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Sample records for main geological features

  1. Main features of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 17, outlines the main features of meiosis, beginning with its significance and proceeding through the meiotic stages. Meiosis is the most important modification of mitosis because it is the reduction division that gives rise to the haploid generation in the life cycle. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Digitization of a geologic map for the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine global geoscience transect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Bruce E.; Stewart, David B.

    1990-01-01

    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine was digitized and combined with digital geologic data for Quebec and the Gulf of Maine for the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine Geologic Transect Project. This map is being combined with digital geophysical data to produce three-dimensional depictions of the subsurface geology and to produce cross sections of the Earth's crust. It is an essential component of a transect that stretches from the craton near Quebec City, Quebec, to the Atlantic Ocean Basin south of Georges Bank. The transect is part of the Global Geosciences Transect Project of the International Lithosphere Program. The Digital Line Graph format is used for storage of the digitized data. A coding scheme similar to that used for base category planimetric data was developed to assign numeric codes to the digitized geologic data. These codes were used to assign attributes to polygon and line features to describe rock type, age, name, tectonic setting of original deposition, mineralogy, and composition of igneous plutonic rocks, as well as faults and other linear features. The digital geologic data can be readily edited, rescaled, and reprojected. The attribute codes allow generalization and selective retrieval of the geologic features. The codes allow assignment of map colors based on age, lithology, or other attribute. The Digital Line Graph format is a general transfer format that is supported by many software vendors and is easily transferred between systems.

  3. Geology of the Cupsuptic quadrangle, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harwood, David S.

    1966-01-01

    The Cupsuptic quadrangle, in west-central Maine, lies in a relatively narrow belt of pre-Silurian rocks extending from the Connecticut River valley across northern New Hampshire to north-central Maine. The Albee Formation, composed of green, purple, and black phyllite with interbedded-quartzite, is exposed in the core of a regional anticlinorium overlain to the southeast by greenstone of the Oquossoc Formation which in turn is overlain by black slate of the Kamankeag Formation. In the northern part of the quadrangle the Albee Formation is overlain by black slate, feldspathic graywacke, and minor greenstone of the Dixville Formation. The Kamankeag Formation is dated as 1-ate Middle Ordovician by graptolites (zone 12) found near the base of the unit. The Dixville Formation is correlated with the Kamankeag Formation and Oquossoc Formation and is considered to be Middle Ordovician. The Albee Formation is considered to be Middle to Lower Ordovician from correlations with similar rocks in northeastern and southwestern Vermont. The Oquossoc and Kamankeag Formations are correlated with the Amonoosuc and Partridge Formations of northern New Hampshire. The pre-Silurian rocks are unconformably overlain by unnamed rocks of Silurian age in the southeast, west-central, and northwest ninths of the quadrangle. The basal Silurian units are boulder to cobble polymict conglomerate and quartz-pebble conglomerate of late Lower Silurian (Upper Llandovery) age. The overlying rocks are either well-bedded slate and quartzite, silty limestone, or arenaceous limestone. Thearenaceous limestone contains Upper Silurian (Lower Ludlow) brachiopods. The stratified rocks have been intruded by three stocks of biotite-muscovite quartz monzonite, a large body of metadiorite and associated serpentinite, smaller bodies of gabbro, granodiorite, and intrusive felsite, as well as numerous diabase and quartz monzonite dikes. The metadiorite and serpentinite, and possibly the gabbro and granodiorite are Late

  4. NASA Now: Geology: Curiosity -- Main Science Goals

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Ashwin Vasavada, deputy project scientist for the Mars Science Laboratory, discusses the main science goals for Curiosity, including the investigation of the presence of water and evidence of l...

  5. Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer

    Marvinney, Robert

    2013-11-06

    This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

  6. Enceladus’ Geysers: Relation to Geological Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfenstein, Paul; Porco, Carolyn C.

    2015-09-01

    We apply histogram analysis, photogeological methods, and tidal stress modeling to Porco et al.'s survey of 101 Enceladus South Polar Basin geysers and their three-dimensional orientations to test if the jet azimuths are influenced by their placement relative to surface morphology and tectonic structures. Geysers emplaced along the three most active tiger stripe fractures (Damascus Sulcus, Baghdad Sulcus, and Cairo Sulcus) occur in local groupings with relatively uniform nearest-neighbor separation distances (∼5 km). Their placement may be controlled by uniformly spaced en echelon Riedel-type shear cracks originating from left-lateral strike-slip fault motion inferred to occur along tiger stripes. The spacing would imply a lithosphere thickness of ∼5 km in the vicinity of the tiger stripes. The orientations of tilted geyser jets are not randomly distributed; rather their azimuths correlate with the directions either of tiger stripes, cross-cutting fractures, or else fine-scale local tectonic fabrics. Diurnal tidal stress modeling suggests that periodic changes of plume activity are significantly affected by cross-cutting fractures that open and close at different times than the tiger stripes that they intersect. We find evidence of sub-kilometer scale morphological modification of surface geological features surrounding geysers from sublimation-aided erosion, and ablation, and scouring. We propose that the simultaneous crushing and shearing action of periodic transpressional tidal stress on ice condensing on the inside walls of geyser conduits is the mechanism that extrudes the peculiar, paired narrow ridges known as “shark fins” that flank the medial tiger stripe fissures. We present a gallery of high-resolution image mosaics showing the placement of all the jets in their source region and consequently their geological context.

  7. Ambient tectonic stress as fragile geological feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, Norman H.

    2014-09-01

    seismic waves produce frictional failure within shallow pervasively cracked rocks. Distributed failure preferentially relaxes ambient tectonic stresses, providing a fragility measure of past strong shaking. Relaxation of the regional fault-normal compression appears to have occurred within granite from 768 m down to ˜1000-1600 m depth at the Pilot Hole near Parkfield, California. Subsequent movements on the main fault have imposed strike-slip stress within the relaxed region. Peak ground velocities of ˜2 m s-1 are inferred for infrequent (few 1000 yr recurrence) past earthquakes from stress relaxation within the granite and from the variation of S wave velocity with depth in the overlying sandstone. Conversely, frequent strong shaking in slowly deforming regions relaxes shallow ambient tectonic stress. This situation is expected beneath Whittier Narrows, where strong Love waves from numerous San Andreas events repeatedly produced nonlinear behavior.

  8. Geographical features of global water cycle during warm geological epochs

    SciTech Connect

    Georgiadi, A.G.

    1996-12-31

    The impact of global warming on the water cycle can be extremely complex and diverse. The goal of the investigation was to estimate the geographic features of the mean annual water budget of the world during climatic optimums of the Holocene and the Eemian interglacial periods. These geological epochs could be used as analogs of climatic warming on 1 degree, centigrade and 2 degrees, centigrade. The author used the results of climatic reconstructions based on a simplified version of a GCM.

  9. Selective detection of linear features in geological remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, Jo Ann; DaPonte, John S.; DiNicola, Emily G.; Pedersen, Robert A.

    1992-09-01

    One of the major problems in the development of computer-assisted systems for geologic mapping is how to individualize the system to meet user needs. Ideally, the system should be responsive to specifications of desired types of output structures. Also, the system should be able to incorporate the user's knowledge of regional characteristics into the feature extraction/selection and classification components. Automatic techniques for classification of remote sensing data typically require relatively large, labeled training sets which are well- organized with respect to the desired mapping between input and output patterns. The present paper focuses on the feature extraction/selection component of the system. Kohonen self- organizing feature maps in conjunction with image processing procedures for linear feature extraction are used for explorative data analysis, feature selection, and construction of exemplar patterns. The results of training Kohonen feature maps with different pattern sets and different feature combinations provide insight into the nature of pattern relationships which enables the user to develop sets of positive and negative training patterns for the classification component.

  10. Geologic evolution of the Gulf of Maine region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchupi, Elazar; Bolmer, S. T.

    2008-12-01

    In this study we reconstruct the evolution of the northern New England passive margin whose development has been influenced by Pleistocene glaciations. The morphology of the northern New England shelf is rather unique consisting of a inner lowland, the Gulf of Maine, with an average depth of 150 m and an area of 90,700 km 2 and Georges Bank, a high whose crest is less than 40 m deep and has an area of 27,000 km 2. The bank's northern slope, facing the Gulf of Maine, has a maximum relief of 377 m. On the seaward side of Georges Bank is the 2000 m high continental slope deeply cut by canyons. Two channels, Northeast and Great South Channels, east and west of Georges Bank, provide passageways from the Gulf of Maine to the open sea. This morphology was acquired by a combination of Tertiary fluvial erosion, Pleistocene glacial erosion/deposition and Pleistocene/Holocene marine processes. Fluvial/glacial erosion in the Gulf of Maine was so extensive as to expose basement, thus making it possible to map the various terranes making up this foundation. These terranes include the pre-Carboniferous Avalon and Meguma units, a Carboniferous-Permian rift basin formed by the oblique continental collision during the closure of the Paleozoic proto-Atlantic and a Late Triassic-Early Jurassic rift system created during the opening of the present Atlantic. Basement in the Gulf of Maine remained above sea level from the opening of the Atlantic 190 Ma (Early Jurassic) to the Eocene 55 Ma. That the Gulf of Maine remained a high for so long may have been due to igneous activity along the northwest-trending Boston-Ottawa Lineation extending from the vicinity of the St. Lawrence River, Canada to Gulf of Maine from Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous. The northwest-trending New England Seamounts south of Georges Bank may represent a seaward extension of this lineation. On Georges Bank, rising hundreds of meters above the Gulf of Maine, the basement exposed in the gulf is mantled by sediments

  11. Surficial geology map of the Great Heath, Washington County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, Cornelia Clermont; Mullen, Michael K.

    1983-01-01

    The major portion of the Great Heath, comprising 2,645 acres in the Cherryfield quadrangle, Washington County, Maine, generally averaging 13 feet in thickness, but with as great an average as 15 feet, contain an estimated 6,953 ,000 short tons air-dried peat. The peat #s chiefly sphagnum moss with some reed-sedge of high quality according to ASTM standards for agricultural and horticultural use. This same volume of peat may be considered for use as fuel because BTO per pound ranges from 8,600 to 10,500 with low sulfur and high hydrogen contents.

  12. The Monte Carlo code MCSHAPE: Main features and recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scot, Viviana; Fernandez, Jorge E.

    2015-06-01

    MCSHAPE is a general purpose Monte Carlo code developed at the University of Bologna to simulate the diffusion of X- and gamma-ray photons with the special feature of describing the full evolution of the photon polarization state along the interactions with the target. The prevailing photon-matter interactions in the energy range 1-1000 keV, Compton and Rayleigh scattering and photoelectric effect, are considered. All the parameters that characterize the photon transport can be suitably defined: (i) the source intensity, (ii) its full polarization state as a function of energy, (iii) the number of collisions, and (iv) the energy interval and resolution of the simulation. It is possible to visualize the results for selected groups of interactions. MCSHAPE simulates the propagation in heterogeneous media of polarized photons (from synchrotron sources) or of partially polarized sources (from X-ray tubes). In this paper, the main features of MCSHAPE are illustrated with some examples and a comparison with experimental data.

  13. Geological features and evolution history of Sinus Iridum, the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Le; Xiao, Long; Zhao, Jiannan; Huang, Qian; Haruyama, Junichi

    2014-10-01

    The Sinus Iridum region is one of the important candidate landing areas for the future Chinese lunar robotic and human missions. Considering its flat topography, abundant geomorphic features and complex evolutionary history, this region shows great significance to both lunar science and landing exploration, including powered descent, surface trafficability and in-situ exploration. First, we use Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Altimeter (LOLA) and Camera (LROC) data to characterize regional topographic and geomorphological features within Sinus Iridum, e.g., wrinkle ridges and sinuous rilles. Then, we deduce the iron and titanium content for the mare surface using the Clementine ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) data and generate mineral absorption features using the Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectrometer data. Later, we date the mare surface using crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) method. CSFD measurements show that this region has experienced four major lava infilling events with model ages ranging from 3.32 Ga to 2.50 Ga. The regional magmatic activities evolved from Imbrian-aged low-titanium to Eratosthenian-aged medium-titanium. The inner Sinus Iridum is mainly composed of pyroxene-rich basalts with olivine abundance increasing with time, while the surrounding highlands have a feldspar-dominated composition. In the northern wall of Sinus Iridum, some potential olivine-rich materials directly excavated from the lunar mantle are visible. The Sinus Iridum region is an ideal target for future landing exploration, we propose two candidate landing sites for the future Chinese robotic and human missions.

  14. Feature level fusion for enhanced geological mapping of ophiolile complex using ASTER and Landsat TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pournamdari, M.; Hashim, M.

    2014-02-01

    Chromite ore deposit occurrence is related to ophiolite complexes as a part of the oceanic crust and provides a good opportunity for lithological mapping using remote sensing data. The main contribution of this paper is a novel approaches to discriminate different rock units associated with ophiolite complex using the Feature Level Fusion technique on ASTER and Landsat TM satellite data at regional scale. In addition this study has applied spectral transform approaches, consisting of Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) to distinguish the concentration of high-potential areas of chromite and also for determining the boundary between different rock units. Results indicated both approaches show superior outputs compared to other methods and can produce a geological map for ophiolite complex rock units in the arid and the semi-arid region. The novel technique including feature level fusion and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) discriminated ophiolitic rock units and produced detailed geological maps of the study area. As a case study, Sikhoran ophiolite complex located in SE, Iran has been selected for image processing techniques. In conclusion, a suitable approach for lithological mapping of ophiolite complexes is demonstrated, this technique contributes meaningfully towards economic geology in terms of identifying new prospects.

  15. Geological Features Mapping Using PALSAR-2 Data in Kelantan River Basin, Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour, A. B.; Hashim, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the recently launched Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2), remote sensing data were used to map geologic structural and topographical features in the Kelantan river basin for identification of high potential risk and susceptible zones for landslides and flooding areas. A ScanSAR and two fine mode dual polarization level 3.1 images cover Kelantan state were processed for comprehensive analysis of major geological structures and detailed characterizations of lineaments, drainage patterns and lithology at both regional and district scales. Red-Green-Blue (RGB) colour-composite was applied to different polarization channels of PALSAR-2 data to extract variety of geological information. Directional convolution filters were applied to the data for identifying linear features in particular directions and edge enhancement in the spatial domain. Results derived from ScanSAR image indicate that lineament occurrence at regional scale was mainly linked to the N-S trending of the Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ) in the west and Lebir Fault Zone in the east of the Kelantan state. Combination of different polarization channels produced image maps contain important information related to water bodies, wetlands and lithological units for the Kelantan state using fine mode observation data. The N-S, NE-SW and NNE-SSW lineament trends were identified in the study area using directional filtering. Dendritic, sub-dendritic and rectangular drainage patterns were detected in the Kelantan river basin. The analysis of field investigations data indicate that many of flooded areas were associated with high potential risk zones for hydro-geological hazards such as wetlands, urban areas, floodplain scroll, meander bend, dendritic and sub-dendritic drainage patterns, which are located in flat topograghy regions. Numerous landslide points were located in rectangular drainage system that associated

  16. The investigation of dangerous geological processes resulting in land subsidence while designing the main gas pipeline in South Yakutia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strokova, L. A.; Ermolaeva, A. V.; Golubeva, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    The number of gas main accidents has increased recently due to dangerous geological processes in underdeveloped areas located in difficult geological conditions. The paper analyses land subsidence caused by karst and thermokarst processes in the right of way, reveals the assessment criteria for geological hazards and creates zoning schemes considering the levels of karst and thermorkarst hazards.

  17. Field occurrences of liquefaction-induced features: A primer for engineering geologic analysis of paleoseismic shaking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obermeier, S.F.; Olson, S.M.; Green, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Discussed in this paper are the factors that control the typical manifestations of liquefaction that are found in continental field settings. The factors are given mainly in terms of the local geologic field situation and the geotechnical properties there. A meaningful interpretation of liquefaction-based data for quantitative analysis of paleoseismic shaking requires understanding of both geologic and geotechnical roles in the mode of ground failure at a specific site. Recommendations are made for the size of the field area that must be searched for liquefaction effects, in order to develop adequate data for engineering geologic/geotechnical analyses of paleoseismicity. The areal extent must be based on an appreciation that the tectonic situation can cause seismically induced liquefaction effects to form in some locales, but not in others nearby, even for a strong earthquake in the region. Our guidelines for the conduct of the field search and preliminary analysis of the data relate to three issues for which liquefaction features are especially useful in answering: Has there been strong Holocene/latest Pleistocene shaking in the region? Where was the tectonic source? And what was the strength of shaking? Understanding of the various factors that control the manifestations of liquefaction effects, which we present in this paper, is essential for developing credible answers to these questions. ?? 2004 Elsvier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, view to the southeast - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  19. Use and Features of Basalt Formations for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B. Peter; Ho, Anita M.; Reidel, Steve P.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2003-01-01

    Extrusive lava flows of basalt are a potential host medium for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Flood basalts and other large igneous provinces occur worldwide near population and power-producing centers and could securely sequester a significant fraction of global CO2 emissions. We describe the location, extent, and general physical and chemical characteristics of large igneous provinces that satisfy requirements as a good host medium for CO2 sequestration. Most lava flows have vesicular flow tops and bottoms as well as interflow zones that are porous and permeable and serve as regional aquifers. Additionally, basalt is iron-rich, and, under the proper conditions of groundwater pH, temperature, and pressure, injected CO2 will react with iron released from dissolution of primary minerals in the basalt to form stable ferrous carbonate minerals. Conversion of CO2 gas into a solid form was confirmed in laboratory experiments with supercritical CO2 in contact with basalt samples from Washington state.

  20. Gravity and magnetic anomalies used to delineate geologic features associated with earthquakes and aftershocks in the central Virginia seismic zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. K.; Horton, J.; McNamara, D. E.; Spears, D.; Burton, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    Estimating seismic hazard in intraplate environments can be challenging partly because events are relatively rare and associated data thus limited. Additionally, in areas such as the central Virginia seismic zone, numerous pre-existing faults may or may not be candidates for modern tectonic activity, and other faults may not have been mapped. It is thus important to determine whether or not specific geologic features are associated with seismic events. Geophysical and geologic data collected in response to the Mw5.8 August 23, 2011 central Virginia earthquake provide excellent tools for this purpose. Portable seismographs deployed within days of the main shock showed a series of aftershocks mostly occurring at depths of 3-8 km along a southeast-dipping tabular zone ~10 km long, interpreted as the causative fault or fault zone. These instruments also recorded shallow (< 4 km) aftershocks clustered in several areas at distances of ~2-15 km from the main fault zone. We use new airborne geophysical surveys (gravity, magnetics, radiometrics, and LiDAR) to delineate the distribution of various surface and subsurface geologic features of interest in areas where the earthquake and aftershocks took place. The main (causative fault) aftershock cluster coincides with a linear, NE-trending gravity gradient (~ 2 mgal/km) that extends over 20 km in either direction from the Mw5.8 epicenter. Gravity modeling incorporating seismic estimates of Moho variations suggests the presence of a shallow low-density body overlying the main aftershock cluster, placing it within the upper 2-4 km of the main-fault hanging wall. The gravity, magnetic, and radiometric data also show a bend in generally NE-SW orientation of anomalies close to the Mw5.8 epicenter. Most shallow aftershock clusters occur near weaker short-wavelength gravity gradients of one to several km length. In several cases these gradients correspond to geologic contacts mapped at the surface. Along the gravity gradients, the

  1. A nonlinear controlling function of geological features on magmatic–hydrothermal mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Renguang

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports a nonlinear controlling function of geological features on magmatic–hydrothermal mineralization, and proposes an alternative method to measure the spatial relationships between geological features and mineral deposits using multifractal singularity theory. It was observed that the greater the proximity to geological controlling features, the greater the number of mineral deposits developed, indicating a nonlinear spatial relationship between these features and mineral deposits. This phenomenon can be quantified using the relationship between the numbers of mineral deposits N(ε) of a D-dimensional set and the scale of ε. The density of mineral deposits can be expressed as ρ(ε) = Cε‑(De‑a), where ε is the buffer width of geological controlling features, De is Euclidean dimension of space (=2 in this case), a is singularity index, and C is a constant. The expression can be rewritten as ρ = Cεa‑2. When a < 2, there is a significant spatial correlation between specific geological features and mineral deposits; lower a values indicate a more significant spatial correlation. This nonlinear relationship and the advantages of this method were illustrated using a case study from Fujian Province in China and a case study from Baguio district in Philippines.

  2. A nonlinear controlling function of geological features on magmatic–hydrothermal mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Renguang

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a nonlinear controlling function of geological features on magmatic–hydrothermal mineralization, and proposes an alternative method to measure the spatial relationships between geological features and mineral deposits using multifractal singularity theory. It was observed that the greater the proximity to geological controlling features, the greater the number of mineral deposits developed, indicating a nonlinear spatial relationship between these features and mineral deposits. This phenomenon can be quantified using the relationship between the numbers of mineral deposits N(ε) of a D-dimensional set and the scale of ε. The density of mineral deposits can be expressed as ρ(ε) = Cε−(De−a), where ε is the buffer width of geological controlling features, De is Euclidean dimension of space (=2 in this case), a is singularity index, and C is a constant. The expression can be rewritten as ρ = Cεa−2. When a < 2, there is a significant spatial correlation between specific geological features and mineral deposits; lower a values indicate a more significant spatial correlation. This nonlinear relationship and the advantages of this method were illustrated using a case study from Fujian Province in China and a case study from Baguio district in Philippines. PMID:27255794

  3. Geology and origin of Europa's "Mitten" feature (Murias Chaos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Figueredo, P.H.; Chuang, F.C.; Rathbun, J.; Kirk, R.L.; Greeley, R.

    2002-01-01

    The "Mitten" (provisionally named Murias Chaos by the International Astronomical Union) is a region of elevated chaos-like terrain in the leading hemisphere of Europa. Its origin had been explained under the currently debated theories of melting through a thin lithosphere or convection within a thick one. Galileo observations reveal several characteristics that suggest that the Mitten is distinct from typical chaos terrain and point to a different formational process. Photoclinometric elevation estimates suggest that the Mitten is slightly elevated with respect to the surrounding terrain; geologic relations indicate that it must have raised significantly from the plains in its past, resembling disrupted domes on Europa's trailing hemisphere. Moreover, the Mitten material appears to have extruded onto the plains and flowed for tens of kilometers. The area subsequently subsided as a result of isostatic adjustment, viscous relaxation, and/or plains loading. Using plate flexure models, we estimated the elastic lithosphere in the area to be several kilometers thick. We propose that the Mitten originated by the ascent and extrusion of a large thermal diapir. Thermal-mechanical modeling shows that a Mitten-sized plume would remain sufficiently warm and buoyant to pierce through the crust and flow unconfined on the surface. Such a diapir probably had an initial radius between 5 and 8 km and an initial depth of 20-40 km, consistent with a thick-lithosphere model. In this scenario the Mitten appears to represent the surface expression of the rare ascent of a large diapir, in contrast to lenticulae and chaos terrain, which may form by isolated and clustered small diapirs, respectively.

  4. Geology and Origin of Europa's Mitten Feature (Murias Chaos)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueredo, P. H.; Chuang, F. C.; Rathbun, J.; Kirk, R. L.; Greeley, R.

    2002-01-01

    The "Mitten" (provisionally named Murias Chaos by the International Astronomical Union) is a region of elevated chaos-like terrain in the leading hemisphere of Europa. Its origin had been explained under the currently debated theories of melting through a thin lithosphere or convection within a thick one. Galileo observations reveal several characteristics that suggest that the Mitten is distinct from typical chaos terrain and point to a different formational process. Photoclinometric elevation estimates suggest that the Mitten is slightly elevated with respect to the surrounding terrain; geologic relations indicate that it must have raised significantly from the plains in its past, resembling disrupted domes on Europa's trailing hemisphere. Moreover, the Mitten material appears to have extruded onto the plains and flowed for tens of kilometers. The area subsequently subsided as a result of isostatic adjustment, viscous relaxation, and/or plains loading. Using plate flexure models, we estimated the elastic lithosphere in the area to be several kilometers thick. We propose that the Mitten originated by the ascent and extrusion of a large thermal diapir. Thermal-mechanical modeling shows that a Mitten-sized plume would remain sufficiently warm and buoyant to pierce through the crust and flow unconfined on the surface. Such a diapir probably had an initial radius between 5 and 8 km and an initial depth of 20-40 km, consistent with a thick-lithosphere model. In this scenario the Mitten appears to represent the surface expression of the rare ascent of a large diapir, in contrast to lenticulae and chaos terrain, which may form by isolated and clustered small diapirs, respectively.

  5. Surficial geology and shaded seafloor relief of Georges Bank, Fundian Channel and Northeast Channel, Gulf of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, B.J.; Valentine, Page C.

    2015-01-01

    Georges Bank is a shallow submarine bank that lies south of Nova Scotia and east of Cape Cod and bounds the seaward side of the Gulf of Maine. The international boundary between Canada and the United States transects the bank, and the eastern part of the bank (~7500 square kilometres) lies in Canadian territory. This map shows the surficial geology of a part of Georges Bank at a scale of 1:50 000. This map has companion topographic and backscatter strength maps. These companion maps provide a basis for interpreting the origin of seafloor features and the nature of materials that form the seafloor. The maps are based on multibeam-sonar surveys conducted in 1999 and 2000 to map 11,965 square kilometres of the seafloor.

  6. Features of surface topography and the geological activity of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    According to the data "New Horizons" of the spacecraft, researchers were able to specify the diameter of Pluto-2374 km. Its surface temperature in the equatorial region varies from 33 to 55 K over the planet's orbital period around the Sun in ~248 years. Presumably the surface of Pluto has a rocky base covered with a mantle of water ice, of frozen methane, nitrogen, ammonia and CO. Due to the large eccentricity of the orbit of Pluto, as it approaches the Sun, the ice melts, and the atmosphere is formed mainly of nitrogen and methane; while removing of the planet from the Sun - the atmosphere freezes out again.

  7. Spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic occurrence and association with bedrock geology in greater Augusta, Maine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W; Marvinney, Robert G; Loiselle, Marc C; Locke, Daniel B; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan

    2009-04-15

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (10(0)-10(1) km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed, and 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic concentrations >10 microg/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 microg/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (approximately 40%). This probability differs significantly (p < 0.001) from those in the Silurian-Ordovician sandstone (24%),the Devonian granite (15%), and the Ordovician-Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium, and high arsenic occurrences in four cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (approximately 1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 microg/L arsenic in groundwater.

  8. Spatial Pattern of Groundwater Arsenic Occurrence and Association with Bedrock Geology in Greater Augusta, Maine, USA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Loiselle, Marc C.; Locke, Daniel B.; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed. 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic >10 μg/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 μg/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (~40%). This probability differs significantly (p<0.001) from those in the Silurian-Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%) and the Ordovician-Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium and high arsenic occurrences in 4 cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (~1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 μg/L arsenic in groundwater. PMID:19475939

  9. Spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic occurrence and association with bedrock geology in greater augusta, maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Q.; Jung, H.B.; Culbertson, C.W.; Marvinney, R.G.; Loiselle, M.C.; Locke, D.B.; Cheek, H.; Thibodeau, H.; Zheng, Yen

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed, and 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic concentrations >10 ??g/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 ??g/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (???40%). This probability differs significantly (p < 0.001) from those in the Silurian - Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%), and the Ordovician - Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium, and high arsenic occurrences in four cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (???1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 ??g/L arsenic in groundwater. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  10. Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to monitor hydrologic systems in the United States that could change dramatically over the short term as a result of climate change. Many ecological effects of climate change can be understood only if hydrologic data networks are in place. Because of its humid, temperate climate and its substantial annual snowpack, Maine's seasonal water cycle is sensitive to air temperature changes (Hodgkins and others, 2003). Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. A series of recent investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented changes in several components of the water cycle, including earlier snowmelt runoff in Maine during the last 30 to 40 years (Hodgkins and others, 2003), earlier lake- and river-ice breakups (Hodgkins and others, 2002; Hodgkins and others, 2005), and a denser and thinner late-winter snowpack (Hodgkins and Dudley, 2006). Snowmelt runoff timing was measured as the date, each year, by which half of the total winter-spring streamflow passed a streamflow-gaging station. Historical snowmelt runoff timing for the Piscataquis River in central Maine is shown in figure 1 as an example. Results of climate projections input to hydrologic models indicate that hydrologic trends, such as earlier spring snowmelt runoff, are expected to continue into the future (Hayhoe and others, 2007). These trends could affect species at the southern edge of their range in Maine, such as Atlantic salmon and Canada lynx, and may also affect availability of water for human use. This fact sheet describes the framework of a hydrologic climate-response program that would improve understanding of the effects of future climate change in Maine.

  11. Mapping three-dimensional geological features from remotely-sensed images and digital elevation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Kevin Peter

    Accurate mapping of geological structures is important in numerous applications, ranging from mineral exploration through to hydrogeological modelling. Remotely sensed data can provide synoptic views of study areas enabling mapping of geological units within the area. Structural information may be derived from such data using standard manual photo-geologic interpretation techniques, although these are often inaccurate and incomplete. The aim of this thesis is, therefore, to compile a suite of automated and interactive computer-based analysis routines, designed to help a the user map geological structure. These are examined and integrated in the context of an expert system. The data used in this study include Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Airborne Thematic Mapper images, both with a spatial resolution of 5m, for a 5 x 5 km area surrounding Llyn Cow lyd, Snowdonia, North Wales. The geology of this area comprises folded and faulted Ordo vician sediments intruded throughout by dolerite sills, providing a stringent test for the automated and semi-automated procedures. The DEM is used to highlight geomorphological features which may represent surface expressions of the sub-surface geology. The DEM is created from digitized contours, for which kriging is found to provide the best interpolation routine, based on a number of quantitative measures. Lambertian shading and the creation of slope and change of slope datasets are shown to provide the most successful enhancement of DEMs, in terms of highlighting a range of key geomorphological features. The digital image data are used to identify rock outcrops as well as lithologically controlled features in the land cover. To this end, a series of standard spectral enhancements of the images is examined. In this respect, the least correlated 3 band composite and a principal component composite are shown to give the best visual discrimination of geological and vegetation cover types. Automatic edge detection (followed by line

  12. Geological feature selection in reservoir modelling and history matching with Multiple Kernel Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demyanov, V.; Backhouse, L.; Christie, M.

    2015-12-01

    There is a continuous challenge in identifying and propagating geologically realistic features into reservoir models. Many of the contemporary geostatistical algorithms are limited by various modelling assumptions, like stationarity or Gaussianity. Another related challenge is to ensure the realistic geological features introduced into a geomodel are preserved during the model update in history matching studies, when the model properties are tuned to fit the flow response to production data. The above challenges motivate exploration and application of other statistical approaches to build and calibrate reservoir models, in particular, methods based on statistical learning. The paper proposes a novel data driven approach - Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) - for modelling porous property distributions in sub-surface reservoirs. Multiple Kernel Learning aims to extract relevant spatial features from spatial patterns and to combine them in a non-linear way. This ability allows to handle multiple geological scenarios, which represent different spatial scales and a range of modelling concepts/assumptions. Multiple Kernel Learning is not restricted by deterministic or statistical modelling assumptions and, therefore, is more flexible for modelling heterogeneity at different scales and integrating data and knowledge. We demonstrate an MKL application to a problem of history matching based on a diverse prior information embedded into a range of possible geological scenarios. MKL was able to select the most influential prior geological scenarios and fuse the selected spatial features into a multi-scale property model. The MKL was applied to Brugge history matching benchmark example by calibrating the parameters of the MKL reservoir model parameters to production data. The history matching results were compared to the ones obtained from other contemporary approaches - EnKF and kernel PCA with stochastic optimisation.

  13. Skylab-4 visual observations project: Geological features of southwestern North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, L. T.

    1975-01-01

    Visual observations conducted by Skylab-4 crewmen on seven designated geological target areas and other targets of opportunity in parts of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico were described. The experiments were designed to learn how effectively geologic features could be observed from orbit and what research information could be obtained from the observations when supported by ground studies. For the limited preparation they received, the crewmen demonstrated exceptional observational ability and produced outstanding photographic studies. They also formulated cogent opinions on how to improve future observational and photo-documentation techniques. From the photographs and other observations, it was possible to obtain significant research contributions to on-going field investigations. These contributions were integrated into other aspects of the ground investigations to the following topics: major faults, regional stratigraphy, occurrence of Precambrian crystalline rocks, mapping of Mesozoic volcanic rocks, regional geology.

  14. Subsurface geologic features of the 2011 central Virginia earthquakes revealed by airborne geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Anjana K.; Horton, J. Wright; Burton, William C.; Spears, David B; Gilmer, Amy K

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing geologic features associated with major earthquakes provides insights into mechanisms contributing to fault slip and assists evaluation of seismic hazard. We use high-resolution airborne geophysical data combined with ground sample measurements to image subsurface geologic features associated with the 2011 moment magnitude (Mw) 5.8 central Virginia (USA) intraplate earthquake and its aftershocks. Geologic mapping and magnetic data analyses suggest that the earthquake occurred near a complex juncture of geologic contacts. These contacts also intersect a >60-km-long linear gravity gradient. Distal aftershocks occurred in tight, ~1-km-wide clusters near other obliquely oriented contacts that intersect gravity gradients, in contrast to more linearly distributed seismicity observed at other seismic zones. These data and corresponding models suggest that local density contrasts (manifested as gravity gradients) modified the nearby stress regime in a manner favoring failure. However, along those gradients seismic activity is localized near structural complexities, suggesting a significant contribution from variations in associated rock characteristics such as rheological weakness and/or rock permeability, which may be enhanced in those areas. Regional magnetic data show a broader bend in geologic structures within the Central Virginia seismic zone, suggesting that seismic activity may also be enhanced in other nearby areas with locally increased rheological weaknesses and/or rock permeability. In contrast, away from the Mw5.8 epicenter, geophysical lineaments are nearly continuous for tens of kilometers, especially toward the northeast. Continuity of associated geologic structures probably contributed to efficient propagation of seismic energy in that direction, consistent with moderate to high levels of damage from Louisa County to Washington, D.C., and neighboring communities.

  15. Preliminary Integrated Geologic Map Databases for the United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Rhode Island and Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Dicken, Connie L.; Horton, John D.; Foose, Michael P.; Mueller, Julia A.L.; Hon, Rudi

    2006-01-01

    project consist of two main parts, the spatial databases and a set of supplemental tables relating to geologic map units. The datasets serve as a data resource to generate a variety of stratigraphic, age, and lithologic maps. This documentation is divided into four main sections: (1) description of the set of data files provided in this report, (2) specifications of the spatial databases, (3) specifications of the supplemental tables, and (4) an appendix containing the data dictionaries used to populate some fields of the spatial database and supplemental tables.

  16. Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a framework for a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologic climate-response program designed to provide early warning of changes in the seasonal water cycle of Maine. Climate-related hydrologic changes on Maine's rivers and lakes in the winter and spring during the last century are well documented, and several river and lake variables have been shown to be sensitive to air-temperature changes. Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. The framework of the hydrologic climate-response program presented here consists of four major parts: (1) identifying homogeneous climate-response regions; (2) identifying hydrologic components and key variables of those components that would be included in a hydrologic climate-response data network - as an example, streamflow has been identified as a primary component, with a key variable of streamflow being winter-spring streamflow timing; the data network would be created by maintaining existing USGS data-collection stations and establishing new ones to fill data gaps; (3) regularly updating historical trends of hydrologic data network variables; and (4) establishing basins for process-based studies. Components proposed for inclusion in the hydrologic climate-response data network have at least one key variable for which substantial historical data are available. The proposed components are streamflow, lake ice, river ice, snowpack, and groundwater. The proposed key variables of each component have extensive historical data at multiple sites and are expected to be responsive to climate change in the next few decades. These variables are also important for human water use and (or) ecosystem function. Maine would be divided into seven climate-response regions that follow major river-basin boundaries (basins subdivided to hydrologic units with 8-digit codes or larger) and have relatively homogeneous climates. Key

  17. Spatial analysis of geologic and hydrologic features relating to sinkhole occurrence in Jefferson County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Doctor, Katarina Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the influence of geologic features related to sinkhole susceptibility was analyzed and the results were mapped for the region of Jefferson County, West Virginia. A model of sinkhole density was constructed using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) that estimated the relations among discrete geologic or hydrologic features and sinkhole density at each sinkhole location. Nine conditioning factors on sinkhole occurrence were considered as independent variables: distance to faults, fold axes, fracture traces oriented along bedrock strike, fracture traces oriented across bedrock strike, ponds, streams, springs, quarries, and interpolated depth to groundwater. GWR model parameter estimates for each variable were evaluated for significance, and the results were mapped. The results provide visual insight into the influence of these variables on localized sinkhole density, and can be used to provide an objective means of weighting conditioning factors in models of sinkhole susceptibility or hazard risk.

  18. Sapping Features of the Colorado Plateau: a Comparative Planetary Geology Field Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Alan D. (Editor); Kochel, R. Craig (Editor); Holt, Henry E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    This book is an attempt to determine geomorphic criteria to be used to distinguish between channels formed predominantly by sapping and seepage erosion and those formed principally by surface runoff processes. The geologic nature of the Colorado Plateau has resulted in geomorphic features that show similarities to some areas on Mars, especially certain valley networks within thick sandstone formations. Where spring sapping is an effective process, the valleys that develop are unique in terms of their morphology and network pattern.

  19. Geologic map of the Sherbrooke-Lewiston area, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, United States, and Quebec, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moench, R.H.; Boone, G.M.; Bothner, W.A.; Boudette, E.L.; Hatch, N.L.; Hussey, A. M.; Marvinney, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    This map is part of a folio of maps of the Lewiston I o x 2° quadrangle, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, and part of the Sherbrooke I o x 2° quadrangle, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, United States, and Quebec, Canada, prepared under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Adjacent areas in Quebec are shown, in order to illustrate the geologic continuity between northwestern Maine and northern Vermont and New Hampshire. Other results of the project are contained in reports by Nowlan and others (1990a,b,c; stream sediment geochemistry), and Cox (1990; potential tin resources related to the White Mountain Plutonic-Volcanic Suite), Bothner and others (in press; complete Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic maps), Moench and Boudette (in press, geologic synthesis and mineral occurrence map), and Moench (in press; metallic mineral resources).

  20. Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. K.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Rowan, L. C.; Short, N. M.

    1975-01-01

    Papers from private industry reporting applications of remote sensing to oil and gas exploration were presented. Digitally processed LANDSAT images were successfully employed in several geologic interpretations. A growing interest in digital image processing among the geologic user community was shown. The papers covered a wide geographic range and a wide technical and application range. Topics included: (1) oil and gas exploration, by use of radar and multisensor studies as well as by use of LANDSAT imagery or LANDSAT digital data, (2) mineral exploration, by mapping from LANDSAT and Skylab imagery and by LANDSAT digital processing, (3) geothermal energy studies with Skylab imagery, (4) environmental and engineering geology, by use of radar or LANDSAT and Skylab imagery, (5) regional mapping and interpretation, and digital and spectral methods.

  1. Geological features of the northeastern Canadian Arctic margin revealed from analysis of potential field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anudu, Goodluck K.; Stephenson, Randell A.; Macdonald, David I. M.; Oakey, Gordon N.

    2016-11-01

    The northeastern Canadian Arctic margin is bordered to the north by Alpha Ridge, a dominantly magmatic complex within the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean, which forms part of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). The characteristics of the gravity and magnetic anomaly fields change notably along the Arctic margin, with two main segments recognised. Aeromagnetic and gravity data in the transition zone between these contrasting domains of the Canadian Arctic margin are analysed here in detail. Results obtained using a variety of edge enhancement (derivative) methods highlight several magnetic domains and a major offshore sedimentary basin as well as some known and a number of previously unknown tectonic and magmatic elements. A magmatic intrusion distribution map derived from the edge enhanced magnetic anomaly maps reveals that magmatic rocks are much more widespread in the relatively shallow subsurface than implied by surface geological mapping. Magmatic intrusions (mainly dykes) and other geological structures have NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S major trends. Broad gravity and pseudogravity lows across most of the Sverdrup Basin region are due to thick, less dense sedimentary succession and low magnetised crust. Magnetic and pseudogravity highs observed over Alpha Ridge indicate high crustal magnetisation associated with the occurrence of extensive and voluminous crustal magmatic bodies. Absence of these volcanic and intrusive rocks in the imaged sedimentary basin beneath the northeast Canadian Arctic margin region suggests that the basin probably formed after the cessation of HALIP magmatism.

  2. Yasny lode-placer cluster: Geological and structural features and gold potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mel'nikov, A. V.; Stepanov, V. A.

    2014-03-01

    The geological and structural features and gold potential of the Yasny lode-placer cluster in Amur province have been investigated. The lode-placer cluster is an intrusive domal uplift elongated in the nearmeridional direction and surrounded by Neogene loose sediments. The cluster comprises placers that yielded 15 t gold mined from there and small occurrences of gold-quartz and gold-base-metal lodes. Association of native gold with cinnabar in the Yasny Creek placer allows us to forecast a new source of gold-mercury mineralization in the basin of this creek, which could be compared with the Kyuchyus deposit in Yakutia. Gold nuggets 79 kg in total weight were mined from Gar-2 River placer. They are comparable in weight and association with quartz to the world's largest Holtermann Plate nugget from Australia. Gold-quartz lodes have been forecasted in the basin of the Gar-2 Creek.

  3. Geological features of Subduction Transfer Edge Propagator (STEP) faults, examples from the Betics and Rif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Pérez-Peña, Vicente; Azañón, José Miguel; de Lis Mancilla, Flor; Morales, Jose; Stich, Daniel; Giaconia, Flavio

    2014-05-01

    Most of the geological features of the Betics and Rif have resulted from slab tearing, edge delamination and punctual slab breakoff events between offset STEP faults. New P-reciever function data of the deep structure under the Betics and Rif have helped to map the deep boundaries of slab tearing and rupture in the area. Linking surface geological features with the deep structure shows that STEP faulting under the Betics occurred along ENE-WSW segments offset towards the south, probably do to the westward narrowing of the Tethys slab. The surface expression of STEP faulting at the Betics consists of ENE-WSW dextral strike-slip fault segments like the Crevillente, Alpujarras or Torcal faults that are interrupted by basins and elongated extensional domes were exhumed HP middle crust occurs. Exhumation of deep crust erases the effects of strike-slip faulting in the overlying brittle crust. Slab tearing affected the eastern Betics during the Tortonian to Messinian, producing the Fortuna and Lorca basins, and later propagated westward generating the end-Messinian to Pleistocene Guadix-Baza basins and the Granada Pliocene-Pleistocene depocentre. At present slab tearing is occurring beneath the Málaga depression, where the Torcal dextral strike-slip fault ends in a region of active distributed shortening and where intermediate depth seismicity occurs. STEP fault migration has occurred at average rates between 2 and 4 cm/yr since the late Miocene, producing a wave of alternating uplift-subsidence pulses. These initiate with uplift related to slab flexure, subsidence related to slab-pull, followed by uplift after rupture and ending with thermal subsidence. This "yo-yo" type tectonic evolution leads to the generation of endorheic basins that later evolve to exhorheic when they are uplifted and captured above the region where asthenospheric upwelling occurs.

  4. Marinas, mines, and mudpots. Building a feature-based production system at the U.S. geological survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chappell, Gary B.; Neff, Kathryn C.

    1991-01-01

    By the mid-1990's, the U.S. Geological Survey expects to produce spatial data according to its new data model, Digital Line Graph-Enhanced (DLG-E). This new data model currently defines more than 200 unique feature types that describe the geographic phenomena portrayed on the series of 1:24,000-scale topographic maps. Characteristics of features are encoded as attributes, and linkages between features are expressed as relationships. Ultimately, features are tied to the spatial components that represent their location and (or) shape. Developing the ability to manipulate the features that compose the DLG-E world presents many new challenges in the design of a data production system. Primary among these challenges is controlling the attribution and value of each feature type to ensure consistency in data content. Methods are under development at the U.S. Geological Survey to provide automated control over the DLG-E data production process.

  5. Systematic comparison of automated geological feature detection methods for impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, T.; Mjolsness, E.

    2001-12-01

    Accurate, automated crater counts will be essential in extrapolating from existing Mars crater catalogs to much larger catalogs of impact craters in high-resolution orbital imagery for use in relative dating of surfaces in such imagery. Once validated, automatic methods for performing crater counts could be integrated into tools such as the Planetary Image Atlas, which is designed to be a convenient interface through which a user can search for, display, and download images and other ancillary data for planetary Missions, and the Diamond Eye image mining system. Here we report on preliminary computational experiments in using a trainable feature detection algorithm [Burl et al. 2001] to detect craters in real and simulated Mars orbital imagery, and to derive approximate impact crater counts for geological use. In these experiments, we consider two uses of the trainable feature detector: first, directly as a crater detector, and second, as two detectors for sunlit and shadowed inner walls of craters which can then be assembled into a single crater detection based on multiple pieces of evidence. For both of these methods, we consider two data sources: one consisting of real Viking Orbiter imagery of Mars with human expert-supplied ground truth labels, and the other consisting of computer generated renderings of simplified, synthetic cratered terrain with 100% accurate ground truth labels and known, controllable crater density. Each detector reports out a numeric detection ``likelihood'' for every candidate crater. This likelihood must then be thresholded to produce a detection decision. For each combination of two data sources (one natural and one synthetic) and two crater detection methods (whole-crater and parts-model), we vary image complexity and finally measure detection accuracy. Detection accuracy is measured by a Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve in which detection efficiency (the fraction of true craters detected) and purity (the fraction of

  6. Geologic map of the Simcoe Mountains Volcanic Field, main central segment, Yakama Nation, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Lava compositions other than various types of basalt are uncommon here. Andesite is abundant on and around Mount Adams but is very rare east of the Klickitat River. The only important nonbasaltic composition in the map area is rhyolite, which crops out in several patches around the central highland of the volcanic field, mainly in the upper canyons of Satus and Kusshi Creeks and Wilson Charley canyon. Because the rhyolites were some of the earliest lavas erupted here, they are widely concealed by later basalts and therefore crop out only in local windows eroded by canyons that cut through the overlying basalts.

  7. Influence of ecological and geological features on rangewide patterns of genetic structure in a widespread passerine

    PubMed Central

    Adams, R V; Burg, T M

    2015-01-01

    Geological and ecological features restrict dispersal and gene flow, leading to isolated populations. Dispersal barriers can be obvious physical structures in the landscape; however microgeographic differences can also lead to genetic isolation. Our study examined dispersal barriers at both macro- and micro-geographical scales in the black-capped chickadee, a resident North American songbird. Although birds have high dispersal potential, evidence suggests dispersal is restricted by barriers. The chickadee's range encompasses a number of physiological features which may impede movement and lead to divergence. Analyses of 913 individuals from 34 sampling sites across the entire range using 11 microsatellite loci revealed as many as 13 genetic clusters. Populations in the east were largely panmictic whereas populations in the western portion of the range showed significant genetic structure, which often coincided with large mountain ranges, such as the Cascade and Rocky Mountains, as well as areas of unsuitable habitat. Unlike populations in the central and southern Rockies, populations on either side of the northern Rockies were not genetically distinct. Furthermore, Northeast Oregon represents a forested island within the Great Basin; genetically isolated from all other populations. Substructuring at the microgeographical scale was also evident within the Fraser Plateau of central British Columbia, and in the southeast Rockies where no obvious physical barriers are present, suggesting additional factors may be impeding dispersal and gene flow. Dispersal barriers are therefore not restricted to large physical structures, although mountain ranges and large water bodies do play a large role in structuring populations in this study. PMID:25074576

  8. Detailed side and overhead views of geologic features from joint panoramic and blimp operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, T.E.; Young, J.D. )

    1990-06-01

    A portion of the California coast, including the Loma Prieta earthquake damage at Moss Landing, is shown with the topography displayed from side and overhead viewing angles. This technique offers a different approach to mapping shorelines and studying the oceanographic forces creating and shaping these geologic features. Two pieces of equipment were developed to create these views. The first is a panoramic camera with viewing angles up to 360{degree} and two telephoto settings (70mm and 210mm) allowing a feature to be photographed from the same point with different lens magnifications. The second is a 20 ft helium-filled blimp with 35mm cameras mounted in a tray with a radio control receiver triggering the camera shutters after receiving a signal transmitted from a person on the ground. Video camcorders can also be carried. Tethered to the person on the ground, the blimp's height is determined by the amount of line payed out. Horizontal movement of the blimp is controlled by the operator walking or riding slowly in a boat or truck. The blimp can be flown at different elevations, remain in a stationary position for time-lapse photographs, or be moved about to prepare a mosaic of the area. Both systems can be used in remote areas because they are portable and the power supplies needed to operate are from lightweight batteries.

  9. Features of morphology and geology of surface of Jupiter satellite Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, Anatoliy; Morozhenko, A.; Klyanchin, A.

    2011-12-01

    Comparison of large-scale images of "Vojager-2" and "Galileo" did not find out no noticeable changes on the surface of Europe. But "Galileo" images of Europe with a high spatial resolution was changed our picture of character and nature of its surface. A surface is an icy shell, covered by cracks and by ice-drifts. Under a comparatively thin shell, possibly, there is an ocean of liquid water in to a few ten of kilometres depth. Very small amount of shock craters specifies on relative youth of surface of Europe and, possibly, on its geological activity and now. The basic geological features of satellite are selected taking into account likeness of form, structure, color, illuminations etc. of Europe surfaces and other known types of surface: large plains regiones, areas of cracks (lines, bands) and mountain backbones (linea, lineaes), areas with chaotic relief (chaos, chaoses), craters and cycloid cracks (flexus). Presumably, global network of lines - it caused by tectonic processes in icy shell cracks, after filled the frozen dark matter of orange - red color. Correlation of stratum features with albedo allows to suppose that its young areas, which were less changed by subsequent endogenous and exogenous processes which would clean them, have less albedo. Classification of craters is based on the clearness of scopes of the thrown out breeds. Tracks of shots can be seen on the presence of concentric features; some - have well visible edges and shock texture; some have rays. On the Europe surface 41 craters with diameters a 2-50 km is found. In 2000 was found out a large crater which can be the result of collision in the past of asteroid with Europe. Size of external structure of Tayr object (diameter - 149 km) far more than size of its crater. This morphological detail appeared so original, that for it (and yet for 2-3 to it similar) it was necessary to offer the special name: large circular structures. If to examine satellite on the whole, to our opinion, it is

  10. Geological Features Inferred from Local Seismic Tomography in the Sunda Strait and West Java regions, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, A. D.; Sakti, A. P.; Rohadi, S.; Widiyantoro, S.

    2012-12-01

    We have conducted seismic tomographic inversions to obtain a P-wave seismic velocity structure beneath the Sunda Strait and West Java regions, Indonesia. The Sunda Strait is located in a complex geological system i.e. in the transition from the oblique subduction beneath Sumatra to the nearly perpendicular subduction below Java. The Krakatau active volcano is located in the Sunda Strait. In this study, we have used selected P-wave arrival times from the data catalogs of the SeisComP-BMKG network (from 2009 to 2011) and the BMKG BALAI II network (from 1992 to 2011) compiled by Badan Meteorologi,Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG), Indonesia. In total, there are 1,598 local earthquakes and 10,366 P-wave phases from 25 seismographic stations that have been used for the tomographic inversions. We have also relocated the hypocenter locations along with velocity inversions simultaneously. Our preliminary results depict some prominent geological features that include: (1) a low velocity anomaly beneath north of the Ujung Kulon region, which coincides with a low gravity anomaly resulting from a previous study, (2) a low velocity anomaly alignment beneath the Krakatau volcano in the Sunda Strait, (3) a sharp contrast in velocity anomalies extending from Pelabuhan Ratu towards Jakarta with a strike of SW-NE, and (4) a low velocity anomaly in the offshore of Pelabuhan Ratu that may be correlated with the continuation of the Cimandiri fault zone. More detailed information will be presented during the meeting. Keywords: tomography, Sunda Strait, West Java, velocity anomaly

  11. Digital field mapping for stimulating Secondary School students in the recognition of geological features and landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Marco; Magagna, Alessandra; Ferrero, Elena; Perrone, Gianluigi

    2015-04-01

    Digital field mapping has certainly provided geoscientists with the opportunity to map and gather data in the field directly using digital tools and software rather than using paper maps, notebooks and analogue devices and then subsequently transferring the data to a digital format for subsequent analysis. But, the same opportunity has to be recognized for Geoscience education, as well as for stimulating and helping students in the recognition of landforms and interpretation of the geological and geomorphological components of a landscape. More, an early exposure to mapping during school and prior to university can optimise the ability to "read" and identify uncertainty in 3d models. During 2014, about 200 Secondary School students (aged 12-15) of the Piedmont region (NW Italy) participated in a research program involving the use of mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) in the field. Students, divided in groups, used the application Trimble Outdoors Navigators for tracking a geological trail in the Sangone Valley and for taking georeferenced pictures and notes. Back to school, students downloaded the digital data in a .kml file for the visualization on Google Earth. This allowed them: to compare the hand tracked trail on a paper map with the digital trail, and to discuss about the functioning and the precision of the tools; to overlap a digital/semitransparent version of the 2D paper map (a Regional Technical Map) used during the field trip on the 2.5D landscape of Google Earth, as to help them in the interpretation of conventional symbols such as contour lines; to perceive the landforms seen during the field trip as a part of a more complex Pleistocene glacial landscape; to understand the classical and innovative contributions from different geoscientific disciplines to the generation of a 3D structural geological model of the Rivoli-Avigliana Morainic Amphitheatre. In 2013 and 2014, some other pilot projects have been carried out in different areas of the

  12. Steeply dipping heaving bedrock, Colorado: Part 1 - Heave features and physical geological framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, D.C.; Higgins, J.D.; Olsen, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    Differentially heaving bedrock has caused severe damage near the Denver metropolitan area. This paper describes heave-feature morphologies, the underlying bedrock framework, and their inter-relationship. The heave features are linear to curvilinear and may attain heights of 0.7 m (2.4 ft), widths of 58 m (190 ft), and lengths of 1,067 m (3,500 ft). They are nearly symmetrical to highly asymmetrical in cross section, with width-to-height ratios of 45:1 to 400:1, and most are oriented parallel with the mountain front. The bedrock consists of Mesozoic sedimentary formations having dip angles of 30 degrees to vertical to overturned. Mixed claystone-siltstone bedding sequences up to 36-m (118-ft) thick are common in the heave-prone areas, and interbeds of bentonite, limestone, or sandstone may be present. Highly fractured zones of weathered to variably weathered claystone extend to depths of 19.5 to 22.3 m (64 to 73 ft). Fracture spacings are 0.1 to 0.2 m (0.3 to 0.7 ft) in the weathered and variably weathered bedrock and up to 0.75 m (2.5 ft) in the underlying, unweathered bedrock. Curvilinear shear planes in the weathered claystone show thrust or reverse offsets up to 1.2 m (3.9 ft). Three associations between heave-feature morphologies and the geological framework are recognized: (1) Linear, symmetrical to asymmetrical heaves are associated with primary bedding composition changes. (2) Linear, highly asymmetrical heaves are associated with shear planes along bedding. (3) Curvi-linear, highly asymmetrical heaves are associated with bedding-oblique shear planes.

  13. On the main flow features of the SE Levantine (CYBO cruises 1995-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, George; Hayes, Dan; Gertman, Isaac; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Menna, Milena; Nicolaidis, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    The main characteristic of the circulation in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin is a general cyclonic flow following more or less the coastline, with several persistent eddies in the open sea. The interaction between all of these dynamical features produces a complicated flow pattern with strong spatial variability on a synoptic, seasonal and inter-annual scales. The continuous seasonal/annual hydrographic survey of the SE Levantine since 1995 within the frame of the Cyprus Basin Oceanography program (CYBO) and the Haifa-section cruises, along with data from project surveys (CYCLOPS, MSM/14) and recent data from autonomous platforms, such as those from Argos floats, drifters and gliders (NEMED, YPOKINOUMODA, GROOM projects) have all provided insight on the three dominating flow features in the SE Levantine Basin. Namely, the two warm core eddies, i.e. the Cyprus and Shikmona, and the open sea flow jet, that of the Mid Mediterranean. After some years of disputes, it is well-documented with all these in-situ data that the Cyprus warm core eddy is the most influential flow feature in the area, with significant fluctuations in time and space, while the generation of the Shikmona eddy was observed for the first time. Moreover, the cross basin flow of the MMJ is also well-document, confirming the relevant POEM results, to transfer also significant amount of AW further to the most-eastern part of the Levantine, after passing between Cyprus and along the northern periphery of the Cyprus warm core eddy.

  14. Application of Geologic Mapping Techniques and Autonomous Feature Detection to Future Exploration of Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunte, M. K.; Tanaka, K. L.; Doggett, T.; Figueredo, P. H.; Lin, Y.; Greeley, R.; Saripalli, S.; Bell, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Europa's extremely young surface age, evidence for extensive resurfacing, and indications of a sub-surface ocean elevate its astrobiological potential for habitable environments and make it a compelling focus for study. Knowledge of the global distribution and timing of Europan geologic units is a key step in understanding the history of the satellite and for identifying areas relevant for exploration. I have produced a 1:15M scale global geologic map of Europa which represents a proportionate distribution of four unit types and associated features: plains, linea, chaos, and crater materials. Mapping techniques differ somewhat from other planetary maps but do provide a method to establish stratigraphic markers and to illustrate the surface history through four periods of formation as a function of framework lineament cross-cutting relationships. Correlations of observed features on Europa with Earth analogs enforce a multi-process theory for formation rather than the typical reliance on the principle of parsimony. Lenticulae and microchaos are genetically similar and most likely form by diapirism. Platy and blocky chaos units, endmembers of archetypical chaos, are best explained by brine mobilization. Ridges account for the majority of lineaments and may form by a number of methods indicative of local conditions; most form by either tidal pumping or shear heating. The variety of morphologies exhibited by bands indicates that multiple formation mechanisms apply once fracturing of the brittle surface over a ductile subsurface is initiated. Mapping results support the interpretation that Europa's shell has thickened over time resulting in changes in the style and intensity of deformation. Mapping serves as an index for change detection and classification, aids in pre-encounter targeting, and supports the selection of potential landing sites. Highest priority target areas are those which indicate geophysical activity by the presence of volcanic plumes, outgassing, or

  15. Characterizing the natural radiation levels throughout the main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul area, northern Syria.

