right gastroepiploic artery were performed simultaneously in a single surgery. Conclusions: We report this case to emphasize the safety and effectiveness of transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery with abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. This combined approach shortens hospital stay and decreases cost. PMID:23997852

  18. Tube Feeding Troubleshooting Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... profile tube also has a stem length). Note: NG and NJ tubes (that go through a person’s ... Immediate Action: • Discontinue feeding. • If you have an NG or NJ tube, and the tube is curled ...

  19. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  20. Feeding Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... you choose to breastfeed or formula feed. About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding your newborn has many advantages. Perhaps most ... to care for her newborn. continue Limitations of Breastfeeding With all the good things known about breastfeeding, ...

  1. Feeding tube - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube is misplaced and not in the proper position, the baby may have problems with: An abnormally slow heart rate (bradycardia) Breathing Spitting up Rarely, the feeding tube can puncture the stomach.

  2. Robust internal elastic lamina fenestration in skeletal muscle arteries.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Brett S; Bruhl, Allison; Sullivan, Michelle N; Francis, Michael; Dinenno, Frank A; Earley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Holes within the internal elastic lamina (IEL) of blood vessels are sites of fenestration allowing for passage of diffusible vasoactive substances and interface of endothelial cell membrane projections with underlying vascular smooth muscle. Endothelial projections are sites of dynamic Ca(2+) events leading to endothelium dependent hyperpolarization (EDH)-mediated relaxations and the activity of these events increase as vessel diameter decreases. We tested the hypothesis that IEL fenestration is greater in distal vs. proximal arteries in skeletal muscle, and is unlike other vascular beds (mesentery). We also determined ion channel protein composition within the endothelium of intramuscular and non-intramuscular skeletal muscle arteries. Popliteal arteries, subsequent gastrocnemius feed arteries, and first and second order intramuscular arterioles from rat hindlimb were isolated, cut longitudinally, fixed, and imaged using confocal microscopy. Quantitative analysis revealed a significantly larger total fenestration area in second and first order arterioles vs. feed and popliteal arteries (58% and 16% vs. 5% and 3%; N = 10 images/artery), due to a noticeably greater average size of holes (9.5 and 3.9 µm(2) vs 1.5 and 1.9 µm(2)). Next, we investigated via immunolabeling procedures whether proteins involved in EDH often embedded in endothelial cell projections were disparate between arterial segments. Specific proteins involved in EDH, such as inositol trisphosphate receptors, small and intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, and the canonical (C) transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPC3 were present in both popliteal and first order intramuscular arterioles. However due to larger IEL fenestration in first order arterioles, a larger spanning area of EDH proteins is observed proximal to the smooth muscle cell plasma membrane. These observations highlight the robust area of fenestration within intramuscular arterioles and indicate that the

  3. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  4. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  5. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  6. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  7. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  8. Iatrogenic and noniatrogenic arterial trauma: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lazarides, M K; Arvanitis, D P; Liatas, A C; Dayantas, J N

    1991-01-01

    During a 6-year period 22 patients were operated on because of iatrogenic arterial trauma (group A) and 43 sustained noniatrogenic arterial injury (group B). The group A injuries were caused by various arterial catheterization procedures for angiography or cardiac investigation (55%) or surgical interventions (45%). Haemorrhage was more common in group B than in group A (p less than 0.001). The mortality rate did not differ significantly between the groups (14% vs. 9%). Permanent disability was more common in group B (p less than 0.05), due mainly to higher incidence of associated venous, neural, skeletal or visceral injuries. Bypass operations tended to be more often performed in group B than in group A, but the difference was not statistically significant. Retrospective assessment of the appropriateness of technique, made separately by two vascular surgeons, revealed instances of potentially avoidable iatrogenic arterial injury. The rising incidence of iatrogenic arterial trauma may therefore be considered 'reducible'. PMID:1675876

  9. The EXCEL and NOBLE trials: similarities, contrasts and future perspectives for left main revascularisation.

    PubMed

    Campos, Carlos M; Christiansen, Evald H; Stone, Gregg W; Serruys, Patrick W

    2015-01-01

    Unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) stenosis has relatively high prevalence and exposes patients to a high risk for adverse cardiovascular events. The optimal revascularisation strategy (coronary artery bypass surgery [CABG] or percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) for patients with complex coronary artery disease is a topic of continuing debate. The introduction of the newer-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) -with documented improvements in both safety and efficacy- has prompted the interventional community to design two new dedicated randomised trials comparing CABG and PCI: the NOBLE (Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Vs Drug Eluting Stent Percutaneous Coronary Angioplasty in the Treatment of Unprotected Left Main Stenosis) and EXCEL (Evaluation of XIENCE Everolimus Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) trials. The aims of the present review are to describe the similarities and contrasts between these two trials as well to explore their future implications in ULMCA treatment.

  10. MDCT-based quantification of porcine pulmonary arterial morphometry and self-similarity of arterial branching geometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yik Ching; Clark, Alys R; Fuld, Matthew K; Haynes, Susan; Divekar, Abhay A; Hoffman, Eric A; Tawhai, Merryn H

    2013-05-01

    The pig is frequently used as an experimental model for studies of the pulmonary circulation, yet the branching and dimensional geometry of the porcine pulmonary vasculature remains poorly defined. The purposes of this study are to improve the geometric definition of the porcine pulmonary arteries and to determine whether the arterial tree exhibits self-similarity in its branching geometry. Five animals were imaged using thin slice spiral computed tomography in the prone posture during airway inflation pressure at 25 cmH2O. The luminal diameter and distance from the inlet of the left and right pulmonary arteries were measured along the left and right main arterial pathway in each lung of each animal. A further six minor pathways were measured in a single animal. The similarity in the rate of reduction of diameter with distance of all minor pathways and the two main pathways, along with similarity in the number of branches arising along the pathways, supports self-similarity in the arterial tree. The rate of reduction in diameter with distance from the inlet was not significantly different among the five animals (P > 0.48) when normalized for main pulmonary artery diameter and total main artery pathlength, which supports intersubject similarity. Other metrics to quantify the tree geometry are strikingly similar to those from airways of other quadrupeds, with the exception of a significantly larger length to diameter ratio, which is more appropriate for the vascular tree. A simplifying self-similar model for the porcine pulmonary arteries is proposed to capture the important geometric features of the arterial tree. PMID:23449941

  11. [Splenic artery aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Colović, R; Davidović, L; Bilanović, D; Krivokapić, Z; Grubor, N; Cvetković, S; Radak, V; Marković, M

    2006-01-01

    Although the third most frequent aneurysm in the abdomen, after aneurysms of the aorta and iliac arteries, and most frequent aneurisms of visceral arteries, splenic artery aneurysms are rare, but not very rare. Thanks to the new imaging techniques, first of all ultrasonography, they have been discovered with increasing frequency. We present a series of 9 splenic artery aneurysms. Seven patients were female and two male of average age 49 years (ranging from 28 to 75 years). The majority of afected women were multiparae, with average 3 children (ranging from 1 to 6). One patient had a subacute rupture, and 2 had ruptures into the splenic vein causing portal hypertension. The spleen was enlarged in 7 out of 9 patients. The average size of aneurysms was 3,2 cm (ranging from 2 to 8 cm). The preoperative diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysm was established in 6 patients while in 3 patients aneurism was accidentally found during other operations, during splenectomy in 2, and during the excision of a retroperitoneal tumour in 1 patient. Aneurysmectomy was carried out in 7 patients, while a ligation of the incoming and outcoming wessels was performed in 2 patients with arteriovenous fistula. Splenectomy was performed in 6 patients, while pancreatic tail resection, cholecystectomy and excision of the retroperitoneal tumor were performed in 3 patients. Additional resection of the abdominal aortic aneurysm with reconstruction of aortoiliac segment was performed in 2 patients. There were no mortality and the postoperative recovery was uneventful in all patients. PMID:16989145

  12. Blood Flow in Arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, David N.

    Blood flow in arteries is dominated by unsteady flow phenomena. The cardiovascular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley number, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. The arteries are living organs that can adapt to and change with the varying hemodynamic conditions. In certain circumstances, unusual hemodynamic conditions create an abnormal biological response. Velocity profile skewing can create pockets in which the direction of the wall shear stress oscillates. Atherosclerotic disease tends to be localized in these sites and results in a narrowing of the artery lumena stenosis. The stenosis can cause turbulence and reduce flow by means of viscous head losses and flow choking. Very high shear stresses near the throat of the stenosis can activate platelets and thereby induce thrombosis, which can totally block blood flow to the heart or brain. Detection and quantification of stenosis serve as the basis for surgical intervention. In the future, the study of arterial blood flow will lead to the prediction of individual hemodynamic flows in any patient, the development of diagnostic tools to quantify disease, and the design of devices that mimic or alter blood flow. This field is rich with challenging problems in fluid mechanics involving three-dimensional, pulsatile flows at the edge of turbulence.

  13. Coronary Artery Imaging in Children

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery problems in children usually have a significant impact on both short-term and long-term outcomes. Early and accurate diagnosis, therefore, is crucial but technically challenging due to the small size of the coronary artery, high heart rates, and limited cooperation of children. Coronary artery visibility on CT and MRI in children is considerably improved with recent technical advancements. Consequently, CT and MRI are increasingly used for evaluating various congenital and acquired coronary artery abnormalities in children, such as coronary artery anomalies, aberrant coronary artery anatomy specific to congenital heart disease, Kawasaki disease, Williams syndrome, and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:25741188

  14. Main Parachute Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is the testing of the Main Parachute for the Ares/CLV first stage in support of the Ares/Constellation program at the Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

  15. Ladybugs of Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color images are presented for the 57 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as ladybugs, that are documented from Maine. Images are displayed in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes its genus-species name, length, and an actual-size silhouette beside a grid matched to the scale...

  16. Main features of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 17, outlines the main features of meiosis, beginning with its significance and proceeding through the meiotic stages. Meiosis is the most important modification of mitosis because it is the reduction division that gives rise to the haploid generation in the life cycle. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Understanding Arteries | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Understanding Arteries Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Below: ... the arteries and veins are healthy. A Healthy Artery An artery is a muscular tube. It has ...

  18. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Spontaneous Rupture of the Omental Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Yamagami, Takuji; Morishita, Hiroyuki; Iida, Shigeharu; Tazoe, Jun; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji; Ikeda, Jun; Nagata, Akihiro; Sato, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2011-02-15

    We encountered a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. A 25-year-old man without any episode of abdominal trauma or bleeding disorders came to the emergency unit with left upper abdominal pain. Hematoma with extravasation of the greater omentum and a hemoperitoneum was confirmed on abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Bleeding from the omental artery was suspected based on these findings. Transcatheter arterial embolization was successfully performed after extravasation of the omental artery, which arises from the left gastroepiploic artery, was confirmed on arteriography. Partial ometectomy was performed 10 days after transcatheter arterial embolization, revealing that the hematoma measured 10 cm in diameter in the greater omentum. Pathological examination showed rupture of the branch of an omental artery without abnormal findings, such as an aneurysm or neoplasm. Thus, we diagnosed him with spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. The patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital 10 days after the surgery, with a favorable postoperative course.

  19. Brachial Artery Access for Percutaneous Renal Artery Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaukanen, Erkki T.; Manninen, Hannu I.; Matsi, Pekka J.; Soeder, Heini K.

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the suitability of transbrachial access for endovascular renal artery interventions. Methods: During 37 consecutive endovascular renal artery interventions, the transbrachial approach was used on nine patients (mean age 63 years; range 41-76 years) for 11 renal artery procedures on native kidneys and one percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) on a transplanted kidney. The reason for using transbrachial access was a steep aorta-renal angle in five, and severe aorta-iliac atherosclerosis in the remaining patients. In addition to the intervention catheter in the left brachial artery, an additional nonselective catheter for controlling the procedure was inserted transfemorally (six patients) or via the contralateral brachial artery. Results: Eleven interventions (six PTAs, five stents) were successfully completed. The one failure resulted from impenetrable subclavian artery stenosis. The only major complication was a brachial artery pseudoaneurysm requiring surgical treatment. Conclusion: Transbrachial access is an effective and relatively safe technique for renal artery interventions when transfemoral access is not possible.

  20. An Emerging Method for Rapid Characterization of Feed Structures and Feed Component Matrix at a Cellular Level and Relation to Feed Quality and Nutritive Value

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,P.

    2006-01-01

    Feed quality, feed characteristics, nutrient utilization and digestive behavior are closely related to: (i) total feed composition, (ii) feed intrinsic structures, and (iii) biological component matrix (such as protein to starch matrix, protein to carbohydrate matrix). Conventional 'wet' chemical analysis can determine total chemical composition, but fails to detect the feed intrinsic structures and biological component matrix due to destruction of feed samples during the processing for chemical analysis and the 'wet' chemical analysis cannot link structural information to chemical information within intact feed tissue. Recently, advanced synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy has been developed as a non-destructive and non-invasive structural-chemical analytical technique. This technique can link chemical information to structural information of biological samples within intact tissue within cellular dimensions. It can provide four kinds of information simultaneously: tissue composition, tissue structure, tissue chemistry and tissue environment. However, this novel technique has been found mainly for medical science research, extremely rare for feed science and nutrition research. The objective of this review article was to illustrate synchrotron-based FTIR microspectroscopy as a novel research tool for rapid characterization of feed structures at a cellular level and for detection of chemical features and molecular chemical make-up of feed biological component matrix and nutrient interaction. The emphasis of this article was to show that feed structural-chemical features at a cellular level are closely related to feed characteristics, feed quality and nutritive value in animals. The synchrotron-based technology will provide us with a greater understanding of the plant-animal interface.

  1. Arterial hypertension and cancer.

    PubMed

    Milan, Alberto; Puglisi, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Laura; Bruno, Giulia; Losano, Isabel; Veglio, Franco

    2014-05-15

    Arterial hypertension and cancer are two of the most important causes of mortality in the world; correlations between these two clinical entities are complex and various. Cancer therapy using old (e.g., mitotic spindle poisons) as well as new (e.g., monoclonal antibody) drugs may cause arterial hypertension through different mechanisms; sometimes the increase of blood pressure levels may be responsible for chemotherapy withdrawal. Among newer cancer therapies, drugs interacting with the VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factors) pathways are the most frequently involved in hypertension development. However, many retrospective studies have suggested a relationship between antihypertensive treatment and risk of cancer, raising vast public concern. The purposes of this brief review have then been to analyse the role of chemotherapy in the pathogenesis of hypertension, to summarize the general rules of arterial hypertension management in this field and finally to evaluate the effects of antihypertensive therapy on cancer disease.

  2. [Enteral tube feeding].

    PubMed

    Haller, Alois

    2014-03-01

    Tube feeding is an integral part of medical therapies, and can be easily managed also in the outpatient setting. Tube feeding by the stomach or small intestine with nasogastral or nasojejunal tubes is common in clinical practice. Long-term nutrition is usually provided through a permanent tube, i. e. a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Modern portable nutrition pumps are used to cover the patient's nutritional needs. Enteral nutrition is always indicated if patients can not or should not eat or if nutritional requirements cannot be covered within 3 days after an intervention, e. g. after abdominal surgery. Industrially produced tube feedings with defined substrate concentrations are being used; different compositions of nutrients, such as glutamine fish oil etc., are used dependent on the the condition of the patient. Enteral nutrition may be associated with complications of the tube, e. g. dislocation, malposition or obstruction, as well as the feeding itself, e. g.hyperglycaemia, electrolyte disturbances, refeeding syndrome diarrhea or aspiration). However, the benefit of tube feeding usually exceeds the potential harm substantially.

  3. Prominent gastroduodenal artery: Endosonographic sign of celiac artery stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Gonen, Can; Sürmelioğlu, Ali; Tilki, Metin; Kiliçoğlu, Gamze

    2016-01-01

    Celiac artery (CA) stenosis is a relatively common finding in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). In the presence of CA stenosis, arterial blood supply to the celiac territory is usually sustained from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) through well-developed collaterals. In this paper, the authors report endosonographically identified prominent gastroduodenal artery as the sign of CA stenosis for the first time. Uncovering previously unidentified vascular abnormality, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has improved patient management. The patient had uneventful collateral preserving PD. PMID:27803908

  4. [Myocardial ischemia secondary to a bilateral coronary fistula with drainage into the pulmonary artery trunk].

    PubMed

    Castelo, V; González-Juanatey, J R; Amaro, A; Iglesias, C; Rubio, J; Gil, M

    1994-07-01

    A case of bilateral coronary artery fistula into main pulmonary artery which courses with crisis of angina and subepicardial ischaemic changes in anterolateral leads is presented. The interest of the case reported is based on the peculiar anatomy of the fistula; there is only an unique collector to the pulmonary artery for both fistula and they present a completely different way of emerging: an unique vessel from the right coronary artery and several vessels from the anterior descending coronary artery. Ligation of the fistula was performed successfully and postoperative course was uneventful.

  5. Harvesting the radial artery

    PubMed Central

    Osterday, Robert M.; Brodman, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    The radial artery (RA) has emerged as an important arterial graft for coronary bypass surgery. With improving five-year patency rates and increasing uptake, great attention has been focused on the optimal conduit harvesting technique. We herein present our approach to RA harvesting. Prerequisites of a successful harvest include adherence to important anatomical landmarks, protection of the sensory innervation to the volar forearm, and meticulous handling of the RA branches. Regardless of the harvesting methodology chosen, adherence to a “no-touch” technique will optimize the patency and durability of the RA conduit. PMID:23977633

  6. Unique course of the ovarian artery associated with other variations.

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, H A; Dong, K; Yamadori, T

    1993-01-01

    In a Japanese female cadaver, the left ovarian artery originated from the abdominal aorta superior to the level of the renal vessels. Accompanied by 2 veins, it coursed laterally to the upper pole of the left kidney, then inferiorly along its posterolateral aspect. Two vessels branched from it; the first went to the left suprarenal gland as a substitute for the missing left inferior suprarenal artery, whereas the second supplied the diaphragm as a supernumerary inferior phrenic artery. The venae comitantes drained into the left renal vein. Associated unusual findings were (1) external lobation of the left kidney, (2) supernumerary left renal artery, and (3) the uterine artery being the main arterial supply to the left ovary. The aberrant course of the ovarian artery may have resulted from an abnormal descent of the left ovary under the influence of a wandering gubernaculum during development. Our report also points to the potential for an ectopic artery, i.e. the ovarian to be located in a place other than its definite pelvic position. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8376204

  7. [Main Cellular Redox Couples].

    PubMed

    Bilan, D S; Shokhina, A G; Lukyanov, S A; Belousov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Most of the living cells maintain the continuous flow of electrons, which provides them by energy. Many of the compounds are presented in a cell at the same time in the oxidized and reduced states, forming the active redox couples. Some of the redox couples, such as NAD+/NADH, NADP+/NADPH, oxidized/reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH), are universal, as they participate in adjusting of many cellular reactions. Ratios of the oxidized and reduced forms of these compounds are important cellular redox parameters. Modern research approaches allow setting the new functions of the main redox couples in the complex organization of cellular processes. The following information is about the main cellular redox couples and their participation in various biological processes.

  8. COBRA Main Engine Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Jim; Sides, Steve; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA main engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost demo of cycle and technologies. 5. COBRA cycle I risk reduction supports. 6. Achieving engine safety. 6. RLX cycle I risk reduction supports. 7. Flight qualification. 9. Life extension engine testing.

  9. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  10. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... changes and medication . View an animation of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis and PAD Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up ... of an artery. PAD is usually caused by atherosclerosis in the peripheral arteries (or outer regions away ...

  11. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Claudication

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fatty deposits inside them. This is called atherosclerosis. If you have PAD, your arms, and more ... also more likely in people who already have atherosclerosis in other arteries, such as the arteries in ...

  12. Coanda effect on ductal flow in the pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Guntheroth, W; Miyaki-Hull, C

    1999-03-01

    The Coanda effect (the tendency of a jet stream to adhere to a boundary wall), and the relevant anatomy, may explain the location of ductal jets within the main pulmonary artery. With the usual insertion of the duct close to the left pulmonary artery, during right ventricular ejection, the ductal jet adheres to the left wall of the main pulmonary artery. When right ventricular ejection is absent in pulmonary atresia, the ductal jet streams down the right wall of the pulmonary artery to the pulmonary valve, reverses, and maintains a parallel column back toward the bifurcation. If the reversed flow is mistaken for ejection from the right ventricle, the diagnosis of pulmonary atresia may be missed. PMID:10082354

  13. Effects of aging and exercise training on skeletal muscle blood flow and resistance artery morphology

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Michael W.; Stabley, John N.; Dominguez, James M.; Davis, Robert T.; McCullough, Danielle J.; Muller-Delp, Judy M.; Delp, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    With old age, blood flow to the high-oxidative red skeletal muscle is reduced and blood flow to the low-oxidative white muscle is elevated during exercise. Changes in the number of feed arteries perforating the muscle are thought to contribute to this altered hyperemic response during exercise. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training would ameliorate age-related differences in blood flow during exercise and feed artery structure in skeletal muscle. Young (6–7 mo old, n = 36) and old (24 mo old, n = 25) male Fischer 344 rats were divided into young sedentary (Sed), old Sed, young exercise-trained (ET), and old ET groups, where training consisted of 10–12 wk of treadmill exercise. In Sed and ET rats, blood flow to the red and white portions of the gastrocnemius muscle (GastRed and GastWhite) and the number and luminal cross-sectional area (CSA) of all feed arteries perforating the muscle were measured at rest and during exercise. In the old ET group, blood flow was greater to GastRed (264 ± 13 and 195 ± 9 ml·min−1·100 g−1 in old ET and old Sed, respectively) and lower to GastWhite (78 ± 5 and 120 ± 6 ml·min−1·100 g−1 in old ET and old Sed, respectively) than in the old Sed group. There was no difference in the number of feed arteries between the old ET and old Sed group, although the CSA of feed arteries from old ET rats was larger. In young ET rats, there was an increase in the number of feed arteries perforating the muscle. Exercise training mitigated old age-associated differences in blood flow during exercise within gastrocnemius muscle. However, training-induced adaptations in resistance artery morphology differed between young (increase in feed artery number) and old (increase in artery CSA) animals. The altered blood flow pattern induced by exercise training with old age would improve the local matching of O2 delivery to consumption within the skeletal muscle. PMID:23042906

  14. [Cardiac rehabilitation after coronary artery bypass surgery].

    PubMed

    Dayan, Victor; Ricca, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide with an increase in the incidence in younger populations. Today revascularization strategies are capable of alleviating acute ischemia and/or chronic ischemia. These can be performed percutaneously or through surgery. Even if we improve myocardial perfusion by these methods, the main determinant in maintaining patency of coronary arteries and bypass is a correctly instituted secondary prevention. This is the main focus of cardiac rehabilitation proposals. Although much has been published about the role of cardiac rehabilitation after percutaneous revascularization, there is little work able to synthesize the current state of cardiac rehabilitation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. The aim of this paper is to review the effect of rehabilitation in the return to work, survival, functional capacity, depression and anxiety, as well as compare centralized vs. home rehabilitation in this patient population.

  15. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  16. High efficiency multifrequency feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajioka, J. S.; Tsuda, G. I.; Leeper, W. A. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Antenna systems and particularly compact and simple antenna feeds which can transmit and receive simultaneously in at least three frequency bands, each with high efficiency and polarization diversity are described. The feed system is applicable for frequency bands having nominal frequency bands with the ratio 1:4:6. By way of example, satellite communications telemetry bands operate in frequency bands 0.8 - 1.0 GHz, 3.7 - 4.2 GHz and 5.9 - 6.4 GHz. In addition, the antenna system of the invention has monopulse capability for reception with circular or diverse polarization at frequency band 1.

  17. A laboratory model of the aortic root flow including the coronary arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querzoli, Giorgio; Fortini, Stefania; Espa, Stefania; Melchionna, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular flows have been extensively investigated by means of in vitro models to assess the prosthetic valve performances and to provide insight into the fluid dynamics of the heart and proximal aorta. In particular, the models for the study of the flow past the aortic valve have been continuously improved by including, among other things, the compliance of the vessel and more realistic geometries. The flow within the sinuses of Valsalva is known to play a fundamental role in the dynamics of the aortic valve since they host a recirculation region that interacts with the leaflets. The coronary arteries originate from the ostia located within two of the three sinuses, and their presence may significantly affect the fluid dynamics of the aortic root. In spite of their importance, to the extent of the authors' knowledge, coronary arteries were not included so far when modeling in vitro the transvalvular aortic flow. We present a pulse duplicator consisting of a passively pulsing ventricle, a compliant proximal aorta, and coronary arteries connected to the sinuses of Valsalva. The coronary flow is modulated by a self-regulating device mimicking the physiological mechanism, which is based on the contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle during the cardiac cycle. Results show that the model reproduces satisfyingly the coronary flow. The analysis of the time evolution of the velocity and vorticity fields within the aortic root reveals the main characteristics of the backflow generated through the aorta in order to feed the coronaries during the diastole. Experiments without coronary flow have been run for comparison. Interestingly, the lifetime of the vortex forming in the sinus of Valsalva during the systole is reduced by the presence of the coronaries. As a matter of fact, at the end of the systole, that vortex is washed out because of the suction generated by the coronary flow. Correspondingly, the valve closure is delayed and faster compared to the case with

  18. Testing Percutaneous Arterial Closure Devices: An Animal Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ni Ruifang; Kranokpiraksa, Pawanrat; Pavcnik, Dusan Kakizawa, Hideaki; Uchida, Barry T.; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef

    2009-03-15

    The ovine superficial femoral artery was used for testing the efficacy of percutaneous arterial closure devices (PACDs) in their developmental stage. Two topical devices containing chitostan, one staple-mediated PACD and a porcine small intestinal submucosa plug, were tested by follow-up angiography in 37 sheep. Absence or presence of bleeding and time to bleeding cessation were the main criteria for evaluation of PAVD efficacy. The results of these tests directed modification of individual PACDs and improved their efficacy.