    PubMed

    Al-Hilal, Mohamed; Aissa, Mosa

    2015-02-01

    The concentrations of equivalent eU, eTh, and K% were determined together with soil gas radon values and carborne gamma-ray survey in order to define the natural radioactivity levels throughout main geological units of Sabkhat al Jabboul region. Forty five soil and rock samples were collected from various lithofacies in each geological unit, and analyzed by γ-ray spectrometric technique for determining the concentration values of major radioelements. Such radiometric data could be used to differentiate between various lithologies of the investigated rocks. Although no distinct radioactive anomalies were found in the area, the radiometric profiles showed some minor variations with slightly higher values than the normal level. Despite the low radioactivity and the lack of rocks diversity in the surveyed area, it was possible to classify some certain rock types based on their radiometric response. The relationships between eU, eTh and their ratios were discussed for the Quaternary, Neogene and Paleogene formations, in order to evaluate the degree of uranium distribution and remobilization. The overall results of this radiometric survey were generally low, and lying within the range of the normal background levels in Syrian.

  16. Main features of the new software control system for the YuMO instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilov, A. S.

    2012-03-01

    During the last years the new software instrumental complex Sonix+ has been developed at FLNP JINR to replace the former Sonix control system [1]. This complex has been tested at a number of IBR-2 instruments (REMUR, NERA-PR) and on instruments at other centers - KIA, Moscow (MOND), etc. We plan to install the new complex at the YuMO instrument as well. The Sonix+ is implemented on the PC/Windows XP platform, whereas the Sonix is based on the VME/Os-9 obsolete platform. The Sonix+ [1] has been designed considering the experience of long-term operation of the predecessor and recent trends. The paper is devoted to the main features of the new software and the comparison with the former one.

  17. The New Madrid earthquakes; an engineering-geologic interpretation of relict liquefaction features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obermeier, Stephen F.

    1989-01-01

    Earthquake-induced sand blows and sand-filled fissures are present in a belt 40 to 60 km. wide that extends from near Charleston, Mo., southward to about 20 km. south of Marked Tree, Ark. This region of earthquake-induced sand blows and other liquefaction-related features is almost exclusively in the St. Francis Basin, an alluvial lowland that typically has a thin (2 to 8 m thick), clay-bearing topstratum underlain by about 30 to 60 m of unconsolidated sand (the substratum). Liquefaction of the substratum sands has made the sand blows. The sand blows and other liquefaction-related features on the ground surface in the St. Francis Basin are almost certainly results of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-12. In this report, geologic and engineering properties of the alluvium are used in combination with a map showing the bounds of the liquefaction-related features to locate approximately the epicentral zones for two of the major shocks: the earthquakes of December 16,1811, and February 7,1812. Properties used for the analysis included the Standard Penetration Resistance of the substratum sands, characteristics of the sand's grain size, thickness of the topstratum, and the thickness of the post-Tertiary alluvium. The method of analysis relies largely on the evaluation of the liquefaction potential of the sands. This is done by using the Standard Penetration Test blow counts and by devising a method that uses all possible combinations of liquefaction potential and a realistic relation between attenuation of earthquake accelerations and distance from the epicenter (or more correctly, energy-release center). Two interpreted 1811-12 energy-release centers generally agree well with zones of seismicity defined by modern, small earthquakes. Bounds on accelerations are placed at the limits of sand blows that were generated by the 1811-12 earthquakes in the St. Francis Basin. Conclusions show how the topstratum thickness, sand size of the substratum, and thickness of alluvium

  18. Formation and evolution of the midlands of Venus: Geological features and structures, stratigraphic relationships and geologic history of the Fredegonde area (V-57)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.

    2012-12-01

    The topographic midlands on Venus comprise about 80% of the surface and an understanding of their mode of formation is essential to unraveling the geologic and geodynamic history of the planet. We explore this question by undertaking a comprehensive geological mapping of the Fredegonde Quadrangle (V-57, 50-75°S, 60-120°E, 1:5M scale) that represents the transition zone from the midlands to the lowlands at the edge of Lada Terra. We report on the geologic units and structures and the sequence of events and, thus, the major stages in the evolution of this region of the midlands. At earlier stages of evolution of the long-wavelength topography, broad (hundreds of kilometers wide) and relatively low (1-1.5 km high) topographic ridges formed due to sequential development of deformation zones, first of contractional ridge belts (NW orientation) and then crosscut by extensional groove belts (NE orientation). Arcuate swarms of graben within groove belts often form the rims of coronae and represent their tectonic component. This suggests that groove belts and coronae within the quadrangle formed simultaneously. Intersections of these deformation zones caused separation of the topography of the region into a series of broad, shallow equidimensional basins many hundreds of kilometers across and currently hundreds of meters up to a kilometer deep. Thus, the principal topographic features within the quadrangle were established near the beginning of its observable geological record. The basins then remained sites of accumulation of successive volcanic plains units such as shield plains (psh) and the lower unit of regional plains (rp1). The flows of the younger plains, such as upper unit of regional plains (rp2) and lobate plains (pl), are less voluminous, and flow down the current topographic gradients. This implies that the major topographic pattern of the Fredegonde quadrangle has been stable since its establishment. Further evidence for this is that the vast volcanic plains

  19. Geologically recent small-scale surface features in Meridiani Planum and Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, David

    2014-05-01

    in plains areas between craters. Fumaroles seem unlikely since there is no other evidence of geologically young volcanic activity in the region. There is evidence elsewhere that contemporary ground-ice thaw and consequent transient surface run-off may occur occasionally under present conditions in low, near-equatorial latitudes on Mars; short-lived (even for just a few minutes) meltwater emission and flow at the surface could erode gutters before evaporating. The decomposition of buried pockets of methane clathrates, which theoretical considerations suggest might be present and stable even in equatorial regions, could give rise to both methane venting (leveed fissures) and transient surface water (gutters). Another possibility is the decomposition, due to local changes in thermal conditions, of hydrated magnesium sulphates in the bedrock, releasing liquid water. Whatever their explanation, these features hint at previously unrecognized, young martian surface processes which may even be active at the present day; in this context, the apparent downslope extension of a discrete dark dust streak on Burns Cliff (inside Endurance Crater), during Opportunity's approach to that locality, is particularly thought-provoking.

  20. Extracranial stereotactic body radiotherapy. Review of main SBRT features and indications in primary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Carmen; Morera, Rosa; Hernando, Ovidio; Leroy, Thomas.; Lartigau, S. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Aim Review of main SBRT features and indications in primary tumors. Background Stereotactic body radiotherapy has been developed in the last few years. SBRT allows the hypofractionated treatment of extra cranial tumors, using either a single or limited number of dose fractions, and resulting in the delivery of a high biological effective dose with low toxicity. Material and methods SBRT requires a high level of accuracy for all phases of the treatment process: effective patient immobilization, precise target localization, highly conformed dosimetry and image guided systems for treatment verification. The implementation of SBRT in routine requires a careful considering of organ motion. Gating and tracking are effective ways to do so, and less invasive technologies “fiducials free” have been developed. Due to the hypofractionated scheme, the physician must pay attention to new dosimetric constraints in organ at risk and new radiobiological models are needed to assess the optimal fractionation and dose schemes. Results Currently, SBRT is safe and effective to treat primary tumors, which are otherwise untreatable with conventional radiotherapy or surgery. SBRT has quickly developed because of its excellent results in terms of tolerance and its high locoregional control rates. SBRT indications in primary tumors, such as lung primary tumors, have become a standard of care for inoperable patients. SBRT seems to be effective in many others indications in curative or palliative intent such as liver primary tumors, and novel indications and strategies are currently emerging in prostate cancer, head and neck tumor recurrences or pelvis reirradiations. Conclusion Currently, SBRT is mainly used when there is no other therapeutic alternative for the patient. This is due to the lack of randomized trials in these settings. However, the results shown in retrospective studies let us hope to impose SBRT as a new standard of care for many patients in the next few years. PMID

  1. Automated feature extraction and spatial organization of seafloor pockmarks, Belfast Bay, Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, B.D.; Brothers, L.L.; Barnhardt, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seafloor pockmarks occur worldwide and may represent millions of m3 of continental shelf erosion, but few numerical analyses of their morphology and spatial distribution of pockmarks exist. We introduce a quantitative definition of pockmark morphology and, based on this definition, propose a three-step geomorphometric method to identify and extract pockmarks from high-resolution swath bathymetry. We apply this GIS-implemented approach to 25km2 of bathymetry collected in the Belfast Bay, Maine USA pockmark field. Our model extracted 1767 pockmarks and found a linear pockmark depth-to-diameter ratio for pockmarks field-wide. Mean pockmark depth is 7.6m and mean diameter is 84.8m. Pockmark distribution is non-random, and nearly half of the field's pockmarks occur in chains. The most prominent chains are oriented semi-normal to the steepest gradient in Holocene sediment thickness. A descriptive model yields field-wide spatial statistics indicating that pockmarks are distributed in non-random clusters. Results enable quantitative comparison of pockmarks in fields worldwide as well as similar concave features, such as impact craters, dolines, or salt pools. ?? 2010.

  2. Capability of ERTS-1 imagery to investigate geological and structural features in a sedimentary basin (Bassin Parisien, France)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavelier, C.; Scanvic, J. Y.; Weecksteen, G.; Zizerman, A.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary study of the MSS imagery of a sedimentary basin whose structure is regular is reported. Crops and natural vegetation are distributed all over the site located under temperate climate. Ground data available concern plant species geology and tectonic and are correlated with results from ERTS 1 imagery. This comparison shows a good correlation. The main geological units are detected or enhanced by way of agricultural land use and/or natural vegetation. Alluvial deposits are outlined by vegetation grass land and poplar trees. Some spatial relationship of geostructures, suspected until now, are identified or extended in associating results from different spectral bands.

  3. The Cyborg Astrobiologist: scouting red beds for uncommon features with geological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Patrick Charles; Díaz-Martínez, Enrique; Ormö, Jens; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José Antonio; Sebastián-Martínez, Eduardo; Ritter, Helge; Haschke, Robert; Oesker, Markus; Ontrup, Jörg

    2005-04-01

    The `Cyborg Astrobiologist' has undergone a second geological field trial, at a site in northern Guadalajara, Spain, near Riba de Santiuste. The site at Riba de Santiuste is dominated by layered deposits of red sandstones. The Cyborg Astrobiologist is a wearable computer and video camera system that has demonstrated a capability to find uncommon interest points in geological imagery in real time in the field. In this second field trial, the computer vision system of the Cyborg Astrobiologist was tested at seven different tripod positions, on three different geological structures. The first geological structure was an outcrop of nearly homogeneous sandstone, which exhibits oxidized-iron impurities in red areas and an absence of these iron impurities in white areas. The white areas in these `red beds' have turned white because the iron has been removed. The iron removal from the sandstone can proceed once the iron has been chemically reduced, perhaps by a biological agent. In one instance the computer vision system found several (iron-free) white spots to be uncommon and therefore interesting, as well as several small and dark nodules. The second geological structure was another outcrop some 600 m to the east, with white, textured mineral deposits on the surface of the sandstone, at the bottom of the outcrop. The computer vision system found these white, textured mineral deposits to be interesting. We acquired samples of the mineral deposits for geochemical analysis in the laboratory. This laboratory analysis of the crust identifies a double layer, consisting of an internal millimetre-size layering of calcite and an external centimetre-size efflorescence of gypsum. The third geological structure was a 50 cm thick palaeosol layer, with fossilized root structures of some plants. The computer vision system also found certain areas of these root structures to be interesting. A quasi-blind comparison of the Cyborg Astrobiologist's interest points for these images with the

  4. Geologic features of the Connecticut Valley, Massachusetts, as related to recent floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jahns, Richard Henry

    1947-01-01

    This report gives the results of a geologic study of certain features that bear upon the recent flood behavior of rivers flowing in the Massachusetts part of the Connecticut Valley. It is in part an outline of the physiographic history of the Connecticut River, a 'history that is treated in progressively greater detail as it concerns events occurring from Mesozoic time to the present, and in part a discussion of erosional and depositional processes associated with the extraordinary floods of March 1936 and September 1938. The Connecticut River flows southward through Massachusetts in a broad lowland area of more than 400 square miles and is joined in this area by four large tributaries, the Deerfield and Westfield Rivers from the west and the Millers and Chicopee Rivers from the east. The lowland area, or :Connecticut Valley province, is flanked on the west by the Berkshire Hills, a, deeply incised uplifted plateau, and on the east by the central upland, or Worcester .County plateau, a lower upland marked by rolling topography. Most of the broad, relatively flat valley floor is underlain by Triassic sedimentary rocks. Rising above it, however, are the prominent Holyoke-Mount Tom and Deerfield Ranges, which consist in large part of dark-colored igneous rocks, also of Triassic age. There is evidence of several cycles of erosion in central western Massachusetts, the last two of which are of Tertiary age and appear to have reached nature and very youthful stages of topographic development, respectively. Immediately prior to the glacial epoch, therefore, the Connecticut River flowed in a fairly narrow, deep gorge, which it had incised in the rather flat 5ottom of the valley that it had formed at an earlier stage. A Pleistocene crustal subsidence probably of several hundred feet, for which there has been only partial compensation in postglacial time, was responsible for the present position of much of this gorge below sea level. That an estuary does not now occupy the

  5. Using thermodynamic data to reproduce main seismic features of transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Ilya; Saukko, Anna; Edwards, Paul; Schiffer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Most of the seismic tomography studies nowadays are based on comprehensive models with optimization of lots of parameters. These models are able to resolve very subtle features of the Earth's mantle, but the influence of each specific parameter is not seen directly. In our research we try to minimize the number of processed parameters to produce simple synthetic cases. The main goals of our model are to see how water content influences the depth of the transition zone, and if melting at the transition zone is plausible. We also attempt to see how water content and the presence of melts influence the signal strength of the transition zone in receiver functions. Our MATLAB-code calculates phase assemblage according to specific temperature and pressure within 2D numerical domain (e.g. 300x700 km). Phase properties are calculated with database of Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni [2011], with corrections for water impact on elastic constants according to Liu et al., [2012]. We use the mantle phase composition 55% garnet and 45% olivine-polymorph, soliduses by Ohtani et al. [2004] and melt properties by Sakamaki et al. [2006]. These data are used to calculate seismic velocities and, furthermore, receiver functions with standard routines (e.g.[Schiffer et al., 2012]). Model predicts Vs within 5 to 5.5 km/s and Vp around 9.5-10 km/s within transition zone (Vp/Vs = 1.84-1.87), which is close to standard values. The presence of water enlarges the wadsleyite region, but also dampens the peak of receiver functions down to background level. Increase in water content causes melting at much shallower depths. Using a normal thermal gradient, we can get up to 10% of melt at depths around 390 km with 80% of water saturation, shown by a negative anomaly on receiver functions. This result is similar to data obtained for Afar Plateau [Thompson et al., 2015]. With cratonic thermal gradient, the olivine-wadsleyite transition and corresponding melt layer appear at depths around 350 km

  6. Exploration of Wadi Zerka Ma'in rotational fault and its drainage pattern, Eastern of Dead Sea, by means of remote sensing, GIS and 3D geological modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odeh, Taleb; Gloaguen, Richard; Schirmer, Mario; Geyer, Stefan; Rödiger, Tino; Siebert, Christian

    2009-09-01

    The Wadi Zerka Ma'in catchment area is located in the North East of the Dead Sea. It contains a confined river of about 23 km length. The region is characterized by a recent sharp base level drop and a strong orographic control on climatic parameters such as temperature and precipitation. It is controlled by three regional structural systems as follow: 1) the anticline - syncline system (late Cretaceous - end of Miocene) which is a part of Syrian fold arc system; 2) NW - SE faults system which were generated simultaneously and parallel to the Red Sea spreading; 3) NWW - SSE faults system which are perpendicular to the Dead Sea and younger than the Red Sea fault system; 4) NNW - SSE faults system (middle Miocene - until now) which were generated simultaneously and parallel to the active Dead Sea transform fault. The structural setting of the study area was evaluated by means of a three-dimensional (3D) geological model, a digital elevation model (DEM) with resolutions 15 meters and stream profile analysis. DEM generation was performed using ASTER data. We found that the Wadi is located at the junction of two main fault systems. The major feature is a trans-tensional fault displacement which changes from 0 to 200 m. We showed that the catchment area is a result of a rotational fault while the river changes its flow direction according to the different fault system directions. The lower portion of the basin is affected by the major base level drops and display contributing rivers in exceptional non-equilibrium. Thus this catchment allows observing the rapid adaptation of the drainage system to both climatic and tectonic forcing.

  7. Information needs for characterization of high-level waste repository sites in six geologic media. Volume 1. Main report

    SciTech Connect

    1985-05-01

    Evaluation of the geologic isolation of radioactive materials from the biosphere requires an intimate knowledge of site geologic conditions, which is gained through precharacterization and site characterization studies. This report presents the results of an intensive literature review, analysis and compilation to delineate the information needs, applicable techniques and evaluation criteria for programs to adequately characterize a site in six geologic media. These media, in order of presentation, are: granite, shale, basalt, tuff, bedded salt and dome salt. Guidelines are presented to assess the efficacy (application, effectiveness, and resolution) of currently used exploratory and testing techniques for precharacterization or characterization of a site. These guidelines include the reliability, accuracy and resolution of techniques deemed acceptable, as well as cost estimates of various field and laboratory techniques used to obtain the necessary information. Guidelines presented do not assess the relative suitability of media. 351 refs., 10 figs., 31 tabs.

  8. Geologic features of dam sites in the Nehalem, Rogue, and Willamette River basins, Oregon, 1935-37

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, A.M.

    1947-01-01

    The present report comprises brief descriptions of geologic features at 19 potential dam sites in the Nehalem, Rogue, and Willamette River basins in western Oregon. The topography of these site and of the corresponding reservoir site was mapped in 1934-36 under an allocation of funds, by the Public Works Administration for river-utilization surveys by the Conservation Branch of the United States Geological Survey. The field program in Oregon has been under the immediate charge of R. O. Helland. The 19 dam sites are distributed as follows: three on the Nehalem River, on the west or Pacific slope of the Oregon Coast range; four on Little Butte Creek and two on Evans Creek, tributaries of the Rogue River in the eastern part of the Klamath Mountains; four on the South and Middle Santiam Rivers, tributaries of the Willamette River from the west slope of the Cascade mountains; and six on tributaries of the Willamette River from the east slope of the Coast Range. Except in the Evans Creek basin, all the rocks in the districts that were studied are of comparatively late geological age. They include volcanic rocks, crystalline rocks of several types, marine and nonmarine sedimentary rocks, and recent stream deposits. The study of geologic features has sought to estimate the bearing power and water-tightness of the rocks at each dam site, also to place rather broad limits on the type of dam for which the respective sites seem best suited. It was not considered necessary to study the corresponding reservoir sites in detail for excessive leakage appears to be unlikely. Except at three of the four site in the Santiam River basin, no test pits have been dug nor exploratory holes drilled, so that geologic features have been interpreted wholly from natural outcrops and from highway and railroad cuts. Because these outcrops and cuts are few, many problems related to the construction and maintenance of dams can not be answered at the this time and all critical features of the sites

  9. Proximal weakness of the extremities as main feature of amyloid myopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Jennekens, F G; Wokke, J H

    1987-01-01

    Two patients with muscle weakness caused by amyloid myopathy are described. Characteristic features such as pseudohypertrophy and abnormal firmness, and tumours of muscles were absent. It is suggested that muscle weakness in amyloid myopathy is caused by layers of amyloid covering muscle fibres. In middle aged or elderly patients with proximal muscle weakness the diagnosis of amyloid myopathy should be considered. Images PMID:3681315

  10. Synergetic events in geological medium and nonlinear features of wave propagation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, O. A.

    2009-04-01

    Geological medium is an open dynamical system, which is artificially and naturally influenced on different scale levels, which change it's state and which lead to a complicated many ranked hierarchic evolution. That is a topic of the synergetic theory (or science of self organization). The idea of physical meso mechanics which was elaborated by Russian academician Panin V.E., which includes the synergetic approach, is a constructive method for research of the state of heterogenic materials. That result had been obtained for specimens of different materials. In our investigations of time-dependent geological medium in the frame of natural experiments in real rock massive, which are hard man-caused influenced it had been showed, that the dynamics of the state can be revealed by using synergetic approach for hierarchic media. The important role for research of dynamic geological systems play the use of active and passive geophysical monitoring, which can be achieved with use of electromagnetic and seismic fields. As it had been showed by our experience the change of the system on the researched space bases and times can be revealed by parameters, linked with peculiarities of the medium of the second and higher rank. Thus the research of the state dynamics and the events of self organization we can provide with geophysical methods, oriented on the many ranked hierarchic time-dependent model of the medium. For fields of plastic deformation and stresses it had been considered a system of differential equations. The developing theory of modelling and interpretation of geophysical monitoring data must be active guided by the mathematical methods of nonlinear dynamics and control. The developing of that direction can allow us to forecast and prevent catastrophic man-made events (rock bursts). We had elaborated a new approach of forecasting such events using the method of constructing phase portraits using the data of electromagnetic monitoring and detailed seismological

  11. Relationship between morphological feature of submarine landslides and geological condition -focus on Oshima-Oshima, Kaimon and Hawaii regions-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaji, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Kato, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Huge submarine landslides which generate the tsunami are found in the world. Those submarine landslides are generated by the collapse of the volcano and an unstable slope of sediments on the continental shelf. It is thought that a generation mechanism and morphological features of submarine landslides are different according to the environment (geological condition, topography, and transportation mechanism, etc) in each region. We compared submarine landslides in three different regions to clarify the relation of them. The comparison items are geological condition, morphological feature, form of submarine landslide and transportation mechanism. Oshima-Oshima is a volcanic island and tsunami was generated by collapse of volcanic edifice in 1741 eruption. Kaimon submarine landslide was generated by collapse of continental shelf slope off Kaimon volcano which has acted since 4000BP. There are many submarine landslides around Hawaii Islands. Nuuanu-Wailau submarine landslides are peculiar in those submarine landslides. Moreover, we compare some submarine landslides around Hawaii islands with Oshima-Oshima debris avalanche. Both Oshima-Oshima and Hawaii islands are volcanic islands, however the morphological features are different. As a morphological feature, Oshima-Oshima has thick sediment of 100-120m in front of collapse area and those sediment thins with distance. Nuuanu-Wailau submarine landslides have sediment including a huge blocks of 2km height at equal intervals around Hawaii islands. On the other hand, Kaimon submarine landslide has evenly thin sediment as a non volcanic type. In addition, in the case of Nuuanu-Wailau slides are smaller than Oshima-Oshima's case when we think about sediment extension to lateral side. Especially, sediment extension of Kaimon submarine landslide is small. These sediment distributions are related to the transportation mechanism. In general, sediment gravity flow is divided into 4 types (turbidity current, fluidized sediment flow

  12. Geologic features and ground-water storage capacity of the Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olmsted, F.H.; Davis, G.H.

    1961-01-01

    The Sacramento Valley constitutes the northern and smaller arm of the Central Valley of California. It is about 150 miles long by about 30 miles wide; and its area is about 5,000 square miles. The Sacramento Valley is drained by the Sacramento River, the largest in California, which rises west of Mount Shasta and flows southward to join the San Joaquin River near Suisun Bay and discharges through San Francisco Bay to the Pacific. Most of the valley floor is suitable for growing crops, and under irrigation the land is highly productive. The Sacramento Valley is underlain by sediments transported from the surrounding mountains by the Sacramento River and its tributaries. The floor of the valley slopes southward from about 300 feet above sea level at the north end near Red Bluff to sea level at Suisun Bay. The Sutter Buttes, which are erosional remnants of an old volcano rise to 2,132 feet above sea level near the center of the valley. The valley floor is not a featureless plain but is characterized by various types of topography, which have been assigned to four principal groups: 1, low hills and dissected alluvial uplands; 2, low alluvial plains and fans; 3, flood plains and natural levees; and 4, flood basins; a fifth and relatively minor group consists of the tidal Islands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, which are south of the principal area of investigation. The rocks that underlie the Sacramento Valley and the bordering mountains range from crystalline rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age to unconsolidated alluvium of Recent age. These rocks have been subdivided into 20 geologic units which may be assigned to 2 broad categories: rocks that yield little water and rocks that yield water freely. The rocks of the first category are chiefly marine sedimentary rocks of Late Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Early Tertiary age and a basement complex of pre-Tertiary crystalline rocks. The rocks of the second category consist predominantly of nonmarine valley

  13. Ordinary and Activated Bone Grafts: Applied Classification and the Main Features

    PubMed Central

    Deev, R. V.; Drobyshev, A. Y.; Bozo, I. Y.; Isaev, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Bone grafts are medical devices that are in high demand in clinical practice for substitution of bone defects and recovery of atrophic bone regions. Based on the analysis of the modern groups of bone grafts, the particularities of their composition, the mechanisms of their biological effects, and their therapeutic indications, applicable classification was proposed that separates the bone substitutes into “ordinary” and “activated.” The main differential criterion is the presence of biologically active components in the material that are standardized by qualitative and quantitative parameters: growth factors, cells, or gene constructions encoding growth factors. The pronounced osteoinductive and (or) osteogenic properties of activated osteoplastic materials allow drawing upon their efficacy in the substitution of large bone defects. PMID:26649300

  14. Geological survey of Maryland using EREP flight data. [mining, mapping, Chesapeake Bay islands, coastal water features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, K. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Underflight photography has been used in the Baltimore County mined land inventory to determine areas of disturbed land where surface mining of sand and ground clay, or stone has taken place. Both active and abandoned pits and quarries were located. Aircraft data has been used to update cultural features of Calvert, Caroline, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, and Wicomico Counties. Islands have been located and catalogued for comparison with older film and map data for erosion data. Strip mined areas are being mapped to obtain total area disturbed to aid in future mining and reclamation problems. Coastal estuarine and Atlantic Coast features are being studied to determine nearshore bedforms, sedimentary, and erosional patterns, and manmade influence on natural systems.

  15. [Food allergies in early childhood. 1. General concepts, etiopathogenesis, and main clinical features].

    PubMed

    Vigi, V; Fanaro, S

    2000-04-01

    Abnormal immune reactions to food antigens are a rather common event during infancy. Adverse reactions to milk proteins occur in 2.5% of suckling infants. Both IgE and non IgE-mediated allergic mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of food allergy. IgE mediated allergic responses are the most dramatic and the most often diagnosed types. Non IgE mediated food allergy is usually more difficult to diagnose and its clinical course is more chronic. Food induced allergic reactions mediate a variety of symptoms, involving the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract and the skin. A limited number of foods are responsible for the vast majority of allergic reactions: cow milk proteins, egg, fish and peanuts are the main causes. The vast majority of infants with formula-protein intolerance will outgrow their symptoms by the third year of age. Eliminating the food allergens is the only means of dealing with the problem. In part I of this series, immunopathogenic mechanisms and clinical disorders are described.

  16. Atmospheric chemistry on Venus, Earth, and Mars: Main features and comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper deals with two common problems and then considers major aspects of chemistry in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus. (1) The atmospheres of the terrestrial planets have similar origins but different evolutionary pathways because of the different masses and distances to the Sun. Venus lost its water by hydrodynamic escape, Earth lost CO 2 that formed carbonates and is strongly affected by life, Mars lost water in the reaction with iron and then most of the atmosphere by the intense meteorite impacts. (2) In spite of the higher solar radiation on Venus, its thermospheric temperatures are similar to those on Mars because of the greater gravity acceleration and the higher production of O by photolysis of CO 2. O stimulates cooling by the emission at 15 μm in the collisions with CO 2. (3) There is a great progress in the observations of photochemical tracers and minor constituents on Mars in the current decade. This progress is supported by progress in photochemical modeling, especially by photochemical GCMs. Main results in these areas are briefly discussed. The problem of methane presents the controversial aspects of its variations and origin. The reported variations of methane cannot be explained by the existing data on gas-phase and heterogeneous chemistry. The lack of current volcanism, SO 2, and warm spots on Mars favor the biological origin of methane. (4) Venus' chemistry is rich and covers a wide range of temperatures and pressures and many species. Photochemical models for the middle atmosphere (58-112 km), for the nighttime atmosphere and night airglow at 80-130 km, and the kinetic model for the lower atmosphere are briefly discussed.

  17. Geologic Features of Yardangs in Qaidam Basin and Analog Study with Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Xiao, L.; Zhao, J.; Huang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Qaidam Basin is the largest inland sedimentary basin in the north of the Tibet Plateau since the Cenozoic. According to remote sensing data, there are some mega uplifts lying NE-SW. These mega uplifts shows concentric elliptical shape in satellite images. Combining with field geological surveys, we believe these uplifts are mega yardangs. We have measured their length (l), width (w), and calculated the aspect ratio (R). The variation ranges of l, w and R are 14.18-67km, 5.5-16.5km and 2.32:1-6.09:1, with mean values are 31.3km, 8.86km and 3.56:1. In terms of R, 42.9% yardangs are 2:1 - 3:1, 23.8% yardangs are 3:1 - 4:1, 23.8% yardangs are 4:1 - 5:1, and the last are greater than 5:1. Their mean value is 3.59:1. The trend of mega yardangs are NW-SE. 45.5% of them are between 301°and 310°. Their mean trend value is 301.2°, which has a 10°angle different with local prevailing wind direction. Over the mega yardangs, there develops lots of small yardangs with various shapes. Their trends are similar with mega yardangs. We have collected some details data of morphology and samples, in order to find their relationship, and discuss the origin of yardangs and palaeoenvironment. Multisource remote sensing data indicate yardangs on Mars. We hope to do some analog study with mars. It may help us to better understanding the origin of yardangs and palaeoenvironment on mars.

  18. Clustering of induced earthquakes in Oklahoma and the relation to subsurface geologic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. K.; Keller, G. R., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Recent research shows that a significant amount of seismic activity in Oklahoma since 2009 is likely related to fluid injection. Seismicity has been observed to generally increase in areas where injection volume and rates are highest but there is a significant amount of variation, with nearby areas experiencing notably different amounts of seismicity. Likely contributors to these differences are the presence of optimally oriented faults and differences in rock permeability structure since rocks with higher permeability are more likely to experience pore fluid pressure changes that can bring faults closer to failure. Most earthquakes occur at depths of ~4-8 km, within crystalline rock of the mid-Proterozoic western granite-rhyolite terrane. Within this terrane, drill-hole data show instances of mafic intrusive rocks that may in part be related to the mid-continent rift. To better understand relations between subsurface geology and seismicity, we reprocessed 1970's NURE airborne magnetic data. The 5-8-km line spacing of the surveys is coarse, but the processed data show subtle, ~20-35-km long lineaments trending mostly NNW but also NW and NE. Some of these correspond to mapped faults; others are interpreted to represent faults or folds. In some areas the lineaments correspond to earthquake locations, but the magnetic data are often too coarse to establish a clear correspondence. The magnetic maps also show rounded highs that are located near sites where drilling has encountered mafic rock, strongly suggesting that the highs represent mafic intrusions. We find that many earthquakes cluster around or near the edges of the magnetic highs but much less frequently over them, even when they are located close to high-volume injection wells. We hypothesize that the rounded magnetic highs represent mafic intrusions with decreased permeability. In contrast, contacts at the edges of these intrusions may have higher permeability and are thus more likely to experience seismicity.

  19. Sativex(®) (tetrahydrocannabinol + cannabidiol), an endocannabinoid system modulator: basic features and main clinical data.

    PubMed

    Vermersch, Patrick

    2011-04-01

    Sativex(®) (nabiximols, USAN name) oromucosal spray contains the two main active constituents of Cannabis sativa, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in a 1:1 molecular ratio, and acts as an endocannabinoid system modulator. Randomized, controlled clinical trials of Sativex as add-on therapy provide conclusive evidence of its efficacy in the treatment of more than 1500 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)-related resistant spasticity. The primary end point in clinical trials was the mean change from baseline in the 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) spasticity score. The first pivotal clinical trial included 189 patients treated for 6 weeks with Sativex (n = 124) or placebo (n = 65). At study end, there was a significant reduction from baseline in patient-recorded NRS spasticity scores with Sativex compared with placebo (-1.18 vs -0.63; p = 0.048). In the second pivotal trial, 337 patients with MS-related resistant spasticity received Sativex (n = 167) or placebo (n = 170) over a 15-week period. In the per-protocol analysis (79% of the patient population), mean baseline NRS spasticity score was reduced significantly in patients receiving Sativex compared with placebo: -1.3 versus -0.8 points (p = 0.035). The third pivotal clinical trial, evaluating the sustained efficacy of Sativex, had a two-phase study design: in phase A (n = 572), 47% of patients were initial responders (improvement ≥ 20%) after 4 weeks of single-blind Sativex treatment who then entered phase B, a randomized, double-blind, 12-week placebo comparison. At the end of phase B, the change in NRS spasticity score improved by a further 0.04 units in initial responders treated with Sativex, but decreased by 0.81 units in placebo recipients (p = 0.0002). Significant improvements in quality-of-life measures from baseline to week 16 were also observed in patients receiving Sativex. The most common treatment-related adverse events with Sativex were mild-to moderate and transient episodes of dizziness

  20. The steepest slopes on the Moon from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data: Spatial Distribution and Correlation with Geologic Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.

    2016-07-01

    We calculated topographic gradients over the surface of the Moon at a 25 m baseline using data obtained by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. The relative spatial distribution of steep slopes can be reliably obtained, although some technical characteristics of the LOLA dataset preclude statistical studies of slope orientation. The derived slope-frequency distribution revealed a steep rollover for slopes close to the angle of repose. Slopes significantly steeper than the angle of repose are almost absent on the Moon due to (1) the general absence of cohesion/strength of the fractured and fragmented megaregolith of the lunar highlands, and (2) the absence of geological processes producing steep-slopes in the recent geological past. The majority of slopes steeper than 32°-35° are associated with relatively young large impact craters. We demonstrate that these impact craters progressively lose their steepest slopes. We also found that features of Early Imbrian and older ages have almost no slopes steeper than 35°. We interpret this to be due to removal of all steep slopes by the latest basin-forming impact (Orientale), probably by global seismic shaking. The global spatial distribution of the steepest slopes correlates moderately well with the predicted spatial distribution of impact rate; however, a significant paucity of steep slopes in the southern farside remains unexplained.

  1. Interpretation and mapping of geological features using mobile devices for 3D outcrop modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Simon J.; Kehl, Christian; Mullins, James R.; Howell, John A.

    2016-04-01

    Advances in 3D digital geometric characterisation have resulted in widespread adoption in recent years, with photorealistic models utilised for interpretation, quantitative and qualitative analysis, as well as education, in an increasingly diverse range of geoscience applications. Topographic models created using lidar and photogrammetry, optionally combined with imagery from sensors such as hyperspectral and thermal cameras, are now becoming commonplace in geoscientific research. Mobile devices (tablets and smartphones) are maturing rapidly to become powerful field computers capable of displaying and interpreting 3D models directly in the field. With increasingly high-quality digital image capture, combined with on-board sensor pose estimation, mobile devices are, in addition, a source of primary data, which can be employed to enhance existing geological models. Adding supplementary image textures and 2D annotations to photorealistic models is therefore a desirable next step to complement conventional field geoscience. This contribution reports on research into field-based interpretation and conceptual sketching on images and photorealistic models on mobile devices, motivated by the desire to utilise digital outcrop models to generate high quality training images (TIs) for multipoint statistics (MPS) property modelling. Representative training images define sedimentological concepts and spatial relationships between elements in the system, which are subsequently modelled using artificial learning to populate geocellular models. Photorealistic outcrop models are underused sources of quantitative and qualitative information for generating TIs, explored further in this research by linking field and office workflows through the mobile device. Existing textured models are loaded to the mobile device, allowing rendering in a 3D environment. Because interpretation in 2D is more familiar and comfortable for users, the developed application allows new images to be captured

  2. Distribution and geological control of mud volcanoes and other fluid/free gas seepage features in the Mediterranean Sea and nearby Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascle, Jean; Mary, Flore; Praeg, Daniel; Brosolo, Laetitia; Camera, Laurent; Ceramicola, Silvia; Dupré, Stéphanie

    2014-06-01

    Existing knowledge on the distribution of mud volcanoes (MVs) and other significant fluid/free gas-venting features (mud cones, mud pies, mud-brine pools, mud carbonate cones, gas chimneys and, in some cases, pockmark fields) discovered on the seafloor of the Mediterranean Sea and in the nearby Gulf of Cadiz has been compiled using regional geophysical information (including multibeam coverage of most deepwater areas). The resulting dataset comprises both features proven from geological sampling, or in situ observations, and many previously unrecognized MVs inferred from geophysical evidence. The synthesis reveals that MVs clearly have non-random distributions that correspond to two main geodynamic settings: (1) the vast majority occur along the various tectono-sedimentary accretionary wedges of the Africa-Eurasia subduction zone, particularly in the central and eastern Mediterranean basins (external Calabrian Arc, Mediterranean Ridge, Florence Rise) but also along its westernmost boundary in the Gulf of Cadiz; (2) other MVs characterize thick depocentres along parts of the Mesozoic passive continental margins that border Africa from eastern Tunisia to the Levantine coasts, particularly off Egypt and, locally, within some areas of the western Mediterranean back-arc basins. Meaningfully accounting for MV distribution necessitates evidence of overpressured fluids and mud-rich layers. In addition, cross-correlations between MVs and other GIS-based data, such as maps of the Messinian evaporite basins and/or active (or recently active) tectonic trends, stress the importance of assessing geological control in terms of the presence, or not, of thick seals and potential conduits. It is contended that new MV discoveries may be expected in the study region, particularly along the southern Ionian Sea continental margins.

  3. Geologically recent small-scale surface features in Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, David

    2013-04-01

    Leveed fissures and gutters, small scale (<1m) depositional and erosional features that have been imaged at several locations in the equatorial Meridiani Planum region by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, occur in loose, dark basaltic sands that partly cover exposures of light-toned bedrock. Leveed fissures appear to have been formed by venting from beneath; possible explanations include wind creating blowholes near crater margins, volcanic fumarole activity, or gas/vapour escape resulting from the decomposition of small pockets of ground ice, methane clathrates or hydrated sulphate minerals. Some leveed fissures cross-cut and are therefore younger than aeolian ripples which are thought to have last been active c. 50,000 years ago. Some gutters are sharply defined and fresh, internally terraced, have a hole or hollow at or near one end, and in one case seem to give way to small depositional fans downslope; they have the appearance of having been formed by liquid flow rather than by wind erosion. There is evidence elsewhere that contemporary ground-ice thaw and consequent transient surface run-off may occur occasionally under present conditions in low, near-equatorial latitudes on Mars; short-lived (even for just a few minutes) meltwater emission and flow at the surface could erode gutters before evaporating. The decomposition of buried pockets of methane clathrates, which theoretical considerations suggest might be present and stable even in equatorial regions, could give rise to both methane venting (leveed fissures) and transient surface water (gutters). Yet another possibility is the decomposition, in response to local changes in thermal conditions, of hydrated magnesium sulphate minerals in the bedrock, which could release liquid water to the surface. Whatever their explanation, these features hint at previously unrecognized, young (perhaps even contemporary) martian surface processes.

  4. Geology and slope stability in selected parts of The Geysers geothermal resources area: a guide to geologic features indicative of stable and unstable terrain in areas underlain by Franciscan and related rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a 4-month study of various geologic and topographic features related to the stability of Franciscan terrain in The Geysers GRA are presented. The study consisted of investigations of geologic and topographic features, throughout The Geysers GRA, and geologic mapping at a scale of 1:12,000 of approximately 1500 acres (600 hectares) of landslide terrain within the canyon of Big Sulphur Creek in the vicinity of the Buckeye mine (see plate 1). The area mapped during this study was selected because: (1) it is an area of potential future geothermal development, and (2) it illustrates that large areas mapped as landslides on regional scales (McLaughlin, 1974, 1975b; McNitt, 1968a) may contain zones of varying slope stability and, therefore, should be mapped in more detail prior to development of the land.

  5. Coal mine bumps as related to geologic features in the northern part of the Sunnyside District, Carbon County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterwald, Frank W.; Dunrud, C. Richard; Collins, Donley S.

    1993-01-01

    Coal mine bumps, which are violent, spontaneous, and often catastrophic disruptions of coal and rock, were common in the Sunnyside coal mining district, Utah, before the introduction of protective-engineering methods, modern room-and-pillar retreat mining with continuous mining machines, and particularly modern longwall mining. The coal at Sunnyside, when stressed during mining, fails continuously with many popping, snapping, and banging noises. Although most of the bumps are beneficial because they make mining easier, many of the large ones are dangerous and in the past caused injuries and fatalities, particularly with room- and-pillar mining methods used in the early mining operations. Geologic mapping of underground mine openings revealed many types of deformational features, some pre-mine and some post-mine in age. Stresses resulting from mining are concentrated near the mine openings; if openings are driven at large angles to small pre-mine deformational features, particularly shatter zones in coal, abnormal stress buildups may occur and violent bumps may result. Other geologic features, such as ripple marks, oriented sand grains, intertongued rock contacts, trace fossils, and load casts, also influence the occurrence of bumps by impeding slip of coal and rocks along bedding planes. The stress field in the coal also varies markedly because of the rough ridge and canyon topography. These features may allow excessively large stress components to accumulate. At many places, the stresses that contribute to deformation and failures of mine openings are oriented horizontally. The stratigraphy of the rocks immediately above and below the mined coal bed strongly influences the deformation of the mine openings in response to stress accumulations. Triaxial compressive testing of coal from the Sunnyside No.1 and No.3 Mines indicates that the strength of the coal increases several times as the confining (lateral) stress is increased. Strengths of cores cut from single

  6. Integrated geophysical and geological studies of selected major tectonic features in south-central U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrefaee, Hamed

    The current dissertation includes three separate chapters, each utilizing the power of the integration of different geophysical datasets with geology to investigate tectonic and structural processes responsible for the geological evolution of selected major tectonic features in south-central U. S. These tectonic features are; the Arkoma basin of Oklahoma and Arkansas, the Llano uplift of central Texas, and the Meers fault of the southwestern Oklahoma. The Arkoma basin is an arcuate structural feature that extends from the Gulf coastal plain in central Arkansas westward 400 km to the Arbuckle Mountains in south-central Oklahoma. The interpretation of the 3-D seismic data reveals an E-W zone of crustal weakness in the northern part of the study area, which could be a Late Paleozoic tectonic inversion of the extension faulting that developed during Cambrian rifting and later foreland basin development. The seismic interpretation reveals a compressive deformation of the Late Paleozoic strata related to the Ouachita orogeny. Magnetic boundaries such as faults andor body edges extending E-W, NE-SW and NW-SE have been delineated using magnetic edge detector techniques in the northern, southeastern, and western parts of the study area, respectively. The Euler magnetic depth estimation method delineated the same faults determined using magnetic edge detector techniques. The maximum depth to faults dominating the basement and/or the intrabasement features determined by the Euler's method is about 3850 m. The fault trends delineated by the seismic interpretation and those determined by the Euler's method and the edge detector techniques show a very clear correlation. The Llano Uplift is a broad structural dome in central Texas with 2 to 3 km of structural relief relative to the subsurface Fort Worth and Kerr basins to the northeast and southwest. The initial uplift due to an arc-continent collision was followed by a continent-continent collision between the Laurentia and a

  7. The geology of a part of Acadia and the nature of the Acadian orogeny across Central and Eastern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, R.D.; Osberg, P.H.; Berry, H.N.

    2001-01-01

    The zone of Acadian collision between the Medial New England and Composite Avalon terranes is well preserved in Maine. A transect from northwest (Rome) to southeast (Camden) crosses the eastern part of Medial New England comprising the Central Maine basin, Liberty-Orrington thrust sheet, and Fredericton trough, and the western part of Composite Avalon, including the Graham Lake, Clarry Hill, and Clam Cove thrust sheets. U-Pb geochronology of events before, during, and after the Acadian orogeny helps elucidate the nature and distribution of tectonostrati& graphic belts in this zone and the timing of some Acadian events in the Northern Appalachians. The Central Maine basin consists of sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Middle Ordovician (???470 to ???460 Ma) age overlain with probable conformity by latest Ordovician(?) through earliest Devonian marine rift and flysch sedimentary rocks; these are intruded by weakly to undeformed plutonic rocks of Early and Middle Devonian age (???399??378 Ma). The Fredericton trough consists of Early Silurian gray pelite and sandstone to earliest Late Silurian calcareous turbidite, deformed and variably metamorphosed prior to the emplacement of Late Silurian (???422 Ma) and Early to Late Devonian (???418 to ???368 Ma) plutons. The Liberty-Orrington thrust sheet consists of Cambrian(?)-Ordovician (>???474 to ???469 Ma and younger) clastic sedimentary and volcanic rocks intruded by highly deformed Late Silurian (???424 to ???422 Ma) and Devonian (???418 to ???389 Ma) plutons, possibly metamorphosed in Late Silurian time (prior to ???417 Ma), and metamorphosed to amphibolite facies in Early to Middle Devonian time (???400 to ???381 Ma). The Graham Lake thrust sheet contains possible Precambrian rocks, Cambrian sedimentary rocks with a volcanic unit dated at ???503 Ma, and Ordovician rocks with possible Caradocian Old World fossils, metamor& phosed and deformed in Silurian time and intruded by mildly to undeformed Late Silurian (???421 Ma

  8. Geological History of the Tyre Region of Europa: A Regional Perspective on Europan Surface Features and Ice Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadel, Steven D.; Chuang, Frank C.; Greeley, Ronald; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2000-01-01

    Galileo images of the Tyre Macula region of Europa at regional (170 m/pixel) and local (approx. 40 m/pixel) scales allow mapping and understanding of surface processes and landforms. Ridged plains, doublet and complex ridges, shallow pits, domes, "chaos" areas. impact structures, tilted blocks and massifs, and young fracture systems indicate a complex history of surface deformation on Europa. Regional and local morphologies of the Tyre region of Europa suggest that an impactor penetrated through several kilometers of water ice tc a mobile layer below. The surface morphology was initially dominated by formation of ridged plains, followed by development of ridge bands and doublet ridges, with chaos and fracture formation dominating the latter part of the geologic history of the Tyre region. Two distinct types of chaos have been identified which, along with upwarped dome materials, appear to represent a continuum of features (domes-play chaos-knobby chaos) resulting from increasing degree of surface disruption associated with local lithospheric heating and thinning. Local and regional stratigraphic relationships, block heights, and the morphology of the Tyre impact structure suggest the presence of low-viscosity ice or liquid water beneath a thin (severa1 kilometers) surface ice shell at the time of the impact. The very low impact crater density on the surface of Europa suggests that this thin shell has either formed or been thoroughly resurfaced in the very recent past.

  9. Geological history of the Tyre region of Europa: A regional perspective on Europan surface features and ice thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadel, Steven D.; Chuang, Frank C.; Greeley, Ronald; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Galileo SSI Team

    Galileo images of the Tyre Macula region of Europa at regional (170 m/pixel) and local (~40 m/pixel) scales allow mapping and understanding of surface processes and landforms. Ridged plains, doublet and complex ridges, shallow pits, domes, ``chaos'' areas, impact structures, tilted blocks and massifs, and young fracture systems indicate a complex history of surface deformation on Europa. Regional and local morphologies of the Tyre region of Europa suggest that an impactor penetrated through several kilometers of water ice to a mobile layer below. The surface morphology was initially dominated by formation of ridged plains, followed by development of ridge bands and doublet ridges, with chaos and fracture formation dominating the latter part of the geologic history of the Tyre region. Two distinct types of chaos have been identified which, along with upwarped dome materials, appear to represent a continuum of features (domes-platy chaos-knobby chaos) resulting from increasing degrees of surface disruption associated with local lithospheric heating and thinning. Local and regional stratigraphic relationships, block heights, and the morphology of the Tyre impact structure suggest the presence of low-viscosity ice or liquid water beneath a thin (several kilometers) surface ice shell at the time of the impact. The very low impact crater density on the surface of Europa suggests that this thin shell has either formed or been thoroughly resurfaced in the very recent past.

  10. Testing the Late Noachian Icy Highlands Model: Geological Observations, Processes and Origin of Fluvial and Lacustrine Features.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, James; Wordsworth, Robin; Forget, Francis; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Halvey, Italy

    2014-05-01

    A new reconstruction of the Late Noachian Mars atmosphere and climate shows atmosphere-surface thermal coupling and an adiabatic cooling effect producing preferential distribution of snow and ice in the highlands. In this Late Noachian Icy Highlands (LNIH) scenario, snow and ice accumulate in the south circumpolar region and in the higher altitudes of the southern uplands, but the mean annual temperature is everywhere below freezing. How can the abundant evidence for water-related fluvial and lacustrine activity (valley networks, VN; open-basin lakes, OBL; closed-basin lakes; CBL) be reconciled with the icy highlands model? We investigate the nature of geologic processes operating in the icy highlands and use the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) as guidance in understanding and assessing how melting might be taking place. In the MDV, mean annual temperatures (MAT) are well below freezing. This results in a thick regional permafrost layer, the presence of an ice-table at shallow depths, and an overlying dry active layer. This configuration produces a perched aquifer and a horizontally stratified hydrologic system, where any melting results in local saturation of the dry active layer and channelized flow on top of the ice table. Top-down melting results in the dominance of lateral water transport, in contrast to temperate climates with vertical infiltration and transport to the groundwater table. Despite subzero MAT, MDV peak seasonal and peak daytime temperatures can exceed 273K and have a strong influence on the melting of available water ice. We present maps of the predicted distribution of LNIH snow and ice, compare these to the distribution of VN, OBL and CBL, and assess how top-down and bottom-up melting processes might explain the formation of these features in an otherwise cold and icy LN Mars. We assess the global near-surface water budget, analyze thickness estimates to distinguish areas of cold-based and wet-based glaciation, analyze the state of the

  11. The types of the landslide by the heavy rain presumed from geographical and geological features in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshida, S.

    2014-12-01

    Various types of a landslide, such as a deep-seated landslide, a shallow landslide, and a debris flow, exist. And the risk and the damage area of a landslide change greatly with the types. Therefore it is very important to guess the type of a landslide generated in the future, in order to decrease the damage of a landslide. In this research, I investigated and studied the landslide disaster which occurred in the typhoon No.12 disaster in 2011 and the northern Kyusyu-island heavy rain disaster 2012, in Japan. The purpose of the study presumes the types of a landslide generated in the future by analyzing geographical and geological features.  Many deep-seated landslides and shallow landslides (debris flows) occurred by the typhoon No.12, 2011 in Japan. The precipitation exceeds 1,800 mm in four days in part regionally. Landslides occurred frequently in the Totsukawa area (Northern part) and Nachi-Katsuura area (Southern part), both area were the precipitation of about 1000 mm in four days. In the Totsukawa area, deep-seated landslides occurred frequently, and in Nachi-Katsuura area, shallow landslides (debris flows) occurred frequently. On the other hand, many deep-seated landslides and shallow landslides occurred by the northern Kyusyu-island heavy rain disaster 2012 in Japan too. Landslides occurred frequently in the Hoshino village area (Northern part) and Asodani area (Southern part). In both area, the total precipitation exceeds 500 mm and the hourly precipitation is about 80 mm. In the Hoshino village area, deep-seated landslides occurred frequently, and in Asodani area, shallow landslides occurred frequently.  The result compared with the deep-seated landslide area (Totsukawa and Hoshino village) and the shallow landslide area (Nachi-Katsuura and Asodani), area of landslide is larger and number of landslide is fewer in the deep-seated landslide area. In the shallow landslide area, the slope is steeper and the drainage network is more developed. It is

  12. The features of the use of GIS technologies for monitoring of the situation of main water lines in Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gojamanov, M. H.; Z, Qurbanov, Ch.

    2014-11-01

    The characteristic feature of the unified system of water supply of Azerbaijan is the large spatial remoteness between the main water sources (Greater and Small Caucasian mountains) and water-using economic areas (Baku, Ganja, Sumgait etc). When operating the pipelines arise accident and emergency situations, which are connected with interaction of the technological elements of the water supply and the natural environment. Often this process is a violation of dynamic equilibrium, and is accompanied by activation of dangerous natural and natural-anthropogenic processes that have a negative impact on the condition of pipelines. Given that in Azerbaijan the basis of the water supply network was put in the XIX century, it is necessary to pay close attention to the assessment of the ecological situation of main lines of water pipelines, i.e. to conduct their monitoring. Ensuring the reliability of existing and planned pipelines, a comprehensive study of the impacts on the natural environment during the construction and operation of the technical facilities, the organization of system of information and analytical monitoring requires a comprehensive attract the materials of the aerospace sensing and GIS technologies. In this paper describe the work experience and are the results of monitoring of pipelines of water supply in Azerbaijan.

  13. Improving management of small natural features on private lands by negotiating the science-policy boundary for Maine vernal pools.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Aram J K; Jansujwicz, Jessica S; Bell, Kathleen P; Hunter, Malcolm L

    2014-07-29

    Vernal pools are far more important for providing ecosystem services than one would predict based on their small size. However, prevailing resource-management strategies are not effectively conserving pools and other small natural features on private lands. Solutions are complicated by tensions between private property and societal rights, uncertainties over resource location and function, diverse stakeholders, and fragmented regulatory authority. The development and testing of new conservation approaches that link scientific knowledge, stakeholder decision-making, and conservation outcomes are important responses to this conservation dilemma. Drawing from a 15-y history of vernal pool conservation efforts in Maine, we describe the coevolution of pool conservation and research approaches, focusing on how research-based knowledge was produced and used in support of management decisions. As management shifted from reactive, top-down approaches to proactive and flexible approaches, research shifted from an ecology-focused program to an interdisciplinary program based on social-ecological systems. The most effective strategies for linking scientific knowledge with action changed as the decision-makers, knowledge needs, and context for vernal pool management advanced. Interactions among stakeholders increased the extent to which knowledge was coproduced and shifted the objective of stakeholder engagement from outreach to research collaboration and development of innovative conservation approaches. New conservation strategies were possible because of the flexible, solutions-oriented collaborations and trust between scientists and decision-makers (fostered over 15 y) and interdisciplinary, engaged research. Solutions to the dilemma of conserving small natural features on private lands, and analogous sustainability science challenges, will benefit from repeated negotiations of the science-policy boundary.

  14. Improving management of small natural features on private lands by negotiating the science–policy boundary for Maine vernal pools

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Jansujwicz, Jessica S.; Bell, Kathleen P.; Hunter, Malcolm L.

    2014-01-01

    Vernal pools are far more important for providing ecosystem services than one would predict based on their small size. However, prevailing resource-management strategies are not effectively conserving pools and other small natural features on private lands. Solutions are complicated by tensions between private property and societal rights, uncertainties over resource location and function, diverse stakeholders, and fragmented regulatory authority. The development and testing of new conservation approaches that link scientific knowledge, stakeholder decision-making, and conservation outcomes are important responses to this conservation dilemma. Drawing from a 15-y history of vernal pool conservation efforts in Maine, we describe the coevolution of pool conservation and research approaches, focusing on how research-based knowledge was produced and used in support of management decisions. As management shifted from reactive, top-down approaches to proactive and flexible approaches, research shifted from an ecology-focused program to an interdisciplinary program based on social–ecological systems. The most effective strategies for linking scientific knowledge with action changed as the decision-makers, knowledge needs, and context for vernal pool management advanced. Interactions among stakeholders increased the extent to which knowledge was coproduced and shifted the objective of stakeholder engagement from outreach to research collaboration and development of innovative conservation approaches. New conservation strategies were possible because of the flexible, solutions-oriented collaborations and trust between scientists and decision-makers (fostered over 15 y) and interdisciplinary, engaged research. Solutions to the dilemma of conserving small natural features on private lands, and analogous sustainability science challenges, will benefit from repeated negotiations of the science–policy boundary. PMID:25002496

  15. Effect of Anthropogenic Landscape Features on Population Genetic Differentiation of Przewalski's Gazelle: Main Role of Human Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji; Jiang, Zhigang; Zeng, Yan; Turghan, Mardan; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscapes influence evolutionary processes such as population genetic differentiation, however, not every type of landscape features exert the same effect on a species, hence it is necessary to estimate their relative effect for species management and conservation. Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii), which inhabits a human-altered area on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is one of the most endangered antelope species in the world. Here, we report a landscape genetic study on Przewalski's gazelle. We used skin and fecal samples of 169 wild gazelles collected from nine populations and thirteen microsatellite markers to assess the genetic effect of anthropogenic landscape features on this species. For comparison, the genetic effect of geographical distance and topography were also evaluated. We found significant genetic differentiation, six genetic groups and restricted dispersal pattern in Przewalski's gazelle. Topography, human settlement and road appear to be responsible for observed genetic differentiation as they were significantly correlated with both genetic distance measures [FST/(1−FST) and F′ST/(1−F′ST)] in Mantel tests. IBD (isolation by distance) was also inferred as a significant factor in Mantel tests when genetic distance was measured as FST/(1−FST). However, using partial Mantel tests, AICc calculations, causal modeling and AMOVA analysis, we found that human settlement was the main factor shaping current genetic differentiation among those tested. Altogether, our results reveal the relative influence of geographical distance, topography and three anthropogenic landscape-type on population genetic differentiation of Przewalski's gazelle and provide useful information for conservation measures on this endangered species. PMID:21625459

  16. Comparative proximal features of the main Plinian deposits (Campanian Ignimbrite and Pomici di Base) of Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpati, Claudio; Sparice, Domenico; Perrotta, Annamaria

    2016-07-01

    The proximal Plinian fall deposits of the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI; 38 ky, Fedele et al., 2008) and Pomici di Base (PdB; 18 ky, Bertagnini et al., 1998) have been investigated in order to understand the contribution of each part of the plume to the proximal sedimentation. Following Houghton et al. (2004b) we consider three main transport regimes: jet phase (producing facies Fb), buoyant region of the plume (producing facies Fa) and direct lateral ejection (producing facies Fc). As well documented in medial locations (Sparks et al., 1992, 1997; Ernst et al., 1996), transport regimes can develop different facies even in proximal locations according to the dynamics of the eruptive column. Our proximal deposits show stratification and diffuse bedding allowing us to introduce two new facies: stratified Fa (sFa) and diffuse bedded Fb (dbFb). These facies retain the transport regime previously proposed for Fa (buoyant plume) and Fb (jet phase) but their lithological features are influenced by near-vent depositional conditions. Lithology and sedimentological data (grain-size, componentry, maximum clasts) suggest that most of the sedimentation occurred mainly from the buoyant plume with simultaneous contribution from the other two different dynamic regimes. Coarse clasts falling from the lower margins of the plume strongly affected the sedimentation of the CI proximal fall deposit with a minor contribution from lithic clasts ballistically emplaced and partial collapses of the plume forming pyroclastic density currents. In contrast, the PdB proximal fall deposit was strongly affected by coarse clasts emplaced directly from the vent through parabolic trajectories, with very little contribution of material emplaced from the lower part of the plume. These differences can be attributed to different vent/conduit processes acting during the eruptions.

  17. Groundwater study using drill holes in the Abukuma granitic province, NE Japan: chemical and isotopic features in the fracture zone around the geological tectonic line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H. A.; Tsukamoto, H.; Kazahaya, K.; Takahashi, M.; Morikawa, N.; Yasuhara, M.; Inamura, A.; Handa, H.; Nakamura, T.

    2010-12-01

    Chemical and isotopic features of groundwater in a granitic province are considered to be controlled by water origin, water-rock reaction and/or fracture connection in rocks. Under the depth of a weathering layer, groundwater is existed only in cracks of granite, and its chemical nature or origin has been poorly understood because of difficulties on collection of water samples preserving its natural conditions. On the other hand, a geological tectonic line in a granitic province might provide an influence to groundwater as a path for ascending deep fluid. We conducted a study for chemical processes of groundwater in cracks with investigation of an influence of tectonic line by drilling three bore holes at two sites in a same rock body; Miharu site is located ca. 1.2km west from the Morioka-Shirakawa tectonic line, and Shirasawa site is ca. 5km west. In situ sampling of waters in cracks of granite are done with the single and double packer methods. The drill holes were made 305m and 135m at the Miharu site and 230m at the Shirasawa site. Using these bole holes, groundwater features in the fracture zone around the geological tectonic line can be compared with those outside it. Chemical type of groundwater has a variety with depth; the shallower groundwater is categorized as Ca-HCO3- type with slight NO3 contamination whereas deeper groundwater has Na-HCO3- type. Stable isotope composition of water showed that all the sample water is meteoric origin. Those have significantly low values (ca. 10‰ of δD lower than shallow groundwater) obviously indicating that the groundwater does not originate from the present meteoric water. Groundwater with low δD and δ18O values is likely recharged in an ice age consistent with the 14C date showing the age of carbon ranging from 10000 to 15000 yrBP. The vertical trends of chemical and isotopic components are similar between the two holes at the Miharu site, but different between the two sites, Miharu and Shirasawa. The

  18. Identification of the emission features near 3.5 microns in the pre main sequence star HD 97048

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baas, F.; Allamandola, L. J.; Geballe, T. R.; Persson, S. E.; Lacy, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The spectrum of HD97048 was measured with a resolving power of 450 between 3.37 and 3.64 microns. The prominent feature near 3.5 microns is well resolved, with a peak at 3.53 microns and a wing extending to a shorter wavelength. The weaker feature near 3.4 microns is found to peak at 3.43 microns, in contrast to the 3.40 micron feature seen in other astronomical objects. The observed spectrum strongly resembles laboratory spectra of mixtures of monomeric and dimeric formaldehyde embedded in low temperature solids. Of various possible excitation mechanisms, ultraviolet pumped infrared fluorescence of formaldehyde in interstellar grains provides the best explanation for the observed spectrum of HD 97048.

  19. Relationships between satellite-measured thermal features and Alexandrium-imposed toxicity in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luerssen, Remy M.; Thomas, Andrew C.; Hurst, John

    2005-09-01

    Relationships between satellite-derived sea-surface temperature (SST) patterns and the occurrence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxicity events caused by Alexandrium fundyense in the western Gulf of Maine are examined. Comparisons between surface A. fundyense cell distribution patterns and SST images indicate that highest cell concentrations are associated with colder waters of the eastern segment of the Gulf of Maine coastal current (EMCC) and that frontal zones at the edges of the EMCC often act as boundaries to surface distributions. Surface thermal patterns coincident with a May 2000 PSP toxic event and shellfish harvesting closure on the western Maine coast show enhanced connectivity between the EMCC and the western Gulf of Maine, suggesting transport linking A. fundyense cells in the EMCC to inshore areas of the western Gulf of Maine. Surface drifter data support such transport. Thirteen years (1990-2002) of toxicity data from eight monitoring sites along the coast of Maine and concurrent SST data show that in years of either large or very reduced toxicity, a consistent relationship exists between the timing and strength of fronts, taken as an indicator of alongshore connectivity, and the occurrence and strength of toxic events. Years with weak fronts and/or fronts that become established relatively late in the summer growing season are years of the strongest toxicity events in western Gulf of Maine. Years of early and strong fronts are years with few and/or weak toxicity events. Our results suggest that advective connections exist between cells present in the EMCC and toxicity along the western Gulf of Maine coast and that large-scale hydrographic processes, characterized here as surface thermal patterns, influence A. fundyense populations in the western Gulf of Maine, either through delivery of actual cells or advection of advantageous conditions into the region. These data point to the utility of satellite and other coastal observing system data

  20. A Geostatistical Approach to Assess the Spatial Association between Indoor Radon Concentration, Geological Features and Building Characteristics: The Case of Lombardy, Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Borgoni, Riccardo; Tritto, Valeria; Bigliotto, Carlo; de Bartolo, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Radon is a natural gas known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure and second to smoking, a major leading cause of lung cancer. The main source of radon is the soil, but the gas can enter buildings in many different ways and reach high indoor concentrations. Monitoring surveys have been promoted in many countries in order to assess the exposure of people to radon. In this paper, two complementary aspects are investigated. Firstly, we mapped indoor radon concentration in a large and inhomogeneous region using a geostatistical approach which borrows strength from the geologic nature of the soil. Secondly, knowing that geologic and anthropogenic factors, such as building characteristics, can foster the gas to flow into a building or protect against this, we evaluated these effects through a multiple regression model which takes into account the spatial correlation of the data. This allows us to rank different building typologies, identified by architectonic and geological characteristics, according to their proneness to radon. Our results suggest the opportunity to differentiate construction requirements in a large and inhomogeneous area, as the one considered in this paper, according to different places and provide a method to identify those dwellings which should be monitored more carefully. PMID:21655128

  1. Image analysis techniques with special reference to analysis and interpretation of geological features from LANDSAT imagery. [India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamat, D. S.; Majumder, K. L.; Naik, S. D.; Swaminathan, V. L.

    1977-01-01

    The principal component analysis enhances the contrast existing between the different cover types present in an imagery. A procedure is presented with regards to the determination of the principal components. The method is tested for a portion of the LANDSAT imagery pertaining to Anantapur region. Another technique, using the concept of non-linear contrast stretching is defined and developed and carried out on the same imagery. The results are presented as photographs. An interpretation of the geology of the region is derived from these photographs.

  2. Correlation of Plio Pleistocene Tephra in Ethiopian and Kenyan rift basins: Temporal calibration of geological features and hominid fossil records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K.; Katoh, Shigehiro; Beyene, Yonas; Suwa, Gen

    2005-10-01

    The 200-m-thick fossiliferous Konso Formation and overlying terrace deposits, which crop out at the end of the southern sector of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), contain more than 30 distal tephra layers. Local and regional tephra correlations of more than 20 tephra units were established using major and trace element data of discrete and purified bulk glass samples within the Konso study area. Eleven correlative marker tuffs were recognized in stratigraphic sections of both the Konso Formation and the Omo-Turkana Basin sediments in southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya. The Turoha, Hope, Ivory, Bright White, and Boleshe Tuffs in the Konso Formation, and the Upper White Tuff in the overlying terrace deposits are securely correlated with the KBS, Akait, Lokapetamoi, Chari, Lower Nariokotome, and Silbo Tuffs of the Omo-Turkana Basin, using least mobile major elements (CaO, Fe 2O 3*, and TiO 2) and geochronology. Preliminary correlations are also suggested between the Konso Formation distal tephra and proximal units of the Quaternary caldera-forming silicic centers in the central sector of the MER. The strongly peralkaline tuffs of the Konso Formation are compositionally similar to proximal eruptions mostly located along the Quaternary axial rift zone of the southern, central, and northern sectors of the MER. The tephra correlation provides information about the temporal and spatial features of the volcanic and tectonic processes recorded in the evolving basins. Thickness and sedimentation rate were determined for both the Konso Formation and the Omo-Turkana Basin sections, measured between the Turoha (=KBS; 1.91 ± 0.03 Ma) and the Bright White (=Chari; 1.40 ± 0.02 Ma) Tuffs. Although the lithostratigraphic sequence at the Konso study area is younger, sedimentation rate within the Konso Formation was comparable to that of the Koobi Fora Formation, higher in the Nachukui Formation, and lower in the Shungura Formation. Local and regional differences in thickness and

  3. The use of fluoride as a natural tracer in water and the relationship to geological features: Examples from the Animas River Watershed, San Juan Mountains, Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, D.J.; Walton-Day, K.; Kimball, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Investigations within the Silverton caldera, in southwestern Colorado, used a combination of traditional geological mapping, alteration-assemblage mapping, and aqueous geochemical sampling that showed a relationship between geological and hydrologic features that may be used to better understand the provenance and evolution of the water. Veins containing fluorite, huebnerite, and elevated molybdenum concentrations are temporally and perhaps genetically associated with the emplacement of high-silica rhyolite intrusions. Both the rhyolites and the fluorite-bearing veins produce waters containing elevated concentrations of F-, K and Be. The identification of water samples with elevated F/Cl molar ratios (> 10) has also aided in the location of water draining F-rich sources, even after these waters have been diluted substantially. These unique aqueous geochemical signatures can be used to relate water chemistry to key geological features and mineralized source areas. Two examples that illustrate this relationship are: (1) surface-water samples containing elevated F-concentrations (> 1.8 mg/l) that closely bracket the extent of several small high-silica rhyolite intrusions; and (2) water samples containing elevated concentrations of F-(> 1.8 mg/ l) that spatially relate to mines or areas that contain late-stage fluorite/huebnerite veins. In two additional cases, the existence of high F-concentrations in water can be used to: (1) infer interaction of the water with mine waste derived from systems known to contain the fluorite/huebnerite association; and (2) relate changes in water quality over time at a high elevation mine tunnel to plugging of a lower elevation mine tunnel and the subsequent rise of the water table into mineralized areas containing fluorite/huebnerite veining. Thus, the unique geochemical signature of the water produced from fluorite veins indicates the location of high-silica rhyolites, mines, and mine waste containing the veins. Existence of high F

  4. Seismic structure of the main geological provinces off the SW Iberian margin: first results from the NEAREST-SEIS wide-angle seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallarès, Valentí; Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Gailler, Audrey; Bartolomé, Rafael; Gutscher, Marc-André; Graindorge, David; Lia Grácia, Eulà; Díaz, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    The region offshore the SW Iberian margin hosts the present-day NW-SE plate convergence between the European and African Plates at a rate of 4.5 mm/yr, fact that causes continuous seismic activity of moderate magnitude. In autumn 2008 a Spanish-French team carried out a refraction and wide-angle reflection seismic survey in the area (NEAREST-SEIS cruise), in the framework of the EU, FP6-funded NEAREST project. During the survey two long seismic profiles were acquired using a pool of 36 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS), with the objectives of providing information about the geometry of the crust-mantle boundary and the physical properties of the crust, revealing the deep geometry of the main fault interfaces, and identifying the nature of the basement and the limits of the different geological provinces in the region. A total of 30 OBS were deployed along profile P1, which is 356 km long and trends NW-SE from the Tagus abyssal plain (TAP), crossing the Gorringe bank (GB), the Horseshoe abyssal plain (HAP) and the Coral Patch Ridge (CPR), up to the thrust-and-fold belt of the Seine abyssal plain (SAP). The acquired data were modeled by joint refraction and reflection travel time inversion, following a layer-stripping strategy. The inverted model show four well-differentiated domains in terms of its seismic structure: In the TAP a 3-4 km-thick, low velocity sedimentary layer covers the basement, which shows a remarkably high velocity (>7 km/s), similar to that of the basement outcropping in the Gorringe bank. In the HAP the sedimentary cover is thicker, showing an upper unit with low velocity corresponding to the Horseshoe gravitational unit, on top of a higher velocity lower unit, which may represent the highly consolidated Mesozoic sedimentary sequence. The thickness of the two units together exceeds 5 km. The basement shows the same velocity distribution as in TAP and GB, suggesting a common nature and origin. According to its seismic structure, and considering that

  5. Airborne geophysical surveys used to delineate geological features associated with the M5.8 August 23, 2011 earthquake in Louisa County, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. K.; Horton, J. W.; Gilmer, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    The M5.8 August 23, 2011 Louisa County, VA intraplate earthquake was felt by more people than any other in U.S. history not only because of population density, but also because of the associated geology. However, because limited bedrock exposures pose a challenge to geologic mapping efforts and the earthquake hypocenter is located at a depth of ~6 km, many questions remain. Potential field and gamma-ray spectrometry data thus provide key tools for imaging and understanding both shallow and deep subsurface geologic features. In July 2012, the USGS commissioned a high-resolution magnetic, gravity, and radiometric (gamma-ray spectrometry) survey over a 20 km x 25 km area covering the epicenters of the Louisa County earthquake and its aftershocks. The surveys were flown with 200-m line spacing from an altitude of ~120 m above ground, providing up to a 20-fold improvement over regional magnetic and radiometric coverage. Gravity was measured using Sander Geophysics' AIRGrav system, capable of resolving anomalies as narrow as 800 m for the given survey configuration; in most parts of the survey area the spacing of ground stations is ~10-20 stations per 100 km2. Preliminary magnetic and radiometric data show numerous NE-trending linear anomalies within this part of the Appalachian Piedmont Province. These metamorphic and igneous rocks exhibit 200-500 nT magnetic anomalies of width 300-1000 km that are likely to be generated by contrasts between various metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks such as magnetite-bearing quartzites and felsic to mafic gneisses. Magnetic lows and radiometric highs are observed over several granitoid intrusive bodies such as the Ellisville pluton, the Falmouth Intrusive Suite, and a Paleozoic pegmatite belt. Derivative magnetic maps delineate numerous thin (< 250 m wide) N- NNW-trending linear anomalies, suggesting that Jurassic diabase dikes are much more common in this area than previously mapped. Radiometric data mostly correlate with mapped

  6. Superposed deposits of thick coal on the eastern edge of the Illinois Basin and their association with underlying geologic features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of maps produced from publicly available data (drillers' logs, electrical logs and mine maps) provides a basis for inferring a deep-seated influence on the distribution of superposed deposits of thick coal (>1.4 m) in four Middle Pennsylvania (Desmoinesian Series) coal beds in three mining districts of west-central Indiana. Thick sandstone (>18 m) is common in areas between and around the mining districts, but less than 3 percent of the study area (consisting of 3200 km2) is underlain by both thick coal and thick sandstone. Only thick sandstone associated with the Survant Coal Member (Linton Formation), and informally referred to by us "Survant sandstone", exists in all of the thin-coal areas. After comparison with published maps by other authors, it is inferred that distribution of the Survant sandstone, which was deposited immediately after a long period of slow deposition associated with the Colchester Coal Member (Linton Formation), may reflect topographic expression of long-term subsidence associated with differential thinning of much deeper Silurian strata (580 m below). Although the findings of this study provide the basis for a conceptual geologic model with a hypothetical structure that is amenable to statistical testing, such analysis should be undertaken only after the data are analyzed for randomness, spatial autocorrelation, linearity and normality. ?? 1991.

  7. Geology of the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Edgar, N.T.; Scanlon, K.M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1987-01-01

    The Venezuelan and Colombian basins are located on the Caribbean Plate whilst the Yucatan basin is on the North American Plate. The processes occurring at the boundaries between the Caribbean Plate and the adjacent North American, South American and Cocos Plates, and the resulting surface features and patterns of volcanic and earthquake activity are described. Most of the Caribbean area is floored by atypical oceanic crust and its most valuable main geologic resources identified so far are petroleum, together with sand and gravel. Geological research is being carried out with techniques for broad-range swath imaging of the seafloor, such as GLORIA, and for directly measuring the movement between plates. -J.G.Harvey

  8. Geologic and hydrologic features of the San Bernardino area, California - with special reference to underflow across the San Jacinto fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutcher, L.C.; Garrett, Arthur A.

    1963-01-01

    This is the second in a series of interpretive reports on subsurface outflow from the ground-water basins of San Bernardino County, Calif., prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Bernardino County Flood Control District. One principal purpose of the study was to estimate the ground-water outflow from the Bunker Hill basin to the Rialto-Colton basin across the San Jacinto fault, which, except locally, forms a nearly impermeable boundary between the two basins. In addition, the report deals qualitatively with the geology, the fault barriers that divide the area into several ground-water basins, the physical nature and degree of imperviousness of the barriers, the occurrence and movement of ground water and fluctuations of water level in the basins, and the chemical quality of surface and ground waters in the San Bernardino area. The report includes a geologic map and sections, water-level-contour maps and profiles, and hydrographs of selected well. The Santa Ana River, the principal stream, flows generally westward across the area. Channels of the river and its tributaries overlie a large irregular structural depression filled with alluvial deposits ranging in age from late Tertiary to Recent and forming a valley bounded on the north by the San Gabriel Mountains, on the east by the San Bernardino Mountains, and on the south by an irregular group of hills. Large alluvial fans underlie most of the area, but its landforms also include alluvial benches and terraces near the mountains, stream channels, and elongate hills, ridges, and scarps along the trace of the San Jacinto fault, which strikes northwestward across the valley about in the center of the area. This fault and others divide the area into ground-water basins, which include the Bunker Hill, Rialto-Colton, upper and lower Lytle and Chino basins. The water-bearing deposits include the following units: the younger alluvium. of Recent age, which occupies principally the backfilled

  9. Regional setting and new information on some critical geologic features of the West Shasta district, California ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, J.P.; Bain, J.H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The West Shasta massive sulfide district is in the easternmost of a series of accreted island-arc and oceanic crust terranes that comprise the Klamath Mountains. A sequence of submarine volcanic rocks of predominantly Early Devonian age is the principal component of the island-arc terrane in which the sulfide deposits are hosted. The Copley Greenstone, consisting mainly of andesitic and basaltic pillow lavas and breccias totaling at least 1800 m in thickness, is the oldest rock unit in the sequence. It is overlain and also intruded by dikes of the Balaklala Rhyolite. Northeast of the West Shasta district, greenstone also overlies the Balaklala Rhyolite, suggesting that a major greenstone unit may overlie potentially mineralized rhyolite E of the district. However, recent studies have shown that the complex relations in that area can be explained by folding. -from Authors

  10. A general gridding, discretization, and coarsening methodology for modeling flow in porous formations with discrete geological features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi-Fard, M.; Durlofsky, L. J.

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive framework for modeling flow in porous media containing thin, discrete features, which could be high-permeability fractures or low-permeability deformation bands, is presented. The key steps of the methodology are mesh generation, fine-grid discretization, upscaling, and coarse-grid discretization. Our specialized gridding technique combines a set of intersecting triangulated surfaces by constructing approximate intersections using existing edges. This procedure creates a conforming mesh of all surfaces, which defines the internal boundaries for the volumetric mesh. The flow equations are discretized on this conforming fine mesh using an optimized two-point flux finite-volume approximation. The resulting discrete model is represented by a list of control-volumes with associated positions and pore-volumes, and a list of cell-to-cell connections with associated transmissibilities. Coarse models are then constructed by the aggregation of fine-grid cells, and the transmissibilities between adjacent coarse cells are obtained using flow-based upscaling procedures. Through appropriate computation of fracture-matrix transmissibilities, a dual-continuum representation is obtained on the coarse scale in regions with connected fracture networks. The fine and coarse discrete models generated within the framework are compatible with any connectivity-based simulator. The applicability of the methodology is illustrated for several two- and three-dimensional examples. In particular, we consider gas production from naturally fractured low-permeability formations, and transport through complex fracture networks. In all cases, highly accurate solutions are obtained with significant model reduction.

  11. Influence of geological features (geochemistry and mineralogy) of soil wich constitutes adobes in their durability - Huambo, Angola.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Isabel; Pedro, Elsa; Varum, Humberto; Mirão, José; Pinho, António

    2014-05-01

    After long years of war, great efforts have been made for the socio-economic development of Angola, mainly in the construction industry. Among the construction techniques, the Adobe is the most used in the province of Huambo, especially by low-income families, which constitute the majority. This technique was established as a historical heritage in the culture of that population. The Huambo province is located in the central region of Angola (Central Plateau) and is bounded on the northeast and east by the province of Bié, on the south and southern by province of Huila, and on the west by the province of Benguela and on the northwest by the province of Kwanza Sul. Has an area of 35,771 km2 and approximately 2,301,524 inhabitants, which corresponds to 58 inhabitants per km2 (Government of the Province of Huambo, 2006). The buildings in this province, particularly in rural areas, were deeply marked by war. Given the current scenario of development of the country and considering the possibility of integrate systems and traditional building materials, that respect the environment and fit harmoniously into its natural habitat, one of the alternative options in the actual construction, undergoes resume old solutions and traditional materials such as adobe construction.It is in this context that this project is part of a scientific research in order to permit the improvement and optimization of these traditional solutions, responding to current demands for social, economic and environmental sustainability. The adobe is a building element with potential degradation by water. Due to the climate, subtropical, hot and humid, and geomorphology of the province, about 1000 to 2000 meters of altitude and an extensive river system, these buildings can be vulnerable and present early degradation, exacerbated by lack of knowledge of the properties of geomaterials used and techniques that allow their stabilization and conservation. This paper aims to study the influence of

  12. The influence of dose on the kinetic parameters and dosimetric features of the main thermoluminescence glow peak in α-Al2O3:C,Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, J. M.; Chithambo, M. L.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of dose (0.1-100 Gy) on the kinetic parameters and the dosimetric features of the main glow peak of α-Al2O3:C,Mg have been investigated. Thermoluminescence (TL) measured at 1 °C/s shows a very high intensity glow peak at 161 °C and six secondary peaks at 42, 72, 193, 279, 330, 370 °C respectively. Analysis shows that the main peak follows first order kinetics irrespective of the irradiation dose. The activation energy is found to be consistent at 1.37 eV and the frequency factor is of the order of 1014 s-1 for any dose between 0.1 and 100 Gy. Further, the analysis for thermal quenching of the main peak of 0.1 Gy irradiated sample shows that the activation energy for thermal quenching is (0.94 ± 0.04) eV. Regarding the dosimetric features of α-Al2O3:C,Mg, the dose response of the main peak is superlinear within 0.1 to 30 Gy of beta dose and then it becomes sublinear up to 100 Gy. Fading analysis shows that the intensity of the main peak drops to ∼22% of its initial value within 2400 s after irradiation and thereafter to ∼14% within 64,800 s. Analysis of the reproducibility shows that the coefficient of variation in the results for 10 identical TL measurements show that reproducibility improves with increase in dose.

  13. Mapping urban geology of the city of Girona, Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilà, Miquel; Torrades, Pau; Pi, Roser; Monleon, Ona

    2016-04-01

    A detailed and systematic geological characterization of the urban area of Girona has been conducted under the project '1:5000 scale Urban geological map of Catalonia' of the Catalan Geological Survey (Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya). The results of this characterization are organized into: i) a geological information system that includes all the information acquired; ii) a stratigraphic model focused on identification, characterization and correlation of the geological materials and structures present in the area and; iii) a detailed geological map that represents a synthesis of all the collected information. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment pre-existing cartographic documentation (geological and topographical), core data from compiled boreholes, descriptions of geological outcrops within the urban network and neighbouring areas, physico-chemical characterisation of representative samples of geological materials, detailed geological mapping of Quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits and, 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces. The stratigraphic model is structured in a system of geological units that from a chronostratigrafic point of view are structured in Palaeozoic, Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary and Anthropocene. The description of the geological units is guided by a systematic procedure. It includes the main lithological and structural features of the units that constitute the geological substratum and represents the conceptual base of the 1:5000 urban geological map of the Girona metropolitan area, which is organized into 6 map sheets. These map sheets are composed by a principal map, geological cross sections and, several complementary maps, charts and tables. Regardless of the geological map units, the principal map also represents the main artificial deposits, features related to geohistorical processes, contours of outcrop areas, information obtained in stations, borehole data, and contour

  14. Geological Features and Crustal Structure of the Cretaceous Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria: Insights from Detailed Analysis and Modelling of Magnetic and Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anudu, G. K.; Stephenson, R.; Macdonald, D.

    2015-12-01

    The middle Benue Trough is the middle (central) segment of the Nigerian Benue Trough, an intra-continental rift that developed during the second phase of rifting of the Gondwana supercontinent that resulted in the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Guinea and separation of South America from Africa in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Airborne magnetic and terrestrial gravity data from the area have been analysed and modelled in detail. Results obtained using a variety of edge enhancement (derivative) methods applied to high-resolution, airborne magnetic data reveal widespread magmatic intrusions (mainly volcanic/sub-volcanic rocks, with an areal extent greater than 12000 km2) and numerous geological structures. Rose (azimuth frequency) plots show that the geological structural trends are predominantly NE - SW, NW - SE and ESE - WNW with minor ENE -WSW/N - S trends and thus suggest that the area has undergone several phases of tectonic deformation at different geological times. Integrated two-dimensional (2-D) gravity and magnetic modelling along five profiles constrained by 2-D magnetic depth-to-source estimates and available seismological velocity models indicates the presence of a number of distinct crustal bodies and thin crust. Moho depth varies from ca. 21 - 29 km, while the crustal thickness ranges between ca. 19 and 29 km. Shallower Moho and thinner crust are observed along the trough axis. Results from the study also reveal that the amount of crustal thinning and crustal stretching factor (β) across the area varies from 3.3 - 14.5 km and 1.11 - 1.78, respectively. Broad positive to near positive Bouguer gravity anomalies in the region of the trough axis are due to the combined effects of dense (intermediate to basic) magmatic intrusions (both intra-sedimentary and intra-basement/crustal ones), shallow basement horsts (basement uplift zones) and thin crust replaced by dense abnormal upper mantle bodies. Reactivated intra-basement structures

  15. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, John A., III; Nedell, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed.

  16. Distribution of Trichloroethylene and Geologic Controls on Contaminant Pathways near the Royal River, McKin Superfund Site Area, Gray, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyford, Forest P.; Flight, L.E.; Stone, Janet Radway; Clifford, Scott

    1999-01-01

    Vapor-diffusion samplers were used in the autumn of 1997 to determine the lateral extent and distribution of concentrations of a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume in the ground-water discharge area near the McKin Superfund Site, Gray, Maine. Analyses of vapor in the samplers identified a plume about 800 feet wide entering the river near Boiling Springs, an area of ground-water discharge on the flood plain of the Royal River. The highest observed concentration of TCE in vapor was in an area of sand boils on the western bank of the river and about 200 feet downstream from Boiling Springs. Previous studies showed that most of the TCE load in the river originated in the area of the sand boils. In general, highest concentrations were observed on the western side of the river on the upgradient side of the plume, but TCE also was detected at numerous locations in the center and eastern bank of the river. The TCE plume discharges to the river where fine-grained glaciomarine sediments of the Presumpscot Formation are absent and where coarse-grained facies of buried glaciomarine fan deposits provide a pathway for ground-water flow. Based on results of analyses of vapor-diffusion samples and other previous studies, the plume appears to pass under and beyond the river near Boiling Springs and along the river for about 300 feet downstream from the sand boils. A coarse-grained, organic-rich layer at the base of the alluvial flood plain sediments is confined by overlying fine-grained alluvial sediments and may provide a conduit for ground-water leaking upward from buried glaciomarine fan deposits.

  17. Tables of basic data to accompany report on geologic and hydrologic features of the San Bernardino area, California, with special reference to underflow across the San Jacinto fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, A.A.; Dutcher, L.C.

    1954-01-01

    This appendix presents a part of the basic data collected by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Bernardino County Flood Control District in the ground-water investigation of the San Bernardino area, California.

  18. Main Features for the Conceptualization of the Post-Closure Evolution Scenario of the Cigeo LIL-HL Waste Repository - 13105

    SciTech Connect

    Landais, Patrick; Giffaut, Eric; Pepin, Guillaume; Plas, Frederic; Schumacher, S.

    2013-07-01

    In France, in order to commission the planned geological repository by 2025, a license application for the industrial project of this geological repository called Cigeo (Centre Industriel de Stockage Geologique) must be submitted and reviewed by the competent authorities by 2015. On the basis of its preliminary design set up in 2009 and on the associated requirements for long-term safety, an overall conceptual model has been developed in order to prepare the performance and safety analysis. The Cigeo repository makes use of the passive safety response characteristics of both the engineered and geological barriers that allow: - resisting water ingress, with repository designs favoring the limitation of the water flows; - limiting the release of radionuclides and chemical toxics; - delaying and mitigating the spread of radionuclides and chemical toxics. In order to evaluate the performance of the various elements, a conceptual model of the thermo-hydro-chemico-mechanical (THMC) evolution of the different components of the repository has been designed. It takes stock of a 20 years research effort which allowed data to be obtained from various surface geological campaigns, in-situ experiments in URLs and wastes characterization, and advances in numerical simulation to be utilised. Based on the best available knowledge to date, this conceptual model constitutes a robust basis for the definition and development of the long-term safety scenarios. It also helps identifying the residual uncertainties, and provides guidelines for additional research and system optimizations. (authors)

  19. Main clinical features of the three mapped autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies and estimated proportion of each form in 13 Brazilian families.

    PubMed Central

    Passos-Bueno, M R; Moreira, E S; Marie, S K; Bashir, R; Vasquez, L; Love, D R; Vainzof, M; Iughetti, P; Oliveira, J R; Bakker, E; Strachan, T; Bushby, K; Zatz, M

    1996-01-01

    Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (AR LGMD) represent a group of muscle diseases with a wide spectrum of clinical signs, varying from very severe to mild. Four different loci that when mutated cause the AR LGMD phenotype have been mapped or cloned or both: in two of them the linked families seem to have a relatively mild phenotype (LGMD2a and LGMD2b), in the third one the reported linked families show a more severe clinical course (LGMD2c), while mutations in the fourth locus may cause severe or mild phenotypes (LGMD2d). The relative proportion of each of these genetic forms among the LGMD families and whether there are other genes that when mutated cause this phenotype is unknown. The closest available informative markers for each of the mapped AR LGMD genes have been tested in 13 Brazilian families with at least three affected patients. The findings from the present report confirm non-allelic heterogeneity for LGMD and suggest that in our population about 33% of the LGMD families are caused by mutations in the 15q gene, 33% in the 2p gene, 17% by mutations in the adhalin gene, and less than 10% may be by mutations at the 13q locus. They also suggest that there is at least one other gene responsible for this phenotype. In addition, the main clinical features of the different forms are discussed. PMID:8929943

  20. New murine Niemann-Pick type C models bearing a pseudoexon-generating mutation recapitulate the main neurobehavioural and molecular features of the disease.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Grau, Marta; Albaigès, Júlia; Casas, Josefina; Auladell, Carme; Dierssen, Mara; Vilageliu, Lluïsa; Grinberg, Daniel

    2017-02-07

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare neurovisceral disease caused mainly by mutations in the NPC1 gene. This autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder is characterised by the defective lysosomal secretion of cholesterol and sphingolipids. No effective therapy exists for the disease. We previously described a deep intronic point mutation (c.1554-1009 G > A) in NPC1 that generated a pseudoexon, which could be corrected at the cellular level using antisense oligonucleotides. Here, we describe the generation of two mouse models bearing this mutation, one in homozygosity and the other in compound heterozygosity with the c.1920delG mutation. Both the homozygotes for the c.1554-1009 G > A mutation and the compound heterozygotes recapitulated the hallmarks of NPC. Lipid analysis revealed accumulation of cholesterol in the liver and sphingolipids in the brain, with both types of transgenic mice displaying tremor and ataxia at 7-8 weeks of age. Behavioural tests showed motor impairment, hyperactivity, reduced anxiety-like behaviour and impaired learning and memory performances, features consistent with those reported previously in NPC animal models and human patients. These mutant mice, the first NPC models bearing a pseudoexon-generating mutation, could be suitable for assessing the efficacy of specific splicing-targeted therapeutic strategies against NPC.

  1. Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Wheat (Triticum spp.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars: Distribution of Major Cell Wall Polysaccharides According to Their Main Structural Features.

    PubMed

    Veličković, Dušan; Saulnier, Luc; Lhomme, Margot; Damond, Aurélie; Guillon, Fabienne; Rogniaux, Hélène

    2016-08-17

    Arabinoxylans (AX) and (1→3),(1→4)-β-glucans (BG) are the main components of cereal cell walls and influence many aspects of their end uses. Important variations in the composition and structure of these polysaccharides have been reported among cereals and cultivars of a given species. In this work, the spatial distribution of AX and BG in the endosperm of mature grains was established for nine wheat varieties and eight barley varieties using enzymatically assisted mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Important structural features of the AX and BG polymers that were previously shown to influence their physicochemical properties were assessed. Differences in the distribution of AX and BG structures were observed, both within the endosperm of a given cultivar and between wheat and barley cultivars. This study provides a unique picture of the structural heterogeneity of AX and BG polysaccharides at the scale of the whole endosperm in a series of wheat and barley cultivars. Thus, it can participate meaningfully in a strategy aiming at understanding the structure-function relationships of these two polymers.

  2. New murine Niemann-Pick type C models bearing a pseudoexon-generating mutation recapitulate the main neurobehavioural and molecular features of the disease

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Grau, Marta; Albaigès, Júlia; Casas, Josefina; Auladell, Carme; Dierssen, Mara; Vilageliu, Lluïsa; Grinberg, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare neurovisceral disease caused mainly by mutations in the NPC1 gene. This autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder is characterised by the defective lysosomal secretion of cholesterol and sphingolipids. No effective therapy exists for the disease. We previously described a deep intronic point mutation (c.1554-1009 G > A) in NPC1 that generated a pseudoexon, which could be corrected at the cellular level using antisense oligonucleotides. Here, we describe the generation of two mouse models bearing this mutation, one in homozygosity and the other in compound heterozygosity with the c.1920delG mutation. Both the homozygotes for the c.1554-1009 G > A mutation and the compound heterozygotes recapitulated the hallmarks of NPC. Lipid analysis revealed accumulation of cholesterol in the liver and sphingolipids in the brain, with both types of transgenic mice displaying tremor and ataxia at 7–8 weeks of age. Behavioural tests showed motor impairment, hyperactivity, reduced anxiety-like behaviour and impaired learning and memory performances, features consistent with those reported previously in NPC animal models and human patients. These mutant mice, the first NPC models bearing a pseudoexon-generating mutation, could be suitable for assessing the efficacy of specific splicing-targeted therapeutic strategies against NPC. PMID:28167839

  3. Multi-instrument observations of plasma features in the Arctic ionosphere during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm in December 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ye-wen; Liu, Rui-yuan; Zhang, Bei-chen; Wu, Zhen-sen; Hu, Hong-qiao; Zhang, Shun-rong; Zhang, Qing-he; Liu, Jun-ming; Honary, F.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic ionospheric variations during the main phase of a magnetic storm on 14-15 December, 2006 were investigated to characterize the high energy particle precipitation caused effects, based on multi-instrument observations. These include electron density observations provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) total electron content (TEC) measurements, European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) radar, the radio occultation (RO) from both the CHAMP satellite and the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellite, as well as the ionospheric absorption of cosmic radio noise measured by the Imaging Riometer for Ionospheric Studies (IRIS) at Kilpisjärvi in the northern Finland (69.05°N, 20.79°E). Significant increases in the electron density for these different observations were found in the Arctic ionosphere during the main phase of the magnetic storm. These increase occurred in Scandinavian, Northwest part of Russia and Svalbard (SNRS) region, primarily at an altitude of about 110 km. These results are first reported for the SNRS region, and our study contributes to a more complete description of this space weather event during 14-15 December, 2006. Our observations also provide direct evidence that the stormtime E-layer electron density enhancement (e.g., the sporadic E) can form a nearly dominant portion in the observed TEC increase. These increases were accompanied by the ionospheric absorption enhancement at the altitude of about 90 km. The Y-component of magnetic field to the south of SNRS decreased, indicating strong upward field aligned electric current in the Arctic ionosphere. These features are interpreted as the effect of the high energy electron precipitation during the magnetic storm, which is caused by the sub-storm reflected on AL index and the measurements of IMAGE (International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects) chain. The average energy of the precipitation electrons reached to about 10 keV and the

  4. Archeological Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, George

    1977-01-01

    Describes the rapid expansion of archeological geology, especially in the area of archeological excavations, where geologists use dating techniques and knowledge of geological events to interpret archeological sites. (MLH)

  5. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

  6. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  7. The Geological, Geomorphological Features and Kinematic Analysis of Active Faults Controlling Kemalpaşa Basin, Southwestern Part of Gediz Graben, Western Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepe, Çiǧdem; Sözbilir, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the geological and geomorphological features of active faults controlling Kemalpaşa Basin. The study consists of basin-bounding faults expressions, kinematic and geomorphic analysis. Kemalpaşa Basin, which is approximately ENE trending and asymmetric graben is located in the southern part of Gediz Graben. Menderes Massif and Bornova Complex comprise the basement rocks of basin. Kızılca Formation, Sütçüler Formation and Alluvium uncomformably overlie the basement rocks. Kemalpaşa Basin which is one of the Quaternary basin in the Western Anatolia Extensional Province was developed at the structural border of the Spildaǧı Fault Zone in the north and the Kemalpaşa Fault in the south. Both the north and south margin-bounding faults of Kemalpaşa Basin are oblique-slip normal faults. According to the results of kinematic analysis, Kemalpaşa Basin has been formed under a NE-GW trending extensional tectonic regime. The variation in the relative degree of tectonic activity in Kemalpaşa Basin and its surroundings were interpreted a detailed geomorphic study of the fault-generated mountain fronts and drainage pattern of the both sides. To identify the impacts of active faults controlling the north and south margins of Kemalpaşa Basin on the geomorphological evolution, the geomorphic indices such as drainage basin geometries, triangular facets, axial river profiles have been determined and the degree of tectonic activity in the both sides of Kemalpaşa Basin has been numerically defined using morphometric indexes such as asymmetry factor (AF), hypsometric curve and integral (HI), valley floor width-to-height ratio (Vf) and mountain front sinuosity (Smf). In morphometric analysis, the both sides of the basin were investigated separating into two segments as the west and east. The values of HI (0,28-0,60), Vf (0,27-0,60) and Smf (1,3) calculated for the western part of the north margin compared with the values of HI (0

  8. Old Geology and New Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 May 2003

    Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  9. Earthquakes & Volcanoes, Volume 21, Number 1, 1989: Featuring the U.S. Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Spall, Henry; Schnabel, Diane C.

    1989-01-01

    Earthquakes and Volcanoes is published bimonthly by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide current information on earthquakes and seismology, volcanoes, and related natural hazards of interest to both generalized and specialized readers. The Secretary of the Interior has determined that the publication of this periodical is necessary in the transaction of the public business required by law of this Department. Use of funds for printing this periodical has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget through June 30, 1989. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  10. Physical geology

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, B.; Porter, S.

    1987-01-01

    The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

  11. Geological gyrocompass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, M. H.; Beason, S. C.

    1988-08-01

    The geological gyrocompass is an accurate, portable instrument useful for geologic mapping and surveying which employs an aircraft gyrocompass, strike reference bars, a pair of sights and levelling devices for horizontally levelling the instrument. A clinometer graduated in degrees indicates the dip of the surface being measured.

  12. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  13. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  14. "Spacecraft Reveals Recent Geological Activity on the Moon": Exploring the Features of NASA Twitter Posts and Their Potential to Engage Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesley, Mellinee

    2014-01-01

    Through a content analysis of 200 "tweets," this study was an exploration into the distinct features of text posted to NASA's "Twitter" site and the potential for these posts to serve as more engaging scientific text than traditional textbooks for adolescents. Results of the content analysis indicated the tweets and linked…

  15. Geologic time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, William L.

    2000-01-01

    The Earth is very old 4 1/2 billion years or more according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists, is difficult to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and our centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.

  16. The main features of the interaction of mantle magmas with granulite complexes of the lower crust and their relationship with granitic melts (exemplified by the Early Caledonides of the West Baikal Region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, Alexandr; Khromykh, Sergei; Mekhonoshin, Alexei; Volkova, Nina; Travin, Alexei; Mikheev, Evgeny; Vladimirova, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Granulite complexes occurring in the Early Caledonian southern folded framing of the Siberian Craton are deeply eroded fragments of the Vendian-Early Paleozoic accretionary prism, which is an indicator of the early stages of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (Gladkochub et al., 2010). The main feature of the granulite complexes is a wide development of gabbro-pyroxenites composing tectonic plates, synmetamorphic intrusive bodies, and numerous disintegrated fragments (boudins and enclaves), immersed in a metamorphic matrix. The volume of basites reaches 5-10 %, which allows us to consider mantle magmatism as a heat source for the granulite metamorphism. The most studied polygon is Chernorud granulite zone, which is a part of the Olkhon metamorphic terrane, West Baikal Region. Just this polygon was used for considering the problems of interaction of mantle magmas with lower crust granulite complexes and their relationship with granitic melts. The Chernorud Zone is a typical example of the accretionary prism with a predominance of metabasalts (70-80 %), subordinate amounts of marbles, quartzites and metapelites that have been subjected to granulite facies metamorphism and viscoelastic flow of rock masses. Study of two-pyroxene granulites (metabasalts) and garnet-sillimanite gneisses (metapelites) allows us to estimate P-T metamorphic conditions (P = 7.7-8.6 kbar, T = 770-820°C) and their U-Pb metamorphic age (530-500 Ma). Metabasalts correspond in their geochemistry to the island-arc tholeiitic series (Volkova et al., 2010; Gladkochub et al., 2010). Sin-metamorphic gabbro-pyroxenites formed in two stages: 1) Chernorud complex - tectonic slices and body's exhumed from deep earth crust levels (10-12 kb) and composed of arc tholeiitic series rocks (age T ≥ 500 Ma); 2) Ulan-Khargana complex - supply magmatic canals and fragmented tabular intrusions. This rocks composition corresponds to subalkaline petrochemical series (OIB) and U/Pb age is equal to 485±10 Ma (Travin et al., 2009

  17. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Richard B.

    1979-01-01

    The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)

  18. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  19. The French Space Operation Act: Scope and Main Features. Introduction to the Technical Regulation Considerations about the Implementation in the Launcher Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahuzac, Francois

    2010-09-01

    This publication provides a presentation of the new French Space Operation Act(hereafter FSOA). The main objectives of FSOA are to institute a clarified legal regime for launch operations. The technical regulation associated to the act is set forth, in particular for the safety of persons and property, the protection of public health and the environment. First, we give an overview of the institutional and legal framework implemented in accordance with the act. The general purpose of this French Space Operation Act(hereafter FSOA) is to set up a coherent national regime of authorization and control of Space operations under the French jurisdiction or for which the French Government bears international liability either under UN Treaties principles(namely the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, the 1972 Liability Convention and the 1976 Registration Convention) or in accordance with its European commitments with the ESA organization and its Members States. For a given space operation, the operator must show that systems and procedures that he intends to implement are compliant with the technical regulation. The regime of authorization leads to a request of authorization for each launch operation. Thus, licences concerning operator management organization or a given space system can be obtained. These licences help to simplify the authorization file required for a given space operation. The technical regulation is presented in another article, and will be issued in 2010 by the French Minister in charge of space activities. A brief description of the organization associated to the implementation of the authorization regime in the launcher field is presented.

  20. Climatic change and quasi-oscillations in central-west Argentina summer precipitation: main features and coherent behaviour with southern African region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compagnucci, R. H.; Agosta, E. A.; Vargas, W. M.

    Summer rainfall variability (October to March) shows inter-annual to multi-decadal fluctuations over a vast area of subtropical Argentina between 28°S-38°S and 65°W-70°W. Statistically significant oscillations of quasi-period in the bands of 18-21, 6, 4 and 2 years can be found throughout the region and intra-regionally, though the latter are variable. The lower frequency variation produces alternating episodes of above and below normal rainfall each lasting roughly 9 years. This quasi-fluctuation appears to be shared with the summer rainfall region of South Africa and were in-phase related one another until mid-1970s. The teleconnection between both subtropical regions could be generated by an atmospheric-oceanic bridge through the global sea surface temperatures (SSTs), particularly those of the equatorial-tropical South Atlantic. From mid-1970s, the alternating wet and dry pattern has been interrupted in the Argentine region producing the longest, as yet unfinished, wet spell of the century. Thus, a significant change of the long-term variation was observed around 1977 toward lower frequencies. Since then the statistical model that explains more than 89% of the variance of the series until 1977, diverges from the observed values in the 1980s and 1990s. In addition the Yamamoto statistical index, employed to detect a climatic jump, reaches its major value in 1973 at the beginning of the current long wet spell. Therefore the change could be located between 1973 and 1977. Application of the t-student's test gives significant differences of mean values for pre-1977 and post-1977 sub-samples from both individual time series and the regional index series. The spectral analysis also shows changes in energy bands in concordance with the features of the change that occurred from mid-1970s. The change gives rise to a significant increment of more than 20% in average of normal rainfall over the region. Conversely, a drought between mid-1980s and the 1990s has been

  1. How two gravity-gradient inversion methods can be used to reveal different geologic features of ore deposit - A case study from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, Dionísio U.; Uieda, Leonardo; Barbosa, Valeria C. F.

    2016-07-01

    Airborne gravity gradiometry data have been recently used in mining surveys to map the 3D geometry of ore deposits. This task can be achieved by different gravity-gradient inversion methods, many of which use a voxel-based discretization of the Earth's subsurface. To produce a unique and stable solution, an inversion method introduces particular constraints. One constraining inversion introduces a depth-weighting function in the first-order Tikhonov regularization imposing a smoothing on the density-contrast distributions that are not restricted to near-surface regions. Another gravity-gradient inversion, the method of planting anomalous densities, imposes compactness and sharp boundaries on the density-contrast distributions. We used these two inversion methods to invert the airborne gravity-gradient data over the iron-ore deposit at the southern flank of the Gandarela syncline in Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Brazil). Because these methods differ from each other in the particular constraint used, the estimated 3D density-contrast distributions reveal different geologic features of ore deposit. The depth-weighting smoothing inversion reveals variable dip directions along the strike of the retrieved iron-ore body. The planting anomalous density inversion estimates a compact iron-ore mass with a single density contrast, which reveals a variable volume of the iron ore along its strike increasing towards the hinge zone of the Gandarela syncline which is the zone of maximum compression. The combination of the geologic features inferred from each estimate leads to a synergistic effect, revealing that the iron-ore deposit is strongly controlled by the Gandarela syncline.

  2. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  3. Mapping distribution and thickness of supraglacial debris in the Central Karakoram National Park: main features and implications to model glacier meltwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minora, Umberto; Mayer, Christoph; Bocchiola, Daniele; D'Agata, Carlo; Maragno, Davide; Lambrecht, Astrid; Vuillermoz, Elisa; smiraglia, claudio; diolaiuti, guglielmina

    2014-05-01

    Supraglacial debris plays a not negligible role in controlling magnitude and rates of buried ice melt (Østrem, 1959; Mattson et al., 1993). Knowledge on rock debris is essential to model ice melt (and consequently meltwater discharge) upon wide glacierized areas, as melt rates are mainly driven by debris thickness variability. This is particularly important for the Pamir-Himalaya-Karakoram area (PHK), where debris-covered glaciers are frequent (Smiraglia et al., 2007; Scherler et al., 2011) and where melt water from glaciers supports agriculture and hydropower production. By means of remote sensing techniques and field data, supraglacial debris can be detected, and then quantified in area and thickness. Supervised classifications of satellite imagery can be used to map debris on glaciers. They use different algorithms to cluster an image based on its pixel values, and Region Of Interests (ROIs) previously selected by the human operator. This can be used to obtain a supraglacial debris mask by which surface extension can be calculated. Moreover, kinetic surface temperature data derived from satellites (such as ASTER and Landsat), can be used to quantify debris thicknesses (Mihalcea et al., 2008). Ground Control Points (GCPs) are essential to validate the obtained debris thicknesses. We took the Central Karakoram National Park (CKNP) as a representative sample for PHK area. The CKNP is 12,000 km2 wide, with more than 700 glaciers, mostly debris covered (Minora et al., 2013). Among those we find some of the widest glaciers of the World (e.g: Baltoro). To improve the knowledge on these glaciers and to better model their melt and water discharge we proceeded as follows. Firstly we ran a Supervised Maximum Likelihood (SML) classification on 2001 and 2010 Landsat images to detect debris presence and distribution. Secondly we analyzed kinetic surface temperature (from Landsat) to map debris depth. This latter attempt took also advantage from field data of debris thickness

  4. Destination: Geology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  5. Structural Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, John; Frankel, Kurt L.

    2011-05-01

    Structural geology and continental tectonics were ushered in to the modern quantitative age of geosciences with the arrival of the global plate tectonics paradigm (circa 1968), derived using new data from the oceans' depths, and John Ramsay's 1967 seminal work, Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. Fossen is to be applauded for crafting a unique, high-caliber, and accessible undergraduate textbook on structural geology that faithfully reflects this advance and the subsequent evolution of the discipline. This well-written text draws on Fossen's wealth of professional experience, including his broad and diverse academic research and experience in the petroleum industry. This book is beautifully illustrated, with excellent original color diagrams and with impressive color field photographs that are all keyed to locations and placed into geologic context.

  6. Geologic implications of spectrophotometric measurements of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buratti, Bonnie; Golombek, Matthew

    1988-01-01

    Photometric functions and reflectances have been obtained from spectrophotometric measurements of Voyager images of Europa for (1) six mapped geologic terrains, (2) three types of lineaments, and (3) the brown spots. The results thus obtained suggest that Europa's materials fall into two main categories: a comparatively clean ice that constitutes the plains, and a darker and redder, silicate-rich material that makes up the brown spots and the wedge-shaped bands. Reflectance profiles obtained across the wedge-shaped bands and triple bands indicate similar albedo and color changes, implying similar structures for both of these features.

  7. Geological Gyrocompass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, M. H.; Beason, S. C.

    1990-10-01

    The invention relates to a new and improved geologic mapping and surveying apparatus for providing accurate, dependable, and portable measurement of attitudes of planar surfaces in situations where magnetic compasses will not work. The invention provides a unique arrangement of the gyrocompass and power supply in a portable carrying case. A gyroscope is not dependent on the earth's magnetic field for a reference as is a magnetic compass. Therefore, the invention of a geological gyrocompass is immune to disturbances in the earth's magnetic field and nearly duplicates the Brunton compass accuracy but does not require an environment free of magnetic anomalies.

  8. Theoretical geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  9. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)

  10. Glamorous Education: Main Features and Manifestations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhailovna, Nikolaeva Evgeniya; Dmitrievich, Schelkunov Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Being a powerful social trend glamour culture has significant effect on a high education that results in the phenomenon of glamorous education (glam-education). Prerequisites of this type of education are democratization of high school that introduces stereotypes of glam-culture in educational environment; commercialization of education that uses…

  11. ECOSYSTEM MODELING IN COBSCOOK BAY, MAINE:A SUMMARY, PERSPECTIVE, AND LOOK FORWARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the mid-1990s, an interdisciplinary, multi-institutional team of scientists was assembled to address basic issues concerning biological productivity and the unique co-occurrence of many unusual ecological features in Cobscook Bay, Maine. Cobscook Bay is a geologically complex,...

  12. Geology of National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  13. Geology Fulbrights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulbright grants in geology for 1988-89 remain open. Specific opportunities are available in Egypt, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Poland, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, U.S.S.R., West Bank, Yemen, and Zimbabwe. Other countries are also open to applications in any discipline, and geology is among their preferred fields.The grants are available until awarded and are open only to U.S. citizens. In Central and South America and French-speaking Africa, knowledge of host-country language is required. For more information, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES), 11 Dupont Circle N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036; tel. 202-939-5401.

  14. Geology team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Evaluating of the combined utility of narrowband and multispectral imaging in both the infrared and visible for the lithologic identification of geologic materials, and of the combined utility of multispectral imaging in the visible and infrared for lithologic mapping on a global bases are near term recommendations for future imaging capabilities. Long term recommendations include laboratory research into methods of field sampling and theoretical models of microscale mixing. The utility of improved spatial and spectral resolutions and radiometric sensitivity is also suggested for the long term. Geobotanical remote sensing research should be conducted to (1) separate geological and botanical spectral signatures in individual picture elements; (2) study geobotanical correlations that more fully simulate natural conditions; and use test sites designed to test specific geobotanical hypotheses.

  15. Semantics-informed cartography: the case of Piemonte Geological Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana, Fabrizio; Lombardo, Vincenzo; Mimmo, Dario; Giardino, Marco; Fubelli, Giandomenico

    2016-04-01

    In modern digital geological maps, namely those supported by a large geo-database and devoted to dynamical, interactive representation on WMS-WebGIS services, there is the need to provide, in an explicit form, the geological assumptions used for the design and compilation of the database of the Map, and to get a definition and/or adoption of semantic representation and taxonomies, in order to achieve a formal and interoperable representation of the geologic knowledge. These approaches are fundamental for the integration and harmonisation of geological information and services across cultural (e.g. different scientific disciplines) and/or physical barriers (e.g. administrative boundaries). Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (last version is GeoSciML 4.0, 2015, http://www.geosciml.org) and the INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/Data_Specifications/INSPIRE_DataSpecification_GE_v3.0rc3.pdf (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0 rc3, 2013), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG) have been promoting information exchange of the geologic knowledge. Grounded on these standard vocabularies, schemas and data models, we provide a shared semantic classification of geological data referring to the study case of the synthetic digital geological map of the Piemonte region (NW Italy), named "GEOPiemonteMap", developed by the CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, Torino (CNR IGG TO) and hosted as a dynamical interactive map on the geoportal of ARPA Piemonte Environmental Agency. The Piemonte Geological Map is grounded on a regional-scale geo-database consisting of some hundreds of GeologicUnits whose thousands instances (Mapped Features, polygons geometry) widely occur in Piemonte region, and each one is bounded by GeologicStructures (Mapped Features, line geometry). GeologicUnits and GeologicStructures have been spatially

  16. Geological processes and evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Head, J.W.; Greeley, R.; Golombek, M.P.; Hartmann, W.K.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.; Masson, P.; Neukum, G.; Nyquist, L.E.; Carr, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Geological mapping and establishment of stratigraphic relationships provides an overview of geological processes operating on Mars and how they have varied in time and space. Impact craters and basins shaped the crust in earliest history and as their importance declined, evidence of extensive regional volcanism emerged during the Late Noachian. Regional volcanism characterized the Early Hesperian and subsequent to that time, volcanism was largely centered at Tharsis and Elysium, continuing until the recent geological past. The Tharsis region appears to have been largely constructed by the Late Noachian, and represents a series of tectonic and volcanic centers. Globally distributed structural features representing contraction characterize the middle Hesperian. Water-related processes involve the formation of valley networks in the Late Noachian and into the Hesperian, an ice sheet at the south pole in the middle Hesperian, and outflow channels and possible standing bodies of water in the northern lowlands in the Late Hesperian and into the Amazonian. A significant part of the present water budget occurs in the present geologically young polar layered terrains. In order to establish more firmly rates of processes, we stress the need to improve the calibration of the absolute timescale, which today is based on crater count systems with substantial uncertainties, along with a sampling of rocks of unknown provenance. Sample return from carefully chosen stratigraphic units could calibrate the existing timescale and vastly improve our knowledge of Martian evolution.

  17. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  18. Main Report

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    scientific literature. The criteria were distributed among three main categories for each condition: The availability and characteristics of the screening test;The availability and complexity of diagnostic services; andThe availability and efficacy of treatments related to the conditions. A survey process utilizing a data collection instrument was used to gather expert opinion on the conditions in the first tier of the assessment. The data collection format and survey provided the opportunity to quantify expert opinion and to obtain the views of a diverse set of interest groups (necessary due to the subjective nature of some of the criteria). Statistical analysis of data produced a score for each condition, which determined its ranking and initial placement in one of three categories (high scoring, moderately scoring, or low scoring/absence of a newborn screening test). In the second tier of these analyses, the evidence base related to each condition was assessed in depth (e.g., via systematic reviews of reference lists including MedLine, PubMed and others; books; Internet searches; professional guidelines; clinical evidence; and cost/economic evidence and modeling). The fact sheets reflecting these analyses were evaluated by at least two acknowledged experts for each condition. These experts assessed the data and the associated references related to each criterion and provided corrections where appropriate, assigned a value to the level of evidence and the quality of the studies that established the evidence base, and determined whether there were significant variances from the survey data. Survey results were subsequently realigned with the evidence obtained from the scientific literature during the second-tier analysis for all objective criteria, based on input from at least three acknowledged experts in each condition. The information from these two tiers of assessment was then considered with regard to the overriding principles and other technology or condition

  19. ReliefSeq: a gene-wise adaptive-K nearest-neighbor feature selection tool for finding gene-gene interactions and main effects in mRNA-Seq gene expression data.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Brett A; White, Bill C; Grill, Diane E; Li, Peter W; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A; Oberg, Ann L

    2013-01-01

    Relief-F is a nonparametric, nearest-neighbor machine learning method that has been successfully used to identify relevant variables that may interact in complex multivariate models to explain phenotypic variation. While several tools have been developed for assessing differential expression in sequence-based transcriptomics, the detection of statistical interactions between transcripts has received less attention in the area of RNA-seq analysis. We describe a new extension and assessment of Relief-F for feature selection in RNA-seq data. The ReliefSeq implementation adapts the number of nearest neighbors (k) for each gene to optimize the Relief-F test statistics (importance scores) for finding both main effects and interactions. We compare this gene-wise adaptive-k (gwak) Relief-F method with standard RNA-seq feature selection tools, such as DESeq and edgeR, and with the popular machine learning method Random Forests. We demonstrate performance on a panel of simulated data that have a range of distributional properties reflected in real mRNA-seq data including multiple transcripts with varying sizes of main effects and interaction effects. For simulated main effects, gwak-Relief-F feature selection performs comparably to standard tools DESeq and edgeR for ranking relevant transcripts. For gene-gene interactions, gwak-Relief-F outperforms all comparison methods at ranking relevant genes in all but the highest fold change/highest signal situations where it performs similarly. The gwak-Relief-F algorithm outperforms Random Forests for detecting relevant genes in all simulation experiments. In addition, Relief-F is comparable to the other methods based on computational time. We also apply ReliefSeq to an RNA-Seq study of smallpox vaccine to identify gene expression changes between vaccinia virus-stimulated and unstimulated samples. ReliefSeq is an attractive tool for inclusion in the suite of tools used for analysis of mRNA-Seq data; it has power to detect both main

  20. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    SciTech Connect

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    geologic framework model (200 feet [61 meters]), discussed in Section 6.4.2, limits the size of features that can be resolved by the model but is appropriate for the distribution of data available and its intended use. Uncertainty and limitations are discussed in Section 6.6 and model validation is discussed in Section 7.