  19. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels in the regulation of basal and agonist-elevated tones in isolated conduit arteries. Short communication.

    PubMed

    Pataricza, J; Márton, Z; Hegedus, Z; Krassói, Irén; Kun, A; Varró, A; Papp, J Gy

    2004-01-01

    Functional role of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels on the basal and agonist-elevated arterial tones was investigated in isolated rabbit aorta, porcine and canine coronary arteries as well as in human internal mammary artery. The vascular tones enhanced by contractile agents were increased further by preincubation of these conduit blood vessels with selective (charybdotoxin or iberiotoxin) or nonselective (tetraethylammonium) inhibitors of KCa channels. The basal tone (without an agonist) was increased only in the canine coronary artery. The results indicate a feed-back regulatory role of KCa channels counteracting the vasospasm of conduit arteries. PMID:16438119

  20. Uterine artery embolization

    MedlinePlus

    ... the procedure. UAE is less invasive than surgical treatments for uterine fibroids. Many women may return more quickly to activities ... SC, Spies JB, Worthington-Kirsch R, et al. Uterine artery embolization for ... from the FIBROID registry. Obstet Gynecol . 2008; 111:22-33. Munro ...

  1. [Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis].

    PubMed

    Sauguet, A; Honton, B

    2014-12-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis can cause ischaemic nephropathy and arterial hypertension. Renal artery stenosis (RAS) continues to be a problem for clinicians, with no clear consensus on how to investigate and assess the clinical significance of stenotic lesions and manage the findings. RAS caused by fibromuscular dysplasia is probably commoner than previously appreciated, should be actively looked for in younger hypertensive patients and can be managed successfully with angioplasty. Atheromatous RAS is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular events and increased cardiovascular mortality, and is likely to be seen with increasing frequency. Many patients with RAS may be managed effectively with medical therapy for several years without endovascular stenting, as demonstrated by randomized, prospective trials including the cardiovascular outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial, the Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) trial. These trials share the limitation of excluding subsets of patients with high-risk clinical presentations, including episodic pulmonary edema and rapidly progressing renal failure and hypertension. Blood pressure control and medication adjustment may become more difficult with declining renal function and may prevent the use of angiotensin receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current management of RAS for cardiologists in the context of recent randomized clinical trials. There is now interest in looking more closely at patient selection for intervention, with focus on intervening only in patients with the highest-risk presentations such as flash pulmonary edema, rapidly declining renal function and severe resistant hypertension. PMID:25450992

  2. Feed intake and competition in ewes on ad libitum or semi-restricted feeding of grass silage and hay.

    PubMed

    Bøe, K E; Ottosen, A M; Andersen, I L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of feeding level and type of roughage on feed intake, feeding behavior and competition of ewes. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with amount of roughage available (ad libitum or semi restricted) and type of roughage (grass silage or hay) as main factors. Forty-eight ewes were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 6 ewes. All groups were subjected to all 4 treatments, each treatment period lasted 7 d, and the order of treatments was rotated systematically. The ewes were video recorded for the 2 last days of each treatment period and feeding and general activity were scored every 10 min. All aggressive interactions and displacement at the feed barrier were scored continuously the first 3 h after feeding. Daily feed intake (P < 0.0001) and DMI (P < 0.0001) were both greater in the silage than in the hay treatment. Ewes in the semi-restricted treatment spent less time feeding (P < 0.0001), had a greater individual variation in feeding time (P < 0.05) and spent more time queuing for feed (standing maximum 1.5 m from the feeding barrier with the head towards the feed; P < 0.0001). Individual data showed that 5 ewes fed hay and 3 ewes fed silage reduced their time spent feeding more than 50% when the feeding level was reduced. When fed hay, the level of feeding did not affect number of aggressive interactions or displacements, but when fed silage the number of aggressive interactions (P < 0.01) and the number of displacements (P < 0.05) were much greater in the semi-restricted than in the ad libitum treatment. We conclude that even a minor restriction in the level of feeding will decrease time spent feeding and increase queuing and number of aggressive interactions when feeding space is also restricted, and that the increase in aggressive interactions is mainly for ewes fed grass silage.

  3. Feed Your Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failmezger, Tammie L.

    2006-01-01

    Language arts teachers and library media specialists bear the responsibility of teaching students how to properly feed their brains. In this article, the author describes how she teaches her students to make wise choices when selecting books. Furthermore, she presents the "Brain Food Pyramid" model that looks similar to the food pyramid but it…

  4. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  5. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  6. ASDC RSS Feeds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-08

    ... having to visit each one of them to see what's new. When you sign up, you receive breaking news on your computer as soon as it is released. How can I sign up? Select the link(s) above to view our "raw" RSS feed. In ...

  7. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... Your child's gastrostomy tube (G-tube) is a special tube in your child's stomach that will help deliver food and medicines until your ...

  8. Dust feed mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Milliman, Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

  9. Arterial Stiffness Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, Catherine; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background Aortic stiffness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular mortality in various clinical conditions. The aim of this review is to focus on the arterial stiffness gradient, to discuss the integrated role of medium-sized muscular conduit arteries in the regulation of pulsatile pressure and organ perfusion and to provide a rationale for integrating their mechanical properties into risk prediction. Summary The physiological arterial stiffness gradient results from a higher degree of vascular stiffness as the distance from the heart increases, creating multiple reflective sites and attenuating the pulsatile nature of the forward pressure wave along the arterial tree down to the microcirculation. The stiffness gradient hypothesis simultaneously explains its physiological beneficial effects from both cardiac and peripheral microcirculatory points of view. The loss or reversal of stiffness gradient leads to the transmission of a highly pulsatile pressure wave into the microcirculation. This suggests that a higher degree of stiffness of medium-sized conduit arteries may play a role in protecting the microcirculation from a highly pulsatile forward pressure wave. Using the ratio of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) to carotid-radial PWV, referred to as PWV ratio, a recent study in a dialysis cohort has shown that the PWV ratio is a better predictor of mortality than the classical carotid-femoral PWV. Key Messages Theoretically, the use of the PWV ratio seems more logical for risk determination than aortic stiffness as it provides a better estimation of the loss of stiffness gradient, which is the unifying hypothesis that explains the impact of aortic stiffness both on the myocardium and on peripheral organs. PMID:27195235

  10. Prospective Study of Elective Bilateral Versus Unilateral Femoral Arterial Puncture for Uterine Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Bratby, M. J.; Ramachandran, N.; Sheppard, N.; Kyriou, J.; Munneke, G. M.; Belli, A.-M.

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of elective bilateral femoral arterial punctures for uterine artery embolization (UAE) of symptomatic fibroids on fluoroscopy and procedural time, patient dose, and ease of procedure. We conducted a prospective study of UAE with either the intention to catheterize both uterine arteries using a single femoral puncture (n = 12) or elective bilateral arterial punctures from the outset (n = 12). The same two operators undertook each case. Main outcome measures were total procedure time, fluoroscopy time, dose-area product (DAP), and total skin dose. A simulation was then performed on an anthropomorphic phantom using the mean in vivo fluoroscopy parameters to estimate the ovarian dose. Bilateral UAE was achieved in all patients. None of the patients with initial unilateral arterial puncture required further contralateral arterial puncture. The mean fluoroscopy time in the group with elective bilateral punctures was 12.8 min, compared with a mean of 16.6 min in patients with unilateral puncture (p = 0.046). There was no significant difference in overall procedure time (p = 0.68). No puncture-site complications were found. Additional catheters were required only following unilateral puncture. The simulated dose was 25% higher with unilateral puncture. Although there was no significant difference in measured in vivo patient dose between the two groups (DAP, p = 0.32), this is likely to reflect the wide variation in other patient characteristics. Allowing for the small study size, our results show that the use of elective bilateral arterial punctures reduces fluoroscopy time, requires less catheter manipulation, and, according to the simulation model, has the potential to reduce patient dose. The overall procedure time, however, is not significantly reduced.

  11. Breast feeding: religious influences.

    PubMed

    Levin, S

    1979-01-01

    In Orthodox Jewish communities, mothers are expected to breast-feed their infants and this expectation is to some extent based on religious beliefs. The degree to which this expectation promotes breast-feeding success was assessed by comparing a group of 50 Orthodox Jewish mothers with a group of 50 secular Jewish mothers in regard to infant feeding practices. All of the women lived in the Yeoville suburb of Jahannesburg, South Africa. An effort was made to interview all Orthodox mothers with at least 1 child under the age of 5 living in the area and it was assumed that the 50 mothers in the study constituted all or most of that population. A group of 50 secular mothers, comparable in age, education, and general living conditions, was also interviewed. The 50 Orthodox mothers had a total of 155 children and the secular mothers had a total of 119 children. Despite the quasi-religious motivation of the Orthodox mothers to breast-feed, there were few differences in the infant feeding practices of the 2 groups. At the age of 1 month the ratio of breast-fed to bottle-fed infants was 2.5:1 for the infants of Orthodox mothers and 2.3:1 for the infants of secular mothers. At age 6 months the ratio was 1:3 for both groups. At age 9 months the ratio was 1:6.4 for Orthodox mothers and 1:6 for secular mothers. The children of Orthodox mothers were breast-fed for an average of 5 months while the children of mothers of secular children were breast-fed for 4-1/2 months.

  12. Anomalous Feeding of the Left Upper Lobe.

    PubMed

    Hazzard, Christopher; Itagaki, Shinobu; Lajam, Fouad; Flores, Raja M

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of a 53-year-old woman who presented with massive hemoptysis. Computed tomographic angiography revealed an anomalous vessel arising from the abdominal aorta, coursing anteriorly and through the diaphragm, and feeding the left upper lobe. At operation the vessel was found to anastomose to the left upper lobe lingula, which contained multiple vascular abnormalities and arteriovenous fistulas. The vessel was ligated, and the affected portion of the left upper lobe was resected. Anomalous systemic arterial supply of an upper lobe is an especially rare form of a Pryce type 1 abnormality. Recognition of these unusual anatomic variants is crucial to successful treatment and avoidance of adverse events. PMID:27549539

  13. Oxygen Mass Transport in Stented Coronary Arteries.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Eoin A; Dunne, Adrian S; Martin, David M; Boyle, Fergal J

    2016-02-01

    Oxygen deficiency, known as hypoxia, in arterial walls has been linked to increased intimal hyperplasia, which is the main adverse biological process causing in-stent restenosis. Stent implantation has significant effects on the oxygen transport into the arterial wall. Elucidating these effects is critical to optimizing future stent designs. In this study the most advanced oxygen transport model developed to date was assessed in two test cases and used to compare three coronary stent designs. Additionally, the predicted results from four simplified blood oxygen transport models are compared in the two test cases. The advanced model showed good agreement with experimental measurements within the mass-transfer boundary layer and at the luminal surface; however, more work is needed in predicting the oxygen transport within the arterial wall. Simplifying the oxygen transport model within the blood flow produces significant errors in predicting the oxygen transport in arteries. This study can be used as a guide for all future numerical studies in this area and the advanced model could provide a powerful tool in aiding design of stents and other cardiovascular devices.

  14. Main Oxidizer Valve Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addona, Brad; Eddleman, David

    2015-01-01

    A developmental Main Oxidizer Valve (MOV) was designed by NASA-MSFC using additive manufacturing processes. The MOV is a pneumatically actuated poppet valve to control the flow of liquid oxygen to an engine's injector. A compression spring is used to return the valve to the closed state when pneumatic pressure is removed from the valve. The valve internal parts are cylindrical in shape, which lends itself to traditional lathe and milling operations. However, the valve body represents a complicated shape and contains the majority of the mass of the valve. Additive manufacturing techniques were used to produce a part that optimized mass and allowed for design features not practical with traditional machining processes.

  15. Feeding the Monster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  16. Pulmonary artery involvement in aorto-arteritis. An analysis of DSA.

    PubMed

    He, N S; Liu, F; Wu, E H; Zhang, C L; Yang, J G; Tan, J; Gao, S; Yang, L C; Zhou, Y B

    1990-08-01

    Angiographic features of the pulmonary artery were studied in 24 patients with aortoarteritis (Takayasu's arteritis) by digital subtraction angiography. The pulmonary artery involvement was found in nine cases (37.5%). The right side was involved in eight and the left side in five cases. The right pulmonary artery was involved in two cases, the lobar artery in six, the segmental artery in six, and subsegmental as well as peripheral branches in four. The angiographic features were stenosis and/or occlusion as were the changes of the systemic arteries in aorto-arteritis. The aorta and its main branches were involved in all nine patients, but the severity of pulmonary vascular changes was not always related to the systemic vascular changes. Bronchial angiography demonstrated enlarged and tortuous bronchial arteries in four cases. Lung ECT revealed abnormalities in four cases. PMID:1978705

  17. Laparoscopic Management of a Very Rare Case: Cystic Artery Pseudoaneurysm Secondary to Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Ferahman, Sina; Demiryas, Süleyman; Samanci, Cesur

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of a cystic artery is a rare entity that commonly occurs secondary to biliary procedures. Most of the cases in literature are consisted of ruptured aneurysms and to our knowledge, except our case, there were only 3 cases with unruptured aneurysms, which incidentally were detected by radiological methods. When cystic artery pseudoaneurysm is present with acute cholecystitis, most of the reports in literature suggested open cholecystectomy with the ligation of the cystic artery as a main treatment option. In this paper we present a case of acute cholecystitis with unruptured cystic artery pseudoaneurysm that incidentally was detected by computed tomography (CT). Cystic artery pseudoaneurysm was handled laparoscopically with simultaneous cholecystectomy. Due to high risk of rupture, surgeons have evaded laparoscopic approach to acute cholecystitis, which accompanied cystic artery pseudoaneurysm. However herein, we proved that laparoscopic management of cystic artery pseudoaneurysm with simultaneous cholecystectomy is feasible and reliable method. PMID:27635274

  18. Laparoscopic Management of a Very Rare Case: Cystic Artery Pseudoaneurysm Secondary to Acute Cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Alis, Deniz; Ferahman, Sina; Demiryas, Süleyman; Samanci, Cesur; Ustabasioglu, Fethi Emre

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of a cystic artery is a rare entity that commonly occurs secondary to biliary procedures. Most of the cases in literature are consisted of ruptured aneurysms and to our knowledge, except our case, there were only 3 cases with unruptured aneurysms, which incidentally were detected by radiological methods. When cystic artery pseudoaneurysm is present with acute cholecystitis, most of the reports in literature suggested open cholecystectomy with the ligation of the cystic artery as a main treatment option. In this paper we present a case of acute cholecystitis with unruptured cystic artery pseudoaneurysm that incidentally was detected by computed tomography (CT). Cystic artery pseudoaneurysm was handled laparoscopically with simultaneous cholecystectomy. Due to high risk of rupture, surgeons have evaded laparoscopic approach to acute cholecystitis, which accompanied cystic artery pseudoaneurysm. However herein, we proved that laparoscopic management of cystic artery pseudoaneurysm with simultaneous cholecystectomy is feasible and reliable method. PMID:27635274

  19. Laparoscopic Management of a Very Rare Case: Cystic Artery Pseudoaneurysm Secondary to Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Ferahman, Sina; Demiryas, Süleyman; Samanci, Cesur

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of a cystic artery is a rare entity that commonly occurs secondary to biliary procedures. Most of the cases in literature are consisted of ruptured aneurysms and to our knowledge, except our case, there were only 3 cases with unruptured aneurysms, which incidentally were detected by radiological methods. When cystic artery pseudoaneurysm is present with acute cholecystitis, most of the reports in literature suggested open cholecystectomy with the ligation of the cystic artery as a main treatment option. In this paper we present a case of acute cholecystitis with unruptured cystic artery pseudoaneurysm that incidentally was detected by computed tomography (CT). Cystic artery pseudoaneurysm was handled laparoscopically with simultaneous cholecystectomy. Due to high risk of rupture, surgeons have evaded laparoscopic approach to acute cholecystitis, which accompanied cystic artery pseudoaneurysm. However herein, we proved that laparoscopic management of cystic artery pseudoaneurysm with simultaneous cholecystectomy is feasible and reliable method.

  20. Design of a novel automated methanol feed system for pilot-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Hamaker, Kent H; Johnson, Daniel C; Bellucci, Joseph J; Apgar, Kristie R; Soslow, Sherry; Gercke, John C; Menzo, Darrin J; Ton, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris requires a large volume of methanol feed during the induction phase. However, a large volume of methanol feed is difficult to use in the processing suite because of the inconvenience of constant monitoring, manual manipulation steps, and fire and explosion hazards. To optimize and improve safety of the methanol feed process, a novel automated methanol feed system has been designed and implemented for industrial fermentation of P. pastoris. Details of the design of the methanol feed system are described. The main goals of the design were to automate the methanol feed process and to minimize the hazardous risks associated with storing and handling large quantities of methanol in the processing area. The methanol feed system is composed of two main components: a bulk feed (BF) system and up to three portable process feed (PF) systems. The BF system automatically delivers methanol from a central location to the portable PF system. The PF system provides precise flow control of linear, step, or exponential feed of methanol to the fermenter. Pilot-scale fermentations with linear and exponential methanol feeds were conducted using two Mut(+) (methanol utilization plus) strains, one expressing a recombinant therapeutic protein and the other a monoclonal antibody. Results show that the methanol feed system is accurate, safe, and efficient. The feed rates for both linear and exponential feed methods were within ± 5% of the set points, and the total amount of methanol fed was within 1% of the targeted volume.

  1. Design of a novel automated methanol feed system for pilot-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Hamaker, Kent H; Johnson, Daniel C; Bellucci, Joseph J; Apgar, Kristie R; Soslow, Sherry; Gercke, John C; Menzo, Darrin J; Ton, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris requires a large volume of methanol feed during the induction phase. However, a large volume of methanol feed is difficult to use in the processing suite because of the inconvenience of constant monitoring, manual manipulation steps, and fire and explosion hazards. To optimize and improve safety of the methanol feed process, a novel automated methanol feed system has been designed and implemented for industrial fermentation of P. pastoris. Details of the design of the methanol feed system are described. The main goals of the design were to automate the methanol feed process and to minimize the hazardous risks associated with storing and handling large quantities of methanol in the processing area. The methanol feed system is composed of two main components: a bulk feed (BF) system and up to three portable process feed (PF) systems. The BF system automatically delivers methanol from a central location to the portable PF system. The PF system provides precise flow control of linear, step, or exponential feed of methanol to the fermenter. Pilot-scale fermentations with linear and exponential methanol feeds were conducted using two Mut(+) (methanol utilization plus) strains, one expressing a recombinant therapeutic protein and the other a monoclonal antibody. Results show that the methanol feed system is accurate, safe, and efficient. The feed rates for both linear and exponential feed methods were within ± 5% of the set points, and the total amount of methanol fed was within 1% of the targeted volume. PMID:21485036

  2. The effect of feeding on the respiratory activity of the sloth.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, M A C; Lima, A M J; Bezerra, A P; Duarte, D P F; Da-Costa, C P

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to confirm whether feeding influences the resting breathing rate and to observe possible alterations in blood gas and pH levels produced by feeding in unanesthetized sloths (Bradypus variegatus). Five adult male sloths (4.1 +/- 0.6 kg) were placed daily in an experimental chair for a period of at least 4 h for sitting adaptation. Five measurements were made for each sloth. However, the sloths one, two and five were studied once and the sloths three and four were studied twice. Breathing rate was determined with an impedance meter and the output signal was digitized. Arterial blood samples were collected for blood gas analysis with a BGE electrolytes analyzer and adjusted for the animal's body temperature and hemoglobin content. The data are reported as mean +/- SD and were collected during the resting period (8:00-10:00 h) and during the feeding period (16:00-18:00 h). The mean breathing rate increased during mastication of ymbahuba leaves (rest: 5.0 +/- 1, feeding: 10 +/- 1 bpm). No significant alterations were observed in arterial pH (rest: 7.42 +/- 0.05, feeding: 7.45 +/- 0.03), PCO2 (rest: 35.2 +/- 5.3, feeding: 33.3 +/- 4.4 mmHg) or PO2 (rest: 77.5 +/- 8.2, feeding: 78.4 +/- 5.2 mmHg) levels. These results indicate that in unanesthetized sloths 1) feeding evokes an increase in breathing rate without a significant change in arterial pH, PCO2 or PO2 levels, and 2) the increase in breathing rate produced by feeding probably is due to the act of mastication.

  3. Feeding gastrostomy. Assistant or assassin?

    PubMed

    Burtch, G D; Shatney, C H

    1985-04-01

    Following several deaths from pulmonary aspiration in severely ill or chronically debilitated patients receiving nasogastric tube feedings, a study was undertaken to determine the incidence of aspiration pneumonitis in patients with feeding gastrostomies. During a 15-month interval, 22 feeding gastrostomies and nine feeding jejunostomies were performed. In the former group, eight patients experienced aspiration pneumonitis, with two deaths. Six patients with Stamm gastrostomies and two patients with permanent mucosal-lined gastrostomies experienced pulmonary aspiration. In contrast, aspiration pneumonia did not occur in our small series of patients with feeding jejunostomies. The high incidence of pulmonary aspiration in patients with feeding gastrostomies strongly suggests that, for chronic enteral nutrition in patients who are unable to protect their airway, a feeding jejunostomy is preferable to a feeding gastrostomy. PMID:3920939

  4. Coronary artery fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Said, S.A.M.; Thiadens, A.A.H.J.; Fieren, M.J.C.H.; Meijboom, E.J.; van der Werf, T.; Bennink, G.B.W.E.

    2002-01-01

    The aetiology of congenital coronary artery fistulas remains a challenging issue. Coronary arteries with an anatomically normal origin may, for obscure reasons, terminate abnormally and communicate with different single or multiple cardiac chambers or great vessels. When this occurs, the angiographic morphological appearance may vary greatly from discrete channels to plexiform network of vessels. Coronary arteriovenous fistulas (CAVFs) have neither specific signs nor pathognomonic symptoms; the spectrum of clinical features varies considerably. The clinical presentation of symptomatic cases can include angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, fatigue, dyspnoea, CHF, SBE, ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias or even sudden cardiac death. CAVFs may, however, be a coincidental finding during diagnostic coronary angiography (CAG). CAG is considered the gold standard for diagnosing and delineating the morphological anatomy and pathway of CAVFs. There are various tailored therapeutic modalities for the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of CAVFs, including conservative pharmacological strategy, percutaneous transluminal embolisation and surgical ligation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696067

  5. Hydrodynamics of Choanoflagellate Feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Anders; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Kiorboe, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Choanoflagellate filter feeding is a poorly understood process. Studies indicate that the pressure differences created by the beating of the flagellum are insufficient to produce an adequate water flow through the collar filter, the mechanism believed to ultimately transport food particles to the cell. The collar is composed of numerous microvilli arranged as a palisade, and the low porosity of the filter provides high resistance to the water flow. Additionally, ultrastructural studies often show signs of mucus-like substances in and around the collar, potentially further hampering water flow. We present high-speed video of live material showing the particle retention and the beating of the flagellum in the choanoflagellate species Diaphanoeca grandis. We use the observations as input to model the low Reynolds number fluid dynamics of the fluid force produced by the flagellum and the resulting feeding flow.

  6. Composite antenna feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakstys, V. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A composite antenna feed subsystem concentrated in a small area at the prime focus of the parabola of a satellite parabolic reflector accomodates a plurality of frequency bands. The arrays comprising the subsystem are mounted on the top cover of a communication module. A multimode horn is arranged at the center of the subsystem axis which functions at X- And C-band frequencies, and a cross array consisting of individual elements form the S-band feed, with one arm of the S-band array containing an element mutually shared with the L-band array. Provision is also made for UHF frequencies, and a dipole arrangement for VHF frequencies is arranged around the S-band arms.

  7. Transcatheter coil embolization of multiple bilateral congenital coronary artery fistulae.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Juan F; Thai, Hoa Tran; Kabir, Tito; Roguelov, Christan; Eeckhout, Eric

    2010-03-01

    Coronary artery fistulae represent the most frequent congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries, but remain a relatively uncommon clinical problem. Moreover, multiple fistulae originating from both the left and the right coronary arteries and draining into the left ventricular chamber are a rare condition. Due to the low prevalence of these anomalies, the appropriate management of patients with symptomatic coronary artery fistulae is controversial. Transcatheter closure approaches have emerged as a less invasive strategy and are nowadays considered a valuable alternative to surgical correction with similar effectiveness, morbidity and mortality. The percutaneous management, however, is mainly limited by the individual anatomic features of the fistula and an appropriate patient's selection is considered as a key determining factor to achieve complete occlusion. Thus, success rates of transcatheter closure techniques reported in the literature are extremely variable and highly dependent upon the nature of the follow up, which, at present, is not standardized. The optimal management of symptomatic patients with multiple coronary artery fistulae still remains a challenging problem and has been traditionally considered as an indication for cardiac surgery. We report here the case of a patient with double bilateral congenital coronary artery fistulae arising from both the left and right coronary arteries and draining individually into the left ventricular chamber. This patient underwent successful transcatheter anterograde closure of both fistulae using a microcoil embolization technique.