  1. Geological assessing of urban environments with a systematic mapping survey: The 1:5000 urban geological map of Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilà, Miquel; Pi, Roser; Cirés, Jordi; de Paz, Ana; Berástegui, Xavier

    2010-05-01

    The ground features of urban areas and the geologic processes that operate on them are, in general, strongly altered from their natural original condition as a result of anthropogenic activities. Assessing the stability of the ground, the flooding areas, and, the health risk as a consequence of soil pollution, are, among others, fundamental topics of urban areas that require a better understanding. The development of systematic urban geological mapping projects provides valuable resources to address these issues. Since 2007, the Institut Geologic de Catalunya (IGC) runs an urban geological mapping project, to provide accurate geologic information of county capitals and towns of more than 10000 inhabitants of Catalonia. The urban zones of 131 towns will be surveyed for this project, totalizing an area of about 2200 km2 to be mapped in 15 years. According to the 2008 census, the 82 % of the population of Catalonia (7.242.458 inhabitants) lives in the areas to be mapped in this project. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment the following subjects: - Data from pre-existing geotechnical reports, historical geological and topographical maps and, from historical aerial photographs. - Data from available borehole databases. - Geological characterization of outcrops inside the urban network and neighbouring areas. - Geological, chemical and physical characterisation of representative rocks, sediments and soils. - Ortophotographs (0.5 m pixel size) and digital elevation models (5 meter grid size) made from historical aerial photographs, to depict land use changes, artificial deposits and geomorphological elements that are either hidden or destroyed by urban sprawl. - Detailed geological mapping of quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits. - Data from subsurface prospection in areas with insufficient or confuse data. - 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces such as the top of the pre-quaternary basement. All the gathered data is

  2. Synthetic geology - Exploring the "what if?" in geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Synthetic geology does not attempt to model the real world in terms of geological processes with all their uncertainties, rather it offers an artificial geological data source with fully known properties. On the basis of this artificial geology, we can simulate geological sampling by established or future technologies to study the resulting dataset. Conducting these experiments in silico removes the constraints of testing in the field or in production, and provides us with a known ground-truth against which the steps in a data analysis and integration workflow can be validated.Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the combination of both, and it enables us to test many "what if?" questions, both in geology and in data engineering. What would we be able to see if we could obtain data at higher resolution? How would real-time data analysis change sampling strategies? Does our data infrastructure handle many new real-time data streams? What feature engineering can be deducted for machine learning approaches? By providing a 'data sandbox' able to scale to realistic geological scenarios we hope to start answering some of these questions.

  3. Geologic controls on radon

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, A.E.; Gundersen, L.C.S.

    1992-01-01

    This text provides a review of recent research on geological controls of [sup 222]Rn concentrations in soil gas in relation to the problem of high indoor radon concentrations in houses. The importance of the subject matter is highlighted in the preface by the observation that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that 15,000 to 25,000 deaths result from radon-induced lung cancer each year in the United States. The text contains 8 Chapters: (1) Geology of radon in the United States; (2) Sensitivity of soil radon to geology and the distribution of radon and uranium in the Hylas Zone Area, Virginia; (3) Geologic and environmental implications of high soil-gas radon concentrations in The Great Valley, Jefferson and Berkeley Counties, West Virginia; (4) Soil radon distribution in glaciated areas: an example from the New Jersey Highlands; (5) Radon in the coastal plain of Texas, Alabama, and New Jersey; (6) Effects of weather and soil characteristics on temporal variations in soil-gas radon concentrations; (7) A theoretical model for the flux of radon from rock to ground water; (8) The influence of season, bedrock, overburden, and house construction on airborne levels of radon in Maine homes. The individual chapters are written by different authors in the form of self-contained research papers, each of which is followed by a comprehensive list of references.

  4. Geologic Mapping of Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High- Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  5. Geologic mapping of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-11-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  6. Geologic nozzles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, Kieffer S.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized, and as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the geyser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, the channel is constricted into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle by the debris flows that enter from tributary canyons. Both subcritical and supercritical flow occur within the rapids. -from Author

  7. Quaternary geologic map of Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of Minnesota is a compilation based both on the unique characteristics of satellite imagery and on the results of previous field investigations, both published and unpublished. The use of satellite imagery has made possible the timely and economical construction of this map. LANDSAT imagery interpretation proved more useful than expected. Most of the geologic units could be identified by extrapolating from specific sites where the geology had been investigated into areas where little was known. The excellent geographic registry coupled with the multi-spectral record of these images served to identify places where the geologic materials responded to their ecological environment and where the ecology responded to the geologic materials. Units were well located on the map at the scale selected for the study. Contacts between till units could be placed with reasonable accuracy. The reference points that were used to project delineations between units (rivers, lakes, hills, roads and other features), which had not been accurately located on early maps, could be accurately located with the help of the imagery. The tonal and color contrasts, the patterns reflecting geologic change and the resolution of the images permitted focusing attention on features which could be represented at the final scale of the map without distraction by other interesting but site-specific details.

  8. Geologic Map of the Thaumasia Region, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, Janes M.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Hare, Trent M.

    2001-01-01

    ). The medium-resolution Viking images used for mapping and base preparation also formed the basis of the 1:2,000,000 scale subquadrangle series. Earlier geologic maps of all or parts of the region include: (1) maps of the Phoenicis Lacus, Coprates, Thaumasia, and Argyre quadrangles at 1:5,000,000 scale based mainly on Mariner 9 images (respectively, Masursky and others, 1978; McCauley, 1978; McGill, 1978; and Hodges, 1980), (2) the global map of Mars at 1:25,000,000 (Scott and Carr, 1978) compiled largely from the 1:5,000,000 scale geologic maps, (3) maps showing lava flows in the Tharsis region at 1:2,000,000 scale compiled from Viking and Mariner 9 images (Scott, 1981; Scott and Tanaka, 1981a, b; Scott and others, 1981), (4) the map of the western equatorial region of Mars at 1:15,000,000 scale based on Viking images (Scott and Tanaka, 1986), and (5) the map of the Valles Marineris region at 1:2,000,000 scale compiled from Viking images (Witbeck and others, 1991). The previous maps have described the overall geology and geomorphology of the region but have not unraveled the detailed stratigraphy and complex evolution of this unique and geologically diverse martian province. The main purpose of this comprehensive mapping project is to reconstruct the stratigraphic, structural, and erosional histories of the Thaumasia region. The region is the last major province of the Tharsis region to undergo detailed structural mapping using Viking images; its history is essential to documenting the overall tectonic history of Tharsis. Other provinces of Tharsis that have been structurally mapped include Syria Planum (Tanaka and Davis, 1988), Tempe Terra and Ulysses Patera (Scott and Dohm, 1990b), and Alba Patera (Tanaka, 1990). Another primary mapping objective is to determine the region's volcanic history and assess the relations among fault systems and volcanoes (Wise and others, 1979; Scott and Tanaka, 1980; Whitford-Stark, 1982; Scott and Dohm, 1990a). A secondary mapping

  9. Geologic provinces of Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Northcutt, R.A.; Campbell, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    The geologic provinces of Oklahoma are mainly the product of tectonics and attendant sedimentation of Pennsylvanian age. Most boundaries are structural; thus, the provinces map is a generalized tectonic map. Permian and post-Paleozoic strata tend to mask those structures, but most of those strata have been removed by erosion, except in the Anadarko Basin and the Wichita Uplift provinces. The location of most of Oklahoma`s oil and gas resources are either influenced by, or are the direct result of Pennsylvanian tectonics and sedimentation patterns. Therefore, the present study also defines provinces in the subsurface on the basis of geological criteria. The authors have attempted to use the originally published names for the recognized provinces. However, we have also used the most geologically correct names, i.e., Nemaha Uplift, Nemaha Fault Zone, and Central Oklahoma Fault, in lieu of Nemaha {open_quotes}Ridge.{close_quotes} Oklahoma is separated into five major uplifts and five major basins. The Gulf Coastal Plain is not included in this study because it is a veneer of Cretaceous cover that masks significant structures. Faults are the most common boundary element. Although their precise age commonly is known only approximately, their geographic location is less controversial, except in detail. Stratigraphic/structural boundaries are based on less precise geological information. The major example of a surface stratigraphic/structural boundary is the southwestern limit of the Ozark Uplift in eastern Oklahoma. Stratigraphic/structural boundaries in the subsurface are commonly based on structural or isopachous contours from well or geophysical data, or on a structural trend, as well as the experience of the authors. Basement structure is preferred. An example is the boundary that separates the Marietta Basin from adjacent geologic elements.

  10. Tethys geology and tectonics revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1991-01-01

    Tethys, a medium sized icy satellite of Saturn, was imaged by both Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft at sufficiently high resolution to allow some geologic analysis. One fairly complete and several brief descriptions of Tethys' geology have been given. Partial results are given herein of a new analysis of Tethys' geology done as part of a comparative tectonic and cryovolcanic study of the saturnian satellites. A new geologic sketch map of Tethys' north polar area is given. This map is based on a sequence of images transformed to a polar stereographic projection at the same scale. The images present the same area under different illuminations, each of which brings out different features. A new global map is in progress.

  11. Marine Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    Marine geology was blessed early, about 30 years ago, with two great textbooks, one by P.H. Kuenen, the other by Francis P. Shepard, but in more recent years, no one has dared synthesize a field that has become so diverse and is growing so rapidly. There are many texts written for the beginning undergraduate student, mostly by marine geologists, but none can be handed conveniently to a serious advanced student or given to a colleague interested in what the field has wrought. The reason for this regrettable state is obvious; only an active, major scholar could hope to write such a book well, but the years would pass, his students dwindle, his grants vanish. He himself might be out of date before his book was. Kennett has earned a large measure of gratitude for his attempt to undertake this task. His personal price must have been high but so are our rewards.

  12. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Hawai'i: Part I, Geology and Coastal Landforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues forming a link between the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) is the smallest (~86 acres) of three National Parks located on the leeward Kona coast of the Island of Hawai'i. The main structure at PUHE, Pu'ukohola Heiau, is an important historical temple that was built during 1790-91 by King Kamehameha I

  13. The Geology of Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    The geology of Callisto is not boring. Although cratered terrain dominates Callisto (a key end-member of the Jovian satellite system), a number of more interesting features are apparent. Cratered terrain is broken into irregular map-able bright and dark subunits that vary in albedo by a factor of 2, and several relatively smooth units are depleted of small craters. Some of these areas may have been volcanically resurfaced. Lineaments, including parallel and radial sets, may be evidence for early global tectonism. Frost deposition occurs in cold traps, and impact scars have formed from tidally disrupted comets. Geologic evidence suggests that Callisto does have a chemically differentiated crust. Central pit and central dome craters and palimpsests are common. The preferred interpretation is that a relatively ice-rich material, at depths of 5 km or more, has been mobilized during impact and exposed as domes or palimpsests. The close similarity in crater morphologies and dimensions indicates that the outermost 10 km or so of Callisto may be as differentiated as on Ganymede. The geology of cratered terrain on Callisto is simpler than that of cratered terrain on Ganymede, however. Orbital evolution and tidal heating may provide the answer to the riddle of why Callisto and Ganymede are so different (Malhotra, 1991). We should expect a few surprises and begins to answer some fundamental questions when Callisto is observed by Galileo in late 1996.

  14. Geology on a Sand Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  15. Object-Oriented Programming When Developing Software in Geology and Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadulin, R. K.; Bakanovskaya, L. N.

    2017-01-01

    The paper reviews the role of object-oriented programming when developing software in geology and geophysics. Main stages have been identified at which it is worthwhile to apply principles of object-oriented programming when developing software in geology and geophysics. The research was based on a number of problems solved in Geology and Petroleum Production Institute. Distinctive features of these problems are given and areas of application of the object-oriented approach are identified. Developing applications in the sphere of geology and geophysics has shown that the process of creating such products is simplified due to the use of object-oriented programming, firstly when designing structures for data storage and graphical user interfaces.

  16. Geologic Technician New Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Stanley E.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)

  17. Bedrock geologic map of Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratcliffe, Nicholas M.; Stanley, Rolfe S.; Gale, Marjorie H.; Thompson, Peter J.; Walsh, Gregory J.; With contributions by Hatch, Norman L.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Doolan, Barry L.; Kim, Jonathan; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; McHone, J. Gregory; Cartography by Masonic, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Vermont is the result of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the State of Vermont. The State's complex geology spans 1.4 billion years of Earth's history. The new map comes 50 years after the most recent map of the State by Charles G. Doll and others in 1961 and a full 150 years since the publication of the first geologic map of Vermont by Edward Hitchcock and others in 1861. At a scale of 1:100,000, the map shows an uncommon level of detail for State geologic maps. Mapped rock units are primarily based on lithology, or rock type, to facilitate derivative studies in multiple disciplines. The 1961 map was compiled from 1:62,500-scale or smaller maps. The current map was created to integrate more detailed (1:12,000- to 1:24,000-scale) modern and older (1:62,500-scale) mapping with the theory of plate tectonics to provide a framework for geologic, tectonic, economic, hydrogeologic, and environmental characterization of the bedrock of Vermont. The printed map consists of three oversize sheets (52 x 76 inches). Sheets 1 and 2 show the southern and northern halves of Vermont, respectively, and can be trimmed and joined so that the entire State can be displayed as a single entity. These sheets also include 10 cross sections and a geologic structure map. Sheet 3 on the front consists of descriptions of 486 map units, a correlation of map units, and references cited. Sheet 3 on the back features a list of the 195 sources of geologic map data keyed to an index map of 7.5-minute quadrangles in Vermont, as well as a table identifying ages of rocks dated by uranium-lead zircon geochronology.

  18. Tsunami geology in paleoseismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yuichi Nishimura,; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku-oki disasters dramatically demonstrated the destructiveness and deadliness of tsunamis. For the assessment of future risk posed by tsunamis it is necessary to understand past tsunami events. Recent work on tsunami deposits has provided new information on paleotsunami events, including their recurrence interval and the size of the tsunamis (e.g. [187–189]). Tsunamis are observed not only on the margin of oceans but also in lakes. The majority of tsunamis are generated by earthquakes, but other events that displace water such as landslides and volcanic eruptions can also generate tsunamis. These non-earthquake tsunamis occur less frequently than earthquake tsunamis; it is, therefore, very important to find and study geologic evidence for past eruption and submarine landslide triggered tsunami events, as their rare occurrence may lead to risks being underestimated. Geologic investigations of tsunamis have historically relied on earthquake geology. Geophysicists estimate the parameters of vertical coseismic displacement that tsunami modelers use as a tsunami's initial condition. The modelers then let the simulated tsunami run ashore. This approach suffers from the relationship between the earthquake and seafloor displacement, the pertinent parameter in tsunami generation, being equivocal. In recent years, geologic investigations of tsunamis have added sedimentology and micropaleontology, which focus on identifying and interpreting depositional and erosional features of tsunamis. For example, coastal sediment may contain deposits that provide important information on past tsunami events [190, 191]. In some cases, a tsunami is recorded by a single sand layer. Elsewhere, tsunami deposits can consist of complex layers of mud, sand, and boulders, containing abundant stratigraphic evidence for sediment reworking and redeposition. These onshore sediments are geologic evidence for tsunamis and are called ‘tsunami deposits’ (Figs. 26

  19. Geologic map of the Metis Mons quadrangle (V–6), Venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, James M.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The Metis Mons quadrangle (V–6) in the northern hemisphere of Venus (lat 50° to 75° N., long 240° to 300° E.) includes a variety of coronae, large volcanoes, ridge and fracture (structure) belts, tesserae, impact craters, and other volcanic and structural features distributed within a plains setting, affording study of their detailed age relations and evolutionary development. Coronae in particular have magmatic, tectonic, and topographic signatures that indicate complex evolutionary histories. Previously, the geology of the map region has been described either in general or narrowly focused investigations. Based on Venera radar mapping, a 1:15,000,000-scale geologic map of part of the northern hemisphere of Venus included the V–6 map region and identified larger features such as tesserae, smooth and hummocky plains materials, ridge belts, coronae, volcanoes, and impact craters but proposed little relative-age information. Global-scale mapping from Magellan data identified similar features and also determined their mean global ages with crater counts. However, the density of craters on Venus is too low for meaningful relative-age determinations at local to regional scales. Several of the coronae in the map area have been described using Venera data (Stofan and Head, 1990), while Crumpler and others (1992) compiled detailed identification and description of volcanic and tectonic features from Magellan data. The main purpose of this map is to reconstruct the geologic history of the Metis Mons quadrangle at a level of detail commensurate with a scale of 1:5,000,000 using Magellan data. We interpret four partly overlapping stages of geologic activity, which collectively resulted in the formation of tesserae, coronae (oriented along structure belts), plains materials of varying ages, and four large volcanic constructs. Scattered impact craters, small shields and pancake-shaped domes, and isolated flows superpose the tectonically deformed materials and appear to

  20. Venus geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, W. I.

    1991-05-01

    The Magellan mission to Venus is reviewed. The scientific investigations conducted by 243-day cycles encompass mapping with a constant incidence angle for the radar, observing surface changes from one cycle to the next, and targeting young-looking volcanos. The topography of Venus is defined by the upper boundary of the crust and upwelling from lower domains. Tectonic features such as rift zones, linear mountain belts, ridge belts, and tesserae are described. The zones of tesserae are unique to the planet. Volcanism accounts for about 80 percent of the observed surface, the remainder being volcanic deposits which have been reworked by tectonism or impacts. Magellan data reveal about 900 impact craters with flow-like ejecta resulting from the fall of meteoroids. It is concluded that the age of the Venusian surface varies between 0 and 800 million years. Tectonic and volcanic activities dominate the formation of the Venus topography; such processes as weathering and erosion are relatively unimportant on Venus.

  1. Geologic conceptual model of the municipality of Sete Lagoas (MG, Brazil) and the surroundings.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Paulo; Hirata, Ricardo; Cordeiro, Arnaldo; Barbati, Daniela; Peñaranda, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    The study area is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, among the municipalities of Pedro Leopoldo, Matozinhos, and Sete Lagoas, with Velhas River as the eastern boundary. It is located in the São Francisco Craton, where carbonated argillo-arenaceous sediments are emplaced giving origin to the Bambuí Group, in the São Francisco Basin. Despite the geological knowledge previously developed, the region needs work on integration and detailing of such information. For this reason, the main objective was to contribute to the quality of the geologic cartography, the spatial distribution, and the structural framework geometry. Thus, geologic mapping, aerial photography interpretation, and evaluation of 270 lithologic well profiles were carried out. It was possible to establish a new geologic perspective of the region by obtaining the detailed geologic map of the municipality of Sete Lagoas, 14 geologic cross sections, and a geologic conceptual model. The study showed that the area is within a basin border, presenting a geometry conditioned by horst and graben system controlled by faulting. This structural feature displaced stratigraphic sequences positioning them side by side with lithologic sequences with different ages.

  2. GEOLOGICAL AND THERMODYNAMIC ASPECTS OF LUNAR ROCKS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Geological and themodynamic spects of lunar rocks are studied. Several basic problems of lunar geology are examined with the main purpose of...emphasis on probable composition. Important problems related to the structural pattern of the Moon are discussed. A special study is devoted to the

  3. Geology. Grade 6. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anchorage School District, AK.

    This resource book introduces sixth-grade children to the environment by studying rocks and other geological features. Nine lessons are provided on a variety of topics including: (1) geologic processes; (2) mountain building; (3) weathering; (4) geologic history and time; (5) plate tectonics; (6) rocks and minerals; (7) mineral properties; (8)…

  4. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.B. . Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. . Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Geology of kilauea volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.; Trusdell, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower cast rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. ?? 1993.

  6. Geology of northeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collier, Arthur J.

    1919-01-01

    A large region in northeastern Montana has never been thoroughly explored by geologists, owing to the fact that it is a part of the Great Plains and the belief that it is too monotonous and uninteresting to tempt anyone to turn aside from the pronounced geologic features a little farther west, for which Montana is noted. This region includes parts of Sheridan, Valley, Phillips, and Blaine counties. Its investigation was begun by Smith in 1908, when he made a geologic survey of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Beekly explored a strip of land along the Montana-North Dakota line from Missouri River to the international boundary, and Bauer examined the townships in which Plentywood and Scobey are situated. Their results are here included with those of the writer, who during the field seasons of 1915 and 1916 was engaged in an investigation of the lignite resources of the remainder of this region, which extends from a line within 12 miles of the Montana-North Dakota boundary westward about 200 miles.

  7. Geologic mapping of Europa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, R.; Figueredo, P.H.; Williams, D.A.; Chuang, F.C.; Klemaszewski, J.E.; Kadel, S.D.; Prockter, L.M.; Pappalardo, R.T.; Head, J. W.; Collins, G.C.; Spaun, N.A.; Sullivan, R.J.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Senske, D.A.; Tufts, B.R.; Johnson, T.V.; Belton, M.J.S.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features on Europa, and appears to represent a style of tectonic resurfacing, rather than cryovolcanism. Smooth plains material typically embays other terrains and units, possibly as a type of fluid emplacement, and is among the youngest material units observed. At global scales, plains are typically mapped as undifferentiated plains material, although in some areas differences can be discerned in the near infrared which might be related to differences in ice grain size. Chaos material is composed of plains and other preexisting materials that have been severely disrupted by inferred internal activity; chaos is characterized by blocks of icy material set in a hummocky matrix. Band material is arrayed in linear, curvilinear, wedge-shaped, or cuspate zones with contrasting albedo and surface textures with respect to the surrounding terrain. Bilateral symmetry observed in some bands and the relationships with the surrounding units suggest that band material forms by the lithosphere fracturing, spreading apart, and infilling with material derived from the subsurface. Ridge material is mapped as a unit on local and some regional maps but shown with symbols at global scales. Ridge material includes single ridges, doublet ridges, and ridge complexes. Ridge materials are considered to represent tectonic processes, possibly accompanied by the extrusion or intrusion of subsurface materials, such as diapirs. The tectonic processes might be related to tidal flexing of the icy lithosphere on diurnal or longer timescales. Crater materials include various interior (smooth central

  8. Geologic investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Orkild, P.P.; Baldwin, M.J.; Townsend, D.R.

    1983-12-31

    The Climax stock is a composite granitic intrusive of Cretaceous age, composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite, which intrudes rocks of Paleozoic and Precambrian age. Tertiary volcanic rocks, consisting of ash-flow and ash-fall tuffs, and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks overlie the sedimentary rocks and the stock. Erosion has removed much of the Tertiary volcanic rocks. Hydrothermal alteration of quartz monzonite and granodiorite is found mainly along joints and faults and varies from location to location. The Paleozoic carbonate rocks have been thermally and metasomatically altered to marble and tactite as much as 457 m (1500 ft) from the contact with the stock, although minor discontinuous metasomatic effects are noted in all rocks out to 914 m (3000 ft). Three major faults which define the Climax area structurally are the Tippinip, Boundary and Yucca faults. North of the junction of the Boundary and Yucca faults, the faults are collectively referred to as the Butte fault. The dominant joint sets and their average attitudes are N 32{degrees} W, 22{degrees} NE; N 60{degrees} W, vertical and N 35{degrees} E, vertical. Joints in outcrop are weathered and generally open, but in subsurface, the joints are commonly filled and healed with secondary minerals. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Detecting molecular features of spectra mainly associated with structural and non-structural carbohydrates in co-products from bioEthanol production using DRIFT with uni- and multivariate molecular spectral analyses.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peiqiang; Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Azarfar, Arash; Niu, Zhiyuan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use DRIFT spectroscopy with uni- and multivariate molecular spectral analyses as a novel approach to detect molecular features of spectra mainly associated with carbohydrate in the co-products (wheat DDGS, corn DDGS, blend DDGS) from bioethanol processing in comparison with original feedstock (wheat (Triticum), corn (Zea mays)). The carbohydrates related molecular spectral bands included: A_Cell (structural carbohydrates, peaks area region and baseline: ca. 1485-1188 cm(-1)), A_1240 (structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 1240 cm(-1) with region and baseline: ca. 1292-1198 cm(-1)), A_CHO (total carbohydrates, peaks region and baseline: ca. 1187-950 cm(-1)), A_928 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 928 cm(-1) with region and baseline: ca. 952-910 cm(-1)), A_860 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 860 cm(-1) with region and baseline: ca. 880-827 cm(-1)), H_1415 (structural carbohydrate, peak height centered at ca. 1415 cm(-1) with baseline: ca. 1485-1188 cm(-1)), H_1370 (structural carbohydrate, peak height at ca. 1370 cm(-1) with a baseline: ca. 1485-1188 cm(-1)). The study shows that the grains had lower spectral intensity (KM Unit) of the cellulosic compounds of A_1240 (8.5 vs. 36.6, P < 0.05), higher (P < 0.05) intensities of the non-structural carbohydrate of A_928 (17.3 vs. 2.0) and A_860 (20.7 vs. 7.6) than their co-products from bioethanol processing. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak area intensities of A_Cell (structural CHO) at 1292-1198 cm(-1) and A_CHO (total CHO) at 1187-950 cm(-1) with average molecular infrared intensity KM unit of 226.8 and 508.1, respectively. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak height intensities of H_1415 and H_1370 (structural CHOs) with average intensities 1.35 and 1.15, respectively. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses were able to discriminate and classify between the corn and corn DDGS molecular

  10. Detecting Molecular Features of Spectra Mainly Associated with Structural and Non-Structural Carbohydrates in Co-Products from BioEthanol Production Using DRIFT with Uni- and Multivariate Molecular Spectral Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peiqiang; Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Azarfar, Arash; Niu, Zhiyuan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use DRIFT spectroscopy with uni- and multivariate molecular spectral analyses as a novel approach to detect molecular features of spectra mainly associated with carbohydrate in the co-products (wheat DDGS, corn DDGS, blend DDGS) from bioethanol processing in comparison with original feedstock (wheat (Triticum), corn (Zea mays)). The carbohydrates related molecular spectral bands included: A_Cell (structural carbohydrates, peaks area region and baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1), A_1240 (structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 1240 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 1292–1198 cm−1), A_CHO (total carbohydrates, peaks region and baseline: ca. 1187–950 cm−1), A_928 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 928 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 952–910 cm−1), A_860 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 860 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 880–827 cm−1), H_1415 (structural carbohydrate, peak height centered at ca. 1415 cm−1 with baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1), H_1370 (structural carbohydrate, peak height at ca. 1370 cm−1 with a baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1). The study shows that the grains had lower spectral intensity (KM Unit) of the cellulosic compounds of A_1240 (8.5 vs. 36.6, P < 0.05), higher (P < 0.05) intensities of the non-structural carbohydrate of A_928 (17.3 vs. 2.0) and A_860 (20.7 vs. 7.6) than their co-products from bioethanol processing. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak area intensities of A_Cell (structural CHO) at 1292–1198 cm−1 and A_CHO (total CHO) at 1187–950 cm−1 with average molecular infrared intensity KM unit of 226.8 and 508.1, respectively. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak height intensities of H_1415 and H_1370 (structural CHOs) with average intensities 1.35 and 1.15, respectively. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses were able to discriminate and classify between the corn and corn

  11. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the

  12. From Surface Data to 3D Geologic Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhont, D.; Luxey, P.; Longuesserre, V.; Monod, B.; Guillaume, B.

    2008-12-01

    New trends in earth sciences are mostly related to technologies allowing graphical representations of the geology in 3D. However, the concept of 3D geologic map is commonly misused. For instance, displays of geologic maps draped onto DEM in rotating perspective views have been misleadingly called 3D geologic maps, but this still cannot provide any volumetric underground information as a true 3D geologic map should. Here, we present a way to produce mathematically and geometrically correct 3D geologic maps constituted by the volume and shape of all geologic features of a given area. The originality of the method is that it is based on the integration of surface data only consisting of (1) geologic maps, (2) satellite images, (3) DEM and (4) bedding dips and strikes. To generate 3D geologic maps, we used a 3D geologic modeler that combines and extrapolates the surface information into a coherent 3D data set. The significance of geometrically correct 3D geologic maps is demonstrated for various geologic settings and applications. 3D models are of primarily importance for educational purposes because they reveal features that standard 2D geologic maps by themselves could not show. The 3D visualization helps in the understanding of the geometrical relationship between the different geologic features and, in turn, for the quantification of the geology at the regional scale. Furthermore, given the logistical challenges associated with modern oil and mineral exploration in remote and rugged terrain, these volume-based models can provide geological and commercial insight prior to seismic evaluation.

  13. Geophysics & Geology Inspected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, E. R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

  14. Multidisciplinary analysis of Skylab photography for highway engineering purposes. [Maine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeckeler, E. G.; Woodman, R. G. (Principal Investigator); Farrell, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The greatly increased resolution of ground features by Skylab as compared with LANDSAT is considered to be best in the S190B high resolution film, followed by S190A camera stations 4, 5, and 6 respectfully. Results of the study of vegetation damage sites using data derived from S190A film were disappointing. The major cause of detection problems is the graininess of the CIR film. Good results were achieved for the hydrology-land use study. Both camera systems gave better agreement with the ground truth than did LANDSAT imagery. Surficial geology and glacial landform areas were clearly visible in single scenes. Several previously unmapped or unknown features were detected, especially in eastern coastal Maine.

  15. Historical sketch: Radar geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.

    1980-01-01

    A chronological assessment is given of the broad spectra of technology associated with radar geology. Particular attention is given to the most recent developments made in the areas of microwave Earth resources applications and geologic remote sensing from aircraft and satellite. The significance of space derived radar in geologic investigations is discussed and the scientific basis for exploiting the sensitivity of radar signals to various aspects of geologic terrain is given.

  16. Geologic Map of the Northern Hemisphere of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, Harald; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Blewett, Dave T.; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Scully, Jennifer; Williams, Dave A.; Aileen Yingst, R.; Russell, Chris T.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2013-04-01

    For more than a year, the NASA Dawn mission acquired Framing Camera (FC) images from orbit around Vesta. The surface of the asteroid was completely imaged [1] before Dawn left for its next target, the asteroid Ceres. In an early phase of the mission, the southern and equatorial regions were imaged, allowing the production of several geologic quadrangle maps [2]. During the second High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO-2), the northern hemisphere became illuminated and visible. Here we present the first geologic map of the northern vestan hemisphere, from 21°N to 85°N, derived mainly from HAMO-2 observations. Detailed studies of specific geologic features within this hemisphere are presented elsewhere [e.g., 3,4]. For our geologic map we used high-resolution FC images [5] with ~20 m/pixel from the Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO), which unfortunately only cover the southern part of the study area (21°N to 45°N). For areas farther north, LAMO images are supplemented with HAMO-2 images, which have a pixel scale of about 70 m/pixel. During the departure phase, images of the north pole area with even lower spatial resolutions were acquired. Due to observational constraints, considerable shadowing is present north of 75°. From these data, an albedo mosaic and a stereo-photogrammetric digital terrain model [6] was produced, which serve as basis for our geologic map. For the geologic mapping at a scale of 1:500,000, all data were incorporated into a Geographic Information System (ArcGIS). We have identified several geologic units within the study area, including cratered highland material (ch) and the Saturnalia Formation (Sf), which is characterized by large-scale ridges and troughs, presumably associated with the south polar Veneneia impact [7]. In addition, we mapped undifferentiated crater material (uc), discontinuous ejecta material (dem), and dark/bright crater material and dark/bright crater ray material (dc/bc and dcr/bcr). We will present a detailed description

  17. Geological exploration of Angola from Sumbe to Namibe: A review at the frontier between geology, natural resources and the history of geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Pierre; Laurent, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the Geological exploration of the Angola Coast (from Sumbe to Namibe) from pioneer's first geological descriptions and mining inventory to the most recent publications supported by the oil industry. We focus our attention on the following periods: 1875-1890 (Paul Choffat's work, mainly), 1910-1949 (first maps at country scale), 1949-1974 (detailed mapping of the Kwanza-Namibe coastal series), 1975-2000, with the editing of the last version of the Angola geological map at 1:1 million scale and the progressive completion of previous works. Since 2000, there is a renewal in geological fieldwork publications on the area mainly due to the work of university teams. This review paper thus stands at the frontier between geology, natural resources and the history of geology. It shows how geological knowledge has progressed in time, fueled by economic and scientific reasons.

  18. Geological Survey research 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1978-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1978 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral and water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Geological Survey research 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1976-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of recent (1976 fiscal year) scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral resources, Water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Status of geologic/environmental characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-08

    Studies within the NWTS program directed ultimately at siting one or more radioactive waste repositories consist principally of geologic and environmental characterizations. A draft criteria document has been developed which addresses both geologic and environmental characteristics of any potential site. Several media have been identified as having generic features that could make them acceptable as host media for geologic repositories. Evaluations of these media are being carried out by relating them to the draft criteria document and are currently in various stages of the screening process. The end result will be the identification of at least four sites within the contiguous United States which would be suitable for construction of a repository. The following nine presentations were made: (1) Status of Geologic/Environmental Characterization Studies of Gulf Coast Interior Salt Dome Basins; (2) Status of Geological/Environmental Characterization Studies in the Parodox Basin; (3) Nuclear Waste Isolation Studies of the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basins, Texas Panhandle, FY 1980; (4) Geologic Investigations for Nuclear Waste Repository Sites in Columbia River Basalt - Hanford Site; (5) Method for Screening for Repository Locations on and Contiguous to the Nevada Test Site; (6) Nationwide Review of Shales and Other Argillaceous Strata; (7) Geological Survey Program for Identification of Suitable Geohydrologic Environments for the Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste; (8) National Geologic/Environmental Screening for Repositories; (9) States of Characterizations.

  1. Digital geologic map and GIS database of Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

    2006-01-01

    The digital geologic map and GIS database of Venezuela captures GIS compatible geologic and hydrologic data from the 'Geologic Shaded Relief Map of Venezuela,' which was released online as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1038. Digital datasets and corresponding metadata files are stored in ESRI geodatabase format; accessible via ArcGIS 9.X. Feature classes in the geodatabase include geologic unit polygons, open water polygons, coincident geologic unit linework (contacts, faults, etc.) and non-coincident geologic unit linework (folds, drainage networks, etc.). Geologic unit polygon data were attributed for age, name, and lithologic type following the Lexico Estratigrafico de Venezuela. All digital datasets were captured from source data at 1:750,000. Although users may view and analyze data at varying scales, the authors make no guarantee as to the accuracy of the data at scales larger than 1:750,000.

  2. Forensic geology exhumed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Joseph Didier

    Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term “forensic” is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as “pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and debate.” The American Geological Institute's Glossary of Geology defines forensic geology as “the application of the Earth sciences to the law.” The cited reference to Murray and Tedrow [1975], however, deals mostly if not exclusively with the gathering and use of evidence in criminal cases, despite the widespread involvement of geologists in more general legal matters. It seems appropriate to “exhume” geology's wider application to the law, which is encompassed by forensic geology.

  3. Fractals in geology and geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

  4. Geology of central Lake Michigan.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, R.J.; Paull, R.A.; Wolosin, C.A.; Friedel, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The geology beneath central Lake Michigan is interpreted from a synthesis of 1,700 km of continuous seismic reflection profile data, bathymetry, grab samples, and onshore surface and subsurface information. The map of unconsolidated sediment (primarily Pleistocene) shows thicknesses ranging from 180 m in a steep- walled, northeast-trending valley to less than 10 m over a mid-lake topographic high. These are the dominant features developed on the gently eastward-dipping Paleozoic rocks along this part of the western flank of the Michigan basin. Two structural-stratigraphic cross sections of the study area were constructed. The cross sections, grab samples and other information were used to construct a Paleozoic geologic map. Speculations are made about the petroleum potential beneath Lake Michigan. -from Authors

  5. The geology of Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaber, G. G.

    A preliminary geologic map of 34.8 percent of the surface of Io has been compiled using best-resolution Voyager 1 images. Nine volcanic units are identified, including materials of mountains, plains, flows, cones, and crater vents, in addition to six types of structural features. Photogeologic evidence indicates a dominantly silicate composition for the mountain material. Sulfur flows of diverse viscosity and sulfur-silicate mixtures may compose the extensive plans. Pit-crater and shield-crater vent-wall scarps reach heights of over two km, and layered-plains boundary scarps have estimated heights of 150 to 1700 m, indicating a material with considerable strength. A cumulative size-frequency distribution plot for 170 volcanic craters with diameters over 14 km is similar to the curves for impact craters on other bodies in the solar system, attesting to a similar nonrandom distribution of crater diameters and a surplus of small craters. A total of 151 lineaments and grabens forming two nearly orthogonal sets is recognized.

  6. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper.

  7. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper. PMID:26710255

  8. Main Oxidizer Valve Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addona, Brad; Eddleman, David

    2015-01-01

    A developmental Main Oxidizer Valve (MOV) was designed by NASA-MSFC using additive manufacturing processes. The MOV is a pneumatically actuated poppet valve to control the flow of liquid oxygen to an engine's injector. A compression spring is used to return the valve to the closed state when pneumatic pressure is removed from the valve. The valve internal parts are cylindrical in shape, which lends itself to traditional lathe and milling operations. However, the valve body represents a complicated shape and contains the majority of the mass of the valve. Additive manufacturing techniques were used to produce a part that optimized mass and allowed for design features not practical with traditional machining processes.

  9. Alaska geology revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Labay, Keith A.

    2016-11-09

    This map shows the generalized geology of Alaska, which helps us to understand where potential mineral deposits and energy resources might be found, define ecosystems, and ultimately, teach us about the earth history of the State. Rock units are grouped in very broad categories on the basis of age and general rock type. A much more detailed and fully referenced presentation of the geology of Alaska is available in the Geologic Map of Alaska (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sim3340). This product represents the simplification of thousands of individual rock units into just 39 broad groups. Even with this generalization, the sheer complexity of Alaskan geology remains evident.

  10. Geological Survey research 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1982-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1981 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic, hydrologic, and cartographic investigations in progress. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral, (2) Water resources, (3) Engineering geology and hydrology, (4) Regional geology, (5) Principles and processes, (6) Laboratory and field methods, (7) Topographic surveys and mapping, (8) Management of resources on public lands, (9) Land information and analysis, and (10) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of investigations in progress.

  11. Relief and geology of the north polar region of the planet Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzmin, R. O.; Burba, G. A.; Shashkina, V. P.; Bogomolov, A. F.; Zherikhin, N. V.; Skrypnik, G. I.; Kudrin, L. V.; Bergman, M. Y.; Rzhiga, O. N.; Sidorenko, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    Description of topographic features is given for the North polar region of the planet Venus. Principal geomorphic types of terrain are characterized as well as their geologic relations. Relative ages of geologic units in Venus North polar region are discussed.

  12. The geology and geophysics of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    The current state of knowledge concerning the regional geology and geophysics of Mars is summarized. Telescopic observations of the planet are reviewed, pre-Mariner models of its interior are discussed, and progress achieved with the Mariner flybys, especially that of Mariner 9, is noted. A map of the Martian geological provinces is presented to provide a summary of the surface geology and morphology. The contrast between the northern and southern hemispheres is pointed out, and the characteristic features of the surface are described in detail. The global topography of the planet is examined along with its gravitational field, gravity anomalies, and moment of inertia. The general sequence of events in Martian geological history is briefly outlined.

  13. The Geology of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, Ralf

    Titan, the largest and most complex satellite in the solar system exhibits an organic dominated surface chemistry and shares surface features with other large icy satellites as well as the terrestrial planets. It is subject to tidal stresses, and its surface appears to have been modified tectonically. Cassini's global observations at infrared and radar wavelengths as well as local investigations by the instruments on the Huygens probe has revealed that Titan has the largest known abundance of organic material in the solar system apart from Earth, and that its active hydrological cycle is analogous to that of Earth, but with methane replacing water. The surface of Titan exhibits morphological features of different sizes and origins created by geological processes that span the entire dynamic range of aeolian, fluvial and tectonic activities, with likely evidence that cryovolcanism might exists where liquid water, perhaps in concert with ammonia, methane and carbon dioxide, makes its way to the surface from the interior [e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. Extended dune fields, lakes, mountainous terrain, dendritic erosion patterns and erosional remnants indicate dynamic surface processes. Valleys, small-scale gullies and rounded cobbles require erosion by extended energetic flow of liquids. There is strong evidence that liquid hydrocarbons are ponded on the surface in lakes, predominantly, but not exclusively, at high northern latitudes. A variety of features including extensive flows and caldera-like constructs are interpreted to be cryovolcanic in origin. Chains and isolated blocks of rugged terrain rising from smoother areas are best described as mountains and might be related to tectonic processes. Impact craters form on all solid bodies in the solar system, and have been detected on Titan. But very few have been observed so they must be rapidly destroyed or buried by other geologic processes The morphologies of the impact

  14. Geologic Reconnaissance and Lithologic Identification by Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    remote sensing in geologic reconnaissance for purposes of tunnel site selection was studied further and a test case was undertaken to evaluate this geological application. Airborne multispectral scanning (MSS) data were obtained in May, 1972, over a region between Spearfish and Rapid City, South Dakota. With major effort directed toward the analysis of these data, the following geologic features were discriminated: (1) exposed rock areas, (2) five separate rock groups, (3) large-scale structures. This discrimination was accomplished by ratioing multispectral channels.

  15. Cassini's geological and compositional view of Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Katrin; Wagner, Roland; Jaumann, Ralf; Clark, Roger N.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Brown, Robert H.; Giese, Bernd; Roatsch, Thomas; Filacchione, Gianrico; Matson, Dennis; Ore, Cristina Dalle; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Baines, Kevin H.; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Krupp, Norbert; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Nicholson, Phil D.

    2016-08-01

    The Saturnian satellite Tethys exhibits geological and spectral properties, whose appearance, nature and spatial distribution partly mirror those identified on the neighboring satellites Dione and Rhea or fit to the picture how spectral surface properties are expected to change from one satellite to the other within the inner Saturnian system. However, we also identified spectral variations that are unique in the Saturnian system. Whereas geologically young surface features are characterized by pure H2O-ice composition with relatively large particles, which match the particle sizes measured for fresh surface features also on Dione and Rhea, geologically old weathered regions are dominated by submicron-sized ice particles. Our investigations confirm that the Odysseus impact event did not cause the formation of Tethys' extended graben system Ithaca Chasma. On the contrary, Odysseus might be responsible for the N-S trending 'icy' bands that mark Tethys' surface in the center of its leading and trailing hemisphere.

  16. Stochastic simulation of geological data using isometric mapping and multiple-point geostatistics with data incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Du, Yi; Huang, Tao; Li, Xue

    2016-02-01

    Constrained by current hardware equipment and techniques, acquisition of geological data sometimes is difficult or even impossible. Stochastic simulation for geological data is helpful to address this issue, providing multiple possible results of geological data for resource prediction and risk evaluation. Multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) being one of the main branches of stochastic simulation can extract the intrinsic features of patterns from training images (TIs) that provide prior information to limit the under-determined simulated results, and then copy them to the simulated regions. Because the generated models from TIs are not always linear, some MPS methods using linear dimensionality reduction are not suitable to deal with nonlinear models of TIs. A new MPS method named ISOMAPSIM was proposed to resolve this issue, which reduces the dimensionality of patterns from TIs using isometric mapping (ISOMAP) and then classifies these low-dimensional patterns for simulation. Since conditional models including hard data and soft data influence the simulated results greatly, this paper further studies ISOMAPSIM using hard data and soft data to obtain more accurate simulations for geological modeling. Stochastic simulation of geological data is processed respectively under several conditions according to different situations of conditional models. The tests show that the proposed method can reproduce the structural characteristics of TIs under all conditions, but the condition using soft data and hard data together performs best in simulation quality; moreover, the proposed method shows its advantages over other MPS methods that use linear dimensionality reduction.

  17. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    This second issue in a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications includes (1) a catalog of terrestrial craterform structures for northern Europe; (2) abstracts of results of the Planetary Geology Program, and (3) a list of the photographic holdings of regional planetary image facilities.

  18. Glossary of geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.L.; Jackson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This third edition of the Glossary of Geology contains approximately 37,000 terms, or 1,000 more than the second edition. New entries are especially numerous in the fields of carbonate sedimentology, hydrogeology, marine geology, mineralogy, ore deposits, plate tectonics, snow and ice, and stratigraphic nomenclature. Many of the definitions provide background information.

  19. People and Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

  20. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  1. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  2. Geology of the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, William P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the geologic characteristics of the Caribbean region. Discusses the use of some new techniques, including broad-range swath imaging of the sea floor that produces photograph-like images, and satellite measurement of crustal movements, which may help to explain the complex geology of the region. (TW)

  3. Field Geology/Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  4. Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrule, O.; Samson, P.; Segonds, D.

    1996-12-31

    The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological {open_quotes}objects{close_quotes} with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.

  5. Reservoir geology using 3D modelling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrule, O. ); Samson, P. ); Segonds, D. )

    1996-01-01

    The last decade has seen tremendous developments in the area of quantitative geological modelling. These developments have a significant impact on the current practice of constructing reservoir models. A structural model can first be constructed on the basis of depth-converted structural interpretations produced on a seismic interpretation workstation. Surfaces and faults can be represented as geological objects, and interactively modified. Once the tectonic framework has been obtained, intermediate stratigraphic surfaces can be constructed between the main structural surfaces. Within each layer, reservoir attributes can be represented using various techniques. Examples show how the distribution of different facies (i.e. from fine to coarse grain) can be represented, or how various depositional units (for instance channels, crevasses and lobes in a turbidite setting) can be modelled as geological [open quotes]objects[close quotes] with complex geometries. Elf Aquitaine, in close co-operation with the GOCAD project in Nancy (France) is investigating how geological models can be made more realistic by developing interactive functionalities. Examples show that, contrary to standard deterministic or geostatistical modelling techniques (which tend to be difficult to control) the use of new 3D tools allows the geologist to interactively modify geological surfaces (including faults) or volumetric properties. Thus, the sensitivity of various economic parameters (oil in place, connected volumes, reserves) to major geological uncertainties can be evaluated. It is argued that future breakthroughs in geological modelling techniques are likely to happen in the development of interactive approaches rather than in the research of new mathematical algorithms.

  6. Activities in planetary geology for the physical and earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalli, R.; Greeley, R.

    1982-01-01

    A users guide for teaching activities in planetary geology, and for physical and earth sciences is presented. The following topics are discussed: cratering; aeolian processes; planetary atmospheres, in particular the Coriolis Effect and storm systems; photogeologic mapping of other planets, Moon provinces and stratigraphy, planets in stereo, land form mapping of Moon, Mercury and Mars, and geologic features of Mars.

  7. Geology Museum-Based Learning in Soil Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhailova, E. A.; Tennant, C. H.; Post, C. J.; Cicimurri, C.; Cicimurri, D.

    2013-01-01

    Museums provide unique learning opportunities in soil science. The Bob Campbell Geology Museum in Clemson, SC, features an exhibit of minerals and rocks common in the state and in its geologic history. We developed a hands-on laboratory exercise utilizing an exhibit that gives college students an opportunity to visualize regional minerals and…

  8. Some aspects of geological information contained in LANDSAT images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Liu, C. C.; Vitorello, I.; Meneses, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of MSS images and methods of interpretation are analyzed from a geological point of view. The supportive role of LANDSAT data are illustrated in several examples of surface expressions of geological features, such as synclines and anticlines, spectral characteristics of lithologic units, and circular impact structures.

  9. Geology Structure Identification based on Polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) Data and Field Based Observation at Ciwidey Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradipta, R. A.; Saepuloh, A.; Suryantini

    2016-09-01

    Geological structure observation is difficult to be conducted at Quaternary volcanic field due to the classical problem at tropical region such as intensive erosion, dense vegetation covers, and rough terrain. The problem hampers the field observation especially for geological structures mapping. In order to overcome the problems, an active remote sensing technology based on Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) data was used in this study. The longer wavelength of microwave than optical region caused the SAR layer penetration higher than optics. The Ciwidey Geothermal Field, Indonesia was selected as study area because of the existence of surface manifestations with lack information about the control of geological structures to the geothermal system. Visual interpretation based on composite polarization modes was applied to identify geological structures at study area. The color composite Red-Green-Blue for HV-HH-VV polarizations provided highest texture and structural features among the other composite combination. The Linear Features Density (LFD) map was also used to interpret the fractures zones. The calculated LFD showed high anomaly about 3.6 km/km2 with two strike directions NW-SE and NE-SW. Interestingly, the surface geothermal manifestation agreed with the low anomaly of LFD. The geological structures consisted of ten faults were successfully detected and mapped. The faults type mainly are oblique-slip with strike directions NE-SW and NW-SE.

  10. OneGeology-Europe - The Challenges and progress of implementing a basic geological infrastructure for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asch, Kristine; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

    2010-05-01

    geological data. These datasets are registered in a multilingual catalogue, who is one the main part of this system. This catalogue and a common metadata profile allows the discovery of national geological and applied geological maps at all scapes, Such an architecture is facilitating re-use and addition of value by a wide spectrum of users in the public and private sector and identifying, documenting and disseminating strategies for the reduction of technical and business barriers to re-use. In identifying and raising awareness in the user and provider communities, it is moving geological knowledge closer to the end-user where it will have greater societal impact and ensure fuller exploitation of a key data resource gathered at huge public expense. The project is providing examples of best practice in the delivery of digital geological spatial data to users, e.g. in the insurance, property, engineering, planning, mineral resource and environmental sectors. The scientifically attributed map data of the project will provide a pan-European base for science research and, importantly, a prime geoscience dataset capable of integration with other data sets within and beyond the geoscience domain. This presentation will demonstrate the first results of this project and will indicate how OneGeology-Europe is ensuring that Europe may play a leading role in the development of a geoscience spatial data infrastructure (SDI) globally.

  11. Geologic Map of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crafford, A. Elizabeth Jones

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Geologic Map of Nevada is to provide an integrated set of digital geologic information that can be used for regional geologic and rigorous spatial analysis. Two components of this map represent new information that has not been published in this form before. The new geology layer was created by merging into a single file individual digital Nevada county geologic maps (Hess and Johnson, 1997), published at a scale of 1:250,000. A new regional interpretation was created to unify all of the different county rock units, and then appropriate edits and modifications were made to the file to reflect additional geologic information and more current geologic interpretations. All possible sources of information were not utilized in the scope of this project, but rather the goal was to create a consistent Statewide 1:250,000-scale map that would facilitate regional geologic interpretation and be a foundation for future spatial analyses of digital data. Secondly, a new database of conodont biostratigraphic data compiled and analyzed by Anita Harris is also incorporated into the map. Information about many, but not all, of these conodont samples have been published separately elsewhere over the years, but they have not been presented together in a single digital database. Other previously published data layers are used in this map to enhance the usefulness of the geologic information. These layers include mineral deposit locations, oil well locations, and cartographic layers such as county boundaries, roads, towns, cities, rivers, water bodies, township, range and section grids, quadrangle grids, and topography. A summary of these components is given below, and complete descriptions of each layer are provided in the digital metadata.

  12. Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Elmer James

    1988-01-01

    Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)

  13. Geologic and geophysical maps of the El Casco 7.5′ quadrangle, Riverside County, southern California, with accompanying geologic-map database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, J.C.; Morton, D.M.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2015-01-01

    Geologic information contained in the El Casco database is general-purpose data applicable to land-related investigations in the earth and biological sciences. The term “general-purpose” means that all geologic-feature classes have minimal information content adequate to characterize their general geologic characteristics and to interpret their general geologic history. However, no single feature class has enough information to definitively characterize its properties and origin. For this reason the database cannot be used for site-specific geologic evaluations, although it can be used to plan and guide investigations at the site-specific level.

  14. The geologic mapping of asteroid Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D.; Yingst, A.; Garry, B.

    2014-07-01

    As part of NASA's Dawn mission [1,2] we conducted a geologic mapping campaign to provide a systematic, cartography-based initial characterization of the global and regional geology of asteroid Vesta. The goal of geological maps is to place observations of surface features into their stratigraphic context to develop a geologic history of the evolution of planetary surfaces. Geologic mapping reduces the complexity of heterogeneous planetary surfaces into comprehensible portions, defining and characterizing discrete material units based upon physical attributes related to the geologic processes that produced them, and enabling identification of the relative roles of various processes (impact cratering, tectonism, volcanism, erosion and deposition) in shaping planetary surfaces [3,4]. The Dawn Science Team produced cartographic products of Vesta from the Framing Camera images, including global mosaics as well as 15 regional quadrangles [5], which served as bases for the mapping. We oversaw the geologic mapping campaign during the Nominal Mission, including production of a global geologic map at scale 1:500,000 using images from the High Altitude Mapping Orbit [6] and 15 quadrangle geologic maps at scale 1:250,000 using images from the Low Altitude Mapping Orbit [7]. The goal was to support the Dawn Team by providing geologic and stratigraphic context of surface features and supporting the analysis of data from the Visible and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) and the Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND). Mapping was done using ArcGIS™ software, in which quadrangle mapping built on interpretations derived from the global geologic map but were updated and modified to take advantage of the highest spatial resolution data. Despite challenges (e.g., Vesta's highly sloped surface [8] deforms impact craters and produces mass movements that buries contacts), we were successfully able to map the whole surface of Vesta and identify a geologic history as represented in our maps and

  15. Geologic map of Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys and surrounding areas, northwest Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, L. Sue; Kennedy, Jeffrey; Truini, Margot; Felger, Tracey

    2011-01-01

    A 1:250,000-scale geologic map and report covering the Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento valleys in northwest Arizona is presented for the purpose of improving understanding of the geology and geohydrology of the basins beneath those valleys. The map was compiled from existing geologic mapping, augmented by digital photogeologic reconnaissance mapping. The most recent geologic map for the area, and the only digital one, is the 1:1,000,000-scale Geologic Map of Arizona. The larger scale map presented here includes significantly more detailed geology than the Geologic Map of Arizona in terms of accuracy of geologic unit contacts, number of faults, fault type, fault location, and details of Neogene and Quaternary deposits. Many sources were used to compile the geology; the accompanying geodatabase includes a source field in the polygon feature class that lists source references for polygon features. The citations for the source field are included in the reference section.

  16. Geology of the west Bear Creek site

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.R.; Ketelle, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    A geological study was conducted at the Department of Energy's proposed ''tumulus'' low-level waste disposal site in west Bear Creek Valley on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The objective of the study was to describe the geologic characteristics of the site and to provide a foundation for concurrent geohydrologic studies. Methods for study included examination of existing rock core, acquisition of additional core, geophysical logging, study of sparse natural rock exposures, examination of weathered surficial bedrock, and acquisition of bedrock fracture orientation data. For construction of geologic cross sections and a geologic map, key subsurface data were projected to the surface using a typical bedrock attitude. The surface locations of these data were refined by examination of weathered bedrock. Consistent with the regional geologic setting and previous studies elsewhere in Bear Creek Valley, results of this study indicate that the site is underlain by generally uniform dipping strata of the Cambrian Conasauga Group. Detailed examination of the lithologic features of a portion of the Conasauga at the site indicates that direct application of regional stratigraphic nomenclature requires minor modification. Analysis of intermediate-scale (meter-scale) structural features leads to the development of two conceptual models. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Geology of caves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, I.M.

    1991-01-01

    A cave is a natural opening in the ground extending beyond the zone of light and large enough to permit the entry of man. Occurring in a wide variety of rock types and caused by widely differing geological processes, caves range in size from single small rooms to intercorinecting passages many miles long. The scientific study of caves is called speleology (from the Greek words spelaion for cave and logos for study). It is a composite science based on geology, hydrology, biology, and archaeology, and thus holds special interest for earth scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  18. Formation evaluation: Geological procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume goes beyond a discussion of petroleum geology and the techniques of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) logging as a reservoir evaluation tool. It provides the logging geologist with a review of geological techniques and classification systems that will ensure the maximum development of communicable geological information. Contents include: 1. Introduction--cuttings recovery, cutting sampling, core sampling, rock classification; 2. Detrital rocks--classification, description; 3. Carbonate rocks--classification, description; 4. Chemical rocks-introduction, siliceous rocks, ferruginous rocks, aluminous rocks, phosphatic rocks, aluminous rocks, carbonaceous rocks; 5. Igneous and metamorpbic rocks; Appendix; References and Index.

  19. OneGeology Web Services and Portal as a global geological SDI - latest standards and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Tim; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

    2014-05-01

    The global coverage of OneGeology Web Services (www.onegeology.org and portal.onegeology.org) achieved since 2007 from the 120 participating geological surveys will be reviewed and issues arising discussed. Recent enhancements to the OneGeology Web Services capabilities will be covered including new up to 5 star service accreditation scheme utilising the ISO/OGC Web Mapping Service standard version 1.3, core ISO 19115 metadata additions and Version 2.0 Web Feature Services (WFS) serving the new IUGS-CGI GeoSciML V3.2 geological web data exchange language standard (http://www.geosciml.org/) with its associated 30+ IUGS-CGI available vocabularies (http://resource.geosciml.org/ and http://srvgeosciml.brgm.fr/eXist2010/brgm/client.html). Use of the CGI simpelithology and timescale dictionaries now allow those who wish to do so to offer data harmonisation to query their GeoSciML 3.2 based Web Feature Services and their GeoSciML_Portrayal V2.0.1 (http://www.geosciml.org/) Web Map Services in the OneGeology portal (http://portal.onegeology.org). Contributing to OneGeology involves offering to serve ideally 1:1000,000 scale geological data (in practice any scale now is warmly welcomed) as an OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standard based WMS (Web Mapping Service) service from an available WWW server. This may either be hosted within the Geological Survey or a neighbouring, regional or elsewhere institution that offers to serve that data for them i.e. offers to help technically by providing the web serving IT infrastructure as a 'buddy'. OneGeology is a standards focussed Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) and works to ensure that these standards work together and it is now possible for European Geological Surveys to register their INSPIRE web services within the OneGeology SDI (e.g. see http://www.geosciml.org/geosciml/3.2/documentation/cookbook/INSPIRE_GeoSciML_Cookbook%20_1.0.pdf). The Onegeology portal (http://portal.onegeology.org) is the first port of call for anyone

  20. Database for volcanic processes and geology of Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntire, Jacqueline; Ramsey, David W.; Thoms, Evan; Waitt, Richard B.; Beget, James E.

    2012-01-01

    This digital release contains information used to produce the geologic map published as Plate 1 in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1762 (Waitt and Begét, 2009). The main component of this digital release is a geologic map database prepared using geographic information systems (GIS) applications. This release also contains links to files to view or print the map plate, accompanying measured sections, and main report text from Professional Paper 1762. It should be noted that Augustine Volcano erupted in 2006, after the completion of the geologic mapping shown in Professional Paper 1762 and presented in this database. Information on the 2006 eruption can be found in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1769. For the most up to date information on the status of Alaska volcanoes, please refer to the U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program website.

  1. Developing a geological 3D model for the Tanour and Rasoun spring catchment area using ArcGIS and GOCAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, Ibraheem; Benhsinat, Mohamed; Wagner, Bianca; Sauter, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Key words: Karst, 3D model, GOCAD, ArcGIS, Jordan. Tanour and Rasoun karst springs (around 75 km northwest of the capital city of Amman in Jordan) are used as main local water supply for the surrounding villages. Carbonate rocks are the predominant rock type in the study area (Upper Cretaceous age). The karstification degree is moderate to high, with the availability of different karst features like dolines, caves, dry valleys, and highly fractured rocks. During the last years, the water supply from these springs had to be disconnected for several times due to microbial contamination and waste water pollution from local olive oil mills. For better understanding of the geological and the hydrogeological setting of the study area, in addition to the delineation of the groundwater catchment area for Tanour and Rasoun springs, a geological 3D model of the main geological formations within the study area was established using ArcGIS and GOCAD. The model is based on geological maps and well data; it was established for seven geological layers that act as prominent aquifers and aquicludes. ArcGIS software was used for data preparation, processing and interpolation of varying thickness, while GOCAD used for geometrical modeling steps. After the completion of the first modeling steps, major faults are included. Then the subsurface catchments will be delineated and compared with the superficial watersheds. The model still under development and open for further development.

  2. North-south geological differences between the residual polar caps on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, P.C.; Malin, M.C.; Edgett, K.S.; Carr, M.H.; Hartmann, W.K.; Ingersoll, A.P.; James, P.B.; Soderblom, L.A.; Veverka, J.; Sullivan, R.

    2000-01-01

    Polar processes can be sensitive indicators of global climate, and the geological features associated with polar ice caps can therefore indicate evolution of climate with time. The polar regions on Mars have distinctive morphologic and climatologic features: thick layered deposits, seasonal CO2 frost caps extending to mid latitudes, and near-polar residual frost deposits that survive the summer. The relationship of the seasonal and residual frost caps to the layered deposits has been poorly constrained, mainly by the limited spatial resolution of the available data. In particular, it has not been known if the residual caps represent simple thin frost cover or substantial geologic features. Here we show that the residual cap on the south pole is a distinct geologic unit with striking collapse and erosional topography; this is very different from the residual cap on the north pole, which grades into the underlying layered materials. These findings indicate that the differences between the caps are substantial (rather than reflecting short-lived differences in frost cover), and so support the idea of long-term asymmetry in the polar climates of Mars.

  3. North-south geological differences between the residual polar caps on Mars.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P C; Malin, M C; Edgett, K S; Carr, M H; Hartmann, W K; Ingersoll, A P; James, P B; Soderblom, L A; Veverka, J; Sullivan, R

    2000-03-09

    Polar processes can be sensitive indicators of global climate, and the geological features associated with polar ice caps can therefore indicate evolution of climate with time. The polar regions on Mars have distinctive morphologic and climatologic features: thick layered deposits, seasonal CO2 frost caps extending to mid latitudes, and near-polar residual frost deposits that survive the summer. The relationship of the seasonal and residual frost caps to the layered deposits has been poorly constrained, mainly by the limited spatial resolution of the available data. In particular, it has not been known if the residual caps represent simple thin frost cover or substantial geologic features. Here we show that the residual cap on the south pole is a distinct geologic unit with striking collapse and erosional topography; this is very different from the residual cap on the north pole, which grades into the underlying layered materials. These findings indicate that the differences between the caps are substantial (rather than reflecting short-lived differences in frost cover), and so support the idea of long-term asymmetry in the polar climates of Mars.

  4. Prototype of Partial Cutting Tool of Geological Map Images Distributed by Geological Web Map Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonogaki, S.; Nemoto, T.

    2014-12-01

    Geological maps and topographical maps play an important role in disaster assessment, resource management, and environmental preservation. These map information have been distributed in accordance with Web services standards such as Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Map Tile Service (WMTS) recently. In this study, a partial cutting tool of geological map images distributed by geological WMTS was implemented with Free and Open Source Software. The tool mainly consists of two functions: display function and cutting function. The former function was implemented using OpenLayers. The latter function was implemented using Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL). All other small functions were implemented by PHP and Python. As a result, this tool allows not only displaying WMTS layer on web browser but also generating a geological map image of intended area and zoom level. At this moment, available WTMS layers are limited to the ones distributed by WMTS for the Seamless Digital Geological Map of Japan. The geological map image can be saved as GeoTIFF format and WebGL format. GeoTIFF is one of the georeferenced raster formats that is available in many kinds of Geographical Information System. WebGL is useful for confirming a relationship between geology and geography in 3D. In conclusion, the partial cutting tool developed in this study would contribute to create better conditions for promoting utilization of geological information. Future work is to increase the number of available WMTS layers and the types of output file format.

  5. Geological map and stratigraphy of asteroid 21 Lutetia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massironi, Matteo; Marchi, Simone; Pajola, Maurizio; Snodgrass, Colin; Thomas, Nicolas; Tubiana, Cecilia; Baptiste Vincent, Jean; Cremonese, Gabriele; da Deppo, Vania; Ferri, Francesca; Magrin, Sara; Sierks, Holger; Barbieri, Cesare; Lamy, Philippe; Rickman, Hans; Rodrigo, Rafael; Koschny, Detlef; Osiris Team

    2012-06-01

    The OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) images acquired during the recent Rosetta fly-by of Lutetia (10th of July 2010), enabled us to unravel the long geological history of the asteroid. This is recorded on its highly varied surface which displays geological units of disparate ages. In particular, using images of the closest approach, five main regions (in turn subdivided into minor units) have been discriminated on the basis of crater density, overlapping and cross-cutting relationships, and presence of linear features (i.e., fractures, faults, grooves, troughs). Other regions, with still unclear stratigraphic position, were also recognized on images of lower resolution on the bases of geomorphological properties such as crater density, relationship with scarp and ridges, and sharp morphological boundaries. In this work the geological evolution of Lutetia surface is reconstructed through the description of its main units and related contacts. The oldest regions imaged during the closest approach (Achaia and Noricum) are pervasively affected by fractures and grooves and display surfaces so heavily cratered to be dated back to a period not far from the Late Heavy Bombardment (yielding Achaia a crater retention age of 3.6-3.7 Ga). A crater of 55 km diameter, named Massilia and corresponding to the Narbonensis region, cuts both Achaia and Noricum regions and probably represents the most prominent event of the Lutetia history. The considerable crater density on its floor and walls, the absence of discernable deposits related to the impact event, and the intense deformation of it floor - all attest to its relatively great age. The North Polar Cluster (Baetica region) is associated with smooth ejecta broadly mantling the surrounding units and displays few craters and no linear features, demonstrating its relatively young age (estimated at less than 300 Ma). The North Polar Crater Cluster is the product of superimposed impacts; the last

  6. Quaternary Geologic Map of Connecticut and Long Island Sound Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Janet Radway; Schafer, John P.; London, Elizabeth Haley; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.; Lewis, Ralph S.; Thompson, Woodrow B.

    2005-01-01

    The Quaternary geologic map (sheet 1) and explanatory figures and cross sections (sheet 2) portray the geologic features formed in Connecticut during the Quaternary Period, which includes the Pleistocene (glacial) and Holocene (postglacial) Epochs. The Quaternary Period has been a time of development of many details of the landscape and of all the surficial deposits. At least twice in the late Pleistocene, continental ice sheets swept across Connecticut. Their effects are of pervasive importance to the present occupants of the land. The Quaternary geologic map illustrates the geologic history and the distribution of depositional environments during the emplacement of glacial and postglacial surficial deposits and the landforms resulting from those events.

  7. Geology and ground-water features of salt springs, seeps, and plains in the Arkansas and Red River basins of western Oklahoma and adjacent parts of Kansas and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, P.E.

    1963-01-01

    concentration in the water ranges from a few hundred parts per million to about 190,000 ppm. The wide range of concentration is believed to be due, in part, to differential dilution by fresh water. Alluvium in the vicinity of the salt springs remains saturated with salt water and evaporation from the alluvial surface causes the formation of a salt crust during dry weather. Those areas appear as salt plains that range in size from less than an acre to as much as 60 square miles. The rocks exposed at the surface in the vicinity of the salt springs are permeable enough to allow the infiltration of some precipitation. Under certain geologic and hydrologic conditions ground water percolates down and through salt-bearing rocks where it dissolves the .salt. Hydrostatic pressure of ground water at higher elevations forces the salt water to emerge as salt springs at lower elevations.

  8. Scaling the Geologic Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerritts, Mary

    1975-01-01

    Describes construction of a Geologic Time Scale on a 100 foot roll of paper and suggests activities concerning its use. Includes information about fossils and suggestions for conducting a fossil field trip with students. (BR)

  9. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  10. Geologic exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    The scientific objectives and methods involved in a geologic exploration of Mars from a manned outpost are discussed. The constraints on outpost activities imposed by the limited crew size, limited amount of time available for science, the limited diversity of scientific expertise, and the competition between scientific disciplines are addressed. Three examples of possible outpost locations are examined: the Olympus Mons aureole, Mangala Valles/Daedalia Planum, and Candor Chasma. The geologic work that could be done at each site is pointed out.

  11. Geologic utility of small-scale airphotos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, M. M.

    1969-01-01

    The geologic value of small scale airphotos is emphasized by describing the application of high altitude oblique and 1:120,000 to 1:145,000 scale vertical airphotos to several geologic problems in California. These examples show that small-scale airphotos can be of use to geologists in the following ways: (1) high altitude, high oblique airphotos show vast areas in one view; and (2) vertical airphotos offer the most efficient method of discovering the major topographic features and structural and lithologic characteristics of terrain.

  12. Geological and structural interpretation of Peninsular Malaysia by marine and aeromagnetic data: Some preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrudin, Nurul Fairuz Diyana Binti; Hamzah, Umar

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic data were processed to interpret the geology of Peninsular Malaysia especially in delineating the igneous bodies and structural lineament trends by potential field geophysical method. A total of about 32000 magnetic intensity data were obtained from Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (EMAG2) covering an area of East Sumatra to part of South China Sea within 99° E to 105° E Longitude and 1° N to 7°N Latitude. These data were used in several processing stages in generating the total magnetic intensity (TMI), reduce to equator (RTE), total horizontal derivative (THD) and total vertical derivative (TVD). Values of the possible surface and subsurface magnetic sources associated to the geological features of the study area. The magnetic properties are normally corresponding to features like igneous bodies and faults structures. The anomalies obtained were then compared to the geological features of the area. In general, the high magnetic anomalies of the TMI-RTE are closely matched with major igneous intrusion of Peninsular Malaysia such as the Main Range, Eastern Belt and the Mersing-Johor Bahru stretch. More dense lineaments of magnetic structures were observed in the THD and TVD results indicating the presence of more deep and shallow magnetic rich geological features. The positions of Bukit Tinggi, Mersing and Lepar faults are perfectly matched with the magnetic highs while the presence of Lebir and Bok Bak faults are not clearly observed in the magnetic results. The high magnetic values of igneous bodies may have concealed and obscured the magnetic values representing these faults.

  13. Geologic guide to the island of Hawaii: A field guide for comparative planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    With geological data available for all inner planets except Venus, we are entering an era of true comparative planetary geology, when knowledge of the differences and similarities for classes of structures (e.g., shield volcanoes) will lead to a better understanding of general geological processes, regardless of planet. Thus, it is imperative that planetologists, particularly those involved in geological mapping and surface feature analysis for terrestrial planets, be familiar with volcanic terrain in terms of its origin, structure, and morphology. One means of gaining this experience is through field trips in volcanic terrains - hence, the Planetology Conference in Hawaii. In addition, discussions with volcanologists at the conference provide an important basis for establishing communications between the two fields that will facilitate comparative studies as more data become available.

  14. Geological myths and reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrihansky, Lubor

    2014-05-01

    Myths are the result of man's attempts to explain noteworthy features of his environment stemming from unfounded imagination. It is unbelievable that in 21st century the explanation of evident lithospheric plates movements and origin of forces causing this movement is still bound to myths, They are the myth about mantle convection, myth about Earth's expansion, myth about mantle heterogeneities causing the movement of plates and myth about mantle plumes. From 1971 to 1978 I performed extensive study (Ostřihanský 1980) about the terrestrial heat flow and radioactive heat production of batholiths in the Bohemian Massive (Czech Republic). The result, gained by extrapolation of the heat flow and heat production relationship, revealed the very low heat flow from the mantle 17.7mW m-2 close to the site of the Quarterly volcano active only 115,000 - 15,000 years ago and its last outbreak happened during Holocene that is less than 10,000 years ago. This volcano Komorní Hůrka (Kammerbühls) was known by J. W. Goethe investigation and the digging of 300 m long gallery in the first half of XIX century to reach the basaltic plug and to confirm the Stromboli type volcano. In this way the 19th century myth of neptunists that basalt was a sedimentary deposit was disproved in spite that famous poet and scientist J.W.Goethe inclined to neptunists. For me the result of very low heat flow and the vicinity of almost recent volcanoes in the Bohemian Massive meant that I refused the hypothesis of mantle convection and I focused my investigation to external forces of tides and solar heat, which evoke volcanic effects, earthquakes and the plate movement. To disclose reality it is necessary to present calculation of acting forces using correct mechanism of their action taking into account tectonic characteristics of geologic unites as the wrench tectonics and the tectonic of planets and satellites of the solar system, realizing an exceptional behavior of the Earth as quickly rotating

  15. Titan's global geologic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaska, Michael; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Schoenfeld, Ashley; Birch, Samuel; Hayes, Alexander; Williams, David A.; Solomonidou, Anezina; Janssen, Michael A.; Le Gall, Alice; Soderblom, Jason M.; Neish, Catherine; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2016-10-01

    We have mapped the Cassini SAR imaged areas of Saturn's moon Titan in order to determine the geological properties that modify the surface [1]. We used the SAR dataset for mapping, but incorporated data from radiometry, VIMS, ISS, and SARTopo for terrain unit determination. This work extends our analyses of the mid-latitude/equatorial Afekan Crater region [2] and in the southern and northern polar regions [3]. We placed Titan terrains into six broad terrain classes: craters, mountain/hummocky, labyrinth, plains, dunes, and lakes. We also extended the fluvial mapping done by Burr et al. [4], and defined areas as potential cryovolcanic features [5]. We found that hummocky/mountainous and labyrinth areas are the oldest units on Titan, and that lakes and dunes are among the youngest. Plains units are the largest unit in terms of surface area, followed by the dunes unit. Radiometry data suggest that most of Titan's surface is covered in high-emissivity materials, consistent with organic materials, with only minor exposures of low-emissivity materials that are consistent with water ice, primarily in the mountain and hummocky areas and crater rims and ejecta [6, 7]. From examination of terrain orientation, we find that landscape evolution in the mid-latitude and equatorial regions is driven by aeolian processes, while polar landscapes are shaped by fluvial, lacrustine, and possibly dissolution or volatilization processes involving cycling organic materials [3, 8]. Although important in deciphering Titan's terrain evolution, impact processes play a very minor role in the modification of Titan's landscape [9]. We find no evidence for large-scale aqueous cryovolcanic deposits.References: [1] Lopes, R.M.C. et al. (2010) Icarus, 205, 540-558. [2] Malaska, M.J. et al. (2016) Icarus, 270, 130-161. [3] Birch et al., in revision. [4] Burr et al. (2013) GSA Bulletin 125, 299-321. [5] Lopes et al. JGR: Planets, 118, 1-20. [6] Janssen et al., (2009) Icarus, 200, 222-239. [7] Janssen

  16. Geologic map of Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Murray County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, Charles D.; Lidke, David J.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Golab, James A.

    2013-01-01

    This 1:24,000-scale geologic map is a compilation of previous geologic maps and new geologic mapping of areas in and around Chickasaw National Recreation Area. The geologic map includes revisions of numerous unit contacts and faults and a number of previously “undifferentiated” rock units were subdivided in some areas. Numerous circular-shaped hills in and around Chickasaw National Recreation Area are probably the result of karst-related collapse and may represent the erosional remnants of large, exhumed sinkholes. Geospatial registration of existing, smaller scale (1:72,000- and 1:100,000-scale) geologic maps of the area and construction of an accurate Geographic Information System (GIS) database preceded 2 years of fieldwork wherein previously mapped geology (unit contacts and faults) was verified and new geologic mapping was carried out. The geologic map of Chickasaw National Recreation Area and this pamphlet include information pertaining to how the geologic units and structural features in the map area relate to the formation of the northern Arbuckle Mountains and its Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. The development of an accurate geospatial GIS database and the use of a handheld computer in the field greatly increased both the accuracy and efficiency in producing the 1:24,000-scale geologic map.

  17. Geotechnical characterization for the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kicker, D.C.; Martin, E.R.; Brechtel, C.E.; Stone, C.A.; Kessel, D.S.

    1997-07-01

    Geotechnical characterization of the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility was based on borehole data collected in site characterization drilling and on scanline rock mass quality data collected during the excavation of the North Ramp. The Main Drift is the planned 3,131-m near-horizontal tunnel to be excavated at the potential repository horizon for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Main Drift borehole data consisted of three holes--USW SD-7, SD-9, and SD-12--drilled along the tunnel alignment. In addition, boreholes USW UZ-14, NRG-6, and NRG-7/7A were used to supplement the database on subsurface rock conditions. Specific data summarized and presented included lithologic and rock structure core logs, rock mechanics laboratory testing, and rock mass quality indices. Cross sections with stratigraphic and thermal-mechanical units were also presented. Topics discussed in the report include geologic setting, geologic features of engineering and construction significance, anticipated ground conditions, and the range of required ground support. Rock structural and rock mass quality data have been developed for each 3-m interval of core in the middle nonlithophysal stratigraphic zone of the Topopah Spring Tuff Formation. The distribution of the rock mass quality data in all boreholes used to characterize the Main Drift was assumed to be representative of the variability of the rock mass conditions to be encountered in the Main Drift. Observations in the North Ramp tunnel have been used to project conditions in the lower lithophysal zone and in fault zones.

  18. Geologic coal assessment: The interface with economics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic resource assessments describe the location, general characteristics, and estimated volumes of resources, whether in situ or technically recoverable. Such compilations are only an initial step in economic resource evaluation. This paper identifies, by examples from the Illinois and Appalachian basins, the salient features of a geologic assessment that assure its usefulness to downstream economic analysis. Assessments should be in sufficient detail to allocate resources to production units (mines or wells). Coal assessments should include the spatial distribution of coal bed characteristics and the ability to allocate parts of the resource to specific mining technologies. For coal bed gas assessment, the production well recoveries and well deliverability characteristics must be preserved and the risk structure should be specified so dryholes and noncommercial well costs are recovered by commercially successful wells. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  19. Main features of nucleation in model solutions of oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Chikanova, E. S.; Punin, Yu. O.

    2015-05-01

    The regularities of nucleation in model solutions of oral cavity have been investigated, and the induction order and constants have been determined for two systems: saliva and dental plaque fluid (DPF). It is shown that an increase in the initial supersaturation leads to a transition from the heterogeneous nucleation of crystallites to a homogeneous one. Some additives are found to enhance nucleation: HCO{3/-} > C6H12O6 > F-, while others hinder this process: protein (casein) > Mg2+. It is established that crystallization in DPF occurs more rapidly and the DPF composition is favorable for the growth of small (52.6-26.1 μm) crystallites. On the contrary, the conditions implemented in the model saliva solution facilitate the formation of larger (198.4-41.8 μm) crystals.

  20. Commencement of Geoparks, Geology day and International Earth Science Olympiad, IYPE in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukuda, Eikichi; Kodama, Kisaburo; Miyazaki, Teruki

    2010-05-01

    The GSJ is the main supporting organization of IYPE Japan, which is an implementation body of IYPE in Japan, serving as its secretariat. During the IYPE triennial activity, the GSJ has been supporting development of Geparks, establishment of "the Geology Day" and the Earth Science Olympiad activities with some academic societies, and has distributed geological maps with IYPE logo. The GSJ also established an outreach network "Geo-networks Tsukuba" as a local legacy of the IYPE, and has managed it with a local government, research organizations, nonprofit corporations and local media to increase geological and environmental literacy of public, especially among young people. The GSJ-AIST has also contributed internationally to IYPE by joining two international projects, OneGeology and the CCOP Book project. Geoparks in Japan are characterized by following features. The Japanese Islands and the surrounding seas are situated in the area of unique geologic features; the place where several tectonic plates meet and collide. This causes earthquakes and volcanic activities, and makes Japan one of most dynamic areas on the earth. The dynamics of the earth bring about not only geological hazards but also a lot of blessings. In August of 2009, three Geoparks, the Toya Caldera and Usu Volcano Geopark, the Itoigawa Geopark and the Unzen Volcanic Area Geopark, were accepted to join the Global Geopark Network from Japan for the first time. Since its launch in 2006, the GSJ has been playing a major role in promoting Geoparks in Japan together with Geological Society of Japan. The GSJ hosts the Japan Geopark Committee (JGC) for quality evaluation, serving as the information center of Geoparks in Japan. The Geology Day of Japan (10th of May) has been set up by the academic societies for geology in Japan and GSJ in 2007. The Geology Day is expected to provide the chances for the public to enjoy field trips and excursions and to understand the importance of geo-diversity. The Day

  1. Geologic map of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P.; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.

    2014-01-01

    This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

  2. Geological fakes and frauds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, Alastair; Majury, Niall; Brooks, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Some geological fakes and frauds are carried out solely for financial gain (mining fraud), whereas others maybe have increasing aesthetic appeal (faked fossils) or academic advancement (fabricated data) as their motive. All types of geological fake or fraud can be ingenious and sophisticated, as demonstrated in this article. Fake gems, faked fossils and mining fraud are common examples where monetary profit is to blame: nonetheless these may impact both scientific theory and the reputation of geologists and Earth scientists. The substitution or fabrication of both physical and intellectual data also occurs for no direct financial gain, such as career advancement or establishment of belief (e.g. evolution vs. creationism). Knowledge of such fakes and frauds may assist in spotting undetected geological crimes: application of geoforensic techniques helps the scientific community to detect such activity, which ultimately undermines scientific integrity.

  3. Geology of the Bighorn Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darton, N.H.

    1906-01-01

    There are extensive, forests in the mountains, which are now included in a Government forest reserve, but their timber is not of great value. Much of the area below timber line contains an abundance of luxuriant grasses and other plants, which afford excellent pasturage for stock, and large herds of sheep and cattle are ranged in the region during the short summer season. Game is moderately abundant, and most of the streams contain large numbers of trout. The region is one of great interest geologically on account of its variety of sedimentary rocks, interesting structure, and remarkably instructive glacial features. The central area, with its high peaks, presents alpine scenery of notable character. Doubtless in the future the region will be extensively visited by tourists, hunters, and geologists.

  4. Measuring Geologic Time on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Recent images from Mars show compelling evidence of near-surface flowing water, aeolian activity slope processes, and ice cap evolution that underscores the dynamic geologic history of the planet. Establishing an accurate chronology for Martian planetary features is critical for addressing fundamental questions about the evolution of the planet's surface and atmosphere and the differentiation of its interior. For example, how long was standing water on the surface? If life did evolve on Mars, did it occur before or after the evolution of life on Earth? These are arguably some of the most profound questions currently being asked by the planetary science community. Yet answers will not be forthcoming without an absolute chronology of Mars history, enabling the construction of a timescale comparable to Earth's. Discussion of methods for establishing such a chronology is particularly timely in light of new missions to Mars that are being planned to return in situ measurements or samples to Earth.

  5. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, M. G.; Heasler, P. G.; Hoover, K. A.; Rynes, N. J.; Thiessen, R. L.; Alfaro, J. L.

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures.

  6. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A. ); Rynes, N.J. ); Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L. )

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A.; Rynes, N.J.; Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA`s characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL`s RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Geological assessment of the greenhouse effect

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J. )

    1993-12-01

    Geologic studies provide a valuable perspective on the importance of greenhouse forcing for climate change. On both Pleistocene and tectonic time scales, changes in climate are positively correlated with greenhouse gas variations. However, the sensitivity of the system to greenhouse gas changes cannot yet be constrained by paleoclimate data below its present large range. Geologic records do not support one of the major predictions of greenhouse models-namely, that tropical sea surface temperatures will increase. Geologic data also suggest that winter cooling in high-latitude land areas is less than predicted by models. As the above-mentioned predictions appear to be systemic features of the present generation of climate models, some significant changes in model design may be required to reconcile models and geologic data. However, full acceptance of this conclusion requires more measurements and more systematic compilations of existing geologic data. Since progress in data collection in this area has been quite slow, uncertainties associated with these conclusions may persist for some time. 106 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Geological Investigation Program for the Site of a New Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstenkorn, András; Trosits, Dalma; Chikán, Géza; János Katona, Tamás

    2015-04-01

    Comprehensive site evalaution program is implemented for the new Nuclear Power Plant to be constructed at Paks site in Hungary with the aim of confirmation of acceptability of the site and definition of site-related design basis data. Most extensive part of this program is to investigate geological-tectonical features of the site with particular aim on the assessment of the capability of faults at and around the site, characterization of site seismic hazard, and definition of the design basis earthquake. A brief description of the scope and methodology of the geological, seismological, geophysical, geotechnical and hydrogeological investigations will be given on the poster. Main focus of the presentation is to show the graded structure and extent of the geological investigations that follow the needs and scale of the geological modeling, starting with the site and its vicinity, as well as on the near regional and the regional scale. Geological inverstigations includes several boreholes up-to the base-rock, plenty of boreholes discovering the Pannonian and large number of shallow boreholes for investigation of more recent development. The planning of the geological investigations is based on the 3D seismic survey performed around the site, that is complemented by shallow-seimic survey at and in the vicinity of the site. The 3D geophysical imaging provides essential geodynamic information to assess the capability of near site faults and for the seismic hazard analysis, as well as for the hydrogeological modeling. The planned seismic survey gives a unique dataset for understanding the spatial relationship between individual fault segments. Planning of the research (trenching, etc.) for paleoseismic manifestations is also based on the 3D seismic survey. The seismic survey and other geophysical data (including data of space geodesy) allow the amendment of the understanding and the model of the tectonic evolution of the area and geological events. As it is known from

  10. Deterministic geologic processes and stochastic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.; Flint, A.L.

    1991-12-31

    Recent outcrop sampling at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has produced significant new information regarding the distribution of physical properties at the site of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Consideration of the spatial distribution of measured values and geostatistical measures of spatial variability indicates that there are a number of widespread deterministic geologic features at the site that have important implications for numerical modeling of such performance aspects as ground water flow and radionuclide transport. These deterministic features have their origin in the complex, yet logical, interplay of a number of deterministic geologic processes, including magmatic evolution; volcanic eruption, transport, and emplacement; post-emplacement cooling and alteration; and late-stage (diagenetic) alteration. Because of geologic processes responsible for formation of Yucca Mountain are relatively well understood and operate on a more-or-less regional scale, understanding of these processes can be used in modeling the physical properties and performance of the site. Information reflecting these deterministic geologic processes may be incorporated into the modeling program explicitly, using geostatistical concepts such as soft information, or implicitly, through the adoption of a particular approach to modeling. It is unlikely that any single representation of physical properties at the site will be suitable for all modeling purposes. Instead, the same underlying physical reality will need to be described many times, each in a manner conducive to assessing specific performance issues.

  11. Iapetus: Tectonic structure and geologic history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1991-01-01

    Many papers have been written about the surface of Iapetus, but most of these have discussed either the nature of the strongly contrasting light and dark materials or the cratering record. Little has been said about other geologic features on Iapetus, such as tectonic structures, which would provide constraints on Iapetus' thermal history. Most references have suggested that there is no conclusive evidence for any tectonic activity, even when thermal history studies indicate that there should be. However, a new study of Iapetus' surface involving the use of stereo pairs, an extensive tectonic network has been recognized. A few new observations concerning the craters and dark material were also made. Thus the geology and geologic history of Iapetus can be more fully outlined than before. The tectonic network is shown along with prominent craters and part of the dark material in the geologic/tectonic sketch map. The topology of crater rims and scarps are quite apparent and recognizable in the different image pairs. The heights and slopes of various features given are based on comparison with the depths of craters 50 to 100 km in diameter, which are assumed to have the same depths as craters of similar diameter on Rhea and Titania.

  12. Digital Geologic Map Database of Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, D. W.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Felger, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    Medicine Lake volcano, located in the southern Cascades ~55 km east-northeast of Mount Shasta, is a large rear-arc, shield-shaped volcano with an eruptive history spanning nearly 500 k.y. Geologic mapping of Medicine Lake volcano has been digitally compiled as a spatial database in ArcGIS. Within the database, coverage feature classes have been created representing geologic lines (contacts, faults, lava tubes, etc.), geologic unit polygons, and volcanic vent location points. The database can be queried to determine the spatial distributions of different rock types, geologic units, and other geologic and geomorphic features. These data, in turn, can be used to better understand the evolution, growth, and potential hazards of this large, rear-arc Cascades volcano. Queries of the database reveal that the total area covered by lavas of Medicine Lake volcano, which range in composition from basalt through rhyolite, is about 2,200 km2, encompassing all or parts of 27 U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000-scale topographic quadrangles. The maximum extent of these lavas is about 80 km north-south by 45 km east-west. Occupying the center of Medicine Lake volcano is a 7 km by 12 km summit caldera in which nestles its namesake, Medicine Lake. The flanks of the volcano, which are dotted with cinder cones, slope gently upward to the caldera rim, which reaches an elevation of nearly 2,440 m. Approximately 250 geologic units have been mapped, only half a dozen of which are thin surficial units such as alluvium. These volcanic units mostly represent eruptive events, each commonly including a vent (dome, cinder cone, spatter cone, etc.) and its associated lava flow. Some cinder cones have not been matched to lava flows, as the corresponding flows are probably buried, and some flows cannot be correlated with vents. The largest individual units on the map are all basaltic in composition, including the late Pleistocene basalt of Yellowjacket Butte (296 km2 exposed), the largest unit on the

  13. The Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, C.S.

    1992-11-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector is a new 150 GeV proton synchrotron, designed to replace the Main Ring and improve the high energy physics potential of Fermilab. The status of the Fermilab accelerator complex upgrade will be discussed.

  14. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Geological hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, W.P.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent US Geological Survey (USGS) publications and USGS open-file reports related to this project. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis).

  15. Fractal features of seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caserta, A.; Consolini, G.; Michelis, P. De

    2003-04-01

    We present experimental observations and data analysis concerning the fractal features of seismic noise in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 40 Hz. In detail, we investigate the 3D average squared soil displacement and the distribution function of its fluctuations for different near-surface geological structures. We found that the seismic noise is consistent with a persistent fractal brownian motion characterized by a Hurst exponent grather than 1/2. Moreover, a clear dependence of the fractal nature of the seismic noise on the near-surface local geology has been found.

  16. Geologic map of Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, Kenzie J.; Berry, Margaret E.; Page, William R.; Lehman, Thomas M.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Scott, Robert B.; Miggins, Daniel P.; Budahn, James R.; Cooper, Roger W.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Williams, Van S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this map is to provide the National Park Service and the public with an updated digital geologic map of Big Bend National Park (BBNP). The geologic map report of Maxwell and others (1967) provides a fully comprehensive account of the important volcanic, structural, geomorphological, and paleontological features that define BBNP. However, the map is on a geographically distorted planimetric base and lacks topography, which has caused difficulty in conducting GIS-based data analyses and georeferencing the many geologic features investigated and depicted on the map. In addition, the map is outdated, excluding significant data from numerous studies that have been carried out since its publication more than 40 years ago. This report includes a modern digital geologic map that can be utilized with standard GIS applications to aid BBNP researchers in geologic data analysis, natural resource and ecosystem management, monitoring, assessment, inventory activities, and educational and recreational uses. The digital map incorporates new data, many revisions, and greater detail than the original map. Although some geologic issues remain unresolved for BBNP, the updated map serves as a foundation for addressing those issues. Funding for the Big Bend National Park geologic map was provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program and the National Park Service. The Big Bend mapping project was administered by staff in the USGS Geology and Environmental Change Science Center, Denver, Colo. Members of the USGS Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center completed investigations in parallel with the geologic mapping project. Results of these investigations addressed some significant current issues in BBNP and the U.S.-Mexico border region, including contaminants and human health, ecosystems, and water resources. Funding for the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in BBNP, and associated data analyses and

  17. Geologic Map of the Hellas Region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Gregory J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This geologic map of the Hellas region focuses on the stratigraphic, structural, and erosional histories associated with the largest well-preserved impact basin on Mars. Along with the uplifted rim and huge, partly infilled inner basin (Hellas Planitia) of the Hellas basin impact structure, the map region includes areas of ancient highland terrain, broad volcanic edifices and deposits, and extensive channels. Geologic activity recorded in the region spans all major epochs of martian chronology, from the early formation of the impact basin to ongoing resurfacing caused by eolian activity. The Hellas region, whose name refers to the classical term for Greece, has been known from telescopic observations as a prominent bright feature on the surface of Mars for more than a century (see Blunck, 1982). More recently, spacecraft imaging has greatly improved our visual perception of Mars and made possible its geologic interpretation. Here, our mapping at 1:5,000,000 scale is based on images obtained by the Viking Orbiters, which produced higher quality images than their predecessor, Mariner 9. Previous geologic maps of the region include those of the 1:5,000,000-scale global series based on Mariner 9 images (Potter, 1976; Peterson, 1977; King, 1978); the 1:15,000,000-scale global series based on Viking images (Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987); and detailed 1:500,000-scale maps of Tyrrhena Patera (Gregg and others, 1998), Dao, Harmakhis, and Reull Valles (Price, 1998; Mest and Crown, in press), Hadriaca Patera (D.A. Crown and R. Greeley, map in preparation), and western Hellas Planitia (J.M. Moore and D.E. Wilhelms, map in preparation). We incorporated some of the previous work, but our map differs markedly in the identification and organization of map units. For example, we divide the Hellas assemblage of Greeley and Guest (1987) into the Hellas Planitia and Hellas rim assemblages and change the way units within these groupings are identified

  18. Database of the Geology and Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Kathryn; Graham Wall, Brita; White, Donald E.; Hutchinson, Roderick A.; Keith, Terry E.C.; Clor, Laura; Robinson, Joel E.

    2008-01-01

    This dataset contains contacts, geologic units and map boundaries from Plate 1 of USGS Professional Paper 1456, 'The Geology and Remarkable Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.' The features are contained in the Annotation, basins_poly, contours, geology_arc, geology_poly, point_features, and stream_arc feature classes as well as a table of geologic units and their descriptions. This dataset was constructed to produce a digital geologic map as a basis for studying hydrothermal processes in Norris Geyser Basin. The original map does not contain registration tic marks. To create the geodatabase, the original scanned map was georegistered to USGS aerial photographs of the Norris Junction quadrangle collected in 1994. Manmade objects, i.e. roads, parking lots, and the visitor center, along with stream junctions and other hydrographic features, were used for registration.

  19. Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Sam

    2007-04-15

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage is a technology that could be used to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere from large industrial installations such as fossil fuel-fired power stations by 80-90%. It involves the capture of carbon dioxide at a large industrial plant, its transport to a geological storage site and its long-term isolation in a geological storage reservoir. The technology has aroused considerable interest because it can help reduce emissions from fossil fuels which are likely to remain the dominant source of primary energy for decades to come. The main issues for the technology are cost and its implications for financing new or retrofitted plants, and the security of underground storage.

  20. Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    Mariner 9 and Viking spacecraft images revealed that the polar regions of Mars, like those of Earth, record the planet's climate history. However, fundamental uncertainties regarding the materials, features, ages and processes constituting the geologic record remained. Recently acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data and Mars Orbiter Camera high-resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and moderately high-resolution Thermal Emission Imaging System visible images from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft permit more comprehensive geologic and climatic analyses. Here I map and show the history of geologic materials and features in the north polar region that span the Amazonian period (???3.0 Gyr ago to present). Erosion and redeposition of putative circumpolar mud volcano deposits (formed by eruption of liquefied, fine-grained material) led to the formation of an Early Amazonian polar plateau consisting of dark layered materials. Crater ejecta superposed on pedestals indicate that a thin mantle was present during most of the Amazonian, suggesting generally higher obliquity and insolation conditions at the poles than at present. Brighter polar layered deposits rest unconformably on the dark layers and formed mainly during lower obliquity over the past 4-5 Myr (ref. 20). Finally, the uppermost layers post-date the latest downtrend in obliquity <20,000 years ago. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  1. Life on Guam: Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Gail

    This unit is part of a series of materials produced by a project to develop locally applicable class, lab, and field materials in ecology and social studies for Guam junior and senior high schools. While the materials were designed for Guam, they can be adapted to other localities. This unit is designed to acquaint the students with the geology of…

  2. Glacial Geology of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    This publication is a teacher's resource and guidebook for the presentation of the three filmstrips in the "Glacial Geology of Wisconsin" series. The first filmstrip is subtitled, "Evidence of the Glaciers," the second "How the Glaciers Reshaped the Landscape," and the third "Fossils of the Ice Age."…

  3. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  4. Briefing on geological sequestration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media – primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

  5. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A wide variety of topics on planetary geology are presented. Subjects include stratigraphy and geomorphology of Copernicus, the Mamers valle region, and other selected regions of Mars and the Moon. Crater density and distribution are discussed for Callisto and the lunar surface. Spectroscopic analysis is described for Europa and Ganymede.

  6. Geology of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    Included are a teacher's guidebook and two filmstrips, "Geology of Wisconsin," and associated materials. The following are described: outline of objectives; suggested use of the filmstrips and guidebook; outline of the filmstrip content; four pages of illustrations suitable for duplication; a test for each filmstrip; and a list of…

  7. Geology: The Active Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Geology: The Active Earth." Contents are organized into the…

  8. Geological Field Trip Guidebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Harriet E.

    1978-01-01

    Geological field trip guidebooks, developed for use during a field trip or field conference, are considered ephemeral publications by their compilers and publishers. Too few copies are printed and little attention is paid to bibliographic format and information. These difficulties are discussed and recommendations are made to alleviate the…

  9. Public perceptions of geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.

  10. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawai'i: Geology and Coastal Landforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues that link the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO) was established in 1978 in order to preserve and protect traditional native Hawaiian culture and cultural sites. The park is the site of an ancient Hawaiian settlement, occupies 469 ha and is considered a locale of considerable cultural and historical

  11. Impact, and its implications for geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, Ursula B.

    1988-01-01

    The publication of seminal texts on geology and on meteoritics in the 1790s, laid the groundwork for the emergence of each discipline as a modern branch of science. Within the past three decades, impact cratering has become universally accepted as a process that sculptures the surfaces of planets and satellites throughout the solar system. Nevertheless, one finds in-depth discussions of impact processes mainly in books on the Moon or in surveys of the Solar System. The historical source of the separation between meteoritics and geology is easy to identify. It began with Hutton. Meteorite impact is an extraordinary event acting instantaneously from outside the Earth. It violates Hutton's principles, which were enlarged upon and firmly established as fundamental to the geological sciences by Lyell. The split between meteoritics and geology surely would have healed as early as 1892 if the investigations conducted by Gilbert (1843-1918) at the crater in northern Arizona had yielded convincing evidence of meteorite impact. The 1950s and 1960s saw a burgeoning of interest in impact processes. The same period witnessed the so-called revolution in the Earth Sciences, when geologists yielded up the idea of fixed continents and began to view the Earth's lithosphere as a dynamic array of horizontally moving plates. Plate tectonics, however, is fully consistent with the geological concepts inherited from Hutton: the plates slowly split, slide, and suture, driven by forces intrinsic to the globe.

  12. Geologic mapping of Northern Atla Regio on Venus: Preliminary data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikishin, A. M.; Burba, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Northern part of Atla Regio within the frame of C1-formate Magellan photo map 15N197 was mapped geologically at scale 1:8,000,000. This is a part of Russia's contribution into C1 geologic mapping efforts. The map is reproduced here being reduced about twice. The map shows that the Northern Atla area is predominantly a volcanic plain with numerous volcanic features: shield volcanoes, domes and hills with various morphology, corona-like constructions, radar bright and dark spots often with flow-like outlines. Relatively small areas of tessera occurred in the area are mainly semi-flooded with the plain material. Tesserae are considered to be the oldest terrains within the map sheet. There are many lineated terrains in the region. They are interpreted as the old, almost-buried tesserae (those with crossed lineaments) or partly buried ridge belts (those with parallel lineaments). These lineated terrains have an intermediate age between the young volcanic plains and the old tessera areas. Two prominent high volcanic shields are located within the region - Ozza Mons and Sapas Mona. The most prominent structure in Northern Atla is Ganis Chasma rift. The rift cuts volcanic plain and is considered to be under formation during approximately the same time with Ozza Mons shield. Ganis Chasma rift valley is highly fractured and bounded with fault scarps. Rift shoulder uplifts are typical for Ganis Chasma. There are few relatively young volcanic features inside the rift valley. The analysis of fracturing and rift valley geometry shows the rift originated due to 5-10 percent crustal extention followed by the crustal subsidence. The age sequence summary for the main terrain types in the region is (from older to younger ones): tesserae; lineated terrains with crossed lineaments; lineated terrains with parallel lineaments; volcanic plains; and prominent volcanic shields and Ganis Chasma rift valley. The geologic structure of Atla Regio as it appeared now with the Magellan high

  13. The effect of geological and geographical features on environmental radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, J.; Oka, M.; Shimo, M.; Minami, K.; Minato, S.; Sugino, M.; Hosoda, M.; Fukushi, M.

    2008-08-07

    The gamma-ray dose rates were measured in Gifu and Tokushima Prefectures in Japan. Measurements were carried out by the car-borne survey method. The dose rate in basaltic terrain in Tokushima prefecture was almost same as average of basaltic terrain in Japan. On the other hand, the dose rate in basaltic terrain in Gifu Prefecture was not same. In situ measurement of terrestrial gamma-ray dose rate was carried out in this terrain to examine its cause. As a result, it was estimated that soil of rhyolite which attributed to neighbor terrain have deposited on this terrain.

  14. [Features of cardiologic diseases prevalence among individuals engaged into geology].

    PubMed

    Zinenko; Petrichenko, S I; Miroshnikov, M P; Dasaeva, L A; Vermel', A E

    2005-01-01

    The authors studied influence of work and living conditions on geologists' health state. A cohort under study demonstrated paradoxical epidemiologic situation with high mortality risk of arterial hypertension, whereas prevalence of this disease among specialists working on expeditionary shifted mode is nearly equal to that among general population. Unfavorable situation concerning cardiovascular diseases could be caused by high prevalence of cardiovascular risks and some occupational hazards. The situation is deteriorated by insufficient medical observation and psychologic traits of the specialists working on expeditionary shifted mode.

  15. Seismically damaged regolith as self-organized fragile geological feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, Norman H.

    2011-12-01

    The S-wave velocity in the shallow subsurface within seismically active regions self-organizes so that typical strong dynamic shear stresses marginally exceed the Coulomb elastic limit. The dynamic velocity from major strike-slip faults yields simple dimensional relations. The near-field velocity pulse is essentially a Love wave. The dynamic shear strain is the ratio of the measured particle velocity over the deep S-wave velocity. The shallow dynamic shear stress is this quantity times the local shear modulus. The dynamic shear traction on fault parallel vertical planes is finite at the free surface. Coulomb failure occurs on favorably oriented fractures and internally in intact rock. I obtain the equilibrium shear modulus by starting a sequence of earthquakes with intact stiff rock extending all the way to the surface. The imposed dynamic shear strain in stiff rock causes Coulomb failure at shallow depths and leaves cracks in it wake. Cracked rock is more compliant than the original intact rock. Cracked rock is also weaker in friction, but shear modulus changes have a larger effect. Each subsequent event causes additional shallow cracking until the rock becomes compliant enough that it just reaches Coulomb failure over a shallow depth range of tens to hundreds of meters. Further events maintain the material at the shear modulus as a function where it just fails. The formalism provided in the paper yields reasonable representation of the S-wave velocity in exhumed sediments near Cajon Pass and the San Fernando Valley of California. A general conclusion is that shallow rocks in seismically active areas just become nonlinear during typical shaking. This process causes transient changes in S-wave velocity, but not strong nonlinear attenuation of seismic waves. Wave amplitudes significantly larger than typical ones would strongly attenuate and strongly damage the rock.

  16. The importance of geological data and derived information in seismic response assessment for urban sites. An example from the Island of Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonios; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    The magnitude, frequency content and duration of an earthquake ground motion depends mainly on the surrounding geological, tectonic and geomorphological conditions. Numerous reports have been contacted illustrating the necessity of providing accurate geological information in order to estimate the level of seismic hazard. In this context, geological information is the outcome of processing primary, raw field data and geotechnical investigation data that are non - organized and associated with the geological model of the study area. In most cases, the geological information is provided as an advance element, a key component of the "function" that solves any geo-environmental problem and is primarily reflected on analogue or digital maps. The main objective of the present study is to illustrate the importance of accurate geological information in the thirteen (13) selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island, in order to estimate the seismic action according to Eurocode (EC8). As an example the detailed geological-geotechnical map of the area around HAN site in Rethymno city, Crete is presented. The research area covers a 250m radius surrounding the RTHE HAN-station at a scale of 1: 2000 with detail description of the geological and geotechnical characteristics of the formations as well as the tectonic features (cracks, upthrust, thrust, etc) of the rock mass. The field survey showed that the RTHE station is founded over limestones and dolomites formations. The formations exhibit very good geomechanical behaviour; however they present extensive fragmentation and karstification. At this particular site the identification of a fault nearby the station proved to be significant information for the geophysical research as the location and orientation of the tectonic setting provided new perspective on the models of seismic wave prorogation. So, the geological data and the induced information along with the tectonic structure of

  17. Conversion of Geologic Quadrangle Maps to Geologic Coverages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    HARMON CREEK 30 NW WOOLWORTH 39 NW 8 Conversion of Geologic Guadrangle Maps to Geologic Coverages Table 1. Completed geologic coverages for Tennessee...40 WINDLE 19 WOLF PIT RIDGE 35 WOODBURY 22 WOOLWORTH 29 YOUNGVILLE 17 YUMA 78 NE 328 NE 19 SW 316 SW 43 NE 153 SE 305 SW 145 SW 307 SE

  18. Aboveground roofed design for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J.A.

    1993-03-01

    The conceptual designs proposed in this report resulted from a study for the Maine Low-level Radioactive Waste Authority to develop conceptual designs for a safe and reliable disposal facility for Maine`s low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Freezing temperatures, heavy rainfall, high groundwater tables, and very complex and shallow glaciated soils found in Maine place severe constraints on the design. The fundamental idea behind the study was to consider Maine`s climatic and geological conditions at the beginning of conceptual design rather than starting with a design for another location and adapting it for Maine`s conditions. The conceptual designs recommended are entirely above ground and consist of an inner vault designed to provide shielding and protection against inadvertent intrusion and an outer building to protect the inner vault from water. The air dry conditions within the outer building should lead to almost indefinite service life for the concrete inner vault and the waste containers. This concept differs sharply from the usual aboveground vault in its reliance on at least two independent, but more or less conventional, roofing systems for primary and secondary protection against leakage of radioisotopes from the facility. Features include disposal of waste in air dry environment, waste loading and visual inspection by remote-controlled overhead cranes, and reliance on engineered soils for tertiary protection against release of radioactive materials.

  19. Using Snow to Teach Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Charles

    1991-01-01

    A lesson plan, directed at middle school students and older, describes using snow to study the geological processes of solidification of molten material, sedimentation, and metamorphosis. Provides background information on these geological processes. (MCO)

  20. Geologic Map Database of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, Douglas B.; Shock, Nancy; Green, Gregory N.; Dumonceaux, Gayle M.; Heran, William D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to release a digital geologic map database for the State of Texas. This database was compiled for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Program, National Surveys and Analysis Project, whose goal is a nationwide assemblage of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data. This release makes the geologic data from the Geologic Map of Texas available in digital format. Original clear film positives provided by the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology were photographically enlarged onto Mylar film. These films were scanned, georeferenced, digitized, and attributed by Geologic Data Systems (GDS), Inc., Denver, Colorado. Project oversight and quality control was the responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey. ESRI ArcInfo coverages, AMLs, and shapefiles are provided.

  1. Geologic Mapping of V-19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, P.; Stofan, E. R.; Guest, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    A geologic map of the Sedna Planitia (V-19) quadrangle is being completed at the 1:5,000,000 scale as part of the NASA Planetary Geologic Mapping Program, and will be submitted for review by September 2009.

  2. Geology of California. Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.M.; Webb, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Two introductory chapters familiarize readers with basic geologic concepts. The following chapters describe the geology of each of California's 11 geomorphic provinces; the San Andreas fault and offshore geology are discussed in two separate chapters. Four appendices acquaint readers with technical words and terms, common minerals and rocks in California, geologic time, and geologic theories that pertain to California. During the 1960s evidence collected from the east Pacific sea floor off the western coast of North America gave scientists supporting data for Alfred Wegener's 1910 theory of continental drift. In addition to the confirmation of continental drift, since the 1960s scientists have discovered paleomagnetism, sea-floor spreading, exotic and suspect terranes, and polar wandering. These important concepts have had far reaching effects about how we understand the geology of California and how this region has evolved through geologic time. Improved investigative procedures enable earth scientists to comprehend previously puzzling aspects of California's geology.

  3. The Maine Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Tom

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the successful laptop program employed at Mt. Abram High School in Strong, Maine. Through the Maine Learning Technology Initiative, the school has issued laptops to all 36,000 teachers and students in grades 7-8. This program has helped level the playing field for a student population that is 50 percent to 55…

  4. Teaching Main Idea Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F., Ed.

    Intended to help classroom teachers, curriculum developers, and researchers, this book provides current information on theoretical and instructional aspects of main idea comprehension. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Confused World of Main Idea" (James W. Cunningham and David W. Moore); "The Comprehension of Important…

  5. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  6. Introduction to ore geology

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook on ore geology is for second and third year undergraduates and closely parallels the undergraduate course given in this subject at England's University of Leicester. The volume covers three major areas: (1) principles of ore geology, (2) examples of the most important types of ore deposits, and (3) mineralization in space and time. Many chapters have been thoroughly revised for this edition and a chapter on diamonds has been added. Chapters on greisen and pegmatite have also been added, the former in response to the changing situation in tin mining following the recent tin crisis, and the latter in response to suggestions from geologists in a number of overseas countries. Some chapters have been considerably expanded and new sections added, including disseminated gold deposits and unconformity-associated uranium deposits. The author also expands on the importance of viewing mineral deposits from an economic standpoint.

  7. Geological Survey research, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1975-01-01

    'Geological Survey Research 1975 ' is the 16th annual synopsis of the results of U.S. Geological Survey investigations. These studies are largely directed toward the development of knowledge that will assist the Nation to use and conserve the land and its physical resources wisely. They are wide ranging in scope and deal with almost every facet of solid-earth science and fact finding. Many of the studies are continuations of investigations that have been in progress for several years. But others reflect the increased attention being given to problems that have assumed greater importance in recent years--problems relating to mineral fuels and mineral resources, water quality, environmental impact of mineral resources, land-use analysis, earthquake hazards reduction, subsidence, and the applications of LANDSAT data, to cite a few examples. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. 77 FR 19032 - Geological Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... No: 2012-7479] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Announcement of National Geospatial Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY... Arista Maher at the U.S. Geological Survey (703-648-6283, amaher@usgs.gov ). Registrations are due...

  9. Environmental Trends in Geologic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestrong, Raymond

    1970-01-01

    Considers strategies for developing college level introductory environmental geology courses, emphasizing relevance to local surroundings, Considers graduate studies in this field, but does not recommend the establishment of an environmental geology department at this time. Reviews the responsibilities the geology department has to the community…

  10. Geologic map of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mull, Charles G.; Karl, Susan M.

    2015-12-31

    This Alaska compilation is unique in that it is integrated with a rich database of information provided in the spatial datasets and standalone attribute databases. Within the spatial files every line and polygon is attributed to its original source; the references to these sources are contained in related tables, as well as in stand-alone tables. Additional attributes include typical lithology, geologic setting, and age range for the map units. Also included are tables of radiometric ages.

  11. Borehole geological assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuck, W. H., III (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus are discussed for performing geological assessments of a formation located along a borehole, and a boring tool that bores a pair of holes into the walls of the borehole and into the surrounding strata along with a pair of probes which are installed in the holes. One of the probes applies an input such as a current or pressured fluid, and the other probe senses a corresponding input which it receives from the strata.

  12. Engineering and Environmental Geology of the Indian Wells Valley Area.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-06

    Lake playa. The local hydrologic system is composed of two ground-water bodies (Reference 45): a shallow aquifer perched on lacustrine clays near and...6404, publication UNCLASSIFIED.) 42. U.S. Geological Survey. Geologic and Hydrologic Features of Indian Wells Valley, California, by L. C. Dutcher and W...R. Moyle, Jr., Water Supply Paper 2007, 1973, 30 pp. 36 SA NWC TP 6854 43. Leedshill-Herkenhoff, Inc. Alternative Measures to Lower the Groundwater

  13. Integrating geology and perforating

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, P.F. de; Souza Padilha, S.T.C. de

    1997-02-01

    Perforating is a very common well completion operation. Usually, it is considered to be as simple as making holes in casing. Actually, perforating is one of the most critical tasks for establishing a path from reservoir rock to borehole form which hydrocarbons can flow to surface. The objective of this article is to relate perforating technology with geological aspects and completion type to determine the best shooting equipment (gun type, charge and differential pressure) to perform the most efficient perforating job. Several subjects related to formation geology are taken into account for a shooting job, such as: compressive strength, reservoir pressure and thickness, lithology type, porosity and permeability, ratio between horizontal and vertical permeabilities, and fluid type. Gun geometry used in the oil industry incorporates several parameters, including shot density, hole entrance diameter, gun phase and jet penetration. API tests are done on perforating guns to define applicability and performance. A new geometrical parameter is defined as the relative angle of the jet, which is the angle between the jet tunnel and formation dip. GEOCAN is a methodology which relates geology to gun geometry and type to define the most efficient gun system for perforated completions. It uses the intelligent perforating technique with the SPAN (Schlumberger Perforating Analysis) program to confirm optimum gun choice.

  14. Aeromagnetic data and geological structure of continental China: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Sheng-Qing; Tong, Jing; Ding, Yan-Yun; Li, Zhan-Kui

    2016-06-01

    We review the latest aeromagnetic geological data of continental China. We discuss the latest achievements in geological mapping and the newly detected features based on aeromagnetic data. Using aeromagnetic data collected for more than 50 years, a series of 1:5000000 and 1:1000000 aeromagnetic maps of continental China were compiled using state-of-the-art digital technology, and data processing and transformation. Guided by plate tectonics and continental dynamics, rock physical properties, and magnetic anomalies, we compiled maps of the depth of the magnetic basement of continental China and the major geotectonic units, and presented newly detected geological structures based on the aeromagnetic data.

  15. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Geological Hazards (DRAFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, W.P.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed Regis. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publications and open-file reports. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift, and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis). First, overviews of volcanic and earthquake activity, and details of offshore geologic hazards is provided for the Hawaiian Islands. Then, a more detailed discussion of onshore geologic hazards is presented with special emphasis on the southern third of Hawaii and the east rift

  16. Mars Global Geologic Mapping: Amazonian Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Dohm, J. M.; Irwin, R.; Kolb, E. J.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    We are in the second year of a five-year effort to map the geology of Mars using mainly Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, and Mars Odyssey imaging and altimetry datasets. Previously, we have reported on details of project management, mapping datasets (local and regional), initial and anticipated mapping approaches, and tactics of map unit delineation and description [1-2]. For example, we have seen how the multiple types and huge quantity of image data as well as more accurate and detailed altimetry data now available allow for broader and deeper geologic perspectives, based largely on improved landform perception, characterization, and analysis. Here, we describe early mapping results, which include updating of previous northern plains mapping [3], including delineation of mainly Amazonian units and regional fault mapping, as well as other advances.

  17. A campus-based course in field geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, G. A.; Hanson, G. N.

    2009-12-01

    GEO 305: Field Geology offers students practical experience in the field and in the computer laboratory conducting geological field studies on the Stony Brook University campus. Computer laboratory exercises feature mapping techniques and field studies of glacial and environmental geology, and include geophysical and hydrological analysis, interpretation, and mapping. Participants learn to use direct measurement and mathematical techniques to compute the location and geometry of features and gain practical experience in representing raster imagery and vector geographic data as features on maps. Data collecting techniques in the field include the use of hand-held GPS devices, compasses, ground-penetrating radar, tape measures, pacing, and leveling devices. Assignments that utilize these skills and techniques include mapping campus geology with GPS, using Google Earth to explore our geologic context, data file management and ArcGIS, tape and compass mapping of woodland trails, pace and compass mapping of woodland trails, measuring elevation differences on a hillside, measuring geologic sections and cores, drilling through glacial deposits, using ground penetrating radar on glaciotectonic topography, mapping the local water table, and the identification and mapping of boulders. Two three-hour sessions are offered per week, apportioned as needed between lecture; discussion; guided hands-on instruction in geospatial and other software such as ArcGIS, Google Earth, spreadsheets, and custom modules such as an arc intersection calculator; outdoor data collection and mapping; and writing of illustrated reports.

  18. Geologic mapping of the Semipalatinsk region, Eastern Kazakstan, using Landsat Thematic Mapper and spot panchromatic data

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.A.; Berlin, G.L.