  8. Extrahepatic Blood Supply to Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Angiographic Demonstration and Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Matsui, Osamu; Taki, Keiichi; Minami, Tetsuya; Ryu, Yasuji; Ito, Chiharu; Nakamura, Koichi; Inoue, Dai; Notsumata, Kazuo; Toya, Daisyu; Tanaka, Nobuyoshi; Mitsui, Takeshi

    2006-02-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the incidence of each extrahepatic collateral pathway to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to assess technical success rates and complications of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) through each collateral. Methods. We retrospective evaluated extrahepatic collateral pathways to HCC on angiography in 386 procedures on 181 consecutive patients. One hundred and seventy patients had previously undergone TACE. TACE through extrahepatic collaterals using iodized oil and gelatin sponge particles was performed when a catheter was advanced into the tumor-feeding branch to avoid nontarget embolization. Results. A single collateral was revealed in 275 TACE procedures, two were revealed in 74, and three or more were revealed in 34. Incidences of collateral source to HCC were 83% from the right inferior phrenic artery (IPA), 24% from the cystic artery, 13% from the omental artery, 12% from the right renal capsular artery (RCA) and left IPA, 8% from the right internal mammary artery (IMA) and right intercostal artery (ICA), and 7% from the right inferior adrenal artery (IAA). Technical success rates of TACE were 53% in the right ICA, 70% in the cystic artery, 74% in the omental artery, 93% in the left IPA, 96% in the right IPA, and 100% in the right RCA, right IMA, and right IAA. Complications included skin necrosis after TACE through the right IMA (n = 1), cholecystitis after TACE through the cystic artery (n = 1), and ulcer formation after TACE through the right gastric artery (n = 1), in addition to pleural effusion and basal atelectasis after TACE through the IPA and IMA. Conclusion. Our study suggests that TACE through extrahepatic collaterals is possible with high success rates, and is also relatively safe.

  9. Corrugated waveguide monopulse feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, R. D.; Clarricoats, P. J. B.

    1980-04-01

    The excitation coefficients of modes in a circular corrugated waveguide that arise when dominant modes are incident from a cluster of four square waveguides are calculated. Monopulse-like radiation patterns arise when modes in the input guides are appropriately phased. Factors influencing the crosspolar performance of the feed are discussed, and the dependence of the excitation coefficients on waveguide and junction parameters is predicted.

  10. A successful patch angioplasty with auto-pulmonary wall for congenital coronary left main trunk occlusion in a young child.

    PubMed

    Terada, Takafumi; Sakurai, Hajime; Nonaka, Toshimichi; Sakurai, Takahisa; Sugiura, Junya; Taneichi, Tetsuyoshi; Ohtsuka, Ryohei

    2015-12-01

    Congenital occlusion of the left main coronary trunk is a life-threatening abnormality, and its optimal management remains controversial. This report describes a case of successful patch angioplasty with auto-pulmonary artery for a 12-year-old boy with congenital left main trunk occlusion. We divided the main pulmonary artery, harvested a pulmonary artery wall strip, and performed patch angioplasty of the occluded left main trunk ostium. We were able to clearly expose the left main trunk behind the pulmonary artery because the obstruction was divided for the patch material. The postoperative course was uneventful, and coronary angiography at 4 months after surgery showed excellent patency of the left main trunk. The auto-pulmonary arterial wall was easy to handle during angioplasty, and its favorable durability has been established both in the Ross procedures and in an arterial switch procedure. Therefore, we conclude that patch angioplasty using a piece of the pulmonary arterial wall represents a good alternative to conventional coronary artery bypass grafting.

  11. LATENT LIFE OF ARTERIES.

    PubMed

    Carrel, A

    1910-07-23

    When a segment of artery, killed by heat, formalin or glycerin is transplanted, it undergoes a rapid degeneration. Its muscle fibers disappear while the tissue of the host reacts by building a new wall of connective tissue. When the transplanted vessel has been preserved in a condition of latent life, no degeneration of the wall occurs, or the wall undergoes only partial degeneration. The muscle fibers can keep their normal appearance, even for a long time after the operation. It is, therefore, demonstrated that arteries can be preserved outside of the body in a condition of unmanifested actual life. The best method of preservation consists of placing the vessels, immersed in vaselin, in an ice box, the temperature of which is slightly above the freezing point. From a surgical standpoint, the transplantation of preserved vessels can be used with some safety. When the arteries were kept in defibrinated blood or vaselin and in cold storage, the proportion of positive results was 75 and 80 per cent., and this can probably be increased. PMID:19867337

  12. Pediatric arterial interventions.

    PubMed

    Marshalleck, Francis

    2010-12-01

    The spectrum of pediatric vascular pathology differs from the adult population and it varies greatly to include congenital and acquired disorders. Although catheter-directed angiography remains the gold standard, most vascular conditions in the child can be adequately diagnosed with magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomographic angiography, or duplex/Doppler ultrasonography with only a few exceptions, such as intrarenal arterial stenosis, small vessel vasculitides, and visceral vascular malformations. The advancement of catheter and wire technology has made it increasingly possible for complex arterial interventions to be performed in children, including embolization, angioplasty with stent insertion, thrombolysis, and endovascular neurological procedures. More angiographic procedures are being performed with the aim of also being therapeutic. Special considerations in children include the use of appropriate equipment and adequate dosing of contrast and of the various medications used during angiography, particularly in patients less than 15 kg in weight. This article will focus on the management of renovascular hypertension, liver transplant hepatic arterial intervention, and the use of carbon dioxide gas as a contrast agent in the child.

  13. Assessment of feed resources, feeding practices and coping strategies to feed scarcity by smallholder urban dairy producers in Jimma town, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Duguma, Belay; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder dairy production is increasingly becoming popular in Jimma town. However, feed shortage is a major constraint to dairy production. The objectives of this study was to assess feed resources, feeding practices and farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy producers in Jimma town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. A total of 54 randomly selected dairy farmers were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and through direct observations. Twenty major feed types used by dairy farmers were identified and categorized into five classes: natural pasture grazing, green feeds, hay, concentrate (commercial mix and agro-industrial by-products) and non-conventional feed resources. Green feeds-fresh or succulent grasses and legumes (mean rank = 0.361), concentrate (0.256), hay (0.198), non-conventional feeds (0.115) and natural pasture grazing (0.070) were ranked as the main feed resources in that order of importance. Green feed (94.4 % of the respondents) was found to be the main basal diet of dairy cattle. Overall, wheat bran (85.2 % of the respondents), commercial concentrate (55.6 %), noug (Guizotia abyssinica) cake (20.4 %), cotton seed cake (7.4 %) and molasses (7.4 %) were the main concentrate supplements used (P > 0.05). Local brew waste (attela) (77.8 % of the respondents), bean and pea hulls (42.6 %) enset (Ensete ventricosum) leaf and pseudo-stem (37 %), sugarcane tops (33.3 %), banana leaf and stem/stover (16.7 %) and papaya stem (16.7 %) were the dominant non-conventional feed resources in the surveyed area (P > 0.05). About 79.6, 7.4, 1.9 and 11.1 % of the farmers used zero-, semi-zero-, and the combination of zero- and semi-zero- and free-grazing systems, respectively. Most farmers (90.7 %) offered concentrate supplements to milking cows. However, supplementation did not consider milk yield, physiological status and condition of cows. All the farmers (100

  14. Assessment of feed resources, feeding practices and coping strategies to feed scarcity by smallholder urban dairy producers in Jimma town, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Duguma, Belay; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder dairy production is increasingly becoming popular in Jimma town. However, feed shortage is a major constraint to dairy production. The objectives of this study was to assess feed resources, feeding practices and farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy producers in Jimma town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. A total of 54 randomly selected dairy farmers were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and through direct observations. Twenty major feed types used by dairy farmers were identified and categorized into five classes: natural pasture grazing, green feeds, hay, concentrate (commercial mix and agro-industrial by-products) and non-conventional feed resources. Green feeds-fresh or succulent grasses and legumes (mean rank = 0.361), concentrate (0.256), hay (0.198), non-conventional feeds (0.115) and natural pasture grazing (0.070) were ranked as the main feed resources in that order of importance. Green feed (94.4 % of the respondents) was found to be the main basal diet of dairy cattle. Overall, wheat bran (85.2 % of the respondents), commercial concentrate (55.6 %), noug (Guizotia abyssinica) cake (20.4 %), cotton seed cake (7.4 %) and molasses (7.4 %) were the main concentrate supplements used (P > 0.05). Local brew waste (attela) (77.8 % of the respondents), bean and pea hulls (42.6 %) enset (Ensete ventricosum) leaf and pseudo-stem (37 %), sugarcane tops (33.3 %), banana leaf and stem/stover (16.7 %) and papaya stem (16.7 %) were the dominant non-conventional feed resources in the surveyed area (P > 0.05). About 79.6, 7.4, 1.9 and 11.1 % of the farmers used zero-, semi-zero-, and the combination of zero- and semi-zero- and free-grazing systems, respectively. Most farmers (90.7 %) offered concentrate supplements to milking cows. However, supplementation did not consider milk yield, physiological status and condition of cows. All the farmers (100

  15. Overview of FEED, the feeding experiments end-user database.

    PubMed

    Wall, Christine E; Vinyard, Christopher J; Williams, Susan H; Gapeyev, Vladimir; Liu, Xianhua; Lapp, Hilmar; German, Rebecca Z

    2011-08-01

    The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format stored at a central source, develop a standardized terminology for describing and organizing the data, and carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as text and images that describe experimental protocols, research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing digital archive that will facilitate new research into understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy.

  16. Overview of FEED, the Feeding Experiments End-user Database

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Christine E.; Vinyard, Christopher J.; Williams, Susan H.; Gapeyev, Vladimir; Liu, Xianhua; Lapp, Hilmar; German, Rebecca Z.

    2011-01-01

    The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format stored at a central source, develop a standardized terminology for describing and organizing the data, and carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as text and images that describe experimental protocols, research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing digital archive that will facilitate new research into understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy. PMID:21700574

  17. Vein graft adaptation and fistula maturation in the arterial environment

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Daniel Y; Chen, Elizabeth Y; Wong, Daniel J; Yamamoto, Kota; Protack, Clinton D; Williams, Willis T; Assi, Roland; Hall, Michael R; Sadaghianloo, Nirvana; Dardik, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Veins are exposed to the arterial environment during two common surgical procedures, creation of vein grafts and arteriovenous fistulae (AVF). In both cases veins adapt to the arterial environment that is characterized by different hemodynamic conditions and increased oxygen tension compared to the venous environment. Successful venous adaptation to the arterial environment is critical for long term success of the vein graft or AVF, and in both cases is generally characterized by venous dilation and wall thickening. However, AVF are exposed to a high flow, high shear stress, low pressure arterial environment, and adapt mainly via outward dilation with less intimal thickening. Vein grafts are exposed to a moderate flow, moderate shear stress, high pressure arterial environment, and adapt mainly via increased wall thickening with less outward dilation. We review the data that describe these differences, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate these processes. Despite extensive research, there are few differences in the molecular pathways that regulate cell proliferation and migration or matrix synthesis, secretion, or degradation currently identified between vein graft adaptation and AVF maturation that account for the different types of venous adaptation to arterial environments. PMID:24582063

  18. Coronary artery diameter can be assessed reliably with transthoracic echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Tuomas O; Saraste, Markku; Koskenvuo, Juha W; Airaksinen, K E Juhani; Toikka, Jyri O; Saraste, Antti; Pärkkä, Jussi P; Hartiala, Jaakko J

    2004-04-01

    We studied whether diameters of coronary arteries can be measured accurately with the use of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). By knowing the anatomic diameter of the coronary artery together with coronary flow velocity it is possible to measure coronary flow volume more precisely by TTE. However, the suitability of TTE for measurement of diameters of all main epicardial coronary arteries has not been systematically validated. We measured the diameters of the left main (LM), left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCX), and right coronary arteries (RCA) with the use of TTE [manual two-dimensional (2D), color-Doppler, and automated 2D analysis] in 30 patients who had normal coronary anatomy. We compared these diameters to those measured with quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). We could measure diameters of LM, LAD, LCX, and RCA by TTE in up to 37%, 63%, 7%, and 60% of patients, respectively. The overall correlation coefficients between TTE and QCA measurements were 0.83 (P < 0.01) with manual 2D analysis, 0.82 (P < 0.01) with automated 2D analysis, and 0.94 (P < 0.01) with a color-Doppler-based analysis. Interobserver variability of TTE measurements was low (coefficient of variation 5.4 +/- 4.6-7.5 +/- 8.8%). TTE is an accurate method to evaluate coronary artery diameter in patients with healthy coronary arteries.

  19. Endovascular Exclusion of an External Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm Using a Covered Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Riesenman, Paul J.; Mendes, Robert R.; Mauro, Matthew A.; Farber, Mark A.

    2007-09-15

    Aneurysmal lesions of the external carotid artery are extremely rare. A case is presented of a 3.8 cm right external carotid artery pseudoaneurysm treated by transluminal exclusion using an endovascular stent-graft. Following stent-graft placement, complete occlusion of the aneurysmal sac and main vessel lumen patency was successfully demonstrated. This report demonstrates the technical feasibility of utilizing stent-grafts to treat aneurysmal lesions involving the external carotid artery.

  20. Direct Needle Puncture and Embolization of Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysm in Case of Chronic Atrophic Calcific Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amit; Rampal, Jagadeesh Singh; Reddy, D. Nageshwar; Rao, Guduru Venkat

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Gastro-Intestinal bleeding remains a frequent clinical dilemma and common cause of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality. Case Report We report a case of pseudo aneurysm of splenic artery developed after an episode of acute on chronic pancreatitis which was treated by direct percutaneous puncture of pseudoaneurysm and embolization by coils. Conclusions The aim was to preserve the main splenic artery and avoid the complications of splenic artery embolization like infarcts and abscess. PMID:27757174

  1. Comparative analysis of the course of the facial and transverse facial arteries in selected ruminant species.

    PubMed

    Zdun, Maciej; Frąckowiak, Hieronim; Kowalczyk, Karolina; Maryniak, Hieronim; Kiełtyka-Kurc, Agata

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes variations in patterns of origin from the main arteries as well as of branching and course demonstrated on the basis of selected facial arteries in several species of ruminants. The studies included 35 species of 27 genera, 9 subfamilies of animals belonging to families of Bovidae, Cervidae, Giraffidae and Moschidae from the suborder of Ruminantia, including species maintained by humans. Altogether, 435 preparations of head arteries were studied. Arteries of the examined animals were filled with acetone-dissolved stained vinyl superchloride or stained latex LBS3060. The facial artery was found to originate from the main arteries of the head in three different manners. In species devoid of facial arteries, the presence of a pronounced transverse facial artery could be demonstrated. Division of the animals into large and small ruminants, generally accepted by authors of animal anatomy textbooks, was found to be oversimplified and lacking in universal character, as to the patterns of origin and course of the facial artery and the transverse facial artery.

  2. Arterial circulation of the spinal cord and brain in the Monodontidae (order Cetacea).

    PubMed

    Vogl, A W; Fisher, H D

    1981-11-01

    In this paper we document retial supply of the spinal cord and describe the arterial vascular pattern of the brain in the whale family Monodontidae. Observations are based on gross dissections of four brains, two each of Monodon monoceros and Delphinapterus leucas, and one spinal cord from M. monoceros. Vessels of the spinal cord arise from extradural retia in the neural canal. Arteries originating from the retia penetrate the dura between successive spinal roots (mainly ventral) and not in association with them, unlike radicular arteries of other mammals. Also, these vessels are uniformly distributed and contribute equally to a plexus surrounding the cord. An A. radicularis magna is not present, and neither are distinct anterior or posterior spinal arteries. Circulation to the brain is effected by two pairs of arteries originating from intracranial retia. The rostral pair supplies most of the forebrain (prosencephalon), whereas the more caudal pair supplies mainly the midbrain (mesencephalon) and hindbrain (rhombencephalon). The circulatory pattern is characterized by 1) complete independence of anterior cerebral arteries (no anastomoses); 2) extensive cortical supply by the anterior choroidal arteries; 3) absence of subdural communicating vessels between rostral and caudal trunks; 4) union of caudal trunks to form a small basilar artery; and 5) absence of vertebral arteries and hence of a vertebral basilar system. There are some obvious differences between subdural arteries in the Monodontidae and those in other mammals; however, their general patterns of distribution are similar, and we suggest that most of the vessels, at least in the cranium, are homologous. PMID:7299826

  3. Arterial stiffness as a risk factor for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Josh; Farmer, John

    2014-02-01

    Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor, and clinical trials have demonstrated that successful reduction of elevated blood pressure to target levels translates into decreased risk for the development of coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, and renal failure. The arterial system had previously been regarded as a passive conduit for the transportation of arterial blood to peripheral tissues. The physiologic role the arterial system was greatly expanded by the recognition of the central role of the endothelial function in a variety of physiologic processes. The role of arterial function and structure in cardiovascular physiology was expanded with the development of a variety of parameters that evaluate arterial stiffness. Markers of arterial stiffness have been correlated with cardiovascular outcomes, and have been classified as an emerging risk factor that provides prognostic information beyond standard stratification strategies involving hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia and smoking. Multiple epidemiologic studies have correlated markers of arterial stiffness such as pulse-wave velocity, augmentation index and pulse pressure with risk for the development of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. Additionally, measurements of arterial stiffness had clarified the results of clinical trials that demonstrated differing impacts on clinical outcomes, despite similar reductions in blood pressure, as measured by brachial and sphygmomanometry.

  4. Carotid and vertebral artery dissection syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Thanvi, B; Munshi, S; Dawson, S; Robinson, T

    2005-01-01

    Cervicocerebral arterial dissections (CAD) are an important cause of strokes in younger patients accounting for nearly 20% of strokes in patients under the age of 45 years. Extracranial internal carotid artery dissections comprise 70%–80% and extracranial vertebral dissections account for about 15% of all CAD. Aetiopathogenesis of CAD is incompletely understood, though trauma, respiratory infections, and underlying arteriopathy are considered important. A typical picture of local pain, headache, and ipsilateral Horner's syndrome followed after several hours by cerebral or retinal ischaemia is rare. Doppler ultrasound, MRI/MRA, and CT angiography are useful non-invasive diagnostic tests. The treatment of extracranial CAD is mainly medical using anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents although controlled studies to show their effectiveness are lacking. The prognosis of extracranial CAD is generally much better than that of the intracranial CAD. Recurrences are rare in CAD. PMID:15937204

  5. Anatomical Variations of Brachial Artery - Its Morphology, Embryogenesis and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    KS, Siddaraju; Venumadhav, Nelluri; Sharma, Ashish; Kumar, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accurate knowledge of variation pattern of the major arteries of upper limb is of considerable practical importance in the conduct of reparative surgery in the arm, forearm and hand however brachial artery and its terminal branches variations are less common. Aim: Accordingly the present study was designed to evaluate the anatomical variations of the brachial artery and its morphology, embryogenesis and clinical implications. Materials and Methods: In an anatomical study 140 upper limb specimens of 70 cadavers (35 males and 35 females) were used and anatomical variations of the brachial artery have been documented. Results: Accessory brachial artery was noted in eight female cadavers (11.43%). Out of eight cadavers in three cadavers (4.29%) an unusual bilateral accessory brachial artery arising from the axillary artery and it is continuing in the forearm as superficial accessory ulnar artery was noted. Rare unusual variant unilateral accessory brachial artery and its reunion with the main brachial artery in the cubital fossa and its variable course in relation to the musculocutaneous nerve and median nerve were also noted in five cadavers (7.14%). Conclusion: As per our knowledge such anatomical variations of brachial artery and its terminal branches with their relation to the surrounding structures are not reported in the modern medical literature. An awareness of such a presence is valuable for the surgeons and radiologists in evaluation of angiographic images, vascular and re-constructive surgery or appropriate treatment for compressive neuropathies. PMID:25653931

  6. Ovarian Artery: Angiographic Appearance, Embolization and Relevance to Uterine Fibroid Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Pelage, J.P. Walker, W.J.; Le Dref, O.; Rymer, R.

    2003-06-15

    Purpose: To describe the angiographic appearance of the ovarian artery and its main variations that may be relevant to uterine fibroid embolization. Methods: The flush aortograms of 294 women who had been treated by uterine artery embolization for fibroids were reviewed. Significant arterial supply to the fibroid, and the origin and diameter of identified ovarian arteries were recorded. In patients with additional embolization of the ovarian artery, the follow-up evaluation also included hormonal levels and Doppler imaging of the ovaries. Results: A total of 75 ovarian arteries were identified in 59 women (bilaterally in 16 women and unilaterally in 43 women). All ovarian arteries originated from the aorta below the level of the renal arteries with a characteristic tortuous course. Fifteen women had at least one enlarged ovarian artery supplying the fibroids. Fourteen women (14/15, 93%) presented at least one of the following factors: prior pelvic surgery, tubo-ovarian pathology or large fundal fibroids. Conclusion: We advocate the use of flush aortography in women with prior tubo-ovarian pathology or surgery or in cases of large fundal fibroids. In the case of an ovarian artery supply to the fibroids, superselective catheterization and embolization of the ovarian artery should be considered.

  7. [Congenital anomalies of coronary artery origin: a diagnostic challenge].

    PubMed

    Iñiguez Romo, A; Macaya Miquel, C; Alfonso Monterola, F; San Román Calvar, J A; Goikolea Ruiz-Gómez, J; Zarco Gutiérrez, P

    1991-03-01

    From a series of 4,313 consecutive patients who underwent a diagnostic coronary angiogram, 16 (0.37%) presented a congenital anomalous origin of the coronary arteries. None of these patients had other congenital cardiac anomalies associated. Age was 57 +/- 9 years and 13 (81%) were male. The diagnostic catheterization was performed for unstable angina in 8 patients (50%), for stable angina in five (32%), for dyspnea in two and for atypical chest pain in the remaining patient. A previous myocardial infarction was present in 6 patients (37%) whereas one patient had apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We observed absence of coronary lesions in 4 patients and severe coronary stenosis lesions in 12 patients (75%), five of those with lesions located in the anomalous vessel. The most frequent abnormality found was an anomalous origin of left circumflex coronary artery in 8 cases (50%), followed by an abnormal origin of the right coronary artery in 5 cases (31%), and an abnormal origin of the left coronary tree in 3 cases (19%) (left anterior descending coronary artery arising from the right coronary artery, a single coronary artery which originated in the left coronary sinus, and a left main coronary artery which originated in the noncoronary sinus). The relationship of the anomalous coronary artery to the great vessels was the following: A retro-aortic course in 11 patient (69%), by the anterior free wall in two (12.5%), interarterial in two (12.5%), and septal in one (6%). Finally, as an index of the difficulty to visualize the anomalous coronary artery, an unusual catheter was needed in six (37%) of the diagnostic procedures to reach the target vessel.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Noninvasive assessment of arterial compliance of human cerebral arteries with short inversion time arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Warnert, Esther A H; Murphy, Kevin; Hall, Judith E; Wise, Richard G

    2015-03-01

    A noninvasive method of assessing cerebral arterial compliance (AC) is introduced in which arterial spin labeling (ASL) is used to measure changes in arterial blood volume (aBV) occurring within the cardiac cycle. Short inversion time pulsed ASL (PASL) was performed in healthy volunteers with inversion times ranging from 250 to 850 ms. A model of the arterial input function was used to obtain the cerebral aBV. Results indicate that aBV depends on the cardiac phase of the arteries in the imaging volume. Cerebral AC, estimated from aBV and brachial blood pressure measured noninvasively in systole and diastole, was assessed in the flow territories of the basal cerebral arteries originating from the circle of Willis: right and left middle cerebral arteries (RMCA and LMCA), right and left posterior cerebral arteries (RPCA and LPCA), and the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Group average AC values calculated for the RMCA, LMCA, ACA, RPCA, and LPCA were 0.56%±0.2%, 0.50%±0.3%, 0.4%±0.2%, 1.1%±0.5%, and 1.1%±0.3% per mm Hg, respectively. The current experiment has shown the feasibility of measuring AC of cerebral arteries with short inversion time PASL.

  9. Analysis of self-feeding in children with feeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Kristi M; Piazza, Cathleen C; Roane, Henry S; Volkert, Valerie M; Stewart, Victoria; Kadey, Heather J; Groff, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated a method for increasing self-feeding with 3 children with a history of food refusal. The children never (2 children) or rarely (1 child) self-fed bites of food when the choice was between self-feeding and escape from eating. When the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed an identical bite of food, self-feeding was low (2 children) or variable (1 child). Levels of self-feeding increased for 2 children when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of the same food. For the 3rd child, self-feeding increased when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of a less preferred food. The results showed that altering the contingencies associated with being fed increased the probability of self-feeding, but the specific manipulations that produced self-feeding were unique to each child. PMID:25311615

  10. Intrasplenic Arterial Aneurysms during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abu-khalaf, Mahmoud M. S.; Al-Ameer, Sokiyna M.; Smadi, Moath M.; Qatawneh, Ayman; Smara, Osama A.; Hadidy, Azmy T.

    2015-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysms account for about 60% of all visceral aneurysms. Pregnancy is a risk factor for splenic artery aneurysms rupture with high maternal mortality and fetal loss. Intrasplenic arterial aneurysms are extremely rare and have not been reported to be associated with pregnancy. This report presents a 34-year-old woman during the second trimester, admitted with severe left upper quadrant and left shoulder pain. She had two uncomplicated intrasplenic aneurysms. Splenectomy was done. She delivered a full term healthy girl. This is the first report of acute abdomen during pregnancy caused by intrasplenic artery aneurysms with maternal and fetal survival. PMID:25810934

  11. Arterial pulse wave pressure transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, C.; Gorelick, D.; Chen, W. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An arterial pulse wave pressure transducer is introduced. The transducer is comprised of a fluid filled cavity having a flexible membrane disposed over the cavity and adapted to be placed on the skin over an artery. An arterial pulse wave creates pressure pulses in the fluid which are transduced, by a pressure sensitive transistor in direct contact with the fluid, into an electric signal. The electrical signal is representative of the pulse waves and can be recorded so as to monitor changes in the elasticity of the arterial walls.

  12. Co-parenting and feeding in early childhood: Reflections of parent dyads on how they manage the developmental stages of feeding over the first three years.

    PubMed

    Thullen, Matthew; Majee, Wilson; Davis, Alexandra N

    2016-10-01

    Family-level influences on the development of healthy eating behaviors start in infancy and toddlerhood with how families manage developmental stages of feeding. Little research on home feeding environments for young children has examined how mothers and fathers collaborate around feeding issues or contribute jointly to feeding. The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine co-parenting with regard to infant/toddler feeding practices. Twenty-four sets of co-resident, biological parents with a child between 6 months and 3 years were interviewed together about their feeding practices and how they discussed and collaborated on feeding during the main stages of feeding development in the first three years. Analyses illuminate themes related to how specific domains of co-parenting (satisfaction with labor, support, agreement, conflict) factor into infant and toddler feeding as well as how additional factors such as having older children and employment schedules shape how both food parenting practices and co-parenting are managed in relation to feeding. Mothers were the primary managers of feeding labor. Fathers participated in feeding in different ways and levels starting in infancy and increased involvement in feeding over the first few years requiring an ongoing negotiation around co-parenting related to feeding. Overall, this study develops insights into how multiple caregivers construct a family environment specifically related to early feeding - a perspective missing from current conceptualizations of home feeding environment. Attention to the concept of co-parenting within home feeding environments should help inform more effective approaches to intervene with families on issues around childhood obesity and family health. PMID:27288148

  13. Artery of Percheron Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, K.V.; Kaaviya, R.; Arpita, Bhaumik

    2016-01-01

    Artery of Percheron (AOP) occlusion is a rare cause of ischemic stroke characterized by bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts, with or without mesencephalic infarction. Clinically it presents with mental state disturbances, hypersomnolence, aphasia/dysarthria, amnesia and ocular movement disorders, including vertical gaze palsy. Here, we report a case of cardioembolic AOP infarction in a 37-year-old woman with rheumatic mitral valvular stenosis. This case is being reported to highlight the interesting clinical and neuroimaging features of this rare condition, and the differential diagnosis of AOP infarction on imaging have been discussed. PMID:27647964

  14. Artery of Percheron Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, K.V.; Kaaviya, R.; Arpita, Bhaumik

    2016-01-01

    Artery of Percheron (AOP) occlusion is a rare cause of ischemic stroke characterized by bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts, with or without mesencephalic infarction. Clinically it presents with mental state disturbances, hypersomnolence, aphasia/dysarthria, amnesia and ocular movement disorders, including vertical gaze palsy. Here, we report a case of cardioembolic AOP infarction in a 37-year-old woman with rheumatic mitral valvular stenosis. This case is being reported to highlight the interesting clinical and neuroimaging features of this rare condition, and the differential diagnosis of AOP infarction on imaging have been discussed.

  15. Artery of Percheron Infarction.

    PubMed

    Vinod, K V; Kaaviya, R; Arpita, Bhaumik

    2016-07-01

    Artery of Percheron (AOP) occlusion is a rare cause of ischemic stroke characterized by bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts, with or without mesencephalic infarction. Clinically it presents with mental state disturbances, hypersomnolence, aphasia/dysarthria, amnesia and ocular movement disorders, including vertical gaze palsy. Here, we report a case of cardioembolic AOP infarction in a 37-year-old woman with rheumatic mitral valvular stenosis. This case is being reported to highlight the interesting clinical and neuroimaging features of this rare condition, and the differential diagnosis of AOP infarction on imaging have been discussed. PMID:27647964

  16. Randomised controlled trial of support from volunteer counsellors for mothers considering breast feeding

    PubMed Central

    Graffy, Jonathan; Taylor, Jane; Williams, Anthony; Eldridge, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether offering volunteer support from counsellors in breast feeding would result in more women breast feeding. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting 32 general practices in London and south Essex. Participants 720 women considering breast feeding. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was prevalence of any breast feeding at six weeks. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of women giving any breast feeds, or bottle feeds at four months, duration of any breast feeding, time to introduction of bottle feeds, and satisfaction with breast feeding. Results Offering support in breast feeding did not significantly increase the prevalence of any breast feeding to six weeks (65% (218/336) in the intervention group and 63% (213/336) in the control group; relative risk 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 1.24). Survival analysis up to four months confirmed that neither duration of breast feeding nor time to introduction of formula feeds differed significantly between control and intervention groups. Not all women in the intervention group contacted counsellors postnatally, but 73% (123/179) of those who did rated them as very helpful. More women in the intervention group than in the control group said that their most helpful advice came from counsellors rather than from other sources. Conclusions Women valued the support of a counsellor in breast feeding, but the intervention did not significantly increase breastfeeding rates, perhaps because some women did not ask for help. PMID:14703543

  17. Discriminating poultry feeds by image analysis for the purpose of avoiding importunate poultry behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachemi, Rabie; Loménie, Nicolas; Vincent, Nicole

    2009-02-01

    The feed manufacturers can control the composition of feed in relation to their feed value. But, in practice, an important issue is still pending: the poultries can reject a batch of feed with optimal nutritional characteristics. This rejection is often accompanied by undesirable and incomprehensible reactions (e.g. pecks in multiple directions) leading to negative consequences for the animal as well as the poultry breeder and the firm. Zootechnical studies are dealing with two main research areas: modeling the poultry feeding behavior and linking it with the poultry perception, especially vision. Currently, a study is undertaken to define the poultry feeding behavior and to point out feeds corresponding to different reactions. As for the perception, visual aspects of feed seem to be involved. While the objective of the study is to make it possible to control the visual quality of feed according to animal behavior, the goal of the present work is to discriminate between feeds of different firms based on visual features extracted from feed images. This discrimination by visual features could be linked with the poultry feeding behaviour and be an effective foundation for the control of the feed acceptability by visual aspects. In this paper, we assess the relevance of color and texture features and we show how these features are involved in the discrimination process between feed images.

  18. Retrograde superior mesenteric artery stenting for acute mesenteric arterial thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Do, Natalie; Wisniewski, Paul; Sarmiento, Jose; Vo, Trung; Aka, Paul K; Hsu, Jeffrey H; Tayyarah, Majid

    2010-08-01

    Retrograde superior mesenteric artery stenting (ROMS) represents a significant development in the treatment of acute mesenteric ischemia. Compared to traditional surgical mesenteric bypass, ROMS is a less invasive technique that avoids many complications associated with emergent mesenteric bypass. This case report illustrates that retrograde superior mesenteric artery (SMA) stenting is an option for the treatment of acute mesenteric ischemia for patients in extremis.

  19. Coronary artery to left atrium fistula requiring revascularisation: case report and literature review.

    PubMed Central

    Swank, M; Koepke, D E

    1982-01-01

    Only 12 cases of coronary artery to left atrium fistula have been reported, with successful correction in at least seven. We describe a unique case of repair of a left main coronary artery to left atrium fistula using revascularisation with general discussion of the embryology, pathophysiology, complications, and diagnosis of these fistulae, indications for operation, and guidelines for surgical management. Images PMID:7112475

  20. Feeding and circadian clocks.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Lissia; Kaeffer, Bertrand

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian genome encodes at least a dozen of genes directly involved in the regulation of the feedback loops constituting the circadian clock. The circadian system is built up on a multitude of oscillators organized according to a hierarchical model in which neurons of the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus may drive the central circadian clock and all the other somatic cells may possess the molecular components allowing tissues and organs to constitute peripheral clocks. Suprachiasmatic neurons are driving the central circadian clock which is reset by lighting cues captured and integrated by the melanopsin cells of the retina and define the daily rhythms of locomotor activity and associated physiological regulatory pathways like feeding and metabolism. This central clock entrains peripheral clocks which can be synchronized by non-photic environmental cues and uncoupled from the central one depending on the nature and the strength of the circadian signal. The human circadian clock and its functioning in central or peripheral tissues are currently being explored to increase the therapeutic efficacy of timed administration of drugs or radiation, and to offer better advice on lighting and meal timing useful for frequent travelers suffering from jet lag and for night workers' comfort. However, the molecular mechanism driving and coordinating the central and peripheral clocks through a wide range of synchronizers (lighting, feeding, physical or social activities) remains a mystery.

  1. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  2. The femoral artery and its branches in the baboon Papio anubis.

    PubMed

    Dyl, L; Topol, M

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the research was to examine the anatomy of the arterial system in the inguinal region, hip and thigh of Papio anubis. No description of this was found in the available scientific literature, although, at the same time, the baboon is considered to be a good animal model in biomedical research. Macroscopic anatomical research was carried out on 20 hind limbs (10 cadavers: 9 male and 1 female) of adult Papio anubis and the results were then compared with the anatomy of the arterial hind limb systems of other apes as described in the literature. The circulatory system of the whole body was filled with coloured latex via the common carotid artery and internal jugular vein, and traditional methods were then used to prepare the vessels. The arterial system in the hind extremity of Papio anubis was recorded. The anatomical names of human arteries were used as well as the names of those of apes as applied in the literature. The femoral artery was the only artery supplying the hind limb of Papio anubis. It started under the inguinal ligament as a continuation of the external iliac artery. It went down and divided into the popliteal artery, which coursed in the popliteal fossa, and the saphenous artery, which passed on the medial side of the thigh and leg. The number of smaller branches and the way in which they issued from the larger arteries were documented. The external diameter and length of the hind limb arteries were measured. It was observed that the cutaneous branches of the femoral artery supplied the inguinal and genital regions and the abdominal wall, while the deep artery of the thigh was the main vessel of the hip and thigh.

  3. True arterial system compliance estimated from apparent arterial compliance.

    PubMed

    Quick, C M; Berger, D S; Hettrick, D A; Noordergraaf, A

    2000-03-01

    A new method has been developed to estimate total arterial compliance from measured input pressure and flow. In contrast to other methods, this method does not rely on fitting the elements of a lumped model to measured data. Instead, it relies on measured input impedance and peripheral resistance to calculate the relationship of arterial blood volume to input pressure. Generally, this transfer function is a complex function of frequency and is called the apparent arterial compliance. At very low frequencies, the confounding effect of pulse wave reflection disappears, and apparent compliance becomes total arterial compliance. This study reveals that frequency components of pressure and flow below heart rate are generally necessary to obtain a valid estimate of compliance. Thus, the ubiquitous practice of estimating total arterial compliance from a single cardiac cycle is suspect under most circumstances, since a single cardiac cycle does not contain these frequencies. PMID:10784093

  4. The inferior epigastric artery arising from the internal iliac artery via a common trunk with the obturator artery.

    PubMed

    Won, Hyung-Sun; Won, Hyung-Jin; Oh, Chang-Seok; Han, Seung-Ho; Chung, In-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-Hoan

    2012-12-01

    We report a rare case of a left inferior epigastric artery arising from the internal iliac artery via a common trunk with the obturator artery in an 84-year-old female cadaver. A common trunk for the inferior epigastric and obturator arteries firstly originated from the left internal iliac artery, at 3.0 mm below the bifurcation of the left common iliac artery. This trunk ran straight between the left external iliac artery and left external iliac vein, and was finally divided into the left inferior epigastric and left obturator arteries just superior to the inguinal ligament. PMID:23301197

  5. Intra-Arterial Radionuclide Therapies for Liver Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Murat Fani; Salanci, Bilge Volkan; Uğur, Ömer

    2016-07-01

    Intra-arterial radionuclide therapies serve essentially as internal radiation treatment options for both primary and metastatic liver tumors, which imply delivering implantable radioactive microspheres into branches of hepatic arteries that feed liver tumors to provide a high dose of targeted radiation to tumor tissue, while sparing the healthy liver tissue from hazardous effects of radiation. The principle of this therapeutic option depends on the unique preferential arterial supply of malignant liver tumors in contrast with mostly portal venous supply of normal hepatocytes as well as excess amount of arterial neovascularization in the tumor bed. Therefore, intra-arterial radionuclide therapy can provide very high radiation exposure to tumor tissue, which is impossible to reach with external radiation therapy due to serious side effects and moreover, radiation can be targeted to tumor tissue selectively with less side effects. Yttrium-90 (Y-90), a high-energetic beta emitter is the most preferred radionuclide, which is used to label microspheres. Two types of Y-90 microspheres are commercially available that are made of resin and glass. Many studies in the literature have demonstrated that Y-90 microsphere therapy is an efficient and safe locoregional therapeutic option for unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases from colorectal cancer and breast cancer as well as neuroendocrine tumors. Furthermore, limited number of studies has reported its use in some relatively uncommon metastatic liver tumors from melanoma, pancreatic, renal, and lung cancer. Besides Y-90 microspheres, Iodine-131 lipiodol, Rhenium-188 lipiodol, Rhenium-188 microspheres, Holmium-166 chitosan, and Holmium-166 microspheres have been introduced as alternative radiopharmaceuticals for intra-arterial therapy for liver tumors. PMID:27237442

  6. Presence and content of kynurenic acid in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Turski, M P; Zgrajka, W; Siwicki, A K; Paluszkiewicz, P

    2015-02-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) was found to be an antagonist of iontropic glutamate receptors and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, it was documented that KYNA is an agonist of G-protein coupled GPR35 receptors which are mainly present in the gastrointestinal tract. It was also found that KYNA is present in the gastrointestinal tract and that its concentration gradually increases along it. The origin of KYNA in the gastrointestinal tract is not known. Both might be synthesized from tryptophan in it or absorbed from food and other dietary products. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the concentration of KYNA in animal feed. The results indicate that the highest concentration of KYNA was found in animal feeds intended for livestock. The lower amount of KYNA was detected in animal feeds for fish. Interestingly, the lowest amount of KYNA was found in dog and cat feeds. Furthermore, an analysis of KYNA content in animal food ingredients was conducted. The concentration of KYNA found in one of the ingredients – rapeseed meal – was several times higher in comparison to animal feeds studied. The content of KYNA in the remaining feed ingredients tested was significantly lower. This is the first report on the concentration of KYNA in animal feeds. There is a need for further detailed analysis leading to establishing a set of guidelines for animal feeding.

  7. Decanting--a source of contamination of enteral feeds?

    PubMed

    Anderton, A; Aidoo, K E

    1990-06-01

    The techniques of opening and decanting ready-to-use enteral feeds packaged in bottles (crown-cap and screw-cap), cans and tetrapaks were evaluated as potential routes for the contamination of these feeds. It was found that the outsides of the feed containers, bottle openers, scissors and the experimenters' hands all acted as sources of contamination during the transfer of feeds to the nutrient container. The main source of contamination appeared to be the experimenters' hands with counts up to 10(2) cfu ml(-1) being recorded for feeds that had been decanted from screw-cap bottles, cans and tetrapaks by experimenters with either unprotected bare hands or hands experimentally contaminated with K. aerogenes. Levels of contamination and the number of samples contaminated after opening and decanting were consistently higher for cans and tetrapaks than for crown-cap or screw-cap bottles. Disinfection of feed containers followed by the use of sterile gloves and/or disinfected openers yielded bacteria-free feed from all the types of feed container studied.

  8. Perforator arteries of the medial upper arm: anatomical basis of a new flap donor site.

    PubMed

    Perignon, D; Havet, E; Sinna, R

    2013-01-01

    The development of perforator flaps' concept based on knowledge on vascular anatomy of the skin represents a major improvement in reconstructive surgery. Succeeding description about vascular territories and anatomical basics of the main donor sites, the study of hidden donor sites, such as medial upper arm, constitutes a new step and an additional refinement. 20 upper limbs of 10 fresh adult cadavers were studied with colored latex injections. The origin and distribution of the perforator arteries of the superior ulnar collateral artery and the brachial artery were investigated. We have noted constant perforator arteries and described the limits of vascular territories of the medial upper arm.

  9. Robotic-assisted superficial temporal artery-to-middle cerebral artery anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Hirschl, Robert A; Caragine, Louis P

    2008-09-01

    Robotic-assisted surgery is becoming more prevalent and accepted in the USA and is routine in many medical centers across a variety of specialties, but mainly in urology and general surgery. However, neurosurgery has yet to embrace this new technology. We used the da Vinci(®) robot (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California) to perform a robotic-assisted superficial temporal artery-to-middle cerebral artery bypass on a cadaveric head. The object of this technical note is to describe the use of the da Vinci(®) robot to perform an extracranial-intracranial bypass. Using a cadaveric human head, the da Vinci(®) robot was successfully used to anastomose the superficial temporal artery to an M2 branch of the middle cerebral artery. We were successfully able to demonstrate the utility of using the da Vinci(®) robot in extracranial to intracranial anastomosis in a cadaveric head. The optics were excellent and physiologic tremor was eliminated. More studies are needed to assess the feasibility, safety, and utility of this device in living tissue within the field of neurosurgery. PMID:27628254

  10. Recent Strategies in Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Flora

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disease characterized by an elevation in pulmonary artery pressure that can lead to right ventricular failure and death. The pulmonary circulation has to accommodate the entire cardiac output in each cardiac cycle and evolution has adapted to this by making it a low-pressure high-flow system. However, pathology can affect both the arterial and venous components of this system. Pulmonary venous hypertension mainly refers to diseases that result in elevated venous pressure and occurs mainly from mitral valve and left-sided heart disease. Standard treatment options include oral anticoagulation, diuretics, oxygen supplementation, and for a small percentage of patients, calcium channel blockers. Newer treatments include prostacyclin analogues, endothelin receptor antago¬nists, and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. This article reviews the current treatments strategies for PAH and provides guidelines for its management. PMID:25946920

  11. Computer measurement of arterial disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J.; Selzer, R. H.; Barndt, R.; Blankenhorn, D. H.; Brooks, S.

    1980-01-01

    Image processing technique quantifies human atherosclerosis by computer analysis of arterial angiograms. X-ray film images are scanned and digitized, arterial shadow is tracked, and several quantitative measures of lumen irregularity are computed. In other tests, excellent agreement was found between computer evaluation of femoral angiograms on living subjects and evaluation by teams of trained angiographers.

  12. Epigenetics and Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Golledge, Jonathan; Biros, Erik; Bingley, John; Iyer, Vikram; Krishna, Smriti M

    2016-04-01

    The term epigenetics is usually used to describe inheritable changes in gene function which do not involve changes in the DNA sequence. These typically include non-coding RNAs, DNA methylation and histone modifications. Smoking and older age are recognised risk factors for peripheral artery diseases, such as occlusive lower limb artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm, and have been implicated in promoting epigenetic changes. This brief review describes studies that have associated epigenetic factors with peripheral artery diseases and investigations which have examined the effect of epigenetic modifications on the outcome of peripheral artery diseases in mouse models. Investigations have largely focused on microRNAs and have identified a number of circulating microRNAs associated with human peripheral artery diseases. Upregulating or antagonising a number of microRNAs has also been reported to limit aortic aneurysm development and hind limb ischemia in mouse models. The importance of DNA methylation and histone modifications in peripheral artery disease has been relatively little studied. Whether circulating microRNAs can be used to assist identification of patients with peripheral artery diseases and be modified in order to improve the outcome of peripheral artery disease will require further investigation.

  13. Vitamin D, arterial hypertension & cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Kienreich, Katharina; Grubler, Martin; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Schmid, Johannes; Verheyen, Nicolas; Rutters, Femke; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Pilz, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Vitamin D is mainly derived from endogenous ultraviolet-B induced vitamin D synthesis in the skin, and the current high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency can, therefore, largely be attributed to lifestyle related low sunlight exposure. Regulation of bone and mineral metabolism is a classic vitamin D effect, but the identification of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in almost all human cells suggests a role for vitamin D also in extra-skeletal diseases. Experimental studies demonstrated several antihypertensive and vascular protective effects of vitamin D, such as suppression of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system, beneficial modulation of classic cardiovascular risk factors, and anti-atherosclerotic properties including improvements of endothelial function. Additional neuroprotective actions of vitamin D have also been reported. In line with this, epidemiological studies have largely shown that vitamin D deficiency is an independent risk factor for arterial hypertension and strokes. Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are, however, limited and less promising, with currently no confirmation that vitamin D reduces stroke incidence. Whereas some RCTs suggest that vitamin D supplementation might modestly reduce blood pressure, this has not been consistently observed in all studies. It is, therefore, premature to recommend vitamin D supplementation for the prevention and treatment of arterial hypertension and stroke. Nevertheless, the fact that patients with arterial hypertension and cerebrovascular disease are at a relatively high risk of vitamin D deficiency, and therewith associated musculoskeletal diseases can serve as a rationale for the evaluation, prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in these patients.

  14. Acceleration-selective arterial spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Sophie; Ghariq, Eidrees; Teeuwisse, Wouter M; Webb, Andrew; van Osch, Matthias J P

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a new arterial spin labeling (ASL) method with spatially nonselective labeling is introduced, based on the acceleration of flowing spins, which is able to image brain perfusion with minimal contamination from venous signal. This method is termed acceleration-selective ASL (AccASL) and resembles velocity-selective ASL (VSASL), with the difference that AccASL is able to discriminate between arterial and venous components in a single preparation module due to the higher acceleration on the arterial side of the microvasculature, whereas VSASL cannot make this distinction unless a second labeling module is used. A difference between AccASL and VSASL is that AccASL is mainly cerebral blood volume weighted, whereas VSASL is cerebral blood flow weighted. AccASL exploits the principles of acceleration-encoded magnetic resonance angiography by using motion-sensitizing gradients in a T2 -preparation module. This method is demonstrated in healthy volunteers for a range of cutoff accelerations. Additionally, AccASL is compared with VSASL and pseudo-continuous ASL, and its feasibility in functional MRI is demonstrated. Compared with VSASL with a single labeling module, a strong and significant reduction in venous label is observed. The resulting signal-to-noise ratio is comparable to pseudo-continuous ASL and robust activation of the visual cortex is observed.

  15. Therapeutic modification of arterial stiffness: An update and comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ching-Fen; Liu, Pang-Yen; Wu, Tsung-Jui; Hung, Yuan; Yang, Shih-Ping; Lin, Gen-Min

    2015-01-01

    Arterial stiffness has been recognized as a marker of cardiovascular disease and associated with long-term worse clinical outcomes in several populations. Age, hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, known as traditional vascular risk factors, as well as diabetes, obesity, and systemic inflammation lead to both atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. Targeting multiple modifiable risk factors has become the main therapeutic strategy to improve arterial stiffness in patients at high cardiovascular risk. Additionally to life style modifications, long-term ω-3 fatty acids (fish oil) supplementation in diet may improve arterial stiffness in the population with hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Pharmacological treatment such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists, metformin, and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors were useful in individuals with hypertension and diabetes. In obese population with obstructive sleep apnea, weight reduction, aerobic exercise, and continuous positive airway pressure treatment may also improve arterial stiffness. In the populations with chronic inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, a use of antibodies against tumor necrosis factor-alpha could work effectively. Other therapeutic options such as renal sympathetic nerve denervation for patients with resistant hypertension are investigated in many ongoing clinical trials. Therefore our comprehensive review provides knowledge in detail regarding many aspects of pathogenesis, measurement, and management of arterial stiffness in several populations, which would be helpful for physicians to make clinical decision. PMID:26635922

  16. [Why screen for lung cancer in patients with arterial disease?].

    PubMed

    Lederlin, M; Trédaniel, J; Priollet, P

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in France. Such a prognosis is explained by late diagnosis at a metastatic stage for half of the patients. Tobacco is the main risk factor for lung cancer, as it is for peripheral arterial disease. A review of literature shows that between 2.3% and 19% of patients with arterial disease also have lung cancer. When lung cancer is detected after treatment of arterial disease, it is at an advanced stage. But it can be diagnosed at an early stage when it is searched simultaneously with arterial disease treatment. There is no recommendation for lung cancer screening specifically for patients with arterial disease. However individual screening based on an annual low-dose chest scan is proposed for smokers meeting the criteria defined by the study of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). Such screening has two disadvantages : the high number of false positives and the irradiation induced by the accumulation of examinations. The ISET method would alternatively help to identify circulating tumor cells on a simple blood test for subjects not yet at solid tumor stage, provided this method be subject to multicentric validation. Thus one could consider that the management of a patient with arterial disease meeting NLST criteria should be accompanied with screening for lung cancer by searching for tumor cells associated with low-dose scanner.