    1992-12-31

    This geologic reconnaissance study centers on a 90 by 140 km area about 100 km southwest of Semipalatinsk near the east border of the Kazakstan Republic of the USSR. Semipalatinsk, a regional center for grain growing, and several other cities along the Irtysh River were originally established as fortified outposts by the Russians during the 18th and 19th centuries to contain the indigenous, nomadic Kazak herdsmen. The Kazakstan region remained largely undeveloped until after the 1917 Russian Revolution, when exploration geologists began discovering many large mineral deposits. Today, known resources include coal, copper, iron ore, lead, zinc, and barite; most of these are of national significance. These vast mineral resources have prompted development of many metallurgical and chemical industries in the republic. Despite the extensive exploration for mineral resources in this region, published geologic maps (Nalivkin, 1960; Esenov, 1971; Borovikov, 1972) are all at scales of 1:1,100,000 or smaller, and there are no detailed descriptions of the geology around Semipalatinsk in the open literature. Our preliminary examination of commercial remote-sensing, data indicated that the lithology and structure of this area are extremely varied and complex at all scales -- much more so than that portrayed on the published geologic maps. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to use commercially available remotely sensed data for the area and remotely sensed data obtained for analog study sites, as well as the sparse, sketchy information in the published literature, to better define and map the geologic units (Sheet 1), structure (Sheet 2), and drainage features (Sheet 3) of this area.

  19. Modernizing Main Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2010-01-01

    This article features Entrepreneurship Pioneers Initiative (EPI), a nine-month-long educational program targeted to first-generation, small business owners offered through the Rutgers University Center for Urban Entrepreneurship and Economic Development. In its second year, EPI has worked with more than 40 businesses out of an applicant pool of…

  20. Geologic Evolution of North America: Geologic features suggest that the continent has grown and differentiated through geologic time.

    PubMed

    Engel, A E

    1963-04-12

    The oldest decipherable rock complexes within continents (more than 2.5 billion years old) are largely basaltic volcanics and graywacke. Recent and modern analogs are the island arcs formed along and adjacent to the unstable interface of continental and oceanic crusts. The major interfacial reactions (orogenies) incorporate pre-existing sial, oceanic crust, and mantle into crust of a more continental type. Incipient stages of continental evolution, more than 3 billion years ago, remain obscure. They may involve either a cataclysmic granite-forming event or a succession of volcanic-sedimentary and granite-forming cycles. Intermediate and recent stages of continental evolution, as indicated by data for North America, involve accretion of numerous crustal interfaces with fragments of adjacent continental crust and their partial melting, reinjection, elevation, unroofing, and stabilization. Areas of relict provinces defined by ages of granites suggest that continental growth is approximately linear. But the advanced differentiation found in many provinces and the known overlaps permit wide deviation from linearity in the direction of a more explosive early or intermediate growth.

  1. The encyclopedia of applied geology

    SciTech Connect

    Finkl, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    This compendium of engineering geology data includes contributions by experts from many countries. Topics center around the field of engineering geology, with special focus on landscapes, earth materials, and the ''management'' of geological processes. How to use geology to serve man is given particular attention. More than 80 entries deal with hydrology, rock structure monitoring, soil mechanics, and engineering geology. Facts are provided on earth science information and sources, electrokinetics, forensic geology, geogryology, nuclear plant siting, photogrammetry, tunnels and tunneling, urban geomorphology, and well data systems. This guide explains the geology of alluvial plains, arid lands, beaches and coasts, delataic plains, cold regions, glacial landscapes, and urban environments. Detailed analyses are given of the geotechnical properties of caliche, clay, duricrust, soil, laterite, marine sediments, and rocks.

  2. Geology of Badlands National Park: a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2003-01-01

    Badlands National Park is host to perhaps the most scenic geology and landscape features in the Western Interior region of the United States. Ongoing erosion that forms the "badlands" exposes ancient sedimentary strata of Late Cretaceous through Oligocene age. Quaternary erosional and depositional processes are responsible for most of the modern landscape features in the park and surrounding region. This report provides a basic overview of the park geology The discussions presented within include both well-established concepts and theories and new, preliminary data and interpretations. Much emphasis is placed on presenting information about the oldest and least studied rocks in the park (particularly the Late Cretaceous and earliest Tertiary deposits that underlie the White River beds throughout the park region). Rock formations and selected fossils they contain are described. Faults, folds, unconformities, and other geologic structures in the North Unit of the park are illustrated, including features associated with the Sage Creek anticline and fault system.

  3. Mapping Vesta: A Geological Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Yingst, R.; Williams, D. A.; Schenk, P.; Neukum, G.; Mottola, S.; Buczkowski, D.; O'Brien, D. P.; Garry, W. B.; Blewett, D. T.; Denevi, B. W.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Sykes, M. V.; De sanctis, M.; McSween, H. Y.; Keller, H. U.; Marchi, S.

    2011-12-01

    Observations from the Dawn (Russell et al., 2007) spacecraft enabled deriva-tion of 4Vesta's shape, facilitated mapping of the surface geology and pro-vided the first evidence for Vesta's geological evolution. The Dawn mission is equipped with a framing camera (FC), a visible and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIR) and a gamma-ray and neutron detector (GRaND). So far science data are collected during the approach to the asteroid and protoplanet Vesta, a circular polar orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera resolution and a lower orbit, at 700 km altitude with a camera resolu-tion of ~ 65 m/pixel. Geomorphology and distribution of surface features provide evidence for impact cratering, tectonic activity, regolith and prob-able volcanic processes. Craters with dark rays, bright rays, and dark rim streaks have been observed, suggesting possible buried stratigraphy. The largest fresh craters retain a simple bowl-shaped morphology, with depth/diameter ratios roughly comparable to lunar values. The largest candi-date crater, a ~460 km depression at the south pole, has been shown to con-tain an incomplete inward facing cuspate scarp, and a large central mound surrounded by unusual complex arcuate ridge and groove patterns. Although asymmetric in general form, these characteristics do not contradict an impact origin but may also allow endogenic processes like convective downwelling or hybrid modification of an impact. Rapid rotation of Vesta during impact may explain some anomalous features (Jutzi and Asphaug, 2010). A set of large equatorial troughs may be related to the formation process of the south polar structure or due to stress caused by changes of the rotational axis. The crater size frequency and the chronology function is derived from the lunar chronology, scaled to impact frequencies modeled for Vesta according to (Bottke et al., 1994) and (O'Brien and Sykes, 2011). The northern hemi-sphere is heavily cratered by a large variety of ancient

  4. Summary of Quaternary geology of the Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoll, H.R.; Yehle, L.A.; Updike, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    Quaternary geology of the Upper Cook Inlet region is dominated by deposits of glacier retreats that followed repeated advances from both adjacent and more distant mountains. At several levels high on the mountains, there are remnant glacial deposits and other features of middle or older Pleistocene age. Late Pleistocene lateral moraines along the Chugach Mountain front represent successively younger positions of ice retreat from the last glacial maximum. As the trunk glacier retreated northeastward up the Anchorage lowland, Cook Inlet transgressed the area, depositing the Bootlegger Cove Formation and Tudor Road deposits. The glacier then readvanced to form the latest Pleistocene Elmendorf Moraine, a prominent feature that trends across the Anchorage lowland. Extensive alluvium was deposited both concurrently and somewhat later as Cook Inlet regressed. Mountain valleys contain (1) locally preserved moraines possibly of early Holocene age; (2) poorly preserved moraine remnants of older late Holocene age; and (3) well-preserved moraines formed mainly during the Little Ice Age. Glaciers still occupy large parts of the mountains, the upper ends of some mountain valleys, and small cirques. Holocene landslide deposits, including those formed during the great Alaska earthquake of 1964, occur throughout the area, especially along bluffs containing the Bootlegger Cove Formation.

  5. Stress field modelling from digital geological map data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Gáspár; Barancsuk, Ádám; Szentpéteri, Krisztián

    2016-04-01

    To create a model for the lithospheric stress a functional geodatabase is required which contains spatial and geodynamic parameters. A digital structural-geological map is a geodatabase, which usually contains enough attributes to create a stress field model. Such a model is not accurate enough for engineering-geological purposes because simplifications are always present in a map, but in many cases maps are the only sources for a tectonic analysis. The here presented method is designed for field geologist, who are interested to see the possible realization of the stress field over the area, on which they are working. This study presents an application which can produce a map of 3D stress vectors from a kml-file. The core application logic is implemented on top of a spatially aware relational database management system. This allows rapid and geographically accurate analysis of the imported geological features, taking advantage of standardized spatial algorithms and indexing. After pre-processing the map features in a GIS, according to the Type-Property-Orientation naming system, which was described in a previous study (Albert et al. 2014), the first stage of the algorithm generates an irregularly spaced point cloud by emitting a pattern of points within a user-defined buffer zone around each feature. For each point generated, a component-wise approximation of the tensor field at the point's position is computed, derived from the original feature's geodynamic properties. In a second stage a weighted moving average method calculates the stress vectors in a regular grid. Results can be exported as geospatial data for further analysis or cartographic visualization. Computation of the tensor field's components is based on the implementation of the Mohr diagram of a compressional model, which uses a Coulomb fracture criterion. Using a general assumption that the main principal stress must be greater than the stress from the overburden, the differential stress is

  6. Regional geology and petroleum potential of the United State Chukchi shelf north of Point Hope

    SciTech Connect

    Grantz, A.; May, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    An extensive frontier terrain that is prospective for petroleum but is as yet incompletely explored and entirely untested underlies the United States Chukchi shelf north of Point Hope. The area is in most places underlain by a thick section of sedimentary rocks prospective for oil and gas, and it contains diverse geologic structures and stratigraphic features that may have trapped hydrocarbon fluids. The prospective sedimentary section includes every geologic system from the Carboniferous to the Tertiary and includes several formations that contain petroleum deposits or strong shows of oil or gas on parts of the North Slope of Alaska. These formations have proved disappointing, however, where tested in a few exploratory wells in the western part of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA), an area that lies adjacent to the Chukchi shelf. The data base consists mainly of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) multichannel seismic-reflection profiles and accompanying high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles shown in figure 10.1 and some additional USGS single-channel seismic-reflection profiles, sonobuoy refraction measurements, and seabed samples. The multichannel seismic profiles, on which the interpretations presented here are mainly based, are mostly 30 to 90 km apart, with typical line spacings of 40 to 50 km. Ice conditions during data acquisition were such, however, that profile coverage in the northern and northwestern parts of the Chukchi Sea is sparse. Because of the wide spacing and irregular distribution of the profiles, the interpretations are reconnaissance in character. Some of the profiles, particularly in the southwestern part of the study area, are affected by strong artifacts that further limit their usefulness for geologic interpretation and resource assessment.

  7. Co2 geological sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu

    2004-11-18

    Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  8. Geological interpretation of a Gemini photo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemphill, William R.; Danilchik, Walter

    1968-01-01

    Study of the Gemini V photograph of the Salt Range and Potwar Plateau, West Pakistan, indicates that small-scale orbital photographs permit recognition of the regional continuity of some geologic features, particularly faults and folds that could he easily overlooked on conventional air photographs of larger scale. Some stratigraphic relationships can also be recognized on the orbital photograph, but with only minimal previous geologic knowledge of the area, these interpretations are less conclusive or reliable than the interpretation of structure. It is suggested that improved atmospheric penetration could be achieved through the use of color infrared film. Photographic expression of topography could also be improved by deliberately photographing some areas during periods of low sun angle.

  9. Landsat-1 imagery for geologic evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welby, C. W.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews the geologic evaluation of the North Carolina coastal plain using Landsat-1 imagery as related to a general study of the geomorphology to assess the imagery as a tool for upgrading the understanding of the coastal plain, along with recognition of subsurface structures. Among the more prominent features displayed on the Landsat imagery are the scarps and beach ridges associated with former positions of the shoreline. Compilations of various types of lineaments reveal two dominant trends, one northwest-southeast and the other northeast-southwest, which are significant in the tectonic development of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The synoptic view recorded by the satellite allows a perspective that aids geologic studies of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

  10. Contributions to the geology of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.O.; Willis, Bailey

    1903-01-01

    Central Washington includes a part of two great topographic provinces; the great plain of the Columbia and the Cascade Range. The former, in its position and general desert-like character, suggests at once a resemblance to the Great Basin of Utah and Nevada; and the vastness of the desert plain is emphasized by the snowy peaks of the Cascades along its western border. These provinces are not to be regarded as unconnected in their geologic history, however great the contrast in their general features. The intermediate zone between the great plain on the east and the mountain range on the west is a strategic point for the investigation of the geologic structure and history and the interpretation of the present topography of both provinces. On the extensive basalt-covered plain monotony wearies the traveler, while on the rocky peaks of the Cascades the complexity taxes the powers of the observer. 

  11. Evaluation of thermal data for geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, A. B.; Palluconi, F. D.; Levine, C. J.; Abrams, M. J.; Nash, D. B.; Alley, R. E.; Schieldge, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Sensitivity studies using thermal models indicated sources of errors in the determination of thermal inertia from HCMM data. Apparent thermal inertia, with only simple atmospheric radiance corrections to the measured surface temperature, would be sufficient for most operational requirements for surface thermal inertia. Thermal data does have additional information about the nature of surface material that is not available in visible and near infrared reflectance data. Color composites of daytime temperature, nighttime temperature, and albedo were often more useful than thermal inertia images alone for discrimination of lithologic boundaries. A modeling study, using the annual heating cycle, indicated the feasibility of looking for geologic features buried under as much as a meter of alluvial material. The spatial resolution of HCMM data is a major limiting factor in the usefulness of the data for geologic applications. Future thermal infrared satellite sensors should provide spatial resolution comparable to that of the LANDSAT data.

  12. The Geologic Story of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, William Richard

    1971-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Civil War, the United States expanded the exploration of her western frontiers to gain a measure of the vast lands and natural resources in the region now occupied by our Rocky Mountain States. As part of this effort, the Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories was organized within the Department of the Interior, and staffed by a group of hardy, pioneering scientists under the leadership of geologist F. V. Hayden. During the summer of 1871, these men, accompanied by photographer William H. Jackson and artist Thomas Moran, made a reconnaissance geological study of the legendary and mysterious 'Yellowstone Wonderland' in remote northwestern Wyoming Territory. The scientific reports and illustrations prepared by Hayden and his colleagues, supplementing the startling accounts that had been published by members of the famous Washburn-Doane Expedition a year earlier, erased all doubts that this unique land was eminently worthy of being set aside 'for the benefit and enjoyment of the people.' By Act of Congress on March 1, 1872, our first National Park was established. During the past century, 50 million people have toured Yellowstone National Park, marveling at its never-ending display of natural wonders. No doubt many have paused to wonder about the origin of these unusual and complex geological features - a question, needless to say, that has intrigued and challenged scientists from the very first days of the Hayden Survey. During the past decade a group of U. S. Geological Survey scientists, in cooperation with the National Park Service and aided by the interest of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in remote sensing of the geologic phenomena, has been probing the depths and farthest corners of the Park seeking more of the answers. Some of the results of this work, and those of earlier studies, are described in this book to provide a better understanding and enjoyment of this great National Park.

  13. Toward digital geologic map standards: a progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulrech, George E.; Reynolds, Mitchell W.; Taylor, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    Establishing modern scientific and technical standards for geologic maps and their derivative map products is vital to both producers and users of such maps as we move into an age of digital cartography. Application of earth-science data in complex geographic information systems, acceleration of geologic map production, and reduction of population costs require that national standards be developed for digital geologic cartography and computer analysis. Since December 1988, under commission of the Chief Geologic of the U.S. Geological Survey and the mandate of the National Geologic Mapping Program (with added representation from the Association of American State Geologists), a committee has been designing a comprehensive set of scientific map standards. Three primary issues were: (1) selecting scientific symbology and its digital representation; (2) creating an appropriate digital coding system that characterizes geologic features with respect to their physical properties, stratigraphic and structural relations, spatial orientation, and interpreted mode of origin; and (3) developing mechanisms for reporting levels of certainty for descriptive as well as measured properties. Approximately 650 symbols for geoscience maps, including present usage of the U.S Geological Survey, state geological surveys, industry, and academia have been identified and tentatively adopted. A proposed coding system comprises four-character groupings of major and minor codes that can identify all attributes of a geologic feature. Such a coding system allows unique identification of as many as 105 geologic names and values on a given map. The new standard will track closely the latest developments of the Proposed Standard for Digital Cartographic Data soon to be submitted to the National Institute of Standards and Technology by the Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography. This standard will adhere generally to the accepted definitions and specifications for spatial

  14. Notes on the geology of northeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    St. John, O.

    1876-01-01

    During the season of 1869, in the progress of his extended reconnaissance of the Rocky Mountains, Dr. Hayden visited this region, from whom we have authentic account of its general geological features, and their intimate relation to those prevailing in other and similar districts to the north and south. A few months' residence in this part of the country in 1874-'75* afforded the writer opportunity to become somewhat familiar with its geological features; and the purpose of the present communication is to present such facts as may tend to contribute something toward a similar knowledge of remote and perhaps hitherto rarely-visited localities, and their connection with already examined districts.

  15. Geologic Map of the Nulato Quadrangle, West-Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, W.W.; Moll-Stalcup, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction The Nulato quadrangle encompasses approximately 17,000 km2 (6,500 mi2) of west-central Alaska within the Yukon River drainage basin. The quadrangle straddles two major geologic features-the Yukon-Koyukuk sedimentary basin, a huge triangle-shaped Cretaceous depression that stretches across western Alaska from the Brooks Range to the Yukon delta; and the Ruby geanticline,a broad uplift of pre-Cretaceous rocks that borders the Yukon-Koyukuk basin on the southeast. The Kaltag Fault crosses the quadrangle diagonally from northeast to southwest and dextrally offsets all major geologic features as much as 130 km.

  16. Structural geology of the Earth's exterior*

    PubMed Central

    Burchfiel, B. C.

    1979-01-01

    Plate tectonics offers an explanation for the present motions and heterogeneity of the rocks that form the external part of the Earth. It explains the origin of the first-order heterogeneity of oceanic and continental lithospheres. Furthermore, it explains the youth and simplicity of the oceanic lithosphere and offers the potential to explain the antiquity, complexity, and evolution of the continental lithosphere. The framework of plate tectonics must be used carefully, because there are geological features within continents, particularly in the more ancient rocks, that may require alternative explanations. The task of understanding lithospheric motions through geologic time must be focused on the continents, where the major evidence for 95% of Earth history resides. In interpreting earth motions from the geologic record, three needs seem paramount: (i) to develop a three-dimensional understanding of the kinematics, dynamics, and thermal structure of modern plate boundary systems and at the same time to recognize those geological and geophysical features that are unrelated to plate interaction; (ii) to use this understanding to reconstruct the extent and evolution of ancient systems that form the major elements of continental crust; and (iii) to determine the dynamics and evolution of systems that have no modern analogs. Decoupling along subhorizontal zones within the lithosphere may be widespread in all types of plate boundary systems. Thus, in order to interpret the motion and dynamics of the mantle correctly, it is important to know if upper lithospheric motion within boundary systems is controlled directly or indirectly by or is independent of deeper mantle motions. PMID:16592704

  17. Geology of the Syrtis Major/Isidis Region of Mars: New Results from MOLA, MOC, and THEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III

    2003-07-01

    We characterize the Syrtis Major/Isidis region in terms of topography and morphology, investigate the origin of the geologic units and their morphologic features, study the geologic history and evolution of the region, and provide additional geologic context for the Beagle lander.

  18. A multidimensional representation model of geographic features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E. Lynn; Timson, George; Coletti, Mark

    2016-01-28

    A multidimensional model of geographic features has been developed and implemented with data from The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey. The model, programmed in C++ and implemented as a feature library, was tested with data from the National Hydrography Dataset demonstrating the capability to handle changes in feature attributes, such as increases in chlorine concentration in a stream, and feature geometry, such as the changing shoreline of barrier islands over time. Data can be entered directly, from a comma separated file, or features with attributes and relationships can be automatically populated in the model from data in the Spatial Data Transfer Standard format.

  19. ecological geological maps: GIS-based evaluation of the Geo-Ecological Quality Index (GEQUI) in Sicily (Central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigro, Fabrizio; Arisco, Giuseppe; Perricone, Marcella; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

    2010-05-01

    The condition of landscapes and the ecological communities within them is strongly related to levels of human activity. As a consequence, determining status and trends in the pattern of human-dominated landscapes can be useful for understanding the overall conditions of geo-ecological resources. Ecological geological maps are recent tools providing useful informations about a-biotic and biotic features worldwide. These maps represents a new generation of geological maps and depict the lithospheric components conditions on surface, where ecological dynamics (functions and properties) and human activities develop. Thus, these maps are too a fundamental political tool to plan the human activities management in relationship to the territorial/environmental patterns of a date region. Different types of ecological geological maps can be develop regarding the: conditions (situations), zoning, prognosis and recommendations. The ecological geological conditions maps reflects the complex of parameters or individual characteristics of lithosphere, which characterized the opportunity of the influence of lithosphere components on the biota (man, fauna, flora, and ecosystem). The ecological geological zoning maps are foundamental basis for prognosis estimation and nature defenses measures. Estimation from the position of comfort and safety of human life and function of ecosystem is given on these maps. The ecological geological prognosis maps reflect the spatial-temporary prognoses of ecological geological conditions changing during the natural dynamic of natural surrounding and the main-during the economic mastering of territory and natural technical systems. Finally, the ecological geological recommendation maps are based on the ecological geological and social-economical informations, aiming the regulation of territory by the regulation of economic activities and the defense of bio- and socio-sphere extents. Each of these maps may also be computed or in analytic or in

  20. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  1. Geologic Mapping of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Katherine H.

    1998-05-01

    Planetary geologic mapping involves integrating a terrestrial-based understanding of surface and subsurface processes and mapping principles to investigate scientific questions. Mars mappers must keep in mind that physical processes, such as wind and flowing water on Mars, are or were different from terrestrial processes because the planetary atmospheres have changed differently over time. Geologic mapping of Mars has traditionally been done by hand using overlays on photomosaics of Viking Orbiter and Mariner images. Photoclinometry and shadow measurements have been used to determine elevations, and the distribution and size of craters have been used to determine the relative ages of surfaces- more densely cratered surfaces are older. Some mappers are now using computer software (ranging from Photoshop to ArcInfo) to facilitate mapping, though their applications must be carefully executed so that registration of the images remains true. Images and some mapping results are now available on the internet, and new data from recent missions to Mars (Pathfinder and Surveyor) will offer clarifying information to mapping efforts. This paper consists chiefly of pictures and diagrams.

  2. Petroleum geology of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.

    1988-02-01

    Kuwait is located in the Arabian platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the Zagros Mountains of complex folding and faulting history, on the east. The sedimentary cover in Kuwait consists of a complete succession 25,000 ft (7,600 m) thick on top of the basement and ranges in age from Paleozoic to Holocene. The relative geologic stability and homogeneity over virtually all its depositional history resulted in an extraordinary areal continuity of reservoirs, seals, and source rocks, giving rise to the accumulation of the largest concentration of the hydrocarbon reserves in the world in giant and super-giant oil and gas fields. The structures are very large, gentle with modest closure. The seals are very efficient. Because of the wide extent of the lithologic units and only gentle tectonic deformation, large-scale horizontal migration is very efficient and the large structures have great storage capacity.

  3. 1 Main Street, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Located outside StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center, 1 Main Street Mars is a model of how a habitat on Mars might look. Complete with thermometers, scales and clocks set to Martian equivalents, this exhibit shows how very different life on Mars can be.

  4. Ladybugs of Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color images are presented for the 57 species of Coccinellidae, commonly known as ladybugs, that are documented from Maine. Images are displayed in taxonomic order. Information on each species includes its genus-species name, length, and an actual-size silhouette beside a grid matched to the scale...

  5. Geology of Lofn Crater, Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Heiner, Sarah; Klemaszewski, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Lofn crater is a 180-km-diameter impact structure in the southern cratered plains of Callisto and is among the youngest features seen on the surface. The Lofn area was imaged by the Galileo spacecraft at regional-scale resolutions (875 m/pixel), which enable the general geology to be investigated. The morphology of Lofn crater suggests that (1) it is a class of impact structure intermediate between complex craters and palimpsests or (2) it formed by the impact of a projectile which fragmented before reaching the surface, resulting in a shallow crater (even for Callisto). The asymmetric pattern of the rim and ejecta deposits suggests that the impactor entered at a low angle from the northwest. The albedo and other characteristics of the ejecta deposits from Lofn also provide insight into the properties of the icy lithosphere and subsurface configuration at the time of impact. The "target" for the Lofn impact is inferred to have included layered materials associated with the Adlinda multiring structure northwest of Loh and ejecta deposits from the Heimdall crater area to the southeast. The Lofn impact might have penetrated through these materials into a viscous substrate of ductile ice or possibly liquid water. This interpretation is consistent with models of the current interior of Callisto based on geophysical information obtained from the Galileo spacecraft.

  6. Putting the geology back into Earth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, K.; Imber, J.; Holdsworth, R.; Clegg, P.; de Paola, N.; Jones, R.; Hobbs, R.; Holliman, N.

    2005-12-01

    Geological architectures span at least 12 orders of magnitude length-scale from individual microstructures to lithospheric plates. Traditional paper-based geological mapping and fieldwork techniques have not been able to accurately capture the geospatial properties of mesoscale features in surface outcrops. In addition, geophysical imaging of the subsurface is poor at these length scales. This lack of fine-scale spatial precision has meant that the superbly detailed lithological units and structures we see in surface outcrops have not been integrated directly into predictive numerical and analogue models. As a result, models created to simulate mesoscale geology are currently not well calibrated to natural datasets and it is therefore difficult to demonstrate even partial confirmation of predictive, three dimensional (3D) models. This creates significant problems for industrial users interested in the extraction or storage of fluids in subsurface reservoirs, since accurate predictions of these processes rely critically on a complete 3D understanding of the subsurface mesoscale geology. Terrestrial laser scanners and Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS units are the principal tools used to capture digital data from surface outcrops. Automatic data collection involves scanning the outcrop surface with a laser to capture the topography with a cm-spaced grid of spatial coordinates in x,y and z. Using built-in digital cameras, the most recent laser scanners collect registered photographs that allow the software to colour the points to match the outcrop, and produce a photo-realistic 3D image. Laser scanning works best on cliff sections or in mines and quarries where the scanner can be placed directly in front of the outcrop. With RTK GPS data collection, any measurable attribute (surface dip, strike, lithology) can be recorded together with the spatial coordinates at a user-controlled sample spacing down to c. 5 cm. As the method is GPS-based, it works best on sub

  7. From digital mapping to GIS-based 3D visualization of geological maps: example from the Western Alps geological units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestro, Gianni; Cassulo, Roberto; Festa, Andrea; Fioraso, Gianfranco; Nicolò, Gabriele; Perotti, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    Collection of field geological data and sharing of geological maps are nowadays greatly enhanced by using digital tools and IT (Information Technology) applications. Portable hardware allows accurate GPS localization of data and homogeneous storing of information in field databases, whereas GIS (Geographic Information Systems) applications enable generalization of field data and realization of geological map databases. A further step in the digital processing of geological map information consists of building virtual visualization by means of GIS-based 3D viewers, that allow projection and draping of significant geological features over photo-realistic terrain models. Digital fieldwork activities carried out by the Authors in the Western Alps, together with building of geological map databases and related 3D visualizations, are an example of application of the above described digital technologies. Digital geological mapping was performed by means of a GIS mobile software loaded on a rugged handheld device, and lithological, structural and geomorphological features with their attributes were stored in different layers that form the field database. The latter was then generalized through usual map processing steps such as outcrops interpolation, characterization of geological boundaries and selection of meaningful punctual observations. This map databases was used for building virtual visualizations through a GIS-based 3D-viewer that loaded detailed DTM (resolution of 5 meters) and aerial images. 3D visualizations were focused on projection and draping of significant stratigraphic contacts (e.g. contacts that separate different Quaternary deposits) and tectonic contacts (i.e. exhumation-related contacts that dismembered original ophiolite sequences). In our experience digital geological mapping and related databases ensured homogeneous data storing and effective sharing of information, and allowed subsequent building of 3D GIS-based visualizations. The latters gave

  8. Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, Alison B.; Moore, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    This collection of 19 papers continues the annual series of U.S. Geological Survey reports on geologic investigations in Alaska. Contributions include 14 Articles and 5 shorter Geologic Notes that report results from all corners of the State.USGS activities in Alaska cover a broad spectrum of earth science topics, including the environment, hazards, resources, and geologic framework studies. Three articles focus on the environmental geochemistry of parts of south-central, west-central, and southwestern Alaska. An article on methane released from permafrost near Fairbanks and a note on paleowind direction indicators on the Arctic coastal plain contribute to ongoing climate and paleoclimate investigations. Landslide hazards in the Talkeetna Mountains and Wrangell-St. Elias National Park are discussed in two notes. Possible active fault traces near Alaska's main population center are described in an article on the Castle Mountain fault. An article on Aniakchak volcano presents evidence for a previously unrecognized catastrophic flooding event. Resources and resource assessment on gold, base metals, and coal are discussed in several articles and a note. Geologic framework studies cover tectonics, paleontology, stratigraphy, and metamorphic petrology. One contribution involves field methods; it evaluates the relative accuracy of global positioning systems and topographic map-based methods for deriving location data for field stations.Two bibliographies at the end of the volume list reports about Alaska in USGS publications released in 1993 and reports about Alaska by USGS authors in non-USGS publications in 1993.

  9. Martian polar geological studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A. J.

    1977-01-01

    Multiple arcs of rugged mountains and adjacent plains on the surface of Mars were examined. These features, located in the southern polar region were photographed by Mariner 9. Comparisons are made with characteristics of a lunar basin and mare; Mare imbrium in particular. The martian feature is interpreted to have originated in the same way as its lunar analog- by volcanic flooding of a large impact basin. Key data and methodology leading to this conclusion are cited.

  10. Structural Geology and Map Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helper, Mark A.

    1998-06-01

    Geological maps lay flat the three-dimensional architecture of a region's rock record. In doing so, they reveal and document geometrical relationships and geological histories that would otherwise be difficult, if not impossible, to visualize. They are a primary data source for a wide range of practical applications, from civil engineering, mining, and energy resource exploration to urban planning and geologic hazard mitigation, and are literally the "ground truth" for understanding environments and processes of the Earth's past. Their utility resides not only in a plan-view portrayal of surface geology, but in the geometrical information they contain that allows projection of surface geology to the subsurface, or into regions where surface control is lacking. Understanding this predictive capacity and being able to read and truly appreciate a geological map's three-dimensional character are among the most unique and important skills a geologist masters. These same skills are unfortunately among the most difficult for students to learn.

  11. Geology of the Byrd Glacier Discontinuity (Ross Orogen): New survey data from the Britannia Range, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carosi, R.; Giacomini, F.; Talarico, F.; Stump, E.

    2007-01-01

    Field activities in the Britannia Range (Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica) highlighted new geological features around the so-called Byrd Glacier discontinuity. Recent field surveys revealed the occurrence of significant amounts of medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks, intruded by abundant coarse-grained porphyritic granitoids. Most of the granitoids are deformed, with foliation parallel to the regional foliation in the metamorphics. Two main episodes of deformation are observed. Tight to isoclinal folds and penetrative axial plane foliation are related to the D1 phase, open folds to the D2. The main foliation (D1) trends nearly E-W in agreement with the trend in the southern portion of the Byrd Glacier. In most outcrops, granitic dykes are folded and stretched by the D2 deformation, which shows similar characteristics with the D2 deformation south of the Byrd Glacier. This suggests the occurrence in the Ross orogen of an orogen-normal structure south and north of the Byrd Glacier.

  12. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  13. COBRA Main Engine Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Jim; Sides, Steve; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA main engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost demo of cycle and technologies. 5. COBRA cycle I risk reduction supports. 6. Achieving engine safety. 6. RLX cycle I risk reduction supports. 7. Flight qualification. 9. Life extension engine testing.

  14. Geologic map of Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, David A.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Crown, David A.; Yff, Jessica A.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Schenk, Paul M.; Geissler, Paul E.; Becker, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Io, discovered by Galileo Galilei on January 7–13, 1610, is the innermost of the four Galilean satellites of the planet Jupiter (Galilei, 1610). It is the most volcanically active object in the Solar System, as recognized by observations from six National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft: Voyager 1 (March 1979), Voyager 2 (July 1979), Hubble Space Telescope (1990–present), Galileo (1996–2001), Cassini (December 2000), and New Horizons (February 2007). The lack of impact craters on Io in any spacecraft images at any resolution attests to the high resurfacing rate (1 cm/yr) and the dominant role of active volcanism in shaping its surface. High-temperature hot spots detected by the Galileo Solid-State Imager (SSI), Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS), and Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) usually correlate with darkest materials on the surface, suggesting active volcanism. The Voyager flybys obtained complete coverage of Io's subjovian hemisphere at 500 m/pixel to 2 km/pixel, and most of the rest of the satellite at 5–20 km/pixel. Repeated Galileo flybys obtained complementary coverage of Io's antijovian hemisphere at 5 m/pixel to 1.4 km/pixel. Thus, the Voyager and Galileo data sets were merged to enable the characterization of the whole surface of the satellite at a consistent resolution. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) produced a set of four global mosaics of Io in visible wavelengths at a spatial resolution of 1 km/pixel, released in February 2006, which we have used as base maps for this new global geologic map. Much has been learned about Io's volcanism, tectonics, degradation, and interior since the Voyager flybys, primarily during and following the Galileo Mission at Jupiter (December 1995–September 2003), and the results have been summarized in books published after the end of the Galileo Mission. Our mapping incorporates this new understanding to assist in map unit definition and to provide a global synthesis

  15. Geologic report for the Beaufort Sea planning area, Alaska: regional geology, petroleum geology, environmental geology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, J.D.; Sherwood, K.W.; Johnson, P.P.

    1985-12-01

    The 192-page report provides a summary of the geologic framework, hydrocarbon potential, and physical environment of the offshore area tentatively scheduled for Federal OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 97. The geologic interpretation is based on high-quality, gridded seismic reflection data and publicly available exploration wells. Seven regional seismic lines, released by Western Geophysical Company for this report, illustrate the geology of the petroleum provinces within the planning area. Hydrocarbon play concepts for large, untested areas of the continental margin off northern Alaska are developed from a detailed analysis of the structural and stratigraphic evolution. Environmental geology is described along with implications for future offshore petroleum activities.

  16. Exploring Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, M. V.; Larson, S. M.; Whiteley, R.; Fink, U.; Jedicke, R.; Emery, J.; Fevig, R.; Kelley, M.; Harris, A. W.; Ostro, S.; Reed, K.; Binzel, R. P.; Rivkin, A.; Magri, C.; Bottke, W.; Durda, D.; Walker, R.; Davis, D.; Hartmann, W. K.; Sears, D.; Yano, H.; Granahan, J.; Storrs, A.; Bus, S. J.; Bell, J. F.; Tholen, D.; Cellino, A.

    2001-11-01

    Terrestrial planet formation in the main asteroid belt was interrupted when growing protoplanets became sufficiently massive to gravitationally perturb the local population, causing bodies to collide with increased energy, thus ending accretion and commencing fragmentation and disruption. Few of these protoplanets are thought to have survived unshattered (e.g., Ceres, Vesta, Pallas), leaving a main belt population dominated by fragments of fragments, and significantly depleted of mass as a consequence of dynamical scattering. Yet, these fragments retain a record of the early steps of planet formation and evolution, as well as a record of early solar system conditions and the primordial composition gradient in that region. By exploring main belt asteroids through groundbased observations and spacecraft, modeling and theoretical work, we seek ultimately to recover this information. A single mission to a single target is not sufficient to address, in isolation, these questions. They require a foundation of robust, broad, and continuing groundbased, theoretical, and modeling programs. Such work is funded at a small fraction of a typical mission cost through the NASA Research and Analysis Program. Therefore, within the context of planetary decadal study recommendations to NASA, highest priority needs to be given to maintaining and growing a healthy R&A program over the next ten years and beyond. Missions also have an important role to play. An Earth orbiting remote sensing mission needs to be considered as a means of collecting important data for a large fraction of all main belt asteroids above a sub-kilometer diameter (while also realizing synergistic benefits to astrophysics). Missions to specific main belt targets can provide important new insights and leverage new understanding of existing data, models, and theories, but target definition (and corresponding instrument complement) is critical and must be based on our existing knowledge of these very diverse objects

  17. Geotourism Features of Sinop (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehra Seyyah, Memnune; Güngör, Yıldırım

    2016-04-01

    Sinop and its surrounding area presents pretty interesting geological formations formed between Trias and Quaternary. Permo-Trias aged Boyabat Metamorphites is found at the bottom. Above this formation, Jurassic aged Akgöl and Bürnük Formations and Lower Cretaceous aged İnaltı Formation comes. After these, respectively Çaǧlayan Formation, Upper Cretaceous aged Kaplanboǧazı, Yemişliçay, Hamsaros, Görsökü Formations is observed. These units are also overlaid by Paleocene aged Akveren Formation, Eocene aged Atbaşı, Sakızdaǧı Formations and Miocene aged Sinop Formation. Plio-Quaternary aged Sarıkum Formation is located on this sequence. Boyabat columnar basalts and Bedire Formation are the youngest formations of Sinop and its surrounding area. 
 In this geological sequence, columnar basalts, different forms of laminated rocks, fossil containing levels, various sedimentological processes, faults and folds located in laminated rocks, canyons which has been occurred related tectonism in the region, waterfalls run through fault steps take place among the important geotouristical pieces of Sinop and surroundings. In this study, it will be discussed how these geological features contribute to Sinop district that's most important source of income is tourism. 
 Key Words: Geological Heritage, Geopark, Geosite, Geotourism, Sinop

  18. Geologic map of the Skull Creek Quadrangle, Moffat County Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Loenen, R. E.; Selner, Gary; Bryant, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Skull Creek quadrangle is in northwestern Colorado a few miles north of Rangely. The prominent structural feature of the Skull Creek quadrangle is the Skull Creek monocline. Pennsylvanian rocks are exposed along the axis of the monocline while hogbacks along its southern flank expose rocks that are from Permian to Upper Cretaceous in age. The Wolf Creek monocline and the Wolf Creek thrust fault, which dissects the monocline, are salient structural features in the northern part of the quadrangle. Little or no mineral potential exists within the quadrangle. A geologic map of the Lazy Y Point quadrangle, which is adjacent to the Skull Creek quadrangle on the west, is also available (Geologic Investigations Series I-2646). This companian map shows similar geologic features, including the western half of the Skull Creek monocline. The geology of this quadrangle was mapped because of its proximity to Dinosaur National Monument. It is adjacent to quadrangles previously mapped to display the geology of this very scenic and popular National Monument. The Skull Creek quadrangle includes parts of the Skull Creek Wilderness Study Area, which was assessed for its mineral resource potential.

  19. Geology orbiter comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

  20. Geology of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

  1. Geological consequences of superplumes

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, R.L. )

    1991-10-01

    Superplumes are suggested to have caused the period of constant normal magnetic polarity in mid-Cretaceous time (124-83 Ma) and, possibly, the period of constant reversed polarity in Pennsylvania-Permian time (323-248 Ma). These times coincide with increases in world temperature, deposition of black shales, oil generation, and eustatic sea level in the mid-Cretaceous, and increased coal generation and gas accumulation in the Pennsylvanian-Permian, accompanied by an intracratonic Pennsylvanian transgression of epicontinental seas. These geologic anomalies are associated with episodes of increased world-wide ocean-crust production and mantle outgassing, especially of carbon and nutrients. These superplumes originated just above the core-mantle boundary, significantly increased convection in the outer core, and stopped the magnetic field reversal process for 41 m.y. in the Cretaceous and 75 m.y. in Pennsylvanian-Permian time.

  2. Geologic studies in the Sierra de Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio Alfonso

    The Sierra del Cuervo has been endowed with uranium mineralization, which has attracted many geological studies, and recently the author was part of a team with the goal of selecting a site of a radioactive waste repository. The first part of the work adds to the regional framework of stratigraphy and tectonics of the area. It includes the idea of a pull apart basin development, which justifies the local great thickness of the Cuervo Formation. It includes the regional structural frame work and the composite stratigraphic column of the Chihuahua Trough and the equivalent Cretaceous Mexican Sea. The general geologic features of the NE part of the Sierra del Cuervo are described, which include the folded ignimbrites and limestones in that area; the irregular large thicknesses of the Cuervo Formation; and the western vergence of the main folding within the area. Sanidine phenocrystals gave ages of 54.2 Ma and 51.8 Ma ± 2.3 Ma. This is the first time these dates have been reported in print. This age indicates a time before the folded structures which outcrop in the area, and 44 Ma is a date after the Cuervo Formation was folded. The Hidalgoan orogeny cycle affected the rocks between this lapse of time. Since then the area has been partially affected by three tensional overlapped stages, which resulted in the actual Basin and Range physiography. The jarosite related to the tectonic activity mineralization has been dated by the Ar-Ar method and yields an age of 9.8 Ma. This is the first report of a date of mineralization timing at Pena Blanca Uranium District in the Sierra del Cuervo. These are some of the frame work features that justify the allocation of a radioactive waste repository in the Sierra del Cuervo. An alluvial fan system within the Boquilla Colorada microbasin was selected as the best target for more detailed site assessment. The study also included the measurement of the alluvium thicknesses by geoelectric soundings; studies of petrography and weathered

  3. The Geology of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Yingst, R. A.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Krohn, K.; Otto, K.; Stephan, K.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Garry, W. B.; Blewett, D.

    2013-09-01

    The Dawn spacecraft collected over 28,000 images and a wealth of spectral data of Vesta's surface. These data enable analysis of Vesta's diverse geology including impact craters of all sizes and unusual shapes, a variety of ejecta blankets, large troughs, impact basins, enigmatic dark material, and considerable evidence for mass wasting and surface alteration processes [1,2,3]. Two large impact basins, Veneneia underlying the larger Rheasilvia basin dominate the south polar region [1,4]. The depression surrounding Vesta's south pole was formed by two giant impacts about one billion and two billion years ago [4,5]. Vesta's global tectonic patterns (two distinct sets of large troughs orthogonal to the axes of the impacts) strongly correlate with the locations of the two south polar impact basins, and were likely created by their formation [1,6]. Numerous unusual asymmetric impact craters and ejecta indicate the strong influence of topographic slope in cratering on Vesta [1]. One type of gully in crater walls is interpreted to form by dry granular flow, but another type is consistent with transient water flow [7]. Very steep topographic slopes near to the angle of repose are common; slope failures make resurfacing due to impacts and their associated gravitational slumping and seismic effects an important geologic process on Vesta [1]. Clusters of pits in combination with impact melt [8] suggest the presence of volatile materials underlying that melt in some crater floors. Relatively dark material of uncertain origin is intermixed in the regolith layers and partially excavated by younger impacts yielding dark outcrops, rays and ejecta [1,9]. Vesta's surface is reworked by intense impacts and thus much younger than the formation of its crust [2,5].

  4. Mineral resources, geologic structure, and landform surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lattman, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    The use of ERTS-1 imagery for mineral resources, geologic structure, and landform surveys is discussed. Four categories of ERTS imagery application are defined and explained. The types of information obtained by the various multispectral band scanners are analyzed. Samples of land use maps and tectoning and metallogenic models are developed. It is stated that the most striking features visible on ERTS imagery are regional lineaments, or linear patterns in the topography, which reflect major fracture zones extending upward from the basement of the earth.

  5. Spaceborne imaging radar - Geologic and oceanographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1980-01-01

    Synoptic, large-area radar images of the earth's land and ocean surface, obtained from the Seasat orbiting spacecraft, show the potential for geologic mapping and for monitoring of ocean surface patterns. Structural and topographic features such as lineaments, anticlines, folds and domes, drainage patterns, stratification, and roughness units can be mapped. Ocean surface waves, internal waves, current boundaries, and large-scale eddies have been observed in numerous images taken by the Seasat imaging radar. This article gives an illustrated overview of these applications.

  6. Applicability of ERTS-1 to Montana geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Alt, D. D.; Berg, R.; Johns, W.; Flood, R.; Hawley, K.; Wackwitz, L.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Late autumn imagery provides the advantages of topographic shadow enhancement and low cloud cover. Mapping of rock units was done locally with good results for alluvium, basin fill, volcanics, inclined Paleozoic and Mesozoic beds, and host strata of bentonite beds. Folds, intrusive domes, and even dip directions were mapped where differential erosion was significant. However, mapping was not possible for belt strata, was difficult for granite, and was hindered by conifers compared to grass cover. Expansion of local mapping required geologic control and encountered significant areas unmappable from ERTS imagery. Annotation of lineaments provided much new geologic data. By extrapolating test site comparisons, it is inferred that 27 percent of some 1200 lineaments mapped from western Montana represent unknown faults. The remainder appear to be localized mainly by undiscovered faults and sets of minor faults or joints.

  7. Geological well log analysis. Third ed

    SciTech Connect

    Pirson, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Until recently, well logs have mainly been used for correlation, structural mapping, and quantitive evaluation of hydrocarbon bearing formations. This third edition of Geologic Well Log Analysis, however, describes how well logs can be used for geological studies and mineral exploration. This is done by analyzing well logs for numerous parameters and indices of significant mineral accumulation, primarily in sediments. Contents are: SP and Eh curves as redoxomorphic logs; sedimentalogical studies by log curve shapes; exploration for stratigraphic traps; continuous dipmeter as a structural tool; continuous dipmeter as a sedimentation tool; Paleo-facies logging and mapping; hydrogeology 1--hydrodynamics of compaction; hydrogeology 2--geostatic equilibrium; and hydrogeology 3--hydrodynamics of infiltration. Appendixes cover: Computer program for calculating the dip magnitude, azimuth, and the degree and orientation of the resistivity anisotrophy; a lithology computer program for calculating the curvature of a structure; and basic log analysis package for HP-41CV programmable calculator.

  8. Distinguishing seawater from geologic brine in saline coastal groundwater using radium-226; an example from the Sabkha of the UAE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraemer, Thomas F.; Wood, Warren W.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2014-01-01

    Sabkhat (Salt flats) are common geographic features of low-lying marine coastal areas that develop under hyper-arid climatic conditions. They are characterized by the presence of highly concentrated saline solutions and evaporitic minerals, and have been cited in the geologic literature as present-day representations of hyper-arid regional paleohydrogeology, paleoclimatology, coastal processes, and sedimentation in the geologic record. It is therefore important that a correct understanding of the origin and development of these features be achieved. Knowledge of the source of solutes is an important first step in understanding these features. Historically, two theories have been advanced as to the main source of solutes in sabkha brines: an early concept entailing seawater as the obvious source, and a more recent and dynamic theory involving ascending geologic brine forced upward into the base of the sabkha by a regional hydraulic gradient in the underlying formations. Ra-226 could uniquely distinguish between these sources under certain circumstances, as it is typically present at elevated activity of hundreds to thousands of Bq/m3 (Becquerels per cubic meter) in subsurface formation brines; at exceedingly low activities in open ocean and coastal water; and not significantly supplied to water from recently formed marine sedimentary framework material. The coastal marine sabkha of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi was used to test this hypothesis. The distribution of Ra-226 in 70 samples of sabkha brine (mean: 700 Bq/m3), 7 samples of underlying deeper formation brine (mean: 3416 Bq/m3), the estimated value of seawater (< 16 Bq/m3) and an estimate of supply from sabkha sedimentary framework grains (<~6 Bq/m3) provide the first direct evidence that ascending geologic brine contributes significantly to the solutes of this sabkha system.

  9. General features

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The San Andreas fault system, a complex of faults that display predominantly large-scale strike slip, is part of an even more complex system of faults, isolated segments of the East Pacific Rise, and scraps of plates lying east of the East Pacific Rise that collectively separate the North American plate from the Pacific plate. This chapter briefly describes the San Andreas fault system, its setting along the Pacific Ocean margin of North America, its extent, and the patterns of faulting. Only selected characteristics are described, and many features are left for depictions on maps and figures.

  10. Geological Map of the Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Head, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    The area of V-57, the Fredegonde quadrangle (50-75degS, 60-120degE, Fig.1), is located within the eastern portion of Lada Terra within the topographic province of midlands (0-2 km above MPR [1,2]). Midlands form the most abundant portion of the surface of Venus and are characterized by diverse sets of units and structures [3-11]. The area of the Fredegonde quadrangle is in contact with the elevated portion of Lada Terra to the W and with the lowland of Aino Planitia to the NE. The transitions of the mid-lands to the lowlands and highlands are, thus, one of the main themes of the geology within the V-57 quadrangle. The character of the transitions and distribution and sequence of units/structures in the midlands are crucially important in understanding the time and modes of formation of this topographic province. The most prominent features in the map area are linear deformational zones consisting of swarms of grooves and graben and large coronae. The zones characterize the central and NW portions of the map area and represent regionally important, broad (up to 100s km wide) ridges that are 100s m high. Relatively small (100s km across, 100s m deep) equidimensional basins occur between the corona-groove-chains in the west and border the central chain from the east. Here we describe units that make up the surface within the V-57 quadrangle and present a summary of our geological map that shows the areal distribution of the major groups of units.

  11. Spatial features register: toward standardization of spatial features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cascio, Janette

    1994-01-01

    As the need to share spatial data increases, more than agreement on a common format is needed to ensure that the data is meaningful to both the importer and the exporter. Effective data transfer also requires common definitions of spatial features. To achieve this, part 2 of the Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) provides a model for a spatial features data content specification and a glossary of features and attributes that fit this model. The model provides a foundation for standardizing spatial features. The glossary now contains only a limited subset of hydrographic and topographic features. For it to be useful, terms and definitions must be included for other categories, such as base cartographic, bathymetric, cadastral, cultural and demographic, geodetic, geologic, ground transportation, international boundaries, soils, vegetation, water, and wetlands, and the set of hydrographic and topographic features must be expanded. This paper will review the philosophy of the SDTS part 2 and the current plans for creating a national spatial features register as one mechanism for maintaining part 2.

  12. Geologic information from satellite images. [geological interpretation of ERTS-1 and Skylab multispectral photography of Rocky Mountain areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K.; Knepper, D. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Sawatzky, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Extracting geologic information from ERTS and Skylab/EREP images is best done by a geologist trained in photointerpretation. The information is at a regional scale, and three basic types are available: rock and soil, geologic structures, and landforms. Discrimination between alluvium and sedimentary or crystalline bedrock, and between units in thick sedimentary sequences is best, primarily because of topographic expression and vegetation differences. Discrimination between crystalline rock types is poor. Folds and fractures are the best displayed geologic features. They are recognizable by topographic expression, drainage patterns, and rock or vegetation tonal patterns. Landforms are easily discriminated by their familar shapes and patterns. It is possible to optimize the scale, format, spectral bands, conditions of acquisition, and sensor systems for best geologic interpretation. Several examples demonstrate the applicability of satellite images to tectonic analysis and petroleum and mineral exploration.

  13. Aquarius Main Structure Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eremenko, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D Observatory is a joint US-Argentine mission to map the salinity at the ocean surface. This information is critical to improving our understanding of two major components of Earth's climate system - the water cycle and ocean circulation. By measuring ocean salinity from space, the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission will provide new insights into how the massive natural exchange of freshwater between the ocean, atmosphere and sea ice influences ocean circulation, weather and climate. Aquarius is the primary instrument on the SAC-D spacecraft. It consists of a Passive Microwave Radiometer to detect the surface emission that is used to obtain salinity and an Active Scatterometer to measure the ocean waves that affect the precision of the salinity measurement. The Aquarius Primary Structure houses instrument electronics, feed assemblies, and supports a deployable boom with a 2.5 m Reflector, and provides the structural interface to the SAC-D Spacecraft. The key challenge for the Aquarius main structure configuration is to satisfy the needs of component accommodations, ensuring that the instrument can meet all operational, pointing, environmental, and launch vehicle requirements. This paper describes the evolution of the Aquarius main structure configuration, the challenges of balancing the conflicting requirements, and the major configuration driving decisions and compromises.

  14. Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, P. Senthil; Head, James W., III

    2009-01-01

    Geological mapping of the V-56 quadrangle (Fig. 1) reveals various tectonic and volcanic features and processes in Lada Terra that consist of tesserae, regional extensional belts, coronae, volcanic plains and impact craters. This study aims to map the spatial distribution of different material units, deformational features or lineament patterns and impact crater materials. In addition, we also establish the relative age relationships (e.g., overlapping or cross-cutting relationship) between them, in order to reconstruct the geologic history. Basically, this quadrangle addresses how coronae evolved in association with regional extensional belts, in addition to evolution of tesserae, regional plains and impact craters, which are also significant geological units of Lada Terra.

  15. Niagara Falls Storage Site, Lewiston, New York: geologic report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This report is one of a series of engineering and environmental reports planned for the US Department of Energy's properties at Niagara Falls, New York. It describes the essential geologic features of the Niagara Falls Storage Site. It is not intended to be a definitive statement of the engineering methods and designs required to obtain desired performance features for any permanent waste disposal at the site. Results are presented of a geological investigation that consisted of two phases. Phase 1 occurred during July 1982 and included geologic mapping, geophysical surveys, and a limited drilling program in the vicinity of the R-10 Dike, planned for interim storage of radioactive materials. Phase 2, initiated in December 1982, included excavation of test pits, geophysical surveys, drilling, observation well installation, and field permeability testing in the South Dike Area, the Northern Disposal Area, and the K-65 Tower Area.

  16. Divisions of geologic time (Bookmark)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-05-03

    DescriptionThis bookmark, designed for use with U.S. Geological Survey activities at the second USA Science and Engineering Festival (April 26–29, 2012), is adapted from the more detailed Fact Sheet 2010–3059 "Divisions of Geologic Time." The information that it presents is widely sought by educators and students.

  17. Creationism, Uniformitarianism, Geology and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Points out that the most basic of creationist attacks of geology, their claim that uniformitarianism is an unreliable basis for interpreting the past, fail because the uniformitarianism they describe is no longer a part of geology. Indicates that modern uniformitarianism is merely the philosophical principle of simplicity. (Author/JN)

  18. The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

  19. Geologic mapping of Argyre Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorsline, Donn S.; Parker, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the results from the geologic mapping of the central and southern Argyre basin of Mars. At the Mars Geologic Mapper's Meeting in Flagstaff during July, 1993, Dave Scott (United States Geological Survey, Mars Geologic Mapping Steering Committee Chair) recommended that all four quadrangles be combined into a single 1:1,000,000 scale map for publication. It was agreed that this would be cost-effective and that the decrease in scale would not compromise the original science goals of the mapping. Tim Parker completed mapping on the 1:500,000 scale base maps, for which all the necessary materials had already been produced, and included the work as a chapter in his dissertation, which was completed in the fall of 1994. Geologic mapping of the two southernmost quadrangles (MTM -55036 and MTM -55043; MTM=Mars Transverse Mercator) was completed as planned during the first year of work. These maps and a detailed draft of the map text were given a preliminary review by Dave Scott during summer, 1993. Geologic mapping of the remaining two quadrangles (MTM -50036 and MTM -50043) was completed by summer, 1994. Results were described at the Mars Geologic Mappers Meeting, held in Pocatello, Idaho, during July, 1994. Funds for the third and final year of the project have been transferred to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where Tim Parker will revise and finalize all maps and map text for publication by the United States Geological Survey at the 1:1,000,000 map scale.

  20. Photomicrography in the Geological Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the conversion of a standard biological brightfield microscope for examination of thin sections and characterize, in detail, the use of both black and white and color photomicrography in the geological sciences. Several illustrative examples on the use of transmitted and reflected polarized-light microscopy to solve geological problems…

  1. GIS-technologies as a mechanism to study geological structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapatov, Abish

    2014-05-01

    Specialized GIS-technologies allow creating multi-parameter models, completing multi-criteria optimisation tasks, and issues of geological profile forecasts using miscellaneous data. Pictorial and attributive geological and geophysical information collected to create GIS database is supplemented by the ERS (Earth's Remote Sensing) data, air spectrometry, space images, and topographic data. Among the important tasks are as follows: a unification of initial geological, geophysical and other types of information on a tectonic position, rock classification and stratigraphic scale; topographic bases (various projectures, scales); the levels of detail and exhaustibility; colors and symbols of legends; data structures and their correlation; units of measurement of physical quantities, and attribute systems of descriptions. Methods of the geological environment investigation using GIS-technology are based on a principle of the research target analogy with a standard. A similarity ratio is quantitative estimate. A geological forecast model is formed by structuring of geological information based on detailed analysis and aggregation of geological and formal knowledge bases on standard targets. Development of a bank of models of the analyzed geological structures of various range, ore-bearing features described by numerous prospecting indicators is the way to aggregate geological knowledge. The south terrain of the Valerianovskaya structure-facies zone (SFZ) of the Torgai paleo-rift structure covered with thick Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks up to 2,000m is considered a so-called training ground for the development of GIS-technology. Parameters of known magnetite deposits located in the north of the SFZ (Sarybaiskoye, Sokolovskoye, etc.) are used to create the standard model. A meaning of the job implemented involves the following: - A goal-seeking nature of the research being performed and integration of the geological, geo-physical and other data (in many cases, efforts of the

  2. Time Varying Feature Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echterhoff, J.; Simonis, I.; Atkinson, R.

    2012-04-01

    . Keeping track of feature property value corrections or even feature (state change) cancellations for auditing purposes is also not easy to achieve. The aviation domain has strong requirements to represent and manage the state of aeronautical features through time. Being able to efficiently encode and manage feature state changes, keeping track of all changes for auditing purposes and being able to determine the future state of an aeronautical feature as currently known to the system are vital for aeronautical applications. In order to support these requirements, the Aeronautical Information Exchange Model (AIXM) which has been developed by the aviation domain is based on the so called AIXM Temporality Model (AIXM-TM). The AIXM-TM defines various rules for modeling, representing and handling the state of aeronautical features through time. This is a promising approach that can be incorporated into the GFM so that ultimately the modeling and management of time varying feature data is supported in an interoperable and harmonized way in all geospatial domains. This presentation gives an introduction to the main concepts of the AIXM-TM. It also shows how the GFM can be extended to support time varying feature data. Finally, the relationship of O&M and time varying features is discussed.