  17. Therapeutic modification of arterial stiffness: An update and comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Fen; Liu, Pang-Yen; Wu, Tsung-Jui; Hung, Yuan; Yang, Shih-Ping; Lin, Gen-Min

    2015-11-26

    Arterial stiffness has been recognized as a marker of cardiovascular disease and associated with long-term worse clinical outcomes in several populations. Age, hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, known as traditional vascular risk factors, as well as diabetes, obesity, and systemic inflammation lead to both atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. Targeting multiple modifiable risk factors has become the main therapeutic strategy to improve arterial stiffness in patients at high cardiovascular risk. Additionally to life style modifications, long-term ω-3 fatty acids (fish oil) supplementation in diet may improve arterial stiffness in the population with hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Pharmacological treatment such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists, metformin, and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors were useful in individuals with hypertension and diabetes. In obese population with obstructive sleep apnea, weight reduction, aerobic exercise, and continuous positive airway pressure treatment may also improve arterial stiffness. In the populations with chronic inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, a use of antibodies against tumor necrosis factor-alpha could work effectively. Other therapeutic options such as renal sympathetic nerve denervation for patients with resistant hypertension are investigated in many ongoing clinical trials. Therefore our comprehensive review provides knowledge in detail regarding many aspects of pathogenesis, measurement, and management of arterial stiffness in several populations, which would be helpful for physicians to make clinical decision.

  18. Therapeutic modification of arterial stiffness: An update and comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Fen; Liu, Pang-Yen; Wu, Tsung-Jui; Hung, Yuan; Yang, Shih-Ping; Lin, Gen-Min

    2015-11-26

    Arterial stiffness has been recognized as a marker of cardiovascular disease and associated with long-term worse clinical outcomes in several populations. Age, hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, known as traditional vascular risk factors, as well as diabetes, obesity, and systemic inflammation lead to both atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. Targeting multiple modifiable risk factors has become the main therapeutic strategy to improve arterial stiffness in patients at high cardiovascular risk. Additionally to life style modifications, long-term ω-3 fatty acids (fish oil) supplementation in diet may improve arterial stiffness in the population with hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Pharmacological treatment such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists, metformin, and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors were useful in individuals with hypertension and diabetes. In obese population with obstructive sleep apnea, weight reduction, aerobic exercise, and continuous positive airway pressure treatment may also improve arterial stiffness. In the populations with chronic inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, a use of antibodies against tumor necrosis factor-alpha could work effectively. Other therapeutic options such as renal sympathetic nerve denervation for patients with resistant hypertension are investigated in many ongoing clinical trials. Therefore our comprehensive review provides knowledge in detail regarding many aspects of pathogenesis, measurement, and management of arterial stiffness in several populations, which would be helpful for physicians to make clinical decision. PMID:26635922

  19. Development of Wide Band Feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, H.; Ichikawa, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wide Band feeds are being developed at NICT, NAOJ, and some universities in Japan for VLBI2010, SKA, and MARBLE. SKA, the Square Kilometre Array, will comprise thousands of radio telescopes with square kilometer aperture size for radio astronomy. MARBLE consists of small portable VLBI stations developed at NICT and GSI in Japan. They all need wide band feeds with a greater than 1:10 frequency ratio. Thus we have been studying wide band feeds with dual linear polarization for these applications.

  20. A study of the hemodynamics of anterior communicating artery aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebral, Juan R.; Castro, Marcelo A.; Putman, Christopher M.

    2006-03-01

    In this study, the effects of unequal physiologic flow conditions in the internal carotid arteries on the intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics of anterior communicating artery aneurysms were investigated. Patient-specific vascular computational fluid dynamics models of five cerebral aneurysms were constructed from bilateral 3D rotational angiography images. The aneurysmal hemodynamics was analyzed under a range of physiologic flow conditions including the effects of unequal mean flows and phase shifts between the flow waveforms of the left and right internal carotid arteries. A total of five simulations were performed for each patient, and unsteady wall shear stress (WSS) maps were created for each flow condition. Time dependent curves of average WSS magnitude over selected regions on the aneurysms were constructed and used to analyze the influence of the inflow conditions. It was found that mean flow imbalances in the feeding vessels tend to shift the regions of elevated WSS (flow impingement region) towards the dominating inflow jet and to change the magnitude of the WSS peaks. However, the overall qualitative appearance of the WSS distribution and velocity simulations is not substantially affected. In contrast, phase differences tend to increase the temporal complexity of the hemodynamic patterns and to destabilize the intra-aneurysmal flow pattern. However, these effects are less important when the A1 confluence is less symmetric, i.e. dominated by one of the A1 segments. Conditions affecting the flow characteristics in the parent arteries of cerebral aneurysms with more than one avenue of inflow should be incorporated into flow models.

  1. Collateral Capillary Arterialization following arteriolar ligation in murine skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Mac Gabhann, Feilim; Peirce, Shayn M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Chronic and acute ischemic diseases – peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, stroke – result in tissue damage unless blood flow is maintained or restored in a timely manner. Mice of different strains recover from arteriolar ligation (by increasing collateral blood flow) at different speeds. We quantify the spatio-termporal patterns of microvascular network remodeling following arteriolar ligation in different mouse strains to better understand interindividual variability. METHODS Whole-muscle spinotrapezius microvascular networks of mouse strains C57Bl/6, Balb/c and CD1 were imaged using confocal microscopy following ligation of feeding arterioles. RESULTS Baseline arteriolar structures of C57Bl/6 and Balb/c mice feature heavily ramified arcades and unconnected dendritic trees, respectively. This network angioarchitecture identifies ischemia-protected and ischemia-vulnerable tissues: unlike C57Bl/6, downstream capillary perfusion in Balb/c spinotrapezius is lost following ligation. Perfusion recovery requires arterialization (expansion and investment of mural cells) of a subset of capillaries forming a new low-resistance collateral pathway between arteriolar trees. Outbred CD1 exhibit either Balb/c-like or C57Bl/6-like spinotrapezius angioarchitecture, predictive of response to arteriolar ligation. CONCLUSIONS This collateral capillary arterialization process may explain the reported longer time required for blood flow recovery in Balb/c hindlimb ischemia, as low-resistance blood flow pathways along capillary conduits must be formed (‘arterialization’) before reperfusion. PMID:20618691

  2. Plaque and arterial vulnerability investigation in a three-layer atherosclerotic human coronary artery using computational fluid-structure interaction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-08-01

    Coronary artery disease is the common form of cardiovascular diseases and known to be the main reason of deaths in the world. Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) simulations can be employed to assess the interactions of artery/plaque and blood to provide a more precise anticipation for rupture of arterial tissue layers and plaque tissues inside an atherosclerotic artery. To date, the arterial tissue in computational FSI simulations has been considered as a one-layer structure. However, a single layer assumption might have deeply bounded the results and, consequently, more computational simulation is needed by considering the arterial tissue as a three-layer structure. In this study, a three-dimensional computational FSI model of an atherosclerotic artery with a three-layer structure and different plaque types was established to perform a more accurate arterial wall/plaque tissue vulnerability assessment. The hyperelastic material coefficients of arterial layers were calculated and implemented in the computational model. The fully coupled fluid and structure models were solved using the explicit dynamics finite element code LS-DYNA. The results revealed the significant role of plaque types in the normal and shear stresses induced within the arterial tissue layers. The highest von Mises and shear stresses were observed on the stiffest calcified plaque with 3.59 and 3.27 MPa, while the lowest von Mises and shear stresses were seen on the hypocellular plaque with 1.15 and 0.63 MPa, respectively. Regardless of plaque types, the media and adventitia layers were played protective roles by displaying less stress on their wall, whilst the intima layer was at a high risk of rupture. The findings of this study have implications not only for determining the most vulnerable arterial layer/plaque tissue inside an atherosclerotic coronary artery but also for balloon-angioplasty, stenting, and bypass surgeries.

  3. 28. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, LOOKING NORTH (LOCATION Q) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  4. 29. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. MAIN CONTROL ROOM, PANELS WEST OF MAIN CONTROL AREA, LOOKING SOUTH (LOCATION Q) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  5. Multiple feed powder splitter

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  6. Multiple feed powder splitter

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  7. Misaligned feeding impairs memories

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Dawn H; Jami, Shekib A; Flores, Richard E; Truong, Danny; Ghiani, Cristina A; O’Dell, Thomas J; Colwell, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Robust sleep/wake rhythms are important for health and cognitive function. Unfortunately, many people are living in an environment where their circadian system is challenged by inappropriate meal- or work-times. Here we scheduled food access to the sleep time and examined the impact on learning and memory in mice. Under these conditions, we demonstrate that the molecular clock in the master pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is unaltered while the molecular clock in the hippocampus is synchronized by the timing of food availability. This chronic circadian misalignment causes reduced hippocampal long term potentiation and total CREB expression. Importantly this mis-timed feeding resulted in dramatic deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Our findings suggest that the timing of meals have far-reaching effects on hippocampal physiology and learned behaviour. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09460.001 PMID:26652002

  8. Misaligned feeding impairs memories.

    PubMed

    Loh, Dawn H; Jami, Shekib A; Flores, Richard E; Truong, Danny; Ghiani, Cristina A; O'Dell, Thomas J; Colwell, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Robust sleep/wake rhythms are important for health and cognitive function. Unfortunately, many people are living in an environment where their circadian system is challenged by inappropriate meal- or work-times. Here we scheduled food access to the sleep time and examined the impact on learning and memory in mice. Under these conditions, we demonstrate that the molecular clock in the master pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is unaltered while the molecular clock in the hippocampus is synchronized by the timing of food availability. This chronic circadian misalignment causes reduced hippocampal long term potentiation and total CREB expression. Importantly this mis-timed feeding resulted in dramatic deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Our findings suggest that the timing of meals have far-reaching effects on hippocampal physiology and learned behaviour. PMID:26652002

  9. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon Hyo; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) remains a major cause of secondary hypertension and renal failure. Randomized, prospective trials show that medical treatment should constitute the main therapeutic approach in ARAS. Regardless of intensive treatment and adequate blood pressure control, however, renal and extra-renal complications are not uncommon. Yet, the precise mechanisms, accurate detection, and optimal treatment in ARAS remain elusive. Strategies oriented to early detection and targeting these pathogenic pathways might prevent development of clinical endpoints. Here, we review the results of recent clinical trials, current understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms, novel imaging techniques to assess renal damage in ARAS, and treatment options. PMID:25908472

  10. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis: current status.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Hyo; Lerman, Lilach O

    2015-05-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) remains a major cause of secondary hypertension and kidney failure. Randomized prospective trials show that medical treatment should constitute the main therapeutic approach in ARAS. Regardless of intensive treatment and adequate blood pressure control, however, renal and extrarenal complications are not uncommon. Yet, the precise mechanisms, accurate detection, and optimal treatment in ARAS remain elusive. Strategies oriented to early detection and targeting these pathogenic pathways might prevent development of clinical end points. Here, we review the results of recent clinical trials, current understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms, novel imaging techniques to assess kidney damage in ARAS, and treatment options. PMID:25908472

  11. Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization With Gelatin Sponge Microparticles Treated for BCLC Stage B Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Single Center Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Asad Ullah; Liu, Ying; Li, Feng E; Liu, Song; Wu, Jian Lin; Zhang, Yue Wei

    2015-12-01

    Gelatin sponge particles are commonly used in the conventional transarterial chemoembolization (c-TACE) as an adjuvant embolizing agent for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there are few reports regarding the clinical applications of gelatin sponge microparticles (GSMs) as a main embolizing agent in the treatment of HCC. This retrospective study aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B HCC treated with intra-arterial injection of 350 to 560 μm GSMs mixed with anticancer agents.Twenty-four patients with unresectable BCLC stage B HCC without any prior treatment underwent transarterial chemoembolization with gelatin sponge microparticles (GSMs-TACE) of diameter 350 to 560 μm mixed with lobaplatin. The mixture was injected into tumor-feeding arteries until the sluggish flow in selective artery. Safety was measured by assessing complication rate, and efficacy was reflected by assessing response to mRECIST therapy and overall survival. The survival rate was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.All 24 BCLC stage B HCC patients showed good tolerance to the procedure. The mean follow-up period was 27 months and mean number of TACE treatments per patient was 3.7 sessions (range 1-10) during the follow-up period. Postprocedure complications were mild and treated by symptomatic treatment. Six months and 1 year overall survival rates were 100% and 87.5%, respectively. Overall median survival time was 25 months (95%CI: 21.06-28.95 months).GSMs-TACE is a safe and effective method for BCLC stage B HCC patients.

  12. Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization With Gelatin Sponge Microparticles Treated for BCLC Stage B Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Single Center Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Asad Ullah; Liu, Ying; Li, Feng E; Liu, Song; Wu, Jian Lin; Zhang, Yue Wei

    2015-12-01

    Gelatin sponge particles are commonly used in the conventional transarterial chemoembolization (c-TACE) as an adjuvant embolizing agent for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, there are few reports regarding the clinical applications of gelatin sponge microparticles (GSMs) as a main embolizing agent in the treatment of HCC. This retrospective study aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B HCC treated with intra-arterial injection of 350 to 560 μm GSMs mixed with anticancer agents.Twenty-four patients with unresectable BCLC stage B HCC without any prior treatment underwent transarterial chemoembolization with gelatin sponge microparticles (GSMs-TACE) of diameter 350 to 560 μm mixed with lobaplatin. The mixture was injected into tumor-feeding arteries until the sluggish flow in selective artery. Safety was measured by assessing complication rate, and efficacy was reflected by assessing response to mRECIST therapy and overall survival. The survival rate was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.All 24 BCLC stage B HCC patients showed good tolerance to the procedure. The mean follow-up period was 27 months and mean number of TACE treatments per patient was 3.7 sessions (range 1-10) during the follow-up period. Postprocedure complications were mild and treated by symptomatic treatment. Six months and 1 year overall survival rates were 100% and 87.5%, respectively. Overall median survival time was 25 months (95%CI: 21.06-28.95 months).GSMs-TACE is a safe and effective method for BCLC stage B HCC patients. PMID:26717358

  13. Feeding a future world.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an overview of future prospects for feeding the world's growing population. The discussion focuses on obstacles such as limited agricultural land, degraded soil and water, and water shortages. The evidence suggests that sustainability is declining, especially in poor, food-deficit countries with growing populations. The world is segregated into the haves, the poor have-nots, and the rich have-nots. North America, Europe, and Australia have enough cropland to feed their populations. The poor have-nots are located mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, 7 countries each in the Middle East and Latin America, 6 in Oceania, and the rest in Central and South Asia. The poor have-nots amount to 3 billion out of 6 billion total population. The rich have-nots include countries such as Japan and Singapore, plus China, Indonesia, Peru, Chile, and Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. The rich have-nots must import food. The world grain harvest is no longer tripling. Per person yields have declined. Increasing food productivity must rely on existing lands. The size of family farms has declined. Almost 2 billion hectares of crop and grazing land is degraded. Yields from irrigated land that are 33% of world food supply have declined. In 1990, 28 countries with 335 million people faced chronic water shortages or scarcity. Water is being polluted. Fish stocks are being depleted. Genetic diversity is being lost. In 182 food deficit countries, population growth must be slowed, and agriculture must be sustainable. Food is neither produced nor consumed equitably. Malnutrition is caused by poverty. Food security cannot be achieved if land and water become increasingly degraded or lost.

  14. Arterial Stiffness and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Garnier, Anne-Sophie; Briet, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health concern due to the high prevalence of associated cardiovascular (CV) disease. CV mortality is 10-30 times higher in end-stage renal disease patients than in the age-adjusted general population. The last 20 years have been marked by a huge effort in the characterization of the vascular remodeling process associated with CKD and its consequences on the renal, CV and general prognosis. By comparison with patients with normal renal function, with or without hypertension, an increase in large artery stiffness has been described in end-stage renal disease as well as in CKD stages 2-5. Most clinical studies are consistent with the observation that damage to large arteries may contribute to the high incidence of CV disease. By contrast, the impact of large artery stiffening and remodeling on CKD progression is still a matter of debate. Concomitant exposure to other CV risk factors, including diabetes, seems to play a major role in the association between aortic stiffness and estimated GFR. The conflicting results obtained from longitudinal studies designed to evaluate the impact of baseline aortic stiffness on GFR progression are detailed in the present review. Only pulse pressure, central and peripheral, is almost constantly associated with incident CKD and GFR decline. Kidney transplantation improves patients’ CV prognosis, but its impact on arterial stiffness is still controversial. Donor age, living kidney donation and mean blood pressure appear to be the main determinants of improvement in aortic stiffness after kidney transplantation. PMID:27195244

  15. Patent arterial duct.

    PubMed

    Forsey, Jonathan T; Elmasry, Ola A; Martin, Robin P

    2009-07-10

    Patent arterial duct (PAD) is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area) is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes). Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of pulmonary overcirculation

  16. Patent arterial duct

    PubMed Central

    Forsey, Jonathan T; Elmasry, Ola A; Martin, Robin P

    2009-01-01

    Patent arterial duct (PAD) is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area) is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes). Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of pulmonary overcirculation

  17. Feeding repellence in Antarctic bryozoans.

    PubMed

    Figuerola, Blanca; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Moles, Juan; Avila, Conxita

    2013-11-01

    The Antarctic sea star Odontaster validus and the amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus are important predators in benthic communities. Some bryozoans are part of the diet of the asteroid and represent both potential host biosubstrata and prey for this omnivorous lysianassid amphipod. In response to such ecological pressure, bryozoans are expected to develop strategies to deter potential predators, ranging from physical to chemical mechanisms. However, the chemical ecology of Antarctic bryozoans has been scarcely studied. In this study we evaluated the presence of defenses against predation in selected species of Antarctic bryozoans. The sympatric omnivorous consumers O. validus and C. femoratus were selected to perform feeding assays with 16 ether extracts (EE) and 16 butanol extracts (BE) obtained from 16 samples that belonged to 13 different bryozoan species. Most species (9) were active (12 EE and 1 BE) in sea star bioassays. Only 1 BE displayed repellence, indicating that repellents against the sea star are mainly lipophilic. Repellence toward C. femoratus was found in all species in different extracts (10 EE and 12 BE), suggesting that defenses against the amphipod might be both lipophilic and hydrophilic. Interspecific and intraspecific variability of bioactivity was occasionally detected, suggesting possible environmental inductive responses, symbiotic associations, and/or genetic variability. Multivariate analysis revealed similarities among species in relation to bioactivities of EE and/or BE. These findings support the hypothesis that, while in some cases alternative chemical or physical mechanisms may also provide protection, repellent compounds play an important role in Antarctic bryozoans as defenses against predators.

  18. Feeding repellence in Antarctic bryozoans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figuerola, Blanca; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Moles, Juan; Avila, Conxita

    2013-11-01

    The Antarctic sea star Odontaster validus and the amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus are important predators in benthic communities. Some bryozoans are part of the diet of the asteroid and represent both potential host biosubstrata and prey for this omnivorous lysianassid amphipod. In response to such ecological pressure, bryozoans are expected to develop strategies to deter potential predators, ranging from physical to chemical mechanisms. However, the chemical ecology of Antarctic bryozoans has been scarcely studied. In this study we evaluated the presence of defenses against predation in selected species of Antarctic bryozoans. The sympatric omnivorous consumers O. validus and C. femoratus were selected to perform feeding assays with 16 ether extracts (EE) and 16 butanol extracts (BE) obtained from 16 samples that belonged to 13 different bryozoan species. Most species (9) were active (12 EE and 1 BE) in sea star bioassays. Only 1 BE displayed repellence, indicating that repellents against the sea star are mainly lipophilic. Repellence toward C. femoratus was found in all species in different extracts (10 EE and 12 BE), suggesting that defenses against the amphipod might be both lipophilic and hydrophilic. Interspecific and intraspecific variability of bioactivity was occasionally detected, suggesting possible environmental inductive responses, symbiotic associations, and/or genetic variability. Multivariate analysis revealed similarities among species in relation to bioactivities of EE and/or BE. These findings support the hypothesis that, while in some cases alternative chemical or physical mechanisms may also provide protection, repellent compounds play an important role in Antarctic bryozoans as defenses against predators.

  19. Feeding repellence in Antarctic bryozoans.

    PubMed

    Figuerola, Blanca; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Moles, Juan; Avila, Conxita

    2013-11-01

    The Antarctic sea star Odontaster validus and the amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus are important predators in benthic communities. Some bryozoans are part of the diet of the asteroid and represent both potential host biosubstrata and prey for this omnivorous lysianassid amphipod. In response to such ecological pressure, bryozoans are expected to develop strategies to deter potential predators, ranging from physical to chemical mechanisms. However, the chemical ecology of Antarctic bryozoans has been scarcely studied. In this study we evaluated the presence of defenses against predation in selected species of Antarctic bryozoans. The sympatric omnivorous consumers O. validus and C. femoratus were selected to perform feeding assays with 16 ether extracts (EE) and 16 butanol extracts (BE) obtained from 16 samples that belonged to 13 different bryozoan species. Most species (9) were active (12 EE and 1 BE) in sea star bioassays. Only 1 BE displayed repellence, indicating that repellents against the sea star are mainly lipophilic. Repellence toward C. femoratus was found in all species in different extracts (10 EE and 12 BE), suggesting that defenses against the amphipod might be both lipophilic and hydrophilic. Interspecific and intraspecific variability of bioactivity was occasionally detected, suggesting possible environmental inductive responses, symbiotic associations, and/or genetic variability. Multivariate analysis revealed similarities among species in relation to bioactivities of EE and/or BE. These findings support the hypothesis that, while in some cases alternative chemical or physical mechanisms may also provide protection, repellent compounds play an important role in Antarctic bryozoans as defenses against predators. PMID:24221581

  20. Infant feeding. 5. Managing baby related feeding challenges.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Joyce

    2013-02-01

    'Infant feeding' is the 12th series of 'Midwifery basics' targeted at practising midwives. The aim of these articles is to inform and encourage readers to seek further information through a series of activities relating to the topic. In this fifth article Joyce Marshall considers a range of baby related issues that pose challenges for both mothers and midwives in relation to infant feeding.

  1. Role of radionuclide cardiac imaging in coronary artery bypass surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.; Mostel, E.

    1987-01-01

    The main applications of cardiac nuclear imaging in coronary artery bypass surgery include: patient selection, prediction of improvement in resting LV function after revascularization, diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction, assessment of the results of revascularization, evaluation of new or recurrent symptoms, and in risk stratification. Proper understanding of which test to be used, when, and why may be important to optimize patient management.

  2. Brachial artery vasomotion and transducer pressure effect on measurements by active contour segmentation on ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, Theodore W.; Sultan, Laith R.; Sehgal, Chandra M.; Reamer, Courtney B.; Mohler, Emile R.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To use feed-forward active contours (snakes) to track and measure brachial artery vasomotion on ultrasound images recorded in both transverse and longitudinal views; and to compare the algorithm's performance in each view. Methods: Longitudinal and transverse view ultrasound image sequences of 45 brachial arteries were segmented by feed-forward active contour (FFAC). The segmented regions were used to measure vasomotion artery diameter, cross-sectional area, and distention both as peak-to-peak diameter and as area. ECG waveforms were also simultaneously extracted frame-by-frame by thresholding a running finite-difference image between consecutive images. The arterial and ECG waveforms were compared as they traced each phase of the cardiac cycle. Results: FFAC successfully segmented arteries in longitudinal and transverse views in all 45 cases. The automated analysis took significantly less time than manual tracing, but produced superior, well-behaved arterial waveforms. Automated arterial measurements also had lower interobserver variability as measured by correlation, difference in mean values, and coefficient of variation. Although FFAC successfully segmented both the longitudinal and transverse images, transverse measurements were less variable. The cross-sectional area computed from the longitudinal images was 27% lower than the area measured from transverse images, possibly due to the compression of the artery along the image depth by transducer pressure. Conclusions: FFAC is a robust and sensitive vasomotion segmentation algorithm in both transverse and longitudinal views. Transverse imaging may offer advantages over longitudinal imaging: transverse measurements are more consistent, possibly because the method is less sensitive to variations in transducer pressure during imaging.

  3. Unraveling the EXCEL: promises and challenges of the next trial of left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Capodanno, Davide; Tamburino, Corrado

    2012-04-01

    The Evaluation of Xience Prime or Xience V versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization (EXCEL) trial is a multicenter, ongoing trial conducted in patients with left main disease and SYNTAX score ≤ 32 to establish the presumptive advantage of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus bypass surgery in patients with less complex coronary artery disease than those enrolled in the Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) trial. In this article, we aimed at critically discussing key features and issues relevant to design and clinical interpretation of this new contemporary trial of left main PCI.

  4. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

    PubMed

    Tweet, Marysia S; Gulati, Rajiv; Hayes, Sharonne N

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an important etiology of nonatherosclerotic acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Innovations in the catheterization laboratory including optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound have enhanced the ability to visualize intimal disruption and intramural hematoma associated with SCAD. Formerly considered "rare," these technological advances and heightened awareness suggest that SCAD is more prevalent than prior estimates. SCAD is associated with female sex, young age, extreme emotional stress, or extreme exertion, pregnancy, and fibromuscular dysplasia. The clinical characteristics and management strategies of SCAD patients are different than for atherosclerotic heart disease and deserve specific consideration. This review will highlight recent discoveries about SCAD as well as describe current efforts to elucidate remaining gaps in knowledge.

  5. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

    PubMed

    Tweet, Marysia S; Gulati, Rajiv; Hayes, Sharonne N

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an important etiology of nonatherosclerotic acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Innovations in the catheterization laboratory including optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound have enhanced the ability to visualize intimal disruption and intramural hematoma associated with SCAD. Formerly considered "rare," these technological advances and heightened awareness suggest that SCAD is more prevalent than prior estimates. SCAD is associated with female sex, young age, extreme emotional stress, or extreme exertion, pregnancy, and fibromuscular dysplasia. The clinical characteristics and management strategies of SCAD patients are different than for atherosclerotic heart disease and deserve specific consideration. This review will highlight recent discoveries about SCAD as well as describe current efforts to elucidate remaining gaps in knowledge. PMID:27216840

  6. HIV and breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    1992-07-01

    Participants at a 1992 WHO/UNICEF consultation meeting on HIV transmission and breast feeding weigh the risk of death from AIDS with the risk of death from other causes. Breast feeding reduces the risk of death from diarrhea, pneumonia, and other infections. Artificial or inappropriate feeding contributes the most to the more than 3 million annual childhood deaths from diarrhea. The rising prevalence of HIV infection among women worldwide results in more and more cases of HIV-infected newborns. About 33% of infants born to HIV-infected. Some HIV transmission occurs through breast feeding, but breast feeding does not transmit HIV to most infants HIV-infected mothers. Participants recommend that, in areas where infectious diseases and malnutrition are the leading causes of death and infant mortality is high, health workers should advise all pregnant women, regardless of their HIV status, to breast feed. The infant's risk of HIV infection via breast milk tends to be lower than its risk of death from other causes and from not being breast fed. HIV-infected women who do have access to alternative feeding should talk to their health care providers to learn how to feed their infants safely. In areas where the leading cause of death is not infectious disease and infant mortality is low, participants recommend that health workers advise HIV-infected pregnant women to use a safe feeding alternative, e.g., bottle feeding. Yet, the women and their providers should not be influenced by commercial pressures to choose an alternative feeding method. Health care services in these areas should provide voluntary and confidential HIV testing and counseling. Participants stress the need to prevent women from becoming HIV-infected by providing them information about AIDS and how to protect themselves, increasing their participation in decision-making in sexual relationships, and improving their status in society. PMID:1477885

  7. Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery: The Role of Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT)

    PubMed Central

    Al Umairi, Rashid Saif; Al Kindi, Faiza; Al Busaidi, Fadhila

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary abnormality also known as Bland-White-Garland syndrome. The incidence of ALCAPA is about 1 in every 300,000 live births, and constitutes 0.24% and 0.46% of all congenital cardiac disease. It has a high infant mortality rate reaching up to 90% if left untreated. For many years, the diagnosis of ALCAPA was by angiography or autopsy. However, multislice computed tomography (MSCT) is a non-invasive imaging tool that allows accurate, non-invasive diagnosis of ALCAPA. Here we report a case of ALCAPA in a six-month-old girl who presented with a two-week history of cough, fever, tachypnea, and sweating during feeding. During admission, an echocardiogram was performed that revealed ALCAPA, which was confirmed using CT. We discuss the role of MSCT in its diagnosis. PMID:27602196

  8. Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery: The Role of Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT)

    PubMed Central

    Al Umairi, Rashid Saif; Al Kindi, Faiza; Al Busaidi, Fadhila

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary abnormality also known as Bland-White-Garland syndrome. The incidence of ALCAPA is about 1 in every 300,000 live births, and constitutes 0.24% and 0.46% of all congenital cardiac disease. It has a high infant mortality rate reaching up to 90% if left untreated. For many years, the diagnosis of ALCAPA was by angiography or autopsy. However, multislice computed tomography (MSCT) is a non-invasive imaging tool that allows accurate, non-invasive diagnosis of ALCAPA. Here we report a case of ALCAPA in a six-month-old girl who presented with a two-week history of cough, fever, tachypnea, and sweating during feeding. During admission, an echocardiogram was performed that revealed ALCAPA, which was confirmed using CT. We discuss the role of MSCT in its diagnosis.

  9. Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery: The Role of Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT).

    PubMed

    Al Umairi, Rashid Saif; Al Kindi, Faiza; Al Busaidi, Fadhila

    2016-09-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary abnormality also known as Bland-White-Garland syndrome. The incidence of ALCAPA is about 1 in every 300,000 live births, and constitutes 0.24% and 0.46% of all congenital cardiac disease. It has a high infant mortality rate reaching up to 90% if left untreated. For many years, the diagnosis of ALCAPA was by angiography or autopsy. However, multislice computed tomography (MSCT) is a non-invasive imaging tool that allows accurate, non-invasive diagnosis of ALCAPA. Here we report a case of ALCAPA in a six-month-old girl who presented with a two-week history of cough, fever, tachypnea, and sweating during feeding. During admission, an echocardiogram was performed that revealed ALCAPA, which was confirmed using CT. We discuss the role of MSCT in its diagnosis. PMID:27602196

  10. Pelvic Arterial Anatomy Relevant to Prostatic Artery Embolisation and Proposal for Angiographic Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Assis, André Moreira de Moreira, Airton Mota Paula Rodrigues, Vanessa Cristina de; Harward, Sardis Honoria; Antunes, Alberto Azoubel Srougi, Miguel; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo describe and categorize the angiographic findings regarding prostatic vascularization, propose an anatomic classification, and discuss its implications for the PAE procedure.MethodsAngiographic findings from 143 PAE procedures were reviewed retrospectively, and the origin of the inferior vesical artery (IVA) was classified into five subtypes as follows: type I: IVA originating from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery (IIA), from a common trunk with the superior vesical artery (SVA); type II: IVA originating from the anterior division of the IIA, inferior to the SVA origin; type III: IVA originating from the obturator artery; type IV: IVA originating from the internal pudendal artery; and type V: less common origins of the IVA. Incidences were calculated by percentage.ResultsTwo hundred eighty-six pelvic sides (n = 286) were analyzed, and 267 (93.3 %) were classified into I–IV types. Among them, the most common origin was type IV (n = 89, 31.1 %), followed by type I (n = 82, 28.7 %), type III (n = 54, 18.9 %), and type II (n = 42, 14.7 %). Type V anatomy was seen in 16 cases (5.6 %). Double vascularization, defined as two independent prostatic branches in one pelvic side, was seen in 23 cases (8.0 %).ConclusionsDespite the large number of possible anatomical variations of male pelvis, four main patterns corresponded to almost 95 % of the cases. Evaluation of anatomy in a systematic fashion, following a standard classification, will make PAE a faster, safer, and more effective procedure.

  11. Beta dose calculation in human arteries for various brachytherapy seed types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Woo

    This dissertation explores beta dose profile of microspheres packed in arteries, various source geometries of 142Pr that can be used for therapeutic purpose, and dose backscatter factors for selected beta sources. A novel treatment method by injecting microspheres into feeding arteries of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is under pre-clinical investigation. To optimize radiation dose to the clinically important area, i.e. arterial wall, preliminary dosimetric studies were needed. Monte Carlo calculations were performed for several geometries simulating arteries filled with microspheres packed by random packing methods. Arterial radii used in the simulation varied from 50 mum to 3 mm; microsphere radii varied from 10 mum to 0.7 mm. Dose varied significantly as a function of microsphere size, for constant arterial sizes. For the same sizes of arteries, significant dose increase was observed because of inter-artery exposure for large arteries (>0.1 cm rad.) filled with large microspheres (>0.03 cm rad.). Dose increase between small arteries (<0.03 cm rad.) was less significant. The dose profiles of prototype 142Pr beta brachytherapy sources were calculated using MCNP 4C Monte Carlo code as well as dose point kernel (DPK) for selected cases. Dose profiles were similar to beta sources currently used indicating that 142Pr can substitute for current sources for certain cases and the DPK was closely matched with MCNP result. Backscattering of electrons is a prominent secondary effect in beta dosimetry. The backscattering is closely correlated with factors such as geometry of source and scattering material, and composition of scattering material. The backscattering factors were calculated for selected beta sources that are currently used as well as potentially useful sources for therapeutic purpose. The factors were calculated as a function of distance from the interface between water and scatterers. These factors were fit by a simple function for future incorporation into

  12. Infant Feeding: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Christine Marie, Comp.; Kumer, Bonnie Lee, Comp.

    Intended for parents, health professionals and allied health workers, and others involved in caring for infants and young children, this annotated bibliography brings together in one selective listing a review of over 700 current publications related to infant feeding. Reflecting current knowledge in infant feeding, the bibliography has as its…

  13. Feed analyses and their interpretation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance of the assays, analytical variability of the analyses, and whether a feed is suit...

  14. Aquaculture feed and food safety.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate objective of an aquaculture feed manufacturer and aquaculture food supplier is to ensure that the feed or food produced is both safe and wholesome. Reported food safety risks, which may be associated with the use of commercial animal feeds, including compound aquaculture feeds, usually result from the possible presence of unwanted contaminants, either within the feed ingredients used or from the external contamination of the finished feed on prolonged storage. The major animal feed contaminants that have been reported to date have included Salmonellae, mycotoxins, veterinary drug residues, persistent organic pollutants, agricultural and other chemicals (solvent residues, melamine), heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium) and excess mineral salts (hexavalent chromium, arsenic, selenium, flourine), and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Apart from the direct negative effect of these possible contaminants on the health of the cultured target species, there is a risk that the feed contaminants may be passed along the food chain, via contaminated aquaculture produce, to consumers. In recent years, public concern regarding food safety has increased as a consequence of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic residues, persistent organic pollutants, and chemicals in farmed seafood. The important role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in the development of international standards, guidelines, and recommendations to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade is discussed. PMID:18991902

  15. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  16. Radial Artery Coursing Behind the Biceps Brachii Tendon: Significance for the Transradial Catheterization and a Clinically Oriented Classification of the Radial Artery Variations

    SciTech Connect

    Jelev, L. Surchev, L.

    2008-09-15

    In routine clinical practice the variations of the radial artery are the main reason for technical failure during transradial catheterization. If these variations are well documented, however, they do not represent a problem in the transradial approach. Therefore, we report here a rare case of the radial artery which is very strange but potentially valuable for the clinical practice: it arises at a right angle from the brachial artery and passes behind the biceps brachii tendon. Based on our findings and on an extensive literature review, we propose for the first time a clinically oriented classification of the variations of the radial artery. This classification is related to the catheterization success at the usual access site of the radial artery at the wrist.

  17. Left Subclavian Artery Occlusion: Femoro-Axillary Artery Retrograde Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Masaya; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    The treatment tactics for subclavian artery occlusion include the more commonly used endovascular therapy rather than surgical intervention. We present a case of a 61-year-old woman with dialysis-dependent chronic renal failure who experienced left finger necrosis in the left upper extremity. To salvage the limb, we performed femoro-axillary (fem-ax) artery bypass using an autologous saphenous vein graft. However, 10 months later, she experienced coldness in the left forearm. Angiography revealed chronic total occlusion of the venous bypass. Despite emergent thrombectomy, redo fem-ax artery bypass operation was performed using a prosthetic graft. Upper limb salvage can be achieved by fem-ax artery retrograde bypass. PMID:27386454

  18. A History of Infant Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  19. Breast-feeding after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Serban; Pai, Akshta; Coscia, Lisa A; Davison, John M; Moritz, Michael J; Armenti, Vincent T

    2014-11-01

    Transplantation affords recipients the potential for a full life and, for some, parenthood. Female transplant recipients must continue to take immunosuppression during pregnancy and breast-feeding. This article reviews case and series reports regarding breast-feeding in those taking transplant medications. Avoidance of breast-feeding has been the customary advice because of the potential adverse effects of immunosuppressive exposure on the infant. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that not all medication exposure translates to risk for the infant, that the exposure in utero is greater than via breast milk and that no lingering effects due to breast-feeding have been found to date in infants who were breast-fed while their mothers were taking prednisone, azathioprine, cyclosporine, and/or tacrolimus. Thus, except for those medications where clinical information is inadequate (mycophenolic acid products, sirolimus, everolimus, and belatacept), the recommendation for transplant recipients regarding breast-feeding has evolved into one that is cautiously optimistic.

  20. Almanac 2015: coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Shavelle, David M

    2016-04-01

    Recent years have seen major advances in the evaluation and treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. These include assessment of novel biomarkers and imaging methods for patients at risk for coronary artery disease, care of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, a novel device to treat medical refractory angina, use of non-statin lipid-lowering agents, a better understanding of the risks and benefits of long-term dual antiplatelet therapy and the use of the newer antiplatelet agents. This article summarises research related to coronary artery disease published in Heart in 2014 and 2015, within the context of other major cardiovascular journals. PMID:26819234

  1. Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm Formation with Superior Mesenteric Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kitaoka, Tadashi; Kamiya, Chiaki; Suzuki, Jun; Sato, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Celiac stenosis or occlusion is attributed partly to increase blood flow at pancreatic arcade from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) system and may play a causal role in true aneurysm of pancreaticoduodenal artery (PDAA) formation. However, despite possible increased blood flow in the pancreatic arcades like celiac stenosis, PDAAs with a stenotic SMA are extremely rare, with only three cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of PDAA with SMA stenosis and review the literature. PMID:25298835

  2. Takayasu's arteritis with renal artery stenosis diagnosed in a patient with 65 years old.

    PubMed

    Valente, Ellen Simionato; de Almeida, Rafael; Sacco, Alexander Gonçalves; Lazzarin, Mauricio Costa; da Silva, André Melchiades; Andreazza, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Takayasu arteritis is a rare disease of unknown etiology that affects the aorta and its main branches. It is a condition, geographically more common in Southeast Asia, which mainly affects women of reproductive age. The clinical presentation is nonspecific, with signs and symptoms that vary according to the affected arterial segment. The most commonly affected vessel is the subclavian artery, while renal artery stenosis is relatively uncommon. Cardiac involvement and association with other diseases may also be present. We present in this report the case of an elderly patient with late diagnosis of Takayasu's arteritis and various comorbidities or related complications.

  3. An educational intervention on promotion of breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Neyzi, O; Olgun, P; Kutluay, T; Uzel, N; Saner, G; Gökçay, G; Taşdelen, E; Akar, U

    1991-07-01

    This study was designed to search for an effective method to promote exclusive breast feeding among Turkish city women delivering in hospitals. Four hundred and forty-two primiparae with uncomplicated deliveries and with healthy infants with birthweights of greater than 2500 g were exposed to a group educational session on breast feeding after birth, followed by one repeat session at home. Four hundred and ninety-nine women served as controls. All homes were visited monthly for 6 months by independent observers and data relevant to the feeding of the infants were collected. Weight measurements of 176 infants were taken at age 4 months. The study and control mothers were similar in sociodemographic characteristics which reflected a low socio-economic/educational background but relatively good housing conditions. Although significant differences in frequency of exclusive breast feeding were found between the study and control groups, the impact of the intervention was much lower than our expectations and short-lived. Type of feeding was not related to sex or birthweight of the infant, nor to maternal variables. Weight at age 4 months was within normal limits and similar in the study and control groups. It was concluded that lack of up-to-date information on infant feeding was the main obstacle to breast feeding in urban groups in Turkey, and that the impact of an educational intervention limited to the first week after delivery was lost within the first 2 months.

  4. Feed Structure For Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A novel feed structure, for an antenna having a resonant electric field structure, comprising a patch element, an integrated circuit attached to the patch element, at least one inner conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the integrated circuit on a first end of the at least one inner conductor, wherein the at least one inner conductor extends through and is not electrically connected to the patch element, and wherein the at least one inner conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the at least one inner conductor, and an outer conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the patch element on a first end of the outer conductor, wherein the outer conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the outer conductor, and wherein the outer conductor concentrically surrounds the at least one inner conductor from the second end of the at least one inner conductor available for electrical connectivity to the first end of the outer conductor terminating at the patch element.

  5. [Feasibility study of the Doppler exploration of the renal artery].

    PubMed

    Milon, P; Clavier, E; Genevois, A; Benozio, M

    1990-03-01

    Using arteriography as a reference, the authors investigate the feasibility of pulsed doppler exploration of the normal or pathological renal arteries in 46 successive patients. The poor sensitivity of pulsed doppler, mainly due to the considerable anatomical variations of the renal pedicle, does not currently allow using this technique for the detection of renal arterial stenosis. When combined with angiography, pulsed doppler becomes a definite asset in therapeutic radiology to help in the choice of a treatment and in follow-up. PMID:2191123

  6. Feeding At-Risk Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Mata B.

    1989-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists working with infants or toddlers with feeding problems should obtain a feeding history, conduct an assessment of feeding practices, set appropriate preliminary and long-range goals, and investigate treatment options and appropriate feeding techniques. Feeding techniques for premature, neurologically impaired, Down…

  7. Characterization of tapered slot antenna feeds and feed arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Young-Sik; Yngvesson, K. Sigfrid

    1990-01-01

    A class of feed antennas and feed antenna arrays used in the focal plane of paraboloid reflectors and exhibiting higher than normal levels of cross-polarized radiation in the diagonal planes is addressed. A model which allows prediction of element gain and aperture efficiency of the feed/reflector system is presented. The predictions are in good agreement with experimental results. Tapered slot antenna (TSA) elements are used an example of an element of this type. It is shown that TSA arrays used in multibeam systems with small beam spacings are competitive in terms of aperture efficiency with other, more standard types of arrays incorporating waveguide type elements.

  8. Left Main Ostial Compression in a Patient with Pulmonary Hypertension: Dynamic Findings by IVUS

    PubMed Central

    Seabra, Luciana F.; Ribeiro, Henrique B.; de Barros e Silva, Pedro Gabriel Melo; Rodrigues, Marcelo J.; Spadaro, André G.; Conejo, Fábio; Godinho, Roger R.; Faig, Sandro M. M.; de Macedo, Thiago Andrade; de P. S. Baptista, Luciana; de Resende, Marcos Valerio C.; Furlan, Valter; Ribeiro, Expedito E.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 39 Final Diagnosis: Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension Symptoms: Chest pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Percutaneous coronary intervention Specialty: Cardiology and Pulmonology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Pulmonary artery dilatation is a common feature among patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. Left main coronary artery extrinsic compression by an enlarged pulmonary artery is a rare complication and a potential cause for chest pain and sudden cardiac death in patients with pulmonary hypertension. This situation is very rare and few reports have described it. Currently, the appropriate management of these patients remains unknown. Case Report: In the present report we describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented with a 2-year history of cardiac symptoms related to exercise. The patient underwent a 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography, which showed left main coronary artery (LMCA) compression by a markedly enlarged pulmonary artery trunk (44 mm), without intraluminal stenosis or coronary artery calcium, as determined by the Agatston score. This compression was considered to be the cause of the cardiac symptoms. To confirm and plan the treatment, the patient underwent cardiac catheterization that confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension and LMCA critical obstruction. Taking into account the paucity of information regarding the best management in these cases, the treatment decision was shared among a “heart team” that chose percutaneous coronary intervention with stent placement. An intra-vascular ultrasound was performed during the procedure, which showed a dynamic compression of the left main coronary artery. The intervention was successfully executed without any adverse events. Conclusions: This case illustrates dynamic compression of the LMCA by IVUS, visually demonstrating the mechanism of the intermittent symptoms of myocardial

  9. Signs and Symptoms of Artery Disease | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Signs and Symptoms of Artery Disease Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... this depends on which arteries are affected. Coronary Arteries Coronary arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to the ...

  10. Ophthalmic Artery Embolization as Pretreatment of Orbital Exenteration for Conjunctival Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Ohara, Nobuya; Namba, Yuzaburo

    2009-05-15

    The aim of this study is to describe the effect of transarterial embolization from the ophthalmic artery as a pretreatment for orbital exenteration. A 75-year-old Chinese man with a 7-year history of gradual increase of the left eye swelling showed a massive conjunctival tumor growing outwardly from the interpalpebral fissure and had no light perception in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging showed orbital invasion of the tumor around the left eyeglobe. The initial surgery for the planned orbital exenteration was discontinued after skin incision around the orbital margin due to massive hemorrhage. The patient underwent transarterial embolization with gelatin sponge (Spongel) of the feeding arteries from the left ophthalmic artery and, the next day, had orbital exenteration with well-controllable bleeding and reconstruction with free vascularized anterolateral thigh cutaneous flap transfer. Pathologically, well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma proliferated in exophytic, papillary, and nested fashions, arising from the bulbar conjunctiva. Tumor cells were also found in the conjunctival stroma around the vessels. The sclera at the equator had a perforated site with tumor cell invasion, but no intraocular invasion was found. Hematoxylin-positive gelatin sponges were found inside the orbital vessels and large choroidal vessels. In conclusion, transarterial embolization of feeding arteries arising from the ophthalmic artery is a useful pretreatment to control bleeding at orbital exenteration for malignancy.

  11. Pregnancy-related rupture of arterial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Barrett, J M; Van Hooydonk, J E; Boehm, F H

    1982-09-01

    Over 50 per cent of ruptured arterial aneurysms in women under the age of 40 are pregnancy-related. The hemodynamic and endocrine changes of pregnancy appear to be the cause of arterial alterations which may lead to new aneurysm formation and/or weakening of preexisting aneurysms. The most commonly reported arteries to have aneurysms rupture during pregnancy are the aorta, cerebral arteries, splenic artery, renal artery, coronary artery, and ovarian artery. In many instances, the rupture of an arterial aneurysm will initially simulate other less serious disease processes, thus delaying the correct diagnosis until a catastrophic event occurs. Early diagnosis and treatment of a ruptured arterial aneurysm are imperative in order to give optimal chances of survival to the mother and fetus.

  12. Cineangiography of the Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Gerard M.; Charland, Raymond; Roy, Paul; Primeau, Robert; Nadeau, Reginald

    1971-01-01

    Fifty French-Canadian patients presenting with typical or atypical anginal pain were studied by selective cinearteriography and coronary sinus catheterization, with measurement of myocardial function, oxygen and lactate extraction at rest and during isoproterenol infusion. In 28 of 42 patients all three coronary arteries were involved, but angina pectoris also occurred in patients with single mildly stenotic arterial lesions and even in eight patients with normal cinearteriograms. All patients with severe arterial lesions had typical angina, and the longer the duration of angina, the greater the extent, usually, of anatomic disease. Seventy-nine percent of resting electrocardiograms of patients with documented coronary artery disease were abnormal, with recognizable prior infarction in 18. Two-thirds of the patients experiencing pain during the stressful state had abnormal ventricular function. An abnormal arteriovenous lactate difference in response to isoproterenol occurred in patients in all groups. PMID:5563346

  13. Peripheral artery bypass - leg - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... P. Peripheral arterial diseases. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ... noncoronary obstructive vascular disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ...

  14. [The arteries of the stomach].

    PubMed

    Sow, M L; Diop, M; Morin, A

    1995-06-01

    In order to specify the gastric-arterial systematization, 65 fresh stomachs of adults deceased from non-gastro-duodenal causes, extracted by necropsy, allowed us to study the arteries of the stomach through the injection-corrosion technics. A selective injection for each arterial trunk has been made on 15 stomachs. This work allowed us to know better the arterial supply of the stomach and ut into obviousness important vascular anastomosis. While emphasizing on the substitute notion, the persons who wrote this summary describe regions poor in anastomosis, which correspond surgically with "critical" areas. They also emphasize how important it is to have an estimated score of the ischemia for gastric surgery, especially in the case of oeso-gastroplasty.

  15. 18. MAIN FLOOR HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAIN FLOOR - HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at holding tanks against the west wall, from which sluice gates are seen protruding. Right foreground-wooden holding tanks. Note narrow wooden flumes through which fish were sluiced into holding and brining tanks. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  16. Oblique view, looking eastsoutheast, of main gatehouse, main entrance, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view, looking east-southeast, of main gatehouse, main entrance, and battery storage house. East side of canal wall in foreground - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  17. View of the main interior space facing east. The main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the main interior space facing east. The main entry is on the left hand side at the rear. The exit to the deck is to the right. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  18. Arterial Stiffness and Cardiovascular Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Janić, Miodrag; Lunder, Mojca; Šabovič, Mišo

    2014-01-01

    The world population is aging and the number of old people is continuously increasing. Arterial structure and function change with age, progressively leading to arterial stiffening. Arterial stiffness is best characterized by measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV), which is its surrogate marker. It has been shown that PWV could improve cardiovascular event prediction in models that included standard risk factors. Consequently, it might therefore enable better identification of populations at high-risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present review is focused on a survey of different pharmacological therapeutic options for decreasing arterial stiffness. The influence of several groups of drugs is described: antihypertensive drugs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, diuretics, and nitrates), statins, peroral antidiabetics, advanced glycation end-products (AGE) cross-link breakers, anti-inflammatory drugs, endothelin-A receptor antagonists, and vasopeptidase inhibitors. All of these have shown some effect in decreasing arterial stiffness. Nevertheless, further studies are needed which should address the influence of arterial stiffness diminishment on major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). PMID:25170513

  19. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with right axillary artery perfusion.