  3. Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Sandra H.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of

  4. Geologic map and digital database of the Yucaipa 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Morton, D.M.; Cox, B.F.; Carson, S.E.; Yetter, T.J.; Digital preparation by: Cossette, P.M.; Wright, M.C.; Kennedy, S.A.; Dawson, M.L.; Hauser, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This geologic database of the Yucaipa 7.5' quadrangle was prepared by the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), a regional geologic-mapping project sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey and the California Geological Survey. The database was developed as a contribution to the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program's National Geologic Map Database, and is intended to provide a general geologic setting of the Yucaipa quadrangle. The database and map provide information about earth materials and geologic structures, including faults and folds that have developed in the quadrangle due to complexities in the San Andreas Fault system. The Yucaipa 7.5' quadrangle contains materials and structures that provide unique insight into the Mesozoic and Cenozoic geologic evolution of southern California. Stratigraphic and structural elements include: (1) strands of the San Andreas Fault that bound far-traveled terranes of crystalline and sedimentary rock; (2) Mesozoic crystalline rocks that form lower and upper plates of the regionwide Vincent-Orocopia Thrust system; and (3) late Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary materials and geologic structures that formed during the last million years or so and that record complex geologic interactions within the San Andreas Fault system. These materials and the structures that deform them provide the geologic framework for investigations of geologic hazards and ground-water recharge and subsurface flow. Geologic information contained in the Yucaipa database is general-purpose data that is applicable to land-related investigations in the earth and biological sciences. The term "generalpurpose" means that all geologic-feature classes have minimal information content adequate to characterize their general geologic characteristics and to interpret their general geologic history. However, no single feature class has enough information to definitively characterize its properties and origin. For this reason the

  5. Experimental and geological approaches to elucidate chemical change in sporopollenin over geological time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Wesley; Lomax, Barry; Jardine, Phillip

    2016-04-01

    Sporopollenin is the primary biopolymer comprising the walls of sporomorphs (pollen and spores), both in extant material and found within the fossil record. Maturation processes associated with sedimentation and burial over geological timescales have long been considered to dramatically alter the chemical nature of organic material, most notably via oxidation. Here we present experimental data derived from simulated maturation, analyses of Carboniferous fossil material, and modern-day material. Our data demonstrate the core structure of sporopollenin undergoes only minor chemical adjustments at lower grades of maturation, with the over-riding chemical signature remaining identifiable as that of sporopollenin, showing strong resemblance to modern material. This modern signature can, in specific cases be preserved in the geological record, demonstrated by the near-pristine chemical composition of megaspores preserved in cave deposits of Pennsylvanian age (Carboniferous, c. 310 Ma). Conversely, the labile component associated with sporopollenin is found to readily defunctionalise and repolymerise to generate a new polyalkyl macromolecule in situ. The labile component is shown to be held in position via ester linkages; a common chemical feature observed in extant sporopollenin. This combined experimental and geological investigation provides insights into i) the preservation of chemical signatures within the fossil record, ii) considerations for sample preparation when undertaking chemical analysis of fossil sporomorphs, and iii) the long-term evolutionary stasis of sporopollenin, spanning geological time.

  6. Geology of Caves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, W. E.; Morgan, I. M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in the study of caves (speleology) with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Separate sections examine types of caves, how caves form, cave features, minerals found in caves, uses of caves, and caves as natural underground laboratories.…

  7. Geology on the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonehouse, H. B.

    1979-01-01

    Presents three activities that allow students to practice some of the techniques used by lunar researchers, and to become more familiar with lunar features through scrutiny of lunar photography. Topics include dimensions of a crater, different surface ages, and types of rilles. (Author/MA)

  8. Geologic Map and Digital Data Base of the Almo Quadrangle and City of Rocks National Reserve, Cassia County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David M.; Armstrong, Richard L.; Bedford, David R.; Davis, Marsha

    2008-01-01

    This geologic map describes the geology of the City of Rocks National Reserve and environs, located in the Albion Mountains of south-central Idaho. The most prominent geologic features of the Reserve are the spectacular rock spires that attracted visitors, beginning with commentary in the journals of travelers to California during the Gold Rush of 1849. The tectonic history is outlined, and descriptions of landscape processes, a newly discovered Quaternary fault, and features of the pinnacles are presented.

  9. Mapping Vesta South Polar Quadrangle V-15SP: A Complex Geological Structure Dominates Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Yingst, R.; Schenk, P.; Schmedemann, N.; Williams, D. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Buczkowski, D.; Stephan, K.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Neukum, G.; O'Brien, D. P.; Mest, S. C.; Krohn, K.; Marchi, S.; Filacchione, G.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; De Sanctis, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Images of the asteroid and protoplanet 4Vesta by the Hubble Space Telescope in 1994 and 1996 revealed a ~460 km diameter feature at its south pole that was interpreted to be a large impact structure. NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid Vesta on July 15, 2011 and collected science data during the approach to Vesta, a circular polar orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera resolution and a lower main mapping orbit, at 700 km altitude with a camera resolution of ~ 65 m/pixel. As part of the geological analysis of Vesta's surface, a series of 15 quadrangle maps are being produced. We present the results of the geological mapping achieved for quadrangle V-15SP. Unit boundaries and feature characteristics were determined primarily using morphologic data. Color and spectral data was utilized to refine unit contacts and to separate compositional or mineralogical distinctions. Those units that could be discerned both in morphology and in the color data were interpreted as geologically derived units. The south polar feature is a semi-circular structure with a central hill that is characterized by a white-grey color and smoother texture distinctive from the surrounding terrain. Some images show patches of bright, smooth terrain on the central hill, perhaps indicative of impact melt or ponded volcanic flows. A complex network of deep grooves and ridges is the primary characteristic on the feature floor; these grooves appear radial to the central mound or trend along a north-south line. The structure also has a distinctive color from both the central hill and surrounding terrain, consistent with a different composition or texture. A steep semi-arcuate scarp bounds part of the outer perimeter of the south polar feature. Although asymmetric in general form, these characteristics do not contradict an impact origin but may also allow endogenic processes like convective downwelling or hybrid modification of an impact. Rapid rotation of Vesta during

  10. Delineating the Rattlesnake Springs, New Mexico Watershed Using Shallow Subsurface Geophysical Techniques and Geologic Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doser, D. I.; Langford, R. P.; Boykov, N. D.; Baker, M. R.; Kaip, G. M.

    2007-12-01

    Rattlesnake Springs serves as the sole water source for Carlsbad Caverns National Park. The recent development of oil and gas leases and agricultural lands surrounding the springs has led to concern about contamination of the karst aquifer. We have used geophysical techniques, combined with geologic mapping, to delineate possible fracture systems in the gypsum and carbonate bedrock that feed the spring system. Our initial work has focused on a 700 m by 700 m region surrounding the springs. We conducted a series of ground conductivity surveys with follow-up DC resistivity surveys (Wenner array vertical electrical soundings and a pole- pole survey) to determine variations in soil grain size and moisture content. Surface geologic mapping was used to identify a series of Holocene terraces and valleys that incise the terraces. Our combined results suggest that northwest-southeast and north-south trending fractures and dissolution features control regional water flow. Relict spring valleys are found to the west of the present springs. A pole-pole survey conducted around the perimeter of the springs suggests main water flow into the springs occurs from the northwest. We plan to complete a precision gravity survey in September and October 2007 to map bedrock topography and determine its relation to structural and dissolution features. Ground penetrating radar data will be collected on the northwestern side of the springs in an attempt to better delineate structures controlling inflow into the springs.

  11. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  12. Minerals yearbook, 1991: Maine. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.K.; Anderson, W.; Foley, M.E.

    1993-07-01

    The report has been prepared under a Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Maine Geological Survey for collecting information on all nonfuel minerals. The value of Maine's nonfuel mineral production in 1991 was $41.3 million, a $21.2 million decrease compared with that of 1990. Decreases in output and value were reported for most of the nonfuel minerals produced. The largest decreases in both production and value were for construction sand and gravel and dimension stone. Smaller decreases were estimated for both masonry and portland cement. Other mineral commodities produced in the State included common clay, gemstones, and peat. Perlite was shipped in from out-of-State and expanded at one plant in the State.

  13. Structural geologic interpretations from radar imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Robert G.

    1969-01-01

    Certain structural geologic features may be more readily recognized on sidelooking airborne radar (SLAR) images than on conventional aerial photographs, other remote sensor imagery, or by ground observations. SLAR systems look obliquely to one or both sides and their images resemble aerial photographs taken at low sun angle with the sun directly behind the camera. They differ from air photos in geometry, resolution, and information content. Radar operates at much lower frequencies than the human eye, camera, or infrared sensors, and thus "sees" differently. The lower frequency enables it to penetrate most clouds and some precipitation, haze, dust, and some vegetation. Radar provides its own illumination, which can be closely controlled in intensity and frequency. It is narrow band, or essentially monochromatic. Low relief and subdued features are accentuated when viewed from the proper direction. Runs over the same area in significantly different directions (more than 45° from each other), show that images taken in one direction may emphasize features that are not emphasized on those taken in the other direction; optimum direction is determined by those features which need to be emphasized for study purposes. Lineaments interpreted as faults stand out on radar imagery of central and western Nevada; folded sedimentary rocks cut by faults can be clearly seen on radar imagery of northern Alabama. In these areas, certain structural and stratigraphic features are more pronounced on radar images than on conventional photographs; thus radar imagery materially aids structural interpretation.

  14. Canada's Deep Geological Repository For Used Nuclear Fuel -The Geoscientific Site Evaluation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschorn, S.; Ben Belfadhel, M.; Blyth, A.; DesRoches, A. J.; McKelvie, J. R. M.; Parmenter, A.; Sanchez-Rico Castejon, M.; Urrutia-Bustos, A.; Vorauer, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. In May 2010, the NWMO published and initiated a nine-step site selection process to find an informed and willing community to host a deep geological repository for Canada's used nuclear fuel. The site selection process is designed to address a broad range of technical and social, economic and cultural factors. The suitability of candidate areas will be assessed in a stepwise manner over a period of many years and include three main steps: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Characterizations. The Preliminary Assessment is conducted in two phases. NWMO has completed Phase 1 preliminary assessments for the first eight communities that entered into this step. While the Phase 1 desktop geoscientific assessments showed that each of the eight communities contains general areas that have the potential to satisfy the geoscientific safety requirements for hosting a deep geological repository, the assessment identified varying degrees of geoscientific complexity and uncertainty between communities, reflecting their different geological settings and structural histories. Phase 2 activities will include a sequence of high-resolution airborne geophysical surveys and focused geological field mapping to ground-truth lithology and structural features, followed by limited deep borehole drilling and testing. These activities will further evaluate the site's ability to meet the safety functions that a site would need to ultimately satisfy in order to be considered suitable. This paper provides an update on the site evaluation process and describes the approach, methods and criteria that are being used to conduct the geoscientific Preliminary Assessments.

  15. Principles of computer processing of Landsat data for geologic applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taranik, James V.

    1978-01-01

    The main objectives of computer processing of Landsat data for geologic applications are to improve display of image data to the analyst or to facilitate evaluation of the multispectral characteristics of the data. Interpretations of the data are made from enhanced and classified data by an analyst trained in geology. Image enhancements involve adjustments of brightness values for individual picture elements. Image classification involves determination of the brightness values of picture elements for a particular cover type. Histograms are used to display the range and frequency of occurrence of brightness values. Landsat-1 and -2 data are preprocessed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to adjust for the detector response of the multispectral scanner (MSS). Adjustments are applied to minimize the effects of striping, adjust for bad-data lines and line segments and lost individual pixel data. Because illumination conditions and landscape characteristics vary considerably and detector response changes with time, the radiometric adjustments applied at GSFC are seldom perfect and some detector striping remain in Landsat data. Rotation of the Earth under the satellite and movements of the satellite platform introduce geometric distortions in the data that must also be compensated for if image data are to be correctly displayed to the data analyst. Adjustments to Landsat data are made to compensate for variable solar illumination and for atmospheric effects. GeoMetric registration of Landsat data involves determination of the spatial location of a pixel in. the output image and the determination of a new value for the pixel. The general objective of image enhancement is to optimize display of the data to the analyst. Contrast enhancements are employed to expand the range of brightness values in Landsat data so that the data can be efficiently recorded in a manner desired by the analyst. Spatial frequency enhancements are designed to enhance boundaries between features

  16. Endeavour basalt geology and petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, J. B.; Stakes, J.; Ramos, F.; Michael, P.; Stakes, D.

    2005-12-01

    We report major and trace element and isotope data from 250 basalt samples recently collected by submersible from the axial valley and flanks of the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Off-axis volcanism is abundant on both flanks which are mirror images of one another geologically. Axial valley walls up to 1 km off axis appear to be steps of in tact but variably fractured sheet, lobate, and hackly lava flows similar to the youngest lavas seen in collapse features in the axis. Coverage by pillow terrane increases with distance off axis and coverage becomes complete after 1 km. The similarity of the two flanks suggests that the currently asymmetric axial magma chamber (van Ark et al., 2004) may be shorter-lived than the off-axis volcanism. MgO contents range from 6.0-8.5% and generally are lower on the flanks consistent with consistently cooler chamber edges there. La/Yb ratios vary 3-fold within 100 m in the axial valley, with normalized La/Sm = 0.8-2.5 in contrast to constant Sr and Nd isotopes. However, Th/U and 230Th/232Th ratios vary only slightly in the axial valley, which may enable dating of off-axis samples. H2O/Ce is less than 170, typical of values throughout much of the Pacific. Variations in depth and degree of melting, and in source composition, are implied. At times, these heterogeneities escaped homogenization in axial magma chambers. Cl concentrations and Cl/K ratios are surprisingly low considering the active hydrothermal systems in close proximity and the potential for brine incorporation into the magma chamber.

  17. Geology of the Henry Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, G.K.

    1877-01-01

    If these pages fail to give a correct account of the structure of the Henry Mountains the fault is mine and I have no excuse. In all the earlier exploration of the Rocky Mountain Region, as well as in much of the more recent survey, the geologist has merely accompanied the geographer and has had no voice in the determination of either the route or the rate of travel. When the structure of a mountain was in doubt he was rarely able to visit the points which should resolve the doubt, but was compelled to turn regretfully away. Not so in the survey of the Henry Mountains. Geological exploration had shown that they were well disposed for examination, and that they promised to give the key to a type of structure which was at best obscurely known; and I was sent by Professor Powell to make a study of them, without restriction as to my order or method. I was limited only in time, the snow stopping my work two months after it was begun. Two months would be far too short a period in which to survey a thousand square miles in Pennsylvania or Illinois, but among the Colorado Plateaus it proved sufficient. A few comprehensive views from mountain tops gave the general distribution of the formations, and the remainder of the time was spent in the examination of the localities which best displayed the peculiar features of the structure. So thorough was the display and so satisfactory the examination, that in preparing my report I have felt less than ever before the desire to revisit the field and prove my conclusions by more extended observation.

  18. 78 FR 57877 - National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological and Geophysical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ....S. Geological Survey National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP) and National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program (NGGDPP) Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey....-5 p.m. Mountain Standard Time. The Advisory Committee, comprising representatives from...

  19. Geologic Sequestration Software Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Gary; Bonneville, PNNL Alain; Sivaramakrishnan, PNNL Chandrika; Purohit, PNNL Sumit; White, PNNL Signe; Lansing, PNNL Carina; Gosink, PNNL Luke; Guillen, PNNL Zoe; Moeglein, PNNL William; Gorton, PNNL Ian; PNNL,

    2013-11-04

    GS3 is the bundling of the Geological Sequestration Software Suite domain tools with the Velo wiki user interface, rich client interface, and data store. Velo is an application domain independent collaborative user environment for modeling and simulation. Velo has a web browser based wiki interface integrated with a sophisticated content management system supporting data and knowledge management required for large-scale scientific modeling projects. GS3 adds tools and capability specifically in the area of modeling subsurface reservoirs for the purpose of carbon sequestration. Velo is a core software framework to create scientific domain user environments. Velo is not tied to a specific domain although it provides novel capability needed by many application areas. A well-defined Velo integration layer allows custom applications such as GS3 to leverage the core Velo components to reduce development cost/time and ultimately provide a more capable software product. Compared with previous efforts like ECCE and SALSSA, Velo is a major advancement being a web browser based interface, having a more comprehensive data management architecture, and having intrinsic support for collaboration through the wiki. GS3 adds specific domain tools for looking at site data, developing conceptual and numerical models, building simulation input files, launching and monitoring the progress of those simulations and being able to look at and interpret simulation output.

  20. Geologic Landforms and Processes on Icy Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    1998-01-01

    During the first reconaissence of the satellites of the outer solar system conducted by the Voyager missions (1979-1989), a surprising diversity of unusual geologic landforms were observed, in some cases with bewildering complexity (e.g., Triton). Impact features were certainly expected but the variety of volcanic, diapiric, tectonic, impact, and erosional landforms was only remotely suggested by some early theoretical works. These diagnostic features are manifestations of the internal composition, thermal history, and dynamical evolution of these bodies. It is the job of the geologist to interpret the morphology, stratigraphy, and composition of these deposits and structures to ascertain what materials were mobilized in the interior, in what amount, and the mechanism and cause of their mobilization. In this chapter, we review what is know about these features and what constraints can be placed on composition and thermal history. Particular emphasis is placed on volcanic features, as these are most directly related to satellite composition and thermal history. The surface spectra, high albedos, and low bulk densities of the satellites of the outer solar system indicate that water and other ices are abundant on these bodies, particularly on their surfaces. Ices, particularly water ice, are less dense than silicates and will tend to float and form crusts during differentiation or partial melting of the interior. Ices therefore take the place of silicates as 'crust-forming' minerals and dominate geologic processes on icy satellites. Melted ices form magma bodies, and sometimes are extruded as lavas, an unusual but still valid perspective for terrestrial geologists. The unusual properties of some ices, including their low melting temperatures, and low strengths (as well as the decrease in density on the freezing of water ice), will ultimately be very important in interpreting this record.

  1. [Main parasitic skin disorders].

    PubMed

    Bernigaud, C; Monsel, G; Delaunay, P; Do-Pham, G; Foulet, F; Botterel, F; Chosidow, O

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous parasitic skin diseases are frequent in human pathology. There are few reliable epidemiological data on the prevalence and/or incidence of such diseases. Skin parasites are cosmopolitan but their global distribution is heterogenous; prevalence is especially high in subtropical and tropical countries. They are mainly due to arthropods (insects and mites). Many species of parasites are involved, explaining the diversity of their clinical signs. The most common are caused by ectoparasites such as scabies or pediculosis (head lice, body lice and pubic lice). Clinical signs may be related to the penetration of the parasite under the skin, its development, the inoculation of venom or allergic symptoms. Diagnosis can be easy when clinical signs are pathognomonic (e.g. burrows in the interdigital web spaces in scabies) or sometimes more difficult. Some epidemiological characteristics (diurnal or nocturnal bite, seasonality) and specific clinical presentation (single or multiple bites, linear or grouped lesions) can be a great diagnostic help. Modern non-invasive tools (dermoscopy or confocal microscopy) will play an important role in the future but the eye and experience of the specialist (dermatologist, parasitologist, infectious disease specialist or entomologist) remains for the time the best way to guide or establish a diagnosis. For most skin parasites, therapeutic proposals are rarely based on studies of high level of evidence or randomized trials but more on expert recommendations or personal experience.

  2. Geologic Map of the Central Marysvale Volcanic Field, Southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowley, Peter D.; Cunningham, Charles G.; Steven, Thomas A.; Workman, Jeremiah B.; Anderson, John J.; Theissen, Kevin M.

    2002-01-01

    The geologic map of the central Marysvale volcanic field, southwestern Utah, shows the geology at 1:100,000 scale of the heart of one of the largest Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Western United States. The map shows the area of 38 degrees 15' to 38 degrees 42'30' N., and 112 degrees to 112 degrees 37'30' W. The Marysvale field occurs mostly in the High Plateaus, a subprovince of the Colorado Plateau and structurally a transition zone between the complexly deformed Great Basin to the west and the stable, little-deformed main part of the Colorado Plateau to the east. The western part of the field is in the Great Basin proper. The volcanic rocks and their source intrusions in the volcanic field range in age from about 31 Ma (Oligocene) to about 0.5 Ma (Pleistocene). These rocks overlie sedimentary rocks exposed in the mapped area that range in age from Ordovician to early Cenozoic. The area has been deformed by thrust faults and folds formed during the late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic Sevier deformational event, and later by mostly normal faults and folds of the Miocene to Quaternary basin-range episode. The map revises and updates knowledge gained during a long-term U.S. Geological Survey investigation of the volcanic field, done in part because of its extensive history of mining. The investigation also was done to provide framework geologic knowledge suitable for defining geologic and hydrologic hazards, for locating hydrologic and mineral resources, and for an understanding of geologic processes in the area. A previous geologic map (Cunningham and others, 1983, U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series I-1430-A) covered the same area as this map but was published at 1:50,000 scale and is obsolete due to new data. This new geologic map of the central Marysvale field, here published as U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigations Series I-2645-A, is accompanied by gravity and aeromagnetic maps of the same area and the same scale (Campbell and

  3. Geologic map of the Yucca Mountain region, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, Christopher J.; Dickerson, Robert P.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Taylor, Emily M.; Fridrich, Christopher J.; San Juan, Carma A.; Day, Warren C.

    2002-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nev., has been identified as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive waste. This geologic map compilation, including all of Yucca Mountain and Crater Flat, most of the Calico Hills, western Jackass Flats, Little Skull Mountain, the Striped Hills, the Skeleton Hills, and the northeastern Amargosa Desert, portrays the geologic framework for a saturated-zone hydrologic flow model of the Yucca Mountain site. Key geologic features shown on the geologic map and accompanying cross sections include: (1) exposures of Proterozoic through Devonian strata inferred to have been deformed by regional thrust faulting and folding, in the Skeleton Hills, Striped Hills, and Amargosa Desert near Big Dune; (2) folded and thrust-faulted Devonian and Mississippian strata, unconformably overlain by Miocene tuffs and lavas and cut by complex Neogene fault patterns, in the Calico Hills; (3) the Claim Canyon caldera, a segment of which is exposed north of Yucca Mountain and Crater Flat; (4) thick densely welded to nonwelded ash-flow sheets of the Miocene southwest Nevada volcanic field exposed in normal-fault-bounded blocks at Yucca Mountain; (5) upper Tertiary and Quaternary basaltic cinder cones and lava flows in Crater Flat and at southernmost Yucca Mountain; and (6) broad basins covered by Quaternary and upper Tertiary surficial deposits in Jackass Flats, Crater Flat, and the northeastern Amargosa Desert, beneath which Neogene normal and strike-slip faults are inferred to be present on the basis of geophysical data and geologic map patterns. A regional thrust belt of late Paleozoic or Mesozoic age affected all pre-Tertiary rocks in the region; main thrust faults, not exposed in the map area, are interpreted to underlie the map area in an arcuate pattern, striking north, northeast, and east. The predominant vergence of thrust faults exposed elsewhere in the region, including the Belted Range and Specter Range thrusts, was to the east

  4. Working towards a European Geological Data Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Krogt, Rob; Hughes, Richard; Pedersen, Mikael; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Lee, Kathryn A.; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, François

    2013-04-01

    The increasing importance of geological information for policy, regulation and business needs at European and international level has been recognized by the European Parliament and the European Commission, who have called for the development of a common European geological knowledge base. The societal relevance of geoscience data/information is clear from many current issues such as shale gas exploration (including environmental impacts), the availability of critical mineral resources in a global economy, management and security with regard to geohazards (seismic, droughts, floods, ground stability), quality of (ground-)water and soil and societal responses to the impacts of climate change. The EGDI-Scope project responds to this, aiming to prepare an implementation plan for a pan-European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI), under the umbrella of the FP7 e- Infrastructures program. It is envisaged that the EGDI will build on geological datasets and models currently held by the European Geological Surveys at national and regional levels, and will also provide a platform for datasets generated by the large number of relevant past, ongoing and future European projects which have geological components. With European policy makers and decision makers from (international) industry as the main target groups (followed by research communities and the general public) stakeholder involvement is imperative to the successful realization and continuity of the EGDI. With these ambitions in mind, the presentation will focus on the following issues, also based on the first results and experiences of the EGDI-Scope project that started mid-2012: • The organization of stakeholder input and commitment connected to relevant 'use cases' within different thematic domains; a number of stakeholder representatives is currently involved, but the project is open to more extensive participation; • A large number of European projects relevant for data delivery to EGDI has been reviewed

  5. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  6. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  7. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  8. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  9. Bedrock geologic Map of the Central Block Area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    W.C. Day; C. Potter; D. Sweetkind; R.P. Dickerson; C.A. San Juan

    1998-09-29

    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As such, this map focuses on the central block at Yucca Mountain, which contains the potential repository site. The central block is a structural block of Tertiary volcanic rocks bound on the west by the Solitario Canyon Fault, on the east by the Bow Ridge Fault, to the north by the northwest-striking Drill Hole Wash Fault, and on the south by Abandoned Wash. Earlier reconnaissance mapping by Lipman and McKay (1965) provided an overview of the structural setting of Yucca Mountain and formed the foundation for selecting Yucca Mountain as a site for further investigation. They delineated the main block-bounding faults and some of the intrablock faults and outlined the zoned compositional nature of the tuff units that underlie Yucca Mountain. Scott and Bonk (1984) provided a detailed reconnaissance geologic map of favorable area at Yucca Mountain in which to conduct further site-characterization studies. Of their many contributions, they presented a detailed stratigraphy for the volcanic units, defined several other block-bounding faults, and outlined numerous intrablock faults. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bonk (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the

  10. First Indications of Intraplate Deformations in Central Germany from Reprocessed GNSS Time Series and Geological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Matthias; Leinen, Stefan; Läufer, Gwendolyn; Lehné, Rouwen

    2013-04-01

    Six years of GPS data have been reprocessed in ITRF2008 for a regional SAPOS CORS network in the federal state of Hesse with 25 stations and some anchor sites of IGS and EPN to derive accurate and consistent coordinate time series. Based on daily network solutions coordinate time series parameters like velocities, offsets in case of antenna changes and annual periodic variation have been estimated. The estimation process includes the fitting of a sophisticated stochastic model for the time series which accounts for inherent time correlation. The results are blended with geological data to verify information from geology on potential recent deformations by the geodetic analyses. Besides of some information on the reprocessing of the GNSS the results the stochastics of the derived velocity field will be discussed in detail. Special emphasis will be on the intra-plate deformation: for the horizontal component the residual velocity field after removal of a plate rotation model is presented, while for the vertical velocities the datum-induced systematic effect is removed in order to analyze the remaining vertical motion. The residual velocity field is then matched with the geology for Hesse. Correlation of both vertical and horizontal movements with major geological structures reveals good accordance. SAPOS stations with documented significant subsidence are mainly located in tertiary Graben structures such as the Lower Hessian Basin (station Kassel), the Wetterau (station Kloppenheim) or the Upper Rhine Graben (Station Darmstadt). From the geological point of view these structures are supposed to be subsiding ones. Other major geological features, i.e. the Rhenish Shield as well as the East Hessian Bunter massif are supposed to be affected by recent uplift. SAPOS stations located in these regions match the assumed movement (e.g. Weilburg, Wiesbaden, Bingen, Fulda). Furthermore SAPOS-derived horizontal movements seem to trace tectonic movements in the region, i

  11. Geology and petroleum resources of northwestern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A.; Klemme, H.D.

    1986-05-01

    The main onshore basins of northwestern Africa are (1) basins in the Atlas folded geosynclinal belt adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, (2) the Tindouf, Bechar, and Reggane basins of western Algeria and southern Morocco, and (3) the Taoudeni basin of Mauritania and Mali. Coastal basins are (1) the Essaouria basin of southwestern Morocco, (2) the Tarfaya basin of Western Sahara, (3) the Senegal basin of Senegal and western Mauritania, (4) the Sierra Leone-Liberia basin, and (5) the Ivory Coast basin. The petroleum geology and resource potential of these basins is detailed.

  12. The geologic evolution of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    A synthesis of pre- and post-Apollo 11 studies is presented to produce an outline of the moon's geologic evolution from three lines of evidence: (1) relative ages of lunar landforms and rock types, (2) absolute ages of returned lunar samples, and (3) petrography, chemistry, and isotopic ratios of lunar rocks and soils. It is assumed that the ray craters, circular mare basins, and most intermediate circular landforms are primarily of impact origin, although many other landforms are volcanic or of hybrid origin. The moon's evolution is divided into four main stages, each including several distinct but overlapping events or processes.

  13. Geological evaluation and applications of ERTS-1 imagery over Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, S. M.; Jones, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 70mm and 9 x 9 film negatives are being used by conventional and color enhancement methods as a tool for geologic investigation. Geologic mapping and mineral exploration by conventional methods is very difficult in Georgia. Thick soil cover and heavy vegetation cause outcrops of bed rock to be small, rare and obscure. ERTS imagery, and remote sensing in general have helped delineate: (1) major tectonic boundaries; (2) lithologic contacts; (3) foliation trends; (4) topographic lineaments; and (5) faults. The ERTS-1 MSS imagery yields the greatest amount of geologic information on the Piedomont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge Provinces of Georgia where topography is strongly controlled by the bedrock geology. ERTS imagery, and general remote sensing techniques, have provided us with a powerful tool to assist geologic research; have significantly increased the mapping efficiency of our field geologists; have shown new lineaments associated with known shear and fault zones; have delineated new structural features; have provided a tool to re-evaluate our tectonic history; have helped to locate potential ground water sources and areas of aquifer recharge; have defined areas of geologic hazards; have shown areas of heavy siltation in major reservoirs; and by its close interval repetition, have aided in monitoring surface mine reclamation activities and the environmental protection of our intricate marshland system.

  14. Overview of Venus geology: Preliminary description of terrain units for Venus global geological mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. Stephen; Stofan, Ellen R.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Michaels, Gregory A.

    1992-01-01

    Venus terrain units can be categorized on the basis of morphology, reflectivity, backscatter, roughness, and emissivity. Morphology can be inferred from Magellan left-looking nominal incidence angle image mosaics, right-looking coverage, and more limited left-looking stereo. The typical resolution is about 300 m down to about 120 m near periapsis in the cycle one nominal coverage. The scale of geologic mapping governs definition of mappable terrain units. Initial global mapping is being compiled at a scale of 1:50 million. At this scale, the smallest individual features that can be mapped are about 125 km. The categories of terrain types are plains, complex ridge terrain, features with morphology suggesting volcanic or volcano-tectonic origin, features interpreted to be tectonic in origin, crater units, and surficial units such as splotches and streaks. Brief descriptions of terrain units are provided.

  15. The Global Geology of Titan from Cassini RADAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly; Malaska, Michael J.

    The variety of geological processes on Titan is rivaled in our Solar System only on Earth. Results from the Cassini-Huygens mission obtained so far have revealed a wide range of geologic and climatological processes. We use data obtained by Cassini’s Titan Radar Mapper (13.78 GHz, lambda=2.17 cm) to analyze the distribution of different types of geologic processes occurring on Titan’s surface, both endogenic and exogenic, and to derive temporal relationships between these processes, at least at local scales. The distribution and interplay of geologic processes is important to provide constraints on models of the interior and of surface-atmosphere interactions. We mapped the SAR images in terms of characteristic morphology of geological features and their radar backscatter in order to determine possible emplacement sequences and the overall distribution of geologic processes. All the major planetary geologic processes - volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering and erosion - appear to have played a role in shaping Titan’s complex surface. This paper will review the distribution and relative ages of different geomorphologic units. While some units (craters, dunes, mountains, channels, lakes and seas) are well established in the literature, the presence of cryovolcanic features is still somewhat controversial, and the origin of undifferentiated plains (known as blandlands) is still mysterious. We now have over half of Titan’s surface imaged by SAR and the interpretation of these and other terrains is better constrained. The results from our latest analyses suggest that a sedimentary origin for the undifferentiated plains is the most likely. Cryovolcanism appears to have occurred on Titan, but it is not ubiquitous, and the major cryovolcanic area appears to be old, now partly covered by dunes. Titan’s surface shows a complex interaction between the surface and atmosphere, with erosional processes being driven by wind, liquids and dissolution.

  16. Environmental and engineering problems of karst Geology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoxian, Yuan

    1988-10-01

    Karst terrane is generally regarded as a fragile and vulnerable environment. Its underground drainage system can aggrevate both drought and flood problems; the lack of filtration in an underground conduit makes waste disposal more difficult; and the lack of soil cover in bare karstland can enhance deforestation. Moreover, karst terranes are quite often haunted by a series of engineering problems, such as water gushing into mines or transportation tunnels; leakage from reservoirs; and failure of building foundations. In China, there are more than 200 cases of karst collapse, which include many thousands of individual collapse points. Some of these are paleo and natural collapses, but most of them are modern collapses induced by human activities and they have caused serious damage. Many factors such as geologic structure, overburden thickness and character, lithologic features of karstified rock, and intensity of karstification are related to development and distribution of modern collapses. However, China's karst is mainly developed in pre-Triassic, old phase, hard, compact, carbonate rock. Consequently most modern collapses have occurred only in the overlying soil. So it is understandable that the fluctuation of the water table in the underlying karstified strata plays an important role in the process of collapse. Nevertheless, there are different explanations as to how the groundwater activities can induce collapse.

  17. Environmental and engineering problems of karst geology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Daoxian )

    1988-10-01

    Karst terrane is generally regarded as a fragile and vulnerable environment. Its underground drainage system can aggravate both drought and flood problems; the lack of filtration in an underground conduit makes waste disposal more difficult; and the lack of soil cover in bare karstland can enhance deforestation. Moreover, karst terranes are quite often haunted by a series of engineering problems, such as water gushing into mines or transportation tunnels; leakage from reservoirs; and failure of building foundations. In China, there are more than 200 cases of karst collapse, which include many thousands of individual collapse points. Some of these are paleo and natural collapses, but most of them are modern collapses induced by human activities and they have caused serious damage. Many factors such as geologic structure, overburden thickness and character, lithologic features of karstified rock, and intensity of karstification are related to development and distribution of modern collapses. However, China's karst is mainly developed in pre-Triassic, old phase, hard, compact, carbonate rock. Consequently most modern collapses have occurred only in the overlying soil. So it is understandable that the fluctuation of the water table in the underlying karstified strata plays an important role in the process of collapse. Nevertheless, there are different explanations as to how the groundwater activities can induce collapse.

  18. Geological mysteries on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows some unusual features on the surface of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede. NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. The region is located at 31 degrees latitude, 186 degrees longitude in the north of Marius Regio, a region of ancient dark terrain, and is near the border of a large swathe of younger, heavily tectonised bright terrain known as Nippur Sulcus. Situated in the transitional region between these two terrain types, the area shown here contains many complex tectonic structures, and small fractures can be seen crisscrossing the image. North is to the top-left of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. This image is centered on an unusual semicircular structure about 33 kilometers (20 miles) across. A 38 kilometer (24 miles) long, remarkably linear feature cuts across its northern extent, and a wide east-west fault system marks its southern boundary. The origin of these features is the subject of much debate among scientists analyzing the data. Was the arcuate structure part of a larger feature? Is the straight lineament the result of internal or external processes? Scientists continue to study this data in order to understand the surface processes occurring on this complex satellite.

    The image covers an area approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) by 52 kilometers (32 miles) across. The resolution is 189 meters (630 feet) per picture element. The images were taken on September 6, 1996 at a range of 9,971 kilometers (6,232 miles) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  19. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  20. Terrestrial and Lunar Geological Terminology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This section is largely a compilation of defining geological terms concepts. Broader topics, such as the ramifications for simulant design and in situ resource utilization, are included as necessary for context.

  1. A primer in lunar geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor); Schultz, P. H. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Primary topics in lunar geology range from the evolution of the solar system to lunar photointerpretation, impact crater formation, and sampling to analyses on various Apollo lunar landing site geomorphologies.

  2. Perspectives in geology. Circular 525

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this symposium present diverse perspectives in geology, mineral resources, paleontology, and environmental concerns. Papers within the scope of EDB have been entered individually into the data base. (ACR)

  3. Integration of geological remote-sensing techniques in subsurface analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taranik, James V.; Trautwein, Charles M.

    1976-01-01

    Geological remote sensing is defined as the study of the Earth utilizing electromagnetic radiation which is either reflected or emitted from its surface in wavelengths ranging from 0.3 micrometre to 3 metres. The natural surface of the Earth is composed of a diversified combination of surface cover types, and geologists must understand the characteristics of surface cover types to successfully evaluate remotely-sensed data. In some areas landscape surface cover changes throughout the year, and analysis of imagery acquired at different times of year can yield additional geological information. Integration of different scales of analysis allows landscape features to be effectively interpreted. Interpretation of the static elements displayed on imagery is referred to as an image interpretation. Image interpretation is dependent upon: (1) the geologist's understanding of the fundamental aspects of image formation, and (2.) his ability to detect, delineate, and classify image radiometric data; recognize radiometric patterns; and identify landscape surface characteristics as expressed on imagery. A geologic interpretation integrates surface characteristics of the landscape with subsurface geologic relationships. Development of a geologic interpretation from imagery is dependent upon: (1) the geologist's ability to interpret geomorphic processes from their static surface expression as landscape characteristics on imagery, (2) his ability to conceptualize the dynamic processes responsible for the evolution 6f interpreted geologic relationships (his ability to develop geologic models). The integration of geologic remote-sensing techniques in subsurface analysis is illustrated by development of an exploration model for ground water in the Tucson area of Arizona, and by the development of an exploration model for mineralization in southwest Idaho.

  4. TerraLuna: A CosmoQuest Adventure in Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Pamela; Bracey, Georgia; Gugliucci, Nicole

    The content of the session will focus on CosmoQuest’s TerraLuna unit, a comparative geology unit that uses authentic data to study the geology of the Moon and Earth. Inquiry activities will allow teachers to help their students compare crater formation and other surface features on the two bodies, comparing Moon features to similar structures on Earth. Links to the latest data from NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter will be introduced and hands- on activities will be featured as the basis for inquiry learning in elementary and middle level classrooms. Teachers will be introduced to citizen science projects that will enable their students to think like real scientists and engage in authentic scientific research, providing a useful service to the scientific community. Participation in the workshop introduces teachers to the CosmoQuest website, which includes a suite of citizen science activities. The site provides teachers with an online community dedicated to science inquiry and educational support.

  5. Central American geologic map project

    SciTech Connect

    Dengo, G.

    1986-07-01

    During the Northeast Quadrant Panel meeting of the Circum-Pacific Map Project held in Mexico City, February 1985, Central American panel members proposed and adopted plans for compiling a geologic map of Central America, probably at a scale of 1:500,000. A local group with participants from each country was organized and coordinated by Rolando Castillo, director, Central American School of Geology, University of Costa Rica, for the geologic aspects, and Fernando Rudin, director, Geographic Institute of Costa Rica, for the topographic base. In 1956, the US Geological Survey published a geologic map of the region at a scale of 1:1 million. Subsequent topographic and geologic mapping projects have provided a large amount of new data. The entire area is now covered by topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000, and these maps have been used in several countries as a base for geologic mapping. Another regional map, the Metallogenic Map of Central America (scale = 1:2 million), was published in 1969 by the Central American Research Institute for Industry (ICAITI) with a generalized but updated geologic base map. Between 1969 and 1980, maps for each country were published by local institutions: Guatemala-Belize at 1:500,000, Honduras at 1:500,000, El Salvador at 1:100,000, Nicaragua at 1:1 million, Costa Rica at 1:200,000, and Panama at 1:1 million. This information, in addition to that of newly mapped areas, served as the base for the Central American part of the Geologic-Tectonic Map of the Caribbean Region (scale = 1:2.5 million), published by the US Geological Survey in 1980, and also fro the Northeast Quadrant Maps of the Circum-Pacific Region. The new project also involves bathymetric and geologic mapping of the Pacific and Caribbean margins of the Central American Isthmus. A substantial amount of new information of the Middle America Trench has been acquired through DSDP Legs 67 and 84.

  6. Q&A: Geological historian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witze, Alexandra

    2015-04-01

    The first geological map of a nation was made 200 years ago by British surveyor William Smith; the rediscovery of a first-edition copy in the archives of the Geological Society of London was announced last month (see go.nature.com/oogpht). As researchers gather for a conference to celebrate the anniversary of the 1815 chart of England and Wales, John Henry, chair of the society's history group, talks about the map and its pioneering creator.

  7. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques were applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area.

  8. Areal geology of the Little Cone quadrangle, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bush, Alfred Lerner; Marsh, O.T.; Taylor, Richard Bartlett

    1958-01-01

    The Little Cone quadrangle includes an area of about 59 square miles in eastern San Miguel County in southwestern Colorado. It lies within and adjacent to the northeastern boundary of the Colorado Plateau physiographic province. The precipitous front of the San Juan Mountains lies a few miles to the east and northeast, and an outlier of the San Juans, the San Miguel Mountains, lies about a mile to the south. The quadrangle contains features characteristic of both the plateaus and the mountains, and has been affected by geologic events and processes of two different geologic environments.

  9. Digital Geologic Map of Mount Mazama and Crater Lake Caldera, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, C. R.; Ramsey, D. W.

    2002-12-01

    Crater Lake caldera formed ~7700 cal yr B.P. by the eruption of 50 km3 of mainly rhyodacitic magma and the resulting collapse of Mount Mazama. A new 1:24,000-scale digital geologic map compiled in ArcInfo depicts the geology of this volcanic center, peripheral volcanoes, the caldera walls and floor, and superjacent pyroclastic, talus, and glacial deposits. The geology of the caldera walls was mapped in the field on photographs taken from the lake (see accompanying abstract and poster, "Geologic panoramas of the walls of Crater Lake caldera,Oregon"); the geology of the flanks of Mount Mazama and the surrounding area was mapped on aerial photographs; and features of the caldera floor were mapped on a multibeam echo-sounding bathymetric map (Gardner et al., 2001; Bacon et al., 2002). Volcanic map units are defined on the basis of chemical composition and petrographic characteristics. Map unit colors were chosen to indicate the compositions of volcanic rocks, cooler colors for mafic units and warmer colors for silicic units. Map unit color intensity indicates age, with more intense coloring for younger units. Ages of many units have been determined by K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating by M.A. Lanphere. Several undated units have been correlated using paleomagnetic secular variation measurements by D.E. Champion. Crystallization facies of some of the larger lava flows are mapped separately (e.g., vitrophyre, felsite, carapace), as are breccia and lava facies of submerged postcaldera volcanoes. Also shown on the caldera floor are landslide (debris avalanche) and sediment gravity-flow deposits. A major north-south normal fault system traverses the map area west of the caldera and displaces dated late Pleistocene lava flows, allowing determination of a long-term slip rate of ~0.3 mm/yr (Bacon et al., 1999). Faults bounding large downdropped blocks of the south caldera wall are also shown. Where practical, lava flow margins are represented as intra-unit contacts. A number of small

  10. Reconnaissance of radioactive rocks of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, John M.; Narten, Perry F.

    1951-01-01

    The state of Maine was traversed with car-mounted Geiger-Mueller equipment in the late summer of 1948 and the radioactivity of approximately 4,600 miles of road was logged. All samples were analyzed, both in the field by comparing the radioactivity of each sample to the radioactivity of a stranded measured with a simple scaling modification of a portable counter, and in the Geological Survey’s Trace Elements Section Washington Laboratory. Differences between both types of analyses were negligible. The maximum equivalent uranium content of the most radioactive rocks thus analyzed was 0.008 percent. A 1,400-square-mile abnormally radioactive province in southwestern Maine was outlined. The outcrop data obtained from car traversing are evaluated statistically. Cumulative frequency distribution curves are drawn to show the distribution of outcrops at various levels of radioactivity, and straight-line extensions are made to show to maximum probable grade for various rock types and areas in Maine. A maximum grade of 0.055 percent equivalent uranium is thus predicted for the entire state. This prediction necessarily is a broad generalization because large areas of Main are inaccessible for car traversing. A concept of evaluation of an area for possible mineral deposits is proposed on the basis of lithology, and observed and indicated ranges in grade.

  11. Global Geologic Map of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, T.; Figueredo, P.; Greeley, R.; Hare, T.; Kolb, E.; Mullins, K.; Senske, D.; Tanaka, K.; Weiser, S.

    2008-01-01

    Europa, with its indications of a sub-ice ocean, is of keen interest to astrobiology and planetary geology. Knowledge of the global distribution and timing of Europan geologic units is a key step for the synthesis of data from the Galileo mission, and for the planning of future missions to the satellite. The first geologic map of Europa was produced at a hemisphere scale with low resolution Voyager data. Following the acquisition of higher resolution data by the Galileo mission, researchers have identified surface units and determined sequences of events in relatively small areas of Europa through geologic mapping using images at various resolutions acquired by Galileo's Solid State Imaging camera. These works provided a local to subregional perspective and employed different criteria for the determination and naming of units. Unified guidelines for the identification, mapping and naming of Europan geologic units were put forth by and employed in regional-to-hemispheric scale mapping which is now being expanded into a global geologic map. A global photomosaic of Galileo and Voyager data was used as a basemap for mapping in ArcGIS, following suggested methodology of all-stratigraphy for planetary mapping. The following units have been defined in global mapping and are listed in stratigraphic order from oldest to youngest: ridged plains material, Argadnel Regio unit, dark plains material, lineaments, disrupted plains material, lenticulated plains material and Chaos material.

  12. Internet-based information system of digital geological data providing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuon, Egor; Soukhanov, Mikhail; Markov, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    is the web-service, which realizes the interaction of all parts of the system and controls whole the way of the request from the user to the database and back, adopted to the GeoSciML and EarthResourceML view. The experience of creation the Internet-based information system of digital geological data providing, and also previous works, including the developing of web-service of NGKIS-system, allows to tell, that technological realization of presenting Russian geological-cartographical data with using of international standards is possible. While realizing, it could be some difficulties, associated with geological material depth. Russian informational geological model is more deep and wide, than foreign. This means the main problem of using international standards and formats: Russian geological data presentation is possible only with decreasing the data detalisation. But, such a problem becomes not very important, if the service publishes also Russian vocabularies, not associated with international vocabularies. In this case, the international format could be the interchange format to change data between Russian users. The integration into the international projects reaches developing of the correlation schemes between Russian and foreign classificators and vocabularies.

  13. Main memory unit. [hybrid computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development of a main memory unit (MMU) for the space ultrareliable module computer (SUMC) model HTC is discussed. The design, fabrication, and test of basic memory modules (BMM) which were to be used in the design and construction of the MMU are described. The BMM was designed from state-of-the-art technologies which included large scale integration devices mounted and interconnected on a substrate to form a functional module to be utilized in the MMU development. A SUMC memory system design study is discussed which addressed itself to the BMM design and analysis to be conducted to determine the most efficient organization of the BMM in order to establish such modularity features as: word length expandability without redesign, high reliability, and fault tolerance. One MMU was designed, fabricated, tested, and delivered which will be electrical and mechanically compatible with the hybrid technology computer (HTC) model of the SUMC family of computers. The MMU will contain a storage capacity of 8196 36 bit words which includes a parity bit for each 8 bit byte of data.

  14. Generalized surficial geologic map of the Fort Irwin area, San Bernadino: Chapter B in Geology and geophysics applied to groundwater hydrology at Fort Irwin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David M.; Menges, Christopher M.; Lidke, David J.; Buesch, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The geology and landscape of the Fort Irwin area, typical of many parts of the Mojave Desert, consist of rugged mountains separated by broad alluviated valleys that form the main coarse-resolution features of the geologic map. Crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic and older in age, form most of the mountains with lesser accumulations of Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. In detail, the area exhibits a fairly complex distribution of surficial deposits resulting from diverse rock sources and geomorphology that has been driven by topographic changes caused by recent and active faulting. Depositional environments span those typical of the Mojave Desert: alluvial fans on broad piedmonts, major intermittent streams along valley floors, eolian sand dunes and sheets, and playas in closed valleys that lack through-going washes. Erosional environments include rocky mountains, smooth gently sloping pediments, and badlands in readily eroded sediment. All parts of the landscape, from regional distribution of mountains, valleys, and faults to details of degree of soil development in surface materials, are portrayed by the surficial geologic map. Many of these attributes govern infiltration and recharge, and the surface distribution of permeable rock units such as Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks provides a basis for evaluating potential groundwater storage. Quaternary faults are widespread in the Fort Irwin area and include sinistral, east-striking faults that characterize the central swath of the area and the contrasting dextral, northwest-striking faults that border the east and west margins. Bedrock distribution and thickness of valley-fill deposits are controlled by modern and past faulting, and faults on the map help to identify targets for groundwater exploration.

  15. Health benefits of geologic materials and geologic processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    The reemerging field of Medical Geology is concerned with the impacts of geologic materials and geologic processes on animal and human health. Most medical geology research has been focused on health problems caused by excess or deficiency of trace elements, exposure to ambient dust, and on other geologically related health problems or health problems for which geoscience tools, techniques, or databases could be applied. Little, if any, attention has been focused on the beneficial health effects of rocks, minerals, and geologic processes. These beneficial effects may have been recognized as long as two million years ago and include emotional, mental, and physical health benefits. Some of the earliest known medicines were derived from rocks and minerals. For thousands of years various clays have been used as an antidote for poisons. "Terra sigillata," still in use today, may have been the first patented medicine. Many trace elements, rocks, and minerals are used today in a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and health care products. There is also a segment of society that believes in the curative and preventative properties of crystals (talismans and amulets). Metals and trace elements are being used in some of today's most sophisticated medical applications. Other recent examples of beneficial effects of geologic materials and processes include epidemiological studies in Japan that have identified a wide range of health problems (such as muscle and joint pain, hemorrhoids, burns, gout, etc.) that may be treated by one or more of nine chemically distinct types of hot springs, and a study in China indicating that residential coal combustion may be mobilizing sufficient iodine to prevent iodine deficiency disease. ?? 2006 MDPI. All rights reserved.

  16. Geologic Evidence of Internal Activity on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This six frame mosaic of Europa's surface shows a variety of interesting geologic features. The prominent 'X' near the center of the mosaic is the junction of two 'triplebands.' Triplebands are seen here to be made up of parallel sets of ridges, and can be traced for over 1,600 kilometers (off the image) across Europa's surface. Directly to the south of the 'X' is a 75 by 100 kilometer (km) area where the icy crust of Europa has been disrupted by activity from below. This activity could be motion in liquid water, convection in warm ice, or some other process. Many icy blocks, some as large as 10 km across, have been rafted from the edges of this zone. Also seen in this mosaic are various pits and domes that range in size from a few kilometers to nearly 20 km across. These geologic features provide evidence of thermal activity below Europa's surface at the time that the features formed.

    These images were obtained by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its sixth orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the picture, with the sun illuminating the scene from the right. The center of this mosaic is located near 10 degrees north latitude, 271 degrees west longitude. The image, which is about 300 by 300 km across, was acquired at a resolution of 180 meters per picture element.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  17. Geologic Landforms on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Shown here is one of the highest-resolution images of Io (Latitude: -60 to +20 degrees, Longitude: 150 to 230 degrees) acquired by the Galileo spacecraft, revealing a great variety of landforms. There are rugged mountains several miles high, layered materials forming plateaus, and many irregular depressions called volcanic calderas. Similar landforms were seen near Io's south pole by the Voyager spacecraft, but Galileo has revealed that such landforms are ubiquitous. Several of the dark, flow-like features correspond to hot spots, and may be active lava flows. There are no landforms resembling impact craters, as the volcanism covers the surface with new deposits much more rapidly than the flux of comets and asteroids can create large impact craters.

    North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the left. The image covers an area 2000 kilometers wide and the smallest features that can be discerned are 2.5 kilometers in size. This image was taken on November 6th, 1996, at a range of 245,719 kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system on the Galileo Spacecraft.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  18. The Geologic Story of the Uinta Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1969-01-01

    The opening of the West after the Civil War greatly stimulated early geologic exploration west of the 100th Meridian. One of the areas first studied, the Uinta Mountains region, gained wide attention as a result of the explorations of three Territorial Surveys, one headed by John Wesley Powell, one by Clarence King, and one by Ferdinand V. Hayden. Completion of the Union Pacific Railroad across southern Wyoming 100 years ago, in 1869, materially assisted geologic exploration, and the railheads at Green River and Rock Springs greatly simplified the outfitting of expeditions into the mountains. The overlap of the Powell, King, and Hayden surveys in the Uinta Mountains led to efforts that were less concerted than competitive and not without acrimony. Many parts of the area were seen by all three parties at almost the same time. Duplication was inevitable, of course, but all three surveys contributed vast quantities of new knowledge to the storehouse of geology, and many now-basic concepts arose from their observations. Powell's area of interest extended mainly southward from the Uinta Mountains to the Grand Canyon, including the boundless plateaus and canyons of southern Utah and northern Arizona. King's survey extended eastward from the High Sierra in California to Cheyenne, Wyoming, and encompassed a swath of country more than 100 miles wide. Hayden's explorations covered an immense region of mountains and basins from Yellowstone Park in Wyoming southeast throughout most of Colorado. Powell first entered the Uinta Mountains in the fall of 1868, having traveled north around the east end of the range from the White River country to Green River, Wyoming, then south over a circuitous route to Flaming Gorge and Browns Park, and finally back to the White River, where he spent the winter. In 1869, after reexamining much of the area visited the previous season, Powell embarked on his famous 'first boat trip' down the Green and Colorado Rivers. This trip was more exploratory

  19. Exhumation of Greater Himalayan rock along the main central thrust in Nepal: Implications for channel flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, D.M.; Pearson, O.N.; ,

    2006-01-01

    South-vergent channel flow from beneath the Tibetan Plateau may have played an important role in forming the Himalaya. The possibility that Greater Himalayan rocks currently exposed in the Himalayan Fold-Thrust Belt flowed at mid-crustal depths before being exhumed is intriguing, and may suggest a natural link between orogenic processes operating under the Tibetan Plateau and in the fold-thrust belt. Conceptual and numeric models for the Himalayan-Tibetan Orogen currently reported in the literature do an admirable job of replicating many of the observable primary geological features and relationships. However, detailed observations from Greater Himalayan rocks exposed in the fold-thrust belt's external klippen, and from Lesser Himalayan rocks in the proximal footwall of the Main Central Thrust, suggest that since Early Miocene time, it may be more appropriate to model the evolution of the fold-thrust belt using the critical taper paradigm. This does not exclude the possibility that channel flow and linked extrusion of Greater Himalayan rocks may have occurred, but it places important boundaries on a permissible time frame during which these processes may have operated. ?? The Geological Society of London 2006.

  20. Processing and attenuation of noise in deep seismic-reflection data from the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, D. R.; Lee, M. W.

    1989-03-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey deep crustal studies reflection profile across the Gulf of Maine off southeastern New England was affected by three sources of noise: side-scattered noise, multiples, and 20-Hz whale sounds. The special processing most effective in minimizing this noise consisted of a combination of frequency-wavenumber (F-K) filtering, predictive deconvolution, and spectral whitening, each applied in the shot domain (prestack). Application of the F-K filter to remove side-scatter noise in the poststack domain resulted in a much poorer quality profile. The prestack noise suppression processing techniques resulted in a reflection profile with good signal-to-noise ratios and reliable strong reflections, especially at depths equivalent to the lower crust (24 34 km). Certain geologic features, such as a buried rift basin and a crustal fault are resolved much better within the upper crust after this processing. Finite difference migration of these data using realistic velocities produced excellent results. Migration was essential to distinguish between abundant dipping and subhorizontal reflections in the lower crust as well as to show an essentially transparent upper mantle.

  1. Processing and attenuation of noise in deep seismic-reflection data from the Gulf of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Lee, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey deep crustal studies reflection profile across the Gulf of Maine off southeastern New England was affected by three sources of noise: side-scattered noise, multiples, and 20-Hz whale sounds. The special processing most effective in minimizing this noise consisted of a combination of frequency-wavenumber (F-K) filtering, predictive deconvolution, and spectral whitening, each applied in the shot domain (prestack). Application of the F-K filter to remove side-scatter noise in the poststack domain resulted in a much poorer quality profile. The prestack noise suppression processing techniques resulted in a reflection profile with good signal-to-noise ratios and reliable strong reflections, especially at depths equivalent to the lower crust (24-34 km). Certain geologic features, such as a buried rift basin and a crustal fault are resolved much better within the upper crust after this processing. Finite difference migration of these data using realistic velocities produced excellent results. Migration was essential to distinguish between abundant dipping and subhorizontal reflections in the lower crust as well as to show an essentially transparent upper mantle. ?? 1989 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  2. Geology of the MER 2003 "Elysium" Candidate Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Carr, M. H.; Gilmore, M. S.; Hare, T. M.

    2003-03-01

    Although chosen mainly for its safety characteristics, new Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey data suggest that the MER 2003 "Elysium" candidate landing site in southeastern Utopia Planitia also meets basic science requirements for the MER mission involving the geologic activity of water.

  3. Morphology, geology and geochemistry of the "Salar del Gran Bajo del Gualicho" (Rio Negro, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angelucci, A.; Barbieri, M.; Brodtkorb, A.; Ciccacci, S.; Civitelli, G.; De Barrio, R.; Di, Filippo M.; Fredi, P.; Friedman, I.; Lombardi, S.; Schalamuk, A.I.; Toro, B.

    1996-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho area (Rio Negro - Argentina) was carried out; the aim was to delineate its geological and geomorphological evolution and to estabilish the genesis of salts filling the depression. Climatic conditions were analized first to individuate their role in the present morphogenetic processes; moreover the main morphological features of present landscape were examined as well as the stratigraphy of the outcropping formations, and of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation in particular. Finally, a possible geomorphological evolution of the studied area was traced. Geophysical analyses allowed to estabilish that the paleosurface shaped on the crystalline basement is strongly uneven and shows evidence of the strong tectonic phases it underwent. The result of isotope analyses confirmed that the salt deposits on the Gran Bajo del Gualicho bottom were produced by fresh water evaporation, while strontium isotope ratio suggested that such waters were responsible for solubilization of more ancient evaporitic deposits.