    PubMed

    Navia, José L; Atik, Fernando A; Beyer, Erik A; Ruda Vega, Pablo

    2005-06-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can be instituted through various cannulation sites. This paper describes a technique for axillary artery cannulation for inflow perfusion in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and discusses both potential advantages and limitations. Exposure of the artery was achieved through the deltoid-pectoral approach. Both direct cannulation and interposition graft cannulation are possible, but the latter is preferred. Advantages of axillary artery cannulation are related mainly to the establishment of "central" support with antegrade flow and excellent upper body oxygenation. It also affords chest closure after postcardiotomy shock, and easy control of any mediastinal bleeding. These cannulation sites may be options for the institution of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, especially in postcardiotomy and respiratory failure patients and in patients with significant peripheral vascular disease. PMID:15919341

  20. [Arterial hypertension in gravidity - a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Kováčová, M; Kiňová, S

    2012-12-01

    Gravidity is a dynamic process and complications may occur at any stage and anytime during a thus far physiological gravidity. Such gravidity puts the mother, the foetus and, later, the newborn at a greater risk. The incidence of arterial hypertension is between 7 and 15% and is one of the 4 main causes of maternal and perinatal mortality. Cardiovascular stress test, such as gravidity, might help to identify women at a greater risk of cardiovascular diseases or with a subclinical vascular disease. Women with a history of preeclampsia are more likely to develop chronic arterial hypertension in the future either alone or associated with a cardiovascular disease. Arterial hypertension during gravidity should be considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases during later stages of maternal life. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases should be a life-long aspiration.

  1. Implantable blood pressure sensor for analyzing elasticity in arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco-Ayala, Marco; Martínez-Piñón, Fernando; Reyes-Barranca, Alfredo; Sánchez de la Peña, Salvador; Álvarez-Chavez, José A.

    2009-03-01

    MEMS technology could be an option for the development of a pressure sensor which allows the monitoring of several electronic signals in humans. In this work, a comparison is made between the typical elasticity curves of several arteries in the human body and the elasticity obtained for MEMS silicon microstructures such as membranes and cantilevers employing Finite Element analysis tools. The purpose is to identify which types of microstructures are mechanically compatible with human arteries. The goal is to integrate a blood pressure sensor which can be implanted in proximity with an artery. The expected benefits for this type of sensor are mainly to reduce the problems associated with the use of bulk devices through the day and during several days. Such a sensor could give precise blood pressure readings in a continuous or periodic form, i.e. information that is especially important for some critical cases of hypertension patients.

  2. Non-surgical management of superior mesenteric artery thrombosis using spinal cord stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tod, Laura; Ghosh, Jonathan; Lieberman, Ilan; Baguneid, Mohamed

    2013-08-05

    We report the use of a spinal cord stimulator (SCS) for non-surgical management of superior mesenteric artery thrombosis. A 59-year-old woman with polycythaemia rubra vera presented with extensive superior mesenteric artery thrombosis not amenable to surgical or endovascular revascularisation. A SCS was implanted for analgesia thereby allowing enteral feeding to be tolerated during the acute period. Four months later the patient developed a focal ischaemic jejunal stricture and underwent resection of a short segment of small bowel with primary anastomosis that healed without complication. Spinal cord stimulation can facilitate non-surgical management of mesenteric ischaemia.

  3. Infant feeding practices and obesity.

    PubMed

    Himes, J H

    1979-08-01

    Selected assumptions regarding associations between artificial feeding and infantile obesity are examined. Although some artificial baby foods (desserts, meats, egg yolks) have considerably greater caloric density than breast milk, a large class of baby foods and most milks and formulas are comparable to breast milk in caloric density. The intake of infant foods seems to be related more to caloric density than volume. Modern day artificial feeding in developed countries tends to produce larger weight gains than breast feeding, although no good data exist to evaluate the composition of these weight gains. Many more data from well planned studies are needed to fully elucidate possible mechanisms of infantile obesity. PMID:458075

  4. Feed analyses and their interpretation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs for use in ration formulation. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance and analytical variability of the assays, and whether an analysis is suitable to be applied to a particular feedstuff. Commercial analyses presently available for carbohydrates, protein, and fats have improved nutritionally pertinent description of feed fractions. Factors affecting interpretation of feed analyses and the nutritional relevance and application of currently available analyses are discussed.

  5. HIV and infant feeding. Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    1995-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be passed to the infant during pregnancy, childbirth, or breast feeding. Most infants born to HIV positive mothers do not become infected with HIV. The virus is found in breast milk; available research suggests 1 out of 7 breast fed infants of HIV positive mothers will be infected from breast milk. Mothers with recent or advanced HIV infections have more virus in their body fluids, including breast milk; therefore, a baby is more likely to be infected if the mother becomes infected during pregnancy, childbirth, or breast feeding, or if she is ill with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related illnesses. If a baby is already infected, breast feeding will help the infant stay healthier longer. Health workers should discuss the benefits of breast feeding with all pregnant women. Information about the spread of HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) should be given; safe sex (condom use or abstinence) is important during pregnancy and breast feeding. If a woman's status is unknown, she should be encouraged to breast feed. In most communities, counselling and testing are unavailable. Where these services are available, the risk of infection through breast feeding should never be used to put pressure on a woman to take a test. Counselling prepares her for the possibility of being positive and allows her to make an informed choice about breast feeding. In some situations (especially if she herself is ill), a woman who knows she is HIV positive should not breast feed. However, alternatives may be unavailable, and the benefits may outweigh the risks. Health workers should assist the woman in making an informed choice. Issues to be considered include: 1) access to clean water and ability to pay for fuel or electricity to sterilize feeding utensils; 2) support from family or friends; 3) access to animal milk or shops that carry formula milk; and 4) ability to pay for formula or animal milk. To feed an infant for 6 months

  6. A cohort study of duplex Doppler examinations of the carotid artery in primary open angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Marmion, Vincent J; Aldoori, Munther I; Woodcock, John P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the possibility of pathological change in the common carotid artery at the bifurcation and in the internal carotid artery beyond the bifurcation which could contribute to a reduced diastolic pressure as observed in primary open angle glaucoma. Design Duplex ultrasonic examinations of carotid bifurcations were conducted on 80 patients. Carotid artery defects were allocated into three types: no demonstrable flow defects, internal carotid artery abnormalities and disease in the carotid bulb. Setting Bristol Royal Infirmary Vascular Laboratory. Participants Eighty patients (mean age 69.6 years) providing a total of 160 sides to the analysis. Main outcome measures An estimated central retinal artery pressure, intraocular pressure and field loss were recorded for each side measured. Results Doppler investigations revealed significant levels of pathological change in the internal carotid distinct from changes at the carotid bulb. The disease revealed in the internal carotid artery was significantly associated with intraocular pressure (p = 0.032), with an effect small to medium in magnitude. The Q2 measure, derived from mean arterial pressure and intraocular pressure, was also substantively associated with disease in the internal carotid artery. Both intraocular pressure and the Q2 measure effectively discriminated between groups, with field loss providing rather less discriminating capability. There was a strong trend towards a higher intraocular pressures and a greater visual field loss with internal carotid artery disease. Conclusions Pathological changes in the extra cranial carotid artery in primary open angle glaucoma exceed those in the arteries classified as normal. The presence of disease specifically in the internal carotid artery emphasised the need for a mechanism for the evaluation of the internal carotid apart from the carotid bulb. A basis for clarifying the presence of an ischaemic zone is proposed. PMID:25289141

  7. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is diagnosed with ... use too. If your baby needs surgery after breast-feeding has been established, you can pump your breasts ...

  8. Coronary Artery Disease | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Coronary Artery Disease Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... exercise routine produced a strong heart!" Fast Facts Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood ...

  9. Recurrent ischemia resulting from left internal mammary artery-to-pulmonary artery fistula.

    PubMed

    Madu, E C; Hanumanthu, S K; Kim, C; Prudoff, A

    2001-03-01

    This report describes a case series of recurrent ischemia after coronary artery bypass grafting resulting from left internal mammary artery-to-pulmonary artery fistula. An angiographic demonstration of this fistula is presented.

  10. Hydroxychloroquine, a promising choice for coronary artery disease?

    PubMed

    Sun, Lizhe; Liu, Mengping; Li, Ruifeng; Zhao, Qiang; Liu, Junhui; Yang, Yanjie; Zhang, Lisha; Bai, Xiaofang; Wei, Yuanyuan; Ma, Qiangqiang; Zhou, Juan; Yuan, Zuyi; Wu, Yue

    2016-08-01

    Coronary artery disease is a common disease that seriously threaten the health of more than 150 million people per year. Atherosclerosis is considered to be the main cause of coronary artery disease which begins with damage or injury to the inner layer of a coronary artery, sometimes as early as childhood. The damage may be caused by various factors, including: smoking, high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia, sedentary lifestyle, diabetes and insulin resistance. Once a coronary artery disease has developed, all patients need to be treated with long term standard treatment, including heart-healthy lifestyle changes, medicines, and medical procedures or surgery. Hydroxychloroquine, an original antimalarial drug, prevents inflammation caused by lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. It is relatively safe and well-tolerated during the treatment. Since atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis have resemble mechanism and increasing clinical researches confirm that hydroxychloroquine has an important role in both anti-rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular protection (such as anti-platelet, anti-thrombotic, lipid-regulating, anti-hypertension, hypoglycemia, and so on), we hypothesize that hydroxychloroquine might be a promising choice to coronary artery disease patients for its multiple benefits. PMID:27372847

  11. Unsteady 3D flow simulations in cranial arterial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinberg, Leopold; Anor, Tomer; Madsen, Joseph; Karniadakis, George

    2008-11-01

    High resolution unsteady 3D flow simulations in major cranial arteries have been performed. Two cases were considered: 1) a healthy volunteer with a complete Circle of Willis (CoW); and 2) a patient with hydrocephalus and an incomplete CoW. Computation was performed on 3344 processors of the new half petaflop supercomputer in TACC. Two new numerical approaches were developed and implemented: 1) a new two-level domain decomposition method, which couples continuous and discontinuous Galerkin discretization of the computational domain; and 2) a new type of outflow boundary conditions, which imposes, in an accurate and computationally efficient manner, clinically measured flow rates. In the first simulation, a geometric model of 65 cranial arteries was reconstructed. Our simulation reveals a high degree of asymmetry in the flow at the left and right parts of the CoW and the presence of swirling flow in most of the CoW arteries. In the second simulation, one of the main findings was a high pressure drop at the right anterior communicating artery (PCA). Due to the incompleteness of the CoW and the pressure drop at the PCA, the right internal carotid artery supplies blood to most regions of the brain.

  12. A microstructurally driven model for pulmonary artery tissue.

    PubMed

    Kao, Philip H; Lammers, Steven R; Tian, Lian; Hunter, Kendall; Stenmark, Kurt R; Shandas, Robin; Qi, H Jerry

    2011-05-01

    A new constitutive model for elastic, proximal pulmonary artery tissue is presented here, called the total crimped fiber model. This model is based on the material and microstructural properties of the two main, passive, load-bearing components of the artery wall, elastin, and collagen. Elastin matrix proteins are modeled with an orthotropic neo-Hookean material. High stretch behavior is governed by an orthotropic crimped fiber material modeled as a planar sinusoidal linear elastic beam, which represents collagen fiber deformations. Collagen-dependent artery orthotropy is defined by a structure tensor representing the effective orientation distribution of collagen fiber bundles. Therefore, every parameter of the total crimped fiber model is correlated with either a physiologic structure or geometry or is a mechanically measured material property of the composite tissue. Further, by incorporating elastin orthotropy, this model better represents the mechanics of arterial tissue deformation. These advancements result in a microstructural total crimped fiber model of pulmonary artery tissue mechanics, which demonstrates good quality of fit and flexibility for modeling varied mechanical behaviors encountered in disease states. PMID:21599093

  13. A Microstructurally-Driven Model for Pulmonary Artery Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Philip H; Lammers, Steve; Tian, Lian; Hunter, Kendall; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Shandas, Robin; Qi, H. Jerry

    2011-01-01

    A new constitutive model for elastic, proximal pulmonary artery tissue is presented here, called the Total Crimped Fiber Model. This model is based on the material and micro-structural properties of the two main, passive, load-bearing components of the artery wall, elastin and collagen. Elastin matrix proteins are modeled with an orthotropic neo-Hookean material. High stretch behavior is governed by an orthotropic crimped fiber material, modeled as a planar sinusoidal linear elastic beam, which represents collagen fiber deformations. Collagen-dependent artery orthotropy is defined by a structure tensor representing the effective orientation distribution of collagen fiber bundles. Therefore, every parameter of the total crimped fiber model is correlated with either a physiologic structure or geometry or is a mechanically-measured material property of the composite tissue. Further, by incorporating elastin orthotropy, this model better represents the mechanics of arterial tissue deformation. These advancements result in a micro-structural total crimped fiber model of pulmonary artery tissue mechanics which demonstrates good quality of fit and flexibility for modeling varied mechanical behaviors encountered in disease states. PMID:21599093

  14. Iatrogenic aortic root and left main dissection during non-emergency coronary surgery: a solution applicable to heavily calcified coronary arteries†.

    PubMed

    Kieser, Teresa M; Spence, Frank P; Kowalewski, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Dissection of the left main coronary artery during coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is a rare, potentially lethal complication, usually diagnosed at post-mortem. During the cross-clamp period of a 4-vessel coronary artery bypass graft procedure in a 74-year old hypertensive woman, retrograde dissection occurred in a diffusely diseased marginal artery when perfused with cardioplegic solution at a pressure of 140-150 mmHg through a vein graft. The dissection extended back to the left main artery, included the posterior proximal ascending aorta and then down the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) confirmed the left main dissection and showed anterior-septal-lateral akinesis in a previously normally functioning left ventricle (LV). The circumferentially calcified proximal LAD was grafted with a saphenous vein by carving an oval area of calcium creating an elliptical opening in the artery wall. Normal LV function returned and, in the area of the left main dissection, there was only thickening with no colour flow. Eight months postoperatively cardiac catheterization showed normal LV function, patent vein grafts to the right coronary artery and proximal LAD, left internal mammary artery to distal LAD and an occluded sequential marginal vein graft. Twelve years postoperatively, the patient is well with Class I angina, on medication. There is no previous documentation of a diagnosed and successfully treated left main dissection during CABG surgery. Since this case using the technique of creating an oval opening in a circumferentially calcified coronary artery (with an otherwise satisfactory lumen), the author has been using this technique to bypass otherwise non-bypassable arteries; this technique may be useful to help patients with severe calcific coronary artery disease.

  15. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  16. Preoperative Transcatheter Selective Arterial Chemoembolization in Treatment of Unresectable Hepatoblastoma in Infants and Children

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jiaping; Chu Jianping Yang Jianyong; Chen Wei; Wang Yu; Huang Yonghui

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility and efficacy of transcatheter selective arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for unresectable hepatoblastoma in infants and children. The study was performed with the approval of our institutional review board. Sixteen patients (13 boys, 3 girls) with unresectable hepatoblastoma were treated one to three times with preoperative TACE in an effort to improve the surgical and clinical outcome. Their ages ranged from 50 days to 60 months, with a mean age of 20.4 months. All cases were pathologically proved hepatoblastoma by fine-needle biopsy. After an intra-arterial catheter was selectively inserted into the main feeding artery of the tumor, cycles of cisplatin (40 to 50 mg/m{sup 2}) and adriamycin (20 to 30 mg/m{sup 2}) mixed with lipiodol were given, followed by gelatin foam particles or stainless-steel coils. Tumor response was evaluated according to tumor shrinkage, {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, and pathological findings. TACE procedure was performed one to three times, depending on the patient's response. Surgical resection was carried out when the tumor volume appeared sufficiently reduced to allow safe resection by either lobectomy or extended lobectomy. A marked reduction in tumor size associated with decreased AFP level occurred after treatment. According to paired-samples test, tumor shrinkage ranged from 19.0% to 82.0%, with a mean value of 59.2%. AFP levels decreased 99.0% to 29.0% from initial levels, with a mean decrease of 60.0%. TACE allowed subsequent complete surgical resection in 13 cases and the other 3 cases underwent partial resection. One patient underwent successful orthotopic liver transplantation after receiving TACE therapy. Pathological examination showed that the mean percentage of necrotic area in the surgical specimens was 87%. Overall survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 87.5%, 68.7%, and 50%, respectively. Correspondingly, event-free survival rate was 75%, 62.5%, and

  17. The hepatic artery in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Merion, R M; Burtch, G D; Ham, J M; Turcotte, J G; Campbell, D A

    1989-09-01

    Hepatic artery complications after liver transplantation are uncommon, but represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In addition, these complications tax an already limited supply of donor organs because of the frequent need for retransplantation in this group of patients. In this study, we examined the incidence of hepatic arterial anomalies in donors and recipients of orthotopic liver transplants, focusing on the techniques that are available for hepatic arterial reconstruction and on the occurrence of hepatic arterial complications. A total of 77 liver transplants were carried out in 68 patients. Standard recipient anatomy was present in 60 of 68 patients (88%). Anomalous vessels were identified in eight patients (12%), including six cases of replaced right hepatic artery (9%) and two cases of replaced left hepatic artery (3%). Donor liver arterial anatomy was standard in 62 cases (80%). Anomalous arterial supply was identified in 15 of 77 donor livers (20%), including replaced left hepatic artery in nine (12%) and replaced right hepatic artery in six (8%). A variety of methods were used to manage the anomalous vessels. There was one hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm, three cases of hepatic artery thrombosis (4%), and one patient developed a dissection of the native celiac axis. In primary transplants, utilization of the recipient's proper hepatic artery was associated with a significantly higher risk of hepatic artery thrombosis (P less than 0.04) when compared with the common hepatic artery or the branch patch technique. Use of a Carrel patch on the donor artery was associated with a significantly reduced incidence of hepatic artery thrombosis (P less than 0.0003). For retransplantation, it is recommended that a more proximal recipient anastomotic site be chosen. An innovative method is described that provides increased length of the donor arterial supply without the use of an arterial graft. PMID:2675403

  18. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  19. Rotary powder feed through apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

  20. Modeling Treated LAW Feed Evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    DANIEL, WE

    2004-07-08

    This task examines the potential of the treated waste feed blends to form sodium-aluminum silicate precipitates when evaporated using the zeolite database. To investigate the behavior of the blended pretreated waste feed, an OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI ESP) model of the treated low activity waste (LAW) evaporator was built. A range of waste feed compositions representative of Envelope A, B, and C were then fed into the OLI model to predict various physical and chemical properties of the evaporator concentrates. Additional runs with treated LAW evaporator were performed to compare chemical and physical property model predictions and experimental results for small-scale radioactive tests of the treated feed evaporation process.

  1. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  2. The novel design for giant spherical radio telescope with active main reflector.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yuhai

    1998-04-01

    A novel design for a giant spherical radio telescope is suggested. Instead of using a complex feed system for the correction of the aberration (such as the Arecibo Gregorian subreflector), an active main reflector is proposed. The part of main reflector which is illuminated by the feed is continually adjusted to fit the paraboloid of revolution in real-time when tracking the radio source. Thus a simple feed for a parabolic antenna can be used for this system. This concept is applied in the design of a large spherical radio telescope having a total reflecting spherical surface 500 m in diameter (radius of curvature 300 m), while an usable aperture 300 m. The main advantages in this design are large zenith-angle coverage, a simple feeding system (so that it is easy to achieve broad bandwidth and full polarization) and low cost.

  3. Impact of residual stretch and remodeling on collagen engagement in healthy and pulmonary hypertensive calf pulmonary arteries at physiological pressures.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lian; Lammers, Steven R; Kao, Philip H; Albietz, Joseph A; Stenmark, Kurt R; Qi, H Jerry; Shandas, Robin; Hunter, Kendall S

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the mechanical behavior of proximal pulmonary arteries (PAs) is crucial to evaluating pulmonary vascular function and right ventricular afterload. Early and current efforts focus on these arteries' histological changes, in vivo pressure-diameter behavior and mechanical properties under in vitro mechanical testing. However, the in vivo stretch and stress states remain poorly characterized. To further understand the mechanical behavior of the proximal PAs under physiological conditions, this study computed the residual stretch and the in vivo circumferential stretch state in the main pulmonary arteries in both control and hypertensive calves by using in vitro and in vivo artery geometry data, and modeled the impact of residual stretch and arterial remodeling on the in vivo circumferential stretch distribution and collagen engagement in the main pulmonary artery. We found that the in vivo circumferential stretch distribution in both groups was nonuniform across the vessel wall with the largest stretch at the outer wall, suggesting that collagen at the outer wall would engage first. It was also found that the circumferential stretch was more uniform in the hypertensive group, partially due to arterial remodeling that occurred during their hypoxic treatment, and that their onset of collagen engagement occurred at a higher pressure. It is concluded that the residual stretch and arterial remodeling have strong impact on the in vivo stretch state and the collagen engagement and thus the mechanical behavior of the main pulmonary artery in calves. PMID:22237861

  4. Social theory and infant feeding

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  5. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals. PMID:755160

  6. Storage and feeding of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenike, A. W.; Carson, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Reliable feeding of coal from storage bins to process requires the knowledge of the behavior of coal during flow. The study of the flow of bulk solids was undertaken in the 1950's and led to the development of flow ability testing equipment and of the Mass Flow concept of design for reliable flow. The theory has since been expanded to two-phase, solids-gas system, and has found world wide application in the design of storage and feeding systems.

  7. Middle Cerebral Artery Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hung-Wen; Liou, Michelle; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Liu, Hua-Shan; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Chiang, Shih-Wei; Chou, Ming-Chung; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Huang, Guo-Shu; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Calcification of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is uncommon in the healthy elderly. Whether calcification of the MCA is associated with cerebral ischemic stroke remains undetermined. We intended to investigate the association using Agatston calcium scoring of the MCA. This study retrospectively included 354 subjects with ischemic stroke in the MCA territory and 1518 control subjects who underwent computed tomography (CT) of the brain. We recorded major known risk factors for ischemic stroke, including age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, along with the MCA calcium burden, measured with the Agatston calcium scoring method. Univariate and modified logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between the MCA calcification and ischemic stroke. The univariate analyses showed significant associations of ischemic stroke with age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, total MCA Agatston score, and the presence of calcification on both or either side of the MCA. Subjects with the presence of MCA calcification on both or either side of the MCA were 8.46 times (95% confidence interval, 4.93–14.53; P < 0.001) more likely to have a cerebral infarct than subjects without MCA calcification after adjustment for the major known risk factors, including age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. However, a higher degree of MCA calcification reflected by the Agatston score was not associated with higher risk of MCA ischemic stroke after adjustment for the confounding factors and presence of MCA calcification. These results suggest that MCA calcification is associated with ischemic stroke in the MCA territory. Further prospective studies are required to verify the clinical implications of the MCA calcification. PMID:26683969

  8. Retinal artery occlusions in children.

    PubMed

    Dharmasena, Aruna; Wallis, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a case of RAO in a 13 year old girl with a preceding history of hyperextension of the neck at her hairdressers for a long duration and use of her mobile phone handset resting it against the side of her neck presumably exerting some pressure on carotids during the same time. Materials and methods of this study was reported as case report and review of literature. A 13 year-old girl presented with the left supero-nasal scotoma due to an inferior temporal branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). She underwent extensive investigations and no underlying cause was discovered. She gave a history of cervical extension over a long period of time while having the hair coloured twice in the preceding week. She also mentioned that she was using her mobile phone more or less continuously during both these occasions keeping it against her neck. Given the above history it is possible that the pressure on the ipsilateral carotid arteries or the prolong neck extension may have been responsible for the formation of a platelet embolus resulting in the BRAO. In conclusion, although cerebro-vascular accidents due to 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' (JAMA 269:2085-2086, 1993) have been reported previously it has not been reported in children to our knowledge. On the other hand, 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' occurs due to a dissection of the vertebral arteries or due to mechanical compression of the vertebral arteries during the prolonged hyperextension of the neck. The central retinal artery originates from the internal carotid circulation and it is highly unlikely for an embolus to enter the retinal circulation from the vertebral arteries. Therefore, the authors favour the possibility that the compulsive use of a mobile phone exerting pressure on the carotid arteries for a long time may have led to the formation of an embolus and subsequent RAO in this case.

  9. Vascular access in patients with arterial insufficiency. Construction of proximal bridge fistulae based on inflow from axillary branch arteries.