  4. GeoSciML version 3: A GML application for geologic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    International Union of Geological Sciences., I. C.; Richard, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    After 2 years of testing and development, XML schema for GeoSciML version 3 are now ready for application deployment. GeoSciML draws from many geoscience data modelling efforts to establish a common suite of feature types to represent information associated with geologic maps (materials, structures, and geologic units) and observations including structure data, samples, and chemical analyses. After extensive testing and use case analysis, in December 2008 the CGI Interoperability Working Group (IWG) released GeoSciML 2.0 as an application schema for basic geological information. GeoSciML 2.0 is in use to deliver geologic data by the OneGeology Europe portal, the Geological Survey of Canada Groundwater Information Network (wet GIN), and the Auscope Mineral Resources portal. GeoSciML to version 3.0 is updated to OGC Geography Markup Language v3.2, re-engineered patterns for association of element values with controlled vocabulary concepts, incorporation of ISO19156 Observation and Measurement constructs for representing numeric and categorical values and for representing analytical data, incorporation of EarthResourceML to represent mineral occurrences and mines, incorporation of the GeoTime model to represent GSSP and stratigraphic time scale, and refactoring of the GeoSciML namespace to follow emerging ISO practices for decoupling of dependencies between standardized namespaces. These changes will make it easier for data providers to link to standard vocabulary and registry services. The depth and breadth of GeoSciML remains largely unchanged, covering the representation of geologic units, earth materials and geologic structures. ISO19156 elements and patterns are used to represent sampling features such as boreholes and rock samples, as well as geochemical and geochronologic measurements. Geologic structures include shear displacement structures (brittle faults and ductile shears), contacts, folds, foliations, lineations and structures with no preferred

  5. On the importance of geological data for hydraulic tomography analysis: Laboratory sandbox study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhanfeng; Illman, Walter A.; Berg, Steven J.

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the importance of geological data in Hydraulic Tomography (HT) through sandbox experiments. In particular, four groundwater models with homogeneous geological units constructed with borehole data of varying accuracy are jointly calibrated with multiple pumping test data of two different pumping and observation densities. The results are compared to those from a geostatistical inverse model. Model calibration and validation performances are quantitatively assessed using drawdown scatterplots. We find that accurate and inaccurate geological models can be well calibrated, despite the estimated K values for the poor geological models being quite different from the actual values. Model validation results reveal that inaccurate geological models yield poor drawdown predictions, but using more calibration data improves its predictive capability. Moreover, model comparisons among a highly parameterized geostatistical and layer-based geological models show that, (1) as the number of pumping tests and monitoring locations are reduced, the performance gap between the approaches decreases, and (2) a simplified geological model with a fewer number of layers is more reliable than the one based on the wrong description of stratigraphy. Finally, using a geological model as prior information in geostatistical inverse models results in the preservation of geological features, especially in areas where drawdown data are not available. Overall, our sandbox results emphasize the importance of incorporating geological data in HT surveys when data from pumping tests is sparse. These findings have important implications for field applications of HT where well distances are large.

  6. Computer-assisted photogrammetric mapping systems for geologic studies-A progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pillmore, C.L.; Dueholm, K.S.; Jepsen, H.S.; Schuch, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    Photogrammetry has played an important role in geologic mapping for many years; however, only recently have attempts been made to automate mapping functions for geology. Computer-assisted photogrammetric mapping systems for geologic studies have been developed and are currently in use in offices of the Geological Survey of Greenland at Copenhagen, Denmark, and the U.S. Geological Survey at Denver, Colorado. Though differing somewhat, the systems are similar in that they integrate Kern PG-2 photogrammetric plotting instruments and small desk-top computers that are programmed to perform special geologic functions and operate flat-bed plotters by means of specially designed hardware and software. A z-drive capability, in which stepping motors control the z-motions of the PG-2 plotters, is an integral part of both systems. This feature enables the computer to automatically position the floating mark on computer-calculated, previously defined geologic planes, such as contacts or the base of coal beds, throughout the stereoscopic model in order to improve the mapping capabilities of the instrument and to aid in correlation and tracing of geologic units. The common goal is to enhance the capabilities of the PG-2 plotter and provide a means by which geologists can make conventional geologic maps more efficiently and explore ways to apply computer technology to geologic studies. ?? 1981.

  7. Geology Field Trips as Performance Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Callan

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals the author has for students in his introductory-level physical geology course is to give them the conceptual skills for solving geologic problems on their own. He wants students to leave his course as individuals who can use their knowledge of geologic processes and logic to figure out the extended geologic history…

  8. Geology of Sarawak deep water and its surroundings

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, M.I.; Mohamad, A.M.; Ganesan, M.S.; Aziz, S.A. )

    1994-07-01

    A geological and geophysical investigation based primarily on seismic data indicates that four tectonostratigraphic zonations are recognizable in the Sarawak deep water and its surroundings. Zone A is a 7-8-km-thick Tertiary sedimentary basin in Sarawak deep water characterized by north-south-trending buried hills, extensional fault-bounded features, and local occurrences of compressional structures, and is separated from the northwest Sabah platform (zone B) by a major north-south-trending basin margin fault. This margin fault is distinct from the northwest-southeast transform fault known as Baram-Tinjar Line. The northwest Sabah platform, an attenuated continental crust that underwent late Mesozoic-Tertiary crystal stretching and rifting, is characterized by northeast-southwest-tending rift systems and generally up to 4 km-thick sedimentary cover. The leading edge of the northwest Sabah platform that was subducted beneath the northwest Borneo crust is marked by the Sabah trough (zone C). The western Sarawak deep water is occupied by a 13-km-thick, north-south-trending basin, the west Luconia delta province (zone D), demonstrating post mid-Miocene deltaic growth faults and toe-thrusts. Crustal offsets of the South China Sea Basin, north-south-trending basin margin fault between zones A and B, and extensional and compressional structures in zone A are evidence for north-south-directed transform motions leading to the development of the Sarawak deep-water Tertiary basin. Four main sedimentation phases describe the sedimentation history in Sarawak deep water and its surroundings. Oligocene-Miocene coastal plain sediments form the main hydrocarbon plays in the Sarawak deep water, and the numerous occurrences of amplitude anomalies clearly suggest a working hydrocarbon charge system.

  9. Geology of 243 Ida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, R.; Greeley, R.; Pappalardo, R.; Asphaug, E.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Morrison, D.; Belton, M.J.S.; Carr, M.; Chapman, C.R.; Geissler, P.; Greenberg, R.; Granahan, J.; Head, J. W.; Kirk, R.; McEwen, A.; Lee, P.; Thomas, P.C.; Veverka, J.

    1996-01-01

    The surface of 243 Ida is dominated by the effects of impacts. No complex crater morphologies are observed. A complete range of crater degradation states is present, which also reveals optical maturation of the surface (darkening and reddening of materials with increasing exposure age). Regions of bright material associated with the freshest craters might be ballistically emplaced deposits or the result of seismic disturbance of loosely-bound surface materials. Diameter/depth ratios for fresh craters on Ida are ???1:6.5, similar to Gaspra results, but greater than the 1:5 ratios common on other rocky bodies. Contributing causes include rim degradation by whole-body "ringing," relatively thin ejecta blankets around crater rims, or an extended strength gradient in near-surface materials due to low gravitational self-packing. Grooves probably represent expressions in surface debris of reactivated fractures in the deeper interior. Isolated positive relief features as large as 150 m are probably ejecta blocks related to large impacts. Evidence for the presence of debris on the surface includes resolved ejecta blocks, mass-wasting scars, contrasts in color and albedo of fresh crater materials, and albedo streaks oriented down local slopes. Color data indicate relatively uniform calcium abundance in pyroxenes and constant pyroxene/olivine ratio. A large, relatively blue unit across the northern polar area is probably related to regolith processes involving ejecta from Azzurra rather than representing internal compositional heterogeneity. A small number of bluer, brighter craters are randomly distributed across the surface, unlike on Gaspra where these features are concentrated along ridges. This implies that debris on Ida is less mobile and/or consistently thicker than on Gaspra. Estimates of the average depth of mobile materials derived from chute depths (20-60 m), grooves (???30 m), and shallowing of the largest degraded craters (20-50 m minimum, ???100 m maximum

  10. Geological Implications of a Physical Libration on Enceladus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurford, T. A.; Bills, B. G.; Helfenstein, P.; Greenberg, R.; Hoppa, G. V.; Hamilton, D. P.

    2008-01-01

    Given the non-spherical shape of Enceladus (Thomas et al., 2007), the satellite will experience gravitational torques that will cause it to physically librate as it orbits Saturn. Physical libration would produce a diurnal oscillation in the longitude of Enceladus tidal bulge which, could have a profound effect on the diurnal stresses experienced by the surface of the satellite. Although Cassini ISS has placed an observational upper limit on Enceladus libration amplitude of F < 1.5deg (Porco et al., 2006), smaller amplitudes can still have geologically significant consequences. Here we present the first detailed description of how physical libration affects tidal stresses and how those stresses then might affect geological processes including crack formation and propagation, south polar eruption activity, and tidal heating. Our goal is to provide a framework for testing the hypothesis that geologic features on Enceladus are produced by tidal stresses from diurnal physical and optical librations of the satellite.

  11. Geologic exploration: The contribution of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, J. R.; Dykstra, J. D.; Sheffield, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The major advantages of the TM data over that of MSS systems are increased spatial resolution and a greater number of narrow, strategically placed spectral bands. The 30 meter pixel size permits finer definition of ground features and improves reliability of the photointerpretation of geologic structure. The value of the spatial data increases relative to the value of the spectral data as soil and vegetation cover increase. In arid areas with good exposure, it is possible with careful digital processing and some inventive color compositing to produce enough spectral differentiation of rock types and thereby produce facsimiles of standard geologic maps with a minimum of field work or reference to existing maps. Hue-saturation value images are compared with geological maps of Death Valley, California, the Big Horn/Wind River Basin of Wyoming, the area around Cement, Oklahoma, and Detroit. False color composites of the Ontario region are also examined.

  12. Understanding Oscillations of the Geological Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachan, A.; Payne, J.; Saltzman, M.; Thomas, E.; Kump, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    The geological cycling of carbon ties together the sedimentary reservoirs with Earth's biosphere and climate. Perturbations to this coupled system are recorded in the carbon isotopic composition of marine limestones (δ13Ccarb). In the past decade numerous intervals of large-amplitude oscillations in δ13Ccarbhave been identified, with a variety of explanations proposed for individual events. Yet, when data spanning the past ~1 Ga are viewed as a whole, it is clear that large-scale oscillations are a common feature of the carbon isotopic record. The ubiquity of oscillations suggests that they may share a single origin rather than having many disparate causes. Here we present a simple two-box model of the geological carbon cycle exhibiting such oscillations: the Carbon-Cycle Oscillator. Analogous to a damped mass-spring system, the burial fluxes of carbonate and phosphate in the model act like friction, whereas P supply and Corg burial act like the restoring force of the spring. When the sensitivities of P supply and Corg burial to the sizes of the C and P reservoirs, respectively, increase above a critical threshold, the model exhibits oscillations upon perturbation. We suggest that intervals with large oscillations in bulk ocean-atmosphere δ13C are characterized by a greater sensitivity of the C:P burial-ratio and ALK:P weathering-ratio to the state of the ocean-atmosphere carbon pool. In addition, moderating of the slope of that dependence in general can account for the observed decrease in the amplitude of oscillations over the past billion years. We hypothesize that factors with a unidirectional trajectory during Earth history (e.g. increased oxygenation of the deep ocean, and evolution of pelagic calcifiers) led to a decrease in the Earth System's gain and increase in its resilience over geologic time, even in the face of continuing perturbations from the solid Earth and extraterrestrial realms.

  13. Evidence for geologic processes on comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunshine, Jessica M.; Thomas, Nicolas; El-Maarry, Mohamed Ramy; Farnham, Tony L.

    2016-11-01

    Spacecraft missions have resolved the nuclei of six periodic comets and revealed a set of geologically intriguing and active small bodies. The shapes of these cometary nuclei are dominantly bilobate reflecting their formation from smaller cometesimals. Cometary surfaces include a diverse set of morphologies formed from a variety of mechanisms. Sublimation of ices, driven by the variable insolation over the time since each nucleus was perturbed into the inner Solar System, is a major process on comets and is likely responsible for quasi-circular depressions and ubiquitous layering. Sublimation from near-vertical walls is also seen to lead to undercutting and mass wasting. Fracturing has only been resolved on one comet but likely exists on all comets. There is also evidence for mass redistribution, where material lifted off the nucleus by subliming gases is deposited onto other surfaces. It is surprising that such sedimentary processes are significant in the microgravity environment of comets. There are many enigmatic features on cometary surfaces including tall spires, kilometer-scale flows, and various forms of depressions and pits. Furthermore, even after accounting for the differences in resolution and coverage, significant diversity in landforms among cometary surfaces clearly exists. Yet why certain landforms occur on some comets and not on others remains poorly understood. The exploration and understanding of geologic processes on comets is only beginning. These fascinating bodies will continue to provide a unique laboratory for examining common geologic processes under the uncommon conditions of very high porosity, very low strength, small particle sizes, and near-zero gravity.

  14. Geology of Barents Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, F.; Vollset, J.

    1984-09-01

    The Barents Sea is situated on the continental shelf between Norway, the Spitsbergen Islands, and Novaya Zemlya. The main structural framework of the area was formed during the Caledonian and Hercynian orogenies, whereas the western parts were reactivated by the Kimmerian and Alpine orogenies. Because of the complex opening of the Greenland Norwegian Sea, important tertiary reactivation of Mesozoic normal faults occurred along southwest-northeast-trending systems of wrench faults. Owing to substantial erosion in the late Tertiary, the subsidence history and thermal development are more difficult to unravel in this area than in other places along the Norwegian Shelf. The erosion products were deposited in a huge sedimentary wedge extending onto the oceanic crust. The hydrocarbon discoveries in the Troms area in the southern part of the Barents Sea are encouraging for further exploration. However, the petroleum potential for large areas is not well known at this stage.

  15. Evaluation of radar imagery for geological and cartographic applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.; Sheehan, Cynthia A.

    1981-01-01

    The House/Senate conference report on H.R. 4930 (96th Congress), the Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations bill, 1980, stated that the U.S. Geological Survey should "begin the use of side-looking airborne radar imagery for topographic and geological mapping, and geological resource surveys in promising areas, particularly Alaska." In response to this mandate, the Survey acquired radar data and began scientific studies to analyze and interpret these data. About 70 percent of the project funding was used to acquire radar imagery and to evaluate Alaskan applications. Results of these studies indicate that radar images have a unique incremental value for certain geologic and cartographic applications but that the images are best suited for use as supplemental information sources or as primary data sources in areas of persistent cloud cover.The value of radar data is greatest for geologic mapping and resource surveys, particularly for mineral and petroleum exploration, where the objective is to locate any single feature or group of features that may control the occurrences of these resources. Radar images are considered by oil and gas companies to be worth the cost of data acquisition within a limited area of active exploration.Radar images also have incremental value for geologic site studies and hazard mapping. The need in these cases is TO inventory all geologic hazards to human life, property, resources, and the environment. For other geologic applications, radar images have a relatively small incremental value over a combination of Landsat images and aerial photographs.The value of radar images for cartographic applications is minimal, except when they are used as a substitute for aerial photographs and topographic maps in persistently cloud-covered areas. If conventional data sources are not available, radar images provide useful information on terrain relief, landforms, drainage patterns, and land cover. Screen less lithography is a low

  16. The U. S. Geological Survey Geologic Hazards Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    In 1879, Congress established the U.S Geological Survey for "the classification of the public lands and the examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain." Throughout the past 103 years, the Survey has successfully fulfilled these responsibilities, but it has also been responsive to changing national needs. This responsiveness is well exemplified by the development of the agency's natural hazard programs. Our orignial mision has been expanded to include formal investigations of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground failures, and flood hazards. 

  17. Geology of five small Australian impact craters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, E.M.; Macdonald, F.A.; Shoemaker, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Here we present detailed geological maps and cross-sections of Liverpool, Wolfe Creek, Boxhole, Veevers and Dalgaranga craters. Liverpool crater and Wolfe Creek Meteorite Crater are classic bowlshaped, Barringer-type craters, Liverpool was likely formed during the Neoproterozoic and was filled and covered with sediments soon thereafter. In the Cenozoic, this cover was exhumed exposing the crater's brecciated wall rocks. Wolfe Creek Meteorite Crater displays many striking features, including well-bedded ejecta units, crater-floor faults and sinkholes, a ringed aeromagnetic anomaly, rim-skirting dunes, and numerous iron-rich shale balls. Boxhole Meteorite Crater, Veevers Meteorite Crater and Dalgaranga crater are smaller, Odessa-type craters without fully developed, steep, overturned rims. Boxhole and Dalgaranga craters are developed in highly follated Precambrian basement rocks with a veneer of Holocene colluvium. The pre-existing structure at these two sites complicates structural analyses of the craters, and may have influenced target deformation during impact. Veevers Meteorite Crater is formed in Cenozoic laterites, and is one of the best-preserved impact craters on Earth. The craters discussed herein were formed in different target materials, ranging from crystalline rocks to loosely consolidated sediments, containing evidence that the impactors struck at an array of angles and velocities. This facilitates a comparative study of the influence of these factors on the structural and topographic form of small impact craters. ?? Geological Society of Australia.

  18. A predictive geologic model of radon occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, L.T. )

    1990-01-01

    Earlier work by LeGrand on predictive geologic models for radon focused on hydrogeologic aspects of radon transport from a given uranium/radium source in a fractured crystalline rock aquifer, and included submodels for bedrock lithology (uranium concentration), topographic slope, and water-table behavior and characteristics. LeGrand's basic geologic model has been modified and extended into a submodel for crystalline rocks (Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces) and a submodel for sedimentary rocks (Valley and Ridge and Coastal Plain Provinces). Each submodel assigns a ranking of 1 to 15 to the bedrock type, based on (a) known or supposed uranium/thorium content, (b) petrography/lithology, and (c) structural features such as faults, shear or breccia zones, diabase dikes, and jointing/fracturing. The bedrock ranking is coupled with a generalized soil/saprolite model which ranks soil/saprolite type and thickness from 1 to 10. A given site is thus assessed a ranking of 1 to 150 as a guide to its potential for high radon occurrence in the upper meter or so of soil. Field trials of the model are underway, comparing model predictions with measured soil-gas concentrations of radon.

  19. Geologic map of the Arctic Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brosge, W.P.; Reiser, H.N.; Dutro, J.T.; Detterman, R.L.; Tailleur, I.L.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction The Arctic quadrangle is well located to shed light on the basic geologic relations of northern Alaska. The rocks represent all of the stratigraphic systems from Cambrian to Cretaceous and all but one of the tectono-stratigraphic subterranes of the Brooks Range, from the autochthonous subterrane in the north to the allochthonous subterranes farther south. Among the distinctive geologic features displayed in the Arctic quadrangle are voluminous volcanic rocks of probable Devonian age, a wide array of Carboniferous carbonate facies in the Lisburne Group (which here extends up into the Middle Pennsylvanian), the southward transition of Upper Devonian (Famennian) clastic facies from fluvial conglomerate to marine sandstone, a full display of Upper Devonian (Frasnian) reef-related strata, and fossiliferous Ordovician rocks in both carbonate and chert terranes. Most of the quadrangle is in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) and Arctic Wildlife Refuge Wilderness. The quadrangle also includes Arctic Village, the only village in the region and a potential destination or transfer point for visitors to the wildlife refuge.

  20. Ontological Encoding of GeoSciML and INSPIRE geological standard vocabularies and schemas: application to geological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Piana, Fabrizio; Mimmo, Dario; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Encoding of geologic knowledge in formal languages is an ambitious task, aiming at the interoperability and organic representation of geological data, and semantic characterization of geologic maps. Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (last version is GeoSciML 4, 2015[1]) and INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0 rc3, 2013[2]), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG[3]) have been promoting information exchange of the geologic knowledge. There have also been limited attempts to encode the knowledge in a machine-readable format, especially in the lithology domain (see e.g. the CGI_Lithology ontology[4]), but a comprehensive ontological model that connect the several knowledge sources is still lacking. This presentation concerns the "OntoGeonous" initiative, which aims at encoding the geologic knowledge, as expressed through the standard vocabularies, schemas and data models mentioned above, through a number of interlinked computational ontologies, based on the languages of the Semantic Web and the paradigm of Linked Open Data. The initiative proceeds in parallel with a concrete case study, concerning the setting up of a synthetic digital geological map of the Piemonte region (NW Italy), named "GEOPiemonteMap" (developed by the CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, CNR IGG, Torino), where the description and classification of GeologicUnits has been supported by the modeling and implementation of the ontologies. We have devised a tripartite ontological model called OntoGeonous that consists of: 1) an ontology of the geologic features (in particular, GeologicUnit, GeomorphologicFeature, and GeologicStructure[5], modeled from the definitions and UML schemata of CGI vocabularies[6], GeoScienceML and INSPIRE, and aligned with the Planetary realm of NASA SWEET ontology[7]), 2) an ontology of the Earth materials (as defined by the

  1. Shuttle Imaging Radar - Geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Bridges, L.; Waite, W.; Kaupp, V.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle, on its second flight (November 12, 1981), carried the first science and applications payload which provided an early demonstration of Shuttle's research capabilities. One of the experiments, the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A), had as a prime objective to evaluate the capability of spaceborne imaging radars as a tool for geologic exploration. The results of the experiment will help determine the value of using the combination of space radar and Landsat imagery for improved geologic analysis and mapping. Preliminary analysis of the Shuttle radar imagery with Seasat and Landsat imagery from similar areas provides evidence that spaceborne radars can significantly complement Landsat interpretation, and vastly improve geologic reconnaissance mapping in those areas of the world that are relatively unmapped because of perpetual cloud cover.

  2. Quaternary geology of Avery Island, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Autin, W.J.; McCulloh, R.P.; Davison, A.T.

    1986-09-01

    Avery Island, one of the Five Islands salt domes of south-central Louisiana, is a piercement-type dome that has been uplifted from several kilometers' depth. It is nearly circular in plan with a maximum elevation approximately 50 m above the surrounding coastal marsh. Dissection has produced a terrain of gullies and steep slopes. The features identified indicate a complex geologic history for Avery Island. Deposition of late Pleistocene sediments in a low-relief alluvial plain and subsequent soil development predate domal uplift. The stratigraphy of loess and colluvial silts indicates the island was emergent during loess depositions. The degree of dissection, distribution of colluvium, and shearing of Quaternary sediments reflects continual uplift after loess deposition.

  3. Symmetries in geology and geophysics

    PubMed Central

    Turcotte, Donald L.; Newman, William I.

    1996-01-01

    Symmetries have played an important role in a variety of problems in geology and geophysics. A large fraction of studies in mineralogy are devoted to the symmetry properties of crystals. In this paper, however, the emphasis will be on scale-invariant (fractal) symmetries. The earth’s topography is an example of both statistically self-similar and self-affine fractals. Landforms are also associated with drainage networks, which are statistical fractal trees. A universal feature of drainage networks and other growth networks is side branching. Deterministic space-filling networks with side-branching symmetries are illustrated. It is shown that naturally occurring drainage networks have symmetries similar to diffusion-limited aggregation clusters. PMID:11607719

  4. Geology of the pitchblende ores of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bastin, Edson S.

    1915-01-01

    The large amount of public interest that has recently been manifested in radium because of the apparent cures of cancer effected by certain of its emanations makes it desirable to place before the public as promptly as possible all available information in regard to the occurrence of the minerals from which radium may be derived. The following account of the mode of occurrence of pitchblende at Quartz Hill, in Gilpin County, Colo., is therefore published in advance of a much larger report on the same region in which many other types of ore deposits will be considered. The field studies were made.in the fall of 1912. As the geologic relations at Quartz Hill differ in important particulars from those at foreign localities, a summary of the genetically important features of the principal European occurrences is included for purposes of comparison.

  5. Carleton College Geology Department: Seventy Years of Planning for Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, M. E.; Davidson, C.

    2003-12-01

    On the back of a fire door leading to the Carleton geology lounge and classroom, students have painted a geologic time scale representing the history of the geology department from its establishment in 1933 to its present configuration. Along the way, Laurence McKinley Gould, George Gibson, Duncan Stewart VII, Leonard Wilson, Eiler Henrickson, Ed Buchwald, Shelby Boardman, Mary Savina, David Bice, Clem Shearer, Bereket Haileab, Clint Cowan, Cam Davidson, Jenn Macalady and a host of other faculty have contributed to an excellent undergraduate program. Features that have maintained the strength of the program over the years include: Outstanding support staff (Betty Bray and Tim Vick); Weekly department meetings that include discussion of department goals and pedagogy, including attention to giving students the tools to complete the major and capstone project; Regular department retreats that allow more comprehensive discussion; Encouraging different teaching styles among the faculty; A curriculum that emphasizes active learning from day one in introductory geology through the senior capstone experience; Involving students in the department, from planning field trips to hiring to TAs; Increasing student role models by having sophomore, junior and senior majors in most courses; Emphasizing the liberal arts character of geology, rather than pre-professional; Bringing alumni back to campus on a regular basis; Publishing an annual alumni newsletter and maintaining a department web site; Creating a social and intellectual space within the department for students and faculty; Making a particular effort to be welcoming and affirming to people of all colors, ethnicities, affectional orientations and gender identities;

  6. One perspective on spatial variability in geologic mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markewich, H.W.; Cooper, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the differences between geologic mapping and soil mapping, and how the resultant maps are interpreted. The role of spatial variability in geologic mapping is addressed only indirectly because in geologic mapping there have been few attempts at quantification of spatial differences. This is largely because geologic maps deal with temporal as well as spatial variability and consider time, age, and origin, as well as composition and geometry. Both soil scientists and geologists use spatial variability to delineate mappable units; however, the classification systems from which these mappable units are defined differ greatly. Mappable soil units are derived from systematic, well-defined, highly structured sets of taxonomic criteria; whereas mappable geologic units are based on a more arbitrary heirarchy of categories that integrate many features without strict values or definitions. Soil taxonomy is a sorting tool used to reduce heterogeneity between soil units. Thus at the series level, soils in any one series are relatively homogeneous because their range of properties is small and well-defined. Soil maps show the distribution of soils on the land surface. Within a map area, soils, which are often less than 2 m thick, show a direct correlation to topography and to active surface processes as well as to parent material.

  7. Geological provinces of the near side of the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCauley, J.F.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1971-01-01

    Systematic geologic mapping of the near side of the Moon has provided the basis for defining and delineating the major geological provinces of the near side. From the nature of the provinces and their distribution patterns a general historical sequence evolves. Five main surface-shaping periods are recognized: (1) one of intense early impact cratering; (2) another, probably overlapping the first, during which the impact basins were formed; (3) a prolonged period of varied terra volcanism; (4) a short period of mare volcanism that resulted in filling of the multiring basins; and (5) a period of diminishing volcanic activity continuing up to the time of formation of the last ray craters. ?? 1972.

  8. Space shuttle main engine vibration data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewallen, Pat

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) vibration data without having to constantly replay analog tapes, the SSME Vibration Data Base was developed. This data base contains data that have been digitized at a high sample rate for the entire test duration. It provides quick and efficient recall capabilities for numerious computation and display routines. The data base components are described as well as some of the compution and display features.

  9. 22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  10. 6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MAIN AND SOUTH BAYS. DETAIL OF TOP OF MAIN BAY COLUMN, GIRDER FOR ELECTRIC OVERHEAD TRAVEL CRANE, AND ROOF GIRDERS - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  11. Sketch-based geologic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rood, M. P.; Jackson, M.; Hampson, G.; Brazil, E. V.; de Carvalho, F.; Coda, C.; Sousa, M. C.; Zhang, Z.; Geiger, S.

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) maps and cross-sections, and 3D conceptual models, are fundamental tools for understanding, communicating and modeling geology. Yet geologists lack dedicated and intuitive tools that allow rapid creation of such figures and models. Standard drawing packages produce only 2D figures that are not suitable for quantitative analysis. Geologic modeling packages can produce 3D models and are widely used in the groundwater and petroleum communities, but are often slow and non-intuitive to use, requiring the creation of a grid early in the modeling workflow and the use of geostatistical methods to populate the grid blocks with geologic information. We present an alternative approach to rapidly create figures and models using sketch-based interface and modelling (SBIM). We leverage methods widely adopted in other industries to prototype complex geometries and designs. The SBIM tool contains built-in geologic rules that constrain how sketched lines and surfaces interact. These rules are based on the logic of superposition and cross-cutting relationships that follow from rock-forming processes, including deposition, deformation, intrusion and modification by diagenesis or metamorphism. The approach allows rapid creation of multiple, geologically realistic, figures and models in 2D and 3D using a simple, intuitive interface. The user can sketch in plan- or cross-section view. Geologic rules are used to extrapolate sketched lines in real time to create 3D surfaces. Quantitative analysis can be carried our directly on the models. Alternatively, they can be output as simple figures or imported directly into other modeling tools. The software runs on a tablet PC and can be used in a variety of settings including the office, classroom and field. The speed and ease of use of SBIM enables multiple interpretations to be developed from limited data, uncertainty to be readily appraised, and figures and models to be rapidly updated to incorporate new data or concepts.

  12. Delivery mechanisms of 3D geological models - a perspective from the British Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrington, Ricky; Myers, Antony; Wood, Ben; Arora, Baneet

    2013-04-01

    The past decade has seen the British Geological Survey (BGS) construct over one hundred 3D geological models using software such as GOCAD®, GSI3D, EarthVision and Petrel across the United Kingdom and overseas. These models have been produced for different purposes and at different scales and resolutions in the shallow and deep subsurface. Alongside the construction of these models, the BGS and its collaborators have developed several options for disseminating these 3D geological models to external partners and the public. Initially, the standard formats for disseminating these 3D geological models by the BGS comprised of 2D images of cross-sections, GIS raster data and specialised visualisation software such as the LithoFrame Viewer. The LithoFrame Viewer is a thick-client software that allows the user to explore the 3D geometries of the geological units using a 3D interface, and generate synthetic cross-sections and boreholes on the fly. Despite the increased functionality of the LithoFrame Viewer over the other formats, the most popular data formats distributed remained 2D images of cross-sections, CAD based formats (e.g. DWG and DXF) and GIS raster data of surfaces and thicknesses, as these were the types of data that the external partners were most used too. Since 2009 software for delivering 3D geological models has advanced and types of data available have increased. Feature Manipulation Engine (FME) has been used to increase the number of outputs from 3D geological models. These include: • 3D PDFs (Adobe Acrobat) • KMZ/KML (GoogleEarth) • 3D shapefiles (ESRI) Alongside these later outputs, the BGS has developed other software such as GroundhogTM and Geovisionary (in collaboration with Virtalis). Groundhog is fully a web based application that allows the user to generate synthetic cross-sections, boreholes and horizontal slices from 3D geological models on the fly. Geovisionary provides some of the most advanced visualisation of 3D geological models in

  13. Geologic Mapping of the Marius Quadrangle, the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Yingst, Aileen

    2008-01-01

    The authors seek to construct a 1:2,500,000-scale map of Lunar Quadrangle 10 (LQ10 or the Marius Quadrangle) to address outstanding questions about the Moon's volcanologic history and the role of impact basins in lunar geologic evolution. The selected quadrangle contains Aristarchus plateau and the Marius hills, Reiner Gamma, and Hevelius crater. By generating a geologic map of this region, we can constrain the temporal (and possibly genetic) relations between these features, revealing more information about the Moon's chemical and thermal evolution. Although many of these individual sites have been investigated using Lunar Orbiter, Clementine, Lunar Prospector and Galileo data, no single investigation has yet attempted to constrain the stratigraphic and geologic relationships between these features. Furthermore, we will be able to compare our unit boundaries on the eastern boundary of the proposed map area with those already mapped in the Copernicus Quadrangle. Geologic mapping of the Marius Quadrangle would provide insight to the following questions: the origin, evolution, and distribution of mare volcanism; the timing and effects of the major basin-forming impacts on lunar crustal stratigraphy; and, the Moon's important resources, where they are concentrated, and how they can be accessed.

  14. The Geology of Ceres: an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Hiesinger, H.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Nathues, A.; Preusker, F.; Roatsch, T.; Ammannito, E.; Otto, K.; Krohn, K.; Stephan, K.; Matz, K. D.; Elgner, S.; Kersten, E.; Wagner, R. J.; Schroeder, S.; Schulzeck, F.; von der Gathen, I.; Schmedemann, N.; Kneissl, T.; Nessemann, A.; Scully, J. E. C.; Mest, S. C.; Marchi, S.; Schenk, P.; McCord, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Ceres exhibits geological features indicating significant resurfacing due to impact cratering, tectonic stress, relaxation, mass displacement, upwelling, doming and possible cryo-volcanic and/or cryo-glacial processes. Ceres' surface is characterized by a smooth and rugged topography ranging from about -7.5km to 7.5km relative to a best-fit ellipsoidal shape with 482x482x446km. Ceres' topography has a much greater range in elevation relative to its ellipsoidal dimensions (3.2%) than the Moon and Mars (1% and 0.9%) or Earth (0.3%) but is lower compared to Vesta (15%). Its topography is comparable to the icy satellite Iapetus (3.6%) but significantly higher than that of other icy satellites (<1.8%). The topography of Ceres indicates a rigid crust manifesting a range of processes at large and small scales in the course of its geological evolution. Impact craters of all sizes, central peaks and rings, and a variety of ejecta blankets, as well as lineaments, apparent depression infills and distinctive bright spots characterize Ceres' surface. Impact craters range from pristine to highly degraded, comparable to that of various icy satellites, the Moon and Vesta, indicating an intensive cratering history over the age of the solar system as indicated by surface units with different crater densities. Some craters show upwelling dome-like structures on the floor. Bright spots with higher albedo than the surrounding terrain occur at different locations correlated with impact structures and tectonic crustal stress. These spots indicate material differences and possible time-variable effects related to cryo-processes either volcanic and/or glacial. Trough-like features and polygonal impact crater rims indicate crustal stress that compensates by tectonic processes. According to the relatively high topography to radius ratio, steep slopes, mass wasting, and flow processes are expected and observed. We thank the Dawn Science and Operations Team for their support.

  15. Background seismicity controlled by heterogeneity in subsurface geology: An example from the Wakayama region, southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, S.; Toda, S.; Katao, H.

    2013-12-01

    Heterogeneity associated with shallow geologic structure is one of the factors to control the earthquake occurrence in the crust. Material properties properties such as strength, permeability, fluid content, and rheology, reflected from different lithological units may influence faulting behavior, thus seismicity. To explore the role of geologic heterogeneity into the seismicity, here we examine the spatial relationship between seismicity and geologic structure in the Wakayama region, northwestern Kii Peninsula, in which a significant high background rate of seismicity has been continuously recorded since the mid-1900 (~100 M≥2.0 earthquakes recorded per year since 2000). Epicenters of numerous small earthquakes are located mainly on the Mesozoic metamorphic rocks and accretion units bounded by major tectonic lines, which dimension is roughly ~40 km x ~40 km (hereinafter 'Wakayama seismic zone'). Within the Wakayama seismic zone, we observe many E-W and ENE-WSW trending dense seismic clusters plotted by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) catalog. To see finer internal hypocenter distribution particularly characteristics of the seismic clusters, we employed the hypoDD method (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000) to relocate the JMA hypocenters. Our hypoDD catalog made the clouds of clusters much sharper and enables us to compare with the detail and local geologic structure. We found that most of the E-W trending seismic clusters possibly correspond to the E-W trending local scale geologic faults, folds, bedding planes, and schistosity. We also found that there are two ~15-km-long and ~5-km-wide aseismic zones that are well corresponding to mafic to ultramafic rocks including serpentine (called 'Mikabu zone'). The Mikabu zones are also well expressed by the high Bouguer anomalies (Geological Survey of Japan, 2013). Employing Talwani model (Talwani, 1959), we estimated that higher density ultra-mafic rocks extended up to 5 km deep from the surface. We interpret that

  16. Geology of the American Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldridge, W. Scott

    2004-06-01

    Scott Baldridge presents a concise guide to the geology of the Southwestern U.S. Two billion years of Earth history are represented in the rocks and landscape of the Southwest U.S., creating natural wonders such as the Grand Canyon, Monument Valley, and Death Valley. This region is considered a geologist's "dream", attracting a large number of undergraduate field classes and amateur geologists. The volume will prove invaluable to students and will also appeal to anyone interested in the geology and landscape of the region's National Parks.

  17. Environmental geology of Harrison Bay, northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, J.D.; Thrasher, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The surficial and shallow subsurface geology of Harrison Bay on the Beaufort Sea coast was mapped as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's prelease evaluation for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 71. During the 1980 summer season, approximately 1600 km of multisensored, high-resolution geophysical profile data were collected along a rectangular grid with 4.8 km line spacing. Interpretation of these data is presented on five maps showing bathymetry, sea-floor microrelief, ice-gouge characteristics, Holocene sediment thickness, and geologic structure to depths of approximately 1000 m. On a broad scale, the seafloor is shallow and almost flat, although microrelief features produced by sediment transport and ice-gouge processes typically vary up to several meters in amplitude. Microrelief bedforms related to hydraulic processes are predominant in water depths less than 12 m. Microrelief caused by ice gouging generally increases with water depth, reaching a maximum of 2 m or more in water depths beyond the 20 m isobath. This intensely gouged area lies beneath the shear zone between the seasonal landfast ice and the mobile polar ice pack. The thickness of recent (Holocene) sediment increases offshore, from 2 m near the Colville River delta to 30 m or more on the outer shelf. The thin Holocene layer is underlain by a complex horizon interpreted to be the upper surface of a Pleistocene deposit similar in composition to the present Arctic Coastal Plain. The base of the inferred Pleistocene section is interpreted to be a low-angle unconformity 100 m below sea level. Beneath this Tertiary-Quaternary unconformity, strata are interpreted to be alluvial fan-delta plain deposits corresponding to the Colville Group and younger formations of Late Cretaceous to Tertiary age. Numerous high-angle faults downthrown to the north trend across the survey area. With few exceptions, these faults terminate at or below the 100 m unconformity, suggesting that most tectonism

  18. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the

  19. Geologic Mapping of Ascraeus Mons, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, K. J.; Williams, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Ascraeus Mons is one of the three large shield volcanoes in the Tharsis Montes province on Mars. We are conducting geologic mapping of Ascraeus in ArcMap 10.3 at 1:1,000,000 scale using a CTX dataset as a primary basemap. The CTX dataset is supplemented by HRSC, HiRISE, THEMIS, and MOLA data. Our objective is to determine the areal extent, distribution, and age relationships of different lava flow morphologies on the main flank, rift apron, and associated small-vent field of Ascraeus Mons to: (1) identify and understand changes in effusive style across the volcano, and (2) provide insight into martian magma production rates. Our mapping, thus far, at a CTX resolution (~6 m/pixel) shows a variety of effusive styles on the flanks, rift aprons, and plains on and around Ascraeus Mons. Our plan to address (1) is to create a geologic map of Ascraeus Mons. We will use this map to determine where and how different lava flows were emplaced on the flanks and surrounding plains of Ascraeus Mons. We will determine relative ages of units using the emplacement of different geological units, impacts, tectonics, and erosion via superposition relations. We will relate eruptive styles by comparing how different flows are oriented around Ascraeus Mons. Our plan for (2) is to use CTX, MOLA and HRSC datasets to determine volumes of the emplaced lava flows. The volumes will be used to calculate yield strengths and viscosities of each flow. The yield strengths and viscosities will be used to calculate magma production rates. These will prove important to better understand the history and creation of Ascraeus Mons and other volcanoes on other planetary bodies.

  20. Structural geology and geophysics as a support to build a hydrogeologic model of granite rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Landa, Lurdes; Carrera, Jesús; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Gómez, Paloma; Bajos, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    A method developed for low-permeability fractured media was applied to understand the hydrogeology of a mine excavated in a granitic pluton. This method includes (1) identifying the main groundwater-conducting features of the medium, such as the mine, dykes, and large fractures, (2) implementing this factors as discrete elements into a three-dimensional numerical model, and (3) calibrating these factors against hydraulic data . A key question is how to identify preferential flow paths in the first step. Here, we propose a combination of several techniques. Structural geology, together with borehole sampling, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry, and local hydraulic tests aided in locating all structures. Integration of these data yielded a conceptual model of the site. A preliminary calibration of the model was performed against short-term (< 1 day) pumping tests, which facilitated the characterization of some of the fractures. The hydraulic properties were then used for other fractures that, according to geophysics and structural geology, belonged to the same families. Model validity was tested by blind prediction of a long-term (4 months) large-scale (1 km) pumping test from the mine, which yielded excellent agreement with the observations. Model results confirmed the sparsely fractured nature of the pluton, which has not been subjected to glacial loading-unloading cycles and whose waters are of Na-HCO3 type.

  1. Paleoliquefaction studies in continental setting; geologic and geotechnical factors in interpretations and back-analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obermeier, Stephen F.; Pond, Eric C.; Olson, Scott M.; Green, Russell A.; Stark, Timothy D.; Mitchell, James K.

    2001-01-01

    Paleoliquefaction research in the last 15 years has greatly improved our ability to interpret the paleoseismic record throughout some large geographic areas, especially in regions of infrequent large earthquakes. Paleoliquefaction studies have been used extensively in the central and eastern U.S. to assess seismic hazards, and could be used elsewhere to good purpose because paleoliquefaction studies in some field settings can reveal more than other methods, such as fault studies, about the prehistoric strength of shaking and earthquake magnitude. We present guidelines for the conduct of a paleoliquefaction study in continental deposits, mainly in terms of the geologic/seismologic setting and geotechnical properties, because a successful interpretation requires factors from all these disciplines. No single discipline suffices alone. Their interactions must be appreciated in order to understand why seismically induced liquefaction features are found in some locales and not in others. The guidelines that we present also relate to three primary issues for which liquefaction features are especially useful for interpretations: Where was the tectonic source? What was the strength of shaking? And what was the magnitude? In discussing these issues we focus on the following aspects of level-ground liquefaction: (1) mechanisms that form seismic liquefaction features in the field; (2) field settings where liquefaction features should be present if strong seismic shaking has occurred; (3) field settings where an absence of liquefaction features indicates an absence of strong seismic shaking; (4) how liquefaction features should be used to interpret the tectonic source locale of a paleo-earthquake; and (5) how effects of liquefaction can be used to back-calculate the strength of shaking as well as earthquake magnitude. Several methods are available to back-calculate the strength of shaking and earthquake magnitude, and the most commonly used methods are presented and critiqued

  2. To evaluate ERTS-1 data for usefulness as a geological sensor in the diverse geological terranes of New York State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isachsen, Y. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the present imagery, obtained during the full foliage of summer and fall, the greatest amount of spectral geology is displayed in the Adirondack region where bedrock geology is strongly linked to topography. Of the four spectral bands imaged, band 5 and 7 provide the most geological information. The boundary between the basement rocks of the Adirondack Dome and the surrounding Lower Paleozoic rocks is well delineated except in the Northwest Lowlands and along parts of the eastern Adirondacks. Within the basement complex, the most prominently displayed features are numerous north-northeast trending faults and topographic lineaments, and arcuate east-west valleys developed in some of the weaker metasedimentary rocks. The majority of the faults and lineaments shown on the geologic map of New York appear in the ERTS-1 imagery. In addition, many new linears were detected, as well as a number of anomalous curvilinear elements, some circular in plan and measuring up to 25 km in diameter, which do not bear any clear relationship to mapped geological contacts. The possibility that it is an astrobleme will be investigated after snow melts in the spring.

  3. Locating potential biosignatures on Europa from surface geology observations.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Patricio H; Greeley, Ronald; Neuer, Susanne; Irwin, Louis; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the astrobiological potential of the major classes of geologic units on Europa with respect to possible biosignatures preservation on the basis of surface geology observations. These observations are independent of any formational model and therefore provide an objective, though preliminary, evaluation. The assessment criteria include high mobility of material, surface concentration of non-ice components, relative youth, textural roughness, and environmental stability. Our review determined that, as feature classes, low-albedo smooth plains, smooth bands, and chaos hold the highest potential, primarily because of their relative young age, the emplacement of low-viscosity material, and indications of material exchange with the subsurface. Some lineaments and impact craters may be promising sites for closer study despite the comparatively lower astrobiological potential of their classes. This assessment will be expanded by multidisciplinary examination of the potential for habitability of specific features.

  4. The subglacial geology of Wilkes Land, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitken, A. R. A.; Young, D. A.; Ferraccioli, F.; Betts, P. G.; Greenbaum, J. S.; Richter, T. G.; Roberts, J. L.; Blankenship, D. D.; Siegert, M. J.

    2014-04-01

    Wilkes Land is a key region for studying the configuration of Gondwana and for appreciating the role of tectonic boundary conditions on East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) behavior. Despite this importance, it remains one of the largest regions on Earth where we lack a basic knowledge of geology. New magnetic, gravity, and subglacial topography data allow the region's first comprehensive geological interpretation. We map lithospheric domains and their bounding faults, including the suture between Indo-Antarctica and Australo-Antarctica. Furthermore, we image subglacial sedimentary basins, including the Aurora and Knox Subglacial Basins and the previously unknown Sabrina Subglacial Basin. Commonality of structure in magnetic, gravity, and topography data suggest that pre-EAIS tectonic features are a primary control on subglacial topography. The preservation of this relationship after glaciation suggests that these tectonic features provide topographic and basal boundary conditions that have strongly influenced the structure and evolution of the EAIS.

  5. New News and the Competing Views of Asteroid Belt Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. E.

    1996-03-01

    We have collected a lot of new data in the seven years since the big blue books came out (Asteroids II, 1989, and Meteorites and the Early Solar System, 1988). Here we review how all this new data has changed our perceptions of the geology of the asteroid belt. The only way to a complete understanding of asteroid belt geology is through knowledge of the nature of the mysterious and elusive heating mechanism that differentiated the asteroids. If we can figure out what it was, then we will know something fundamental about the forces at work during the formation time of the Solar System. Some of the principal observations we can make to put constraints on the possibilities come from observations of main asteroid belt geology. The most pressing problem in the geology of the asteroid belt is in the inner belt. S-type asteroids are key to the inner main belt, but their meteorite linkage is ambiguous. Why do we care? Because--if the S-types are chondritic, then almost the entire main belt is primitive material, representing very early solar system time, but telling us almost nothing about the mysterious heating mechanism. If the S-types are differentiated, then the heating mechanism ceased functioning in the middle of the main belt at the 'dividing line' between primitive and differentiated material. This dividing line is the silicate rock melting temperature position in space of the mysterious heating event. The Bell Big Picture model of asteroid belt geology synthesized all the information available and established the position of this dividing line back in 1988. But there is now new data to consider.

  6. Faithful contrastive features in learning.

    PubMed

    Tesar, Bruce

    2006-09-10

    This article pursues the idea of inferring aspects of phonological underlying forms directly from surface contrasts by looking at optimality theoretic linguistic systems (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). The main result proves that linguistic systems satisfying certain conditions have the faithful contrastive feature property: Whenever 2 distinct morphemes contrast on the surface in a particular environment, at least 1 of the underlying features on which the 2 differ must be realized faithfully on the surface. A learning procedure exploiting the faithful contrastive feature property, contrast analysis, can set the underlying values of some features, even where featural minimal pairs do not exist, but is nevertheless fundamentally limited in what it can set. This work suggests that observation of surface contrasts between pairs of words can contribute to the learning of underlying forms, while still supporting the view that interaction with the phonological mapping will be necessary to fully determine underlying forms.

  7. From Airborne EM to Geology, some examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnink, Jan

    2014-05-01

    -dimensional distribution of clay and sand were calculated giving an appreciation of the variability of the 3-dimensional distribution of clay and sand. Each realization was input into a groundwatermodel to assess the protection the of the clay against pollution from the surface. Artificial Neural Networks AEM resistivity models in an area in Northern part of the Netherlands were interpreted by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to obtain a 3-dimensional model of a glacial till deposit that is important in geohydrological modeling. The groundwater in the study area was brackish to saline, causing the AEM resistivity model to be dominated by the low resistivity of the groundwater. After conducting Electrical Cone Penetration Tests (ECPTs) it became clear that the glacial till showed a distinct, non-linear, pattern of resistivity, that was discriminating it from the surrounding sediments. The patterns, found in the ECPTs were used to train an ANN and was consequently applied to the resistivity model that was derived from the AEM. The result was a 3-dimensional model of the probability of having the glacial till, which was checked against boreholes and proved to be quite reasonable. Conclusion Resistivity derived from AEM can be linked to geological features in a number of ways. Besides manual interpretation, statistical techniques are used, either in the form of regression or by means of Neural Networks, to extract geological and geohydrological meaningful interpretations from the resistivity model.

  8. The Archean geology of the Godthabsfjord Region, southern west Greenland (includes excursion guide)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgregor, V. R.; Nutman, A. P.; Friend, C. R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The part of the West Greenland Archean gneiss complex centered around Godthabsfjord and extending from Isukasia in the north to south Faeringehavn is studied. Extensive outcrops of 3800 to 3400 Ma rocks can provide some direct evidence of conditions and processes that operated on the Earth in the early Archean. However, the ways in which primary characteristics have been modified by later deformation, metamorphism, and chemical changes are first taken into account. The rocks exposed are the products of two major phases of accretion of continental crust, at 3800 to 3700 Ma and 3100 to 29 Ma. The main features of these two accretion phases are similar, but careful study of the least modified rocks may reveal differences related to changes in the Earth in the intervening period. The combination of excellent exposure over an extensive area, relatively detailed geological mapping of much of the region, and a considerable volume of isotopic and other geochemical data gives special insights into processes that operated at moderately deep levels of the crust in the Archean. Of particular interest is the effect of late Archean granulite facies metamorphism on early Archean rocks, especially the extent to which isotope systems were disturbed. Similar processes may well have partly or wholly destroyed evidence of more ancient components of other high grade terrains. This account does not attempt to be an exhaustive review of all work carried out on the geology of the region. Rather, it attempts to summarize aspects of the geology and some interest in the context of early crustal genesis.

  9. Geology of Mount Rainier National Park, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fiske, Richard S.; Hopson, Clifford Andrae; Waters, Aaron Clement

    1963-01-01

    Mount Rainier National Park includes 378 square miles of rugged terrain on the west slope of the Cascade Mountains in central Washington. Its mast imposing topographic and geologic feature is glacier-clad Mount Rainier. This volcano, composed chiefly of flows of pyroxene andesite, was built upon alt earlier mountainous surface, carved from altered volcanic and sedimentary rocks invaded by plutonic and hypabyssal igneous rocks of great complexity. The oldest rocks in the park area are those that make up the Olmnapecosh Formation of late Eocene age. This formation is more than 10,000 feet thick, and consists almost entirely of volcanic debris. It includes some lensoid accumulations of lava and coarse mudflows, heaped around volcanic centers., but these are surrounded by vastly greater volumes of volcanic clastic rocks, in which beds of unstratified coarse tuff-breccia, about 30 feet in average thickness, alternate with thin-bedded breccias, sandstones, and siltstones composed entirely of volcanic debris. The coarser tuff-breccias were probably deposited from subaqueous volcanic mudflows generated when eruption clouds were discharged directly into water, or when subaerial ash flows and mudflows entered bodies of water. The less mobile mudflows and viscous lavas built islands surrounded by this sea of thinner bedded water-laid clastics. In compostion the lava flows and coarse lava fragments of the Ohanapecosh Formation are mostly andesite, but they include less abundant dacite, basalt, and rhyolite. The Ohanapecosh Formation was folded, regionally altered to minerals characteristic of the zeolite facies of metamorphism, uplifted, and deeply eroded before the overlying Stevens Ridge Formation of Oligocene or early Miocene age was deposited upon it. The Stevens Ridge rocks, which are about 3,000 feet in maximum total thickness, consist mainly of massive ash flows. These are now devitrified and altered, but they originally consisted of rhyodacite pumice lapilli and glass

  10. Online feature selection with streaming features.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xindong; Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xingquan

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new online feature selection framework for applications with streaming features where the knowledge of the full feature space is unknown in advance. We define streaming features as features that flow in one by one over time whereas the number of training examples remains fixed. This is in contrast with traditional online learning methods that only deal with sequentially added observations, with little attention being paid to streaming features. The critical challenges for Online Streaming Feature Selection (OSFS) include 1) the continuous growth of feature volumes over time, 2) a large feature space, possibly of unknown or infinite size, and 3) the unavailability of the entire feature set before learning starts. In the paper, we present a novel Online Streaming Feature Selection method to select strongly relevant and nonredundant features on the fly. An efficient Fast-OSFS algorithm is proposed to improve feature selection performance. The proposed algorithms are evaluated extensively on high-dimensional datasets and also with a real-world case study on impact crater detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithms achieve better compactness and higher prediction accuracy than existing streaming feature selection algorithms.

  11. Geology of the Integrated Disposal Facility Trench

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.; Fecht, Karl R.

    2005-07-01

    This report describes the geology of the integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Trench. The stratigraphy consists of some of the youngest sediments of the Missoula floods (younger than 770 ka). The lithology is dominated sands with minor silts and gravels that are largely unconsolidated. The stratigraphy can be subdivided into five geologic units that can be mapped throughout the trench. Four of the units were deposited by the Missoula floods and the youngest consists of windblown sand and silt. The sediment has little moisture and is consistent with that observed in the characterization boreholes. The sedimentary layers are flat lying and there are no faults or folds present. Two clastic dikes were encountered, one along the west wall and one that can be traced from the north to the southwall. The north-south clastic dike nearly bifurcates the trench but the west wall clastic dike can not be traced very far east into the trench. The classic dikes consist mainly of sand with clay-lined walls. The sediment in the dikes is compacted to partly cemented and are more resistant than the layered sediments.

  12. Mineral resources, geological structure, and landform surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Diagnostic ERTS imagery has been used to pinpoint surface conditions associated with known mining districts. These include enhancements which depict hitherto unrecognized surface alteration and allow analysis of ore-controlling fractures distribution in a regional context. ERTS has likewise provided observational data containing previously unrecognized surface anomalies in large oil-producing basins which correlate closely with known oil fields. These observational data offer promise of providing new and powerful techniques for oil exploration, especially if further work using more sophisticated enhancement-processing proves capable of emphasizing the anomalies. ERTS is showing a better-than-anticipated potential for producing accurate small-scale (large-area) geologic maps, often containing details that were previously not recorded on similar regional maps. The maps produced from ERTS imagery can be prepared more effectively than previously possible, mainly because of the synoptic, multispectral, and repetitive character of ERTS data. ERTS has also provided extensive information on possible geologic hazards. Many new fractures have been identified in several regions of the Pacific Coast seismic belt that have histories of recent earthquakes. This has obvious implications for engineering projects such as dams, aqueducts, and transportation routes. In the mid-continent area, ERTS data have been used to predict zones of rooffall danger in a working coal mine from newly discovered lineations (probably fractures) used as indicators of hazards.

  13. Planetary Biology-Paleontological, Geological, and Molecular Histories of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Steven A.; Caraco, M. Daniel; Thomson, J. Michael; Gaucher, Eric A.

    2002-05-01

    The history of life on Earth is chronicled in the geological strata, the fossil record, and the genomes of contemporary organisms. When examined together, these records help identify metabolic and regulatory pathways, annotate protein sequences, and identify animal models to develop new drugs, among other features of scientific and biomedical interest. Together, planetary analysis of genome and proteome databases is providing an enhanced understanding of how life interacts with the biosphere and adapts to global change.

  14. Planetary biology--paleontological, geological, and molecular histories of life.

    PubMed

    Benner, Steven A; Caraco, M Daniel; Thomson, J Michael; Gaucher, Eric A

    2002-05-03

    The history of life on Earth is chronicled in the geological strata, the fossil record, and the genomes of contemporary organisms. When examined together, these records help identify metabolic and regulatory pathways, annotate protein sequences, and identify animal models to develop new drugs, among other features of scientific and biomedical interest. Together, planetary analysis of genome and proteome databases is providing an enhanced understanding of how life interacts with the biosphere and adapts to global change.

  15. Use of submerged aquatic vegetation as habitat by young-of-the-year epibenthic fishes in shallow Maine nearshore waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzari, M. A.; Stone, B. Z.

    2006-09-01

    Epibenthic fishes were collected with daytime beam trawl tows ( n = 1713) in three shallow (<10 m) habitats of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), Zostera marina (eelgrass), Laminaria longicruris (kelp), Phyllophora sp. (algae), and unvegetated sandy/mud areas. We divided the Maine coast into three broad zones based upon geological features and sampled over five consecutive years; during April-November 2000 in the mid coast, in 2001 and 2002 along the south coast and in 2003 and 2004 along the eastern Maine coast. We quantified habitat use by eight economically important fish species ( Gadus morhua, Microgadus tomcod, Pollachius virens, Urophycis chuss, Urophycis tenuis, Osmerus mordax, Tautogolabrus adspersus, and Pseudopleuronectes americanus) and 10 other common epibenthic species ( n = 18 571). We identified the physical and biological variables most important in discriminating between habitats with and without individual fish species. Logistic regression models based on nearshore habitat characteristics were developed to predict the distribution of these species along the three zones representing broad geological regions of the Maine coast. Logistic regression models correctly classified individual fish species 58.7-97.1% of the time based on the temporal and physical habitat variables (month, temperature, salinity, and depth) and the presence-absence of submerged aquatic vegetation ( Zostera, Laminaria, or Phyllophora). Overall fish presence and economically important fish presence were correctly classified 61.1-79.8% and 66.0-73.6% of the time, respectively. The Maine shallow water fish community was composed primarily of young-of-the-year and juvenile fishes with all habitats functioning as facultative nursery areas. Presence of most fish species was positively associated with Zostera, Laminaria, and to a lesser extent, Phyllophora. This study provides direct evidence of shallow waters of the Gulf of Maine as critical facultative nursery habitat for

  16. Introductory Geology: Aspects and Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, John E.; And Others

    Included are essays presenting diversified views on questions related to problems, procedures and the impact of the Introductory Course Program (ICP) in geology. The papers of this issue deal with such factors as the financial survival in curricular design and introductory course options, the problems of transfer of majors which may place…

  17. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GEOLOGICAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERG, J. ROBERT; AND OTHERS

    ARTICLES ABOUT GEOLOGICAL EDUCATION WRITTEN DURING THE PERIOD 1919-62 ARE INCLUDED IN THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. RECOMMENDATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL EDUCATORS AND PROFESSIONAL GROUPS FOR THE UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE PREPARATION OF GEOLOGISTS ARE CONTAINED IN MOST OF THE ITEMS. THE ARTICLES WERE ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN PROFESSIONAL JOURNALS OR…

  18. Briefing on geological sequestration (Tulsa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media – primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

  19. Neutron Absorption in Geological Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Løvhøiden, G.; Andersen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Thermal neutron absorption cross section of geological samples is determined with the steady state neutron source method. Cross section measurements of North Sea sediments demonstrate that also materials with high contents of clay minerals may be investigated with the steady state method.

  20. Infrared Analysis of Geological Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan; Clark, E. Roy

    1980-01-01

    Describes the infrared analysis of geological specimens which can form the basis of a laboratory exercise, allowing some minerals to be identified by "fingerprint" technique. Students can gain insight into the concept of symmetry and environment around an atom. (Author/SA)