    PubMed

    Jendrisak, M D; Anderson, C B

    1990-08-01

    Patients with renal failure and underlying peripheral vascular disease pose a difficult management problem in establishing long-term angioaccess for chronic hemodialysis. This report summarizes our experience with five debilitated patients who developed acute upper extremity ischemia after forearm fistula construction corrected by fistula ligation. Successful angioaccess was achieved without ischemia recurrence by construction of proximal bridge fistulae with arterial inflow based on branch arteries of the axillary artery. The relatively small size of the branch vessel was the main factor in limiting fistula flow while permitting normal distal axillary artery flow. In four patients direct fistula flow measurements ranged from 200 mL per minute to 620 mL per minute. Axillary arterial flow distal to the fistula ranged from 120 to 200 mL per minute and did not significantly change after fistula construction or during temporary occlusion of the fistula. Four of the five patients continue to dialyze uneventfully from 4 to 8.5 months. One patient died after discontinuation of dialysis 1 month after operation.

  10. Motor control of fly feeding.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Claire E

    2016-06-01

    Following considerable progress on the molecular and cellular basis of taste perception in fly sensory neurons, the time is now ripe to explore how taste information, integrated with hunger and satiety, undergo a sensorimotor transformation to lead to the motor actions of feeding behavior. I examine what is known of feeding circuitry in adult flies from more than 250 years of work in larger flies and from newer work in Drosophila. I review the anatomy of the proboscis, its muscles and their functions (where known), its motor neurons, interneurons known to receive taste inputs, interneurons that diverge from taste circuitry to provide information to other circuits, interneurons from other circuits that converge on feeding circuits, proprioceptors that influence the motor control of feeding, and sites of integration of hunger and satiety on feeding circuits. In spite of the several neuron types now known, a connected pathway from taste inputs to feeding motor outputs has yet to be found. We are on the threshold of an era where these individual components will be assembled into circuits, revealing how nervous system architecture leads to the control of behavior. PMID:27309215

  11. EXHAUST MAIN PERSONNEL EXPOSURE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. Su

    1999-09-29

    The purpose of this activity is to identify and determine potential radiation hazards in the service exhaust main due to a waste package leakage from an emplacement drift. This work supports the subsurface ventilation system design for the EDA II, which consists of an accessible service exhaust main for personnel, and an exhaust main for hot air flow. The objective is to provide the necessary radiation exposure calculations to determine if the service exhaust main is accessible following a waste package leak. This work includes the following items responsive to the stated purpose and objective: Calculate the limiting transient radiation exposure of personnel in the service exhaust main due to the passage of airborne radioactive material through the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise to the exhaust main in the event of a leaking waste package Calculate the potential exposures to maintenance workers in the service exhaust main from residual radioactive material deposited inside of the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise This calculation is limited to external radiation only, since the airborne and contamination sources will be contained in the ventilation raise and connecting horizontal raise.

  12. REMOTE SENSING FOR DETECTING SWINE ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface runoff from animal feeding operations (AFO's) and its infiltration into ground water can
    pose a number of risks to water quality mainly because of the amount of animal manure and wastewater they produce. Excess nutrients generated by livestock facilities can lead to a...

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC RIGHT WHALE SPRING FEEDING HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great South Channel region of the southwestern Gulf of Maine, between George's Bank and Cape Cod, is the primary spring feeding ground for the western North Atlantic population of the I northern right whale, E. glacialis .Since this whale is so endangered, it is critical to i...

  14. Pulmonary artery aneurysm with patent arterial duct: resection of aneurysm and ductal division.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Endale; Teodori, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Congenital or acquired aneurysm of the pulmonary artery (PA) is rare. Although aneurysms are described following surgical treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), occurrence of this lesion in association with PDA without previous surgery is extremely uncommon. An eight-year-old patient with PDA and aneurysm of the main PA is described in this report. Clinical diagnosis of PDA was made upon presentation. Diagnosis of PA aneurysm was suspected on chest x-ray and was confirmed on transthoracic echocardiography. Successful surgical resection of the aneurysm and division of the duct were performed under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient did well on follow-up both from clinical and echocardiographic point of view.

  15. Space Shuttle Era: Main Engines

    NASA Video Gallery

    Producing 500,000 pounds of thrust from a package weighing only 7,500 pounds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines are one of the shining accomplishments of the shuttle program. The success did not come ...

  16. Engineering of arteries in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Angela H; Niklason, Laura E

    2014-06-01

    This review will focus on two elements that are essential for functional arterial regeneration in vitro: the mechanical environment and the bioreactors used for tissue growth. The importance of the mechanical environment to embryological development, vascular functionality, and vascular graft regeneration will be discussed. Bioreactors generate mechanical stimuli to simulate biomechanical environment of arterial system. This system has been used to reconstruct arterial grafts with appropriate mechanical strength for implantation by controlling the chemical and mechanical environments in which the grafts are grown. Bioreactors are powerful tools to study the effect of mechanical stimuli on extracellular matrix architecture and mechanical properties of engineered vessels. Hence, biomimetic systems enable us to optimize chemo-biomechanical culture conditions to regenerate engineered vessels with physiological properties similar to those of native arteries. In addition, this article reviews various bioreactors designed especially to apply axial loading to engineered arteries. This review will also introduce and examine different approaches and techniques that have been used to engineer biologically based vascular grafts, including collagen-based grafts, fibrin-gel grafts, cell sheet engineering, biodegradable polymers, and decellularization of native vessels.

  17. A comparison between the feeding practices of parents and grandparents.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Claire

    2014-08-01

    Grandparents play a valuable role in the socialisation of young children, and as many as 36% of British parents use grandparents as their main form of childcare. Research has begun to explore how grandparents impact the social and cognitive development of children, but very little research has evaluated their contribution to child feeding. The present study explores whether there are differences between parents and grandparents in terms of their feeding practices, and whether grandparents' feeding practices are related to the number of hours that they spend caring for grandchildren. Results indicate that grandparents reported using significantly more maladaptive feeding practices such as using food to regulate emotions and restricting food, but more positive practices such as providing a healthy food environment. The more hours that grandparents spent caring for children the more their feeding practices resembled those broadly reported by parents. Results suggest that grandparents can have a measurable impact on child feeding behaviour which in turn is likely to predict the eating behaviours of their grandchildren. PMID:25064278

  18. Maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Daniels, Lynne; Jansen, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Establishing healthy eating habits early in life is one important strategy to combat childhood obesity. Given that early maternal child feeding practices have been linked to child food intake and weight, identifying the maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices is important in order to understand the determinants of childhood obesity; this was the overall aim of the current review. Academic databases were searched for studies examining the relationship between maternal child feeding practices and parenting, personal characteristics and psychopathology of mothers with preschoolers. Papers were limited to those published in English, between January 2000 and June 2012. Only studies with mothers of normally developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years were included. There were no restrictions regarding the inclusion of maternal nationality or socioeconomic status (SES). Seventeen eligible studies were sourced. Information on the aim, sample, measures and findings of these was summarised into tables. The findings of this review support a relationship between maternal controlling parenting, general and eating psychopathology, and SES and maternal child feeding practices. The main methodological issues of the studies reviewed included inconsistency in measures of maternal variables across studies and cross-sectional designs. We conclude that the maternal correlates associated with maternal child feeding practices are complex, and the pathways by which maternal correlates impact these feeding practices require further investigation.

  19. 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptors mediating vasoconstriction in pulmonary arteries from control and pulmonary hypertensive rats.

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, M. R.; Sweeney, G.; Baird, M.; McCulloch, K. M.; Houslay, M.; Morecroft, I.

    1996-01-01

    1. We investigated 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-receptor mediated vasoconstriction in the main, first branch and resistance pulmonary arteries removed from control and pulmonary hypertensive rats. Contractile responses to 5-HT, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, non-selective 5-HT1 agonist), and sumatriptan (5-HT1D-like receptor agonist) were studied. The effects of methiothepin (non-selective 5-HT1 + 2-receptor antagonist) and ketanserin (5-HT2A receptor antagonist) and GR55562 (a novel selective 5-HT1D receptor antagonist) on 5-HT-mediated responses were also studied. Basal levels of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate ([cyclic AMP]i) and guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate ([cyclic GMP]i) were determined and we assessed the degree of inherent tone in the vessels under study. 2. 5-HT was most potent in the resistance arteries. pEC50 values were 5.6 +/- 0.1, 5.3 +/- 0.1, 5.0 +/- 0.2 in the resistance arteries, pulmonary branch and main pulmonary artery, respectively (n = at least 5 from 5 animals). The sensitivity to, and maximum response of, 5-HT was increased in all the arteries removed from the chronic hypoxic (CH) rats. In CH rats the pEC50 values were 5.9 +/- 0.2, 6.3 +/- 0.2, 6.4 +/- 0.2 and the increase in the maximum response was 35%, 51% and 41% in the resistance arteries, pulmonary branch and main pulmonary artery, respectively. Sumatriptan did not contract any vessel from the control rats whilst 5-CT did contract the resistance arteries. In the CH rats, however, they both contracted the resistance arteries (responses to sumatriptan were small) (pEC50: 5-CT; 5.4 +/- 0.2) and the pulmonary artery branches (pEC50: sumatriptan, 5.4 +/- 0.2; 5-CT, 5.4 +/- 0.2). 5-CT also caused a contraction in the main pulmonary artery (pEC50: 6.0 +/- 0.3). 3. Ketanserin (1 nM-1 microM) caused a competitive antagonism of the 5-HT response in all vessels tested. In control rats, the estimated pKb values for ketanserin in resistance arteries, pulmonary branches and main pulmonary

  20. Dissecting aneurysm at the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery presenting as visual loss and visual field defect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Wen; Chiu, Tsung-Lang

    2013-12-01

    Intracranial dissecting aneurysms mainly occur in the territory of the vertebrobasilar system. Dissecting aneurysms confined to the anterior cerebral artery are rare, and the presentations are usually of either subarachnoid hemorrhage or cerebral infarction. Here, we report a unique case of a dissecting aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery presenting as a visual field defect. After surgical decompression, visual symptoms recovered. PMID:23647077

  1. First jejunal artery, an alternative graft for right hepatic artery reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Bibek; Komokata, Teruo; Kadono, Jun; Motodaka, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Tetsuya; Furoi, Akira; Imoto, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    Common bile duct cancer invading right hepatic artery is sometimes diagnosed intraoperatively. Excision and safe reconstruction of the artery with suitable graft is essential. Arterial reconstruction with autologous saphenous vein graft is the preferred method practiced routinely. However the right hepatic artery reconstruction has also been carried out with several other vessels like gastroduodenal artery, right gastroepiploic artery or the splenic artery. We report a case of 63-year-old man presenting with history of progressive jaundice, pruritus and impaired appetite. Following various imaging modalities including computed tomography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, intraductal ultrasound extrahepatic bile duct cancer was diagnosed; however, none of those detected vessel invasion. Intraoperatively, right hepatic artery invasion was revealed. Right hepatic artery was resected and reconstructed with a graft harvested from the first jejunal artery (JA). Postoperative outcome was satisfactory with a long-term graft patency. First JA can be a reliable graft option for right hepatic artery reconstruction.

  2. Factors influencing feed efficiency for beef cows of varying proportion of Brahman influence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed constitutes the greatest proportion of costs in cow-calf production. Therefore, genetic merit for feed efficiency has received interest from producers, but has generally been assessed in growing animals. The objectives of this study were to determine the main factors that contribute to variance...

  3. Food and feeding in Northern krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica Sars).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    Early feeding studies on Meganyctiphanes norvegica described the morphology of the feeding appendages and the actual process of food uptake and digestion. Insights into diurnal, seasonal and ontogenetic pattern in feeding activity and diet were derived from field studies on the Clyde Sea population. Since then, technical advances have confirmed some of the early assumptions and rejected others. Submersible, remotely operated vehicles and echosounders, for instance, proved that M. norvegica stay often close to the seabed and feed on particles in the epibenthic layer and sediment-water interface. Scanning electron microscopy showed that mandibles of the so-called carnivorous M. norvegica have an elaborated grinding region, which allows efficient feeding on diatoms. Three-dimensional silhouette video imaging revealed mechanoreception, not vision, as the main sensory modality involved in proximity prey detection by M. norvegica. Fatty acid analysis and stomach content microscopy have now been conducted on M. norvegica across a range of environments including the Gulf of Maine, Greenland Sea, Barents Sea, Scandinavian fjords, the Kattegat and Mediterranean Sea. Regional and seasonal differences in the trophic environment are reflected in their daily ration and in the relative importance of copepods versus phytoplankton in their diet. Overall, phytoplankton is an important food source for M. norvegica during the spring bloom and part of the summer, but copepods are dominant in autumn and winter. Depending on their vertical co-occurrence, M. norvegica can feed on a range of copepods from early stages of Oithona spp. up to adult Calanus spp. There are clear ontogenetic differences in diet, with adults feeding more on copepods and benthic food items than early post-larvae. Future studies should link diet to simultaneously measured growth and reproduction and emphasise comparison across the spectrum of environments inhabited by this versatile species. PMID:20955891

  4. How the pilidium larva feeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The nemertean pilidium is a long-lived feeding larva unique to the life cycle of a single monophyletic group, the Pilidiophora, which is characterized by this innovation. That the pilidium feeds on small planktonic unicells seems clear; how it does so is unknown and not readily inferred, because it shares little morphological similarity with other planktotrophic larvae. Results Using high-speed video of trapped lab-reared pilidia of Micrura alaskensis, we documented a multi-stage feeding mechanism. First, the external ciliation of the pilidium creates a swimming and feeding current which carries suspended prey past the primary ciliated band spanning the posterior margins of the larval body. Next, the larva detects prey that pass within reach, then conducts rapid and coordinated deformations of the larval body to re-direct passing cells and surrounding water into a vestibular space between the lappets, isolated from external currents but not quite inside the larva. Once a prey cell is thus captured, internal ciliary bands arranged within this vestibule prevent prey escape. Finally, captured cells are transported by currents within a buccal funnel toward the stomach entrance. Remarkably, we observed that the prey of choice – various cultured cryptomonads – attempt to escape their fate. Conclusions The feeding mechanism deployed by the pilidium larva coordinates local control of cilia-driven water transport with sensorimotor behavior, in a manner clearly distinct from any other well-studied larval feeding mechanisms. We hypothesize that the pilidium’s feeding strategy may be adapted to counter escape responses such as those deployed by cryptomonads, and speculate that similar needs may underlie convergences among disparate planktotrophic larval forms. PMID:23927417

  5. Feed Your Head: Neurodevelopmental Control of Feeding and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel A.; Blackshaw, Seth

    2014-01-01

    During critical periods of development early in life, excessive or scarce nutritional environments can disrupt the development of central feeding and metabolic neural circuitry, leading to obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. A better understanding of the genetic networks that control the development of feeding and metabolic neural circuits, along with knowledge of how and where dietary signals disrupt this process, can serve as the basis for future therapies aimed at reversing the public health crisis that is now building as a result of the global obesity epidemic. This review of animal and human studies highlights recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development of central feeding circuitries, the mechanisms by which gestational and early postnatal nutritional status affects this process, and approaches aimed at counteracting the deleterious effects of early over- and underfeeding. PMID:24274739

  6. Gastric versus post-pyloric feeding: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Marik, Paul E; Zaloga, Gary P

    2003-01-01

    Background Our objective was to evaluate the impact of gastric versus post-pyloric feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, caloric intake, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), and mortality in critically ill and injured ICU patients. Method Data sources were Medline, Embase, Healthstar, citation review of relevant primary and review articles, personal files, and contact with expert informants. From 122 articles screened, nine were identified as prospective randomized controlled trials (including a total of 522 patients) that compared gastric with post-pyloric feeding, and were included for data extraction. Descriptive and outcomes data were extracted from the papers by the two reviewers independently. Main outcome measures were the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia, average caloric goal achieved, average daily caloric intake, time to the initiation of tube feeds, time to goal, ICU LOS, and mortality. The meta-analysis was performed using the random effects model. Results Only medical, neurosurgical and trauma patents were enrolled in the studies analyzed. There were no significant differences in the incidence of pneumonia, percentage of caloric goal achieved, mean total caloric intake, ICU LOS, or mortality between gastric and post-pyloric feeding groups. The time to initiation of enteral nutrition was significantly less in those patients randomized to gastric feeding. However, time to reach caloric goal did not differ between groups. Conclusion In this meta-analysis we were unable to demonstrate a clinical benefit from post-pyloric versus gastric tube feeding in a mixed group of critically ill patients, including medical, neurosurgical, and trauma ICU patients. The incidences of pneumonia, ICU LOS, and mortality were similar between groups. Because of the delay in achieving post-pyloric intubation, gastric feeding was initiated significantly sooner than was post-pyloric feeding. The present study, while providing the best current evidence regarding

  7. Evaluation of prostaglandin biosynthetic activity in canine basilar artery following subarachnoid injection of blood.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, T; Murota, S I; Wakai, S; Asano, T; Sano, K

    1981-11-01

    Transformation of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins was investigated in the basilar artery by incubating sections of artery with carbon-14-labeled arachidonic acid. Thin-layer radiochromatography revealed that, in normal canine basilar arteries, 14C-arachidonic acid was transformed mainly to 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG)F1 alpha, a spontaneous metabolite of prostacyclin (PGI2). Among other prostaglandins, only a small amount of PGF2 alpha was detected, whereas PGD2, PGE2, and thromboxane B2 were not. Arteries removed on Days 3 and 8 after subarachnoid blood injection showed a prostaglandin synthesis profile similar to that in the normal cerebral artery. In borate-buffered saline (0.1M borate buffer, pH 9.0/0.15M NaCl = 1:9, vol/vol), canine basilar artery produced a PGI2-like substance that inhibited adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation. Its anti-aggregatory activity was completely abolished by acidification. Aspirin likewise inhibited production of the anti-aggregatory substance. From these results, it was concluded that the anti-aggregatory activity was due solely to the production of PGI2 by the arterial specimen. Based on the above results, PGI2 biosynthetic activity in the cerebral artery exposed to subarachnoid blood injection was bioassayed by measuring the inhibitory activity of the incubation product upon ADP-induced platelet aggregation following incubation of the arteries in borate-buffered saline for 5 to 30 minutes at 20 degrees C, using synthetic PGI2-Na as a standard. The synthetic activity of PGI2 in the artery exposed to subarachnoid blood injection had diminished remarkably by Days 3 and 8. This diminution of PGI2 synthesis in the cerebral artery may be involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm.

  8. [Trapped popliteal vein and artery].

    PubMed

    Allal, J; Gallimard, J F; Goubbault, F; Lelong, J; Barbier, J; Barraine, R

    1986-03-01

    A report is made of 3 observations of vascular constrictions in the knee hollow of three young adults: two constrictions of the popliteal artery, one by abnormal insertion of a tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle and of the arterial passage, the other by a fibrous band surrounding the artery. In one observation, the disorder was revealed by acute ischemia of one limb. The third observation was of a sural phlebitis with secondary repetition at the constriction of the popliteal vein by Soleaire's arcade. In all cases examination using the Doppler effect, in baseline and especially dynamic position, gives a diagnosis and allows postoperative monitoring. Bilateral arteriography, both static and dynamic, allows a precise diagnosis to be given and reveals the extent of vascular lesions, which conditions the operative technique. Treatment is always surgical, with exploration of the contralateral side if a constriction is suspected, even if it is asymptomatic. PMID:3707018

  9. Spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Khimenko, L P; Esham, H R; Ahmed, W

    2000-10-01

    Once considered uncommon, spontaneous dissection of the carotid artery is an increasingly recognized cause of stroke, headache, cranial nerve palsy, or ophthalmologic events, especially in young adults. Even in the presence of existing signs and symptoms, the diagnosis can be missed by experienced physicians of all specialties. We report a case of spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection in a 38-year-old woman with a cortical stroke and visual disturbances as initial symptoms. The diagnosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging/angiography and by angiography. Prompt anticoagulation was instituted, and the patient had complete resolution of symptoms. Cervicocephalic arterial dissection should be included in the differential diagnosis of the causes of cerebrovascular events.

  10. Breast Contrast Enhanced MR Imaging: Semi-Automatic Detection of Vascular Map and Predominant Feeding Vessel

    PubMed Central

    Petrillo, Antonella; Fusco, Roberta; Filice, Salvatore; Granata, Vincenza; Catalano, Orlando; Vallone, Paolo; Di Bonito, Maurizio; D’Aiuto, Massimiliano; Rinaldo, Massimo; Capasso, Immacolata; Sansone, Mario

    2016-01-01

    excellent agreement between two radiologic assessments (k = 0.81) and between radiologic consensus and semi-automatic assessment (k = 0.80) was found to identify origin of predominant feeding vessel. An excellent reliability for semi-automatic assessment (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96) was reported. Conclusions Predominant feeding vessel location was correlated with breast lesion location: internal thoracic artery supplied the highest proportion of breasts with tumor in internal half and lateral thoracic artery supplied the highest proportion of breasts with lateral tumor. PMID:27571255

  11. The kidney and arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ruilope, L M; Campo, C; Lahera, V

    1993-01-01

    It has been known for some time that a relationship exists between the kidney and blood pressure. The renal origin of arterial hypertension has been demonstrated in different animal models resembling human hypertension, with data from humans seeming to confirm this hypothesis. On the other hand, the renal vasculature also suffers the consequences of arterial hypertension, and renal insufficiency can develop as a result of elevated blood pressure levels. Antihypertensive therapy can prevent the development of renal damage secondary to hypertension. For example, calcium antagonists possess specific renal effects that not only facilitate their antihypertensive capacity but also protect the kidney from the development of renal failure.

  12. ORFEUS-SPAS MAIN TELESCOPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In the Multi-Payload Processing Facility (MPPF) at KSC, technicians hoist the orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS-SPAS) II main telescope to a vertical position prior to installing it atop the Astronomy Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ASTRO-SPAS) platform. Two spectrographs share the main telescope: the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (EUV) provided by the University of California at Berkeley, and the Far Ultraviolet Spectrograph (FUV) designed by German institutions the University of Tubingen and Landessternwarte Heidelberg and built by German company Kayser-Threde. The main telescope has a primary mirror approximately one yard (one meter) in diameter, coated with iridium to improve its light-gathering power in the ultraviolet. During the flight of ORFEUS-SPAS II on Space Shuttle Mission STS- 80, these two spectrographs -- along with a third installed separately on the ASTRO-SPAS -- will gather data about the life cycle of stars.

  13. New Main Ring control system

    SciTech Connect

    Seino, K.; Anderson, L.; Ducar, R.; Franck, A.; Gomilar, J.; Hendricks, B.; Smedinghoff, J.

    1990-03-01

    The Fermilab Main Ring control system has been operational for over sixteen years. Aging and obsolescence of the equipment make the maintenance difficult. Since the advent of the Tevatron, considerable upgrades have been made to the controls of all the Fermilab accelerators except the Main Ring. Modernization of the equipment and standardization of the hardware and software have thus become inevitable. The Tevatron CAMAC serial system has been chosen as a basic foundation in order to make the Main Ring control system compatible with the rest of the accelerator complex. New hardware pieces including intelligent CAMAC modules have been designed to satisfy unique requirements. Fiber optic cable and repeaters have been installed in order to accommodate new channel requirements onto the already saturated communication medium system. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Flows In Model Human Femoral Arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, Lloyd H.; Kwack, Eug Y.; Crawford, Donald W.

    1990-01-01

    Flow is visualized with dye traces, and pressure measurements made. Report describes experimental study of flow in models of human femoral artery. Conducted to examine effect of slight curvature of artery on flow paths and distribution of pressure.

  15. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery

    MedlinePlus

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting; CAS; Angioplasty - carotid artery; Carotid artery stenosis - angioplasty; ... Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) is done using a small surgical cut. Your surgeon will make a surgical cut ...

  16. Facts about Transposition of the Great Arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Septal Defect Atrioventricular Septal Defect Coarctation of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great Arteries Hypoplastic Left ... of the heart—the pulmonary artery and the aorta —are switched in position, or “transposed”. Normally, blood ...

  17. Transposition of the Greater Arteries (TGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Disease Diseases of the arteries, valves, and aorta, as well as cardiac rhythm disturbances Aortic Valve ... Transposition of the Great Arteries Coarctation of the Aorta Truncus Arteriosus Single Ventricle Defects Lung, Esophageal, and ...

  18. SETI low-frequency feed design study for DSS 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, P. H.; Lee, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Sky Survey project requires operation from 1 to 10 GHz on the beam waveguide (BWG) antenna DSS 24. The BWG reflectors are undersized in the 1- to 3.02-GHz range, resulting in poor performance. Horn designs and a method for implementing 1- to 3.02-GHz operation on DSS 24 are presented. A combination of a horn and a shaped feed reflector placed above the main reflector is suggested. The horn and feed reflector could be hidden in the RF shadow of the subreflector and struts. Results from computer analysis of this design indicate that adequate performance could be achieved.

  19. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1991-01-01

    The design and performance is presented of the following Coplanar Waveguides (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and dipole arrays: (1) CPW/Microstrip Line feed; (2) CPW/Balanced Stripline feed; (3) CPW/Slotline feed; (4) Grounded CPW/Balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/Slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  20. Apparatus for continuous feed material melting

    DOEpatents

    Surma, Jeffrey E.; Perez, Jr., Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention is a melter housing having a pretreat chamber heated with a feed material heater that is partially isolated from a melter chamber. The method of the present invention has the steps of introducing feed material into a pretreat chamber and heating the feed material to a softening temperature of the feed material, and passing the pretreated feed material to a melter chamber.